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  1. Nairobi. Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Torrès, Deyssi

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the specific social signs, the modes of social and physical survival of street children in Nairobi, as well as their role in delinquency and urban violence. Through an analysis of the organization of street children, gang life and social signs evidenced in the street, the study reveals how a street-based counter-society which thrives solely on violence was created in Nairobi. Initiation of the youth to street culture and gang life In all the case studies, we observed that ...

  2. Beyond engagement in working with children in eight Nairobi slums to address safety, security, and housing: Digital tools for policy and community dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Claudia; Chege, Fatuma; Maina, Lucy; Rothman, Margot

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the ways in which researchers working in the area of health and social research and using participatory visual methods might extend the reach of participant-generated creations such as photos and drawings to engage community leaders and policy-makers. Framed as going 'beyond engagement', the article explores the idea of the production of researcher-led digital dialogue tools, focusing on one example, based on a series of visual arts-based workshops with children from eight slums in Nairobi addressing issues of safety, security, and well-being in relation to housing. The authors conclude that there is a need for researchers to embark upon the use of visual tools to expand the life and use of visual productions, and in particular to ensure meaningful participation of communities in social change.

  3. UROLITHIASIS IN NAIROBI, KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-01

    . Nairobi than ... The prevalence is higher ... hypercalcemia, foreign bodies in the urinary tract ... carbohydrate, low-protein diets (8). ... Total. 178. 100. N=178. Figure 1. Monthly distribution of urolithiasis in Nairobi, Kenya.

  4. From Nairobi to Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TEN years have separated the 1985 UN Third World Conference on Women held in Nairobi, from the UN Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW), held in Beijing, last September. During the past ten years, the world has undergone profound changes in politics, economy and society, which have undoubtedly exerted a great influence on women. Reviewing these ten years it is clear that each government, non-governmental organization, and women themselves have made many achievements in implementing the

  5. Chinese Scholars Attended ISEE 2008 NAIROBI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 10th Biennial International Society for Ecological Economics Conferece was held on Aug.7-11,2008 in Nairobi,the Capital of Kenya.The conference,"ISEE2008 NAIROBI:Applying Ecological Economics for Social and Environmental Sustainability"was a joint undertaking by the International Society for Eclological Economics(ISEE),Afroican Society for Ecological Economics (ASEE)and the United Nations Environment Programme(UNEP).

  6. Farming in the city of Nairobi

    OpenAIRE

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Mboganie-Mwangi, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes urban farming in Nairobi, Kenya: its magnitude and characteristics, its importance for those involved, the constraints faced by urban farmers, the impact of urban farming on the environment, the legal and institutional setting, and the prospects for urban farming. The paper is based on four studies carried out in Nairobi by Diana Lee-Smith et al. (1984-1985), Donald Freeman (1987), Alice Mboganie Mwangi (1994), and Pascale Dennery (1994)

  7. NAIROBI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-12-01

    Dec 1, 2006 ... this rise is the cause of the-decline in infant mortality and improved neonatal outcome still remains debatable. ... Caesarian section rates and maternal and perinatal .... There is no conflict of interest declared in this study.

  8. ‘Our Changes’? Visions of the Future in Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Smith

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Kenya, the Vision 2030 masterplan is radically reimagining Nairobi as a ‘world class’ city of the future. This has generated dramatic digital imagery of satellite cities, skyscrapers and shopping malls. For tenants in rundown public housing, these glossy yet speculative visions are enticing, but also provoke anxieties of exclusion. Yet so far, little has materially manifested. This article explores the effects these future vistas produce in the present, in the gap between the urban plan and its implementation. It argues that the spectacle of official planning has generated anticipatory actions, as Nairobians’ engage with the future promised by such schemes. These actions are characterised by dissonant temporal experiences, in which local residents experience the future city as both near at hand and forever out of reach.

  9. Farming in the city of Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Mboganie-Mwangi, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes urban farming in Nairobi, Kenya: its magnitude and characteristics, its importance for those involved, the constraints faced by urban farmers, the impact of urban farming on the environment, the legal and institutional setting, and the prospects for urban farming. The paper is b

  10. Coping strategies among urban poor: evidence from Nairobi, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djesika D Amendah

    Full Text Available AIMS: In Kenya, it is estimated that 60 to 80% of urban residents live in slum or slum-like conditions. This study investigates expenditures patterns of slum dwellers in Nairobi, their coping strategies and the determinants of those coping strategies. METHOD: We use a dataset from the Indicator Development for Surveillance of Urban Emergencies (IDSUE research study conducted in four Nairobi slums from April 2012 to September 2012. The dataset includes information related to household livelihoods, earned incomes of household members, expenditures, shocks, and coping strategies. RESULTS: Food spending is the single most important component, accounting for 52% of total households' income and 42% of total expenditures. Households report a variety of coping strategies over the last four weeks preceding the interview. The most frequently used strategy is related to reduction in food consumption, followed by the use of credit, with 69% and 52% of households reporting using these strategies respectively. A substantial proportion of households also report removing children from school to manage spending shortfalls. Formal employment, owning a business, rent-free housing, belonging to the two top tiers of income brackets, and being a member of social safety net reduced the likelihood of using any coping strategy. Exposure to shocks and larger number of children under 15 years increased the probability of using a coping strategy. POLICY IMPLICATIONS: Policies that contain food price inflation, improve decent-paying job opportunities for the urban poor are likely to reduce the use of negative coping strategies by providing urban slum dwellers with steady and reliable sources of income. In addition, enhancing access to free primary schooling in the slums would help limit the need to use detrimental strategies like "removing" children from school.

  11. The Primary Solid Waste Storage Gaps Experienced By Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Numerous bilateral and multilateral external support agencies (ESAs) ... This arrangement ensures more equitable service access. In Nairobi, they are most ... waste management needs, trade-offs between alternative goals and objectives are ...

  12. Protection in the city: some good practice in Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Breen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite a challenging protection environment, an NGO in Nairobi hasdeveloped an assistance programme for LGBTI refugees that offersexamples of good practice that could be replicated in other urban settings.

  13. Evaluation of Teaching Veterinary Medicine at the University of Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, U. B.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of graduates from the University of Nairobi, Kenya in the field of veterinary medicine is reported. Areas covered include curriculum; teaching techniques; quality of faculty; and examinations. (JMF)

  14. Women, poverty and adverse maternal outcomes in Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Izugbara Chimaraoke O; Ngilangwa David P

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The link between poverty and adverse maternal outcomes has been studied largely by means of quantitative data. We explore poor urban Kenyan women's views and lived experiences of the relationship between economic disadvantage and unpleasant maternal outcomes. Method Secondary analysis of focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews data with women in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya. Results Urban poor women in Nairobi associate poverty with adverse maternal outco...

  15. A Training Class for Women Cadres on the Nairobi Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    DURING the last five days of October 1993, the All-China Women’s Federation (ACWF) held a training course to realize the goals of the document,"Future Strategies for Women’s Advancement Through the Year 2000." (The document is referred to as the "Nairobi Strategies" in the story.) The

  16. The role of urban agriculture for food security in low income areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper, which is based on research carried out among 210 households in Nairobi (Kenya) in 1994, examines the role of urban agriculture in household food security among low-income urban households. It determines the different strategies the low-income population of Nairobi deploys in order to fee

  17. Gender-associated violence at a women's hospital in nairobi, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-07-07

    Jul 7, 2008 ... for the gender-associated violence at the nairobi women's hospital (nwh). ... Conclusions: violence against women is a common public health problem in the city of nairobi. ..... reported in canada and the united states (13,20). it.

  18. The role of urban agriculture for food security in low income areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper, which is based on research carried out among 210 households in Nairobi (Kenya) in 1994, examines the role of urban agriculture in household food security among low-income urban households. It determines the different strategies the low-income population of Nairobi deploys in order to

  19. Paris-Nairobi Conference - Proceedings; Conference Paris-Nairobi - Recueil des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    response to ECOWAS energy needs (M. Kappiah, ECREE); 3 - Energy access, sustainable development and climate change: the Gabon experience (R. Immongault); 4 - Presentation of the Vergnet Group, Wind Turbine, Water pumps and Solar systems installer; 5 - Indicators for the selection of projects to climate-proof energy systems (H. Connor, Helio International); 6 - Presentation of the Paris-Nairobi Climate Initiative by the International Energy Agency (F Birol, IEA); 7 - Presentation of the Japan's Cooperation for Energy Infrastructure (1 slide only); 8 - JICA's Experience in Energy Sector Development (Kyoko Kuwajima, Japan International Cooperation Agency); 9 - Presentation of Lake Turkana Wind Power project; 10 - The global rural electrification programme of Morocco (A. Benkhadra); 11 - Presentation of the Qatar National Food Security Programme (1 slide only); 12 - Developing access to energy (G. Vermot Desroches, Schneider Electric)

  20. Genetic analysis of HIV-1 subtypes in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Khoja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic analysis of a viral infection helps in following its spread in a given population, in tracking the routes of infection and, where applicable, in vaccine design. Additionally, sequence analysis of the viral genome provides information about patterns of genetic divergence that may have occurred during viral evolution. OBJECTIVE: In this study we have analyzed the subtypes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus -1 (HIV-1 circulating in a diverse sample population of Nairobi, Kenya. METHODOLOGY: 69 blood samples were collected from a diverse subject population attending the Aga Khan University Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Total DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, and used in a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR to amplify the HIV gag gene. The PCR amplimers were partially sequenced, and alignment and phylogenetic analysis of these sequences was performed using the Los Alamos HIV Database. RESULTS: Blood samples from 69 HIV-1 infected subjects from varying ethnic backgrounds were analyzed. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed 39 isolates to be subtype A, 13 subtype D, 7 subtype C, 3 subtype AD and CRF01_AE, 2 subtype G and 1 subtype AC and 1 AG. Deeper phylogenetic analysis revealed HIV subtype A sequences to be highly divergent as compared to subtypes D and C. CONCLUSION: Our analysis indicates that HIV-1 subtypes in the Nairobi province of Kenya are dominated by a genetically diverse clade A. Additionally, the prevalence of highly divergent, complex subtypes, intersubtypes, and the recombinant forms indicates viral mixing in Kenyan population, possibly as a result of dual infections.

  1. Slum Sanitation and the Social Determinants of Women's Health in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason; Hildebrand, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate urban sanitation disproportionately impacts the social determinants of women's health in informal settlements or slums. The impacts on women's health include infectious and chronic illnesses, violence, food contamination and malnutrition, economic and educational attainment, and indignity. We used household survey data to report on self-rated health and sociodemographic, housing, and infrastructure conditions in the Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We combined quantitative survey and mapping data with qualitative focus group information to better understand the relationships between environmental sanitation and the social determinants of women and girls' health in the Mathare slum. We find that an average of eighty-five households in Mathare share one toilet, only 15% of households have access to a private toilet, and the average distance to a public toilet is over 52 meters. Eighty-three percent of households without a private toilet report poor health. Mathare women report violence (68%), respiratory illness/cough (46%), diabetes (33%), and diarrhea (30%) as the most frequent physical burdens. Inadequate, unsafe, and unhygienic sanitation results in multiple and overlapping health, economic, and social impacts that disproportionately impact women and girls living in urban informal settlements. PMID:26060499

  2. Slum Sanitation and the Social Determinants of Women’s Health in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Corburn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate urban sanitation disproportionately impacts the social determinants of women’s health in informal settlements or slums. The impacts on women’s health include infectious and chronic illnesses, violence, food contamination and malnutrition, economic and educational attainment, and indignity. We used household survey data to report on self-rated health and sociodemographic, housing, and infrastructure conditions in the Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We combined quantitative survey and mapping data with qualitative focus group information to better understand the relationships between environmental sanitation and the social determinants of women and girls’ health in the Mathare slum. We find that an average of eighty-five households in Mathare share one toilet, only 15% of households have access to a private toilet, and the average distance to a public toilet is over 52 meters. Eighty-three percent of households without a private toilet report poor health. Mathare women report violence (68%, respiratory illness/cough (46%, diabetes (33%, and diarrhea (30% as the most frequent physical burdens. Inadequate, unsafe, and unhygienic sanitation results in multiple and overlapping health, economic, and social impacts that disproportionately impact women and girls living in urban informal settlements.

  3. Predictors of overweight and obesity in adult women in Nairobi Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbochi Regina W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since obesity in urban women is prevalent in Kenya the study aimed to determine predictors of overweight and obesity in urban Kenyan women. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Nairobi Province. The province was purposively selected because it has the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity in Kenya. A total of 365 women aged 25–54 years old were randomly selected to participate in the study. Results Higher age, higher socio-economic (SE group, increased parity, greater number of rooms in the house, and increased expenditure showed greater mean body mass index (BMI,% body fat and waist circumference (WC at highly significant levels (p Conclusions The predictors of overweight and obesity showed that urbanization and the nutrition transition were well established in the sample of women studied in the high SE groups. They exhibited a sedentary lifestyle and consumed a diet high in energy, protein, fat, cholesterol, and alcohol and lower in fibre and carbohydrate compared with those in the low SE groups.

  4. Cancer risks in Nairobi (2000-2014) by ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, Anne; Yu Wang, Emma; Sasieni, Peter; Okerosi, Nathan; Ronoh, Victor; Maxwell Parkin, D

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the ethnic differences in the risk of several cancers in the population of Nairobi, Kenya, using data from the Nairobi Cancer Registry. The registry records the variable "Tribe" for each case, a categorisation that includes, as well as 22 tribal groups, categories for Kenyans of European and of Asian origin, and non-Kenyan Africans. Tribes included in the final analysis were Kikuyu, Kamba, Kisii, Kalenjin, Luo, Luhya, Somalis, Asians, non-Kenyans, Caucasians, Other tribes and unknown. The largest group was taken as the reference category for the calculation of odds ratios; this was African Kenyans (for comparisons by race), and Kikuyus (the tribe with the largest numbers of cancer registrations (38% of the total)) for comparisons between the Kenyan tribes. P-values are obtained from the Wald test. Cancers that were more common among the white population than in black Kenyans were skin cancers and cancers of the bladder, while cancers that are more common in Kenyan Asians include colorectal, lung, breast, ovary, corpus uteri and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancers that were less common among Asians and Caucasians were oesophagus, stomach and cervix cancer. Within the African population, there were marked differences in cancer risk by tribe. Among the tribes of Bantu ethnicity, the Kamba had higher risks of melanoma, Kaposi sarcoma, liver and cervix cancer, and lower risks of oesophagus, stomach, corpus uteri and nervous system cancers. Luo and Luhya had much higher odds of Kaposi sarcoma and Burkitt lymphoma. © 2016 UICC.

  5. 11. PO Ngesa African Women Commuter Traders in Nairobi in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REGINALDS

    The African market became a focal point in the continuing women's trade, ... western goods, women disobeyed these regulations, despite the risk of being ..... automobile in Nairobi in 1902, up to the 1920s its use by women traders remained.

  6. Nairobi fly (Paederus) dermatitis in South Sudan: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserson, Kenneth V; Walton, Emily K

    2012-09-01

    A 28-year-old nursing student working in Juba, South Sudan, suddenly developed a rash over her mid-right clavicle. Beginning as a 10-cm-diameter erythematous patch with an irregular border, within 24 hours it had developed an increasingly gray, necrotic center, appearing similar to a burn. The patient was seen by 2 local physicians without a diagnosis being made. Ultimately, it was diagnosed as being caused by the toxic hemolymph, pederin, from the Nairobi fly (Paederus). The rash usually affects body parts not covered by clothing; healing time ranges from 7 to 28 days, usually with permanent skin discoloration. Preventive measures include typical antivector precautions, including bed nets, long-sleeve clothing, and avoiding fluorescent lights. If the beetles are found on the skin, brushing them off, rather than crushing them, avoids producing dermatitis. Treatment includes rapidly washing the affected area, applying cold, wet compresses, and possibly treating with antibiotics, steroids, and antihistamines.

  7. Hot house bad house

    OpenAIRE

    Azzopardi, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    Shaun Azzopardi met up with a team of researchers led by Eur. Ing. Charles Yousif to take the concrete block to the next level. It is more exciting than it sounds. Photography by Dr Edward Duca. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/hot-house-bad-house/

  8. Factors influencing immunisation coverage in Mathare Valley, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owino, L O; Irimu, G; Olenja, J; Meme, J S

    2009-07-01

    To determine the factors that influence immunisation coverage. Cross section destrictive study. Mathare valley slums in Central district of Nairobi, Kenya. Seven hundred and twelve children aged 12-23 months. Access to immunisation services was excellent at 95.6%. However, utilisation of immunisation services was found to be suboptimal as indicated by the low fully immunised child (FIC) percentage of 69.2% and the high drop out rate between the first and third Pentavalent vaccine coverage by card or history (12.0%). The immunisation status of the study population is significantly influenced by the maternal age (p-value < 0.001), ethnicity (p-value 0.009) and presence of child welfare card at home (p-value < 0.001). Factors that contribute to the low immunisation coverage include ignorance on need for immunisations and on return dates, fear of adverse events following immunisation, negative attitude of health care providers and missed opportunities. The immunisation coverage in the area is low. The immunisation services are accessible but utilisation is poor.

  9. Ameloblastic fibroma at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindia, M L; Akama, M K; Awange, D O

    2005-08-01

    To document the occurrence of cases of ameloblastic fibroma. A retrospective study. The Division of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine histopathology laboratory at the Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, January 1991 to December 2000. Seven complete records of histopathologically confirmed cases of ameloblastic fibroma were identified. There were four male and three female cases with an age range of 10 to 22 years (mean=14 years). Remarkably, six of the cases had lesions in the molar regions of the mandible with a single case with a maxillary molar area lesion. One of the cases had the neoplasm associated with an unerupted tooth. From the clinical notes all the patients were managed by meticulous enucleation and curettage of the lesions. After follow up periods ranging from several months to eight years no recurrences had been recorded. Evidently ameloblastic fibroma is an uncommon neoplasm as noted in the earlier literature. Although the lesions can be quite extensive at the time of diagnosis, the recurrence rate appears to be relatively low if the neoplasms are meticulously extirpated.

  10. Investigation of Sustainable Energy Policy: Nairobi Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengyuan, Y.; Habiyaremye, J. F. L.; Yingying, W.

    2017-07-01

    A plan for actively achieving green energy obligation is a strategic tool for policies that point forward the diminution of the fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) in conformity with the Paris environment-friendly accords (COP21) and updates of other ecosystem agreements. To achieve the concrete implementation of the sustainable energy strategy (SES) and to accomplish its objectives, an investigation is a critical factor. SES investigation has to consider both the advancement of each particular action and its wide-ranging green effect, which necessitates multiple levels of improvement. In this study, a consolidated eco strategy for evaluating, monitoring and handling the SES via investigation and execution process is established. The city of Nairobi was used as one of the geographical positions to test the effectiveness of this approach and to investigate its robust and weak points. Specifically, benefit-cost analysis, reliability, peer review and general level of participation were renowned as vital tools for attaining a functional SES investigation and for then drafting successful energy guidelines. Some suggestions were put forward to highlight the research and execution methods and to draw a road map of how SES can be strategically placed into practice.

  11. Environmental and comfort upgrading through lean technologies in informal settlements: Case study in Nairobi, Kenia and New Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Enrico; Tagliabue, Lavinia Chiara; Zecchini, Paolo; Milanesi, Mattia

    2016-07-01

    Informal settlements, namely slums (or bidonville or favelas) are one of the stronger challenge for urban context in developing countries. The increase of urban population leads to a widespread poverty and critical life conditions for a large segment of population, in particular in Sub-Saharan Africa, where a high percentage of people lives in informal settlements. The problems in slums are multiple: people suffer malnutrition and poor sanitation, flooding or drought, and live in shelters providing no thermal comfort in many days of the year, furthermore scarce and highly polluting energy sources are available. Climate change and an unavoidable heat island effect make these living conditions nearly catastrophic. This paper focuses on the main characters of these slums and on how to what promote the improvement of living conditions with a lean, low cost, low impact, feasible upgrading of the housing or more properly shelters. The subject of the analysis is the Mathare 4A Upgrading Programme in the city of Nairobi, Kenya, one of the highest slum-dwellers growing rate. The technological solutions applied in this context have been verified in a different climate condition such as the city of New Delhi, India where the phenomenon of the slums is significantly burdensome. The analysis of the comfort conditions inside a type housing has been carried out using hourly weather data and dynamic heat transfer simulation, without any HVAC system and striving only natural ventilation. Data about internal temperature and relative humidity conditions have been applied to evaluate the comfort hours using the Predicted Mean Vote method, the adaptive thermal comfort principles and the bioclimatic charts for the two climates in Nairobi and New Delhi. The percentage of hours within the comfort range and the amount of degree-hours exceeding comfort values showed for different upgrading strategies, how it is possible to deeply influence the living conditions by technological and

  12. On the need for system alignment in large water infrastructure. Understanding infrastructure dynamics in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Blomkvist

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we contribute to the discussion of infrastructural change in Africa, and explore how a new theoretical perspective may offer a different, more comprehensive and historically informed understanding of the trend towards large water infrastructure in Africa. We examine the socio-technical dynamics of large water infrastructures in Nairobi, Kenya, in a longer historical perspective using two concepts that we call intra-systemic alignment and inter-level alignment. Our theoretical perspective is inspired by Large Technical Systems (LTS and Multi-Level Perspective (MLP. While inter-level alignment focuses on the process of aligning the technological system at the three levels of niche, regime and landscape, intra-systemic alignment deals with how components within the regime are harmonised and standardised to fit with each other. We pay special attention to intrasystemic alignment between the supply side and the demand side, or as we put it, upstream and downstream components of a system. In narrating the history of water supply in Nairobi, we look at both the upstream (largescale supply and downstream activities (distribution and payment, and compare the Nairobi case with European history of large infrastructures. We emphasise that regime actors in Nairobi have dealt with the issues of alignment mainly to facilitate and expand upstream activities, while concerning downstream activities they have remained incapable of expanding service and thus integrating the large segment of low-income consumers. We conclude that the present surge of large-scale water investment in Nairobi is the result of sector reforms that enabled the return to a long tradition – a 'Nairobi style' – of upstream investment mainly benefitting the highincome earners. Our proposition is that much more attention needs to be directed at inter-level alignment at the downstream end of the system, to allow the creation of niches aligned to the regime.

  13. University/City Partnerships: Creating Policy Networks for Urban Transformation in Nairobi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopp, Jacqueline; Ngau, Peter; Sclar, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative collaboration between the Center for Sustainable Urban Development at Columbia University and the Department of Urban and Regional Planning at the University of Nairobi. By bringing universities into urban policy networks, this partnership aims to re-shape pedagogy, policy and research action for sustainable…

  14. The physico-chemical characteristics and some nutritional values of vegetable amaranth sold in Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyango, C.; Shibairo, S.I.; Imungi, J.K.; Harbinson, J.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty one major supermarkets and ten independent green grocers in the city of Nairobi were surveyed for types of vegetable amaranths sold and their post harvest handling. The nutrient composition of the vegetables was also analyzed. In addition, information on three other traditional leafy vegetabl

  15. Attitudes toward Psychiatry: A Survey of Medical Students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndetei, David M.; Khasakhala, Lincoln; Ongecha-Owuor, Francisca; Kuria, Mary; Mutiso, Victoria; Syanda, Judy; Kokonya, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The authors aim to determine the attitudes of University of Nairobi, Kenya, medical students toward psychiatry. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional. Self-administered sociodemographic and the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry-30 items (ATP-30) questionnaires were distributed sequentially to every third medical student in his or her…

  16. Capacity indicators for disaster preparedness in hospitals within Nairobi County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simiyu, Cynthia Nekesa; Odhiambo-Otieno, George; Okero, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess hospital capacity for disaster preparedness within Nairobi County. This information would be valuable to institutional strategists to resolve weaknesses and reinforce strengths in hospital capacity hence ensure efficient and effective service delivery during disasters. Analytical cross-sectional research design was used. Indicator variables for capacity were hospital equipment, hospital infrastructure, surrounding hospital environment, training, drills, staff knowledge and staff capabilities. Thirty two hospitals were studied of which nine of them were public hospitals. Data analysis was done using SPSS and presented in the form of frequency tables at p hospital capacity to disaster preparedness in Nairobi County existed in 22 (68.88%) hospitals, in 6 (64.95%) public hospitals and 16 (69.64%) private hospitals. The difference in capacity between public and private hospitals within the County was less than 5%. This showed that both public and private hospitals were relatively at par, with regard to the capacity to handle disaster cases. Study findings also revealed that the surrounding hospital environment was the most highly rated indicator while inter hospital training and drills were the least rated. Although existent in hospitals within Nairobi County, for maximum hospital capacity and disaster preparedness within Nairobi County to be achieved, the existent gap in inter hospital training and inter hospital drills, both of which fall under the finance health systems pillar, required addressing.

  17. Antecedent Factors Affecting Academic Performance of Graduate Students at the Nairobi Evangelical Graduate School of Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbogo, Rosemary Wahu

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Master's level thesis work that was done in 1997 to assess the antecedent factors affecting the academic performance of graduate students at the Nairobi Evangelical School of Theology (N.E.G.S.T.), which is currently Africa International University (AIU). The paper reviews the effect of lack of finance on…

  18. Urban agriculture, food security and nutrition in low income areas of the city of Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mboganie-Mwangi, A.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    This article considers the extent to which farming activities undertaken by low-income dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya, play a role in the food security and nutritional status of the households involved. It compares three low-income groups - two in Korogocho, viz. those who practise urban agriculture and

  19. Vegetable chains in Kenya: Production and consumption of vegetables in the Nairobi metropolis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, van der C.J.M.; Snoek, H.M.; Boer, de F.A.; Elings, A.

    2012-01-01

    Vegetable consumption in African countries such as Kenya is low, which has a negative impact on the nutritional condition of the population, and on the production by smallholders. The goals of the project were to determine the potentials for consumption and cultivation in the Nairobi metropolitan re

  20. out-patient prescribing practices at mbagathi district hospital-nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-01

    Dec 1, 2013 ... Request for reprints to: G. Muyu, Mbagathi District Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya ... society at large. ... public health problems. ... medicine use in outpatient health facilities and has .... Analysis of percentage constitution of selected prescribing variables with respect to total number of ..... United Arab Emirates. LJM ...

  1. Speciation of particulate carbonaceous species at an urban-background site in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatari, Michael; Lavrich, Richard; Preston, Bill; Gaita, Samuel; Hays, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Tropospheric aerosols have adverse implications on human health, climate, and visibility. Particles in combustion source emissions have complex physical and chemical characteristics. They regularly contain Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) molecules that can be harmful to human health. Combustion particles in the atmosphere can acts as mutagens or carcinogens and tend to be in the PM2.5 size range (particles with aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 μm or less) and are thus able to access the alveolar region of the respiratory system. Much of the urban carbonaceous aerosol is related to traffic emissions. Generally, particle concentration levels and the abundance of molecular species in atmospheric aerosols are not well studied in developing countries. This study is the first to investigate hydrocarbons (HC) levels in the city of Nairobi, Kenya. The human population in Nairobi is increasing rapidly as is the use of on-road vehicles. Total-suspended particle matter (PM35) in Nairobi air was collected for 24h on quartz fiber filters using a high volume sampler (flow rate = 1130 LPM). The sampling system was used in earlier U.S. air pollution studies but was donated in 1997 by California Air Research Board (CARB) USA to the University of Nairobi's Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology via a World Health Organization (WHO) twinning program. The sampler was placed 20 m above the Earth's surface in a Main Campus building at the University of Nairobi. USEPA analyzed the particle mass for organic markers using direct thermal extraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC- MS). A thermal optical method was used for determination of the organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon in the PM. Ten samples was analyzed for roughly sixty-four HC species. Four filter samples were taken in August and six in October 2006. Of these species, 21 to 26 were PAH. The results show different concentrations between August and October depicting the influence of a regional aerosol. The

  2. Traffic Impacts on PM2.5 Air Quality in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L.; Gichuru, Michael Gatari; Volavka-Close, Nicole; Ngo, Nicole; Ndiba, Peter K.; Law, Anna; Gachanja, Anthony; Gaita, Samuel Mwaniki; Chillrud, Steven N.; Sclar, Elliott

    2011-01-01

    Motor vehicle traffic is an important source of particulate pollution in cities of the developing world, where rapid growth, coupled with a lack of effective transport and land use planning, may result in harmful levels of fine particles (PM2.5) in the air. However, a lack of air monitoring data hinders health impact assessments and the development of transportation and land use policies that could reduce health burdens due to outdoor air pollution. To address this important need, a study of traffic-related PM2.5 was carried out in the city of Nairobi, Kenya, a model city for sub-Saharan Africa, in July 2009. Sampling was carried out using portable filter-based air samplers carried in backpacks by technicians on weekdays over two weeks at several sites in and around Nairobi ranging from high-traffic roadways to rural background. Mean daytime concentrations of PM2.5 ranged from 10.7 at the rural background site to 98.1 μg/m3 on a sidewalk in the central business district. Horizontal dispersion measurements demonstrated a decrease in PM2.5 concentration from 128.7 to 18.7 μg/m3 over 100 meters downwind of a major intersection in Nairobi. A vertical dispersion experiment revealed a decrease from 119.5 μg/m3 at street level to 42.8 μg/m3 on a third-floor rooftop in the central business district. Though not directly comparable to air quality guidelines, which are based on 24-hour or annual averages, the urban concentrations we observed raise concern with regard to public health and related policy. Taken together with survey data on commuting patterns within Nairobi, these results suggest that many Nairobi residents are exposed on a regular basis to elevated concentrations of fine particle air pollution, with potentially serious long-term implications for health. PMID:21779151

  3. Housing culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else; Scholkmann, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies.......On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies....

  4. The clinical burden of malaria in Nairobi: a historical review and contemporary audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Widespread urbanization over the next 20 years has the potential to drastically change the risk of malaria within Africa. The burden of the disease, its management, risk factors and appropriateness of targeted intervention across varied urban environments in Africa remain largely undefined. This paper presents a combined historical and contemporary review of the clinical burden of malaria within one of Africa's largest urban settlements, Nairobi, Kenya. Methods A review of historical reported malaria case burdens since 1911 within Nairobi was undertaken using archived government and city council reports. Contemporary information on out-patient case burdens due to malaria were assembled from the National Health Management and Information System (HMIS). Finally, an audit of 22 randomly selected health facilities within Nairobi was undertaken covering 12 months 2009-2010. The audit included interviews with health workers, and a checklist of commodities and guidelines necessary to diagnose, treat and record malaria. Results From the 1930's through to the mid-1960's malaria incidence declined coincidental with rapid population growth. During this period malaria notification and prevention were a priority for the city council. From 2001-2008 reporting systems for malaria were inadequate to define the extent or distribution of malaria risk within Nairobi. A more detailed facility review suggests, however that malaria remains a common diagnosis (11% of all paediatric diagnoses made) and where laboratories (n = 15) exist slide positivity rates are on average 15%. Information on the quality of diagnosis, slide reading and whether those reported as positive were imported infections was not established. The facilities and health workers included in this study were not universally prepared to treat malaria according to national guidelines or identify foci of risks due to shortages of national first-line drugs, inadequate record keeping and a view among some health

  5. PrEP for key populations in combination HIV prevention in Nairobi: a mathematical modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremin, Ide; McKinnon, Lyle; Kimani, Joshua; Cherutich, Peter; Gakii, Gloria; Muriuki, Festus; Kripke, Katharine; Hecht, Robert; Kiragu, Michael; Smith, Jennifer; Hinsley, Wes; Gelmon, Lawrence; Hallett, Timothy B

    2017-05-01

    The HIV epidemic in the population of Nairobi as a whole is in decline, but a concentrated sub-epidemic persists in key populations. We aimed to identify an optimal portfolio of interventions to reduce HIV incidence for a given budget and to identify the circumstances in which pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could be used in Nairobi, Kenya. A mathematical model was developed to represent HIV transmission in specific key populations (female sex workers, male sex workers, and men who have sex with men [MSM]) and among the wider population of Nairobi. The scale-up of existing interventions (condom promotion, antiretroviral therapy, and male circumcision) for key populations and the wider population as have occurred in Nairobi is represented. The model includes a detailed representation of a PrEP intervention and is calibrated to prevalence and incidence estimates specific to key populations and the wider population. In the context of a declining epidemic overall but with a large sub-epidemic in MSM and male sex workers, an optimal prevention portfolio for Nairobi should focus on condom promotion for male sex workers and MSM in particular, followed by improved antiretroviral therapy retention, earlier antiretroviral therapy, and male circumcision as the budget allows. PrEP for male sex workers could enter an optimal portfolio at similar levels of spending to when earlier antiretroviral therapy is included; however, PrEP for MSM and female sex workers would be included only at much higher budgets. If PrEP for male sex workers cost as much as US$500, average annual spending on the interventions modelled would need to be less than $3·27 million for PrEP for male sex workers to be excluded from an optimal portfolio. Estimated costs per infection averted when providing PrEP to all female sex workers regardless of their risk of infection, and to high-risk female sex workers only, are $65 160 (95% credible interval [CrI] $43 520-$90 250) and $10 920 (95% CrI $4700

  6. Housing Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Baker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, an increasing number of households face problems of access to suitable housing in the private market. In response, the Federal and State Governments share responsibility for providing housing assistance to these, mainly low-income, households. A broad range of policy instruments are used to provide and maintain housing assistance across all housing tenures, for example, assisting entry into homeownership, providing affordability assistance in the private rental market, and the provision of socially owned and managed housing options. Underlying each of these interventions is the premise that secure, affordable, and appropriate housing provides not only shelter but also a number of nonshelter benefits to individuals and their households. Although the nonshelter outcomes of housing are well acknowledged in Australia, the understanding of the nonshelter outcomes of housing assistance is less clear. This paper explores nonshelter outcomes of three of the major forms of housing assistance provided by Australian governments—low-income mortgage assistance, social housing, and private rent assistance. It is based upon analysis of a survey of 1,353 low-income recipients of housing assistance, and specifically measures the formulation of health and well-being, financial stress, and housing satisfaction outcomes across these three assistance types. We find clear evidence that health, finance, and housing satisfaction outcomes are associated with quite different factors for individuals in these three major housing assistance types.

  7. Living with HIV post-diagnosis: a qualitative study of the experiences of Nairobi slum residents

    OpenAIRE

    Eliud Wekesa; Ernestina Coast

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To characterise the experiences of heterosexual men and women living with HIV post-diagnosis and explain these experiences in relation to their identity and sexuality. Design: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and theoretically informed biographic disruption theory. Setting: Interviews were conducted in two Nairobi slums (Kenya). Participants: 41 HIV-infected heterosexual men and women aged 18 years or older Results: People living with HIV have divergent experiences surr...

  8. Living with HIV postdiagnosis: a qualitative study of the experiences of Nairobi slum residents

    OpenAIRE

    Wekesa, Eliud; Coast, Ernestina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the experiences of heterosexual men and women living with HIV postdiagnosis and explain these experiences in relation to their identity and sexuality. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and a theoretically informed biographic disruption theory. Setting Interviews were conducted in two Nairobi slums (Kenya). Participants 41 HIV-infected heterosexual men and women aged 18?years or older. Results People living with HIV have divergent experiences surroun...

  9. ASSESSMENT OF TANNERY BASED SOLID WASTES MANAGEMENT IN ASILI, NAIROBI KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard O. Oruko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid wastes generated in Nairobi and its environs are posing a serious environmental challenge to the authorities and public, especially the hazardous and non-biodegradable solid wastes from leather industries. There were environmental concerns and complaints from workers and residents living adjacent to Asili tanneries limited about degradation of natural and inbuilt environment. This pointed to the effect of environmental pollution by the tannery. The broad objective of study was to assess the effectiveness of tannery based solid wastes management, by identifying and analyzing the concentration levels of sodium chlorides,sulphide, chromium ions and total phenols as selected pollutants along the tanning stages, in Nairobi river, borehole water, and soils around the dump site inside the tannery. Experimental (laboratory analysis design was used.Descriptive statistics was used in analyzing data resulting in means and tables. The means concentration of total Chrome was 2633.38mg/L,Sodium chloride 609.93mg/L, Sulphide 129.77mg/L, total Phenols 10.91mg/L in the soil sampled around the composite dump site.. In Nairobi river water the means of Sodium chloride was 317.48mg/L, Sulphide 24.00mg/L, total Phenol 3.97mg/L and total Chrome Nil, While means concentration in borehole water, had Sodium chloride detected at 354.73mg/L, Sulphide 6.67mg/L, total Phenol 0.03mg/L and total Chrome as Nil, indicating heavily contaminated ecosystems above the discharge set limits of National Environmental Management Authority and Nairobi city water and sewerage company.

  10. Women's Use of Private and Government Health Facilities for Childbirth in Nairobi's Informal Settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Bazant, Eva S.; Koenig, Michael A; Fotso, Jean-Christophe; Mills, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    The private sector's role in increasing the use of maternal health care for the poor in developing countries has received increasing attention, yet few data exist for urban slums. Using household-survey data from 1,926 mothers in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya, collected in 2006, we describe and examine the factors associated with women's use of private and government health facilities for childbirth. More women gave birth at private facilities located in the settlements than at g...

  11. Sociocultural factors influencing breastfeeding practices in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Wanjohi, Milka; Griffiths, Paula; Wekesah, Frederick; Muriuki, Peter; Muhia, Nelson; Musoke, Rachel N; Fouts, Hillary N.; Madise, Nyovani J; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite numerous interventions promoting optimal breastfeeding practices in Kenya, pockets of suboptimal breastfeeding practices are documented in Kenya’s urban slums. This paper describes cultural and social beliefs and practices that influence breastfeeding in two urban slums in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods Qualitative data were collected in Korogocho and Viwandani slums through 10 focus group discussions and 19 in-depth interviews with pregnant, breastfeeding women and community heal...

  12. Inter-agency collaboration for fire disaster management in Nairobi City

    OpenAIRE

    Alice A. Menya; O.A. K’Akumu

    2016-01-01

    The County Government of Nairobi faces a myriad of capacity challenges that have impeded fire disaster management in the City. This is further compounded by the lack of a comprehensive legal and institutional framework for disaster management in Kenya. Whereas the County Government enlists assistance from other public, private and civil society organizations, the approach employed is skewed towards interagency coordination rather than a collaborative approach. This paper looks at the concept ...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF TANNERY BASED SOLID WASTES MANAGEMENT IN ASILI, NAIROBI KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    Richard O. Oruko; Wilkister N. Moturi; John M. Mironga

    2014-01-01

    Solid wastes generated in Nairobi and its environs are posing a serious environmental challenge to the authorities and public, especially the hazardous and non-biodegradable solid wastes from leather industries. There were environmental concerns and complaints from workers and residents living adjacent to Asili tanneries limited about degradation of natural and inbuilt environment. This pointed to the effect of environmental pollution by the tannery. The broad objective of study was to assess...

  14. African Voices and Activists at the WSF in Nairobi: The Uncertain Ways of Transnational African Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Emmanuelle Pommerolle

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transnational social movement studies have long neglected the way activists from the South, and particularly from Africa, have participated in World Social Forum processes. Alterglobal activists have also been accused of neglecting or dominating southern voices. The organization of the WSF in Nairobi was seen as an opportunity to make African voices be heard. This examines how Africans activists participated in Nairobi, and the complex relationship they have to northern and other southern (such as Asia and Latin America activists. The African alterglobal movement is seen as a space of tensions (i.e. between South Africans and the rest of the continent, between French and English speaking Africa, or between NGOs and more radical organizations reflected in national mobilizations. Our team of 23 French and 12 Kenyan scholars made collective ethnographic observations in more than a hundred workshops and conducted 150 biographical interviews of African activists in order to examine how: Africa was referred to in the WSF; activists financed their trip to Nairobi; and Afrocentric, anti-imperialist, and anticolonial arguments have been used.

  15. Gender differentials and old age survival in the Nairobi slums, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel; Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane

    2016-08-01

    This paper examines gender differentials in survival amongst older people (50+ years) in the Nairobi slums and to the best of our knowledge is the first study of its kind in an urban African setting. The results provide evidence contrary to the expected paradox of poorer self-rated health yet better survival amongst older women. Older women in the Nairobi slums have poorer self-rated health and poorer circumstances across other factors, including disability and socio-economic status. Further, older women in the slums do not have better survival. The conventional female advantage in mortality only becomes apparent after accounting for the cumulative influence of individual characteristics, social networks, health and socio-economic status, suggesting the female advantage in unadjusted old-age mortality does not apply to contexts where women experience significant disadvantage across multiple life domains. This highlights the urgent need to redress the support, status and opportunities available for women across the life course in contexts such as the Nairobi slums. In addition, a greater number of factors differentiate mortality risk amongst men than amongst women, suggesting inequality amongst slum dwelling older men and highlighting the need for gender sensitive interventions which account for the particular needs of both genders in old age.

  16. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  17. Clay Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  18. Maternal mortality in the informal settlements of Nairobi city: what do we know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyobutungi Catherine

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current estimates of maternal mortality ratios in Kenya are at least as high as 560 deaths per 100,000 live births. Given the pervasive poverty and lack of quality health services in slum areas, the maternal mortality situation in this setting can only be expected to be worse. With a functioning health care system, most maternal deaths are avoidable if complications are identified early. A major challenge to effective monitoring of maternal mortality in developing countries is the lack of reliable data since vital registration systems are either non-existent or under-utilized. In this paper, we estimated the burden and identified causes of maternal mortality in two slums of Nairobi City, Kenya. Methods We used data from verbal autopsy interviews conducted on nearly all female deaths aged 15–49 years between January 2003 and December 2005 in two slum communities covered by the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS. In describing the distribution of maternal deaths by cause, we examined maternal and late maternal deaths according to the ICD-10 classification. Additionally we used data from a survey of health care facilities that serve residents living in the surveillance areas for 2004–2005 to examine causes of maternal death. Results The maternal mortality ratio for the two Nairobi slums, for the period January 2003 to December 2005, was 706 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. The major causes of maternal death were: abortion complications, hemorrhage, sepsis, eclampsia, and ruptured uterus. Only 21% of the 29 maternal deaths delivered or aborted with assistance of a health professional. The verbal autopsy tool seems to capture more abortion related deaths compared to health care facility records. Additionally, there were 22 late maternal deaths (maternal deaths between 42 days and one year of pregnancy termination most of which were due to HIV/AIDS and anemia. Conclusion Maternal mortality

  19. Quantifying Urban Texture in Nairobi, Kenya and its Implications for Understanding Natural Hazard Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Millington, James D. A.

    2016-04-01

    The configuration of infrastructure networks such as roads, drainage and power lines can both affect and be affected by natural hazards such as earthquakes, intense rain, wildfires and extreme temperatures. In this paper, we present and compare two methods to quantify urban topology on approximate scales of 0.0005 km2 to 10 km2 and create classifications of different 'urban textures' that relate to risk of natural hazard impact in an area. The methods we use focus on applicability in urban developing country settings, where access to high resolution and high quality data may be difficult. We use the city of Nairobi, Kenya to trial these methods. Nairobi has a population >3 million, and is a mix of informal settlements, residential and commercial development. The city and its immediate surroundings are subject to a variety of natural hazards such as floods, landslides, fires, drought, hail, heavy wind and extreme temperatures; all of these hazards can occur singly, but also have the potential for one to trigger another, thus providing a 'cascade' of hazards, or for two of the hazards to occur spatially and temporally near each other and interact. We use two measures of urban texture: (i) Street block textures, (ii) Google Earth land cover textures. Street block textures builds on the methodology of Louf and Barthelemy (2014) and uses Open Street Map data to analyse the shape, size, complexity and pattern of individual blocks of land created by fully enclosed loops of the major and minor road network of Nairobi. We find >4000 of these blocks ranging in size from approximately 0.0005 km2 to 10 km2, with approximately 5 classifications of urban texture. Google Earth land cover texture is a visual classification of homogeneous parcels of land performed in Google Earth using high-resolution airborne imagery and a qualitative criteria for each land cover type. Using the Google Earth land cover texture method, we identify >40 'urban textures' based on visual

  20. CDBG Housing Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  1. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strong Again Rebuilding America’s Infrastructure Repeal and Replace Obamacare Standing Up For Our Law Enforcement Community Trade ... People Petitions Contact the White House Get Involved Obamacare: Share Your Story Getting Americans Back to Work ...

  2. Conformal house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas Aaby; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated bounds of the conformal windows when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions...... at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms...

  3. Trends in Mean Annual Minimum and Maximum Near Surface Temperature in Nairobi City, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lukoye Makokha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the long-term urban modification of mean annual conditions of near surface temperature in Nairobi City. Data from four weather stations situated in Nairobi were collected from the Kenya Meteorological Department for the period from 1966 to 1999 inclusive. The data included mean annual maximum and minimum temperatures, and was first subjected to homogeneity test before analysis. Both linear regression and Mann-Kendall rank test were used to discern the mean annual trends. Results show that the change of temperature over the thirty-four years study period is higher for minimum temperature than maximum temperature. The warming trends began earlier and are more significant at the urban stations than is the case at the sub-urban stations, an indication of the spread of urbanisation from the built-up Central Business District (CBD to the suburbs. The established significant warming trends in minimum temperature, which are likely to reach higher proportions in future, pose serious challenges on climate and urban planning of the city. In particular the effect of increased minimum temperature on human physiological comfort, building and urban design, wind circulation and air pollution needs to be incorporated in future urban planning programmes of the city.

  4. Economic analysis of the Nairobi Cancer Registry: Implications for expanding and enhancing cancer registration in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, Anne; Gakunga, Robai; Subramanian, Sujha; Okerosi, Nathan; Chesumbai, Gladys; Edwards, Patrick; Tangka, Florence; Joseph, Rachael; Buziba, Nathan; Rono, Victor; Parkin, Donald Maxwell; Saraiya, Mona

    2016-12-01

    Cancer registration is an important activity for informing cancer control activities. Cancer registries in Sub-Saharan Africa have limited resources to effectively operate because of competing priorities. To date, there has not been an assessment of the resources and funding needed to perform all the activities essential for cancer registration in Kenya. Evidence will help registries to quantify and advocate for the funds needed to sustain, enhance, and expand high quality cancer registration in Kenya. In this study, we used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) International Registry Costing Tool (IntRegCosting Tool) to evaluate the funding, cost, and labor resources used to perform the cancer registry operations in Nairobi County for two annual periods between July 2012 and June 2014. Funding from grants, research studies, and international organizations provided 70% of the registry operations' cost. For both time periods, the most-costly registry activities were related to administration, management, and training, along with data acquisition activities such as data abstraction, entry, and validation. Even among these core registry activities, however, substantial variations existed. Stable funding for cancer registry operations is necessary to sustain core registry activities in other to deliver high-quality data, which in turn is necessary to foster evidence-based policies to improve cancer outcomes. As stakeholders look into expanding the Nairobi Cancer Registry into a national program, the cost data provided in this study will help justify the funding required for sustaining and expanding registry activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Implications of Charcoal Briquette Produced by Local Communities on Livelihoods and Environment in Nairobi- Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Njenga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The residents of Nairobi, Kenya, use 700 tonnes of charcoal per day, producing about88 tonnes of charcoal dust that is found in most of the charcoal retailing stalls that is disposed of inwater drainage systems or in black garbage heaps. The high costs of cooking fuel results in poorhouseholds using unhealthy materials such as plastic waste. Further, poor households are opting tocook foods that take a short time to prepare irrespective of their nutritional value. This articlepresents experiences with community self-help groups producing charcoal fuel briquettes fromcharcoal dust in poorer nieghbourhoods of Nairobi for home use and sale. Households thatproduced charcoal fuel briquettes for own use and those that bought them saved 70% and 30% ofmoney spent on cooking energy respectively. The charcoal fuel briquettes have been found to beenvironmentally beneficial since they produce less smoke and increase total cooking energy bymore than 15%, thereby saving an equivalent volume of trees that would be cut down for charcoal.Charcoal briquette production is a viable opportunity for good quality and affordable cooking fuel.Bioenergy and waste management initiatives should promote recovery of organic by-products forcharcoal briquette production.

  6. Understanding inequities in child vaccination rates among the urban poor: evidence from Nairobi and Ouagadougou health and demographic surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Mberu, Blessing; Elungata, Patricia; Lankoande, Bruno; Millogo, Roch; Beguy, Donatien; Compaore, Yacouba

    2015-02-01

    Studies on informal settlements in sub-Saharan Africa have questioned the health benefits of urban residence, but this should not suggest that informal settlements (within cities and across cities and/or countries) are homogeneous. They vary in terms of poverty, pollution, overcrowding, criminality, and social exclusion. Moreover, while some informal settlements completely lack public services, others have access to health facilities, sewers, running water, and electricity. There are few comparative studies that have looked at informal settlements across countries accounting for these contextual nuances. In this paper, we comparatively examine the differences in child vaccination rates between Nairobi and Ouagadougou's informal settlements. We further investigate whether the identified differences are related to the differences in demographic and socioeconomic composition between the two settings. We use data from the Ouagadougou and Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs), which are the only two urban-based HDSSs in Africa. The results show that children in the slums of Nairobi are less vaccinated than children in the informal settlements in Ouagadougou. The difference in child vaccination rates between Nairobi and Ouagadougou informal settlements are not related to the differences in their demographic and socioeconomic composition but to the inequalities in access to immunization services.

  7. The Role of Leaves in Photocontrol of Flower Bud Abscission in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Gelder, van A.

    2000-01-01

    When compared with exposure to darkness, exposing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi' plants to red light (635 to 685 nm, 2.9 μmol?m-2?s-1) delayed flower bud abscission, while exposure to far-red light (705 to 755 nm, μmol?m-2?s-1) accelerated this process. Flower bud abscission in response to ligh

  8. Mother-Daughter Communication about Sexual Maturation, Abstinence and Unintended Pregnancy: Experiences from an Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Joanna; Ibisomi, Latifat; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

    2012-01-01

    Parental communication and support is associated with improved developmental, health and behavioral outcomes in adolescence. This study explores the quality of mother-daughter communication about sexual maturation, abstinence and unintended pregnancy in Korogocho, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We use data from 14 focus group…

  9. Prevalence, aetiology and antibiotic sensitivity profile of asymptomatic bacteriuria isolates from pregnant women in selected antenatal clinic from Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoyi, Adelaide Ogutu; Kikuvi, Gideon; Bii, Christine; Kariuki, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is the presence of bacteria in urine without apparent symptoms of urinary tract infections. The importance of asymptomatic bacteriuria lies in the insight it provides into symptomatic infections. To determine prevalence, bacterial isolates and Antibiotic Sensitivity Profile of asymptomatic bacterial urinary tract infection in pregnant women in selected clinics in Nairobi. This was a cross-sectional study involving women attending antenatal clinic at selected clinics of Nairobi County. The women who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The midstream urine samples of these women were subjected to microscopy, culture and sensitivity. A total of 1020 of women on their first antenatal clinic visit participated in the study; 219 of them had ASB, giving a prevalence of 21.5 % at 95% confidence level. Escherichia coli were the common organism isolated at 38.8%. The majority of the organisms were sensitive to imipenem and gentamycin. There is a high prevalence of ASB among pregnant women included in the study from the Nairobi county clinics. Therefore, routine ASB screening of pregnant women is recommended among the women attending antennal clinics in Nairobi county clinics.

  10. The Role of Leaves in Photocontrol of Flower Bud Abscission in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Gelder, van A.

    2000-01-01

    When compared with exposure to darkness, exposing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi' plants to red light (635 to 685 nm, 2.9 μmol?m-2?s-1) delayed flower bud abscission, while exposure to far-red light (705 to 755 nm, μmol?m-2?s-1) accelerated this process. Flower bud abscission in response to

  11. Mother-Daughter Communication about Sexual Maturation, Abstinence and Unintended Pregnancy: Experiences from an Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Joanna; Ibisomi, Latifat; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

    2012-01-01

    Parental communication and support is associated with improved developmental, health and behavioral outcomes in adolescence. This study explores the quality of mother-daughter communication about sexual maturation, abstinence and unintended pregnancy in Korogocho, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We use data from 14 focus group…

  12. Assessing the risk of self-diagnosed malaria in urban informal settlements of Nairobi using self-reported morbidity survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugisha Frederick

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the belief that Nairobi is a low risk zone for malaria, little empirical data exists on malaria risk in the area. The aim of this study was to explore the risk of perceived malaria and some associated factors in Nairobi informal settlements using self-reported morbidity survey. Methods The survey was conducted from May to August 2004 on 7,288 individuals in two informal settlements of Nairobi. Participants were asked to report illnesses they experienced in the past 14 days. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of perceived-malaria. The model included variables such as site of residence, age, ethnicity and number of reported symptoms. Results Participants reported 165 illnesses among which malaria was the leading cause (28.1%. The risk of perceived-malaria was significantly higher in Viwandani compared to Korogocho (OR 1.61, 95%CI: 1.10–2.26. Participants in age group 25–39 years had significantly higher odds of perceived-malaria compared to those under-five years (OR 2.07, 95%CI: 1.43–2.98. The Kikuyu had reduced odds of perceived-malaria compared to other ethnic groups. Individuals with five and more symptoms had higher odds compared to those with no symptoms (OR 23.69, 95%CI: 12.98–43.23. Conclusion Malaria was the leading cause of illness as perceived by the residents in the two informal settlements. This was rational as the number of reported symptoms was highly associated with the risk of reporting the illness. These results highlight the need for a more comprehensive assessment of malaria epidemiology in Nairobi to be able to offer evidence-based guidance to policy on malaria in Kenya and particularly in Nairobi.

  13. NutritioNal aNd oral health status of aN elderly populatioN iN Nairobi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-08-08

    Aug 8, 2008 ... Objective: to determine the nutrition and oral health status of elderly persons in Nairobi, Kenya. ... Conclusions: under-nutrition, obesity and dental problems are issues ..... have been the treatment of choice in these individuals.

  14. The Level Of Corporate Dividend Payout To Stockholders: Does Optimal Dividend Policy Exist For Firms Quoted At The Nairobi Stock Exchange?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bitok Kibet; Tenai Joel; Cheruiyot Thomas; Maru Loice; Kipsat Mary

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level of corporate dividend payout to stockholders and establish if the optimal dividend policy exists for the firms quoted at the Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE...

  15. Childhood vaccination in informal urban settlements in Nairobi, Kenya: Who gets vaccinated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettarh Remare R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent trends in global vaccination coverage have shown increases with most countries reaching 90% DTP3 coverage in 2008, although pockets of undervaccination continue to persist in parts of sub-Saharan Africa particularly in the urban slums. The objectives of this study were to determine the vaccination status of children aged between 12-23 months living in two slums of Nairobi and to identify the risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination. Methods The study was carried out as part of a longitudinal Maternal and Child Health study undertaken in Korogocho and Viwandani slums of Nairobi. These slums host the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS run by the African Population and Health Research Centre (APHRC. All women from the NUHDSS area who gave birth since September 2006 were enrolled in the project and administered a questionnaire which asked about the vaccination history of their children. For the purpose of this study, we used data from 1848 children aged 12-23 months who were expected to have received all the WHO-recommended vaccinations. The vaccination details were collected during the first visit about four months after birth with follow-up visits repeated thereafter at four month intervals. Full vaccination was defined as receiving all the basic childhood vaccinations by the end of 24 months of life, whereas up-to-date (UTD vaccination referred to receipt of BCG, OPV 1-3, DTP 1-3, and measles vaccinations within the first 12 months of life. All vaccination data were obtained from vaccination cards which were sighted during the household visit as well as by recall from mothers. Multivariate models were used to identify the risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination. Results Measles coverage was substantially lower than that for the other vaccines when determined using only vaccination cards or in addition to maternal recall. Up-to-date (UTD coverage with all vaccinations

  16. Vulnerability to food insecurity in urban slums: experiences from Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani-Murage, E W; Schofield, L; Wekesah, F; Mohamed, S; Mberu, B; Ettarh, R; Egondi, T; Kyobutungi, C; Ezeh, A

    2014-12-01

    Food and nutrition security is critical for economic development due to the role of nutrition in healthy growth and human capital development. Slum residents, already grossly affected by chronic poverty, are highly vulnerable to different forms of shocks, including those arising from political instability. This study describes the food security situation among slum residents in Nairobi, with specific focus on vulnerability associated with the 2007/2008 postelection crisis in Kenya. The study from which the data is drawn was nested within the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS), which follows about 70,000 individuals from close to 30,000 households in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya. The study triangulates data from qualitative and quantitative sources. It uses qualitative data from 10 focus group discussions with community members and 12 key-informant interviews with community opinion leaders conducted in November 2010, and quantitative data involving about 3,000 households randomly sampled from the NUHDSS database in three rounds of data collection between March 2011 and January 2012. Food security was defined using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) criteria. The study found high prevalence of food insecurity; 85% of the households were food insecure, with 50% being severely food insecure. Factors associated with food security include level of income, source of livelihood, household size, dependence ratio; illness, perceived insecurity and slum of residence. The qualitative narratives highlighted household vulnerability to food insecurity as commonplace but critical during times of crisis. Respondents indicated that residents in the slums generally eat for bare survival, with little concern for quality. The narratives described heightened vulnerability during the 2007/2008 postelection violence in Kenya in the perception of slum residents. Prices of staple foods like maize flour doubled and simultaneously household

  17. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  18. House Slaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Rising house prices in China’s major cities is a major headache for people taking a first step on the property ladder and has led to a growing number sacrificing quality of life just to have a home of their own Closely watching the family’s spend- ing a

  19. Soil Ingestion is Associated with Child Diarrhea in an Urban Slum of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauza, Valerie; Ocharo, R M; Nguyen, Thanh H; Guest, Jeremy S

    2017-03-01

    AbstractDiarrhea is a leading cause of mortality in children under 5 years of age. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 54 children aged 3 months to 5 years old in Kibera, an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya, to assess the relationship between caregiver-reported soil ingestion and child diarrhea. Diarrhea was significantly associated with soil ingestion (adjusted odds ratio = 9.9, 95% confidence interval = 2.1-47.5). Soil samples from locations near each household were also collected and analyzed for Escherichia coli and a human-associated Bacteroides fecal marker (HF183). Escherichia coli was detected in 100% of soil samples (mean 5.5 log colony forming units E. coli per gram of dry soil) and the Bacteroides fecal marker HF183 was detected in 93% of soil samples. These findings suggest that soil ingestion may be an important transmission pathway for diarrheal disease in urban slum settings.

  20. Business Networking and Performance of Women-Led Enterprises: An Empirical Investigation in Nairobi County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jane queen omwenga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Women entrepreneurs have been considered to use business networking as a determinant to enterprise performance. A key question that arises is –Does networking determine the performance of women-owned SMEs in Nairobi County? A survey was carried out among the women across the County. The sample comprised of 158 small and medium women entrepreneurs. Data was subjected to computer aided statistical analysis that included descriptive statistic, ANOVA and regression techniques. The results revealed that networking is a determinant of performance of the women-owned enterprises. The P-value of 0.000 (Less than 0.05 implies that the model of networking on performance of the enterprises is significant at the 95% confidence level. It is recommended that there is need for women entrepreneurs to form business networks with other entrepreneurs so as to improve their enterprise performance. Further conclusive research should also be conducted to include other variables.

  1. After Nairobi: can the international community help to develop health promotion in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixey, Rachael

    2014-03-01

    The Nairobi Conference presaged a surge of interest in the development of health promotion in sub-Saharan Africa. A number of Africans have asserted that health promotion is underdeveloped in the continent, with the principles of the Ottawa Charter not widely adopted. This paper does not presume to say how health promotion could be developed in Africa, as that is for Africans to decide for themselves. Rather, it debates some issues which the international epistemic health promotion community could address in order to work in solidarity with African colleagues in taking forward the health promotion agenda in their continent. These issues include the Eurocentric nature of health promotion discourse, the different disease burden of Africa and the lack of training capacity in African universities.

  2. Advanced rescue techniques: lessons learned from the collapse of a building in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokach, Ariel; Nemet, Dani; Dudkiewicz, Mickey; Albalansi, Alberto; Pinkert, Moshe; Schwartz, Dagan; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2009-04-01

    This paper examines the collapse of a five-storey building in Nairobi, Kenya, on 23 January 2006. It draws on reports from local authorities and on debriefings by Israel's Home Front Command (HFC), including information on injury distribution, rescue techniques, and the mode of operation. Most of the 117 people found under the structure were evacuated on the first day to a public hospital, which was overwhelmed by the incident. HFC forces arrived 23 hours after the disaster. At that stage, two people were still buried under the building and special techniques (tunnelling and scalping) were required to secure their evacuation. The two people quickly recovered after a short stay in hospital. Local technology is the preferred option during such events because time is crucial. International cooperation is required when this technology is not available. All of the hospitals in the disaster area, including private facilities, should participate in treating casualties.

  3. Religion, religiosity and premarital sexual attitudes of young people in the informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyimah, Stephen Obeng; Kodzi, Ivy; Emina, Jacques; Cofie, Nicholas; Ezeh, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Although attitudes to premarital sex may be influenced by several factors, the importance of religion to that discourse cannot be underestimated. By providing standards to judge and guide behaviour, religion provides a social control function such that religious persons are expected to act in ways that conform to certain norms. This study investigated the interconnectedness of several dimensions of religion and premarital sexual attitudes among young people in the informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. Using reference group as the theoretical base, it was found that those affiliated with Pentecostal/Evangelical faiths had more conservative attitudes towards premarital sex than those of other Christian faiths. Additionally, while a high level of religiosity was found to associate with more conservative views on premarital sex, the effect was more pronounced among Pentecostal groups. The findings are discussed in relation to programmes on adolescent sexuality.

  4. ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY OF ORGANISMS CAUSING URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN PATIENTS PRESENTING AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL, NAIROBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magale, H. I.; Kassim, I. A.; Odera, S. A.; Omolo, M. J.; Jaoko, W. G.; Jolly, P. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Changes in susceptibility patterns of bacterial pathogens isolated from urinary tract infections emphasize the need for regional surveillance to generate information that can be used in management of patients. Knowledge on the current status of antimicrobial resistance in uropathogens, and the prevalence of expanding spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in the isolates will guide policy formulations and encourage prudent use of antimicrobials. Objective Identify bacterial pathogens causing UTI and determine the association between the pathogens isolated from patients attending KNH. Determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the UTI pathogens and the prevalence of ESBL in the isolated pathogens. Design Laboratory-based study. Setting Department of Medical Microbiology University of Nairobi and Kenyatta National Hospital microbiology laboratory, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects Nine hundred and forty eight patients presenting directly to the Kenyatta National Hospital’s diagnostic lab. Patients were only classified as in-patients if at the time of specimen collection they were being admitted to one of KNH wards. Results Out of the 948 urine samples processed, 189 in-patients and 37 out-patients samples had significant bacterial growth. The uropathogens identified from in-patient specimens were Escherichia coli (56), Klebsiellapneumoniae (33), Enterococcus spp. (34) and Entrobacter (16) making up 30%, 18%, 18% and 9% respectively. ESBL isolates were found to be resistant to the locally administered antibiotics; Augmentin (37%), Levofloxacin (37%), Cefoperazone (37%), Ampicillin (39%), Doxycyline (41%), Gentamicin (30%) and Nalidixic Acid (38%). Conclusion The increased prevalence of multidrug resistant ESBL pathogens poses challenges for health care providers at KNH and signifies the need for new approach to treat UTI. It would be prudent for laboratories to include specialized tests for detection of ESBL producing pathogens from isolates obtained from in

  5. Social and gender determinants of risk of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis, in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani, Violet N; Mitoko, Grace; McDermott, Brigid; Grace, Delia; Ambia, Julie; Kiragu, Monica W; Njehu, Alice N; Sinja, Judith; Monda, Joseph G; Kang'ethe, Erastus K

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the social and gender determinants of the risk of exposure to Cryptosporidium from urban dairying in Dagoretti, Nairobi. Focus group discussions were held in six locations to obtain qualitative information on risk of exposure. A repeated cross-sectional descriptive study included participatory assessment and household questionnaires (300 randomly selected urban dairy farming households and 100 non-dairying neighbours). One-hundred dairy households randomly selected from the 300 dairy households participated in an additional economic survey along with 40 neighbouring non-dairy households. We found that exposure to Cryptosporidium was influenced by gender, age and role in the household. Farm workers and people aged 50 to 65 years had most contact with cattle, and women had greater contact with raw milk. However, children had relatively higher consumption of raw milk than other age groups. Adult women had more daily contact with cattle faeces than adult men, and older women had more contact than older men. Employees had greater contact with cattle than other groups and cattle faeces, and most (77 %) were male. Women took more care of sick people and were more at risk from exposure by this route. Poverty did not affect the level of exposure to cattle but did decrease consumption of milk. There was no significant difference between men and women as regards levels of knowledge on symptoms of cryptosporidiosis infections or other zoonotic diseases associated with dairy farming. Awareness of cryptosporidiosis and its transmission increased significantly with rising levels of education. Members of non-dairy households and children under the age of 12 years had significantly higher odds of reporting diarrhoea: gender, season and contact with cattle or cattle dung were not significantly linked with diarrhoea. In conclusion, social and gender factors are important determinants of exposure to zoonotic disease in Nairobi.

  6. Factors associated with non-adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakibi Samwel N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART requires high-level (> 95% adherence. Kenya is rolling out ART access programmes and, issue of adherence to therapy is therefore imperative. However, published data on adherence to ART in Kenya is limited. This study assessed adherence to ART and identified factors responsible for non adherence in Nairobi. Methods This is a multiple facility-based cross-sectional study, where 416 patients aged over 18 years were systematically selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire about their experience taking ART. Additional data was extracted from hospital records. Patients were grouped into adherent and non-adherent based on a composite score derived from a three questions adherence tool developed by Center for Adherence Support Evaluation (CASE. Multivariate regression model was used to determine predictors of non-adherence. Results Overall, 403 patients responded; 35% males and 65% females, 18% were non-adherent, and main (38% reason for missing therapy were being busy and forgetting. Accessing ART in a clinic within walking distance from home (OR = 2.387, CI.95 = 1.155-4.931; p = 0.019 and difficulty with dosing schedule (OR = 2.310, CI.95 = 1.211-4.408, p = 0.011 predicted non-adherence. Conclusions The study found better adherence to HAART in Nairobi compared to previous studies in Kenya. However, this can be improved further by employing fitting strategies to improve patients' ability to fit therapy in own lifestyle and cue-dose training to impact forgetfulness. Further work to determine why patients accessing therapy from ARV clinics within walking distance from their residence did not adhere is recommended.

  7. Overview of migration, poverty and health dynamics in Nairobi City's slum settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Eliya M; Beguy, Donatien; Ezeh, Alex C; Bocquier, Philippe; Madise, Nyovani J; Cleland, John; Falkingham, Jane

    2011-06-01

    The Urbanization, Poverty, and Health Dynamics research program was designed to generate and provide the evidence base that would help governments, development partners, and other stakeholders understand how the urban slum context affects health outcomes in order to stimulate policy and action for uplifting the wellbeing of slum residents. The program was nested into the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System, a uniquely rich longitudinal research platform, set up in Korogocho and Viwandani slum settlements in Nairobi city, Kenya. Findings provide rich insights on the context in which slum dwellers live and how poverty and migration status interacts with health issues over the life course. Contrary to popular opinions and beliefs that see slums as homogenous residential entities, the findings paint a picture of a highly dynamic and heterogeneous setting. While slum populations are highly mobile, about half of the population comprises relatively well doing long-term dwellers who have lived in slum settlements for over 10 years. The poor health outcomes that slum residents exhibit at all stages of the life course are rooted in three key characteristics of slum settlements: poor environmental conditions and infrastructure; limited access to services due to lack of income to pay for treatment and preventive services; and reliance on poor quality and mostly informal and unregulated health services that are not well suited to meeting the unique realities and health needs of slum dwellers. Consequently, policies and programs aimed at improving the wellbeing of slum dwellers should address comprehensively the underlying structural, economic, behavioral, and service-oriented barriers to good health and productive lives among slum residents.

  8. Household Air Pollution: Sources and Exposure Levels to Fine Particulate Matter in Nairobi Slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyiva Muindi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With 2.8 billion biomass users globally, household air pollution remains a public health threat in many low- and middle-income countries. However, little evidence on pollution levels and health effects exists in low-income settings, especially slums. This study assesses the levels and sources of household air pollution in the urban slums of Nairobi. This cross-sectional study was embedded in a prospective cohort of pregnant women living in two slum areas—Korogocho and Viwandani—in Nairobi. Data on fuel and stove types and ventilation use come from 1058 households, while air quality data based on the particulate matters (PM2.5 level were collected in a sub-sample of 72 households using the DustTrak™ II Model 8532 monitor. We measured PM2.5 levels mainly during daytime and using sources of indoor air pollutions. The majority of the households used kerosene (69.7% as a cooking fuel. In households where air quality was monitored, the mean PM2.5 levels were high and varied widely, especially during the evenings (124.6 µg/m3 SD: 372.7 in Korogocho and 82.2 µg/m3 SD: 249.9 in Viwandani, and in households using charcoal (126.5 µg/m3 SD: 434.7 in Korogocho and 75.7 µg/m3 SD: 323.0 in Viwandani. Overall, the mean PM2.5 levels measured within homes at both sites (Korogocho = 108.9 µg/m3 SD: 371.2; Viwandani = 59.3 µg/m3 SD: 234.1 were high. Residents of the two slums are exposed to high levels of PM2.5 in their homes. We recommend interventions, especially those focusing on clean cookstoves and lighting fuels to mitigate indoor levels of fine particles.

  9. Housing Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Measures to cool down China's red-hot housing market are sweeping the country. The State Council, China's cabinet, issued a circular in late May announcing an increase in the minimum down payment for a new apartment larger than 90 square meters to 30 percent from 20 percent and imposing a transaction tax on properties resold within five years of purchase, among others. One of the aims, according to the cir-

  10. nairobi province

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-11

    Nov 11, 2013 ... Subjects: A sample of 692 mother-infant pairs were recruited at birth and followed up until six months. Intervention: ... infants, as the condition may lead to long term health problems. ... weight in the first three months and the difference disappeared by ... among formula fed and exclusively breastfed Croatian.

  11. Nairobi Newborn Study: a protocol for an observational study to estimate the gaps in provision and quality of inpatient newborn care in Nairobi City County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Georgina A V; Gathara, David; Aluvaala, Jalemba; Mwachiro, Jacintah; Abuya, Nancy; Ouma, Paul; Snow, Robert W; English, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Progress has been made in Kenya towards reducing child mortality as part of efforts aligned with the fourth Millennium Development Goal. However, little advancement has been made in reducing mortality among newborns, which now accounts for 45% of all child deaths. The frequently unanticipated nature of neonatal illness, its severity and the high dependency of sick newborns on skilled care make the provision of inpatient hospital services one key component of strategies to improve newborn survival. Methods and analyses This project aims to assess the availability and quality of inpatient newborn care in hospitals in Nairobi City County across the public, private and not-for-profit sectors and align this to the estimated need for such services, providing a description of the quantity and quality gaps between capacity and demand. The population level burden of disease will be estimated using morbidity incidence estimates from a literature review applied to subcounty estimates of population-adjusted births, providing a spatially disaggregated estimate of need within the county. This will be followed by a survey of neonatal services across all health facilities providing 24/7 inpatient newborn care in the county. The survey will include: a retrospective audit of admission registers to estimate the usage of facilities and case-mix of patients; a structural assessment of facilities to gain insight into capacity; a questionnaire to nursing staff focusing on the process of delivering key obstetric and neonatal interventions; and a retrospective case audit to assess adherence to guidelines by clinicians. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Kenya Medical Research Institute Scientific and Ethics Review Unit (SSC protocol No.2999). Results will be disseminated: to participating facilities through individualised reports and a joint workshop; to local and national stakeholders through meetings and a summary report; and to the international

  12. A rapid assessment of drinking water quality in informal settlements after a cholera outbreak in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Elizabeth; Wilhelm, Natalie; O'Reilly, Ciara; Muhonja, Everline; Karoki, Solomon; Ope, Maurice; Langat, Daniel; Omolo, Jared; Wamola, Newton; Oundo, Joseph; Hoekstra, Robert; Ayers, Tracy; De Cock, Kevin; Breiman, Robert; Mintz, Eric; Lantagne, Daniele

    2015-09-01

    Populations living in informal settlements with inadequate water and sanitation infrastructure are at risk of epidemic disease. In 2010, we conducted 398 household surveys in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya with isolated cholera cases. We tested source and household water for free chlorine residual (FCR) and Escherichia coli in approximately 200 households. International guidelines are ≥0.5 mg/L FCR at source, ≥0.2 mg/L at household, and cholera transmission in informal settlements.

  13. One Health and cancer: A comparative study of human and canine cancers in Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyariaro Kelvin Momanyi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Recent trends in comparative animal and human research inform us that collaborative research plays a key role in deciphering and solving cancer challenges. Globally, cancer is a devastating diagnosis with an increasing burden in both humans and dogs and ranks as the number three killer among humans in Kenya. This study aimed to provide comparative information on cancers affecting humans and dogs in Nairobi, Kenya. Materials and Methods: Dog data collection was by cancer case finding from five veterinary clinics and two diagnostic laboratories, whereas the human dataset was from the Nairobi Cancer Registry covering the period 2002-2012. The analysis was achieved using IBM SPSS Statistics® v.20 (Dog data and CanReg5 (human data. The human population was estimated from the Kenya National Census, whereas the dog population was estimated from the human using a human:dog ratio of 4.1:1. Results: A total of 15,558 human and 367 dog cancer cases were identified. In humans, females had higher cancer cases 8993 (an age-standardized rate of 179.3 per 100,000 compared to 6565 in males (122.1 per 100,000. This order was reversed in dogs where males had higher cases 198 (14.9 per 100,000 compared to 169 (17.5 per 100,000 in females. The incident cancer cases increased over the 11-year study period in both species. Common cancers affecting both humans and dogs were: Prostate (30.4, 0.8, the respiratory tract (8.3, 1.3, lymphoma (5.6, 1.4, and liver and biliary tract (6.3, 0.5, whereas, in females, they were: Breast (44.5, 3.6, lip, oral cavity, and pharynx (8.8, 0.6, liver and biliary tract (6.5, 1.2, and lymphoma (6.0, 0.6, respectively, per 100,000. Conclusion: The commonality of some of the cancers in both humans and dogs fortifies that it may be possible to use dogs as models and sentinels in studying human cancers in Kenya and Africa. We further infer that developing joint animalhuman cancer registries and integrated cancer surveillance systems may

  14. Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in urban informal settlements, Nairobi Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Madise, Nyovani J; Fotso, Jean-Christophe; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Mutua, Martin K; Gitau, Tabither M; Yatich, Nelly

    2011-05-26

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life for optimal growth, development and health. Breastfeeding should continue up to two years or more and nutritionally adequate, safe, and appropriately-fed complementary foods should be introduced at the age of six months to meet the evolving needs of the growing infant. Little evidence exists on breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. Our aim was to assess breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in Nairobi slums with reference to WHO recommendations. Data from a longitudinal study conducted in two Nairobi slums are used. The study used information on the first year of life of 4299 children born between September 2006 and January 2010. All women who gave birth during this period were interviewed on breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices at recruitment and this information was updated twice, at four-monthly intervals. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine factors associated with cessation of breastfeeding in infancy and early introduction of complementary foods. There was universal breastfeeding with almost all children (99%) having ever been breastfed. However, more than a third (37%) were not breastfed in the first hour following delivery, and 40% were given something to drink other than the mothers' breast milk within 3 days after delivery. About 85% of infants were still breastfeeding by the end of the 11th month. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months was rare as only about 2% of infants were exclusively breastfed for six months. Factors associated with sub-optimal infant breastfeeding and feeding practices in these settings include child's sex; perceived size at birth; mother's marital status, ethnicity; education level; family planning (pregnancy desirability); health seeking behaviour (place of delivery) and; neighbourhood (slum of residence). The study indicates poor

  15. The origins of a research community in the Majengo observational cohort study, Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavery James V

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the 1980s the Majengo Observational Cohort Study (MOCS has examined sexually transmitted infections, in particular HIV/AIDS, in a cohort of sex workers in Majengo, an impoverished urban village in Nairobi, Kenya. The MOCS investigators have faced criticism since the women have remained in the sex trade for the duration of their participation in the study, prompting concerns about exploitation. Yet despite these concerns, the cohort has survived for almost 30 years. Methods In this retrospective qualitative case study, we examine the community engagement practices of the MOCS and explore the factors that account for its durability. Results Women in sex work in Kenya were a highly stigmatized and disfranchised community. As a result, there was no natural 'community' of sex workers either in Nairobi or in the Majengo village. The Majengo clinic aimed to reduce the barriers to health care the women experienced at the STC clinic by bringing the services closer to them and by providing a non-discriminatory environment. The women acknowledged the fact they had hoped their participation in the MOCS would have helped them find a path out of the sex trade. But our findings also add another dimension to this debate, since every cohort member we interviewed expressed her gratitude for the deep impact the MOCS has had on her life, much of it beyond the improved health status made possible by access to quality healthcare services. Participation in the MOCS has improved and enriched their lives. The CE activities have played a central role in creating a community that did not exist independently of the MOCS. Conclusions Our case study identified 3 distinct phases of community engagement in the MOCS: (1 reaching out: mobilization, dialogue and education; (2 foundations of trust through relationships of care; and (3 leveraging existing social capital to form a cohort community. The findings demonstrate the importance of some of the less

  16. The origins of a research community in the Majengo Observational Cohort Study, Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandewar, Sunita V S; Kimani, Joshua; Lavery, James V

    2010-10-21

    Since the 1980s the Majengo Observational Cohort Study (MOCS) has examined sexually transmitted infections, in particular HIV/AIDS, in a cohort of sex workers in Majengo, an impoverished urban village in Nairobi, Kenya. The MOCS investigators have faced criticism since the women have remained in the sex trade for the duration of their participation in the study, prompting concerns about exploitation. Yet despite these concerns, the cohort has survived for almost 30 years. In this retrospective qualitative case study, we examine the community engagement practices of the MOCS and explore the factors that account for its durability. Women in sex work in Kenya were a highly stigmatized and disfranchised community. As a result, there was no natural 'community' of sex workers either in Nairobi or in the Majengo village. The Majengo clinic aimed to reduce the barriers to health care the women experienced at the STC clinic by bringing the services closer to them and by providing a non-discriminatory environment. The women acknowledged the fact they had hoped their participation in the MOCS would have helped them find a path out of the sex trade. But our findings also add another dimension to this debate, since every cohort member we interviewed expressed her gratitude for the deep impact the MOCS has had on her life, much of it beyond the improved health status made possible by access to quality healthcare services. Participation in the MOCS has improved and enriched their lives. The CE activities have played a central role in creating a community that did not exist independently of the MOCS. Our case study identified 3 distinct phases of community engagement in the MOCS: (1) reaching out: mobilization, dialogue and education; (2) foundations of trust through relationships of care; and (3) leveraging existing social capital to form a cohort community. The findings demonstrate the importance of some of the less obvious benefits of participation in research, namely the

  17. Security and Acceptance of Web Based Marketing Information System among Microfinance Banks in Nairobi Region, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvance O. Abeka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Information system (IS acceptance has been the subject of much research in the past two decades. Researchers have concentrated their efforts on identifying the conditions or factors that could facilitate the acceptance of information system (IS into microfinance banks. The purpose of this paper is to find out if there is a significant relationship between security and acceptance of web based marketing information system (MKIs among micro- finance banks in Nairobi Region, Kenya. It also tends to provide deeper understanding on the current security and acceptance level of web based MKIS. Anonymous and self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 383 respondents. A total of 370 usable responses were received, resulting in a response rate of 96.6% which was considered satisfactory for subsequent analysis. Due to the quantitative nature of the study, the results are analysed with statistical measures. The results indicated that Security was influential determinant of acceptance with t= 2.0541, β= 0.120, p< 0.01 at 1% significant level though most respondents indicated that the current security level of the system was low. Theoretical contributions and practical implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are presented.

  18. Informal settlements and a relational view of health in Nairobi, Kenya: sanitation, gender and dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason; Karanja, Irene

    2016-06-01

    On an urban planet, slums or informal settlements present an increasing challenge for health promotion. The living conditions in complex informal settlements interact with how people navigate through their daily lives and political institutions to shape health inequities. In this article, we suggest that only a relational place-based characterization of informal settlements can accurately capture the forces contributing to existing urban health inequities and inform appropriate and effective health promotion interventions. We explore our relational framework using household survey, spatial mapping and qualitative focus group data gathered in partnership with residents and non-governmental organizations in the Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. All data interpretation included participation with local residents and organizations. We focus on the inter-relationships between inadequate sanitation and disease, social, economic and human rights for women and girls, who we show are most vulnerable from poor slum infrastructure. We suggest that this collaborative process results in co-produced insights about the meanings and relationships between infrastructure, security, resilience and health. We conclude that complex informal settlements require relational and context-specific data gathering and analyses to understand the multiple determinants of health and to inform appropriate and effective healthy city interventions.

  19. How Insecurity impacts on school attendance and school drop out among urban slum children in Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimaraoke Izugbara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how perceptions of personal security can impact on school enrolment and attendance. It mainly focuses on threats of physical harm, crime, and community and domestic violence. These security fears can include insecurity that children suffer from as they go to school, maybe through the use of unsafe routes; insecurity that children feel at school; and the insecurity they suffer from in their homes. Although poverty can be a source and/or an indicator of insecurity, this paper does not focus solely on poverty as it is well covered elsewhere in the literature. The paper relies on qualitative data col- lected in Korogocho and Viwandani slum areas in Nairobi, Kenya between October and November 2004. The paper analyses data from individual interviews and focus group interviews and focuses on the narrative of slum dwellers on how insecurity impacts on educational attainment. The conclusion in this paper is that insecure neighbourhoods may have a negative impact on schooling. As a result policies that address insecurity in slum neighbourhoods can also improve school attendance and performance.

  20. Evidences of investors’ risk tolerance in Nairobi securities exchange: Does education or specialization matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Olweny

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is to evaluate the extent to which investors’ education level or specialization in finance or accounting determines investor risk tolerance at the Nairobi Securities Exchange using a total of 500 individual investors out of 9,32,510  investors holding CDS accounts. Data is collected through questionnaires comprising 13-item risk tolerance instrument and demographic attributes that determine individual investors’ risk tolerance. Analytical framework included ordinal logistic regression model, as well as an analysis of variance and Wolfowitz Wald test at α=0.05. The key findings are that investor education level are significant in the determination of risk tolerance only at below the high school level with a positive impact of 1.831 log of odd for every unit increase in risk tolerance. Specialization in finance or accounting discipline also influenced investor risk tolerance at a significance level of 0.022 with a negative impact of -0.389.

  1. Comparing local fiscal autonomy in the water and sanitation sectors of Johannesburg and Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Kithatu-Kiwekete

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rationale for local fiscal autonomy suggests that local expenditure and local revenue generation should remain in close proximity. This is achieved through fiscal decentralisation to local government, to ensure efficient provision of local services that align with local needs, and to improve accountability to residents. Fiscal decentralisation has found resonance in developing countries through local government reforms, but in Africa fiscal decentralisation has been focussed mainly on revenue sharing, except in a few cases where some local fiscal autonomy has been achieved. Urbanisation in Africa is likely to continue (UN-Habitat, 2008, necessitating an increase in municipal service delivery which African cities must finance − hence the need for local fiscal autonomy. Local fiscal autonomy is arguably contentious for African cities, partly because provision of municipal services must be tempered with considerations of equity and redistribution to the poorer urban populations, and because inadequate welfare nets from national government do not subsidise the gap in municipal revenue. In the recent past, Kenya and South Africa adopted local government reforms in different forms that has yielded different forms of local fiscal autonomy. The paper conducts a comparative of local fiscal autonomy in municipal services provision in Nairobi and Johannesburg.

  2. Attitudes to prenatal testing and notification for HIV infection in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjan, R S; Ruminjo, J K

    1996-10-01

    Four hundred antenatal clinic attendants were surveyed for their attitude to testing and notification for HIV infection test results. The participants were systematically sampled from the antenatal clinic at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, and interviewed using a closed-ended structured questionnaire. All the attendants had heard of HIV, and only 5(1.3%) did not know how Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) presents. Fifty one percent of them had no objection to their blood being tested for HIV. In fact, 52.5% thought, wrongly, that blood was routinely tested for HIV at the hospital's antenatal clinic. More than one third (35.8%) of respondents wished their permission to be obtained before the testing and 95% wished to be informed of the test result. Acceptability of testing was 33.8%, for Named Voluntary Testing, 62.0% for Universal Testing and 1.0% for Anonymous Testing. All the women said they would want to use a method of contraception, principally tubal ligation, if found HIV seropositive and 63.7% would seek a termination of pregnancy. In this study population, acceptability and expressed willingness to know HIV test results and willingness to let a spouse/sexual partner know the result was high. This paper makes recommendations that HIV testing be made available at the ANC, together with competent pre and post-test counselling.

  3. Pathogenic Escherichia coli and food handlers in luxury hotels in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Abel O; Kenya, Eucharia U; Mbithi, John J N; Ng'ayo, Musa O

    2009-11-01

    The epidemiology and virulence properties of pathogenic Escherichia coli among food handlers in tourist destination hotels in Kenya are largely uncharacterized. This cross-sectional study among consenting 885 food handlers working in nine luxurious tourist hotels in Nairobi, Kenya determined the epidemiology, virulence properties, antibiotics susceptibility profiles and conjugation abilities of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Pathogenic Escherichia coli was detected among 39 (4.4%) subjects, including 1.8% enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) harboring aggR genes, 1.2% enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing both LT and STp toxins, 1.1% enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and 0.2% Shiga-like Escherichia coli (EHEC) both harboring eaeA and stx2 genes respectively. All the pathotypes had increased surface hydrophobicity. Using multivariate analyses, food handlers with loose stools were more likely to be infected with pathogenic Escherichia coli. Majority 53.8% of the pathotypes were resistant to tetracycline with 40.2% being multi-drug resistant. About 85.7% pathotypes trans-conjugated with Escherichia coli K12 F(-) NA(r) LA. The carriage of multi-drug resistant, toxin expressing pathogenic Escherichia coli by this population is of public health concern because exposure to low doses can result in infection. Screening food handlers and implementing public awareness programs is recommended as an intervention to control transmission of enteric pathogens.

  4. Psychosocial and health aspects of drug use by students in public secondary schools in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndetei, David M; Khasakhala, Lincoln I; Mutiso, Victoria; Ongecha-Owuor, Francisca A; Kokonya, Donald A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of family, psychosocial, health, demographic, and behavioral characteristics on regular drug use. All the students of 17 randomly stratified public secondary schools in Nairobi were required to complete self-administered sociodemographic and the Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised (DUSI-R) questionnaires in a cross-sectional descriptive study. All the 1328 students, of whom 58.9% were male, responded to all the questions, giving a response rate of 100%. The mean age of the respondents was 16 years and 78.1% were in boarding school. One third (33.9%) scored positively for substance abuse. Significant correlations were found between several domains of substance abuse and school, class, mode of school attendance, age, and gender. Students abusing drugs have multiple comorbidity of medical, psychological, and social pathologies. There are evidence-based intervention entry points for drug abuse that go beyond mere impartation on knowledge about the harmful effects of drugs.

  5. Isolation of human immunodeficiency virus from genital ulcers in Nairobi prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, J K; Coombs, R; Plummer, F; Holmes, K K; Nikora, B; Cameron, W; Ngugi, E; Ndinya Achola, J O; Corey, L

    1989-09-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have implicated genital/anorectal ulcer disease as an important cofactor for acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during sexual intercourse. To better understand the mechanism for the association between genital ulcers and HIV, exudates from 62 genital ulcers of 56 HIV-seropositive prostitutes in Nairobi (Kenya) were cultured for HIV. Twenty-six ulcer cultures could not be evaluated for the presence of HIV because of bacterial or fungal contamination. HIV was isolated from 4 (11%) of the 36 remaining uncontaminated ulcer cultures (2 introital, 1 vaginal, and 1 cervical) from 4 separate women. HIV was isolated from the cervical os from only 2 of the 4 women. HIV p24 antigen was detected in exudate from 1 of the 4 culture-positive ulcers and 0 of 32 culture-negative ulcers. Genital ulcers in seropositive patients should be regarded as potential sources of HIV, which could be important in transmission of HIV during intercourse. Public health measures aimed at controlling sexually transmitted genital ulcer diseases should be an integral part of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention programs.

  6. Pharmaceutical Equivalence of Clarithromycin Oral Dosage Forms Marketed in Nairobi County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manani, Rebecca O.; Abuga, Kennedy O.; Chepkwony, Hezekiah K.

    2017-01-01

    Clarithromycin is a broad-spectrum semi-synthetic macrolide indicated for treatment of pneumonias, Helicobacter pylori, and chlamydial and skin infections. The object of this study was to evaluate the pharmaceutical equivalence of 14 generic clarithromycin products marketed in Nairobi County, Kenya, to the innovator products, using in vitro dissolution profiles and similarity factors (f2). Further, dissolution profiles of four innovator formulations manufactured in different sites were compared. Fourteen clarithromycin tablets/capsules and four suspensions were subjected to assay and comparative dissolution runs at pH 1.2, 4.5 and 6.8, for 60 and 90 min, respectively. All products complied with pharmacopoeial assay specifications. However, significant differences were observed in their dissolution profiles. The non-compliance rates for tablets/capsules were 50% at pH 1.2, 33% at pH 4.5 and 50% at pH 6.8, while none of the four suspensions were compliant. Overall, only four (25%) products complied with the specifications for similarity factor. The results obtained indicate that a significant percentage of generic clarithromycin products are pharmaceutically non-equivalent to the innovator products, and that assay and single-point dissolution tests are insufficient demonstration of equivalence between the generic and innovator products. PMID:28445444

  7. Microwave treatment of faecal sludge from intensively used toilets in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawioo, Peter M; Hooijmans, Christine M; Garcia, Hector A; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2016-12-15

    Toilet facilities in highly dense areas such as the slum and emergency settlements fill up rapidly; thus, requiring frequent emptying. Consequently, big quantities of fresh faecal sludge (FS) containing large amounts of pathogens are generated. Fast and efficient FS treatment technologies are therefore required for safe treatment and disposal of the FS in such conditions. This study explores the applicability of a microwave (MW) technology for the treatment of fresh FS obtained from urine-diverting dry toilets placed in slum settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Two sample fractions containing 100 g and 200 g of FS were exposed to MW irradiation at three input MW power levels of 465, 1085 and 1550 W at different exposure times ranging from 0.5 to 14 min. The variation in the FS temperature, pathogen reduction via the destruction of E. coli and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs, and vol/wt reduction were measured during the MW treatment. It was demonstrated that the MW technology can rapidly and efficiently achieve complete reduction of E. coli and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs, and over 70% vol/wt reduction in the fresh FS. Furthermore, the successful evaluation of the MW technology under real field conditions demonstrated that MW irradiation can be applied for rapid treatment of fresh FS in situations such as urban slum and emergency conditions.

  8. MAX-DOAS observation of HCHO and CHOCHO over Athens and Nairobi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Leonardo; Richter, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Gratsea, Myrto; Gerasopoulos, Vangelis

    2014-05-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant among the carbonyls, while glyoxal (CHOCHO) is the most predominant of the alpha dicarbonyls in the atmosphere. Both species originate from a wide range of natural and anthropogenic sources. In addition, HCHO and CHOCHO are being emitted during biomass burning and the emitted amounts depending on the type of biomass burned as well as the temperatures of the fire. Due to their short lifetime, CHOCHO and HCHO are used as indicators of photochemical activity and intermediate products of the process of degradation of VOCs. While sources and chemistry of CHOCHO and HCHO are similar in many respects, the variation in production efficiency for different sources can be used to better constrain source attribution of VOCs e.g. by analysing the ratio of HCHO to CHOCHO. Atmospheric HCHO and CHOCHO columns can be determined by remote sensing using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. The DOAS method allows the determination of atmospheric amounts of trace gases with narrow absorption bands in the ultraviolet and visible. In this study we report the first HCHO and CHOCHO results from the MAX-DOAS stations in Athens (38N, 24E) and Nairobi (1S, 36E) which are part of the Bremian DOAS Network for Atmospheric Measurements (BREDOM). The results show higher values of CHOCHO and HCHO in summer than in the winter season. Moreover, analyses of the ratio of HCHO to CHOCHO are presented as well as preliminary comparison of CHOCHO columns with satellite data from GOME-2 and OMI.

  9. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  10. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  11. Methodology for Impact Analysis of the Mobile Web in Developing Countries: a Pilot Study in Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Purwandari, Betty; Hall, Wendy; Wills, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an impact analysis methodology to measure the impact of the Mobile Web in developing nations. This methodology is needed to anticipate the effects of the Mobile Web on society. Moreover, it can guide advancement of Mobile Web technology to better serve its users. In May 2010, a pilot study to test the methodology was carried out in Nairobi, Kenya. There were 47 students from 3 leading universities participated in the study. Questionnaires were used to ask how they u...

  12. Records management and risk management at Kenya Commercial Bank Limited, Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleophas Ambira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper reported empirical research findings of an MPhil in Information Sciences (Records and Archives Management study conducted at Moi University in Eldoret, Kenya between September 2007 and July 2009.Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate records management and risk management at Kenya Commercial Bank (KCB Ltd, in the Nairobi area and propose recommendations to enhance the functions of records and risk management at KCB. The specific objectives of the study were to, (1 establish the nature and type of risks to which KCB is exposed, (2 conduct business process analysis and identify the records generated by KCB, (3 establish the extent to which records management is emphasised within KCB as a tool to managing risk, (4 identify which vital records of KCB need protection because of their nature and value to the bank and (5 make recommendations to enhance current records management practices to support the function of risk management in KCB.Method: The study was qualitative. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews. The theoretical framework of the study involved triangulation of the records continuum model by Frank Upward (1980 and the integrated risk management model by the Government of Canada (2000.Results: The key findings of the study were, (1 KCB is exposed to a wide range of risks by virtue of its business, (2 KCB generates a lot of records in the course of its business activities and (3 there are inadequate records management practices and systems, the lack of which undermines the risk management function.Conclusion: The findings of this study have revealed the need to strengthen records management as a critical success factor in risk mitigation within KCB and, by extension, the Kenyan banking industry. A records management model was proposed to guide the management of records within an enterprise-wide risk management framework in the bank.

  13. Exercise-induced bronchospasm: a pilot survey in Nairobi school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'ang'a, L W; Odhiambo, J A; Omwega, M J; Gicheha, C M; Becklake, M R; Menzies, R; Mohammed, N; Macklem, P T

    1997-11-01

    Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB), a common feature of asthma in children, has been used as the outcome measure in community-based surveys of childhood asthma to circumvent difficulties arising from relative lack of objectivity in the use of questionnaires in communities with different cultural and language orientations. We report here the results of the first community-based study of childhood asthma in Kenya using EIB as the outcome measurement. The data was collected in a pilot study to develop methodology for a larger subsequent study. The survey targeted grade four children in five Nairobi City Council school each representing a neighbourhood social economic status (SES). Out of 597 eligible, 408 children took part in the study (68% participation rate). EIB defined as decline in FEV1 of 15% or more, post-exercise was found in 10.5% (95% CI; 10.3, 10.7) of the children studied, the highest rate reported so far in Africa. While boys were more likely to exhibit EIB compared to girls, the prevalence of EIB tended to decrease with age, especially among children residing in low SES neighbourhoods where the EIB prevalence rates tended to be lower compared to those among children from higher SES neighbourhoods. However, none of these differences was statistically significant. This study confirms the feasibility of undertaking exercise challenge tests in the African context and we recommend that additional studies of similar nature be carried out in other populations of Africa to explore the potential of using an exercise test as a marker of asthma in epidemiologic studies.

  14. Living with HIV postdiagnosis: a qualitative study of the experiences of Nairobi slum residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekesa, Eliud; Coast, Ernestina

    2013-05-03

    To characterise the experiences of heterosexual men and women living with HIV postdiagnosis and explain these experiences in relation to their identity and sexuality. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and a theoretically informed biographic disruption theory. Interviews were conducted in two Nairobi slums (Kenya). 41 HIV-infected heterosexual men and women aged 18 years or older. People living with HIV have divergent experiences surrounding HIV diagnosis. Postdiagnosis, there are multiple phases of identity transition, including status (non-)disclosure, and attempts at identity repair and normalcy. For some people, this process involves a transition to a new self-identity, incorporating both HIV and antiretroviral treatment (ART) into their lives. For others, it involves a partial transition, with some aspects of their prediagnosis identity persisting, and for others it involves a rejection of HIV identity. Those people who were able to incorporate HIV/AIDS in their identity, without it being disruptive to their biography, were pursuing safer sexual and reproductive lives. By contrast, those people with a more continuous biography continued to reflect their prediagnosis identity and sexual behaviour. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) had to rework their sense of identity following diagnosis in the context of living in a slum setting. Men and women living with HIV in slums are poorly supported by health systems and services as they attempt to cope with a diagnosis of HIV. Given the availability of ART, health services and professionals need to support the rights of PLWHA to be sexually active if they want to and achieve their fertility goals, while minimising HIV transmission risk.

  15. HIV/AIDS: the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of dentists in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachigo, J N; Naidoo, S

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dentists' knowledge of HIV/AIDS, as it affects them in their workplace, attitudes pertaining to universal precautions and treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS and their behaviour toward their patients. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was carried out. A 34-item questionnaire was delivered to a random sample of 145 dentists based in Nairobi, Kenya. The response rate was 72% (N = 105). Just over half the sample (53%) knew that the first AIDS patient in Kenya was reported in 1984. Ninety eight per cent knew that the main mode of transmission of HIV/AIDS in Kenya is heterosexual contact. All the respondents reported the use of gloves during clinical procedures and use of an autoclave for sterilisation of instruments was reported by more than 85%. Most dentists indicated a willingness to treat HIV/AIDS patients while those with dissenting views preferred that they be treated in dedicated clinics or academic teaching hospitals. Nearly half felt that the risk of HIV transmission in the clinic is high. The incongruity between perceived knowledge, reported practise and attitudes suggests that there is a need for continuing education courses to enable dentists to practice their profession with due care as regards patients with HIV/AIDS. In addition, courses on working with patients with HIV/AIDS should be offered so as to remove ignorance and fear. Results from this survey show that there is a fair level of knowledge as far as HIV/AIDS is concerned. The results also indicate that a greater compliance with universally accepted guidelines for infection control is needed, as it remains low for dentists working in the capital city of a country that records a rising number of new HIV/AIDS cases every day.

  16. Determinants of under nutrition among school age children in a Nairobi peri-urban slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesire, E J; Orago, A S S; Oteba, L P; Echoka, E

    2008-10-01

    Malnutrition is a major public health concern affecting a significant number of school age children influencing their health, growth and development, and school academic performance. To establish the determinants of under nutrition among school age children between 6-12 years in a low-income urban community. A cross-sectional descriptive study. Kawangware peri-urban slum, Nairobi, Kenya. Three hundred and eighty four school children aged 6-12 years. A total of 4.5% were wasted, 14.9% underweight and 30.2% stunted. The children who were over nine years of age were more underweight (72.4%, p = 0.000) and stunted (77.2%, p = 0.000) than those below eight years. The girls were more wasted (29.1%, p = 0.013) than the boys (18.2%), whereas the boys were more stunted (65.7%, p = 0.003) than the girls (50.7%). The other variables found to have had significant association with the nutritional status of the children were: monthly household income (p = 0.008), food prices (p = 0.012), morbidity trends (p = 0.045), mode of treatment (p = 0.036) and school attendance (p = 0.044). The findings of this study show evidently that there is under nutrition among school age children, with stunting being the most prevalent. The Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health therefore need to develop policies which can alleviate under nutrition among school age children. We also recommend that awareness be created among the school age children, parents and teachers, on the dietary requirements of both boys and girls.

  17. Dystocia in a Rothschild Giraffe at the African Fund for Endangered Wildlife, Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Rono

    Full Text Available A 15-year old female Rothschild Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi weighing approximately 800kg, at the African Fund for Endangered Wildlife (AFEW, Giraffe Center, Langata, Nairobi, Kenya was presented with dystocia in June 2010. This giraffe named Laura, had a protracted labor and was regularly monitored by sanctuary education staff. Dystocia was relieved on the 3rd day at this wildlife sanctuary. The giraffe was chemically immobilized by using 7mg of Etorphine Hcl (0.98% (M99® (Norvatis South Africa (Pty Limited and 50mg of Azaperone(10% (Kyron Laboratories (Pty Limited, South Africa in a Dan-Inject dart (Dan-inject APS, Sellerup Skowej, Denmark. On obstetrical examination of the giraffe, a fetal malposition type of dystocia had occurred. The fetus was positioned at posterior presentation extended posture with tail butting on the maternal pelvis, which is abnormal in giraffes. The fetus was manually extracted by using both alternate and simultaneous limb traction. The dam survived the procedure and later was reported to be in a good reproductive condition but the male fetus was a stillbirth. The fetus had died due to stress of prolonged labour. Relief of dystocia in giraffes is a difficult obstetrical procedure because obstetrical examination and relief requires chemical immobilization plus physical restrain with ropes by trained staff. Anesthesia or immobilization of giraffes remains a challenge because of the giraffe's unique anatomy and physiology. Giraffes are large animals which limits physical control and manipulation at critical times during induction and recovery of anesthesia. Giraffe's long neck if not pinned to the ground will act as a lever causing fatal injuries to self and support staff. Giraffes develop elevated systolic blood pressure; have a small respiratory tidal volume with a large dead space and relatively small cardiac output during anesthesia, which compromises safe levels of anesthesia. [Vet. World 2011; 4

  18. Nutritional status of under-five children living in an informal urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olack, Beatrice; Burke, Heather; Cosmas, Leonard; Bamrah, Sapna; Dooling, Kathleen; Feikin, Daniel R; Talley, Leisel E; Breiman, Robert F

    2011-08-01

    Malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa contributes to high rates of childhood morbidity and mortality. However, little information on the nutritional status of children is available from informal settlements. During the period of post-election violence in Kenya during December 2007-March 2008, food shortages were widespread within informal settlements in Nairobi. To investigate whether food insecurity due to post-election violence resulted in high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition in children, a nutritional survey was undertaken among children aged 6-59 months within two villages in Kibera, where the Kenya Medical Research Institute/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts population-based surveillance for infectious disease syndromes. During 25 March-4 April 2008, a structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers of 1,310 children identified through surveillance system databases to obtain information on household demographics, food availability, and child-feeding practices. Anthropometric measurements were recorded on all participating children. Indices were reported in z-scores and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 reference population to determine the nutritional status of children. Data were analyzed using the Anthro software of WHO and the SAS. Stunting was found in 47.0% of the children; 11.8% were underweight, and 2.6% were wasted. Severe stunting was found in 23.4% of the children; severe underweight in 3.1%, and severe wasting in 0.6%. Children aged 36-47 months had the highest prevalence (58.0%) of stunting while the highest prevalence (4.1%) of wasting was in children aged 6-11 months. Boys were more stunted than girls (p development during the first two years of life. Food programmes in Kenya have traditionally focused on rural areas and refugee camps. The findings of the study suggest that tackling childhood stunting is a high priority, and there should be fostered efforts to ensure that malnutrition

  19. Clinical Characteristics Associated with Mycoplasma genitalium among Female Sex Workers in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomih-Alakija, Ayodele; Ting, Jie; Mugo, Nelly; Kwatampora, Jessie; Getman, Damon; Chitwa, Michael; Patel, Suha; Gokhale, Mugdha; Kimani, Joshua; Behets, Frieda S.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium is high in vulnerable populations of women in low-resource settings. However, the epidemiology of infection in these populations is not well established. To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and its association with cervical cytology and other correlates, we recruited 350 female sex workers (FSW) who were 18 to 50 years old in Nairobi, Kenya, for a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was administered at baseline to obtain information on sociodemographics and sexual behaviors. Women underwent a pelvic exam, during which a physician collected cervical-exfoliation samples for conventional cytology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Samples were tested for M. genitalium and other STI organisms (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis) and the E6/E7 mRNA of human papillomavirus (HPV) by Aptima nucleic amplification assays. The prevalence of M. genitalium was 12.9%. FSW who engaged in sexual intercourse during menses were less likely to have M. genitalium infection than those who did not (odds ratio [OR], 0.3; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.1, 0.9). M. genitalium was also less prevalent among FSW who had worked in prostitution for >5 years (6.2%) than among those who had worked for <3 years (17.6%) (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1, 0.8). FSW who reported more frequent condom use were more likely to be infected with M. genitalium than those who reported less frequent use (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.2, 11.6). These correlates differ from those found in M. genitalium studies conducted with FSW from West Africa and China. Further longitudinal analyses assessing associations with persistent M. genitalium infection are needed. PMID:25100823

  20. Association between family composition and the well-being of vulnerable children in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Elizabeth; Racine, Elizabeth F; Brunner Huber, Larissa R; Whitaker, Beth Elise

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between a vulnerable child's family composition (family size and primary caregiver) and three child well-being indicators (immunization status, access to food, educational security). Using 2006-2009 intake data from a Kenyan non-governmental aid agency, this cross-sectional study evaluated a population of 1,424 children in two urban slum settlements in Nairobi. Logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to examine the relationship between family composition measures and child well-being. Multivariate results were also stratified by orphan status. Vulnerable children who live in household sizes of 4-6 members and vulnerable children who live with non-relatives had greater odds of inadequate immunization (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.13-2.01, OR = 9.02, 95% CI: 4.62-17.62). Paradoxically, vulnerable children living with non-relative caregivers were at lower risk for inadequate food (OR = 0.19, 95% CI 0.07-0.33). Single orphans with an HIV positive parent were less likely to be fully immunized than single orphans with an HIV negative parent. The results provide information on specific groups which could benefit from increased attention related to childhood immunization education and intervention programs. The findings also underscore the need for policies which support families as a means of supporting vulnerable children. Finally, findings reinforce the wisdom of programs which target vulnerable children based on needs, rather than orphan status. These findings can be useful for informing future program and policy development designed to meet needs of vulnerable children.

  1. Interlinkage among cardio-metabolic disease markers in an urban poor setting in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Nigatu Haregu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main cardio-metabolic diseases – mostly cardiovascular diseases such as stroke and ischemic heart disease – share common clinical markers such as raised blood pressure and blood glucose. The pathways of development of many of these conditions are also interlinked. In this regard, a higher level of co-occurrence of the main cardio-metabolic disease markers is expected. Evidence about the patterns of occurrence of cardio-metabolic markers and their interlinkage in the sub-Saharan African setting is inadequate. Objective: The goal of the study was to describe the interlinkage among common cardio-metabolic disease markers in an African setting. Design: We used data collected in a cross-sectional study from 5,190 study participants as part of cardiovascular disease risk assessment in the urban slums of Nairobi, Kenya. Five commonly used clinical markers of cardio-metabolic conditions were considered in this analysis. These markers were waist circumference, blood pressure, random blood glucose, total blood cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Patterns of these markers were described using means, standard deviations, and proportions. The associations between the markers were determined using odds ratios. Results: The weighted prevalence of central obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were 12.3%, 7.0%, 2.5%, 10.3%, and 17.3%, respectively. Women had a higher prevalence of central obesity and hypercholesterolemia as compared to men. Blood glucose was strongly associated with central obesity, blood pressure, and triglyceride levels, whereas the association between blood glucose and total blood cholesterol was not statistically significant. Conclusions: This study shows that most of the common cardio-metabolic markers are interlinked, suggesting a higher probability of comorbidity due to cardio-metabolic conditions and thus the need for integrated approaches.

  2. 24 CFR 982.609 - Congregate housing: Housing quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Types Congregate Housing § 982.609 Congregate housing: Housing quality standards. (a) HQS standards for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congregate housing: Housing quality standards. 982.609 Section 982.609 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  3. The Comfort Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Daniels, Ole

    This report describes the results of the Comfort Houses measuring programme conducted by Aalborg University in the period 2008 to 2011. The results from the houses included in the project are examined in detail in 8 house-specific reports. All house-specific reports referred to in this report can...

  4. The supermarket for women's reproductive health: the burden of genital infections in a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmerman, M.; Kidula, N.; Tyndall, M.; Rukaria-Kaumbutho, R.; Muchiri, L.; Ndinya-Achola, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the burden of disease of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and cervical dysplasia in women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, and to assess the acceptability of integrating reproductive healthcare services into existing family planning facilities. METHODS: In a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, 520 women were enrolled in a study on RTI and cervical dysplasia. RESULTS: RTI pathogens were detected in over 20% of women, the majority being asymptomatic. HIV-1 testing was positive in 10.2%. The diagnosis of cervical dysplasia was made on 12% of the cytology smears (mild in 5.8%, moderate in 3.5%, severe in 1.2%), and 1.5% had invasive cervical cancer. The intervention of case detection of RTI and Papanicolaou smear taking was well received by clients and considered feasible by the staff. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection and treatment of potentially curable cervical lesions and RTI provide a unique opportunity to improve women's health. In Kenya, where the current contraceptive prevalence rate is 33%, family planning clinics are excellent sites to introduce health interventions. 


 PMID:9849556

  5. The Role of HIV in the Household Introduction and Transmission of Influenza in an Urban Slum, Nairobi, Kenya, 2008-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judd, M.C.; Emukule, G.O.; Njuguna, H.; McMorrow, M.L.; Arunga, G.O.; Katz, M.A.; Montgomery, J.M.; Wong, J.M.; Breiman, R.F.; Mott, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection affects influenza transmission within homes in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We used respiratory illness surveillance and HIV testing data gathered in Kibera, an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya, to examine the impact of H

  6. Malaria Parasitemia Among Febrile Patients Seeking Clinical Care at an Outpatient Health Facility in an Urban Informal Settlement Area in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuguna, Henry N; Montgomery, Joel M; Cosmas, Leonard; Wamola, Newton; Oundo, Joseph O; Desai, Meghna; Buff, Ann M; Breiman, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    Nairobi is considered a low-risk area for malaria transmission, but travel can influence transmission of malaria. We investigated the demographic characteristics and travel history of patients with documented fever and malaria in a study clinic in a population-based surveillance system over a 5-year period, January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. During the study period, 11,480 (68%) febrile patients had a microscopy test performed for malaria, of which 2,553 (22%) were positive. Malaria was detected year-round with peaks in January, May, and September. Children aged 5-14 years had the highest proportion (28%) of positive results followed by children aged 1-4 years (23%). Almost two-thirds of patients with malaria reported traveling outside Nairobi; 79% of these traveled to three counties in western Kenya. History of recent travel (i.e., in past month) was associated with malaria parasitemia (odds ratio: 10.0, 95% confidence interval: 9.0-11.0). Malaria parasitemia was frequently observed among febrile patients at a health facility in the urban slum of Kibera, Nairobi. The majority of patients had traveled to western Kenya. However, 34% reported no travel history, which raises the possibility of local malaria transmission in this densely populated, urban setting. These findings have important implications for malaria control in large Nairobi settlements. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. An Investigation of the Relationship of ICT Training of Principals in ICT Integration in Management Public Secondary Schools: A Case of Nairobi County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepkonga, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out whether there exists a relationship between ICT training of principals and ICT integration in management of public secondary schools in Kenya. Cross-sectional survey design was used in Nairobi County where quantitative research strategy was applied for the collection of data using questionnaires. The…

  8. Leaf area development, dry weight accumulation and solar energy conversion efficiencies of Phaseolus vulgaris L. under different soil moisture levels near Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniafu, M.M.; Macharia, J.N.M.; Stigter, C.J.; Coulson, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    Leaf area development, dry weight accumulation and solar energy conversion efficiencies of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv GLP-2 under two soil moisture levels in two contrasting seasons near Nairobi, Kenya were investigated. The experiment confirms that dry weights and yields of Phaseolus vulgaris are lim

  9. Non-home prepared foods : contribution to energy and nutrient intake of consumers living in two low-income areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't H.; Hartog, den A.P.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the nutritional importance of non-home prepared foods for men, women and schoolchildren living in two low-income residential areas of Nairobi, and the sources of these non-home prepared foods. Design, setting and subjects: A survey was conducted in Korogocho, a slum area, and

  10. Evidence of a Double Burden of Malnutrition in Urban Poor Settings in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth W Kimani-Murage

    Full Text Available Many low- and middle-income countries are undergoing a nutrition transition associated with rapid social and economic transitions. We explore the coexistence of over and under- nutrition at the neighborhood and household level, in an urban poor setting in Nairobi, Kenya.Data were collected in 2010 on a cohort of children aged under five years born between 2006 and 2010. Anthropometric measurements of the children and their mothers were taken. Additionally, dietary intake, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements were collected from a stratified random sample of adults aged 18 years and older through a separate cross-sectional study conducted between 2008 and 2009 in the same setting. Proportions of stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight/obesity were dettermined in children, while proportions of underweight and overweight/obesity were determined in adults.Of the 3335 children included in the analyses with a total of 6750 visits, 46% (51% boys, 40% girls were stunted, 11% (13% boys, 9% girls were underweight, 2.5% (3% boys, 2% girls were wasted, while 9% of boys and girls were overweight/obese respectively. Among their mothers, 7.5% were underweight while 32% were overweight/obese. A large proportion (43% and 37%% of overweight and obese mothers respectively had stunted children. Among the 5190 adults included in the analyses, 9% (6% female, 11% male were underweight, and 22% (35% female, 13% male were overweight/obese.The findings confirm an existing double burden of malnutrition in this setting, characterized by a high prevalence of undernutrition particularly stunting early in life, with high levels of overweight/obesity in adulthood, particularly among women. In the context of a rapid increase in urban population, particularly in urban poor settings, this calls for urgent action. Multisectoral action may work best given the complex nature of prevailing circumstances in urban poor settings. Further research is needed to

  11. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Types Shared Housing § 982.618 Shared housing: Housing quality standards. (a) Compliance with HQS. The... the unit available for use by the assisted family under its lease, meets the housing quality standards... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing...

  12. Evaluación de las actuaciones existentes de la mejora de condiciones de vida en los asentamientos informales de Nairobi, Kenia: la reforma del sector de agua en Kenia, su influencia en las tecnologías apropiadas y la articulación de los actores de cooperación al desarrollo en la ciudad de Nairobi

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    La motivación de este estudio es centrarse en el factor de infraestructura y específicamente observar y analizar los procesos de desarrollo dentro del sector del agua y saneamiento en los asentamientos informales para el caso de la ciudad de Nairobi: Evaluación de las soluciones intermedias y los procesos de cambio referente a la mejora de las condiciones de vida de los asentamientos informales de Nairobi, Kenia. En el proceso de la investigación se quieren establecer mecanismos, clasif...

  13. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    percentage of the people living in these estates are tenants and cannot afford to pay for the ... developments, prospective house occupiers should be determined first in order to obtain relevant ... researchers putting the figure for housing ... materials to type of building design (Adedeji & ... schemes have become profit driven.

  14. House Price, House Quality and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.; Boelhouwer, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on housing markets suggest that periods of economic growth are characterised by a demand for better housing quality and increasing prices. The basic principles of the theory are that the short-run price fluctuations occur due to market imperfection, while over the long term, causality

  15. Community and social responses to land use transformations in the Nairobi rural-urban fringe, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggrey Daniel Maina Thuo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of urbanization is one of the most important dimensions of economic, social and physical changes. It is almost a truism that the planet’s future is an urban one and that the largest and fastest growing cities are in developing countries. Approximately 25 percent of Africa’s population lived in towns and cities in 1975. By the year 2000, due to rural-urban migration and rapid rates of natural increase, 38 percent of the continent’s population lived in urban areas. The proportion is expected to increase to 47 percent by 2015 and to double by 2025, Kenya is not an exception. Rapid urban population growth means an increasing demand for urban land. This land is not available within the city, but in the rural-urban fringe, for various reasons. This is partly due to low land prices, high rents at the core of the cities and legal flexibility in land use planning in the rural-urban fringe. Urban growth is already engulfing the surrounding agricultural lands and small villages. The conversion of agricultural land to residential uses is leading to the rapid transformations in the agricultural production, spatial structure, social structure, land ownership and land market in these areas. This chapter focuses on the responses/actions of the communities within Nairobi rural-urban fringe and how they manoeuvre through the consequences of changes occasioned by land conversions. It used Town council of Karuri as a case study.  The chapter is based on qualitative research approaches presents evidence on how subaltern’ actions plays an important role in creating order in an otherwise chaotic situation as a result of ‘poorly planned’ residential development. The subalterns’ actions, as evidenced by their agency, are manifested in community’s contribution and participation in provision of infrastructure and services within the Nairobi’s rural-urban fringe due to inability of formal provision by planning authorities.Le processus d

  16. Housing of Hobson's Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at policies implemented to improve troubled housing estates during more than two decades. Based on evaluations of implemented programmes and case studies the paper provides a basis for discussing a number of questions: • Why do we have troubled housing estates? • What...... is the definition of troubled housing estates? • Who lives on troubled housing estates? • Who owns and manages the troubled housing estates? • What have been the reasons behind improvement programmes for troubled housing estates? • What kind of improvement programmes have been implemented and with what kind...... of results? • Have improvement programmes changed the position of the estates on the local housing markets? • What are the changes in policies and results? • What are the perspectives for policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates?...

  17. How to Teach Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Joseph L.

    1977-01-01

    A list of topics and related field experiences accompany this description of an introductory undergraduate course on housing and society. Topics and community experiences are also outlined for a graduate course in advanced housing and interior design. (TA)

  18. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  19. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price b

  20. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price

  1. Situation-Based Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Presentation of urban housing research on flexible housing types in the Copenhagen Region: Theoretical background, methodology, analyse of spatial organization, interviews and results. Cases: Pærehaven in Ølby, Køge and M-house in Ørestad, Copenhagen...

  2. Water and sanitation service delivery, pricing, and the poor: An empirical estimate of subsidy incidence in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, David; Gakii Gatua, Josephine; Ikiara, Moses; Kabubo-Mariara, Jane; Mwaura, Mbutu; Whittington, Dale

    2016-06-01

    The increasing block tariff (IBT) is among the most widely used tariffs by water utilities, particularly in developing countries. This is due in part to the perception that the IBT can effectively target subsidies to low-income households. Combining data on households' socioeconomic status and metered water use, this paper examines the distributional incidence of subsidies delivered through the IBT in Nairobi, Kenya. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that high-income residential and nonresidential customers receive a disproportionate share of subsidies and that subsidy targeting is poor even among households with a private metered connection. We also find that stated expenditure on water, a commonly used means of estimating water use, is a poor proxy for metered use and that previous studies on subsidy incidence underestimate the magnitude of the subsidy delivered through water tariffs. These findings have implications for both the design and evaluation of water tariffs in developing countries.

  3. Impacts of Roadway Emissions on Urban Fine Particle Exposures: the Nairobi Area Traffic Contribution to Air Pollution (NATCAP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatari, Michael; Ngo, Nicole; Ndiba, Peter; Kinney, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    Air quality is a serious and worsening problem in the rapidly growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), due to rapid urbanization, growing vehicle fleets, changing life styles, limited road infrastructure and land use planning, and high per-vehicle emissions. However, the absence of ambient monitoring data, and particularly urban roadside concentrations of particulate matter in SSA cities, severely limits our ability to assess the real extent of air quality problems. Emitted fine particles by on-road vehicles may be particularly important in SSA cities because large concentrations of poorly maintained vehicles operate in close proximity to commercial and other activities of low-income urban residents. This scenario provokes major air quality concerns and its investigation should be of priority interest to policy makers, city planners and managers, and the affected population. As part of collaboration between Columbia University and the University of Nairobi, a PM2.5 air monitoring study was carried out over two weeks in July 2009. The objectives of the study were 1) to assess average daytime PM2.5 concentrations on a range of Nairobi streets that represent important hot-spots in terms of the joint distribution of traffic, commercial, and resident pedestrian activities, 2) to relate those concentrations to motor vehicle counts, 3) to compare urban street concentrations to urban and rural background levels, and 4) to assess vertical and horizontal dispersion of PM2.5 near roadways. Portable, battery-operated PM2.5 samplers were carried by field teams at each of the five sites (three urban, one commuter highway, and one rural site), each of which operated from 7 AM to 7 PM during 10 weekdays in July 2009. Urban background monitoring took place on a rooftop at the University of Nairobi. Preliminary findings suggest highly elevated PM2.5 concentrations at the urban sites where the greatest pedestrian traffic was observed. These findings underscore the need for air

  4. The African Health Fund and Nairobi Women's Hospital--a successful model for improving access to capital for health businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayo, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Nairobi Women's Hospital is a private for profit hospital that has been in operation since 2001. Its main target is reaching women and children with affordable high-quality services. Its initial growth plan was stranded by lack of capital. The Africa Health Fund managed by Aureos Capital took a stake in the hospital in December 2009 to provide the needed capital for expansion. The investment has seen the hospital expand rapidly from 57 beds to 226 beds in three campuses. The affiliated nursing school has also opened. Based on its recent successes, NWH is now currently looking at borrowing an additional US$10 million from IFC to expand in the East Africa region.

  5. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Authorities - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Public Housing was established to provide decent and safe rental housing for eligible low-income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. Public housing...

  6. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from various healthcare institutions in Nairobi, Kenya: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omuse, Geoffrey; Van Zyl, Kristien Nel; Hoek, Kim; Abdulgader, Shima; Kariuki, Samuel; Whitelaw, Andrew; Revathi, Gunturu

    2016-09-20

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has established itself over the years as a major cause of morbidity and mortality both within the community and in healthcare settings. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in particular has been a major cause of nosocomial infections resulting in significant increase in healthcare costs. In Africa, the MRSA prevalence has been shown to vary across different countries. In order to better understand the epidemiology of MRSA in a setting, it is important to define its population structure using molecular tools as different clones have been found to predominate in certain geographical locations. We carried out PFGE, MLST, SCCmec and spa typing of selected S. aureus isolates from a private and public referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. A total of 93 S. aureus isolates were grouped into 19 PFGE clonal complexes (A-S) and 12 singletons. From these, 55 (32 MRSA and 23 MSSA) representative isolates from each PFGE clonal complex and all singletons were spa typed. There were 18 different MRSA spa types and 22 MSSA spa types. The predominant MRSA spa type was t037 comprising 40.6 % (13/32) of all MRSA. In contrast, the MSSA were quite heterogeneous, only 2 out of 23 MSSA shared the same spa type. Two new MRSA spa types (t13149 and t13150) and 3 new MSSA spa types (t13182, t13193 and t13194) were identified. The predominant clonal complex was CC 5 which included multi-locus sequence types 1, 8 and 241. In contrast to previous studies published from Kenya, there's marked genetic diversity amongst clinical MRSA isolates in Nairobi including the presence of well-known epidemic MRSA clones. Given that these clones are resident within our referral hospitals, adherence to strict infection control measures needs to be ensured to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with hospital acquired MRSA infections.

  7. Source apportionment and seasonal variation of PM2.5 in a Sub-Sahara African city: Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Gaita

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sources of airborne particulate matter and their seasonal variation in urban areas in Sub-Sahara Africa are poorly understood due to lack of long-term measurement data. In view of this, airborne fine particles matter (particle diameter ≤ 2.5 μm, PM2.5 were collected between May 2008 and April 2010 at two sites (urban background site and suburban site within the Nairobi metropolitan area. A total of 780 samples were collected and analyzed for particulate mass, black carbon (BC and thirteen trace elements. The average PM2.5 concentration at the urban background site was 20 ± 8 μg m−3 whereas the concentration at the suburban site was 13 ± 8 μg m−3. The daily PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 25 μg m−3 (the World Health Organization 24 h guideline value 29% of the days at the urban background site and 7% of the days at the suburban site. At both sites, BC, Fe, S and Cl accounted for approximately 80% of all detected elements. Positive Matrix Factorization analysis identified five source factors that contribute to PM2.5 in Nairobi; traffic, mineral dust, secondary aerosol, industrial and combustion. Mineral dust and traffic factors were related to approximately 74% of PM2.5. Identified source factors exhibited seasonal variation though traffic factor was prominently consistent throughout the sampling period. The results provide information that can be exploited for policy formulation and mitigation strategies to control air pollution in Sub-Sahara African cities.

  8. Inadequate housing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two themes are evident in housing research in Ghana. One involves the study of how to increase the number of dwellings to correct the overall housing deficit, and the other focuses on how to improve housing for slum dwellers. Between these two extremes, there is relatively little research on why the existing buildings are poorly maintained. This paper is based on a review of existing studies on inadequate housing. It synthesises the evidence on the possible reasons for this neglect, makes a case for better maintenance and analyses possible ways of reversing the problem of inadequate housing.

  9. Dutch house price fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Haffner, M.E.A.; De Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price bubble ready to burst; (2) whether house prices will decline in response to the credit crisis that started in 2007; and (3) whether it is likely that house prices will decrease as a result of reform...

  10. Moodulmaja Passion House = "Passion House" modular home

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Moodulmaja Passion House. Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali innovatsioonipreemia 2013 kvaliteetse disaini ja perspektiivika arendustegevuse oskusliku sidumise eest. Arhitekt Eero Endjärv (Arhitekt11), sisearhitekt Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11)

  11. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology 10, 1, June 20 I 7. 53 ... (Adedayo, 2013). It was the expectation of ... factor responsible for the increase in housing demand in the city centres as .... many architects simply discuss with the client.

  12. Moodulmaja Passion House = "Passion House" modular home

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Moodulmaja Passion House. Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali innovatsioonipreemia 2013 kvaliteetse disaini ja perspektiivika arendustegevuse oskusliku sidumise eest. Arhitekt Eero Endjärv (Arhitekt11), sisearhitekt Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11)

  13. Assisted Housing - Multifamily Properties - Assisted

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Multifamily Housing property portfolio consist primarily of rental housing properties with five or more dwelling units such as apartments or town houses, but...

  14. Terminology for houses and house remains

    OpenAIRE

    Rosberg, Karin

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain lucidity, it is essential to choose adequate terminology when speaking of prehistoric houses. The understanding of house construction requires a terminology with a focus on construction. Very often, archaeologists instead use a terminology with a focus on the remains, and use an inadequate terminology for constructions, indicating that they do not fully consider how the constructions work. The article presents some suggestions for adequate construction terminology.

  15. Curriculum Development and Education for Living Together: Conceptual and Managerial Challenges in Africa. Final Report of the Seminar (Nairobi, Kenya, June 25-29, 2001) (Developpement du Curriculum et Education pour Vivre Ensemble: Problemes de Concepts et de Gestion en Afrique. Rapport Final du Seminaire (Nairobi, Kenya, 25-29 Juin 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglo, John, Ed.; Lethoko, Mankolo, Ed.

    The Nairobi, Kenya, seminar sought to analyze existing official school curricula from the vantage point of their potential contribution to learning and to address the issue of curriculum management with a view to improving the capacity of basic schooling to contribute to enhanced social cohesion. This final report is divided into four parts. Part…

  16. Epigenetic Variation May Compensate for Decreased Genetic Variation with Introductions: A Case Study Using House Sparrows (Passer domesticus on Two Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron W. Schrey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms impact several phenotypic traits and may be important for ecology and evolution. The introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus exhibits extensive phenotypic variation among and within populations. We screened methylation in populations from Kenya and Florida to determine if methylation varied among populations, varied with introduction history (Kenyan invasion <50 years old, Florida invasion ~150 years old, and could potentially compensate for decrease genetic variation with introductions. While recent literature has speculated on the importance of epigenetic effects for biological invasions, this is the first such study among wild vertebrates. Methylation was more frequent in Nairobi, and outlier loci suggest that populations may be differentiated. Methylation diversity was similar between populations, in spite of known lower genetic diversity in Nairobi, which suggests that epigenetic variation may compensate for decreased genetic diversity as a source of phenotypic variation during introduction. Our results suggest that methylation differences may be common among house sparrows, but research is needed to discern whether methylation impacts phenotypic variation.

  17. Use of herbal medicine during pregnancy among women with access to public healthcare in Nairobi, Kenya: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mothupi, Mamothena Carol

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal health is a public health priority in many African countries, but little is known about herbal medicine use in pregnancy. This study aimed to determine the pattern of use of herbal medicine in an urban setting, where women have relatively high access to public healthcare. Methods This cross-sectional study included 333 women attending a childcare clinic in a district public health hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, during January and February, 2012, and who had delivered a baby w...

  18. Urban consumption of meat and milk and its green and blue water footprints-Patterns in the 1980s and 2000s for Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosire, Caroline K; Lannerstad, Mats; de Leeuw, Jan; Krol, Maarten S; Ogutu, Joseph O; Ochungo, Pamela A; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2017-02-01

    Various studies show that the developing world experiences and will continue to experience a rise in consumption of animal proteins, particularly in cities, as a result of continued urbanization and income growth. Given the relatively large water footprint (WF) of animal products, this trend is likely to increase the pressure on already scarce water resources. We estimate, analyse and interpret the changes in consumption of meat and milk between the 1980s and 2000s for three income classes in Nairobi, the ratio of domestic production to imports, and the WF (the volume of freshwater consumed) to produce these commodities in Kenya and abroad. Nairobi's middle-income class grew much faster than the overall population. In addition, milk consumption per capita by the middle-income group grew faster than for the city's population as a whole. Contrary to expectation, average meat consumption per capita across all income groups in Nairobi declined by 11%. Nevertheless, total meat consumption increased by a factor 2.2 as a result of population growth, while total milk consumption grew by a factor 5. As a result, the total WF of meat consumption increased by a factor 2.3 and the total WF of milk consumption by a factor 4.2. The increase in milk consumption was met by increased domestic production, whereas the growth in meat consumption was partly met through imports and an enlargement of the footprint in the countries neighbouring Kenya. A likely future rise in the consumption of meat and milk in Nairobi will further enlarge the city's WF. Given Kenya's looming blue water scarcity, it is anticipated that this WF will increasingly spill over the borders of the country. Accordingly, policies aimed at meeting the rise in demand for meat and milk should consider the associated environmental constraints and the economic implications both nationally and internationally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Survey of the Role of Audit Committees in Promoting Corporate Governance and Accountability in Constituency Development Fund Management: A Case Study of Nairobi Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kakui Kilika

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of thisstudy is to present a case for the need for audit committee in Constituency DevelopmentFund to promote corporate governance and accountability in constituencydevelopment fund management in Nairobi Province, Kenya. The study provides ananalysis and critique of the extent of engagement research in the field ofcorporate governance and accountability in constituency Development Fundmanagement and present case for further research that may be directed tooutside Nairobi province. The study found that the extent of literature in thefield of corporate governance and accountability and reporting in contrast tothe field to management CDF in Nairobi had largely ignored the practice withinCDF organizations.  The study argues thatCDF can benefit from the methodological and theoretical insights of auditcommittee and other disciplines. The study suggests where further contributionsmight be made by future research endeavors engaging with audit committees withorganizations. Engaging audit committee in CDF governance and accountabilityhas the potential to improve theorizing practice and the sustainabilityperformance with organizations. Drawing on the methods and theories of otherdisciplines and the papers in the special issues (of audit committee the studypresents away forward for researchers engaging with audit committees in organizationalpracticing corporate governance and accountability.

  20. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan...

  1. The teaching house officer.

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffman, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Although medical students on clinical ward rotations receive a large part of their education from house officers, very often house officers themselves have had little formal preparation as teachers. Because students and teachers work closely together under special conditions, unique educational situations are created where much more than factual information is conveyed. Although some house officers are "natural" teachers, others find such activities uncomfortable or burdensome. Most people, h...

  2. Sustainable Housing Renewal

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sitar; K. Krajnc

    2008-01-01

    Following the already proved models the sustainable planning culture is endangering several methods directed towards the needs of tenants in the existing post-war housing stock. The case-study of our project is the renewal of the multi stored building in the housing estate Metalna, Maribor/Tezno (1949). It is based on the sustainable renovation principle for the quality of sustainable housing in functional, technological and environmental point of view. According to it, the idea of the projec...

  3. The architects house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The architects house is an article on Edward Heiberg's own house built in 1924. Edward Heiberg was a strong advocate of functionalism, and of the notion that hitherto individualistic and emotional architecture should be replaced by an objective function-based architecture with dwellings for every......The architects house is an article on Edward Heiberg's own house built in 1924. Edward Heiberg was a strong advocate of functionalism, and of the notion that hitherto individualistic and emotional architecture should be replaced by an objective function-based architecture with dwellings...

  4. Social Housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig; Scanlon, Kath J

    2014-01-01

    Social housing is a cornerstone in the Danish welfare society and is accessible for all households. By law, social housing must be rented at cost rents, which are based on historical costs; rents do not respond to market forces. Social housing aims to provide good standard, secure and affordable...... for the individual associations as well as each housing estate. In principle, each estate and the association it belongs to must balance its books. An important feature of the sector is the build-up of a funding system which makes it possible to support the financing of major renovations and energy measures as well...

  5. The state of emergency obstetric care services in Nairobi informal settlements and environs: Results from a maternity health facility survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliku Teresa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge with estimates exceeding 1,000 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in some countries. Successful prevention of maternal deaths hinges on adequate and quality emergency obstetric care. In addition to skilled personnel, there is need for a supportive environment in terms of essential drugs and supplies, equipment, and a referral system. Many household surveys report a reasonably high proportion of women delivering in health facilities. However, the quality and adequacy of facilities and personnel are often not assessed. The three delay model; 1 delay in making the decision to seek care; 2 delay in reaching an appropriate obstetric facility; and 3 delay in receiving appropriate care once at the facility guided this project. This paper examines aspects of the third delay by assessing quality of emergency obstetric care in terms of staffing, skills equipment and supplies. Methods We used data from a survey of 25 maternity health facilities within or near two slums in Nairobi that were mentioned by women in a household survey as places that they delivered. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Kenya Medical Research Institute. Permission was also sought from the Ministry of Health and the Medical Officer of Health. Data collection included interviews with the staff in-charge of maternity wards using structured questionnaires. We collected information on staffing levels, obstetric procedures performed, availability of equipment and supplies, referral system and health management information system. Results Out of the 25 health facilities, only two met the criteria for comprehensive emergency obstetric care (both located outside the two slums while the others provided less than basic emergency obstetric care. Lack of obstetric skills, equipment, and supplies hamper many facilities from providing lifesaving emergency obstetric procedures. Accurate estimation of burden

  6. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household o...

  7. Sustainable housing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hal, A.

    1998-01-01

    There is considerable variation in the extent to which environmental measures are adopted in housing construction in various European countries. Whereas sustainable housing is dearly part of day-to-day building practice in some countries, in others the topic seldom receives serious attention. None

  8. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  9. Dream house in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Asgaard

    2004-01-01

    This first book in the Utzon Library, which deals with Utzon's own houses, contains a number of drawings that have not previously been published. This is especially true of the four projects for his house in Bayview, Sydney, which unfortunately never got past the drawing stage, as Utzon had left ...

  10. Sustainable housing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hal, A.

    1998-01-01

    There is considerable variation in the extent to which environmental measures are adopted in housing construction in various European countries. Whereas sustainable housing is dearly part of day-to-day building practice in some countries, in others the topic seldom receives serious attention. None o

  11. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Slaug, Bjørn; Brandt, Åse

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients and their home environments. The instrument was translated...... from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently from each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  12. Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse

    2009-01-01

    Development and reliability testing of the Nordic Housing Enabler – an instrument for accessibility assessment of the physical housing. Tina Helle & Åse Brandt University of Lund, Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (SE) and University College Northern Jutland, Occupational Therapy department (DK......). Danish Centre for Assistive Technology. Abstract. For decades, accessibility to the physical housing environment for people with functional limitations has been of interest politically, professionally and for the users. Guidelines and norms on accessible housing design have gradually been developed......, however, the built environment shows serious deficits when it comes to accessibility. This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of inter-rater reliability, when used in occupational therapy practice. The instrument was translated from...

  13. Sustainable Housing Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Housing Design. Integrating technical and housing quality aspects of sustainable architecture in civil engineering education. Summary An integrated design approach to sustainable architecture is outlined that combines concerns for zero energy building, good indoor climate and adequate...... phases. The outcome shows that integrated design further solutions where sustainable urban forms of settlement can be highly energy efficient while also attractive from a user perspective. Key words: Sustainable architecture, integrated design, zero-energy-housing, dense urban living. 1. Introduction...... constructions, private and public outdoor space, housing, urban and architectural quality. The educational framework, curriculum and inte-grated design methods are preconditions for optimizing a design process where technical criteria, functional concerns and housing quality are addressed from the initial...

  14. Gestation group housing of sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.; Vermeer, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Group housing of gestating sows is currently replacing individual housing systems around the world. Modern group housing systems allow performance in groups to be equal to that in individual housing systems. A crucial element in the success of a housing system is the way in which it deals with

  15. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Developments - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The general location of an entire Public Housing Development. A distinct address is chosen to represent the general location of an entire Public Housing Development,...

  16. User Satisfaction and Acceptance of Web Based Marketing Information System among Microfinance Institutions in Nairobi Region, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvance O. Abeka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Acceptance of web based marketing information system has remained a topic of interest for a last few decades. Several theories, specifically over the conceptualisation of the technology acceptance model (TAM have emerged and they have been applied in different contexts to investigate new insights into the acceptance behaviour at individual and organisational levels. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether a relationship exist between user satisfaction and acceptance of web based marketing information system (MKIs among micro- finance institutions in Nairobi Region, Kenya. Anonymous and self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 383 respondents. A total of 370 usable responses were received, resulting in a response rate of 96.6% which was considered satisfactory for subsequent analysis. Due to the quantitative nature of the study, the results are analysed with statistical measures. The results indicated that Satisfaction was influential determinant of acceptance with t= 5.1568, p- value= 0.005 at 1% significant level. Theoretical contributions and practical implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are presented.

  17. Development and delivery of evidence-based messages to reduce the risk of zoonoses in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang'ethe, Erastus; Kimani, Violet; Grace, Delia; Mitoko, Grace; McDermott, Brigid; Ambia, Julie; Nyongesa, Concepta; Mbugua, Gabriel; Ogara, William; Obutu, Peninnah

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes a trans-disciplinary process of co-generating and disseminating evidence-based messages for reducing the risk from cryptosporidiosis and other zoonoses in an urban community in Nairobi. Research findings about disease prevalence, risk factors and observed risky and risk-mitigating practices were analysed by a team comprising researchers, community members and local policy- and decision-makers. Using participatory planning, multiple strategies were developed for disseminating key information. We identified five vulnerable groups at higher risk of exposure to cryptosporidiosis and other cattle zoonoses with similar transmission pathways (women, children, elderly people, immunosuppressed people and male farm workers). For each group, targeted messages were developed. Good practices already in use, as were also practices as practices to improve environmental conditions. These messages were disseminated through printed material, in a workshop, through community campaigners and also an edutainment soap opera episode broadcast on Kenyan television. In conclusion, a participatory and trans-disciplinary process can help transform the findings of research into messages that are targeted, attractive and understandable.

  18. Outcome mapping for fostering and measuring change in risk management behaviour among urban dairy farmers in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyangaga, Julius N; Grace, Delia; Kimani, Violet; Kiragu, Monica W; Langat, Alfred K; Mbugua, Gabriel; Mitoko, Grace; Kang'ethe, Erastus K

    2012-09-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate and mitigate the risk from zoonotic Cryptosporidium associated with dairy farming in Dagoretti division, Nairobi, Kenya. Outcome mapping (OM), a relatively new tool for planning and evaluation, was used to foster and then monitor changes in farmer management of health risks. Elements of the OM framework, including the vision, mission and expected progress markers, were developed in participatory sessions and a set of progress markers was used for monitoring behaviour change in farmers participating in the project (the boundary partners). Behaviour change (the outcome challenge) was supported by a range of awareness and educational campaigns, working with strategic partners (extension agents and administrative leaders). The farmers the project worked with made considerable progress according to the markers; they demonstrated an understanding of cryptosporidiosis, established or maintained clean and well drained cattle sheds, and took conscious effort to reduce possible infection. Farmers who did not participate in the project (non-contact farmers) were found to be less advanced on the progress marker indicators. Non-contact farmers who carried out risk-reducing practices had done so independently of the project team. The administration leaders, as strategic partners, had a positive attitude towards the project and confidence in their ability to support project objectives. The study demonstrates the utility of OM in helping to identify and support behavioural change.

  19. Health care seeking practices of caregivers of children under 5 with diarrhea in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukiira, Carol; Ibisomi, Latifat

    2015-06-01

    In Kenya, as in other developing countries, diarrhea is among the leading causes of child mortality. Despite being easy to prevent and treat, care seeking for major child illnesses including diarrhea remains poor in the country. Mortality due to diarrhea is even worse in informal settlements that are characterized by poor sanitary conditions and largely unregulated health care system among other issues. The study aims to examine the health care seeking practices of caregivers of children under 5 with diarrhea in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. The article used data from a maternal and child health (MCH) prospective study conducted between 2006 and 2010. Results show that more than half (55%) of the caregivers sought inappropriate health care in the treatment of diarrhea of their child. Of the 55%, about 35% sought no care at all. Use of oral rehydration solution and zinc supplements, which are widely recommended for management of diarrhea, was very low. The critical predictors of health care seeking identified in the study are duration of illness, informal settlement of residence, and the child's age. The study showed that appropriate health care seeking practices for childhood diarrhea remain a great challenge among the urban poor in Kenya.

  20. Real or perceived: the environmental health risks of urban sack gardening in Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, Courtney Maloof; Mwaniki, Dennis; Njenga, Mary; Karanja, Nancy K; WinklerPrins, Antoinette M G A

    2013-03-01

    Cities around the world are undergoing rapid urbanization, resulting in the growth of informal settlements or slums. These informal settlements lack basic services, including sanitation, and are associated with joblessness, low-income levels, and insecurity. Families living in such settlements may turn to a variety of strategies to improve their livelihoods and household food security, including urban agriculture. However, given the lack of formal sanitation services in most of these informal settlements, residents are frequently exposed to a number of environmental risks, including biological and chemical contaminants. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households practice a form of urban agriculture called sack gardening, or vertical gardening, where plants such as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with soil. Given the nature of farming in slum environments, farmers and consumers of this produce in Kibera are potentially exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants due to the lack of formal sanitation systems. Our research demonstrates that perceived and actual environmental risks, in terms of contamination of food crops from sack gardening, are not the same. Farmers perceived exposure to biological contaminants to be the greatest risk to their food crops, but we found that heavy metal contamination was also significant risk. By demonstrating this disconnect between risk perception and actual risk, we wish to inform debates about how to appropriately promote urban agriculture in informal settlements, and more generally about the trade-offs created by farming in urban spaces.

  1. Occupational exposure to roadway emissions and inside informal settlements in sub-Saharan Africa: A pilot study in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nicole S.; Gatari, Michael; Yan, Beizhan; Chillrud, Steven N.; Bouhamam, Kheira; Kinneym, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies examine urban air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), yet urbanization rates there are among the highest in the world. In this study, we measured 8-hr average occupational exposure levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ultra violet active-particulate matter (UV-PM), and trace elements for individuals who worked along roadways in Nairobi, specifically bus drivers, garage workers, street vendors, and women who worked inside informal settlements. We found BC and re-suspended dust were important contributors to PM2.5 levels for all study populations, particularly among bus drivers, while PM2.5 exposure levels for garage workers, street vendors, and informal settlement residents were not statistically different from each other. We also found a strong signal for biomass emissions and trash burning, which is common in Nairobi’s low-income areas and open-air garages. These results suggest that the large portion of urban residents in SSA who walk along roadways would benefit from air quality regulations targeting roadway emissions from diesel vehicles, dust, and trash burning. This is the first study to measure occupational exposure to urban air pollution in SSA and results imply that roadway emissions are a serious public health concern. PMID:26034383

  2. Conformity to the surviving sepsis campaign international guidelines among physicians in a general intensive care unit in Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mung'ayi, V; Karuga, R

    2010-08-01

    There are emerging therapies for managing septic critically-ill patients. There is little data from the developing world on their usage. To determine the conformity rate for resuscitation and management bundles for septic patients amongst physicians in a general intensive care unit. Cross sectional observational study. The general intensive care unit, Aga Khan University Hospital,Nairobi. Admitting physicians from all specialties in the general intensive care unit. The physicians had high conformity rates of 92% and 96% for the fluid resuscitation and use of va so pressors respectively for the initial resuscitation bundle. They had moderate conformity rates for blood cultures prior to administering antibiotics (57%) and administration of antibiotics within first hour of recognition of septic shock (54%). There was high conformity rate to the glucose control policy (81%), use of protective lung strategy in acute lung injury/Acute respiratory distress syndrome, venous thromboembolism prophylaxis (100%) and stress ulcer prophylaxis (100%) in the management bundle. Conformity was moderate for use of sedation, analgesia and muscle relaxant policy (69%), continuous renal replacement therapies (54%) and low for steroid policy (35%), administration ofdrotrecogin alfa (0%) and selective digestive decontamination (15%). There is varying conformity to the international sepsis guidelines among physicians caring for patients in our general ICU. Since increased conformity would improve survival and reduce morbidity, there is need for sustained education and guideline based performance improvement.

  3. American Housing Survey (AHS) 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  4. Housing Affordability Data System (HADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Housing Affordability Data System (HADS) is a set of files derived from the 1985 and later national American Housing Survey (AHS) and the 2002 and later Metro...

  5. National Center for Healthy Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Search NCHH Resources Ask NCHH Blog Building Materials and Products Consumer Survey Healthcare Financing How Can We Help You? Additional Resources Healthy Housing Clearinghouse Healthy Housing Links Healthy Housing Videos Lead ...

  6. The Housing Bubble Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Baker

    2005-01-01

    This paper explains the basic facts about the current housing market. It lays out the evidence that the rise in housing prices constitutes a housing bubble - and explains what can be expected when it inevitably collapses.

  7. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  8. Rental Housing Finance Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The purpose of the RHFS is to provide current and continuous measure of the financial health and property characteristics of single-family and multifamily rental...

  9. State Housing Revival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Government funded housing for people in need is a challenge many countries face around the world. This research investigates how to sustainably regenerate post-war suburban state housing in New Zealand, in particular, the suburb of Glen Innes in Auckland. Reviving the community and regenerating...... the buildings is essential for improving the overall quality of the neighbourhoods both socially and physically. Achieving this in a holistic sustainable manner illustrates that there are alternatives to demolition and new builds, as the answer to the current housing shortage problems. New Zealand is confronted...... with the dilemma of what to do with existing government-funded housing which are no longer socially or physically suitable for the current demographic. New Zealand has a large cultural diversity with many new immigrants from the Pacific Islands and Asia. There is a need for culturally flexible and inclusive...

  10. Gingerbread-House Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenaker, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)

  11. Legislative Districts - House Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State House of Representatives district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of...

  12. In-house (disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Pavey

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2007 UNHCR established an internal working group to look at developing in-house policies for people with disabilities both for the benefit of people of concern to us and for staff members.

  13. Rotating housing turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allouche, Erez; Jaganathan, Arun P.

    2016-10-11

    The invention is a new turbine structure having a housing that rotates. The housing has a sidewall, and turbine blades are attached to a sidewall portion. The turbine may be completely open in the center, allowing space for solids and debris to be directed out of the turbine without jamming the spinning blades/sidewall. The turbine may be placed in a generator for generation of electrical current.

  14. In a Private House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Volkov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article features the advantages of living in a private house, such as feeling of privacy and safety and redistribution of roles between spouses, which have a positive impact on the family relationships, housekeeping and raising children. Besides, living in the country allows to cut down expenses: energy efficiency of present-day building materials enables to build a warm private house with minimum expenditure on warming, and with the possibility to freely regulate the heating system.

  15. No Full House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Housing provident funds are plagued by non-use and embezzlement Embezzlement on a grand scale is sending shock waves through the Chinese provident fund industry. During 2005, a host of incidents were made public, with several serious cases involving funds of over 100 million yuan ($12.5 million). Recently, Liu Xiangyang, Director of Hengyang Housing Provident Fund Center in central China's Hunan Province, was charged with the embezzlement of 253 mil

  16. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  17. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, T.; Nygren, C.; Slaug, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument was transla......This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument...... was translated from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers, and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently of each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  18. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven van de Vijver

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. Objective: To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Study design: Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC, collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. Results: The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year. The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO, and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs. Conclusion: Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by

  19. Mapping of beef, sheep and goat food systems in Nairobi - A framework for policy making and the identification of structural vulnerabilities and deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Pablo; Fèvre, Eric M; Murungi, Maurice K; Muinde, Patrick; Akoko, James; Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Kiambi, Stella; Ahmed, Sohel; Häsler, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Nairobi is a large rapidly-growing city whose demand for beef, mutton and goat products is expected to double by 2030. The study aimed to map the Nairobi beef, sheep and goat systems structure and flows to identify deficiencies and vulnerabilities to shocks. Cross-sectional data were collected through focus group discussions and interviews with people operating in Nairobi ruminant livestock and meat markets and in the large processing companies. Qualitative and quantitative data were obtained about the type of people, animals, products and value adding activities in the chains, and their structural, spatial and temporal interactions. Mapping analysis was done in three different dimensions: people and product profiling (interactions of people and products), geographical (routes of animals and products) and temporal mapping (seasonal fluctuations). The results obtained were used to identify structural deficiencies and vulnerability factors in the system. Results for the beef food system showed that 44-55% of the city's beef supply flows through the 'local terminal markets', but that 54-64% of total supply is controlled by one 'meat market'. Numerous informal chains were identified, with independent livestock and meat traders playing a pivotal role in the functionality of these systems, and where most activities are conducted with inefficient quality control and under scarce and inadequate infrastructure and organisation, generating wastage and potential food safety risks in low quality meat products. Geographical and temporal analysis showed the critical areas influencing the different markets, with larger markets increasing their market share in the low season. Large processing companies, partly integrated, operate with high quality infrastructures, but with up to 60% of their beef supply depending on similar routes as the informal markets. Only these companies were involved in value addition activities, reaching high-end markets, but also dominating the

  20. A new malaria parasite Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) heischi in skinks (Mabuya striata) from Nairobi, with a brief discussion of the distribution of malaria parasites in the family Scincidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnham, P C; Telford, S R

    1984-11-01

    A new species of malaria parasite, Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) heischi, is described from African skinks (Mabuya striata). Eleven individuals of 90 specimens collected in Nairobi were found to be infected. The new parasite is a large species, characterized by spindle-shaped gametocytes, the female often with a subterminal nucleus. The schizonts produce up to 65 nuclei and cause great hypertrophy and distortion of the host cell. Although similar to P. (Sauramoeba) giganteum in dimensions and merozoite numbers, P. heischi is easily distinguished by gametocyte and schizont shapes.

  1. Passive House Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, I.; Joosten, L.; Boonstra, C. [DHV Sustainability Consultants, Eindhoiven (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    PEP stands for 'Promotion of European Passive Houses' and is a consortium of European partners, supported by the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy and Transport. In this working paper an overview is given of Passive House solutions. An inventory has been made of Passive House solutions for new build residences applied in each country. Based on this, the most common basic solutions have been identified and described in further detail, including the extent to which solutions are applied in common and best practice and expected barriers for the implementation in each country. An inventory per country is included in the appendix. The analysis of Passive House solutions in partner countries shows high priority with regard to the performance of the thermal envelope, such as high insulation of walls, roofs, floors and windows/ doors, thermal bridge-free construction and air tightness. Due to the required air tightness, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality through proper ventilation. Finally, efficient ((semi-)solar) heating systems for combined space and DHW heating still require a significant amount of attention in most partner countries. Other basic Passive House solutions show a smaller discrepancy with common practice and fewer barriers have been encountered in partner countries. In the next section, the general barriers in partner countries have been inventoried. For each type of barrier a suggested approach has been given. Most frequently encountered barriers in partner countries are: limited know-how; limited contractor skills; and acceptation of Passive Houses in the market. Based on the suggested approaches to overcoming barriers, this means that a great deal of attention must be paid to providing practical information and solutions to building professionals, providing practical training to installers and contractors and communication about the Passive House concept to the market.

  2. Fertility desires among men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi slums: a mixed methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliud Wekesa

    Full Text Available Fertility desires require new understanding in a context of expanding access to antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper studies the fertility desires and their rationales, of slum-dwelling Kenyan men and women living with HIV/AIDS who know their serostatus, but have different antiretroviral therapy treatment statuses. It addresses two research questions: How do people living with HIV/AIDS consider their future fertility? What factors contribute to an explanation of fertility desires among people living with HIV/AIDS.A mixed methods study (survey [n = 513] and in-depth interviews [n = 41] with adults living with HIV/AIDS living in Nairobi slums was conducted in 2010. Regression analyses assess independent relationships between fertility desires and socio-demographic factors. Analyses of in-depth interviews are used to interpret the statistical analyses of fertility desires.Our analyses show that fertility desires are complex and ambivalent, reflecting tensions between familial and societal pressures to have children versus pressures for HIV (re-infection prevention. More than a third (34% of men and women living with HIV expressed future fertility desires; however, this is significantly lower than in the general population. Factors independently associated with desiring a child among people living with HIV/AIDS were age, sex, number of surviving children, social support and household wealth of the respondent.Increasing access to ART is changing the context of future childbearing for people living with HIV/AIDS. Prevailing values mean that, for many people living with HIV/AIDS, having children is seen as necessary for a "normal" and healthy adult life. However, the social rewards of childbearing conflict with moral imperatives of HIV prevention, presenting dilemmas about the "proper" reproductive behaviour of people living with HIV/AIDS. The health policy and service delivery implications of

  3. Use of population-based surveillance to define the high incidence of shigellosis in an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry N Njuguna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Worldwide, Shigella causes an estimated 160 million infections and >1 million deaths annually. However, limited incidence data are available from African urban slums. We investigated the epidemiology of shigellosis and drug susceptibility patterns within a densely populated urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya through population-based surveillance. METHODS: Surveillance participants were interviewed in their homes every 2 weeks by community interviewers. Participants also had free access to a designated study clinic in the surveillance area where stool specimens were collected from patients with diarrhea (≥3 loose stools within 24 hours or dysentery (≥1 stool with visible blood during previous 24 hours. We adjusted crude incidence rates for participants meeting stool collection criteria at household visits who reported visiting another clinic. RESULTS: Shigella species were isolated from 262 (24% of 1,096 stool specimens [corrected]. The overall adjusted incidence rate was 408/100,000 person years of observation (PYO with highest rates among adults 34-49 years old (1,575/100,000 PYO. Isolates were: Shigella flexneri (64%, S. dysenteriae (11%, S. sonnei (9%, and S. boydii (5%. Over 90% of all Shigella isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and sulfisoxazole. Additional resistance included nalidixic acid (3%, ciprofloxacin (1% and ceftriaxone (1%. CONCLUSION: More than 1 of every 200 persons experience shigellosis each year in this Kenyan urban slum, yielding rates similar to those in some Asian countries. Provision of safe drinking water, improved sanitation, and hygiene in urban slums are needed to reduce disease burden, in addition to development of effective Shigella vaccines.

  4. Fertility desires among men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi slums: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekesa, Eliud; Coast, Ernestina

    2014-01-01

    Fertility desires require new understanding in a context of expanding access to antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper studies the fertility desires and their rationales, of slum-dwelling Kenyan men and women living with HIV/AIDS who know their serostatus, but have different antiretroviral therapy treatment statuses. It addresses two research questions: How do people living with HIV/AIDS consider their future fertility? What factors contribute to an explanation of fertility desires among people living with HIV/AIDS. A mixed methods study (survey [n = 513] and in-depth interviews [n = 41]) with adults living with HIV/AIDS living in Nairobi slums was conducted in 2010. Regression analyses assess independent relationships between fertility desires and socio-demographic factors. Analyses of in-depth interviews are used to interpret the statistical analyses of fertility desires. Our analyses show that fertility desires are complex and ambivalent, reflecting tensions between familial and societal pressures to have children versus pressures for HIV (re-)infection prevention. More than a third (34%) of men and women living with HIV expressed future fertility desires; however, this is significantly lower than in the general population. Factors independently associated with desiring a child among people living with HIV/AIDS were age, sex, number of surviving children, social support and household wealth of the respondent. Increasing access to ART is changing the context of future childbearing for people living with HIV/AIDS. Prevailing values mean that, for many people living with HIV/AIDS, having children is seen as necessary for a "normal" and healthy adult life. However, the social rewards of childbearing conflict with moral imperatives of HIV prevention, presenting dilemmas about the "proper" reproductive behaviour of people living with HIV/AIDS. The health policy and service delivery implications of these

  5. Effect of education of primary health care workers on HIV-related oral lesions in Nairobi East district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucina N. Koyio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. An estimated 90% of HIV-infected people are likely to develop oral lesions in the course of HIV infection. Oro-pharyngeal candidiasis (OPC, an early marker for HIV-infection, can be diagnosed during an oral examination (OE. Primary healthcare (PHC providers in Kenya are neither trained nor sufficiently equipped to perform this simple, cheap and non-invasive examination. The PHC system in Kenya offers an opportunity to integrate early recognition and management of oral lesions into general health care. This study aims to estimate the effect of a multifaceted intervention for PHC providers in training them to perform an OE. Specifically, our primary objective is to establish whether the intervention is effective in increasing: i the frequency of early detection of HIV-related oral lesions; and ii referral rates for HIV-testing. Design and methods. The study has been designed in two parts: a retrospective clinical data record study and a prospective cohort study with pre-post control group design, carried out in 2 administrative divisions in Nairobi East district. The intervention group will receive one day of training on recognition of HIV-related oral lesions and other common oral conditions. Reminder sessions will be held at individual health facilities. Routine tally sheets will be used to record all patients with HIV-related oral lesions, dental caries and periodontal disease. A convenience sample of all the PHC in a division will be used. It will not be possible to blind investigators or assessors. Expected impact of the study for Public Health. Early recognition and treatment of HIV infection influences long-term survival rates and will reduce healthcare expenditure.

  6. Unintended pregnancies among young women living in urban slums: evidence from a prospective study in Nairobi city, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatien Beguy

    Full Text Available Despite the significant proportion of young people residing in slum communities, little attention has been paid to the sexual and reproductive health (SRH challenges they face during their transition to adulthood within this harsh environment. Little is known about the extent to which living in extreme environments, like slums, impact SRH outcomes, especially during this key developmental period. This paper aims to fill this research gap by examining the levels of and factors associated with unintended pregnancies among young women aged 15-22 in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.We use data from two waves of a 3-year prospective survey that collected information from adolescents living in the two slums in 2007-2010. In total, 849 young women aged 15-22 were considered for analysis. We employed Cox and logistic regression models to investigate factors associated with timing of pregnancy experience and unintended pregnancy among adolescents who were sexually active by Wave 1 or Wave 2.About two thirds of sexually experienced young women (69% have ever been pregnant by Wave 2. For 41% of adolescents, the pregnancies were unintended, with 26% being mistimed and 15% unwanted. Multivariate analysis shows a significant association between a set of factors including age at first sex, schooling status, living arrangements and timing of pregnancy experience. In addition, marital status, schooling status, age at first sex and living arrangements are the only factors that are significantly associated with unintended pregnancy among the young women.Overall, this study underscores the importance of looking at reproductive outcomes of early sexual initiation, the serious health risks early fertility entail, especially among out-of school girls, and sexual activity in general among young women living in slum settlements. This provides greater impetus for addressing reproductive behaviors among young women living in resource-poor settings such as slums.

  7. Occurrence patterns of pharmaceutical residues in wastewater, surface water and groundwater of Nairobi and Kisumu city, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K'oreje, K O; Vergeynst, L; Ombaka, D; De Wispelaere, P; Okoth, M; Van Langenhove, H; Demeestere, K

    2016-04-01

    Emerging organic contaminants have not received a lot of attention in developing countries, particularly Africa, although problems regarding water quantity and quality are often even more severe than in more developed regions. This study presents general water quality parameters as well as unique data on concentrations and loads of 24 pharmaceuticals including antibiotic, anti(retro)viral, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and psychiatric drugs in three wastewater treatment plants, three rivers and three groundwater wells in Nairobi and Kisumu. This allowed studying removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment, identifying important sources of pharmaceutical pollution and distinguishing dilution effects from natural attenuation in rivers. In general, antiretrovirals and antibiotics, being important in the treatment of common African diseases such as HIV and malaria, were in all matrices more prevalent as compared to the Western world. Wastewater stabilization ponds removed pharmaceuticals with an efficiency between 11 and 99%. Despite this large range, a different removal is observed for a number of compounds, as compared to more conventional activated sludge systems. Total concentrations in river water (up to 320 μg L(-1)) were similar or exceeded concentrations in untreated wastewater, with domestic discharges from slums, wastewater treatment plant effluent and waste dumpsites identified as important sources. In shallow wells situated next to pit latrines and used for drinking water, the recalcitrant antiretroviral nevirapine was measured at concentrations as high as 1-2 μg L(-1). Overall, distinct pharmaceutical contamination patterns as compared to the Western world can be concluded, which might be a trigger for further research in developing regions.

  8. Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig

    The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non......-profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...

  9. Domotics Project Housing Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Payán, Alejandro; García, Alfonso; Bosquet, Francisco

    2016-05-23

    This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  10. Domotics Project Housing Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  11. The book house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Henrik; Agger, Steen

    1989-01-01

    The BOOK HOUSE (and its predecessor, the BOOK AUTOMAT) are computer systems aimed at supporting library users in finding fiction. They are examples of systems using a cognitive work analysis as the basis for design and evaluation - and build on studies of the information retrieval task using actual...... user-librarian negotiations. These studies led to the identification of a set of strategies for searching and retrieving literature as well as a mutri-kimensional framework for classifying fiction. Both of these have been necessary prerequisites for the design of the BOOK HOUSE, a flexible on-line data...... base retrieval system for novice users - both adults and children. The use of icons within a spatial metaphor to facilitate direct manipulation of the displayed objects on the screen forms the basis for the interface in guiding the users' navigation in the BOOK HOUSE. This report, one of three...

  12. Situation based housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Welling, Helen; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2007-01-01

    of approaches to these goals. This working paper reviews not only a selection of new housing types, but also dwellings from the past, which each contain an aspect of changeability. Our study is based on information from users in the selected housing schemes, gathered from questionnaires, information about...... personal furnishing and zoning as well as interviews. The study is also based on analyses of the architectural configurations of space, light and materiality. Our main question is: can the goal of architectural quality be maintained together with greater possibilities for individual development...... research results will be employed to create a categorization of housing suitable for changing life conditions and with a strong emphasis on high architectural quality...

  13. GREEN CORE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  14. Housing price forecastability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther

    2012-01-01

    We examine US housing price forecastability using a common factor approach based on a large panel of 122 economic time series. We …nd that a simple three-factor model generates an explanatory power of about 50% in one-quarter ahead in-sample forecasting regressions. The predictive power of the mo...

  15. Housing Design: A Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leupen, B.; Mooij, H.

    2011-01-01

    This manual sheds light on every aspect of designing housing. The organization of the living space and the residential building is dealt with systematically, from the breadth, depth, stacking, access to dwellings and the urban ensemble. This revised edition has been expanded with 20 new exemplary pr

  16. The Helpful House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Many everyday tasks are difficult—even impossible for people confined to wheelchairs.Now a unique house near Baltimore,Md., demonstrates how technology can make a building truly accessible. Developed by Volunteers for Medical Engineering in conjunction with several nonprofit organizations, Future Home takes advantage of off-the-shelf electronic controls that operate nearly all electrical and mechanical systems.

  17. Haunted by Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Two fourth-grade teachers presented the idea of using the author's art class to inspire the students to write creatively. The theme of scary stories needed an art project to match. The author immediately had a favorite lesson in mind. By putting a small twist on one of her standard "Frank Lloyd Wright House" projects, scary plans began to take…

  18. Housing Design: A Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leupen, B.; Mooij, H.

    2011-01-01

    This manual sheds light on every aspect of designing housing. The organization of the living space and the residential building is dealt with systematically, from the breadth, depth, stacking, access to dwellings and the urban ensemble. This revised edition has been expanded with 20 new exemplary pr

  19. Poultry housing and husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, H A

    2010-08-01

    1. In order to conduct this anniversary review, 10 excellent papers were carefully selected from the 148 available papers published on housing and husbandry in British Poultry Science (BPS) over the past 50 years. 2. The 10 selected papers on this subject covered mainly the housing and husbandry of laying hens, but two of them dealt with various aspects of broiler production. 3. Aspects of housing considered included a wide range of intensive and extensive systems of broiler and egg production. Specific topics included the effects of husbandry system on bird welfare, including skeletal damage in laying hens and contact dermatitis in broiler chickens, as well as the design and management of nest boxes, perches, feeders and drinkers, conventional laying cages (CCs), furnished laying cages (FCs) and non-cage systems (NCs). 4. A variety of the findings in these and related papers have enlightened our understanding of many aspects of poultry housing and husbandry; most of them have found application in the poultry industry and thus improved its efficiency.

  20. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  1. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  2. Schuepfen house, Schuepfen, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweifel, G.

    1999-07-01

    This row (terrace) house, incorporates a PV-powered closed-loop solar system constructed in 1985. It was rebuilt 10 years later to incorporate a water storage tank for domestic hot water production in the summer. The system delivers 2600 kWh of heat per year, saving approximately 450 kg of wood and 1200 kWh of electricity. (author)

  3. Social Housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig; Scanlon, Kath J

    2014-01-01

    for the individual associations as well as each housing estate. In principle, each estate and the association it belongs to must balance its books. An important feature of the sector is the build-up of a funding system which makes it possible to support the financing of major renovations and energy measures as well...

  4. Housing First i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars; Dyrby, Therese Marie; Enemark, Morten Holm

    at borgeren får en intensiv social støtte i hverdagen. De evidensbaserede bostøttemetoder, der er anvendes sammen med Housing First-tilgangen er Critical Time Intervention (CTI), Intensive Case Management (ICM) og Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). Rapporten beskriver erfaringer omkring de ledelsesmæssige......Rapporten er en evaluering af arbejdet med at udbrede og forankre Housing First-indsatsen og tre evidensbaserede bostøttemetoder. Hovedprincippet i Housing First er, at udsatte borgere, der er endt i hjemløshed, får et permanent sted at bo allerede i starten af et indsatsforløb, samtidig med...... og organisatoriske rammer, målgruppen for indsatserne og om de konkrete indsatser i kommunerne. Evalueringen viser, at både borgere og kommuner har gode erfaringer med Housing First, men at især manglen på billige og passende boliger er en alvorlig barriere for udbredelsen af indsatsen. Evalueringen...

  5. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  6. Sanaa and density housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Rui

    2012-01-01

    According to Green Metropolis wrote by David Owen, living smaller, closer, and driving less are the keys to sustainability. We should live more like Manhattan. This thesis analyses Gifu Kitagata Apartment Building designed by Sanaa studio, from architectural design aspect, as a great example to attract more people choose small apartments instead of big houses.

  7. Housing, neighbourhoods and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karin Wittebrood; Matthieu Permentier; with contributions from Fenne Pinkster

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Wonen, wijken en interventies Current Dutch neighbourhood policy is aimed at improving the position of 'priority neighbourhoods'. How successful is the policy proving? Does restructuring and the sale of social housing help? Does increasing the amount of green space and building

  8. The Children's House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Lili E.

    2013-01-01

    Lili Peller's "The Children's House" essay begins where Maria Montessori left off in her description of space articulations. Peller does not name Montessori specifically as she always had a desire to become independent in her own right as a neo-Freudian child analyst. But the Haus Der Kinder founded in summer of 1922 suggests a total…

  9. Doll's House Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    2009-01-01

    School physics rarely stands still for long. Environmental physics is now an option in some post-16 courses in England. The physics of environments, and in particular the built environment, offers a recognizable context in which to see the applications of physics at work. This article considers how a model doll's house might be used to help…

  10. Haunted by Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Two fourth-grade teachers presented the idea of using the author's art class to inspire the students to write creatively. The theme of scary stories needed an art project to match. The author immediately had a favorite lesson in mind. By putting a small twist on one of her standard "Frank Lloyd Wright House" projects, scary plans began to take…

  11. [Children outside house

    OpenAIRE

    Smithson, John Snowden, fl 1903

    2003-01-01

    Showing a row of children seated on the floor outside a house. Smithson has pencilled the following lecture notes: '12. Number of children. Volcanic rock. Afterwards tree tattooing - waist to knee not all done at once - sign of manhood - those not tattooed considered of no account'.

  12. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Buildings - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The approximate physical location of each individual Public Housing Building. If the building has more than one entrance or street address, the address of the...

  13. Control on Housing Segregation:Housing Modes and Public Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>1. Housing segregation:advocating or controlling?The phenomenon of housing segregation has become more and more obvious in Chinese cities in recent years; however, there is no agreement on whether it should

  14. Sustainable Housing Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sitar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the already proved models the sustainable planning culture is endangering several methods directed towards the needs of tenants in the existing post-war housing stock. The case-study of our project is the renewal of the multi stored building in the housing estate Metalna, Maribor/Tezno (1949. It is based on the sustainable renovation principle for the quality of sustainable housing in functional, technological and environmental point of view. According to it, the idea of the project was to improve the functionality of the building as well as of individual housing units. One of the main goals was to introduce the variety of space and typology of individual housing units. Beside, there was an intention to rebuild and redesign the green area, especially the problems of parking and playground for children. On the other hand, the project is introducing the low-energy renovation principle including new technologies, structural elements and materials. Two scenarios of technological renewal were suggested. The first one was a classical one using additional thermal insulation of the building envelope and fitting of new structural elements such as windows, doors, balconies, windbreaks etc. (Renewal 1. The second scenario, however, included the sunspace construction used as a new passive solar structural element, modifying the envelope (Renewal 2. The energy efficiency of the suggested scenarios were calculated according to the procedures given in EN 832 standard considering the attached sunspace as integral part of the building in first case and as a passive solar object adjacent to the thermal envelope of the building in the second case. The results show that the last case yields the most energy efficient renewal of the existing residential building.

  15. Morbidity and mortality of low birth weight infants in the new born unit of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simiyu, D E

    2004-07-01

    Morbidity and mortality of low birth weight (LBW) infants at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) has previously been found to be high. Other centres have shown that even with lack of neonatal intensive care facilities, selective interventions can be implemented that improve neonatal survival rates. It is important to identify those factors at KNH that when selectively modified, will improve the quality of care hence survival rates. To quantify the morbidity and mortality of LBW infants in KNH. To audit the quality of care and identify factors that can be selectively modified to improve the quality of care and improve the currently low survival rates. Retrospective study utilising case notes. New born unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. All LBW infants admitted to the NBU at KNH from January to December 2000. Out of an expected 694 files, 533 (77%) were studied. The male to female ratio and LBW to VLBW ratio was 1:1 respectively. Small for gestational age (SGA) accounted for 11.6%. Overall mortality was 57.4% (574/1000 admissions) while mortality for SGA was 37%. Infants born out of KNH had significantly higher mortality (p=0.0047). Compared to Caeserian delivery, infants born via spontaneous vertex delivery had higher mortality (p=0.0087). The leading diagnoses on admission or death were respiratory distress(69%), apnoeic attacks (42%) suspected sepsis and jaundice (37% each), hypothermia(27%) and anaemia(17%). By time of death or discharge, 43% had no laboratory investigations done. While 37% had suspected sepsis, only 14% had blood culture done. Antibiotics were started in 460 (86%) of infants yet only 37% had diagnosis of suspected sepsis. Change of antibiotics was guided by culture and sensitivity reports in only 62(13.5%). Apnoeic spells were managed with rectal aminophyline in 156(29%) infants of whom 19(12%) survived. The terminal events for the dead infants included recurrent apnoeic spells. The only mode of nutrition was enteric feeding in 59% with

  16. Ground-based measurements of tropospheric and stratospheric bromine monoxide above Nairobi (1° S, 36° E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Roozendael

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ground based observations of stratospheric and tropospheric bromine monoxide, BrO, from a multi axial differential optical absorption spectrometer, MAXDOAS, located at the UNEP/UNON site in Nairobi (1° S, 36° E are presented for the year 2003. Differences in BrO slant column densities at 90° and 80° solar zenith angle retrieved from the zenith-sky measurements are used to study stratospheric BrO. They show only small variations with season, as expected for the small seasonality in stratospheric Bry and NO2 in this region. A pronounced diurnal variation can be observed, the average value for the morning being 1.3×1014 molecules/cm2 and for the evening 1.5×1014 molecules/cm2. The measurements are compared with simulations from a one-dimensional photochemical stacked box model which is coupled with a radiative transfer model to allow direct comparisons between the observations and the model calculations. In general the model reproduces the measurements very well. The differences in the absolute values are 15% for the evening and 20% for the morning which is within the limits of the combined uncertainties. Both seasonality and diurnal variation are well reproduced by the model. A sensitivity study shows that inclusion of the reaction BrONO2 + O(3P significantly improves the agreement between model calculations and measurements, indicating an important role of this reaction in the stratosphere near to the equator. Tropospheric BrO columns and profile information is derived from the combined results obtained in the different viewing directions for the average over several clear days. The resulting tropospheric BrO columns are in the range of 4–7.5×1012 molecules/cm2 which is significant but lower than in previous studies at mid and high latitudes. The vertical distribution of the tropospheric BrO peaks at about 3 km indicating the absence of local sources at this high altitude site.

  17. The Influence of an Orthopedic, Manual Therapy Residency Program on Improved Knowledge, Psychomotor Skills, and Clinical Reasoning in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Shala; McFelea, Joni

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of a post-graduate orthopedic manual therapy residency program in Kenya on the development of physical therapists' (PTs) knowledge and clinical reasoning related to the performance of a musculoskeletal examination and evaluation as compared to an experience-matched control group of PTs waiting to enter the program. A cross-sectional design was utilized in which 12 graduating residents and 10 PTs entering the residency program completed a live-patient practical examination to assess the knowledge, clinical reasoning, and psychomotor skills related to the examination and evaluation of musculoskeletal conditions. The assessment utilized was based on the tasks, procedures, and knowledge areas identified as important to advanced clinicians in the US as outlined by the Orthopaedic Description of Specialty Practice. Inclusion criteria included participation in or acceptance to the residency program, practice as a PT between 3 and 25 years, and 50% of workday being involved in direct patient care. Overall pass rates were analyzed using the Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact tests to determine if the graduating residents achieved significantly higher scores than experience-matched controls consisting of PTs entering the residency program. PTs completing a post-graduate orthopedic manual therapy residency in Nairobi, Kenya, achieved higher scores and passing rates compared to their colleagues who had not completed a residency program as determined by a live-patient practical examination. Graduating residents demonstrated statistically significant higher scores in the categories of examination, evaluation, and diagnosis. The average live-patient practical examination score for PTs without residency training was 38.2%, and their pass rate was 0.0%. The average live-patient practical examination score for residency-trained PTs was 83.4%, and their pass rate was 92.3%. These findings are statistically significant (p

  18. Risk factors of hypertension among adults aged 35-64 years living in an urban slum Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olack, Beatrice; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Smeeth, Liam; Montgomery, Joel M; Kiwanuka, Noah; Breiman, Robert F

    2015-12-17

    Hypertension is an emerging public health problem in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and urbanization is considered to favor its emergence. Given a paucity of information on hypertension and associated risk factors among urban slum dwellers in SSA, we aimed to characterize the distribution of risk factors for hypertension and investigate their association with hypertension in an urban slum in Kenya. We conducted a community based cross-sectional survey among adults 35 years and older living in Kibera slum Nairobi, Kenya. Trained interviewers collected data on socio demographic characteristics and self reported health behaviours using modified World Health Organization stepwise surveillance questionnaire for chronic disease risk factors. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were performed following standard procedures. Multiple logistic regression was used for analysis and odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to identify risk factors associated with hypertension. A total of 1528 adults were surveyed with a mean age of 46.7 years. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 29.4 % (95 % CI 27.0-31.7). Among the 418 participants classified as hypertensive, over one third (39.0 %) were unaware they had hypertension. Prevalence of current smoking and alcohol consumption was 8.5 and 13.1 % respectively. Over one quarter 26.2 % participants were classified as overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥25 to ≤29.9 kg/m(2)), and 17 % classified as obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Overweight, obesity, current smoking, some level of education, highest wealth index, moderate physical activity, older age and being widowed were each independently associated with hypertension. When fit in a multivariable logistic regression model, being a widow [AOR = 1.7; (95 % CI, 1.1-2.6)], belonging to the highest wealth index [AOR = 1.6; (95 % CI, 1.1-2.5)], obesity [AOR = 1.8; 95 % CI, 1.1-3.1)] and moderate physical activity [AOR = 1.9; (95 % CI

  19. Factors associated with default from treatment among tuberculosis patients in nairobi province, Kenya: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ombeka Victor O

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful treatment of tuberculosis (TB involves taking anti-tuberculosis drugs for at least six months. Poor adherence to treatment means patients remain infectious for longer, are more likely to relapse or succumb to tuberculosis and could result in treatment failure as well as foster emergence of drug resistant tuberculosis. Kenya is among countries with high tuberculosis burden globally. The purpose of this study was to determine the duration tuberculosis patients stay in treatment before defaulting and factors associated with default in Nairobi. Methods A Case-Control study; Cases were those who defaulted from treatment and Controls those who completed treatment course between January 2006 and March 2008. All (945 defaulters and 1033 randomly selected controls from among 5659 patients who completed treatment course in 30 high volume sites were enrolled. Secondary data was collected using a facility questionnaire. From among the enrolled, 120 cases and 154 controls were randomly selected and interviewed to obtain primary data not routinely collected. Data was analyzed using SPSS and Epi Info statistical software. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine association and Kaplan-Meier method to determine probability of staying in treatment over time were applied. Results Of 945 defaulters, 22.7% (215 and 20.4% (193 abandoned treatment within first and second months (intensive phase of treatment respectively. Among 120 defaulters interviewed, 16.7% (20 attributed their default to ignorance, 12.5% (15 to traveling away from treatment site, 11.7% (14 to feeling better and 10.8% (13 to side-effects. On multivariate analysis, inadequate knowledge on tuberculosis (OR 8.67; 95% CI 1.47-51.3, herbal medication use (OR 5.7; 95% CI 1.37-23.7, low income (OR 5.57, CI 1.07-30.0, alcohol abuse (OR 4.97; 95% CI 1.56-15.9, previous default (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.16-4.68, co-infection with Human immune

  20. FEMA Housing Assistance Renters - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Renters The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  1. FEMA Housing Assistance Owners - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Owners The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  2. Allergy-Proof Your House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vent moisture outside. Temperature and humidity. Hot, humid houses are breeding grounds for dust mites and mold. ... Smoking. Don't allow smoking anywhere inside your house. References Allergens and irritants. National Institute of Environmental ...

  3. Public Housing Agency (PHA) Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The dataset contains current data on low rent and Section 8 units in PHA's administered by HUD. The Section 8 Rental Voucher Program increases affordable housing...

  4. HUD Approved Housing Counseling Agencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD sponsors housing counseling agencies throughout the country that can provide advice on buying a home, renting, defaults, foreclosures, and credit issues. This...

  5. Multifamily Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  6. Public Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  7. Literacy Mediation in Neighbourhood Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between staff in Neighbourhood Houses, and the socially and educationally disadvantaged community members who visit Neighbourhood Houses, have been viewed through many lenses, including community development, social support, caring and compassion. This paper looks at Neighbourhood Houses as sites of pedagogical practice. More…

  8. Renovation of social housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stina Rask; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    an understanding of the built environment as a spatial continuum that is in constant alteration. When we engage in the renovation of a building, we inevitably enter into a dialogue with this continuum. The motivation to alter an existing building may be decay and change in the use, or, as has been the case...... in the renovation of social housing. Methodologically, this hypothesis is investigated by re-reading the task of energy renovation through the lens of tectonic architectural theory. Specifically, Eduard Sekler’s etymological distinction between structure, construction, and tectonics is developed as a framework...... for addressing the spatial implications and potentials of technical initiatives in contemporary energy renovations within the continuum described by Scott. The framework is applied in two case studies of recent energy renovations of social housing dwellings. Finally, the paper discusses whether the technical...

  9. Approaching the Macuti House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollien, Silje Erøy

    2011-01-01

    and flow of trade acrosss the Indian Ocean. Today the regional port is in Nacala, provincial capital is Nampula, and the only economic future for Ilha, currently a small sleepy city of ca 18.000 people on the island and 45.000 in the municipal district, seems to be tourism development. The little island...... for a strategy to intervene in the "macuti neighbourhoods", conserve the built environment and improve living conditions for the generally poor population living in crowded conditions with lack of suitable urban infrastructure. The macuti house, a type of semi-urban Swahili one story house built of mangrove...... "Moçambicanidade", an official cultural policy of strengthening a national identity. Now parts of "the community" in Ilha with cultural links northwards, may see new tourism routes along old trading routes and a new academic interest in the Indian Ocean as a cultural space, as an opportunity to redefine themselves...

  10. Housing characteristics 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  11. [House dust mite allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, A; Pichler, C

    2012-04-01

    House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy.

  12. LIGHT*HOUSE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjamin; Madsen, Jesper V;

    Med udgangspunkt i det konkrete byggeprojekt Light*house, der skal opføres på Århus havn, er der i projektet foretaget en række analyser til bestemmelse af de geotekniske egenskaber for den fede tertiære ler fra søvindmergel-formationen, som findes på lokaliteten til stor dybde. Søvindmerglens...

  13. A Model of Housing Quality Determinants (HQD for Affordable Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaq Hyder Chohan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research identifies the design quality determinants and parameters for affordable housing in a developing metropolis, Karachi, Pakistan. The absence of quality housing in Karachi has resulted in a variety of factors including policy failure, violation of bylaws, housing scarcity and more low quality housing. The combination of these factors has resulted in poor housing design and construction and has lowered the overall quality of housing. Homeowners (end-users experience unplanned maintenance and repairs. This study provides a design quality model for use as a survey tool among professionals and endusers. This study resulted in a table of 24 quality determinants marked as Housing Quality Determinants (HQD grouped into eight sections. This research concludes that the existing design quality of affordable housing in Karachi could be enhanced by resolving problems related to design, construction, services, site development, neighbourhood and sustainability. The HQD model provides a platform for developing quality indicators of housing design and an opportunity for local and international design and construction professionals to rethink design in the context of housing quality. This article provides the development of the HQD framework (model.

  14. Lessons Learnt from the Westgate Shopping Mall Terrorist Attack in Nairobi, Kenya: Involving the Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions Sector in Crisis Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Schroeder

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The terrorist attacks in Nairobi Kenya have been widely disseminated by the world media, thus, affecting the long-term interests of stakeholders. The tourism industry is made up of a vast number of these stakeholders, with the operating sector alone including the accommodation, tourism services, transportation, entertainment, food services, adventure and outdoor recreation, attractions, meetings, incentive, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE, and travel trade sectors. Within each operating sector, there is also a variety of different stakeholders in various segments and organisations. The purpose of this manuscript is to examine tourism crisis communications surrounding the Westgate Shopping Mall attacks in Kenya. The main research question which guided this study was: did tourism communications surrounding the Westgate Shopping Mall attacks follow best practices for tourism crisis communications? Accordingly, this paper used participant observation to highlight communications surrounding the attacks from the perspective of a conference planner and a conference attendee.

  15. Proceedings of Concept House

    OpenAIRE

    Eekhout, M.

    2005-01-01

    At the TU Delft, faculty of Architecture, a new research group is active since January 2004, with the first PhD student starting at September 1 st 2004 onwards. The group is regularly growing and will exist for 5 years: up to 2010. The aim of the research group is to do a preliminary marketing first, to design, develop and research new Concept Houses, to build and test them as prototypes, to do a final marketing for use in the Netherlands and in Western Europe and to prepare the actual produc...

  16. Vigander house, Stavanger, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostvik, H. [Sunlab/ABB, Stavanger (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    Twenty solar buildings have been constructed in the Stavanger region, the majority with facade or roof- integrated solar air systems for space heating and/or heating of domestic hot water. The Vigander house is a typical example of architectural integration of a solar facade collector coupled to a hollow concrete floor heat distribution system. The concrete floor is 44 m{sup 2}. The system has been in uninterrupted service since 1989. The total additional costs for the whole system were US $2500 (ECU 2270). The occupants are extremely positive about the system. (author)

  17. House to house, shelter to shelter: experiences of black women seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patty R; Laughon, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Locating safe and affordable housing is a vital step for women who decide to leave their abuser. Without housing, many women, particularly those who live in poverty, are forced to remain in abusive relationships, accept inadequate or unsafe housing, or become homeless (Menard, 2001; Moses, 2010). Women who choose to leave their abusers are faced with multiple barriers in establishing their independence such as limited financial resources, mental illness, and the lack of affordable housing (Botein & Hetling, 2010), putting them at risk of revictimization. This pilot study explores the narratives of Black mothers currently residing at an emergency intimate partner violence shelter to discover their experiences in seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships with a focus on housing instability and mental health. Utilizing a qualitative descriptive design, four major themes emerged: (a) unstable/insecure housing over time, (b) limited support,

  18. Allying health care and housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lillian

    2005-01-01

    There is a wealth of evidence that health is inextricably linked to housing. For instance, research has shown that those in substandard housing have poorer health outcomes than other groups, and they often must forgo costly medication in order to pay for housing. Further, the health care and housing concerns faced by the underserved often compound one another--people with poor health often have trouble maintaining housing, and those with substandard homes, in turn, often have trouble maintaining their health. Three groups are especially vulnerable to the health care risks associated with housing issues: children, seniors, and the chronically homeless. As the research suggests, substandard housing is a contributing factor to the U.S. health care crisis. Therefore, as part of its efforts to reform the nation's health care system, the ministry should address housing issues as well. Seven Catholic health systems are doing this through the Strategic Health Care Partnership. The partnership, in collaboration with Mercy Housing, enables the seven organizations to work together to create healthy communities. The partnership's key goal is to increase access to affordable housing and health care. Just providing homes often is not enough, however. A holistic approach, through which supportive services are offered to the underserved, is most effective.

  19. Malaysian Affordability Housing Policies Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Diwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing has always been a significant aspiration of family expression and distinctly priciest investment by household. It plays a momentous role in the country’s economy and so central to the societal well-being that is emplaced in the United Nation Universal declaration of Human rights. Yet in developed and developing world alike, cities struggle to provide decent housing for lower and middle income population. The provision of affordable housing is a major policy concern around the world with Malaysia being no exception; rising income hardly keep pace with price hike of housing unit and housing interventions has majorly concentrated on demand side leading to a non-responsive supply sector. Therefore, this paper highlights affordable housing issues pertaining Malaysia. It formulates Malaysian Map of affordability and conducts an evaluation of global housing schemes to better identify policy priorities for Malaysia. It’s significant to harmonize supply and demand side factors in the housing market to ensure that housing supply fits the needs of citizens based on the location, price and target group. In case of Malaysia supply oriented initiative are of urgency in short and medium run. This must be supported by long term demand side schemes in parallel. Convergence of these two factors is essential for a balanced equilibrium and obtaining affordability.

  20. Challenges for Large Housing Estates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    This paper examines policies and improvement programmes implemented to improve troubled housing estates during three decades. It is based on evaluations of implemented programmes conducted for the Danish ministry of housing and the National Building Fund as well as similar studies from other...... European countries. Case studies illustrate local developments and outcomes and are the base for questioning the original identification of problems and thus the chosen solutions. Perspectives for current policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates are discussed in a general housing market...

  1. Private Housing or Alternative Financing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Nick

    1999-01-01

    Explores the history of privatizing university housing and some current financing options, including use of developer and private foundations. Examples of successful alternative financing methods are highlighted. (GR)

  2. Challenges for Large Housing Estates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    This paper examines policies and improvement programmes implemented to improve troubled housing estates during three decades. It is based on evaluations of implemented programmes conducted for the Danish ministry of housing and the National Building Fund as well as similar studies from other...... European countries. Case studies illustrate local developments and outcomes and are the base for questioning the original identification of problems and thus the chosen solutions. Perspectives for current policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates are discussed in a general housing market...

  3. Social Housing: wood prefabrication techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Student housing, a particular and quite significant part of social housing, and innovation in processing and production of industrial building components made of a material (wood not adequately inquired: two fields of research that have been explored for a long time allowing here to share and compare experiences gained thus far. By a selection of samples of wooden student housing in Europe we have documented the performances of this material and we have underlined, at the same time, through what happens abroad, the need of an organic national social housing plan that can meet an unsatisfied demand and boost the construction industry during this particular stage of economic crisis.

  4. Fire Sales and House Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    We exploit a natural experiment in Denmark to investigate when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts. Forced sales result from sudden deaths of house owners in an institutional environment in which beneficiaries are forced to settle the estate, and hence sell the house, within 12 months. We...... and the urgency of the sale also affect the average discount: Discounts are larger when house prices contract, in thin markets where demand is lower, and when the sale is more likely to be a fire sale because of financial or liquidity constraints. Late fire sales are more likely when the house price...... forced sales lead to fire sale discounts....

  5. Who now handles social housing provision - the role and performance of housing associations:

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Coatham

    1995-01-01

    In Britain, Housing Associations are organizations whose prime objectives are to develop and manage housing for people in housing need and who are on low incomes. They are sometimes referred to as the “voluntary housing sector” or the “third arm” of rented housing provisions, separate from private sector landlords and rented housing provided by statutory local (municipal) housing authorities. This article discusses the role of housing associations in the UK housing market.

  6. Subsidized Housing, Public Housing, and Adolescent Violence and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Tamara G. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the separate relationships of public housing residence and subsidized housing residence to adolescent health risk behavior. Data include 2,530 adolescents aged 14 to 19 who were children of the National the Longitudinal Study of Youth. The author used stratified propensity methods to compare the behaviors of each…

  7. Sustainable Housing Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    especially for the A&D architectural program and its intention of combining architectural and engineering skills in design work where ‘artistic learning, the creation of ideas, and an ability to see new possibilities and be creative become just as important parameters as the ability to identify problems....... Thus, if one wants to realistically solve the issue of sustainable housing design one must address the intertwined aspects of building construction, urban density and neighborhood qualities which calls for an interdisciplinary design approach. This paper tells of a thoroughly tested civil engineering...... education program at university master level dealing with the complex issue of combining zero energy building with dense urban living for children families. 2. Methodology The students are recommended to use the Integrated Design Process-method as described by Mary-Ann Knudstrup, that has been developed...

  8. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  9. Lenherr house, Schwyz, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filleux, C.

    1999-07-01

    This house includes an unusual window collector as the outer glazing of a sun space that covers the entire south facade. Thus, the living area behind the sun space is buffered from heat losses as well as sheltered from the overheating which can occur in rooms directly behind large areas of glazing. The combination of sun space and window collector reduces the heating load by approximately 30%. The collector heated air is channelled through insulated hollow core floors and walls by fans. The stored heat is later passively released to the rooms. This closed-loop charging-radiant discharging solar system also reduces the heating load by 30%, making a 60% overall reduction. (author)

  10. Frei house, Nueziders, Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, S.

    1999-07-01

    The Frei house incorporates an air collector, a rock bed and hollow-core constructions for storage and distribution, leaving a requirement for only 17 kWh/m{sup a} (kWh/m{sup 2} per annum) for auxiliary heat in an average season. The system has minimal technical equipment, simple controls and only one fan. The back-draught dampers are self-operating. Another attribute is the high level of thermal comfort provided by the radiant heat from the hypocausts and murocausts. A wood stove in the cellar can supply hot air to the hypo/ murocausts if required. The larger part of the domestic hot water is solar heated by a heat exchanger in the duct from the air collector. (author)

  11. Ideas about housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2009-01-01

    settled at the age of 30-35, and the last generation has yet to settle. In the course of this research project, it is of interest to examine the modern family home offered to each generation by the architects drawing houses at that time. Therefore the following periods of time span was investigated: 1950...... competition provides the architects a possibility to reflect on the current social patterns, and to propose suitable spaces. In this light, the competition proposals represent the visions and dreams of the architects to the contemporary society. “For most of the 20th century, design competitions have been......-55, 1970-75 and 1990-95. The purpose of the research is to explore the relationship between the physical space and the social patterns taking place in the modern family home during the investigated time frames....

  12. House While Woman Grows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şengül Öymen Gür

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Discourses on woman/space relations boomed in the 90s. The fundamental reason was to give support to the Feminist Movement. This trend which has had feeble effect on architectural design remained controversial. The comprehensive research expounded in this article which was based on an open-ended questionnaire that targeted at determining the gender roles at home, applied to female subjects who simulated the national demographics, clearly demonstrated that the home experience of an average Turkish woman basically consists of kitchens; the female who runs the house does not really have a place for herself at home. However she does not perceive her restrained, secondary role an issue worthy of struggling to change and she grants spaces for recreation and study to the male. The well-established civil laws conducive for equality has not changed this disturbing situation and do not seem to do so in the near future.

  13. Smart Houses and Uncomfortable Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Norman; Arnott, John

    2015-01-01

    In order for smart houses to achieve acceptance from potential beneficiaries they will need to match the users' expectation that their house is also their home, with the sense of privacy and control that this implies. Designers of this technology will need to be aware of findings in this regard from fields such as architecture and design ethnography.

  14. Unitary Housing Regimes in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Bo; Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    to the Danish and Swedish housing regimes are analysed and the responses and outcomes in terms of policy change and/or institutional continuity (path dependence) are compared. Overall, the more decentralized Danish housing regime seems to have resisted pressures for change and retrenchment better so far than...

  15. Fire Sales and House Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    We exploit a natural experiment in Denmark to investigate when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts. Forced sales result from sudden deaths of house owners in an institutional environment in which beneficiaries are forced to settle the estate, and hence sell the house, within 12 months. We...

  16. The Philosophy of University Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a stated philosophy of university housing and the philosophy's effect on the facilitation of the personal and intellectual growth of students residing in the residence halls and the development of a sense of community. This particular philosophy governs the housing operations at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.…

  17. Renewal of Postwar Housing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses Danish postwar housing architecture in relation to the concept of ‘everyday tectonics’. It is argued that the extensive criticism of the architecture of the postwar housing developments is probably linked to their tectonic qualities, but that, to an even higher degree, it is a...

  18. Quality assurance for passive houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, H.J.; Mlecnik, E.

    2009-01-01

    For newly built houses national ambitions prescribe increasing levels of energy performances, even including achieving net zero energy or carbon neutral houses. This is in large contrast with the lack of quality in many building processes. The building regulations, processes and control will have to

  19. Studies on Dutch Housing Corporations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    One third of all dwellings in the Netherlands is owned by housing corporations. These are privately governed institutions executing a public task (social housing). Recently, corporations have received negative attention due to various incidents (such as fraud and excessive risk-taking). This put pre

  20. The Philosophy of University Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a stated philosophy of university housing and the philosophy's effect on the facilitation of the personal and intellectual growth of students residing in the residence halls and the development of a sense of community. This particular philosophy governs the housing operations at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.…

  1. Housing Welfare Policies in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    that the institutional differences between the Swedish model of municipal ownership and the Danish model of independent cooperative social housing associations provides different sources of resistance to the prospective dismantlement of social housing as we know it. The fifth section presents the recent Danish reform......It is commonplace to refer to the Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland as a distinctive and homogenous welfare regime. As far as social housing is concerned, however, the institutional heritage of the respective countries significantly frames the ways in which social...... housing is understood, regulated and subsidized, and, in turn, how housing regimes respond to the general challenges to the national welfare states. The paper presents a historical institutionalist approach to understanding the diversity of regime responses in the modern era characterized by increasing...

  2. Creating Affordable Housing through self-management:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Stensgaard, Anne Gro

    The paper presents a case on self-management in the Danish social housing sector as a way of providing affordable housing. It is based on an evaluation of a Danish concept for affordable housing, Social Housing Plus (“AlmenBolig+”). The concept was introduced in 2007, and so far app 1.400 housing...

  3. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.

  4. The Urban Expansion of Nairobi City%非洲内罗毕城市变化的遥感监测与驱动因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦文哲; 刘荣高; 葛全胜

    2013-01-01

    Nairobi is one of the fastest developing cities in Africa and urban areas are growing rapidly. Using remote-sensing to detect multi-temporal change, multispectral imagery has been developed over several decades; however, it is still difficult to select a suitable change-detection method, especially in urban areas. Here, we present a method using multi-temporal data to detect land-use change in an urban environment based on principal-component analysis (PCA) and hybrid classification methods. Three Landsat images (one scene of TM images in 1988, one scene of ETM in 2000 and one scene of TM in 2010) were used to explore the urban expansion of Nairobi City from 1988 to 2000. The results show that the built-up area has increased 141.24km2 from 1988 to 2010, 60.03km2 from 1988 to 2000 and 81.21km2 from 2000 to 2010. The total built-up area in 2010 was 1.27 times of that in 1988. Urban expansion has been accompanied by a loss of forests and urban sprawl. Rapid population growth, traffic infrastructure, government policies, and topographical and geological factors may be the driving this fast expansion. The road network has influenced the spatial patterns and structure of urban development, so that the expansion of the built-up areas has assumed an accretive as well as linear growth along the major roads. Analysis of urban sprawl directions and land use conversions indicates that deliberate planning is largely lacking in Nairobi' s urbanization process, and that the general urban planning principles encoded in various laws and local government regulations have not been adhered to or enforced. The environmental and social consequences of a rapidly growing population in a poorly planned urban system have been dramatic. A better understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of this city ' s growth will form the basis for better planning, understanding of the sustainable development situation and effective spatial organization of future development.%作为肯尼亚的

  5. HOUSING INSURANCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Last few years have shown that Romania is not protected from the consequences of climate change. It is clear that type flood events may cause social problems and losses is difficult financing from public resources, especially in the context of the existence of budget constraints. The only viable system to cope with such disasters is insurance system that has the ability to spread risks by reinsurance Natural disasters - earthquakes, floods, landslides - are just some of the risks that may threaten your home. And if natural disasters can seem distant danger, think as fires, floods caused by broken pipes or theft of household goods are trouble can happen anytime to anyone. To protect yourself in such unpleasant situations, whose frequency is unfortunately on the rise, it is necessary to be assured. Thus, you will be able to recover losses in the event that they occur. The house is undoubtedly one of the most important assets we own. Therefore, the Romans began to pay increasingly more attention to domestic insurance products. Since 2011, voluntary home insurance, life insurance with, were the most dynamic segments of the market.

  6. Smart (Domotic houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Herrera Quintero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The advance of telecomunications via the use of Internet has led to IP network integration. Many networks have been working successfully and have been fundamental for many areas in measuring the automation of data, thus allowing researchers and professionals to have a wider view of production in various sectors. Remote control has been developed throught technological innovation making an enviroment consisting of human interaction based on telecommunications and control systems ever more tangible. Technological development has led to an infinite range of everyday deveices being remotely controlled via Internet, the human voice, a cell-phone or normal phone keyboard or a PALM, pocket PC or desktop computer. Amongst the new activities which can be controlled in a person's house via a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant would be the degree of illumination; such activities are defined as being domotic. The word domotic refers to integrating several areas of knowledge such as telecommunications, electronics, informatics and electricity to improve human beings' quality of life, thus aiding Colombian society's growth.

  7. Housing Choice Voucher Program Support Division (PSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Program Management Programmatic Report for April to June 2010. This is inofrmation collected from Housing Authorities across the nation...

  8. Housing Policy in Ghana: The Feasible Paths

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... University for Development Studies, Wa Campus, Ghana ... Keywords: Housing Policy, Housing Finance, Planning Controls, Housing Research, Ghana ...... How To Motivate Faster Growth in Colombia: The Leading Sector.

  9. CoC Housing Inventory Count Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs Housing Inventory Count Reports are a snapshot of a CoC’s housing inventory, available at the national and state...

  10. Housing and Health: The relationship between housing conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    okanlawon

    2011-10-22

    Oct 22, 2011 ... Department of Architecture, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P. M. B. ... that the quality of housing can make a big difference in the extent of, and costs related to, ... the survey and the subsequent analyses of data.

  11. Housing authority of Baltimore City-Public Housing Energy Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, T. S. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The NASA/Baltimore Applications Project operating at the Goddard Space Flight Center was called upon by the Housing Authority of Baltimore City to consider the problems of providing low cost public housing because of increased energy costs and suggest methods for correction and alleviation. The first step chosen was to elicit as many different options for solution as possible through means of a Public Housing Energy Workshop held in Easton, Md. in September 1980. A final role for the Workshop was a listing and qualifying of each alternative as to its suitability and cost. Specific areas were examined by three panels: (1) Systems, (2) Conservation and Motivation, and (3) Fuels. Each panel was made up of persons from differing but appropriate backgrounds; membership was not restricted to housing people alone. A summary of their deliberations is given - it will be used as a stepping stone to further selection and implementation of alternatives.

  12. The demise of compound houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jørgen; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    and the neighbourhood unity is a challenge for urban planners. However they represent good value for money, cost little to build, suit traditional inheritence patterns, allow independent life at low cost and allow sharing of services with a finite and known group (albeit within a potential conflictive domain). Compound...... of compound housing and analyses the advantages and disadvantages of life within such housing in Kumasi. Issues of privacy, image and communal life are usually cited by occupants dissatiesfied with life in compound houses, and the difficulty of extending them without spoiling the open spaces...

  13. Architectural Strategies of Transformation to Modern Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the topic of sustainable transformation of Modern housing in Denmark......This dissertation addresses the topic of sustainable transformation of Modern housing in Denmark...

  14. BoundaryOther_HOUS2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The House district lines for this layer were determined from maps posted on the Vermont Legislature website (http://www.leg.state.vt.us/reports/02redistricting/),...

  15. Ad Hoc Housing at Hofstra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Ronald

    1982-01-01

    To meet an increased demand for campus housing, Hofstra University (New York) converted double dormitory rooms to triples. Specially designed furniture allowing each student personal space was the key to acceptance by the students. (Author/MLF)

  16. House passes resolution on occupation

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Venemaalt Baltimaade okupeerimise tunnistamist nõudva resolutsiooni vastuvõtmisest USA Kongressi Esindajate Kojas Leedu päritolu kongressmani John Shimkuse eestvedamisel. Vt. ka resolutsiooni teksti "House Concurrent Resolution 128" lk. 14

  17. Multifamily Housing Rehabilitation Process Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Marshall L. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, Abby [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Roberts, Sydney G. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Rea Ventures Group, LLC (Rea Ventures) partnered with Southface Energy Institute (Southface)—a member of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Partnership for Home Innovation Building America research team—to rehabilitate 418 low-income multifamily rental apartments located at 14 properties in Georgia (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zones 2–4). These 22-year-old units with individual utility meters were arranged in row house or townhouse style. Rehabilitation plans were developed using a process prescribed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development program, which partially funded the building upgrades. The USDA is responsible for building, upgrading, and subsidizing housing in rural areas nationwide; this housing includes more than 14,000 existing multifamily housing developments. In 2012, more than $100 million in grants and loans were allocated for that purpose.

  18. NPScape Metric GIS Data - Housing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape housing metrics are calculated using outputs from the Spatially Explicit Regional Growth Model. Metric GIS datasets are produced seamlessly for the United...

  19. Housing and energy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob; Grupe Larsen, Vibeke; Kragh, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

      This paper examines the historical background, current context and future challenges for housing energy consumption in Denmark. There has been a radical transformation in housing energy consumption over the last 30 years, with an absolute reduction in heat consumption and a rapid growth...... in electricity consumption, reflecting wider technological and social transformations in the movement from an industrial to a knowledge based society. In new housing it is shown that electricity consumption now dominates the total primary energy consumption, and that as a consequence traditional heat saving...... paradigms are relatively less effective, and can result in overheating and rising electricity consumption. At the same time, climate change concerns show that rising temperatures will in the future result in a falling heat demand and increasing cooling demand in housing. With this background, a theoretical...

  20. Indoor Air Quality Test House

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In order to enable studies of a range of indoor air quality and ventilation issues, EL maintains a highly instrumented three-bedroom test house. Previous...

  1. Allegheny County Poor Housing Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This estimate of the percent of distressed housing units in each Census Tract was prepared using data from the American Community Survey and the Allegheny County...

  2. The House that NASA Built

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Tech House, located at NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, is a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined to produce an energy-efficient home. Advanced technology offers savings to the family in utility costs and energy conservation. Solar panels on the roof of tech house provide the principal energy saving. They capture the sun's rays to heat water in pipes that run through the solar collectors. The heated water is then stored in a large, well insulated underground tank. A heat exchanger extracts beat from the water and blows it through ducts to warm the house. Tech House is well insulated for energy savings. The principal insulation is fireproof Tripolymer foam which is sprayed onto walls and ceilings in thicknesses up to six inches.

  3. Chapter Houses, Navajo Nation, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features representing Chapter Houses in the Navajo Nation. Chapter Name is included in the Attributes. This dataset contains 111...

  4. House passes resolution on occupation

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Venemaalt Baltimaade okupeerimise tunnistamist nõudva resolutsiooni vastuvõtmisest USA Kongressi Esindajate Kojas Leedu päritolu kongressmani John Shimkuse eestvedamisel. Vt. ka resolutsiooni teksti "House Concurrent Resolution 128" lk. 14

  5. The efficacy and safety of a controlled release formulation of salbutamol in the management of patients with asthma in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathua, S N; Aluoch, J A

    1990-12-01

    The treatment of asthma in Africa is influenced by cultural and environmental factors as well as the availability of drugs. Poor compliance with regard to long-term maintenance treatment of chronic asthma is also a problem in Africa. The present study reports on 45 patients from 2 centres in Nairobi treated with 8 mg twice daily of an oral controlled release formulation of salbutamol ("Volmax"). The treatment produced a significant improvement in lung function measured by the PEFR compared with baseline data on previous therapy. Controlled release salbutamol was rated as effective or very effective by 84.2% of patients and for 81.6% of patients their physicians preferred this preparation to the therapy used before the study. Side effects were infrequent and usually occurred during the first few days of treatment. The study which is the first report in Africa to assess this novel formulation of salbutamol in a group of African patients, demonstrates that controlled release salbutamol 8 mg administered twice daily is safe and effective, offering benefits over current therapies in the treatment of asthma.

  6. Arterial blood gases and acid-base status of adult patients presenting with acute severe asthma at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, J A; Chwala, R D

    1992-06-01

    Forty adult patients with acute severe asthma were assessed for arterial blood gases and acid-base changes at presentation at the Casualty Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Marked degrees of hypoxaemia (mean P(a)O2 of 8.02 kP(a)), hypocapnia (mean P(a)CO2 of 4.62kP(a)) with apparently normal pH (mean 7.384) were documented in the majority of these patients. Based on these findings, a significant number of the patients (68.5%) were either candidates (5.3%) or potential candidates (63.2%) for artificial ventilation. Records at this hospital suggest an increasing trend in asthma admissions and mortality. Additionally, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions for asthma are associated with high mortality (54.4%). Pulsus paradoxicus emerged as the most significant (p = 0.002) clinical correlate to asthma severity. Central cyanosis was detected in none of the study patients suggesting that it is an unusual finding in the common presentation of acute severe asthma at this hospital. Its clinical detection would therefore imply an ominous clinical state. It is recommended that clinicians should take every opportunity to adequately assess their asthma patients before prescribing medications. They are also encouraged to more frequently request for blood gas studies in acute asthma. Those in charge of clinical teaching should direct appropriate efforts towards improved understanding of the pathophysiology and interpretation of acid-base disorders.

  7. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle, cattle-keeping families, their non-cattle-keeping neighbours and HIV-positive individuals in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kange'the, Erastus; McDermott, Brigid; Grace, Delia; Mbae, Cecilia; Mulinge, Erastus; Monda, Joseph; Nyongesa, Concepta; Ambia, Julie; Njehu, Alice

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports a study estimating the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis, in people and cattle in Dagoretti, Nairobi. A repeated cross-sectional survey was carried out among randomly selected cattle keepers in Dagoretti, their dairy cattle and their non-cattle-keeping neighbours in the dry and wet seasons of 2006. A survey was also carried out among a group of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Faecal samples were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen method; 16 % of the samples were also examined using immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) technique. Quality control consisted of blind reviews of slides, examining split samples and confirming slide results with IFA. We found that members of dairy households had a dry season cryptosporidiosis prevalence of 4 % and wet season prevalence of 0.3 %, and non-dairy households, a prevalence of 5 and 0 %, respectively. The cattle dry season prevalence was 15 %, and the wet season prevalence, 11 %. The prevalence in people living with HIV was 5 %. The laboratory quality control system showed some inconsistency within and between different tests, indicating challenges in obtaining consistent results under difficult field and working conditions. In conclusion, this is the first reported study to simultaneously survey livestock, livestock keepers and their neighbours for cryptosporidiosis. We failed to find evidence that zoonotic cryptosporidiosis is important overall in this community. This study also draws attention to the importance of quality control and its reporting in surveys in developing countries.

  8. Potential effectiveness of Community Health Strategy to promote exclusive breastfeeding in urban poor settings in Nairobi, Kenya: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani-Murage, E W; Norris, S A; Mutua, M K; Wekesah, F; Wanjohi, M; Muhia, N; Muriuki, P; Egondi, T; Kyobutungi, C; Ezeh, A C; Musoke, R N; McGarvey, S T; Madise, N J; Griffiths, P L

    2016-04-01

    Early nutrition is critical for later health and sustainable development. We determined potential effectiveness of the Kenyan Community Health Strategy in promoting exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in urban poor settings in Nairobi, Kenya. We used a quasi-experimental study design, based on three studies [Pre-intervention (2007-2011; n=5824), Intervention (2012-2015; n=1110) and Comparison (2012-2014; n=487)], which followed mother-child pairs longitudinally to establish EBF rates from 0 to 6 months. The Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition (MIYCN) study was a cluster randomized trial; the control arm (MIYCN-Control) received standard care involving community health workers (CHWs) visits for counselling on antenatal and postnatal care. The intervention arm (MIYCN-Intervention) received standard care and regular MIYCN counselling by trained CHWs. Both groups received MIYCN information materials. We tested differences in EBF rates from 0 to 6 months among four study groups (Pre-intervention, MIYCN-Intervention, MIYCN-Control and Comparison) using a χ(2) test and logistic regression. At 6 months, the prevalence of EBF was 2% in the Pre-intervention group compared with 55% in the MIYCN-Intervention group, 55% in the MIYCN-Control group and 3% in the Comparison group (PKenya national Community Health Strategy in promoting EBF in urban poor settings where health care access is limited.

  9. T cell anergy and activation are associated with suboptimal humoral responses to measles revaccination in HIV-infected children on anti-retroviral therapy in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, M B; Newman, L P; Chohan, B H; Njoroge, A; Wamalwa, D; Farquhar, C

    2015-09-01

    HIV-infected children are less capable of mounting and maintaining protective humoral responses to vaccination against measles compared to HIV-uninfected children. This poses a public health challenge in countries with high HIV burdens. Administration of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and revaccinating children against measles is one approach to increase measles immunity in HIV-infected children, yet it is not effective in all cases. Immune anergy and activation during HIV infection are factors that could influence responses to measles revaccination. We utilized a flow cytometry-based approach to examine whether T cell anergy and activation were associated with the maintenance of measles-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies generated in response to measles revaccination in a cohort of HIV-infected children on ART in Nairobi, Kenya. Children who sustained measles-specific IgG for at least 1 year after revaccination displayed significantly lower programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) surface expression on CD8(+) T cells on a per-cell basis and exhibited less activated CD4(+) T cells compared to those unable to maintain detectable measles-specific antibodies. Children in both groups were similar in age and sex, CD4(+) T cell frequency, duration of ART treatment and HIV viral load at enrolment. These data suggest that aberrant T cell anergy and activation are associated with the impaired ability to sustain an antibody response to measles revaccination in HIV-infected children on ART.

  10. Resilience in the face of post-election violence in Kenya: the mediating role of social networks on wellbeing among older people in the Korogocho informal settlement, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel; Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane

    2015-03-01

    Older people in slum settings are a vulnerable sub-group during crises, yet have received minimal attention in the development discourse. This paper examines the protective role of different types of social networks for older slum dwellers' wellbeing during adversity by investigating the relationship between social networks, the Kenyan 2007/08 post-election violence, and dimensions of wellbeing namely self-rated health, life satisfaction and happiness amongst older people in the Korogocho slum, Nairobi. The analyses are based on conditional change logistic regression models using data from a unique longitudinal survey of the health and wellbeing of older people. The results show that maintaining or increasing formal local networks reduced the detrimental effects of the post-election violence for older people's wellbeing, whilst household environment and informal local and non-local networks did not influence the relationship. Consequently, the paper provides evidence that supporting inclusive community organisations which are accessible to older people can be valuable in promoting the resilience of this population group. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The mast on the house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landberg, L.

    2000-01-01

    An often encountered problem when preparing the basic input data for a wind atlas study is the correction for the influence of the house or hut on which the mast—whose data form the basis of this wind atlas—is placed. The article will describe an experiment where this problem has been addressed....... The knowledge gained will be used to give guidelines as to the use of the WAsP program to correct the observations. Should the house/hut simply be treated as an extension of the mast, should the house/hut be treated as a hill with speed-up effects, or should the house/hill be ignored completely? The paper...... will show that the house/hut should indeed be treated as a hill with speed-up effects. Placing meteorological masts on houses or huts is common practice in quite a few countries in the world. The problem is therefore one which most people involved in detailed wind resource assessment will face sooner...

  12. The mast on the house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landberg, L.

    1997-01-01

    An often encountered problem when preparing the basic input data for a wind atlas is the correction for the influence of the house or hut on which the mast - whose data forms the basis of this wind atlas - is placed. The paper will describe an experiment, where this problem has been addressed....... The knowledge gained will be used to give guide-lines as to the use of the WASP program to correct the observations. Should the house/hut simply be treated as an extension of the mast, should the house/hut be treated as a hill with speed-up effects, or should the house/hill be ignored completely? The paper...... will show that the house/hut should indeed be treated as a hill with speed-up effects. Placing meteorological masts on houses or huts is common practice in quite a few countries in the world. The problem is therefore one which most people involved in detailed wind resource assessment will face sooner...

  13. Active house: A contemporary housing model for flood affected population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratimirović Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of architectural knowledge in the struggle for a better future can be seen in the attitude that a good design or a good architectural solution, does not belong solely to the privileged ones as an improvement of the basic requirements, rather quite the opposite, that it is created as a response to a need. The goal of physical and emotional wellbeing, combined with a long term strategy for reducing the negative impact of the built environment by converting it into a positive influence upon the natural ecosystem, brings together and advances bioclimatic principles, architectural design and sustainable construction in the contemporary housing model dubbed the Active House. The Active House Workshop was held, as part of a wider student initiative New Housing Models for Flood Affected Population, at the University of Belgrade - Faculty of Architecture. The purpose of the campaign was to provide help to flood affected communities and assistance in efforts for repairing buildings in Serbia, hit by the severe floods of May 2014. Students came up with nine design solutions for small family homes, which incorporate the principles of Active House into existing construction techniques. In an architectural context, when concerning repair work after flooding, the need to consider problems related to contemporary living conditions through the ‘active’ category is seen in a new understanding of nature which allows the replacement of a passive restoration model, with an active models for designing in interaction with the environment.

  14. United States housing, fourth quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2017-01-01

    In the beginning of 2013, the U.S. housing construction market indicated increases in all sectors; yet, by the fourth quarter’s end, only housing under construction improved. Moderation and declines are to be expected in the fourth quarter, as winter is setting in. Permits, starts, housing under construction, completions, and new and existing house sales all exceeded...

  15. Tracking Changes in European Housing Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Jens; Whitehead, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the changing trends in the housing finance industry of Europe. The article further mentions that the modus operandi of the industry has remained stable amid economic fluctuations in the overall housing sector between 1990-2015. Moreover, the need to reduce the public spending...... on housing is considered as one of the reasons for introducing private housing finance....

  16. 24 CFR 954.103 - Housing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing strategy. 954.103 Section... INDIAN HOME PROGRAM Applying for Assistance § 954.103 Housing strategy. Grantees are not required to submit a housing strategy to receive HOME funds. However, the application must demonstrate how...

  17. Housing Systems and Ethnic Spatial Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Andersson, Roger; Wessel, Terje

    in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are ethnically segmented with high concentrations of immigrants in some forms of tenures (especially social/public housing) and low concentrations in others. The paper shows that the spatial distribution of immigrants is strongly connected with the tenure composition...... of immigrants in social/public housing.......Residential spatial segregation is related to housing markets and housing policies. In this paper, ethnic segregation is compared across four Nordic capitals and explanations for the differences are examined by comparing the housing markets and housing policies of the countries. The housing markets...

  18. Adventure of Architecture Example of Housing and Housing Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asasoğlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Housing and the concept of space associated with this requirement are among the initial attitudes towards the human reign over the nature. The dawn of the structured environment found life with this approach within the nature. Both, housing and the housing design process overlap with the historical development of modern man, and is covered within the concept of architecture today. The contribution made by culture within this period is yet another undeniable fact. While the interaction between architecture and culture are moving forward thereby leaving traces in every era throughout the history, the culture of housing and housing design exhibits a parallel attitude which is a subsidiary, yet a highly title with a close human relationship. Culture and architecture are two closely interacting aspects which are drawing the borders of each other from time to time, hinting at quality and quantity, and evaluating such. Quite naturally, the structure which is in a deep relationship with mankind is in an exchange with all physical, social and economic qualities of the human. These qualities are fundamental determinants of the concept of culture as a human trait. The process of architecture which is usually defined as a sequence of eras that involve social movements, impulses and trends, sometimes kept moving ahead in the pursuit of individual leadership and styles. The concerns regarding the solution of space problems, setting up /designing venues and arranging the environment in line with the requirements brought up increasingly complex issues and stacks of solutions which follow such problems. It is this dynamic structure which forms the basis of the architectural problem to date. Starting with the housing and residential concepts, this study brings a critical view on the application samples and methods of the relationship between architecture and culture in terms of our country in particular while putting emphasis on the architectural venture of the

  19. Sustainable housing stock of housing corporations; Woningcorporaties verduurzamen bestaande voorraad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Helm, F.; Muller, G. [DOZ Energieregie, Zoetermeer (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    Together with the Dutch government, housing corporations have formulated their sustainability ambitions in the covenant 'Energy saving housing corporations'. The covenant also focuses on living expenses. But what do these targets mean in practise? To what extent is it financially sound and what does it contribute?. [Dutch] Woningcorporaties hebben samen met de Nederlandse overheid hun duurzaamheidsambities geformuleerd in het convenant 'Energiebesparing corporatiesector'. Hierin wordt tevens aandacht besteed aan de woonlasten. Maar wat betekenen deze doelstellingen in de praktijk? Welke wijze en mate is financieel verantwoord en wat draagt het bij?.

  20. Social housing solutions for Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Cangelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research today should focus on building a fairer and more sustainable longterm development model, compared to the present situation, capable of effectively meeting the political, economic, market and social demands. Social housing encompasses all these elements and is currently in a phase of applied experimentation. For some time now universities have been usefully contributing to furthering the issue of social housing and the time is now ripe to apply the results produced by the large number of researches in this field. The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of the design process and the environmental features of the Master Plan relating to a significant Social Housing project in the area of Collina Muratella, in Rome, within the framework of a research project commissioned to the DATA Department of La Sapienza University of Rome by the construction firm Lamaro Appalti Unipersonale spa.

  1. Problems of house arrest application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vladimirovich Kolesnikov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the position of house arrest in the system of preventive measures and to identify the main problems of criminal procedural regulation that prevent its broader use during the preliminary investigation and trial. Methods dialectical approach to the analysis of social phenomena allowing to view them in static and dynamic aspect evolutionarysynergetic paradigm providing the opportunity to explore the phenomenon under investigation with respect to the system subordinate and coordinating relationships within the system. Dialectical approach and the evolutionarysynergetic paradigm determined the choice of specific methods of research historical comparative law comparative formallegal statistical. Results the problems arising with application of house arrest are grouped by author depending on the structure of the provisions of Article 107 of the CriminalProcedural Code of the Russian Federation. The first group of problems includes the determination of the location of the accused suspect under house arrest and the scope of the legal restrictions imposed. The second group includes the establishment of terms of house arrest and their subsequent renewal or change of the preventive measure. The third group is the identification of persons to which the house arrest will be the best preventive measure. The results of the study allow to make proposals to change the current wording of Art. 107 of the CriminalProcedural Code of Russia. Scientific novelty a comprehensive study of current state of the normativelegal regulation of house arrest in the context of its practical application. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature of preventive measures related to the restraint of personal liberty of the accused. nbsp

  2. Architectural Qualities in Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    In recent years in Denmark there has been an increasing focus on implementing passive and active strategies in buildings to fulfil low energy demands like for example the Passive House Standard. From a technical rational perspective, plenty of pilot projects and commercial projects have shown...... that it is possible to build this type of houses, but the knowledge and discussion about the architectural quality in the buildings is hardly present. The question is if the strategies for optimising energy use and indoor environment collide with the architectural qualities of buildings. This paper brings forth...

  3. Sheltered housing compared to independent housing in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bilsen, Pascalle M A; Hamers, Jan P H; Groot, Wim; Spreeuwenberg, Cor

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With elderly people desiring to live independently as long as possible, traditional homes for the elderly are increasingly being transformed into sheltered accommodations. In order to assess the importance of housing for frail elderly people, elderly people at risk for institutionalizati

  4. Sheltered housing compared to independent housing in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M.A. van Bilsen; J.P.H. Hamers; W. Groot; C. Spreeuwenberg

    2008-01-01

    Background: With elderly people desiring to live independently as long as possible, traditional homes for the elderly are increasingly being transformed into sheltered accommodations. In order to assess the importance of housing for frail elderly people, elderly people at risk for institutionalizati

  5. The Housing Development NGOs offering Housing Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 29, 2001. 28 .... efforts are not reinforced through group structures and ... mate aim should be to improve the quality of life of the community. ... NGOs furthermore have the freedom to work in politi- .... housing stock and support community development.

  6. Antibodies to the core proteins of Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus reveal details of the distribution of the proteins in infected cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasecka, Lidia; Bin-Tarif, Abdelghani; Bridgen, Anne; Juleff, Nicholas; Waters, Ryan A; Baron, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV; also called Ganjam virus in India) is a bunyavirus of the genus Nairovirus. It causes a haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats with mortality up to 90%. The virus is closely related to the human pathogen Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). Little is currently known about the biology of NSDV. We have generated specific antibodies against the virus nucleocapsid protein (N) and polymerase (L) and used these to characterise NSDV in infected cells and to study its distribution during infection in a natural host. Due to its large size and the presence of a papain-like protease (the OTU-like domain) it has been suggested that the L protein of nairoviruses undergoes an autoproteolytic cleavage into polymerase and one or more accessory proteins. Specific antibodies which recognise either the N-terminus or the C-terminus of the NSDV L protein showed no evidence of L protein cleavage in NSDV-infected cells. Using the specific anti-N and anti-L antibodies, it was found that these viral proteins do not fully colocalise in infected cells; the N protein accumulated near the Golgi at early stages of infection while the L protein was distributed throughout the cytoplasm, further supporting the multifunctional nature of the L protein. These antibodies also allowed us to gain information about the organs and cell types targeted by the virus in vivo. We could detect NSDV in cryosections prepared from various tissues collected post-mortem from experimentally inoculated animals; the virus was found in the mucosal lining of the small and large intestine, in the lungs, and in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), where NSDV appeared to target monocytes and/or macrophages.

  7. Antibodies to the core proteins of Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus reveal details of the distribution of the proteins in infected cells and tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Lasecka

    Full Text Available Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV; also called Ganjam virus in India is a bunyavirus of the genus Nairovirus. It causes a haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats with mortality up to 90%. The virus is closely related to the human pathogen Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV. Little is currently known about the biology of NSDV. We have generated specific antibodies against the virus nucleocapsid protein (N and polymerase (L and used these to characterise NSDV in infected cells and to study its distribution during infection in a natural host. Due to its large size and the presence of a papain-like protease (the OTU-like domain it has been suggested that the L protein of nairoviruses undergoes an autoproteolytic cleavage into polymerase and one or more accessory proteins. Specific antibodies which recognise either the N-terminus or the C-terminus of the NSDV L protein showed no evidence of L protein cleavage in NSDV-infected cells. Using the specific anti-N and anti-L antibodies, it was found that these viral proteins do not fully colocalise in infected cells; the N protein accumulated near the Golgi at early stages of infection while the L protein was distributed throughout the cytoplasm, further supporting the multifunctional nature of the L protein. These antibodies also allowed us to gain information about the organs and cell types targeted by the virus in vivo. We could detect NSDV in cryosections prepared from various tissues collected post-mortem from experimentally inoculated animals; the virus was found in the mucosal lining of the small and large intestine, in the lungs, and in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, where NSDV appeared to target monocytes and/or macrophages.

  8. Why participation matters for air quality studies: risk perceptions, understandings of air pollution and mobilization in a poor neighborhood in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, N S; Kokoyo, S; Klopp, J

    2017-01-01

    With high urbanization rates, Sub-Saharan Africa is facing growing problems of poor air quality in its cities. We make a case for participatory approaches in air quality studies especially including those living in poor neighborhoods who may be particularly at risk from this trend. We used collaboration with a community based organization, interviews, focus group discussions and a community forum. We conducted a pilot study to assess health risk perceptions of air pollution for civic-minded residents in Mathare, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. Simultaneously, we involved Mathare residents in measuring levels of PM2.5 and later presented these data at a community forum with the participants of the monitoring study and the focus group discussions. We found that participation in conducting and interpreting air quality studies helped residents improve their understanding of air pollution and also helped them develop responses to it. Initially, participants associated air pollution with a bad odor or discomfort rather than their health, but once the connection to health was made through participation, they sought more information about air quality data and its hazards. Some residents also came up with strategies for coping with their environment and its risks. These results point to the potential of including participation in air quality monitoring as a way to increase awareness and support local action to address it. Discussion and sharing of results at the local level as well as at a wider policy level will be critical for advocacy to improve air quality. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assisted Housing - Low Income Housing Tax Credit Properties - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) is the primary Federal program for creating affordable housing in the United States. The LIHTC database, created by HUD and...

  10. Assisted Housing - Housing Choice Vouchers by Tract - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) Housing Choice Voucher Program (HCVP) is the federal government's major program for assisting very...

  11. House Prices and Public Debt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads; Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    By using the 2002 case of fraud in the Danish municipality Farum by then mayor Peter Brixtofte as an exogenous shock to public debt of 1 billion DKK, I estimate the effect of public debt on house prices. I find that the average home ownership lost about 570,000 DKK or as much as 29% of the averag...

  12. Housing, Neighborhoods, and Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Glied, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    In theory, improving low-income families' housing and neighborhoods could also improve their children's health, through any number of mechanisms. For example, less exposure to environmental toxins could prevent diseases such as asthma; a safer, less violent neighborhood could improve health by reducing the chances of injury and death, and by…

  13. Retrofitting of existing housing stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The paper is a case study in retrofitting an urban quarter with social housing of the 1950´s and 1960´s - a model project in Amberg/Germany. It documents and discusses applied ´acupuncture´ and innovative strategies on very different scales as well as on different layers, in order to meet the goal...

  14. The House as a Product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Industrialized housing has been a common phenomenon in the building industry since the industrial revolution; the casting of iron components enabled Victorian iron casters to prefabricate entire buildings and to export them to all British colonies. It got a second boost from Modernist architects lik

  15. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e...

  16. Retrofitting of existing housing stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The paper is a case study in retrofitting an urban quarter with social housing of the 1950´s and 1960´s - a model project in Amberg/Germany. It documents and discusses applied ´acupuncture´ and innovative strategies on very different scales as well as on different layers, in order to meet the goa...

  17. Performance assessment of housing associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Overmeeren, A.J.; Gruis, V.H.; Haffner, M.E.A.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the function, design, and effects of a method to assess the performance of housing associations in the Netherlands. First, the roles of performance assessment are discussed from three perspectives: the association as an agent for the central government; the association as a fac

  18. Housing Markets and School Financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubert, Linda

    2005-01-01

    As school quality improves, does the housing market reflect buyers' perception of that change? In 1993, Texas implemented Senate Bill 7 (S.B. 7), commonly known as the Robin Hood financing of local schools, wherein some of the property tax revenues from wealthy school districts are redistributed to less wealthy districts. Data from Dallas County…

  19. Housing Systems and Ethnic Spatial Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Andersson, Roger; Wessel, Terje

    Residential spatial segregation is related to housing markets and housing policies. In this paper, ethnic segregation is compared across four Nordic capitals and explanations for the differences are examined by comparing the housing markets and housing policies of the countries. The housing markets...... of neighbourhoods. Ethnic segmentation of housing tenures thus contributes to segregation, but the effect is much dependent on how tenures are distributed across space. In one of the cities, the policy of neighbourhood tenure mix has resulted in a relatively low degree of segregation in spite of high concentrations...

  20. Capital Gains Taxation and House Price Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuest, Clemens; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have seen large swings in house prices in many countries. Motivated by housing price variations, proposals for taxing capital gains on housing have repeatedly been put forth. The idea seems to be that such taxes would curb the redistribution occurring between those owning houses...... and those trying to get into the market for owner-occupied housing. Our paper shows that at least in simple settings, a tax on real capital gains on housing will only lead to even bigger price swings and will not be able to redistribute between people appearing on either side of the housing market.......Keywords: capital gains tax, housing market, price fluctuationsJEL-Classification: H23, H24, R 31.Addresses:...

  1. Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy (CHAS) 2008 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) periodically receives custom tabulations of data from the U.S. Census Bureau that are largely not...

  2. 75 FR 8393 - Housing Counseling Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Housing Counseling Training Program AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses. This notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Housing Counseling Training Program. OMB...

  3. Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160501.html Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All: Study Secondhand ... housing properties in Minnesota. All the properties prohibited smoking indoors and three also banned smoking on the ...

  4. A New Index of Housing Sentiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    We propose a new measure for housing sentiment and show that it accurately tracks expectations about future house price growth rates. We construct the housing sentiment index using partial least squares on questions related to consumers' opinions of buying conditions for houses from University...... of Michigan's consumer survey. We find that housing sentiment strongly outperforms several macroeconomic variables typically used to forecast house prices. An in-sample forecast regression using quarterly data over the period 1975-2014 shows that housing sentiment is able to explain 48 percent of next quarter......'s national house price growth. Out-of-sample forecast regressions yield similar results. The strong predictive power of the sentiment index is robust across forecast horizons and holds at the state-level....

  5. House Issues Should Be Drawn Attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冉

    2008-01-01

    Chinese housing problem is serious, including price increases and vacant properties also rise. In the essay, government ought to take actions to regulate the scale and type of houses, and interest rate should be adjusted in accordance with various revenues.

  6. About the modern house - and the classical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    In text and illustrations describes the classical house and the classical city, represented by Andrea Palladio (1508-80), and the modern house, the modern city and building task, represented by Le Corbusier (1857-1965).......In text and illustrations describes the classical house and the classical city, represented by Andrea Palladio (1508-80), and the modern house, the modern city and building task, represented by Le Corbusier (1857-1965)....

  7. Occupants housing satisfaction: does age really matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminu Garba Waziri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scholars from diverse disciplines have established how objective and subjective housing attributes influence occupants’ housing satisfaction. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of age grouping on overall housing satisfaction with respect to private housing development in Abuja, Nigeria. Samples of 112 structured questionnaires were systematically administered to the occupants of Prince and Princes Housing Estate. Sixty-six were subsequently retrieved for analysis representing 74% response rate. Descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance was conducted, and the result indicates that there was a statistically significant difference for total housing satisfaction between age groups. A Tukey’s post hoc test revealed that housing satisfaction was statistically significantly higher in the 61 and above age group in the sample. The result implies that there is a need to incorporate specific demographic changes such as in age groups in residential housing development and policy plan especially in developing countries. The study also contributes to further our understanding on the relationship between resident’s socio-demographic characteristics and housing satisfaction. This paper represents first housing satisfaction studies that examines age factor to determine level of variation in housing satisfaction between various age groups in private housing development in the Nigerian context.

  8. 45 CFR 2555.405 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE... different fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section (including housing provided only to married students). (b) Housing provided by...

  9. Rethinking Affordable Housing Delivery: An Analytical Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Abdullateef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia currently has a housing shortage of 12 million units. Towards the year 2020, this would require an annual supply of a minimum of 2 million homes. With the current production rate, the deficits will remain over the next 100 years. The crisis will lead to poor standards of living, un-affordable rental price, high mortgage payment, abandonment, and dilapidation of the existing housing stock. Lack of affordable housing is already a source of concern among many Malaysians. The middle and lower income earners spend more than 30% of their income on rent or for mortgage payment. Housing rent or mortgage is a basic need like foods, education, clothing and health. The government has introduced various measures to address the housing deficit. Despite these measures, the housing supply and distribution gaps continue to grow. To better understand the issues, there is a need to examine how the procurement planning in the affordable housing delivery supply chain and market is formulated, explore how cost of affordable housing would be reduced, identify the user value systems in affordable housing, and identify the criteria in the current regulatory framework? For these purposes, this paper reviews the relevant literature to reach preliminary findings on the stated issues. Among the factors found accounting for housing shortages, the overwhelming factors were that of poor policies, strategies, practice, management, and finance. The findings are meaningful in framing an affordable housing delivery model. It could also be useful to stakeholders involved in affordable housing delivery in Malaysia and elsewhere.

  10. House dust extracts contain potent immunological adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukelman, C.J.; Dijk, H. van; Aerts, P.C.; Rademaker, P.M.; Berrens, L.; Willers, J.M.N.

    1987-01-01

    A crude aqueous extract of house dust and two house dust subfractions were tested for adjuvant activity in a sensitivity assay performed in mice. Evidence is presented that house dust contains at least two potent immunological adjuvants. One of these, present in both subfractions, was probably endot

  11. Wood-framed houses for earthquake zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    Wood-framed houses with a sheathing are suitable for use in earthquake zones. The Direction describes a method of determining the earthquake forces in a house and shows how these forces can be resisted by diaphragm action in the walls, floors, and roof, of the house. An appendix explains how...

  12. Chicagoland Single-Family Housing Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanier, J.; Scheu, R.; Brand, L.; Yang, J.

    2012-06-01

    In this report, the PARR team identifies housing characteristics and energy use for fifteen housing types (groups) in the Chicagoland (Cook County, Illinois) region and specifies measure packages that provide an optimum level of energy savings based on a BEopt analysis. The analysis is based on assessor data and actual energy consumption data on 432,605 houses representing approximately 30% of the population.

  13. Chicagoland Single-Family Housing Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanier, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Scheu, R. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Yang, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In this report, the PARR team identifies housing characteristics and energy use for fifteen housing types in the Chicagoland (Cook County, Illinois) region and specifies measure packages that provide an optimum level of energy savings based on a BEopt analysis. The analysis is based on assessor data and actual energy consumption data on 432,605 houses representing approximately 30% of the population.

  14. Innovative solutions in passive house details

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; Hilderson, W.

    2008-01-01

    For the realization of the first passive house demonstration projects in Belgium, passive houses were requested by convinced clients, designed by architects with experience in low energy building, and built by contractors with a feeling for working in building teams. These first passive house

  15. 7 CFR 3560.104 - Fair housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plan, the following items must be considered by the borrower: (i) Direction of marketing activities... Housing Marketing Plan. (1) Borrowers with housing projects that have four or more rental units must prepare and maintain an Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan (AFHMP) as defined in 24 CFR part...

  16. Social Housing in the Netherlands, Chapter 10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, M.; Wassenberg, F.

    2007-01-01

    Nowhere else in Europe does social housing dominate the housing market as it does in the Netherlands. Over one third of all households rent a social-sector dwelling. There are 2.4 million social rented dwellings, a number that has been stable during the last decade. Almost all social housing is owne

  17. House Prices, Bubbles and City Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.P.M. Thissen (Mark); M.J. Burger (Martijn); F.G. van Oort (Frank)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe build a theoretical model that relates house price, city size and the expected future growth of demand for housing. Our model combines the Alonso-Mills model on urban economics with insights from financial economics on house prices. Estimating the model for cities in the US, we empiri

  18. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be secured... working with house fall blocks. (c) Designated employees shall inspect chains, links, shackles,...

  19. Remotely serviced filter and housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M.J.; Zaladonis, L.A.

    1987-07-22

    A filter system for a hot cell comprises a housing adapted for input of air or other gas to be filtered, flow of the air through a filter element, and exit of filtered air. The housing is tapered at the top to make it easy to insert a filter cartridge holds the filter element while the air or other gas is passed through the filter element. Captive bolts in trunnion nuts are readily operated by electromechanical manipulators operating power wrenches to secure and release the filter cartridge. The filter cartridge is adapted to make it easy to change a filter element by using a master-slave manipulator at a shielded window station. 6 figs.

  20. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  1. Recombinant house dust mite allergens

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    House dust mites (HDM) are a globally important source of allergen responsible for the sensitization of more than 50% of allergic patients. Specific immunotherapy with HDM extracts is effective but allergen extracts cannot be fully standardized and severe side-effects can occur during the protracted course of treatment. The introduction of molecular biological techniques into allergy research allowed the indentification of more than 20 groups of HDM allergens. Recombinant HDM allergens can be...

  2. 24 CFR 954.306 - Rental housing: qualification as affordable housing and income targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... affordable housing and income targeting. 954.306 Section 954.306 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Affordability § 954.306 Rental housing: qualification as affordable housing and income targeting. (a) Rent...: (1) Bears rents not greater than the lesser of— (i) The section 8 fair market rent for...

  3. Housing the Refugees: Impact and Partial Solutions to the Housing Shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragas, Wade R.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews (1) market forces that have contributed to the current shortage of moderately priced housing; (2) the impact of the Indochinese refugee flows on existing housing; and (3) household demographic characteristics related to the issue of housing the refugees. Suggests ways that existing housing programs could help to accommodate the…

  4. Housing and Welfare Regimes : Examining the Changing Role of Public Housing in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Ronald, R.

    2017-01-01

    Following decades of deep marketization, Chinese housing policy has recently revived public housing provision, stimulating debate over whether China is moving towards a more socialized approach to housing. While such a move represents a remarkable shift in the role of housing as a welfare good or

  5. 75 FR 5706 - Federal Housing Administration: Insurance for Manufactured Housing: Reopening of Public Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Parts 201 and 203 RIN 2502-AI45 Federal Housing Administration: Insurance for Manufactured Housing: Reopening of Public Comment Period AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening of public comment period. SUMMARY:...

  6. Housing for people with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schietinger, H

    1988-01-01

    People with AIDS are homeless for a variety of reasons, including financial devastation, rejection based on fear of contagion or fear of the dying process, and homelessness prior to a diagnosis of AIDS. The author developed and directed the Shanti AIDS Residence Program in San Francisco, the first program to provide housing for people with AIDS. This model is appropriate for single, independent people able to live cooperatively with others. It provides shared living situations for three to six people per apartment, and office staff physically maintain the houses and assure that the needs for community-based home care and other services are met. Other models are proposed for people who are physically or cognitively dependent (and require physical care or supervision in addition to housing), who are socially unable to live cooperatively with others in an unstructured living environment (e.g., active substance users or the emotionally disturbed), or who have families (e.g., mothers with dependent children or gay men who live with their lovers).

  7. Multifamily Housing Rehabilitation Process Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Marshall L. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, Abby [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Roberts, Sydney G. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Rea Ventures Group, LLC, (Rea Ventures) partnered with Southface Energy Institute (Southface) on the rehabilitation of 418 low-income rental multifamily apartments located at 14 different properties in Georgia (Climate Zones 2-4). These 22-year old, individually-metered units were arranged in rowhouse or townhouse style units. Rehabilitation plans were developed using a process prescribed by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development program, who partially funded the building upgrades. The USDA is responsible for building, upgrading, and subsidizing housing in rural areas nationwide. In 2012, over $100 million was allocated in grants and loans. Due to the unique financing mechanism as well as long-term ownership requirements, property owners are especially motivated to invest in upgrades that will increase durability and tenant retention. These buildings represent a large stock of rural affordable housing that have the potential for significant energy and cost savings for property owners and tenants. Southface analyzed the energy upgrade potential of one stereotypical property in the Rea Ventures portfolio. This study will provide insight into the most cost-effective, implementable energy efficiency and durability upgrades for this age multifamily housing, having an enormous impact not only on the portfolio of Rea Ventures but on the vast USDA and larger Federal portfolio. Additionally, Southface will identify gaps in the current capital needs assessment process, examine available audit and simulation tools and protocols, and evaluate additional auditor training or certification needs.

  8. Oral health training programs for community and professional health care workers in Nairobi East District increases identification of HIV-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucina N Koyio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Better knowledge and skills for diagnosis and management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV related oral lesions by primary healthcare workers (PHWs may increase recognition of HIV-related oral lesions (HROLs and may improve implementation of HIV testing in Kenya. For this purpose training programs at health facility and community level were evaluated. DESIGN AND METHODS: A pre-post control-test group design in two administrative divisions of Nairobi East District was used. Clinical competencies of PHWs (n = 32 intervention, and n = 27 control at health facility level were assessed 9 months after training, and after 6 months for community health workers, (CHWs (n = 411 intervention and n = 404 control using written questionnaires, clinical data and patient interviews. Effects on referral for HIV testing and actual HIV testing were assessed by comparing laboratory registries pre- and post training. RESULTS: PHWs in intervention (n = 27; 84% and control (n = 15; 60% divisions, and CHWs in intervention (n = 330; 80% and control (189; 47% divisions, completed all questionnaires. Trained PHWs significantly increased their knowledge of HROLs (p<0.02, frequency of oral examinations, diagnosis of HROLs and referral of patients with HROLs for HIV testing. Trained CHWs significantly gained knowledge about HROLs (p<0.02 and referred more patients with HROLs to health facilities. Overall percentage of HIV-positive test results was three-fold for HROLs compared to non-HROLs. Specifically, 70% of patients with oro pharyngeal candidiasis (OPC, the most commonly diagnosed HROL, were confirmed as being HIV-positive. Increase in overall HIV testing rates (1.6% pre-, 1.2% post training and overall percentage of HIV-positive results (13% pre-, 16% post-intervention was not significant. CONCLUSION: Training programs significantly increased PHW and CHW knowledge, recognition and management of HROLs but increased neither overall HIV testing rates nor

  9. Genomic analysis reveals Nairobi sheep disease virus to be highly diverse and present in both Africa, and in India in the form of the Ganjam virus variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pragya D; Vincent, Martin J; Khristova, Marina; Kale, Charuta; Nichol, Stuart T; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Mourya, Devendra T

    2011-07-01

    Nairobi sheep disease (NSD) virus, the prototype tick-borne virus of the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae is associated with acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats in East and Central Africa. The closely related Ganjam virus found in India is associated with febrile illness in humans and disease in livestock. The complete S, M and L segment sequences of Ganjam and NSD virus and partial sequence analysis of Ganjam viral RNA genome S, M and L segments encoding regions (396 bp, 701 bp and 425 bp) of the viral nucleocapsid (N), glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and L polymerase (L) proteins, respectively, was carried out for multiple Ganjam virus isolates obtained from 1954 to 2002 and from various regions of India. M segments of NSD and Ganjam virus encode a large ORF for the glycoprotein precursor (GPC), (1627 and 1624 amino acids in length, respectively) and their L segments encode a very large L polymerase (3991 amino acids). The complete S, M and L segments of NSD and Ganjam viruses were more closely related to one another than to other characterized nairoviruses, and no evidence of reassortment was found. However, the NSD and Ganjam virus complete M segment differed by 22.90% and 14.70%, for nucleotide and amino acid respectively, and the complete L segment nucleotide and protein differing by 9.90% and 2.70%, respectively among themselves. Ganjam and NSD virus, complete S segment differed by 9.40-10.40% and 3.2-4.10 for nucleotide and proteins while among Ganjam viruses 0.0-6.20% and 0.0-1.4%, variation was found for nucleotide and amino acids. Ganjam virus isolates differed by up to 17% and 11% at the nucleotide level for the partial S and L gene fragments, respectively, with less variation observed at the deduced amino acid level (10.5 and 2%, S and L, respectively). However, the virus partial M gene fragment (which encodes the hypervariable mucin-like domain) of these viruses differed by as much as 56% at the nucleotide level. Phylogenetic

  10. Mass Housing and Changings in Housing Demand, Case of Diyarbakir, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze changings in housing demand, especially in term of house size in Diyarbakýr case, in Turkey. Though Housing in Turkey is in a free market system, there is a Mass Housing Administration (TOKÝ) has been doing mass houses for, relatively, middle class income people. Diyarbakýr, one of the cities that TOKÝ has done two thousand houses, has taken too much migration, so that the demand in housing form and structure has different alterations. This process should b...

  11. Satisfaction with housing and housing support for people with psychiatric disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolin, Rosita; Rask, Mikael; Syrén, Susanne; Baigi, Amir; Brunt, David Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of satisfaction with housing and housing support for people with psychiatric disabilities in Sweden. A total of 370 residents, in supported housing and in ordinary housing with housing support, completed a new questionnaire and reported a high degree of overall satisfaction, but many of them wanted to move somewhere else. Differences were found between the two different types of housing concerning satisfaction with housing support, social life and available choices. Security and privacy, as well as other's influence on the choice of residential area and dwelling proved to be important predictors for satisfaction.

  12. The First "Comfort Houses" in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2009-01-01

    The "Comfort Houses" is the most ambitious building project in passive houses in Denmark until today. Eight single family houses are built and designed by seven different consortiums. Besides fulfilling the German passive house standard the goal was to build the houses according to Danish traditi...... qualities some of them are often cut back in the process primarily because of cost savings....... of architecture and construction. The objective of this research was to clarify the different design processes according to method, tool and teamwork. The processes are evaluated according to the "Integrated Design Process" and the "Traditional Design Process" and show very different take-offs. Analyzing the data...

  13. Net worth and housing equity in retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Sinai, Todd; Nicholas S. Souleles

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the trends in the life-cycle profiles of net worth and housing equity between 1983 and 2004. The net worth of older households significantly increased during the housing boom of recent years. However, net worth grew by more than housing equity, in part because other assets also appreciated at the same time. Moreover, the younger elderly offset rising house prices by increasing their housing debt, and used some of the proceeds to invest in other assets. We also consider ho...

  14. The strategic facilities management organisation in housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Per Anker; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2012-01-01

    Two houses in the same street can be built in the same year, they can look the same, and still they might provide very different support for sustainable living. This article points to the Strategic Facilities Management Organisation (SFMO) as the most important concept, to understand and manage...... literature on sustainable facilities management, where it fills a gap as it deals with housing and strategic FM. Intended readers are those interested in housing administration and especially the transition of existing housing into more sustainable housing. Intended readers include building owners, policy...

  15. Root Causes of the Housing Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizoji, Taisei

    In this chapter we investigate root causes of the recent US housing bubble which has been caused a serious downturn in US economic growth since autumn of 2008. We propose a simple model of housing markets in order to indicate the possible determinants of recent housing prices. Utilizing the model, we verify a number of hypotheses which have been proposed in the recent literature on the housing bubbles. We suggest that the main causes of the housing bubble from 2000 to 2006 are (1) non-elastic housing supply in the metropolitan areas, and (2) declines in the mortgage loan rate and the housing premium by the massive mortgage credit expansion. We also suggest that these factors were strongly influenced by policies that governments and the Federal Reserve Board performed.

  16. 24 CFR 200.625 - Affirmative fair housing marketing plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Regulations § 200.625 Affirmative fair housing marketing plan. Each applicant for participation in FHA housing... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affirmative fair housing...

  17. 24 CFR 200.630 - Notice of housing opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of housing opportunities. 200.630 Section 200.630 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  18. 24 CFR 582.305 - Housing quality standards; rent reasonableness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing quality standards; rent... Housing quality standards; rent reasonableness. (a) Housing quality standards. Housing assisted under this part must meet the applicable housing quality standards (HQS) under § 982.401 of this title—except...

  19. Retrofitting of existing housing stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The paper is a case study in retrofitting an urban quarter with social housing of the 1950´s and 1960´s - a model project in Amberg/Germany. It documents and discusses applied ´acupuncture´ and innovative strategies on very different scales as well as on different layers, in order to meet the goal...... of a sustainable retrofitting project in a holistic sense: This included cultural, social, environmental and economic sustainability. The first phase of the project is built and the process included a high level of user participation. The project is an example of integral design from competition level...

  20. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  1. Wannseebahn row houses, Berlin, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhorn, H.

    1999-07-01

    The energy-saving concept of the four Wannseebahn row houses in Berlin comprises a compact construction method, good thermal insulation of the building envelope, deliberate use of solar energy with south-facing windows and sunspaces, and a solar air system. The energy gained by the air collectors is led through a closed cycle and released to the middle wall of the building. So that the stored energy is used in a controlled manner, there is a second closed air cycle with an active discharge. (author)

  2. La Lever house, New York

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Resumen

    En el último siglo la mítica ciudad de Nueva York ha sido capaz de definir y transmitir las más contagiosas propuestas de  construcción del futuro.
    El edificio de la Lever House, erigido en el corazón de Manhattan al comienzo de la prodigiosa década de los cincuenta, consiguió ser la constatación de que el perseguido sue&am...

  3. Residential house stake-out

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In my seminar work I focused on a practical example of residential house stake-out. First, I presented all the geodetic work that takes place before the construction starts. Prior to start of work ISO 4463-1 control of geodetic network was completed. The stake-out which presents the transfer of designed object in nature was performed using polar method. Description of stake –out is presented in the work as well as procedure of the transfer, protection of stake-out axis and characteristical ob...

  4. Architectural Qualities in Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    that it is possible to build this type of houses, but the knowledge and discussion about the architectural quality in the buildings is hardly present. The question is if the strategies for optimising energy use and indoor environment collide with the architectural qualities of buildings. This paper brings forth...... this discussion based in literature and four case studies. The paper highlights cases on how passive strategies for optimising energy use and indoor environment affect, restrict, inspire or create possibilities for the architectural expression and there through the architectural quality of the building....

  5. Introducing heifers to freestall housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Keyserlingk, M A G; Cunha, G E; Fregonesi, J A; Weary, D M

    2011-04-01

    Little work to date has assessed how dairy cattle respond when first introduced to freestall housing. In this study we carried out 2 experiments. The aim of experiment 1 was to assess the behavioral responses of naïve heifers to pens fitted with freestalls. Holstein heifers (n=7 groups, each containing 3 heifers, 3 mo of age), with no previous experience with freestalls, were initially housed on a sawdust bedded pack and fed through a fixed feed barrier for at least 6 wk and then moved to a freestall pen fitted with a head-locking feed barrier. When kept on the bedded pack, the heifers' lying time averaged 14.2 h/d. On the day heifers were moved to the freestall pen, lying times declined by 2.9 h, but recovered on the following days. The time spent lying down on the barn floor (i.e., outside the lying area) increased by 2.5 h on the day heifers were introduced to freestalls and remained higher during subsequent days. Heifers spent 46 min/d less time feeding on the day they were switched to the head-locking barrier, but recovered on the following days. In experiment 2 we assessed the behavioral responses of naïve heifers introduced to pens fitted with freestalls with or without a neck rail. Holstein heifers (n=12 groups, each containing 2 heifers, 3 mo of age), with no previous experience with freestalls, were initially housed on a sawdust bedded pack and then moved to a freestall pen with or without neck rails. Heifers spent 4.2 h/d less time lying down in the 24 h following introduction into the freestall pen; the neck rail treatment had no effect on lying time but heifers spent more time standing with just their front 2 hooves in the stall when a neck rail was in the stall. In summary, lying and feeding behavior of naïve heifers is altered following introduction to new housing. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fire Sales and House Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates when forced sales of real estate turn into fire sales by using a natural experiment that allows us to separate supply and demand effects: Forced sales result from sudden death of house owners and are thus unrelated to current market conditions. We find that forced sales...... result in fire sale discounts. Discounts increase when the sale is urgent, market conditions are poor, and the seller is financially constrained. Overall, our study identifies when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts, and highlights that fire sales occur even in the absence of temporary demand...

  7. The impact of housing policies and housing markets on ethnic spatial segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Andersson, Roger; Wessel, Terje

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how ethnic segregation is connected to an ethnic division of the housing market and a spatial separation of different housing tenures in four Nordic cities. Explanations for the differences across the cities are found by comparing housing markets and housing policies....... The housing markets are in all four cities ethnically segmented with high concentrations of immigrants in some forms of tenures (especially social/public housing) and low concentrations in others. We further discuss the reasons for the observed pattern. The paper shows that the spatial distribution...... housing, while co-operative housing is crucial in the fourth. It is also shown that a policy of neighbourhood tenure mix in one of the cities has resulted in a relatively low degree of segregation in spite of high concentrations of immigrants in social/public housing....

  8. The Special Importance of Housing Policy for the Housing Situation of Ethnic Minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Magnusson Turner, Lena; Søholt, Susanne

    population varies much. These differences can only to some extent be explained by income inequalities on the housing markets in the countries, inequalities that affect immigrants. Other important explanations of why immigrants perform worse on the housing market is the shortage of rental housing (Norway......The purpose of this article is to uncover, whether housing policy has a special importance for immigrants, compared with the whole population, by comparing housing policies and immigrants’ housing outcomes in four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. There are substantial...... differences between housing policies and housing outcomes in Nordic countries, despite their common background as welfare states. The study shows that immigrants have very different positions on the housing markets in the countries and that the degree of overcrowding among immigrants compared with the whole...

  9. The Special Importance of Housing Policy for the Housing Situation of Ethnic Minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Turner, Lena Magnusson; Søholt, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    population varies much. These differences can only to some extent be explained by income inequalities on the housing markets in the countries, inequalities that affect immigrants. Other important explanations of why immigrants perform worse on the housing market is the shortage of rental housing (Norway......The purpose of this article is to uncover, whether housing policy has a special importance for immigrants, compared with the whole population, by comparing housing policies and immigrants’ housing outcomes in four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. There are substantial...... differences between housing policies and housing outcomes in Nordic countries, despite their common background as welfare states. The study shows that immigrants have very different positions on the housing markets in the countries and that the degree of overcrowding among immigrants compared with the whole...

  10. Comparative Analysis of Norwegian Passive House Criteria and of Criteria related to the Concept of International Passive House Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anton, Karin; Vestergaard, Inge

    2013-01-01

    The analysis shows differences in definition of apssive house criterias. It also communicates issues os the passive house concept that are nor completely transferred by the Norwegian passive house standard.......The analysis shows differences in definition of apssive house criterias. It also communicates issues os the passive house concept that are nor completely transferred by the Norwegian passive house standard....

  11. Performance analysis on natural energy autonomous house (HARBEMAN house); Shizen energy jiritsu house (HARBEMAN house) ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, T.; Saito, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    To reduce fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emission, this article introduces an actually constructed natural energy autonomous house. It has a solar collector on the south roof for hot water supply and a sky radiator on the north roof for cooling water supply. The sky radiator uses radiation cooling phenomena into the space by electromagnetic wave through the window of atmosphere. This house also has an insulated tank with a capacity of 31 m{sup 3} in its underground. In the long-term heat storage mode, the heat is collected through the solar radiation during the period from summer to spring and is stored in the underground water tank, to use it for heating and hot water supply in winter. The heat can be recovered from the garbage waste incinerator. A gas fired auxiliary boiler is used for the shortage. In the long-term heat regeneration mode, the heat is regenerated through the sky radiator during the period from spring to summer and is stored in the underground water tank, to use it for cooling in summer. For the shortage, the water is cooled using a heat pump operated by the midnight power. The insulating performance is improved by using the pair glass in windows and the glass wool in the walls. Rain water is collected in a tank with a capacity of 2 m{sup 3}, to use it for toilet water. Annual energy and water saving is equivalent to 600,000 yen. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Perspectives on housing among homeless emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Tiffany N; Thompson, Sanna J

    2013-02-01

    Homeless emerging adults need the safety and stability of housing programs if they are to avoid the elements and victimization of the streets, however, barriers to obtaining housing are numerous. This study identified factors associated with perspectives of housing services among 29 homeless emerging adults (ages 18-23 years) through one-on-one interviews. Data were gathered and analyzed using grounded theory methodology for qualitative information. Major themes of peer support and positive personal and programmatic interactions in the context of emerging adult development were noted as important factors in housing service utilization. These major themes should be taken into consideration for current housing programs, due to homeless emerging adults' oscillation between their desire for formal support and personal independence. Greater emphasis on services that do not require long term commitments and are more flexible in addressing specific barriers to housing for homeless emerging adults may increase use.

  13. The strategic facilities management organisation in housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Per Anker; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2012-01-01

    Two houses in the same street can be built in the same year, they can look the same, and still they might provide very different support for sustainable living. This article points to the Strategic Facilities Management Organisation (SFMO) as the most important concept, to understand and manage...... implementation of sustainable facilities management in housing administration. The concept provides a frame for understanding the roles and relations of tenants, owners, administrators and operators. The paper is based on a Danish research project on environmentally sound building operation including literature...... literature on sustainable facilities management, where it fills a gap as it deals with housing and strategic FM. Intended readers are those interested in housing administration and especially the transition of existing housing into more sustainable housing. Intended readers include building owners, policy...

  14. Is China’s Housing Overpriced?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴璟; 刘洪玉

    2007-01-01

    Based on the data from 36 major cities in 2004 and 2005, this paper analyses the rationality of present housing price level, focusing on the high price-to-income ratio in the market. The results indicate that, current property prices in most cities are reasonable, and the problem occurs only in a few cities. Housing difficulties for urban dwellers are mainly twofold: low affordability of down payment by first-time homebuyers, and low affordability by low-income and medium low-income households. In order to achieve social harmony in the housing sector and provide a healthy environment for the housing market, the government should improve the public housing system and increase input to make public housing affordable.

  15. Architectural Quality of Low Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Michael; Marsh, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This paper expounds a systematic vocabulary concerning architectural quality in houses in general and low energy houses in particular. The vocabulary consists of nine themes. Inside each theme, examples are given of how to achieve both architectural quality and good environmental performance....... The purpose is to provide a useful tool for communication and argumentation in order to further integrated design of houses with good architecture and good environmental performance. ...

  16. Immigrant language barriers and house prices

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas M. Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Are language skills important in explaining the nexus between house prices and immigrant inflows? The language barrier hypothesis says immigrants from a non common language country value amenities more than immigrants from common language countries.> ; In turn, immigrants from non common language countries are less price sensitive to house price changes than immigrants from a common language country. Tests of the language barrier hypothesis with Swiss house prices show that an immigration inf...

  17. Rethinking Affordable Housing Delivery: An Analytical Insight

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia currently has a housing shortage of 12 million units. Towards the year 2020, this would require an annual supply of a minimum of 2 million homes. With the current production rate, the deficits will remain over the next 100 years. The crisis will lead to poor standards of living, un-affordable rental price, high mortgage payment, abandonment, and dilapidation of the existing housing stock. Lack of affordable housing is already a source of concern among many Malaysians. The middle and ...

  18. Architectural Quality of Low Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Michael; Marsh, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This paper expounds a systematic vocabulary concerning architectural quality in houses in general and low energy houses in particular. The vocabulary consists of nine themes. Inside each theme, examples are given of how to achieve both architectural quality and good environmental performance....... The purpose is to provide a useful tool for communication and argumentation in order to further integrated design of houses with good architecture and good environmental performance. ...

  19. INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT IN MALAYSIAN URBAN HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaik-Wah Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, terraced houses have been rapidly constructed since 50 years ago and account for 44% of the existing urban housings. However, these houses have very limited use of natural ventilation and daylighting due to openings with small window-to-floor ratio. The deep plan design causes gloomy indoor spaces, low air change rate and poor indoor air quality. Studies showed that indoor environments have major impact on occupants’ well-being. Thereby this study evaluates the effects of indoor comforts on occupants’ perceived health in Malaysian typical terraced houses. Survey of terraced houses in Johor Bahru, Malaysia was conducted using questionnaire. Various terraced houses were studied to identify the critical comfort and health issues in terraced housing. The relationships among occupants’ perceived comforts, health and behavior were studied. The variance of types of terraced house was also analyzed. The findings demonstrated significant linear relationships between indoor comfort and health. However, occupants’ behavior did not give significant impact on thermal comfort. This study concludes that it is very essential to improve indoor comfort in Malaysian typical terraced houses through tropical design strategies to enhance occupants’ well-being.

  20. Fear and Loathing in the Housing Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauvet, Marcelle; Gabriel, Stuart; Lutz, Chandler

    in determination of national and city-specific housing returns, the VIX, foreclosures, and returns on subprime mortgage credit-default swaps. Further, the effects of housing distress on returns are asymmetric and stronger during times of crisis. Overall, results suggest that real estate and related markets......We use Google search data to develop a broad-based and real-time index of housing distress. Unlike established indicators, this new Housing Distress Index (HDI) directly reflects sentiment revealed through search queries. Research findings indicate that the HDI provides important new insights...

  1. Leadership Styles of Oxford House Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komer, Anne C; Jason, Leonard A; Harvey, Ronald; Olson, Brad

    Oxford House recovery homes are unusual compared to most recovery homes in that they function entirely without the use of staff; instead members are elected to officer positions. The aim of this study was to perform preliminary analysis of the types of leadership styles utilized by members of oxford house. Twentynine house residents of five Oxford Houses were asked to rate their own leadership styles using the leader behavior description questionnaire and the multifactor leader questionnaire. Results showed that participants were more likely to use person-oriented behaviors above task-oriented actions. Transformational leadership was associated with higher outcomes than Transactional leadership. Implications for future research are discussed.

  2. At the Window of the Old House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    ONE winter, my mother told me that the old house had to be sold. Among us children I was the one who most bitterly opposed the scheme to sell because of reasons that were hard to explain. But my mother’s words seemed to be irrefutable: "Nobody has been living in the house for years and we should sell it before it collapses. You have always cherished your feelings for the house, so go there and stay for one last time." Our family’s old house was a two-

  3. POST-CRISIS HOUSING MARKET PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Sadikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, Russian housing market is characterized, on one hand, with acute shortage of dwellings for absolute majority of the population and on the other hand, with existence of many obstacles that block the market to develop so as to solve this problem. Housing market development trends are discussed along with due consideration of the state housing policy. There are several main directions of this development: increasing scope of little-story and economy class buildings, increased use of resource-saving technologies and widening the practice of public-private partnership. At the same time, state financial support to housing construction is planned to get gradually decreased.

  4. [E-health: the Skin House].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennekam, Michèle; Totté, Joan E E; Pasmans, Suzanne G M A

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch Skin House (www.huidhuis.nl) is an innovative and interactive online platform for patients with skin conditions and others involved, including health care professionals. Currently the platform is primarily aimed at skin disease in children and adolescents. It offers reliable and specialist information about everything from diagnosis to treatment. Patients can also create their own online protected, personal health record in which they can start a diagnostic or treatment plan. The aim of the Skin House is to create transmural continuation of care which is centred upon the patient. Additionally, the Skin House is focusing on scientific research by means of fellow platform the Research House.

  5. Use of housing vouchers in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Golda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of Housing Purchase Vouchers offers IDPs durablehousing and community integration, while allowing theman opportunity to choose their own homes and their owndurable solution.

  6. Housing and Socio-Spatial Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallas Rogers

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This special issue on housing and socio-spatial inclusion had its genesis in the 5th Housing Theory Symposium (HTS on the theme of housing and space, held in Brisbane, Australia in 2013. In late 2013 we put out a call for papers in an attempt to collect an initial suite of theoretical and empirical scholarship on this theme. This collection of articles progresses our initial discussions about the theoretical implications of adding the “social” to the conceptual project of thinking through housing and space. We hope that this special issue will act as a springboard for a critical review of housing theory, which could locate housing at the centre of a much broader network of social and cultural practices across different temporal trajectories and spatial scales. This editorial presents an overview of the theoretical discussions at the HTS and summarises the six articles in this themed issue, which are: (1 The meaning of home in home birth experiences; (2 Reconceptualizing the “publicness” of public housing; (3 The provision of visitable housing in Australia; (4 The self-production of dwellings made by the Brazilian new middle class; (5 Innovative housing models and the struggle against social exclusion in cities; and (6 A theoretical and an empirical analysis of “poverty suburbanization”.

  7. Solar energy, conservation, and rental housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, A.; Raab, J.

    1981-03-01

    Renters must pay the majority of energy costs either directly or in their rents. They have limited financial and legal abilities to make improvements necessary to increase substantially the energy efficiency of rental housing. This report discusses the problem of how to increase investments in energy conservation and solar energy devices for rental housing, which constitutes over one-third of US housing. As background, this report characterizes the rental-housing market, including owners' decision-making criteria. Federal, state, and local policies that affect energy-related investments in rental housing are described. Programs are divided into five major categories: (1) programs for tenants, (2) financial incentives for owners, (3) leasing of solar energy equipment, (4) mediation between tenants and landlords, and (5) regulation. The report concludes that energy and conservation programs aimed at the residential sector must disaggregate owner-occupied housing from rental housing for maximum effect. No one program is advocated since local rental-housing markets differ substantially. For improvements greater than no-cost or low-cost items, programs must be directed at rental-housing owners and not only at tenants.

  8. Motives for choice of housing tenure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    Tenure choice is a very important element of housing choice, but amazingly little research has been done about why different people prefer different housing tenures. In the economic literature tenure choice is mainly explained as a matter of financial investment. In this paper is shown that many...... other aspects than investment considerations influence preferences for tenure. Preferences for homeownership are to a very large degree connected to detached houses with garden and the freedom to dispose over and adapt these houses is the most important motive. Preferences for tenure vary much with life...

  9. La Lever house, New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de Miguel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen

    En el último siglo la mítica ciudad de Nueva York ha sido capaz de definir y transmitir las más contagiosas propuestas de  construcción del futuro.
    El edificio de la Lever House, erigido en el corazón de Manhattan al comienzo de la prodigiosa década de los cincuenta, consiguió ser la constatación de que el perseguido sueño de la “torre de cristal” era por fin posible. La poética y secular conquista de la  levedad avanzó entonces a través de un prosaico y paradójico objeto publicitario. Un particular crisol de negocio, oportunidad y audacia hicieron de ésta sorprendente pieza un icono   fundamental de la globalizada arquitectura moderna americana.


    Nota* En la edición electrónica este artículo se ha publicado con toda documentación gráfica aportada por el autor.

    Palabras clave

    Lever house, torre, levedad, cristal, publicidad, icono

    Abstract

    In the last century, the mythical city of New York has been able to define and transmit the most contagious proposals of  innovative construction.
    The Lever House Building, erected in the heart of Manhattan at  the start of the prodigious 1950s managed to become a  statement for the possibility of finally realizing the sought‐after
    dream of building a glass tower. The poetics and secular   conquest of lightness therefore made a leap forward through a prosaic and paradoxical publicity item. A special crucible of business, opportunity and audacity made a fundamental icon of globalized modern American Architecture out of this surprising work.


    Note * In the online edition this article is published with all graphic material provided by the author.

  10. Differential Health and Social Needs of Older Adults Waitlisted for Public Housing or Housing Choice Vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Paula; Luhr, Gretchen; Kohon, Jacklyn

    2016-01-01

    Affordable housing is an important form of income security for low-income older persons. This article describes characteristics of older persons waitlisted for either public housing or a housing choice voucher (HCV; previously Section 8) in Portland, Oregon. 358 persons (32% response rate) completed a mailed survey with questions about demographics, health and housing status, food insecurity, and preference for housing with services. Findings indicate that many waitlisted older persons experienced homelessness or housing instability, poor health, high hospital use, and food insecurity. Public housing applicants were significantly more likely to report lower incomes, homelessness, and food insecurity than HCV applicants. We conclude with policy implications for housing and health agencies that serve low-income older persons.

  11. Archaeal characterization of bioaerosols from cage-housed and floor-housed poultry operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Just, Natasha; Blais Lecours, Pascale; Marcoux-Voiselle, Mélissa; Kirychuk, Shelley; Veillette, Marc; Singh, Baljit; Duchaine, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Although bioaerosols from both cage-housed (CH) and floor-housed (FH) poultry operations are highly concentrated, the concentrations of dust, endotoxin, and bacteria are significantly higher in FH bioaerosols...

  12. Bank Lending, Housing and Spreads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslam, Aqib; Santoro, Emiliano

    The framework presented in this paper takes its cue from recent financial events and attempts to develop a tractable framework for policy analysis of macro-linkages, in particular a first attempt at the integration of an independent profit-maximising banking sector that lends to and borrows from...... agents in the economy, and through which changes in the monetary policy rate by the central bank are transmitted. The inter-linkages between housing and the role of the banking sector in the transmission of monetary policy is emphasized. Two competing effects are highlighted: (i) a financial accelerator...... channel, due to the presence of collateralized borrowers, and (ii) a banking attenuator effect, which crucially arises from the spread in interest rates caused by the introduction of monopolistically competitive financial intermediaries. We show how the classical amplification mechanism explored in models...

  13. Bank Lending, Housing and Spreads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslam, Aqib; Santoro, Emiliano

    of private borrowing between collaterally-constrained 'impatient' households and unconstrained 'patient' households, such as those put forward by Kiyotaki and Moore (1997) and Iacoviello (2005), is counteracted by the banking attenuator effect, given an endogenous steady state spread between loan and savings......The framework presented in this paper takes its cue from recent financial events and attempts to develop a tractable framework for policy analysis of macro-linkages, in particular a first attempt at the integration of an independent profit-maximising banking sector that lends to and borrows from...... agents in the economy, and through which changes in the monetary policy rate by the central bank are transmitted. The inter-linkages between housing and the role of the banking sector in the transmission of monetary policy is emphasized. Two competing effects are highlighted: (i) a financial accelerator...

  14. Social Housing for Mine Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Nacho Ruiz; Ruiz Esquiroz, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to design and build state subsidized housing in Cerredo (Asturias), a mining town located in the very heart of the Cantabrian Mountains, where no residential construction had been made for over 25 years. The volumetric we propose has an angular shape. It is a geometry...... crystallized from some elementary laws that are given by the town-planning regulations. The formal result is something halfway between a petrified object, a mountain’s shape and a disturbing organism floating over the mountainside. This “crystallographic” object has the same dark color as the local slate. Like...... a piece of coal, it absorbs almost all the light it gets and reflects a small amount of it, calmly showing us its rich geometry. The building’s unity contrasts with the individuality of each of the 15 apartments that show through some galleries in the facade. These are cubes which drill the volume using...

  15. Low energy housing, Chimo, Steinbach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    A house was constructed in Steinbach, Manitoba to demonstrate energy efficient residential construction techniques incorporating a cost-effective innovative wall design. Prior to the construction of the home, a computer analysis was made, and recommendations made to improve the techniques used in the design. During the construction of the home, an air leakage test was performed using the infiltrometer. Major objectives of the builder were to construct a wall with a thickness capable of accommodating R-48 (14'') glassfiber batts without constructing two separate walls and to achieve this with less cost, to provide a continuous path of insulation from the wall section into the attic area, to provide level attic insulation to the exterior of the perimeter wall by utilizing a raised heel type roof truss, to locate the house on the lot to give a southern exposure and to demonstrate the effectiveness of using an air-to-air heat exchanger and circulating hot water duct heater instead of other types of heating systems. It is concluded that the majority of the objectives were met in the design and construction of this home. The I-Beam stud walls use less material and are lighter, stronger and easier to erect than conventional double stud walls. The major disadvantage of the design is that vapour barrier installation is more involved and labour intensive. The circulating hot water duct heater, combined with an air-to-air heat exchanger, is recommended as a heating system for low energy homes. 10 figs., 4 tabs., 12 illus.

  16. Dr House, TV, and reality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapostolle, Frédéric; Montois, Sylvie; Alhéritière, Armelle; De Stefano, Carla; Le Toumelin, Philippe; Adnet, Frédéric

    2013-02-01

    Medical practice in the media is usually far from reality. Thus, the viewer may be led astray. The world-famous fictional Dr House has to face a difficult diagnosis every week. His practice does not seem to reflect reality. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnosis strategy involved in this television program. An observer has previewed the 2011 season. The episode running time, the patient's age and sex, the list of all investigations and interventions, the final diagnosis, and the patient's outcome were collected. Number and proportion of French viewers for each episode were recorded. We analyzed 18 episodes. The median running time was 42.5 (42.1-43.2) minutes. Main patient characters were 12 men (66%) and 6 women (33%); the average age was 31 (22-38) years. There were 225 investigations or interventions reported, averaging 14 (9-15) per episode, representing one examination every 3.1 (2.9-4.8) minutes. The most frequently prescribed investigations were magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; 13; 72%), blood sample (11; 61%), and biopsy (10; 56%). The most frequent interventions were surgery, anti-infectious treatments, and steroid treatments (9 each; 50%). Two patients (11%) died. The median number of spectators was 8.4 (8.1-8.7) million, corresponding to 33% (33%-34%) of the French national audience. The population and the examination strategies used by Dr House were unrealistic. Because of this distortion, patients may not understand, nor accept the delay, the investigation choices, the intervention costs, risks, nor failures of a daily medical practice. Physicians should be aware of this "information bias." Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 78 FR 26651 - Redelegation of Authority to Regional Public Housing Directors and Public Housing Field Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Redelegation of Authority to Regional Public Housing Directors and Public Housing Field Office Directors AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public and Indian Housing, HUD... Development Act, as amended, authorizes the Secretary to delegate functions, powers, and duties as...

  18. The impact of house price index specification levels on the risk profile of housing corporations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kramer; T. Kuijl; M. Francke

    2009-01-01

    Asset Liability Management (ALM) for housing corporations is based on stochastic scenario models for important risk and return drivers such as interest and inflation rates, construction costs and sales prices of houses. Given the situation of the housing corporation (current real estate portfolio, a

  19. THE MAIN CULPRIT IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS - HOUSE DUST OR HOUSE DUST MITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis especially perennial type makes life miserable for the patient. House dust mite is one of the major players causing it. This study is to compare the allergen i n city of house dust mite versus house dust and evaluate any cross - allergenicity between them. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study in a tertiary referral hospital. MATERIALS & METHODS: Forty patients of allergic rhinitis and well matched controls were subjected to intradermal skin tests to house dust and house dust mite allergen. The skin tests were graded as per standard norms and the responses matched after correlating with different parameters. Statistical analysis was done and the results evaluated. RESULTS: House dust mite was the main allergen, as compared to house dust, responsible for causing allergic rhinitis. The allergen reactivity potential of house dust mite was significantly more as compared to house dust. And, as such there was no statistically significant cross - allergenicity between the two groups. CONCLUSION: House dust mite rather than house dust is the main culprit in causing allergic rhinitis. Hence, precautionary and preventive measures to control the exposure to house dust mite can be undertaken

  20. Sustainable Housing in the Urban Context: International Sustainable Development Indicator Sets and Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Nessa; Pareja Eastaway, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    Housing, an essential aspect of quality of life, is also significant for sustainable development (SD). All of the major international statements on SD refer to housing or settlement strategies. However, indicator sets derived from these statements often fail to include good indicators of sustainable housing. This article outlines the…

  1. Sustainable Housing in the Urban Context: International Sustainable Development Indicator Sets and Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Nessa; Pareja Eastaway, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    Housing, an essential aspect of quality of life, is also significant for sustainable development (SD). All of the major international statements on SD refer to housing or settlement strategies. However, indicator sets derived from these statements often fail to include good indicators of sustainable housing. This article outlines the…

  2. Environmental Ethics and Sustainability in Housing Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrė Gražulevičiūtė-Vileniškė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available House was probably the first freestanding building of the prehistoric humans. This field of architectural design and construction remains of crucial importance from the social, cultural, economic, and environmental points of view until today. Take, for example, the influence of housing construction sector on the environment due to the development of industrial construction technologies, and the increasing world’s population, or the emotional, psychological impact of the closest everyday built environment on the human development. Considering this, we have decided to analyze the links between types, forms, and features of housing and ethical approaches towards the environment. This research has a historical dimension: we have analyzed the importance of different land management (landscape architecture criteria in housing development in different historical periods and tried to identify the genesis of and conditions for the environmental concern in this field. The analysis of challenges of the present situation in the housing sector development has allowed us to identify main conditions of uncertainty, constant change, and diversity of possible architectural, technological, and ethical approaches that shape this field today. We propose that housing solutions may vary from low-tech buildings made with vernacular technologies and local building materials to ecological high-tech buildings still maintaining the environmentally friendly approach; however, taking into account the constant housing shortages and the increasing world’s population, the sector of affordable sustainable housing should be given a priority.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.62.4.2358

  3. RADON REDUCTION IN A CRAWL SPACE HOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is drawn from the soil into a house when low air pressure exists in the house. This is a commonplace environmental hazard in the United States, Canada, and northern Europe. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing ...

  4. Steroids in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossen, Ida; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Dimmen, Malene V

    2016-01-01

    . It was hypothesised that POPs may have endocrine disrupting effects on the local house sparrow population and can thus interfere with the steroid hormone homeostasis. Among female house sparrows, bivariate correlations revealed negative relationships between POPs and estrogens. Among male sparrows, positive...

  5. Sustainability in Housing: A Curriculum Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Kathleen; Emmel, Joann M.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the influence of environmental issues on the field of housing, from the perspective of sustainable housing. Presents a case study of the development of a college course to address these issues by integrating energy management, air quality, water quality, and waste management. (Author)

  6. Sustainability in Housing and Dining Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursehouse, Clive

    2012-01-01

    Residential life, housing, and dining operations have the potential to touch all students by integrating sustainability issues into all operations. There are numerous ways that sustainable practices are enacted in campus housing and dining. Although faculty and staff in academic affairs may look strategically at how sustainability can be…

  7. New business model of flexible housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zairul, Z.; Geraedts, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    The Open Building (OB) and the concept of flexible housing has alwaysassociated with user’s ability to respond to changing demand. It is necessary that housing can adap to changing market conditions and different users’ requirements. Flexibility makes a crucial concept that one cannot ignore. Howeve

  8. RADON REDUCTION IN A CRAWL SPACE HOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is drawn from the soil into a house when low air pressure exists in the house. This is a commonplace environmental hazard in the United States, Canada, and northern Europe. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing ...

  9. The Keys to the White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman, Allan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Keys to the White House is a historically-based system for predicting the result of the popular vote in American presidential elections. The Keys system tracks the big picture of how well the party holding the White House has governed and does not shift with events of the campaign. This model gives specificity to the idea that it is…

  10. United States housing, second quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. housing market’s quarter two results were disap¬pointing compared with the first quarter. Although overall expected gains did not materialize, certain sectors improved slightly. Housing under construction, completions, and new and existing home sales exhibited slight increases. Overall permit data declined, and the decrease in starts was due primarily to a...

  11. Housing equity, residential mobility and commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Highly productive economies require a flexible labor force with workers that move in accordance with the changing demand for goods and services. In times with falling housing prices, the mobility of home owning workers may be hampered by a lock-in effect of low or even negative housing equity. Th...

  12. Data-driven regionalization of housing markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbich, M.; Brunauer, W.; Hagenauer, J.; Leitner, M.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a data-driven framework for housing market segmentation. Local marginal house price surfaces are investigated by means of mixed geographically weighted regression and are reduced to a set of principal component maps, which in turn serve as input for spatial regionalization. The

  13. Discretionary profit in subsidised housing markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nentjes, A; Schopp, W

    In the subsidised housing sector, building corporations can use their market power as purchasers to raise output of subsidised housing to a level higher than it is with perfect competition on both sides of the market. This holds true if the building society is perfectly X-efficient, The proposition

  14. Beyond home ownership: housing, welfare and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Elsinga, M.

    2012-01-01

    In context of ongoing transformations in housing markets and socioeconomic conditions, this book focuses on past, current and future roles of home ownership in social policies and welfare practices. It considers owner-occupied housing in terms of diverse meanings and manifestations, but in particula

  15. Competition between social and private rental housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennartz, C.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of shifting regulatory approaches and changing provision structures in many Western rental housing systems, the notion of competition between social and private rental housing has received increasing attention from practitioners and academic researchers. This thesis explores and theor

  16. Fear and Loathing in the Housing Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauvet, Marcelle; Gabriel, Stuart; Lutz, Chandler

    in determination of national and city-specific housing returns, the VIX, foreclosures, and returns on subprime mortgage credit-default swaps. Further, the effects of housing distress on returns are asymmetric and stronger during times of crisis. Overall, results suggest that real estate and related markets...

  17. Fear and Loathing in the Housing Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauvet, Marcelle; Gabriel, Stuart; Lutz, Chandler

    in the determination of subprime mortgage credit-default swaps, the VIX, foreclosures, and national or city-specific housing returns. Further, the effects of housing distress on returns are asymmetric and stronger during times of crisis. Overall, results suggest that real estate and related markets are highly...

  18. Behavioral analysis of tiger night housing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Angela; Leighty, Katherine A; Bettinger, Tamara L

    2013-03-01

    The systematic evaluation of changes in animal management practices is critical to ensuring the best possible welfare. Here, we examined the behavioral impacts of intermittently housing our six adult female tigers, who have been housed socially for much of their lives, individually overnight to allow for specialized care required by their advancing age. We looked for behavioral changes indicative of both positive and negative changes in welfare by monitoring time spent asleep, sleeping position, body position while awake, as well as pacing, door pounding, self-grooming, roaring, and chuffing while housed socially as compared to individually overnight. Housing condition did not affect time spent asleep, sleeping positions assumed or the more preferred body positions while awake. Further, pacing, door-pounding, and roaring were infrequent and not altered by housing condition. Self-grooming did increase when housed individually but no evidence of over-grooming was present and chuffing, a close proximity social vocalization, was more likely to occur when socially housed. Taken together, these findings support the notion that transitioning to individual housing as needed is a viable option for managing cats accustomed to being maintained in a social group. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. New business model of flexible housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zairul, Z.; Geraedts, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    The Open Building (OB) and the concept of flexible housing has alwaysassociated with user’s ability to respond to changing demand. It is necessary that housing can adap to changing market conditions and different users’ requirements. Flexibility makes a crucial concept that one cannot ignore. Howeve

  20. Data-driven regionalization of housing markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbich, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370530349; Brunauer, W.; Hagenauer, J.; Leitner, M.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a data-driven framework for housing market segmentation. Local marginal house price surfaces are investigated by means of mixed geographically weighted regression and are reduced to a set of principal component maps, which in turn serve as input for spatial regionalization. The

  1. Passive house networks: how can they deliver?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines experiences with the diffusion of the passive house concept, applied to the situation of ‘emerging’ countries like Belgium and the Netherlands. Adopter categories considering the passive house concept are defined. A marketing study based on Rogers’ theory of diffusion of

  2. Sustainability in Housing: A Curriculum Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Kathleen; Emmel, Joann M.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the influence of environmental issues on the field of housing, from the perspective of sustainable housing. Presents a case study of the development of a college course to address these issues by integrating energy management, air quality, water quality, and waste management. (Author)

  3. Housing Affordability And Children's Cognitive Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sandra; Holupka, C Scott

    2016-11-01

    Housing cost burden-the fraction of income spent on housing-is the most prevalent housing problem affecting the healthy development of millions of low- and moderate-income children. By affecting disposable income, a high burden affects parents' expenditures on both necessities for and enrichment of their children, as well as investments in their children. Reducing those expenditures and investments, in turn, can affect children's development, including their cognitive skills and physical, social, and emotional health. This article summarizes the first empirical evidence of the effects of housing affordability on children's cognitive achievement and on one factor that appears to contribute to these effects: the larger expenditures on child enrichment by families in affordable housing. We found that housing cost burden has the same relationship to both children's cognitive achievement and enrichment spending on children, exhibiting an inverted U shape in both cases. The maximum benefit occurs when housing cost burden is near 30 percent of income-the long-standing rule-of-thumb definition of affordable housing. The effect of the burden is stronger on children's math ability than on their reading comprehension and is more pronounced with burdens above the 30 percent standard. For enrichment spending, the curve is "shallower" (meaning the effect of optimal affordability is less pronounced) but still significant.

  4. Deformation analysis of rotary combustion engine housings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmann, Carl

    1991-01-01

    This analysis of the deformation of rotary combustion engine housings targeted the following objectives: (1) the development and verification of a finite element model of the trochoid housing, (2) the prediction of the stress and deformation fields present within the trochoid housing during operating conditions, and (3) the development of a specialized preprocessor which would shorten the time necessary for mesh generation of a trochoid housing's FEM model from roughly one month to approximately two man hours. Executable finite element models were developed for both the Mazda and the Outboard Marine Corporation trochoid housings. It was also demonstrated that a preprocessor which would hasten the generation of finite element models of a rotary engine was possible to develop. The above objectives are treated in detail in the attached appendices. The first deals with finite element modeling of a Wankel engine center housing, and the second with the development of a preprocessor that generates finite element models of rotary combustion engine center housings. A computer program, designed to generate finite element models of user defined rotary combustion engine center housing geometries, is also included.

  5. Airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiencies and suitability of samplers for airborne microorganisms and dust, which could be used in practical livestock houses. Two studies were performed: 1) Testing impaction and cyclone pre-separators for dust sampling in livestock houses; 2) Dete

  6. Housing's impact on wood products sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Karen. Koenig

    2017-01-01

    What are the market conditions for woodworkers involved in construction-based sectors and what investments are planned to improve capabilities in the current business environment? For a fifth straight year, construction-based mar­kets continued their growth trends in 2016, as U.S. spending on single family housing, multi-family housing, and nonresidential construction...

  7. Crippled Housing Market Complicates Recruiting Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    With a house languishing in the real-estate doldrums of southwestern Ohio, Edward F. Leonard III and his family have lived apart since he took over as president of Bethany College, in Kansas, nearly a year ago. Their situation is like that of many faculty members and administrators frustrated by housing prices across the country. Existing-home…

  8. Student Housing: Trends, Preferences and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Roche, Claire Reeves; Flanigan, Mary A.; Copeland, P. Kenneth, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    To attract and retain students, universities are confronted with increased demand to provide housing options that meet the new expectations of the millennial generation. Recent trends and housing preferences are examined. The results of surveys detailing some of these new demands and how universities are attempting to address these demands are…

  9. State Skill Standards: Housing and Interior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevada Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the Housing and Interior Design Standards will provide students with skills for personal family life and towards becoming a professional in the interior design field. The mission of Housing and Interior Design education is to prepare students for family life, work life, and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to…

  10. Changing housing policy landscapes in Asia Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Ronald; R.L.H. Chiu

    2010-01-01

    The Asia Pacific region, and in particular East Asia, underwent rapid urbanisation and industrialisation in the latter decades of the twentieth century. Central to this transformation was intensive public and private investment in the housing sector. Although housing was largely commodified, public

  11. Aisle-truss houses of Northern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eybye, Birgitte Tanderup

    2014-01-01

    The aisle-truss houses of Northern Jutland were built under hard conditions, such as harsh climate and scarce resources. Hence, the aisle-truss houses display a number of resource-saving and sustainable building principles, including the arcade construction and the use of passive energy strategie...

  12. Sustained housing-type social buffering following social housing in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Ishida, Aya; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-05-01

    In social animals, recovery from the adverse effects of distressing stimuli is promoted by subsequent cohousing with a conspecific animal(s). This phenomenon has been termed housing-type social buffering. We previously found that social housing induced housing-type social buffering in fear-conditioned male rats. This buffering took the form of attenuated conditioned hyperthermia in response to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). Here, we assessed whether this social buffering is sustained even if the subject is housed alone after a period of social housing. When fear-conditioned subjects were housed alone during a 48-h period between conditioning and re-exposure to the auditory CS, they exhibited conditioned hyperthermia in response to the CS. However, conditioned hyperthermia was not observed when the 12-h period of social housing began 24 and 36h after conditioning during the 48-h period. This was not the case when the 12-h period of social housing began 0 and 12h after the conditioning. These results suggest that housing-type social buffering is sustained for 12h after the 12-h period of social housing. We next considered whether increasing the duration of social housing would extend the period of social buffering. We observed social buffering of conditioned hyperthermia 24 and 48, but not 96h after a 24-h period of social housing. These results suggest that social buffering was extended when the duration of social housing was increased. Taken together, our findings indicate that housing-type social buffering is sustained after a period of social housing.

  13. Experimental house at Porto. A thermally optimised house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalos, R.

    1988-12-01

    In Porto, Portugal's second largest city, the Casa Termicamente Optimizada was built in 1985 with the aim of testing the various types of passive utilization of solar energy and to determine their influence on solid-construction buildings. The house has a concrete skeleton with concrete walls of 20 cm thickness insulated with 5 cm polystyrene on the outside. The living rooms face south. Light comes in through the windows facing south. Storage facilities for storing this energy are sufficiently provided. The bedrooms have Trombe-wall of 2,5 m/sup 2/. The storage capacity of the building is increased by a water wall on the ground floor. It consists of 6 cylinders each of which has a diameter of 25 cm and is filled with 180 l of water. The 'solar elements' can be shaded during the summer. During winter time the shades serve to prevent radiation losses. In one year one could even do without additional heating. (BWI).

  14. Homelessness and Housing Insecurity Among Former Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire W. Herbert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The United States has experienced dramatic increases in both incarceration rates and the population of insecurely housed or homeless persons since the 1980s. These marginalized populations have strong overlaps, with many people being poor, minority, and from an urban area. That a relationship between homelessness, housing insecurity, and incarceration exists is clear, but the extent and nature of this relationship is not yet adequately understood. We use longitudinal, administrative data on Michigan parolees released in 2003 to examine returning prisoners’ experiences with housing insecurity and homelessness. Our analysis finds relatively low rates of outright homelessness among former prisoners, but very high rates of housing insecurity, much of which is linked to features of community supervision, such as intermediate sanctions, returns to prison, and absconding. We identify risk factors for housing insecurity, including mental illness, substance use, prior incarceration, and homelessness, as well as protective “buffers” against insecurity and homelessness, including earnings and social supports.

  15. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Mazwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

    1989-12-01

    This document describes the research work completed in five areas in fiscal year 1989. (1) The analysis of the US industrialized housing industry includes statistics, definitions, a case study, and a code analysis. (2) The assessment of foreign technology reviews the current status of design, manufacturing, marketing, and installation of industrialized housing primarily in Sweden and Japan. (3) Assessment of industrialization applications reviews housing production by climate zone, has a cost and energy comparison of Swedish and US housing, and discusses future manufacturing processes and emerging components. (4) The state of computer use in the industry is described and a prototype design tool is discussed. (5) Side by side testing of industrialized housing systems is discussed.

  16. Housing conditions in calves welfare risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relić Renata R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows results of calf welfare risk assessment at intensive breeding farms. Assessment has been conducted on the basis of housing conditions which can have negative influence on welfare of cattle, especially in calf category considering their needs. According to analysis results very good housing conditions were confirmed in open shed rearing stall (C and closed type rearing stall without feeding yard (A, whilst in closed rearing stall with feeding yard (B housing conditions were estimated as acceptable. Based on collected data about housing conditions, we have estimated that the least risk for calf welfare is at C farm, slightly higher at A farm and the highest at B farm. Data about housing conditions and analysis of potential welfare risk factors show possible causes for already present health and other problems with animals, which also can reappear in future. However for that reason, applying described methods can increase rearing conditions and increase production at cattle farms.

  17. The Health Impact of Urban Poor Housing and Environmental Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Solon, Orville C.

    1989-01-01

    How does housing affect households’ health status? How does housing interact with other health inputs? What trade-offs exist between housing and medical care, housing and education and housing and nutrition? It is hoped that from this paper, other efforts towards the resolution of these questions shall be initiated.

  18. 24 CFR 266.100 - Qualified housing finance agency (HFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified housing finance agency... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.100 Qualified housing finance agency (HFA). (a)...

  19. 12 CFR 926.3 - Housing associate eligibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing associate eligibility requirements. 926.3 Section 926.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATES FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING ASSOCIATES § 926.3 Housing associate...

  20. 12 CFR 926.5 - Housing associate application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing associate application process. 926.5 Section 926.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATES FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING ASSOCIATES § 926.5 Housing associate application process....

  1. The Diversification Benefits of Free Trade in House Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dröes, M.I.; Garretsen, H; Manshanden, W.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper finds that homeowners could substantially reduce house price risk if they would reinvest their housing wealth in a market portfolio of houses. Free trade in the value of the house among homeowners would allow them to do so. To quantify the diversification benefits of free trade in house v

  2. 25 CFR 502.11 - House banking game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false House banking game. 502.11 Section 502.11 Indians... CHAPTER § 502.11 House banking game. House banking game means any game of chance that is played with the house as a participant in the game, where the house takes on all players, collects from all losers, and...

  3. 24 CFR 982.621 - Manufactured home: Housing quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Types Manufactured Home § 982.621 Manufactured home: Housing quality standards. A manufactured home must... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufactured home: Housing quality standards. 982.621 Section 982.621 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  4. 24 CFR 214.313 - Housing counseling fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing counseling fees. 214.313... HOUSING COUNSELING PROGRAM Program Administration § 214.313 Housing counseling fees. (a) Participating agencies may charge reasonable and customary fees for housing education and counseling services, as long...

  5. Intimate partner violence and housing instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao, Joanne; Alvarez, Jennifer; Baumrind, Nikki; Induni, Marta; Kimerling, Rachel

    2007-02-01

    The mental and physical health consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been well established, yet little is known about the impact of violence on a woman's ability to obtain and maintain housing. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between recent IPV and housing instability among a representative sample of California women. It is expected that women who have experienced IPV will be at increased risk for housing instability as evidenced by: (1) late rent or mortgage, (2) frequent moves because of difficulty obtaining affordable housing, and/or (3) without their own housing. Data were taken from the 2003 California Women's Health Survey, a population-based, random-digit-dial, annual probability survey of adult California women (N=3619). Logistic regressions were used to predict housing instability in the past 12 months, adjusting for the following covariates; age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, children in the household, and past year IPV. In the multivariate model, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, poverty, and IPV were significant predictors of housing instability. After adjusting for all covariates, women who experienced IPV in the last year had almost four times the odds of reporting housing instability than women who did not experience IPV (adjusted odds ratio=3.98, 95% confidence interval: 2.94-5.39). This study found that IPV was associated with housing instability among California women. Future prospective studies are needed to learn more about the nature and direction of the relationship between IPV and housing instability and the possible associated negative health consequences.

  6. Fertility differences by housing type: The effect of housing conditions or of selective moves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Vikat

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines fertility variation across housing types and childbearing patterns after housing changes. While the effect of family changes on housing choices has been studied in detail, little is known about childbearing patterns within various housing types, despite the fact that many studies suggest housing as an important determinant of fertility. We use longitudinal register data from Finland and apply hazard regression. Firstly, we observe a significant variation in the fertility levels across housing types - fertility is highest among couples in single-family houses and lowest among those in apartments, with the variation remaining significant even after controlling for the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of women. Secondly, our results show elevated fertility levels after couples have changed their housing, suggesting that much of the fertility variation across housing types could be attributed to selective moves. Thirdly, the study also reveals relatively a high risk of third birth for couples in single-family houses several years after the move, suggesting that living in spacious housing and in a family-friendly environment for a longer time may lead to higher fertility.

  7. Housing Stakeholder Preferences for the "Soft" Features of Sustainable and Healthy Housing Design in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochorskaite, Agne; Couch, Chris; Malys, Naglis; Maliene, Vida

    2016-01-07

    It is widely recognised that the quantity and sustainability of new homes in the UK need to increase. However, it is important that sustainable housing is regarded holistically, and not merely in environmental terms, and incorporates elements that enhance the quality of life, health and well-being of its users. This paper focuses on the "soft" features of sustainable housing, that is, the non-technological components of sustainable housing and neighbourhood design that can impact occupants' health and well-being. Aims of the study are to ascertain the relative level of importance that key housing stakeholders attach to these features and to investigate whether the opinions of housing users and housing providers are aligned with regards to their importance. An online survey was carried out to gauge the level of importance that the key stakeholders, such as housing users, local authorities, housing associations, and developers (n = 235), attach to these features. Results revealed that while suitable indoor space was the feature regarded as most important by all stakeholders, there were also a number of disparities in opinion between housing users and housing providers (and among the different types of providers). This implies a scope for initiatives to achieve a better alignment between housing users and providers.

  8. VA's expansion of supportive housing: successes and challenges on the path toward Housing First.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Erika Laine; Pollio, David E; Holmes, Sally; Schumacher, Joseph; White, Bert; Lukas, Carol Vandeusen; Kertesz, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is transitioning to a Housing First approach to placement of veterans in permanent supportive housing through the use of rental vouchers, an ambitious organizational transformation. This qualitative study examined the experiences of eight VA facilities undertaking this endeavor in 2012. A multidisciplinary team interviewed facility leadership, midlevel managers, and frontline staff (N=95 individuals) at eight VA facilities representing four U.S. regions. The team used a semistructured interview protocol and the constant comparative method to explore how individuals throughout the organizations experienced and responded to the challenges of transitioning to a Housing First approach. Frontline staff faced challenges in rapidly housing homeless veterans because of difficult rental markets, the need to coordinate with local public housing authorities, and a lack of available funds for move-in costs. Staff sought to balance their time spent on housing activities with intensive case management of highly vulnerable veterans. Finding low-demand sheltering options (that is, no expectations regarding sobriety or treatment participation, as in the Housing First model) for veterans waiting for housing presented a significant challenge to implementation of Housing First. Facility leadership supported Housing First implementation through resource allocation, performance monitoring, and reliance on midlevel managers to understand and meet the challenges of implementation. The findings highlight the considerable practical challenges and innovative solutions arising from a large-scale effort to implement Housing First, with particular attention to the experiences of individuals at all levels within an organization.

  9. Understanding of Danish Passive Houses based on Pilot Project Comfort Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla

    to teamwork, method and tools? And what barriers and possibilities lie within the approaches? – How do the occupants of the Comfort Houses experience the passive house architecture and the technical service systems? And has their everyday life changed by moving into a passive house? If so, how? – To what...... and understanding of the indoor environment. The investigations have resulted in a list of recommendations that are important when designing future passive houses in Denmark. Firstly, the study indicates that the integrated design process is a beneficial approach for designing passive houses. But some circumstances...... energy houses) is important for this concept to be a success both for the occupant and the environment. The indoor environment is fairly comfortable in the houses, but there is still room for improvement. Especially according to the thermal indoor environment in the summer period and the reverberation...

  10. Investigation of Sustainable Housing Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roshanfekr Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been paid to sustainable development in cities. The quality of human life is directly related to environmental quality. Because many people live in cities as a place of social, economic and cultural relationships, certain issues such as environmental crises, energy, air and noise pollution and traffic jams are some of the factors that can alter the quality of human life. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of human life, attention to sustainable development (or sustainability in cities is proposed. Sustainable building has a comprehensive significance that begins with the conception of negative and positive impacts on the environment. Several descriptions of sustainable or green buildings have been created; however, they all pursue one goal, which is to create sustainable urban developments and protection of the environment. The quality of indoor environments, materials, and energy consumption, water usage, the impact of building construction processes and building maintenance are some of the factors that affect the environment and sustainability. Sustainable building is an attempt to relieve the minus impacts on the environment that occur during a building’s lifetime. This research investigates the important factors that have relevance to green buildings and introduces several criteria of sustainable housing.

  11. 24 CFR 882.807 - Housing assistance payments contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 MODERATE REHABILITATION PROGRAMS Section 8 Moderate Rehabilitation Single Room Occupancy Program for Homeless Individuals § 882.807 Housing assistance payments... OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT...

  12. 24 CFR 200.300 - Nondiscrimination and fair housing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Nondiscrimination and Fair Housing... part 5; and (b) The affirmative fair housing marketing requirements in 24 CFR part 200, subpart M...

  13. Ärge olge nagu House! / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2006-01-01

    Põnevussarja "Dr House" ("House, M.D.") nimiosatäitja Hugh Laurie sarjast ning oma tegelaskujust. Lisatud dr House'i tsitaate. Sama: Teleleht nr. 11-12 lk. 38 : ill pealkirjaga "Hugh Laurie mängib arsti"

  14. Ärge olge nagu House! / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2006-01-01

    Põnevussarja "Dr House" ("House, M.D.") nimiosatäitja Hugh Laurie sarjast ning oma tegelaskujust. Lisatud dr House'i tsitaate. Sama: Teleleht nr. 11-12 lk. 38 : ill pealkirjaga "Hugh Laurie mängib arsti"

  15. A Life-Cycle Analysis of Social Security with Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kaiji

    2009-01-01

    This paper incorporates two features of housing in a life-cycle analysis of social security: housing as a durable good and housing market frictions. We find that with housing as a durable good unfunded social security substantially crowds out housing consumption throughout the life cycle. By contrast, aggregate non-durable consumption is higher when social security is present, although it is postponed until late in life. Moreover, in the presence of housing market frictions, social security l...

  16. The transferability of housing voucher system in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yiu-kei; 鄧耀基

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is about the use of in-cash housing subsidy, in the form of housing voucher, to deliver housing welfare in Hong Kong. This type of subsidy is currently the major type of housing assistance implemented in the United States since 1970s for improving the deteriorating public housing stock as well as the concentrated poverty and racial segregated neighbourhoods developed in the public housing projects. As a foreign policy, the research has taken the academic approach of policy t...

  17. Energy efficiency in existing detached housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This memo is written as an input to the German project Enef-haus on energy- efficient restoration of single-family houses in Germany. The memo contains a summary of the Danish experiences divided into three main sections: first is a short historic overview of the Danish energy policy indicating...... when different relevant instruments have been introduced to increase the energy efficiency of privately owned single-family houses. Second is a short introduction to the Danish housing sector and its energy supplies. The third and main part of the report is an examination of the most recent...

  18. Experiences of social housing in Reggio Emilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pantaleoni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The “Cooperativa Andria” has been among operators in the social housing sector the one who have taken promptly and accurately the spirit of innovation that characterized the regional planning program in the first half of the Nineties, following the promulgation of the law 179/1992, which called a focus on the housing problems of particular social categories who in those years were highlighted in most cities and urban areas of the country: the elderly, young couples, immigrants. In response to announcements for subsidized housing developed by the Emilia-Romagna Region, Andria has implemented pilot-actions as real best practises.

  19. Low-Income Housing Finance in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Arbelaez, Maria Angelica; Camacho, Carolina; Fajardo, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role played by policy instruments in access to housing finance by low-income households. It also analyzes the impact of housing credit and subsidies on both the quality of life and the quality of dwelling of the beneficiaries. Using the Quality of Life Surveys conducted in Colombia in 2003 and 2008, the study finds that policy instruments aimed at easing access of low-income households to affordable housing such as subsidies and loan guarantees have played a m...

  20. Evaluation of Multi Residential House Renovation Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Rapcevičienė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed multi residential house renovation investment projects efficiency evaluation methods: economic-social, and environmental, as well as key financial valuation methods: simple pay-back period, the energy cost savings, the net present value, internal rate of return. Building walls condition regenerative rate which is used to evaluate investments in energy-saving measures is also discussed. According to reconstruction investments of multi residential house, three government financing programs of multi residential house are evaluated and selected the most effective program by comparing financial valuation methods taking and without taking into account building walls condition regenerative rate. Article in Lithuanian

  1. Social Housing: the case of Parma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Peron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The first intervention of Social House at the national level co-financed by the Funds Integrated System (FIS and the first one that has actually implemented the housing plan launched by the government in 2009 was born in Parma. The project was conceived for the realization of total 2477 accommodation, to be implemented in two stages, in relation to the availability of the areas. The end that has moved the initiative was to promote housing models based on economic and social needs of the community through the redevelopment Urban and Architectural.

  2. Energy Efficient Renovation of Social Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Grith; Christiansen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In years to come the social housing sector (SH) must undergo renovation. The SH is out of step with modern requirements when it comes to plan arrangements, energy frame calcu-lation, flexible building services and social challenges. A way to solve such challenges in an environmentally, economically......), (2) workshops and (3) seminars for qualifying (4) the definition of a common framework for (5) the development and (6) acceptance of the actual energy renovation strategy, which will then be transformed into action plans in the form of (7) ”common screening” of housing and housing areas as a basis...

  3. White House Tapes of the Nixon Administration, 1971 to 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This dataset provides information about the Nixon Administration's White House Tapes. The White House Tapes contain sound recordings of President Richard Nixon's...

  4. Aircraft Test & Evaluation Facility (Hush House)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Test and Evaluation Facility (ATEF), or Hush House, is a noise-abated ground test sub-facility. The facility's controlled environment provides 24-hour...

  5. Life cycle assessment of mobile phone housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-xin; WANG Ru-song; FU Hao; LIU Jing-ru

    2004-01-01

    The life cycle assessment of the mobile phone housing in Motorola(China) Electronics Ltd. was carried out, in which materials flows and environmental emissions based on a basic production scheme were analyzed and assessed. In the manufacturing stage, such primary processes as polycarbonate molding and surface painting are included, whereas different surface finishing technologies like normal painting, electroplate, IMD and VDM etc. were assessed. The results showed that housing decoration plays a significant role within the housing life cycle. The most significant environmental impact from housing production is the photochemical ozone formation potential.Environmental impacts of different decoration techniques varied widely, for example, the electroplating technique is more environmentally friendly than VDM. VDM consumes much more energy and raw material. In addition, the results of two altemative scenarios of dematerialization showed that material flow analysis and assessment is very important and valuable in selecting an environmentally friendly process.

  6. New Mexico House Legislative District Boundaries - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains the New Mexico House District Boundaries as of July 2006. It is in a vector digital shapefile created to show the voting precinct coverage for...

  7. Under Armour Protects Its Distribution House

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael D Cole

    2009-01-01

      The Under Armour success story is accentuated by the acclaimed "We must protect our house" marketing campaign that has now become a nationally recognized anthem in the sports world and elsewhere...

  8. Financial investments for zero energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepkova, Natalija; Zubka, Domantas; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    and two-thirds of all electricity used in the United States and the European Union (EU). Ideas of efficient energy use in buildings are being developed to solve these problems, noticed almost three decades ago. Renovation of detached houses is a topic less discussed than renovation of apartment buildings......The climate is constantly changing and is already affecting our future. The construction sector has become energy-intensive and a serious source of pollution. Today, houses use more energy and fossil fuels than ever before. In fact, buildings currently consume more than one-third of all energy......, but single-family houses should also be included in the renovation process and turned into zero energy buildings, which will be the standard in the near future of today’s construction sector. Read about the list of conclusions the investigations of a renovation project of a detached house into a nearzero...

  9. Y-House: Your Match Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oristaglio, Michael L. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2016-03-16

    Y-House is a project in Solar Decathlon 2015. The design objective of Y-House is to re-envision the micro-home through a focus on merging efficiency with spaciousness, personalized form and openness to the natural environment. The main project objective during Budget Period 1 was to complete the design of Y-House, including the research needed to fully specify its mechanical and electrical systems. The team also had an objective to finalize most of the construction planning before entering Budget Period 2. The main project objective in Budget Period 2 was to complete construction of Y-House for participation in the SD 2015 competition event in Irvine, California, in October 2015. During both budget periods, the team was continuously seeking sponsors to fund its mission.

  10. 7 CFR 1955.113 - Price (housing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh) Real Property... period of active marketing, one further price reduction of 10 percent of the appraised value will be...

  11. ENERGY EFFICIENT RENOVATION OF SOCIAL HOUSING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blyt, Henrik; Christiansen, Michael; Bech-Nielsen, Grith

    2013-01-01

    . Secondly we present follow up methods for developing an overall future energy efficient renovation housing sector strategy. All in all, our project contributes to the building sector by testing new methods and suggesting methods for meeting challenges concerning energy efficient renovation. It also......This paper presents a case study which investigates a strategic and methodological approach to future proofed renovations of social housing in an environmental, economically and socially sustainable way. In years to come the social housing sector must undergo major renovation. The housing sector...... and socially sustainable objective, which seeks towards energy efficient renovation as an overall, systemic and interdisciplinary collaboration, the construction industry needs to focus on developing, testing, evaluating and implementing tools and methods to optimize and improve processes in a value...

  12. Moving a House by Moved Participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    ? The participant observer believed it was a matter of changing coordinates, but the engineers immediately saw it was an issue of pipes in the ground, could they be moved and still function as planned? To decide the possibility of this suggestion the engineer was given the task of investigating the consequences......The author performed an investigation of how a house was designed. He participated mainly in meetings, in which the house was engineered. The meetings proceeded in an agreeable atmosphere. While the architect was mostly concerned with integrating the functionality of the house, the engineer engaged...... of moving the house with respect to its servicing pipes. It was immediately underlined that this task was a surplus task and would therefore trigger an extra payment. When I interviewed the participants and asked them how they understood the function of the engineer, they revealed some irritation, since...

  13. Need for adaptation: transformation of temporary houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemann, Elizabeth

    2017-02-14

    Building permanent accommodation after a disaster takes time for reasons including the removal of debris, the lack of available land, and the procurement of resources. In the period in-between, affected communities find shelter in different ways. Temporary houses or transitional shelters are used when families cannot return to their pre-disaster homes and no other alternative can be provided. In practice, families stay in a standard interim solution for months or even years while trying to return to their routines. Consequently, they adapt their houses to meet their midterm needs. This study analysed temporary houses in Chile and Peru to illustrate how families modify them with or without external support. The paper underlines that guidance must be given on how to alter them safely and on how to incorporate the temporary solution into the permanent structure, because families adapt their houses whether or not they are so designed.

  14. Going Smokefree Matters - Multiunit Housing Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Going Smokefree Matters – Multiunit Housing Infographic which outlines key facts related to the effects of secondhand smoke exposure in multiunit...

  15. NIU's Kinder, Gentler, Housing Repair System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillis, Linda; Montgomery, Rogene

    1999-01-01

    Explains the effective use of a centralized housing-repair request system at Northern Illinois University that has improved customer service and increased fiscal accountability. Describes the system and assesses of its effectiveness. (GR)

  16. Retrofitting the Southeast. The Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, W. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Shapiro, C. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Vijayakumar, G. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings research team has provided the technical engineering and building science support for a highly visible demonstration home that was unveiled at the National Association of Home Builders' International Builders Show on Feb. 9, 2012, in Orlando, FL. The two previous projects, the Las Vegas net-zero ReVISION House and the 2011 VISION and ReVISION Houses in Orlando, met goals for energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and information dissemination through multiple web-based venues. This report describes the deep energy retrofit of the Cool Energy House (CEH), which began as a mid-1990s two-story traditional specification house of about 4,000 ft2 in the upscale Orlando suburb of Windermere.

  17. Retrofitting the Southeast: The Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, W.; Shapiro, C.; Vijayakumar, G.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings has provided the technical engineering and building science support for a highly visible demonstration home in connection with the National Association of Home Builders' International Builders Show. The two previous projects, the Las Vegas net-zero ReVISION House and the 2011 VISION and ReVISION Houses in Orlando, met goals for energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and information dissemination through multiple web-based venues. This project, which was unveiled at the 2012 International Builders Show in Orlando on February 9, is the deep energy retrofit Cool Energy House (CEH). The CEH began as a mid-1990s two-story traditional specification house of about 4,000 ft2 in the upscale Orlando suburb of Windermere.

  18. Sustainable Living and Co-Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Bella; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine aspects of the different arguments for the environmental advantages of co-housing compared with individual households. The analysis is structured around four main questions, which are argued to be decisive for the question of co-housing and sustainability. The first...... oriented; one relates to the claim that co-housing can support pro-environmental behaviour among residents as they can support each other’s norms and practices. The fourth and last claim relates to a discussion of co-housing as a more sustainable opportunity especially for people living alone......, as the growing number of small households is an emerging sustainability problem. The empirical analyses are based on the results from a Danish study of eco-villages including a survey, interviews with representatives of the eco-village movement and a detailed case study of a group of people in the process...

  19. Foreign Banks Set Sights on Housing Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Having cleared all the hurdles to enter the market, locally incorporated foreign banks declare their intentions to dive into the personal housing loan business in China A battle is brewing between domestic and locally incorporated foreign banks over the

  20. Housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational performance in Accra, Ghana. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... a positive home ownership effect and a negative residential moves effect remain with significant ...