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Sample records for nahal oren microsite

  1. Scorpion biodiversity and interslope divergence at "evolution canyon", lower Nahal Oren microsite, Mt. Carmel, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Raz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Local natural laboratories, designated by us as the "Evolution Canyon" model, are excellent tools to study regional and global ecological dynamics across life. They present abiotic and biotic contrasts locally, permitting the pursuit of observations and experiments across diverse taxa sharing sharp microecological subdivisions. Higher solar radiation received by the "African savannah-like" south-facing slopes (AS in canyons north of the equator than by the opposite "European maquis-like" north-facing slopes (ES is associated with higher abiotic stress. Scorpions are a suitable taxon to study interslope biodiversity differences, associated with the differences in abiotic factors (climate, drought, due to their ability to adapt to dry environments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Scorpions were studied by the turning stone method and by UV light methods. The pattern observed in scorpions was contrasted with similar patterns in several other taxa at the same place. As expected, the AS proved to be significantly more speciose regarding scorpions, paralleling the interslope patterns in taxa such as lizards and snakes, butterflies (Rhopalocera, beetles (families Tenebrionidae, Dermestidae, Chrysomelidae, and grasshoppers (Orthoptera. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support an earlier conclusion stating that the homogenizing effects of migration and stochasticity are not able to eliminate the interslope intra- and interspecific differences in biodiversity despite an interslope distance of only 100 m at the "EC" valley bottom. In our opinion, the interslope microclimate selection, driven mainly by differences in insolance, could be the primary factor responsible for the observed interslope pattern.

  2. Scorpion biodiversity and interslope divergence at "evolution canyon", lower Nahal Oren microsite, Mt. Carmel, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Shmuel; Retzkin, Sion; Pavlícek, Tomás; Hoffman, Adam; Kimchi, Hagay; Zehavi, Dan; Beiles, Avigdor; Nevo, Eviatar

    2009-01-01

    Local natural laboratories, designated by us as the "Evolution Canyon" model, are excellent tools to study regional and global ecological dynamics across life. They present abiotic and biotic contrasts locally, permitting the pursuit of observations and experiments across diverse taxa sharing sharp microecological subdivisions. Higher solar radiation received by the "African savannah-like" south-facing slopes (AS) in canyons north of the equator than by the opposite "European maquis-like" north-facing slopes (ES) is associated with higher abiotic stress. Scorpions are a suitable taxon to study interslope biodiversity differences, associated with the differences in abiotic factors (climate, drought), due to their ability to adapt to dry environments. Scorpions were studied by the turning stone method and by UV light methods. The pattern observed in scorpions was contrasted with similar patterns in several other taxa at the same place. As expected, the AS proved to be significantly more speciose regarding scorpions, paralleling the interslope patterns in taxa such as lizards and snakes, butterflies (Rhopalocera), beetles (families Tenebrionidae, Dermestidae, Chrysomelidae), and grasshoppers (Orthoptera). Our results support an earlier conclusion stating that the homogenizing effects of migration and stochasticity are not able to eliminate the interslope intra- and interspecific differences in biodiversity despite an interslope distance of only 100 m at the "EC" valley bottom. In our opinion, the interslope microclimate selection, driven mainly by differences in insolance, could be the primary factor responsible for the observed interslope pattern.

  3. Growth and asymmetry of soil microfungal colonies from "Evolution Canyon," Lower Nahal Oren, Mount Carmel, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Raz

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry is a contentious indicator of stress in populations of animals and plants. Nevertheless, it is a measure of developmental noise, typically obtained by measuring asymmetry across an individual organism's left-right axis of symmetry. These individual, signed asymmetries are symmetrically distributed around a mean of zero. Fluctuating asymmetry, however, has rarely been studied in microorganisms, and never in fungi.We examined colony growth and random phenotypic variation of five soil microfungal species isolated from the opposing slopes of "Evolution Canyon," Mount Carmel, Israel. This canyon provides an opportunity to study diverse taxa inhabiting a single microsite, under different kinds and intensities of abiotic and biotic stress. The south-facing "African" slope of "Evolution Canyon" is xeric, warm, and tropical. It is only 200 m, on average, from the north-facing "European" slope, which is mesic, cool, and temperate. Five fungal species inhabiting both the south-facing "African" slope, and the north-facing "European" slope of the canyon were grown under controlled laboratory conditions, where we measured the fluctuating radial asymmetry and sizes of their colonies.Different species displayed different amounts of radial asymmetry (and colony size. Moreover, there were highly significant slope by species interactions for size, and marginally significant ones for fluctuating asymmetry. There were no universal differences (i.e., across all species in radial asymmetry and colony size between strains from "African" and "European" slopes, but colonies of Clonostachys rosea from the "African" slope were more asymmetric than those from the "European" slope.Our study suggests that fluctuating radial asymmetry has potential as an indicator of random phenotypic variation and stress in soil microfungi. Interaction of slope and species for both growth rate and asymmetry of microfungi in a common environment is evidence of genetic

  4. Scorpion Biodiversity and Interslope Divergence at “Evolution Canyon”, Lower Nahal Oren Microsite, Mt. Carmel, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Shmuel; Retzkin, Sion; Pavlíček, Tomáš; Hoffman, Adam; Kimchi, Hagay; Beiles, Avigdor; Nevo, Eviatar

    2009-01-01

    Background Local natural laboratories, designated by us as the “Evolution Canyon” model, are excellent tools to study regional and global ecological dynamics across life. They present abiotic and biotic contrasts locally, permitting the pursuit of observations and experiments across diverse taxa sharing sharp microecological subdivisions. Higher solar radiation received by the “African savannah-like” south-facing slopes (AS) in canyons north of the equator than by the opposite “European maquis-like” north-facing slopes (ES) is associated with higher abiotic stress. Scorpions are a suitable taxon to study interslope biodiversity differences, associated with the differences in abiotic factors (climate, drought), due to their ability to adapt to dry environments. Methodology/Principal Findings Scorpions were studied by the turning stone method and by UV light methods. The pattern observed in scorpions was contrasted with similar patterns in several other taxa at the same place. As expected, the AS proved to be significantly more speciose regarding scorpions, paralleling the interslope patterns in taxa such as lizards and snakes, butterflies (Rhopalocera), beetles (families Tenebrionidae, Dermestidae, Chrysomelidae), and grasshoppers (Orthoptera). Conclusions/Significance Our results support an earlier conclusion stating that the homogenizing effects of migration and stochasticity are not able to eliminate the interslope intra- and interspecific differences in biodiversity despite an interslope distance of only 100 m at the “EC” valley bottom. In our opinion, the interslope microclimate selection, driven mainly by differences in insolance, could be the primary factor responsible for the observed interslope pattern. PMID:19357787

  5. Natural Selection Causes Adaptive Genetic Resistance in Wild Emmer Wheat against Powdery Mildew at ?Evolution Canyon? Microsite, Mt. Carmel, Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Huayan; Ben-Abu, Yuval; Wang, Hongwei; Li, Anfei; Nevo, Eviatar; Kong, Lingrang

    2015-01-01

    Background ?Evolution Canyon? (ECI) at Lower Nahal Oren, Mount Carmel, Israel, is an optimal natural microscale model for unraveling evolution in action highlighting the basic evolutionary processes of adaptation and speciation. A major model organism in ECI is wild emmer, Triticum dicoccoides, the progenitor of cultivated wheat, which displays dramatic interslope adaptive and speciational divergence on the tropical-xeric ?African? slope (AS) and the temperate-mesic ?European? slope (ES), sep...

  6. Tussen de oren, voor paard en pony in praktijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, G.; Knaap, J.; Smolders, E.A.A.; Spek, van der M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Dit boek is echter voor tussen de oren van de eigenaar, verzorger, ruiter of amazone. Het bevat praktische adviezen op het gebied van voeding, opfok, gezondheid, africhting, vruchtbaarheid, beweiding en bodems

  7. Natural selection causes adaptive genetic resistance in wild emmer wheat against powdery mildew at "Evolution Canyon" microsite, Mt. Carmel, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huayan; Ben-Abu, Yuval; Wang, Hongwei; Li, Anfei; Nevo, Eviatar; Kong, Lingrang

    2015-01-01

    "Evolution Canyon" (ECI) at Lower Nahal Oren, Mount Carmel, Israel, is an optimal natural microscale model for unraveling evolution in action highlighting the basic evolutionary processes of adaptation and speciation. A major model organism in ECI is wild emmer, Triticum dicoccoides, the progenitor of cultivated wheat, which displays dramatic interslope adaptive and speciational divergence on the tropical-xeric "African" slope (AS) and the temperate-mesic "European" slope (ES), separated on average by 250 m. We examined 278 single sequence repeats (SSRs) and the phenotype diversity of the resistance to powdery mildew between the opposite slopes. Furthermore, 18 phenotypes on the AS and 20 phenotypes on the ES, were inoculated by both Bgt E09 and a mixture of powdery mildew races. In the experiment of genetic diversity, very little polymorphism was identified intra-slope in the accessions from both the AS or ES. By contrast, 148 pairs of SSR primers (53.23%) amplified polymorphic products between the phenotypes of AS and ES. There are some differences between the two wild emmer wheat genomes and the inter-slope SSR polymorphic products between genome A and B. Interestingly, all wild emmer types growing on the south-facing slope (SFS=AS) were susceptible to a composite of Blumeria graminis, while the ones growing on the north-facing slope (NFS=ES) were highly resistant to Blumeria graminis at both seedling and adult stages. Remarkable inter-slope evolutionary divergent processes occur in wild emmer wheat, T. dicoccoides at EC I, despite the shot average distance of 250 meters. The AS, a dry and hot slope, did not develop resistance to powdery mildew, whereas the ES, a cool and humid slope, did develop resistance since the disease stress was strong there. This is a remarkable demonstration in host-pathogen interaction on how resistance develops when stress causes an adaptive result at a micro-scale distance.

  8. Natural selection causes adaptive genetic resistance in wild emmer wheat against powdery mildew at "Evolution Canyon" microsite, Mt. Carmel, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayan Yin

    Full Text Available "Evolution Canyon" (ECI at Lower Nahal Oren, Mount Carmel, Israel, is an optimal natural microscale model for unraveling evolution in action highlighting the basic evolutionary processes of adaptation and speciation. A major model organism in ECI is wild emmer, Triticum dicoccoides, the progenitor of cultivated wheat, which displays dramatic interslope adaptive and speciational divergence on the tropical-xeric "African" slope (AS and the temperate-mesic "European" slope (ES, separated on average by 250 m.We examined 278 single sequence repeats (SSRs and the phenotype diversity of the resistance to powdery mildew between the opposite slopes. Furthermore, 18 phenotypes on the AS and 20 phenotypes on the ES, were inoculated by both Bgt E09 and a mixture of powdery mildew races.In the experiment of genetic diversity, very little polymorphism was identified intra-slope in the accessions from both the AS or ES. By contrast, 148 pairs of SSR primers (53.23% amplified polymorphic products between the phenotypes of AS and ES. There are some differences between the two wild emmer wheat genomes and the inter-slope SSR polymorphic products between genome A and B. Interestingly, all wild emmer types growing on the south-facing slope (SFS=AS were susceptible to a composite of Blumeria graminis, while the ones growing on the north-facing slope (NFS=ES were highly resistant to Blumeria graminis at both seedling and adult stages.Remarkable inter-slope evolutionary divergent processes occur in wild emmer wheat, T. dicoccoides at EC I, despite the shot average distance of 250 meters. The AS, a dry and hot slope, did not develop resistance to powdery mildew, whereas the ES, a cool and humid slope, did develop resistance since the disease stress was strong there. This is a remarkable demonstration in host-pathogen interaction on how resistance develops when stress causes an adaptive result at a micro-scale distance.

  9. Nondestructive prediction of oren extract powder, a herbal medicine, in suppositories by chemometric near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraoka, Ryutaro; Abe, Hiroyuki; Sugama, Tadaaki; Ito, Kiyomi; Aburada, Masaki; Otsuka, Makoto

    2012-04-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics has been utilized in predictions of natural medicine content without destroying samples. Suppositories (oren powdered extract content 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 10, 12.5, and 15%) were produced by mixing oren powdered extract with macrogol mixture consisting of 1 part macrogol 1500 and 2.5 parts macrogol 4000 at 54°C, and pouring the melt mixture into a plastic container. NIR spectra of the 10 prepared samples were recorded 10 times, and a total of 100 spectra were randomly divided into two data sets, one for calibration and the other for validation. The calibration model for the oren content of the suppository was calculated based on NIR spectra using a partial least-squares regression analysis after pre-treatment (smoothing and the multiplicative scatter correction). The relationship between the actual and predicted values for calibration and validation models had a straight line with correlation coefficients of 0.9936 and 0.9898, respectively. The regression vector result of the calibration model indicates that the peaks at 6945, 5747, and 5160 cm(-1) in the regression vector were consistent with those in oren powder extracts. NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics offers promise as a method of predicting the oren powder content in suppositories without destroying the samples.

  10. Strong microsite control of seedling recruitment in tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graae, Bente J; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Lang, Simone I

    2011-01-01

    The inclusion of environmental variation in studies of recruitment is a prerequisite for realistic predictions of the responses of vegetation to a changing environment. We investigated how seedling recruitment is affected by seed availability and microsite quality along a steep environmental......, the experimental seed addition showed that the microsite environment was even more important. For all species, seedling emergence peaked at the productive end of the gradient, irrespective of the adult niches realized. Disturbance promoted recruitment at all positions along the environmental gradient, not just...... at high productivity. Early seedling emergence constituted the main temporal bottleneck in recruitment for all species. Surprisingly, winter mortality was highest at what appeared to be the most benign end of the gradient. The results highlight that seedling recruitment patterns are largely determined...

  11. Microsites Matter: Improving the Success of Rare Species Reintroductions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W Dunwiddie

    Full Text Available Our study was undertaken to better understand how to increase the success rates of recovery plantings of a rare hemiparasite, golden paintbrush (Castilleja levisecta-Orobanchaceae. This species is endemic to western Washington and Oregon, USA, and southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Over 5000 golden paintbrush plants were outplanted as plugs in 2007 at six different native prairie sites that were considered to be suitable habitat, based on general evaluations of vegetation and soil conditions. Outplantings were installed at regular intervals along transects up to 1 km long to include a range of conditions occurring at each site. All plantings were re-examined five years later. The patchy distribution of surviving plugs and new recruits within each reintroduction site suggested success is strongly influenced by microsite characteristics. Indicator species analysis of taxa growing in microsites around outplanted golden paintbrush identified species that were positively or negatively associated with paintbrush survival. Species such as Festuca roemeri, Eriophyllum lanatum, and Viola adunca were strong indicators at some sites; non-natives such as Hypochaeris radicata and Teesdalia nudicaulis tended to be frequent negative indicators. Overall, higher richness of native perennial forbs was strongly correlated with both survival and flowering of golden paintbrush, a pattern that may reflect interactions of this hemiparasite with the immediately surrounding plant community. Topographic position also influenced outcomes, with greater survival occurring on mounds and in swales, where soils generally were deeper. Our findings suggest that assessments of site suitability based on vegetation alone, and coarser, site-level assessments that do not characterize heterogeneity at the microsite scale, may not be strong predictors of restoration success over the longer term and in sites with variability in vegetation and soils. By identifying suitable

  12. The role of mycorrhizal fungi and microsites in primary succession on Mount St. Helens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, J; Del Moral, R

    1998-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the role of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) and microsites on the growth of pioneer species. Flat, rill, near-rock, and dead lupine microsites were created in plots in barren areas of the Pumice Plain of Mount St. Helens. VAM propagules were added to the soil in half of the plots. Six pioneer species were planted into both VAM and non-VAM inoculated microsites. Plants in dead lupine microsites were greater in biomass than those in flat, rill, and near-rock microsites. Significant effects of VAM on plant biomass did not occur. Microsites continue to be important to plant colonization on the Pumice Plain, but VAM do not yet appear to play an important role. This may be due to limited nutrient availability and the facultatively mycotrophic nature of the colonizing plant species. It is unlikely that VAM play an important role in successional processes in newly emplaced nutrient-poor surfaces.

  13. Nahal Ein Gev II, a Late Natufian Community at the Sea of Galilee.

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    Leore Grosman

    Full Text Available The Natufian culture is of great importance as a starting point to investigate the dynamics of the transition to agriculture. Given its chronological position at the threshold of the Neolithic (ca. 12,000 years ago and its geographic setting in the productive Jordan Valley, the site of Nahal Ein Gev II (NEG II reveals aspects of the Late Natufian adaptations and its implications for the transition to agriculture. The size of the site, the thick archaeological deposits, invested architecture and multiple occupation sub-phases reveal a large, sedentary community at least on par with Early Natufian camps in the Mediterranean zone. Although the NEG II lithic tool kit completely lacks attributes typical of succeeding Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA assemblages, the artistic style is more closely related to the early PPNA world, despite clear roots in Early Natufian tradition. The site does not conform to current perceptions of the Late Natufians as a largely mobile population coping with reduced resource productivity caused by the Younger Dryas. Instead, the faunal and architectural data suggest that the sedentary populations of the Early Natufian did not revert back to a nomadic way of life in the Late Natufian in the Jordan Valley. NEG II encapsulates cultural characteristics typical of both Natufian and PPNA traditions and thus bridges the crossroads between Late Paleolithic foragers and Neolithic farmers.

  14. X-ray Microspectroscopy and Chemical Reactions in Soil Microsites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D Hesterberg; M Duff; J Dixon; M Vepraskas

    2011-12-31

    Soils provide long-term storage of environmental contaminants, which helps to protect water and air quality and diminishes negative impacts of contaminants on human and ecosystem health. Characterizing solid-phase chemical species in highly complex matrices is essential for developing principles that can be broadly applied to the wide range of notoriously heterogeneous soils occurring at the earth's surface. In the context of historical developments in soil analytical techniques, we describe applications of bulk-sample and spatially resolved synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) for characterizing chemical species of contaminants in soils, and for determining the uniqueness of trace-element reactivity in different soil microsites. Spatially resolved X-ray techniques provide opportunities for following chemical changes within soil microsites that serve as highly localized chemical micro- (or nano-)reactors of unique composition. An example of this microreactor concept is shown for micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of metal sulfide oxidation in a contaminated soil. One research challenge is to use information and principles developed from microscale soil chemistry for predicting macroscale and field-scale behavior of soil contaminants.

  15. The effects of 'Oren-gedoku-to' and quantitative evaluation of cerebral blood flow for cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushikubo, Yukio; Sakurai, Takatoshi; Yokouchi, Tetuya

    1998-01-01

    Fifty-seven patients with sequela of cerebrovascular diseases were treated with 'Oren-gedoku-to' for 8 weeks to examine the possibilities of improvements in subjective symptom, motive deterioration, mental disorder, unusual behaviors and intellectual malfunction. These symptoms showed improvement of 41.6%, 54.2%, 75.0%, 63.0%, 21.3%, respectively. For 21 patients, amount of regional cerebral blood flow were measured with SPECT. Results showed an increase of 1.7ml/100g/min. at average. However, there was no statistical difference observed among 'improved' cases, 'slightly improved' cases and 'no change or deteriorated' cases. 'Oren-gedoku-to' worked effectively for cerebrovascular diseases with the exception of intellectual malfunction. Results of the SPECT suggest though, it is uncertain whether these improvements were brought about by the increase of cerebral blood flow. (author)

  16. Pine invasions in treeless environments: dispersal overruns microsite heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchard, Aníbal; Escudero, Adrián; García, Rafael A; de la Cruz, Marcelino; Langdon, Bárbara; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Esquivel, Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    Understanding biological invasions patterns and mechanisms is highly needed for forecasting and managing these processes and their negative impacts. At small scales, ecological processes driving plant invasions are expected to produce a spatially explicit pattern driven by propagule pressure and local ground heterogeneity. Our aim was to determine the interplay between the intensity of seed rain, using distance to a mature plantation as a proxy, and microsite heterogeneity in the spreading of Pinus contorta in the treeless Patagonian steppe. Three one-hectare plots were located under different degrees of P. contorta invasion (Coyhaique Alto, 45° 30'S and 71° 42'W). We fitted three types of inhomogeneous Poisson models to each pine plot in an attempt for describing the observed pattern as accurately as possible: the "dispersal" models, "local ground heterogeneity" models, and "combined" models, using both types of covariates. To include the temporal axis in the invasion process, we analyzed both the pattern of young and old recruits and also of all recruits together. As hypothesized, the spatial patterns of recruited pines showed coarse scale heterogeneity. Early pine invasion spatial patterns in our Patagonian steppe site is not different from expectations of inhomogeneous Poisson processes taking into consideration a linear and negative dependency of pine recruit intensity on the distance to afforestations. Models including ground-cover predictors were able to describe the point pattern process only in a couple of cases but never better than dispersal models. This finding concurs with the idea that early invasions depend more on seed pressure than on the biotic and abiotic relationships seed and seedlings establish at the microsite scale. Our results show that without a timely and active management, P. contorta will invade the Patagonian steppe independently of the local ground-cover conditions.

  17. Getting beyond hand-waving about microsites with numerical representations of trace gas production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihi, D.; Davidson, E. A.; Savage, K. E.; Liang, D.

    2017-12-01

    Production and consumption of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) are affected by complex interactions of temperature, moisture, and substrate supply, that is further complicated by spatial heterogeneity of the soil matrix. This microsite heterogeneity is often invoked conceptually to explain unusual observations like consumption of atmospheric N2O (reduction) in upland soils that co-occur with CH4 uptake (oxidation). To advance numerical simulation of these belowground processes, we expanded the Dual Arrhenius and Michaelis-Menten (DAMM) model, to apply it consistently for all three greenhouse gases (GHGs) with respect to the biophysical processes of production, consumption, and diffusion within the soil, including the contrasting effects of oxygen (O2) as substrate or inhibitor for each process. Chamber-based measurements of all three GHGs at the Howland Forest (ME, USA) were used to parameterize the model. The area under a soil chamber is partitioned according to a bivariate lognormal probability distribution function of soil carbon (C) and moisture across a range of microsites, that leads to a distribution of heterotrophic respiration and O2 consumption among microsites. Linking microsite consumption of O2 with a diffusion model generates a broad range of microsite concentrations of O2 that determines the distribution of microsites that produce or consume CH4 and N2O, such that a range of microsite concentrations occur both above and below ambient values for both GHGs. At lower mean soil moisture, some microsites of methanogenesis still occur, but most become sites of methanotrophy. Likewise, concentrations of below ambient N2O (hotspots of N2O reduction) occur in microsites with high C and high moisture (further accentuated at high temperature). Net consumption and production of CH4 and N2O is simulated within a chamber based on the sum of the distribution of soil microsites. Results demonstrate that it is numerically feasible for

  18. Comparative Study on the Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Extract and Carotenoids Extract from Ipomoea batatas var. Oren (Sweetpotato) Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Seow-Mun Hue; Amru Nasrulhaq Boyce; Chandran Somasundram

    2011-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas (Sweetpotato) is currently ranked sixth in the total world food production and are planted mainly for their storage roots. The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the antioxidant properties of the leaf and carotenoids extract from the Ipomoea batatas var. Oren leaves. Total flavonoids in the leaf extract was 144.6 ± 40.5 μg/g compared to 114.86 ± 4.35 μg/g catechin equivalent in the carotenoids extract. Total polyphenols in the leaf extrac...

  19. Modeling the Influence of Forest Structure on Microsite Habitat Use by Snowshoe Hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela K. Fuller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus is an important prey species for many Carnivora and has strong influences on community structure and function in northern forests. An understanding of within-stand (microsite forest structural characteristics that promote high use by hares is important to provide forest management guidelines. We measured forest structural characteristics at the microsite-scale in north-central Maine and used an information-theoretic modeling approach to infer which characteristics were most strongly associated with use by hares during winter. We measured overwinter hare pellet density to model relationships among microsite-scale vegetation structure and hare use. Overwinter pellet density was positively associated with live stem cover (3 × coniferous saplings + deciduous saplings and negatively associated with overstory canopy closure; the two variables explained 71% of the variation in microsite use by hares. The highest pellet densities were in grids with canopy closure 22,000 stems/ha. Silvicultural practices that create dense areas of conifer and deciduous saplings should receive high within-stand use by hares in winter. These conditions can be achieved by promoting the release of advanced regeneration and reducing overstory cover to encourage establishment of shade-intolerant species; clearcutting is one such silvicultural prescription to achieve these conditions.

  20. Optimization of wind farm micro-siting for complex terrain using greedy algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.X.; Chen, K.; He, Z.Y.; Zhang, X.

    2014-01-01

    An optimization approach based on greedy algorithm for optimization of wind farm micro-siting is presented. The key of optimizing wind farm micro-siting is the fast and accurate evaluation of the wake flow interactions of wind turbines. The virtual particle model is employed for wake flow simulation of wind turbines, which makes the present method applicable for non-uniform flow fields on complex terrains. In previous bionic optimization method, within each step of the optimization process, only the power output of the turbine that is being located or relocated is considered. To aim at the overall power output of the wind farm comprehensively, a dependent region technique is introduced to improve the estimation of power output during the optimization procedure. With the technique, the wake flow influences can be reduced more efficiently during the optimization procedure. During the optimization process, the turbine that is being added will avoid being affected other turbines, and avoid affecting other turbine in the meantime. The results from the numerical calculations demonstrate that the present method is effective for wind farm micro-siting on complex terrain, and it produces better solutions in less time than the previous bionic method. - Highlights: • Greedy algorithm is applied to wind farm micro-siting problem. • The present method is effective for optimization on complex terrains. • Dependent region is suggested to improve the evaluation of wake influences. • The present method has better performance than the bionic method

  1. Characterizing Betula litwinowii seedling microsites at the alpine-treeline ecotone, central Greater Caucasus Mountains, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M Hughes; Daniel M. Johnson; Maia Akhalkatsi; Otar Abdaladze

    2009-01-01

    Seedling establishment is an important factor dictating the altitudinal limits of treeline species. Factors that affect seedling mortality and survival, however, have yet to be fully characterized, especially for deciduous treeline species. Here we describe microsite characteristics of successfully established Betula litwinowii seedlings at the...

  2. Identification of the earliest collagen- and plant-based coatings from Neolithic artefacts (Nahal Hemar cave, Israel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solazzo, Caroline; Courel, Blandine; Connan, Jacques; van Dongen, Bart E; Barden, Holly; Penkman, Kirsty; Taylor, Sheila; Demarchi, Beatrice; Adam, Pierre; Schaeffer, Philippe; Nissenbaum, Arie; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Buckley, Michael

    2016-08-09

    Mortuary practices in human evolution record cognitive, social changes and technological innovations. The Neolithic Revolution in the Levant was a watershed in this domain that has long fascinated the archaeological community. Plaster modelled skulls are well known at Jericho and several other Neolithic sites, and in Nahal Hemar cave (Israel, ca. 8200 -7300 cal. BC) excavations yielded six unique human skulls covered with a black organic coating applied in a net pattern evoking a headdress. This small cave was used as storage for paraphernalia in the semi-arid area of the Judean desert and the dry conditions preserved other artefacts such as baskets coated with a similar dark substance. While previous analysis had revealed the presence of amino acids consistent with a collagen signature, in the present report, specific biomarkers were characterised using combined proteomic and lipid approaches. Basket samples yielded collagen and blood proteins of bovine origin (Bos genus) and a large sequence coverage of a plant protein charybdin (Charybdis genus). The skull residue samples were dominated by benzoate and cinnamate derivatives and triterpenes consistent with a styrax-type resin (Styrax officinalis), thus providing the earliest known evidence of an odoriferous plant resin used in combination with an animal product.

  3. Influencia del microsite en la imagen de marca a través de experiencias significativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda de Frutos Torres

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Las empresas e instituciones, actualmente, son conscientes del potencial que ofrece internet como instrumento para mantener una relación activa con sus públicos de interés. Con este propósito diseñan estrategias de comunicación específicamente destinadas a que el usuario pueda establecer una relación interactiva con la marca. Una de las formas de estar presente en la red es a través del microsite que se perfilan como una solución para estrechar los lazos entre el usuario y la marca.El objetivo del estudio es valorar la influencia del microsite como herramienta de comunicación corporativa y su importancia en la construcción de la imagen de marca. Para ello se ha llevado a cabo un estudio empírico a partir de tres acciones de comunicación reales de tres marcas conocidas representativas de tres estrategias de comunicación. Las tres acciones se llevaron a cabo con microsites y fueron visitados y evaluados por una muestra de 41 personas. Los resultados muestran que la valoración global hacia el microsite puede explicarse en torno a tres dimensiones su grado de entretenimiento, su valor informativo y el agrado asociado. Se comprueba que la experiencia generada por el microsite es diferente dependiendo de la estrategia de comunicación utilizada y contribuye de forma distinta a explicar la actitud hacia la marca. Cada estrategia constituye una experiencia diferenciada para el usuario sin embargo la implicación del usuario con la categoría del producto obtiene un papel determinante en  la relación con la imagen de marca.

  4. Subsurface earthworm casts can be important soil microsites specifically influencing the growth of grassland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G; Wechselberger, Katharina F; Gorfer, Markus; Hann, Patrick; Frank, Thomas; Wanek, Wolfgang; Drapela, Thomas

    Earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta) deposit several tons per hectare of casts enriched in nutrients and/or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and create a spatial and temporal soil heterogeneity that can play a role in structuring plant communities. However, while we begin to understand the role of surface casts, it is still unclear to what extent plants utilize subsurface casts. We conducted a greenhouse experiment using large mesocosms (volume 45 l) to test whether (1) soil microsites consisting of earthworm casts with or without AMF (four Glomus taxa) affect the biomass production of 11 grassland plant species comprising the three functional groups grasses, forbs, and legumes, (2) different ecological groups of earthworms (soil dwellers- Aporrectodea caliginosa vs. vertical burrowers- Lumbricus terrestris ) alter potential influences of soil microsites (i.e., four earthworms × two subsurface microsites × two AMF treatments). Soil microsites were artificially inserted in a 25-cm depth, and afterwards, plant species were sown in a regular pattern; the experiment ran for 6 months. Our results show that minute amounts of subsurface casts (0.89 g kg -1 soil) decreased the shoot and root production of forbs and legumes, but not that of grasses. The presence of earthworms reduced root biomass of grasses only. Our data also suggest that subsurface casts provide microsites from which root AMF colonization can start. Ecological groups of earthworms did not differ in their effects on plant production or AMF distribution. Taken together, these findings suggest that subsurface earthworm casts might play a role in structuring plant communities by specifically affecting the growth of certain functional groups of plants.

  5. Seedling Regeneration in the Alpine Treeline Ecotone: Comparison of Wood Microsites and Adjacent Soil Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Chapman Johnson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although climate warming is generally expected to facilitate upward advance of forests, conifer seedling regeneration and survival may be hindered by low substrate moisture, high radiation, and both low and high snow accumulation. To better understand substrate-related factors promoting regeneration in the alpine treeline ecotone, this study compared 2 substrates supporting conifer seedlings: rotten downed wood and adjacent soil. Study locations, each with 3 levels of incoming radiation, were randomly selected at forest line–alpine meadow borders in Pacific Northwest wilderness areas extending along an east–west precipitation gradient. Associations among substrate type, seedling density, radiation, site moisture, site temperature, plant water potential, and plant stomatal conductance were assessed. Wood microsites, flush with the ground and supporting Abies spp conifer seedlings, extended up to 20 m into alpine meadows from the forest line. Although wood microsites thawed later in the spring and froze earlier in the fall, they had warmer summer temperatures, greater volumetric water content, and more growing degree hours, and seedlings growing on wood had higher water potentials than seedlings growing on adjacent soil. At drier eastern sites, there was a positive relationship between seedling density and volumetric water content. Further, there was a positive relationship between seedling stomatal conductance and volumetric water content. Our study indicates that in the Pacific Northwest. and likely elsewhere, seedlings benefit from wood microsites, which provide greater water content. Given predictions of increased summer drought in some locations globally, wood microsites at forest line–alpine meadows and forest line–grasslands borders may become increasingly important for successful conifer regeneration.

  6. Combined effects of leaf litter and soil microsite on decomposition process in arid rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Analía Lorena; Bertiller, Mónica Beatriz

    2013-01-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the combined effects of leaf litter quality and soil properties on litter decomposition and soil nitrogen (N) mineralization at conserved (C) and disturbed by sheep grazing (D) vegetation states in arid rangelands of the Patagonian Monte. It was hypothesized that spatial differences in soil inorganic-N levels have larger impact on decomposition processes of non-recalcitrant than recalcitrant leaf litter (low and high concentration of secondary compounds, respectively). Leaf litter and upper soil were extracted from modal size plant patches (patch microsite) and the associated inter-patch area (inter-patch microsite) in C and D. Leaf litter was pooled per vegetation state and soil was pooled combining vegetation state and microsite. Concentrations of N and secondary compounds in leaf litter and total and inorganic-N in soil were assessed at each pooled sample. Leaf litter decay and soil N mineralization at microsites of C and D were estimated in 160 microcosms incubated at field capacity (16 month). C soils had higher total N than D soils (0.58 and 0.41 mg/g, respectively). Patch soil of C and inter-patch soil of D exhibited the highest values of inorganic-N (8.8 and 8.4 μg/g, respectively). Leaf litter of C was less recalcitrant and decomposed faster than that of D. Non-recalcitrant leaf litter decay and induced soil N mineralization had larger variation among microsites (coefficients of variation = 25 and 41%, respectively) than recalcitrant leaf litter (coefficients of variation = 12 and 32%, respectively). Changes in the canopy structure induced by grazing disturbance increased leaf litter recalcitrance, and reduced litter decay and soil N mineralization, independently of soil N levels. This highlights the importance of the combined effects of soil and leaf litter properties on N cycling probably with consequences for vegetation reestablishment and dynamics, rangeland resistance and resilience with implications

  7. Post-wildfire natural restoration of riparian vegetation under stable hydro-geomorphic conditions: Nahal Grar, Northern Negev Desert, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egozi, Roey

    2015-04-01

    Wildfires are common to the Mediterranean region due to its defined dry season and long historical anthropogenic activities. Most of post-wildfire studies focus on mountains areas and thus refer to the hill-slope and its physical characteristics, e.g. morphology, length, angles, and aspect; its soil characteristics, e.g. type, infiltration rate, repellency; and its vegetative covers, e.g. planted trees vs. natural forest or native vs. exotic vegetation. In contrary there is very limited literature focusing on ecological and hydro-geomorphic aspects of post-wildfire of riparian vegetation / zone probably because of its negligible burned area relative to the spread of the fire, sometimes, over the whole watershed area. The limited literature on the topic is surprising given the fact that riparian vegetation zone has been acknowledged as a unique and important habitat supporting rich biodiversity. Herein we report on a wildfire event occurred on October 14th 2009 in a river section of Nahal Grar, Northern Negev Desert, Israel. The wildfire although was limited in its area (only 3 hectare) extended over the channel alone from bank to bank and thus provide a unique case study of completely burn down of riparian vegetation, mainly dense stands of Common Red (Australis Phragmites. Therefore a detailed study of this event provides an opportunity to tackle one of the basics questions which is determining the rate of natural restoration process that act at the immediate time after the wildfire event occurred. This type of information is most valuable to professional and stakeholders for better management of post-fire riparian zones. The results of the study suggest that under stable conditions, i.e. no major flood events occurred; disturbance time was short and ranged over 200 days due to, almost, immediate recovery of the riparian vegetation. However the re-growth of the riparian vegetation was not even but rather deferential and more complex then reported in the literature

  8. Influence of climate and regeneration microsites on Pinus contorta invasion into an alpine ecosystem in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A. Harsch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In many regions, alien conifers have spread widely at lower elevations and are increasingly found colonizing alpine areas. Although studies have addressed conifer invasions at low elevations, little is known about the rates and constraints on spread into higher elevations. Here, we assess the relative importance of climate and the availability of regeneration microsites on the establishment of the alien species Pinus contorta into a high elevation site in New Zealand. Spread has occurred from two stands planted at the elevation of the native treeline (1347–1388 masl in the 1960s. Most stems established between 1350 and 1450 masl and P. contorta individuals were found up to 270 m above the original plantings. Although the population has increased by 180% in the last 20 years, population growth rate has been declining. Furthermore, comparisons with studies from other mountain ranges around the world and at low elevations in New Zealand suggest this is a relatively limited spread. Our results suggest that climate variation did not have a significant effect on establishment patterns, as opposed to availability of regeneration microsites. Soil and alpine mat microsites favoured establishment of P. contorta and, although these microsites did not appear to be saturated, microsite availability may be an important limiting factor for the spread of P. contorta. Thus management strategies should focus on preventing spread in addition to removing already established stems.

  9. Creating Flash advertising from concept to tracking-microsites, video ads and more

    CERN Document Server

    Fincanon, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Create awe-inspiring, mind-blowing Flash ads and microsites that engage consumers and demonstrate their worth to clients. The Hands-On Guide to Creating Flash Advertising delivers the nuts and bolts of the development process from initial design conception to ad completion. You'll learn the best practices for:* Mastering the myriad of ad specs, deadlines, quality and version control issues* Creating ads that balance campaign goals with design constraints* Preparing and building ads with team and QC standards* Using forms and data in ads without file bloat* File optimization techniques for swf

  10. Microsite and elevation zone effects on seed pilferage, germination, and seedling survival during early whitebark pine recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansing, Elizabeth R; Tomback, Diana F; Wunder, Michael B; French, Joshua P; Wagner, Aaron C

    2017-11-01

    Tree recruitment is a spatially structured process that may undergo change over time because of variation in postdispersal processes. We examined seed pilferage, seed germination, and seedling survival in whitebark pine to determine whether 1) microsite type alters the initial spatial pattern of seed caches, 2) higher abiotic stress (i.e. higher elevations) exacerbates spatial distribution changes, and 3) these postdispersal processes are spatially clustered. At two study areas, we created a seed distribution pattern by burying seed caches in microsite types frequently used by whitebark pine's avian seed disperser (Clark's nutcracker) in upper subalpine forest and at treeline, the latter characterized by high abiotic environmental stress. We monitored caches for two years for pilferage, germination, and seedling survival. Odds of pilferage (both study areas), germination (northern study area), and survival (southern study area) were higher at treeline relative to subalpine forest. At the southern study area, we found higher odds of 1) pilferage near rocks and trees relative to no object in subalpine forest, 2) germination near rocks relative to trees within both elevation zones, and 3) seedling survival near rocks and trees relative to no object at treeline. No microsite effects were detected at the northern study area. Findings indicated that the microsite distribution of seed caches changes with seed/seedling stage. Higher odds of seedling survival near rocks and trees were observed at treeline, suggesting abiotic stress may limit safe site availability, thereby shifting the spatial distribution toward protective microsites. Higher odds of pilferage at treeline, however, suggest rodents may limit treeline recruitment. Further, odds of pilferage were higher near rocks and trees relative to no object in subalpine forest but did not differ among microsites at treeline, suggesting pilferage can modulate the spatial structure of regeneration, a finding supported by

  11. Wind resource modelling for micro-siting - Validation at a 60-MW wind farm site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J C; Gylling Mortensen, N [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Said, U S [New and Renewable Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-03-01

    This paper investigates and validates the applicability of the WAsP-model for layout optimization and micro-siting of wind turbines at a given site for a 60-MW wind farm at Zafarana at the Gulf of Suez in Egypt. Previous investigations show large gradients in the wind climate within the area. For the design and optimization of the wind farm it was found necessary to verify the WAsP extrapolation of wind atlas results from 2 existing meteorological masts located 5 and 10 km, respectively, from the wind farm site. On-site measurements at the 3.5 x 3.5 km{sup 2} wind farm site in combination with 7 years of near-site wind atlas measurements offer significant amounts of data for verification of wind conditions for micro-siting. Wind speeds, wind directions, turbulence intensities and guests in 47.5 m a.g.l. have been measured at 9 locations across the site. Additionally, one of the site masts is equipped as a reference mast, measuring both vertical profiles of wind speed and temperature as well as air pressure and temperature. The exercise is further facilitated by the fact that winds are highly uni-directional; the north direction accounting for 80-90% of the wind resource. The paper presents comparisons of 5 months of on-site measurements and modeled predictions from 2 existing meteorological masts located at distances of 5 and 10 km, respectively, from the wind farm site. Predictions based on terrain descriptions of the Wind Atlas for the Gulf of Suez 1991-95 showed over-predictions of wind speeds of 4-10%. With calibrated terrain descriptions, made based on measured data and a re-visit to critical parts of the terrain, the average prediction error of wind speeds was reduced to about 1%. These deviations are smaller than generally expected for such wind resource modeling, clearly documenting the validity of using WAsP modeling for micro-siting and layout optimization of the wind farm. (au)

  12. Optimal Wind Turbines Micrositing in Onshore Wind Farms Using Fuzzy Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the fast growth in the number and size of installed wind farms (WFs around the world, optimal wind turbines (WTs micrositing has become a challenge from both technological and mathematical points of view. An appropriate layout of wind turbines is crucial to obtain adequate performance with respect to the development and operation of the wind power plant during its life span. This work presents a fuzzy genetic algorithm (FGA for maximizing the economic profitability of the project. The algorithm considers a new WF model including several important factors to the design of the layout. The model consists of wake loss, terrain effect, and economic benefits, which can be calculated by locations of wind turbines. The results demonstrate that the algorithm performs better than genetic algorithm, in terms of maximum values of net annual value of wind power plants and computational burden.

  13. Analysis of Wind Data, Calculation of Energy Yield Potential, and Micrositing Application with WAsP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Topaloğlu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The parameters required for building a wind power plant have been calculated using the fuzzy logic method by means of Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP in this study. Overall objectives of the program include analysis of raw data, evaluation of wind and climate, construction of a wind atlas, and estimation of wind power potential. With the analysis performed in the application, the average wind velocity, average power density, energy potential from micrositing, capacity factor, unit cost price, and period of redemption have been calculated, which are needed by the project developer during the decision-making stage and intended to be used as the input unit in the fuzzy logic-based system designed. It is aimed at processing the parameters calculated by the designed fuzzy logic-based decision-making system at the rule base and generating a compatibility factor that will allow for making the final decision in building wind power plants.

  14. The role of propagule pressure, genetic diversity and microsite availability for Senecio vernalis invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Erfmeier

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is supposed to support the colonization success of expanding species, in particular in situations where microsite availability is constrained. Addressing the role of genetic diversity in plant invasion experimentally requires its manipulation independent of propagule pressure. To assess the relative importance of these components for the invasion of Senecio vernalis, we created propagule mixtures of four levels of genotype diversity by combining seeds across remote populations, across proximate populations, within single populations and within seed families. In a first container experiment with constant Festuca rupicola density as matrix, genotype diversity was crossed with three levels of seed density. In a second experiment, we tested for effects of establishment limitation and genotype diversity by manipulating Festuca densities. Increasing genetic diversity had no effects on abundance and biomass of S. vernalis but positively affected the proportion of large individuals to small individuals. Mixtures composed from proximate populations had a significantly higher proportion of large individuals than mixtures composed from within seed families only. High propagule pressure increased emergence and establishment of S. vernalis but had no effect on individual growth performance. Establishment was favoured in containers with Festuca, but performance of surviving seedlings was higher in open soil treatments. For S. vernalis invasion, we found a shift in driving factors from density dependence to effects of genetic diversity across life stages. While initial abundance was mostly linked to the amount of seed input, genetic diversity, in contrast, affected later stages of colonization probably via sampling effects and seemed to contribute to filtering the genotypes that finally grew up. In consequence, when disentangling the mechanistic relationships of genetic diversity, seed density and microsite limitation in colonization of

  15. The role of propagule pressure, genetic diversity and microsite availability for Senecio vernalis invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfmeier, Alexandra; Hantsch, Lydia; Bruelheide, Helge

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity is supposed to support the colonization success of expanding species, in particular in situations where microsite availability is constrained. Addressing the role of genetic diversity in plant invasion experimentally requires its manipulation independent of propagule pressure. To assess the relative importance of these components for the invasion of Senecio vernalis, we created propagule mixtures of four levels of genotype diversity by combining seeds across remote populations, across proximate populations, within single populations and within seed families. In a first container experiment with constant Festuca rupicola density as matrix, genotype diversity was crossed with three levels of seed density. In a second experiment, we tested for effects of establishment limitation and genotype diversity by manipulating Festuca densities. Increasing genetic diversity had no effects on abundance and biomass of S. vernalis but positively affected the proportion of large individuals to small individuals. Mixtures composed from proximate populations had a significantly higher proportion of large individuals than mixtures composed from within seed families only. High propagule pressure increased emergence and establishment of S. vernalis but had no effect on individual growth performance. Establishment was favoured in containers with Festuca, but performance of surviving seedlings was higher in open soil treatments. For S. vernalis invasion, we found a shift in driving factors from density dependence to effects of genetic diversity across life stages. While initial abundance was mostly linked to the amount of seed input, genetic diversity, in contrast, affected later stages of colonization probably via sampling effects and seemed to contribute to filtering the genotypes that finally grew up. In consequence, when disentangling the mechanistic relationships of genetic diversity, seed density and microsite limitation in colonization of invasive plants, a clear

  16. Docere, delectare et movere. Teacher vision and student prism in the design and implementation of microsites with musical artistic contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gértrudix-Barrio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In studies of Degree in Early Childhood Education, arts education they have great importance for the competence development of students. So, for its globalization and inclusive it becomes the main axis for the construction of knowledge from other areas. On its behalf, ICT is an essential tool that amplifies the creative essence that provides arts education (Gértrudix & Gértrudix, 2011. In this context, it presents an experience made during the first quarter of 2015-2016 course with students from Degree in Early Childhood Education of Faculty of Education of Toledo (UCLM. We have sought to analyze these Microsites making by students as evidence of learning and to know their teaching skills through classroom implementation of these microsites as proof of their functionality didactic. From a mixed methodology research, it has use the following tools as analysis: a a documentary analysis of the content and structure of the Microsites created by students b a SWOT analysis of the educational intervention carried out by students in the childhood classroom and c a questionnaire to determine the type of ICT tools used in the creation of digital music contents. From the results obtained a clear positive trend among students to the artistic elements emerges, and specially musicals. Thanks to its constant participation and involvement in the whole process of developing the content, students have achieved a remarkable level of competence in instrumental, interpersonal and systemic skills.

  17. A Research on Wind Farm Micro-sitting Optimization in Complex Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Yang, Jianchuan; Li, Chenqi

    2013-01-01

    Wind farm layout optimization in complex terrain is a pretty difficult issue for onshore wind farm. In this article, a novel optimization method is proposed to optimize the layout for wind farms in complex terrain. This method utilized Lissaman and Jensen wake models for taking the terrain height...... that the CPSO method has a higher optimal value, and could be used to optimize the actual wind farm micro-sitting engineering projects.......Wind farm layout optimization in complex terrain is a pretty difficult issue for onshore wind farm. In this article, a novel optimization method is proposed to optimize the layout for wind farms in complex terrain. This method utilized Lissaman and Jensen wake models for taking the terrain height...... turbines’ park coordinates which subject to the boundary and minimum distance conditions between two wind turbines. A Cross Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) method is developed and applied to optimize the layout for a certain wind farm case. Compared with the uniform and experience method, results show...

  18. Geomorphic Response of a Low-Gradient Channel to Modern, Progressive Base-Level Lowering: Nahal HaArava, the Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dente, Elad; Lensky, Nadav G.; Morin, Efrat; Grodek, Tamir; Sheffer, Nathan A.; Enzel, Yehouda

    2017-12-01

    The geomorphic response of channels to base-level fall is an important factor in landscape evolution. To better understand the complex interactions between the factors controlling channel evolution in an emerging continental shelf setting, we use an extensive data set (high-resolution digital elevation models, aerial photographs, and Landsat imagery) of a newly incising, perennial segment of Nahal (Wadi) HaArava, Israel. This channel responds to the rapid and progressive lowering of its base-level, the Dead Sea (>30 m in 35 years; 0.5-1.3 m yr-1). Progressively evolving longitudinal profiles, channel width, sinuosity, and knickpoint retreat during the last few decades were documented or reconstructed. The results indicate that even under fast base-level fall, rapid delta progradation on top of the shelf and shelf edge can moderate channel mouth slopes and, therefore, largely inhibit channel incision and knickpoint propagation. This channel elongation stage ends when the delta reaches an extended accommodation within the receiving basin and fails to keep the channel mouth slopes as low as the channel bed slopes. Then, processes of incision, narrowing, and meandering begin to shape the channel and expand upstream. When the down-cutting channel encounters a more resistant stratum within the channel substrate, these processes are restricted to a downstream reach by formation of a retreating vertical knickpoint. When the knickpoint and the channel incise to a level below this stratum, a spatially continuous, diffusion-like evolution characterizes the channel's response and source-to-sink transport can be implemented. These results emphasize the mouth slope and channel substrate resistance as the governing factors over long-term channel evolution, whereas flash floods have only local and short-lived impacts in a confined, continuously incising channel. The documented channel response applies to eustatic base-level fall under steepening basin bathymetry, rapid delta

  19. Soil water availability and microsite mediate fungal and bacterial phospholipid fatty acid biomarker abundances in Mojave Desert soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, V. L.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Ziegler, S. E.; Evans, R. D.

    2011-06-01

    Changes in the rates of nitrogen (N) cycling, microbial carbon (C) substrate use, and extracellular enzyme activities in a Mojave Desert ecosystem exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 suggest shifts in the size and/or functional characteristics of microbial assemblages in two dominant soil microsites: plant interspaces and under the dominant shrub Larrea tridentata. We used ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers as a proxy for microbial biomass to quantify spatial and temporal differences in soil microbial communities from February 2003 to May 2005. Further, we used the 13C signature of the fossil CO2 source for elevated CO2 plots to trace recent plant C inputs into soil organic matter (SOM) and broad microbial groups using δ13C (‰). Differences between individual δ13CPLFA and δ13CSOM for fungal biomarkers indicated active metabolism of newer C in elevated CO2 soils. Total PLFA-C was greater in shrub microsites compared to plant interspaces, and CO2 treatment differences within microsites increased under higher soil water availability. Total, fungal, and bacterial PLFA-C increased with decreasing soil volumetric water content (VWC) in both microsites, suggesting general adaptations to xeric desert conditions. Increases in fungal-to-bacterial PLFA-C ratio with decreasing VWC reflected functional group-specific responses to changing soil water availability. While temporal and spatial extremes in resource availability in desert ecosystems contribute to the difficulty in identifying common trends or mechanisms driving microbial responses in less extreme environments, we found that soil water availability and soil microsite interacted with elevated CO2 to shift fungal and bacterial biomarker abundances in Mojave Desert soils.

  20. Natural forest expansion on reclaimed coal mines in Northern Spain: the role of native shrubs as suitable microsites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, Josu G; Zaldívar, Pilar; Torroba-Balmori, Paloma; Fernández-Santos, Belén; Martínez-Ruiz, Carolina

    2016-07-01

    The characterization of suitable microsites for tree seedling establishment and growth is one of the most important tasks to achieve the restoration of native forest using natural processes in disturbed sites. For that, we assessed the natural Quercus petraea forest expansion in a 20-year-old reclaimed open-cast mine under sub-Mediterranean climate in northern Spain, monitoring seedling survival, growth, and recruitment during 5 years in three contrasting environments (undisturbed forest, mine edge, and mine center). Seedling density and proportion of dead branches decreased greatly from undisturbed forest towards the center of the mine. There was a positive effect of shrubs on Q. petraea seedling establishment in both mine environments, which increase as the environment undergoes more stress (from the mine edge to the center of the mine), and it was produced by different shrub structural features in each mine environment. Seedling survival reduction through time in three environments did not lead to a density reduction because there was a yearly recruitment of new seedlings. Seedling survival, annual growth, and height through time were greater in mine sites than in the undisturbed forest. The successful colonization patterns and positive neighbor effect of shrubs on natural seedlings establishment found in this study during the first years support the use of shrubs as ecosystem engineers to increase heterogeneity in micro-environmental conditions on reclaimed mine sites, which improves late-successional Quercus species establishment.

  1. La publicidad en la era digital: el microsite como factor estratégico de las campañas publicitarias on-line Advertising in the Digital Age: the Microsite as a Strategic Factor in On-line Advertising Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fanjul Peyró

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento exponencial e irreversible de la Web Social es un fenómeno innegable que está propiciando una serie de cambios en las fórmulas comunicacionales. Esa revolución de naturaleza global propone un nuevo modelo por completo democrático, en el que un usuario, sea cual sea su procedencia, status u ocupación, puede ser emisor y receptor de información a tiempo real. En esta coyuntura, la publicidad se ve obligada a redefinirse y adaptarse, teniendo que modificar sus estrategias y formatos para adecuarse al nuevo modelo. Las fórmulas tradicionales de elaboración de los mensajes comerciales no funcionan en el ámbito de Internet y su eficacia publicitaria es escasa. Sin embargo, la inversión en este medio crece año tras año, lo que demuestra la apuesta del mercado por las posibilidades comerciales de Internet. Este trabajo supone el estudio de un nuevo modelo publicitario en la Red: el microsite. Un formato que invita al usuario a vivir una experiencia sensorial a través del ordenador y que lanza mensajes comerciales de forma interactiva, sutil, pero contundente. Mediante el análisis de contenidos técnicos y semánticos de una muestra de estos espacios, se busca definir y destacar las principales características del microsite y reflexionar sobre el rol estratégico del mismo dentro de las campañas publicitarias on-line.The exponential and irreversible growth of the social web is an undeniable phenomenon that is provoking a series of changes in communication models. This global revolution proposes a new model that is completely democratic, in which a user, regardless of origin, status or occupation, can be the issuer and receiver of information in real time. This has forced advertising to redefine and adapt itself, modifying its strategies and formats in order to align to the new model. The traditional rules of elaborating commercial messages do not apply in the Internet environment, and their advertising efficiency is

  2. Seed Dispersal, Microsites or Competition—What Drives Gap Regeneration in an Old-Growth Forest? An Application of Spatial Point Process Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Gratzer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The spatial structure of trees is a template for forest dynamics and the outcome of a variety of processes in ecosystems. Identifying the contribution and magnitude of the different drivers is an age-old task in plant ecology. Recently, the modelling of a spatial point process was used to identify factors driving the spatial distribution of trees at stand scales. Processes driving the coexistence of trees, however, frequently unfold within gaps and questions on the role of resource heterogeneity within-gaps have become central issues in community ecology. We tested the applicability of a spatial point process modelling approach for quantifying the effects of seed dispersal, within gap light environment, microsite heterogeneity, and competition on the generation of within gap spatial structure of small tree seedlings in a temperate, old growth, mixed-species forest. By fitting a non-homogeneous Neyman–Scott point process model, we could disentangle the role of seed dispersal from niche partitioning for within gap tree establishment and did not detect seed densities as a factor explaining the clustering of small trees. We found only a very weak indication for partitioning of within gap light among the three species and detected a clear niche segregation of Picea abies (L. Karst. on nurse logs. The other two dominating species, Abies alba Mill. and Fagus sylvatica L., did not show signs of within gap segregation.

  3. Adaptive response to DNA-damaging agents in natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations from "Evolution Canyon", Mt. Carmel, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A Lidzbarsky

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural populations of most organisms, especially unicellular microorganisms, are constantly exposed to harsh environmental factors which affect their growth. UV radiation is one of the most important physical parameters which influences yeast growth in nature. Here we used 46 natural strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from several natural populations at the "Evolution Canyon" microsite (Nahal Oren, Mt. Carmel, Israel. The opposing slopes of this canyon share the same geology, soil, and macroclimate, but they differ in microclimatic conditions. The interslope differences in solar radiation (200%-800% more on the "African" slope caused the development of two distinct biomes. The south-facing slope is sunnier and has xeric, savannoid "African" environment while the north-facing slope is represented by temperate, "European" forested environment. Here we studied the phenotypic response of the S. cerevisiae strains to UVA and UVC radiations and to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS in order to evaluate the interslope effect on the strains' ability to withstand DNA-damaging agents.We exposed our strains to the different DNA-damaging agents and measured survival by counting colony forming units. The strains from the "African" slope were more resilient to both UVA and MMS than the strains from the "European" slope. In contrast, we found that there was almost no difference between strains (with similar ploidy from the opposite slopes, in their sensitivity to UVC radiation. These results suggest that the "African" strains are more adapted to higher solar radiation than the "European" strains. We also found that the tetraploids strains were more tolerant to all DNA-damaging agents than their neighboring diploid strains, which suggest that high ploidy level might be a mechanism of adaptation to high solar radiation.Our results and the results of parallel studies with several other organisms, suggest that natural selection appears to select, at a

  4. A new hybrid metaheuristic algorithm for wind farm micrositing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massan, S.U.R.; Wagan, A.I.; Shaikh, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on proposing a new algorithm, referred as HMA (Hybrid Metaheuristic Algorithm) for the solution of the WTO (Wind Turbine Optimization) problem. It is well documented that turbines located behind one another face a power loss due to the obstruction of the wind due to wake loss. It is required to reduce this wake loss by the effective placement of turbines using a new HMA. This HMA is derived from the two basic algorithms i.e. DEA (Differential Evolution Algorithm) and the FA (Firefly Algorithm). The function of optimization is undertaken on the N.O. Jensen model. The blending of DEA and FA into HMA are discussed and the new algorithm HMA is implemented maximize power and minimize the cost in a WTO problem. The results by HMA have been compared with GA (Genetic Algorithm) used in some previous studies. The successfully calculated total power produced and cost per unit turbine for a wind farm by using HMA and its comparison with past approaches using single algorithms have shown that there is a significant advantage of using the HMA as compared to the use of single algorithms. The first time implementation of a new algorithm by blending two single algorithms is a significant step towards learning the behavior of algorithms and their added advantages by using them together. (author)

  5. A New Hybrid Metaheuristic Algorithm for Wind Farm Micrositing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAFIQ-UR-REHMAN MASSAN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on proposing a new algorithm, referred as HMA (Hybrid Metaheuristic Algorithm for the solution of the WTO (Wind Turbine Optimization problem. It is well documented that turbines located behind one another face a power loss due to the obstruction of the wind due to wake loss. It is required to reduce this wake loss by the effective placement of turbines using a new HMA. This HMA is derived from the two basic algorithms i.e. DEA (Differential Evolution Algorithm and the FA (Firefly Algorithm. The function of optimization is undertaken on the N.O. Jensen model. The blending of DEA and FA into HMA are discussed and the new algorithm HMA is implemented maximize power and minimize the cost in a WTO problem. The results by HMA have been compared with GA (Genetic Algorithm used in some previous studies. The successfully calculated total power produced and cost per unit turbine for a wind farm by using HMA and its comparison with past approaches using single algorithms have shown that there is a significant advantage of using the HMA as compared to the use of single algorithms. The first time implementation of a new algorithm by blending two single algorithms is a significant step towards learning the behavior of algorithms and their added advantages by using them together.

  6. Concepts and methodologies for modeling and simulation a tribute to Tuncer Oren

    CERN Document Server

    Yilmaz, Levent

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive text/reference presents cutting-edge advances in the theory and methodology of modeling and simulation (M&S), and reveals how this work has been influenced by the fundamental contributions of Professor Tuncer Ören to this field. Exploring the synergies among the domains of M&S and systems engineering (SE), the book describes how M&S and SE can help to address the complex problems identified as "Grand Challenges" more effectively under a model-driven and simulation-directed systems engineering framework. Topics and features: examines frameworks for the development of advan

  7. Werknemer moet explosie niet óm de oren krijgen, maar ertussen : risicobeheersing begint op de werkvloer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, P. van; Beek, C. van

    1999-01-01

    Nederland kent zo'n 4500 bedrijven die op grote schaal met gevaarlijke stoffen werken, de majeure-risicobedrijven. Een van de risicofactoren bij deze bedrijven is explosiegevaar. Het veiligheidsbeleid is in de eerste plaats gericht op bescherming van de eigen werknemers en apparatuur, op de

  8. Seedling regeneration in the alpine treeline ecotone: Comparison of wood microsites and adjacent soil substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelaide Chapman Johnson; J. Alan Yeakley

    2016-01-01

    Although climate warming is generally expected to facilitate upward advance of forests, conifer seedling regeneration and survival may be hindered by low substrate moisture, high radiation, and both low and high snow accumulation. To better understand substrate-related factors promoting regeneration in the alpine treeline ecotone, this study compared 2 substrates...

  9. Selection of microsites by grizzly bears to excavate biscuitroots (Lomatium cous)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Roots of the biscuitroot (Lomatium cous) are a common food of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in drier parts of their southern range. I used random sampling and locations of radiomarked bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem to investigate the importance of mass and starch content of roots, digability of the site, and density of plants relative to selection of sites by grizzly bears to dig biscuitroots. Where biscuitroots were present, most differences between dug and undug sites were related to digability of the site and mass and starch content of roots. Grizzly bears more often dug in sites where average milligrams of starch per kilogram of pull per root (a??energy gain) was high. Density of biscuitroots was not related to selection of sites by grizzly bears. Mass of biscuitroot stems also provided relatively little information about mass of roots. Distribution of biscuitroots was associated with increased cover of rocks and exposure to wind, and with decreased slopes and cover of forbs. Digs by grizzly bears were associated with the presence of biscuitroots, proximity to edge of forest, and increased cover of rocks. Results were consistent with previously observed tendencies of grizzly bears to concentrate their feeding within 50-100 m of cover.

  10. Tree Regeneration in Church Forests of Ethiopia: Effects of Microsites and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassie Eshete, A.; Sterck, F.J.; Teketay, D.; Bongers, F.

    2009-01-01

    Tree regeneration is severely hampered in the fragmented afromontane forests of northern Ethiopia. We explored how trees regenerate in remnant forests along the gradient from open field, forest edge to closed sites and canopy gaps inside the forest. We investigated the effects of seed sowing, litter

  11. Microclimatic Divergence in a Mediterranean Canyon Affects Richness, Composition, and Body Size in Saproxylic Beetle Assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Buse

    Full Text Available Large valleys with opposing slopes may act as a model system with which the effects of strong climatic gradients on biodiversity can be evaluated. The advantage of such comparisons is that the impact of a change of climate can be studied on the same species pool without the need to consider regional differences. The aim of this study was to compare the assemblage of saproxylic beetles on such opposing slopes at Lower Nahal Oren, Mt. Carmel, Israel (also known as "Evolution Canyon" with a 200-800% higher solar radiation on the south-facing (SFS compared to the north-facing slope (NFS. We tested specific hypotheses of species richness patterns, assemblage structure, and body size resulting from interslope differences in microclimate. Fifteen flight-interception traps per slope were distributed over three elevation levels ranging from 50 to 100 m a.s.l. Richness of saproxylic beetles was on average 34% higher on the SFS compared with the NFS, with no detected influence of elevation levels. Both assemblage structure and average body size were determined by slope aspect, with more small-bodied beetles found on the SFS. Both the increase in species richness and the higher prevalence of small species on the SFS reflect ecological rules present on larger spatial grain (species-energy hypothesis and community body size shift hypothesis, and both can be explained by the metabolic theory of ecology. This is encouraging for the complementary use of micro- and macroclimatic gradients to study impacts of climate warming on biodiversity.

  12. Adaptive microclimatic structural and expressional dehydrin 1 evolution in wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, at 'Evolution Canyon', Mount Carmel, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zujun; Zhang, Tao; Bolshoy, Alexander; Beharav, Alexander; Nevo, Eviatar

    2009-05-01

    'Evolution Canyon' (ECI) at Lower Nahal Oren, Mount Carmel, Israel, is an optimal natural microscale model for unravelling evolution in action highlighting the twin evolutionary processes of adaptation and speciation. A major model organism in ECI is wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, the progenitor of cultivated barley, which displays dramatic interslope adaptive and speciational divergence on the 'African' dry slope (AS) and the 'European' humid slope (ES), separated on average by 200 m. Here we examined interslope single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequences and the expression diversity of the drought resistant dehydrin 1 gene (Dhn1) between the opposite slopes. We analysed 47 plants (genotypes), 4-10 individuals in each of seven stations (populations) in an area of 7000 m(2), for Dhn1 sequence diversity located in the 5' upstream flanking region of the gene. We found significant levels of Dhn1 genic diversity represented by 29 haplotypes, derived from 45 SNPs in a total of 708 bp sites. Most of the haplotypes, 25 out of 29 (= 86.2%), were represented by one genotype; hence, unique to one population. Only a single haplotype was common to both slopes. Genetic divergence of sequence and haplotype diversity was generally and significantly different among the populations and slopes. Nucleotide diversity was higher on the AS, whereas haplotype diversity was higher on the ES. Interslope divergence was significantly higher than intraslope divergence. The applied Tajima D rejected neutrality of the SNP diversity. The Dhn1 expression under dehydration indicated interslope divergent expression between AS and ES genotypes, reinforcing Dhn1 associated with drought resistance of wild barley at 'Evolution Canyon'. These results are inexplicable by mutation, gene flow, or chance effects, and support adaptive natural microclimatic selection as the major evolutionary divergent driving force.

  13. Post-fire restoration in Alpine environment: from the microsite to the landscape. Multi-scale approach for the definition of mitigation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    marcolin, enrico

    2013-01-01

    Forest fires in the Alps are increasing both in frequency and size, especially on southern slopes where environmental conditions are more suitable for fire ignition and spread. Post-fire restoration activities are often applied without considering the large heterogeneity and variability of ecological constraints. Fire severity, species composition and site characteristics heavily affect vegetation recovery dynamics. The main objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that post-fi...

  14. Impact of wind-induced microsites and disturbance severity on tree regeneration patterns: Results from the first post-storm decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floor Vodde; Kalev Jogiste; Jeroen Engelhart; Lee E. Frelich; W. Keith Moser; Alan Sims; Marek Metslaid

    2015-01-01

    In two hemiboreal mixed spruce-hardwood forests in north-east Estonia, we studied (1) which factors affect tree regeneration survival and development during the first post-storm decade and (2) how these effects change in time. Regeneration height and mortality of the tree species black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) J. Gaertn.), birch (Betula pendula Roth., Betula...

  15. Adaptive evolution of benzoxazinoids in wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, at "Evolution Canyon", Mount Carmel, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Abu, Yuval; Beiles, Avigdor; Flom, Dvir; Nevo, Eviatar

    2018-01-01

    "Evolution Canyon" (ECI) at Lower Nahal Oren, Mount Carmel, Israel, is an optimal natural microscale model for unraveling evolution-in-action, highlighting the evolutionary processes of biodiversity evolution, adaptation, and incipient sympatric speciation. A major model organism in ECI is the tetraploid wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides (TD), the progenitor of cultivated emmer and durum wheat. TD displays dramatic interslope adaptive evolutionary divergence on the tropical, savannoid-hot and dry south-facing, "African" slope (AS), and on the temperate, forested, cool and humid, north-facing, "European" slope (ES), separated on average by 250 m. From the perspective of chemical evolution and metabolomics, it is important to unravel interslope divergence in biologically relevant secondary metabolites between the abutting slope populations. Here, in TD we examined hydroxamic acid (Hx), which is a family of secondary cereal metabolites, and plays a major role in defending the plant against fungi, insects and weeds. Our examination revealed that higher concentrations of DIBOA and DIMBOA were found in seedlings growing in the same greenhouse from seeds collected from the cool and humid forested ES, whereas the seedlings of seeds collected from the savannoid AS (both in root and shoot tissues), showed no DIMBOA. Remarkably, only DIBOA appears in both shoots and roots of the AS seedlings. It rises to a peak and then decreases in both organs and in seedlings from both slopes. The DIMBOA, which appears only in the ES seedlings, rises to a peak and decreases in the shoot, but increased and remained in a plateau in the root, till the end of the experiment. The results suggest stronger genetic resistance of defense compounds DIBOA and DIMBOA against biotic stresses (fungi and other pathogens) by ES seedlings. However, AS seedlings responded earlier but were to the same biotic stresses. The genetic difference found in AS seedlings was caused by the main adaptive selection

  16. Adaptive evolution of benzoxazinoids in wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, at "Evolution Canyon", Mount Carmel, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Ben-Abu

    Full Text Available "Evolution Canyon" (ECI at Lower Nahal Oren, Mount Carmel, Israel, is an optimal natural microscale model for unraveling evolution-in-action, highlighting the evolutionary processes of biodiversity evolution, adaptation, and incipient sympatric speciation. A major model organism in ECI is the tetraploid wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides (TD, the progenitor of cultivated emmer and durum wheat. TD displays dramatic interslope adaptive evolutionary divergence on the tropical, savannoid-hot and dry south-facing, "African" slope (AS, and on the temperate, forested, cool and humid, north-facing, "European" slope (ES, separated on average by 250 m. From the perspective of chemical evolution and metabolomics, it is important to unravel interslope divergence in biologically relevant secondary metabolites between the abutting slope populations. Here, in TD we examined hydroxamic acid (Hx, which is a family of secondary cereal metabolites, and plays a major role in defending the plant against fungi, insects and weeds.Our examination revealed that higher concentrations of DIBOA and DIMBOA were found in seedlings growing in the same greenhouse from seeds collected from the cool and humid forested ES, whereas the seedlings of seeds collected from the savannoid AS (both in root and shoot tissues, showed no DIMBOA. Remarkably, only DIBOA appears in both shoots and roots of the AS seedlings. It rises to a peak and then decreases in both organs and in seedlings from both slopes. The DIMBOA, which appears only in the ES seedlings, rises to a peak and decreases in the shoot, but increased and remained in a plateau in the root, till the end of the experiment.The results suggest stronger genetic resistance of defense compounds DIBOA and DIMBOA against biotic stresses (fungi and other pathogens by ES seedlings. However, AS seedlings responded earlier but were to the same biotic stresses. The genetic difference found in AS seedlings was caused by the main adaptive

  17. Meetodid opijärgse nakkuse vältimiseks / tõlkinud Kalle Klein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Kaks uurimismeeskonda on teatanud, et operatsiooniga seotud nakkusi saab vältida kahe erineva meetodi abil, millest üks on suunatud ninas kasvavale ja antibiootikumidele mittealluvale bakterile Staphylococcus aureus, teine aga nahal elavatele mikroobidele

  18. Final Report to DOE’s Office of Science (BER) submitted by Ram Oren (PI) of DE-FG02-00ER63015 (ended on 09/14/2009) entitled “Controls of Net Ecosystem Exchange at an Old Field, a Pine Plantation, & a Hardwood Forest under Identical Climatic & Edaphic Conditions”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oren, Ram; Oishi, AC; Palmroth, Sari; Butnor, JR; Johnsen, KH

    2014-03-17

    The project yielded papers on fluxes (energy, water and carbon dioxide)between each ecosystem and the atmosphere, and explained the temporal dynamics of fluxes based on intrinsic (physiology, canopy leaf area and structure) and extrinsic (atmospheric and edaphic conditions). Comparisons between any two of the ecosystems, and among all three followed, attributing differences in behavior to different patterns of phenology and differential sensitivities to soil and atmospheric humidity. Finally, data from one-to-three of the ecosystems (incorporated into FluxNet data archive) were used in syntheses across AmeriFlux sites and even more broadly across FluxNet sites.

  19. Multidrug and vancomycin resistance among clinical isolates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria ... 2017 Olufunmiso et al; licensee African Health Sciences. This is an Open ..... Cole AM, Tahk S, Oren A, Yoshioka D, Kim YH, Park .... Part 2: Cambridge University press,.

  20. Anonüümne aidsitest on lihtsamast lihtne / Agnes Kuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuus, Agnes

    2005-01-01

    Autor käis neljas anonüümses aidsikabinetis teste tegemas, et omal nahal veenduda, kas testijatele vaadatakse viltu, nagu väidavad anonüümsed netikommentaatorid. Vt. ka juhtkirja lk. 4: Piisake meres. Lisa: Anonüümsed ja tasuta aidsikabinetid

  1. [Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen. Saksa Simplicissimuse seiklused] / Meelis Friedenthal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Friedenthal, Meelis, 1973-

    2011-01-01

    Tutvustus: Grimmelshausen, Hans Jakob Christoffel von. Saksa Simplicissimuse seiklused, teisisõnu: ühe veidra vagabundi elulugu, kel Melchior Sternfels von Fuchshaim nimeks, et kus ja mis moel ta siia ilma sündis ning mida siin nägi, õppis, oma nahal tunda sai ja kannatas, nagu sellestki, miks ta siinsest ilmast vabatahtlikult loobub. [Tallinn] : Pegasus, c2010

  2. The Mathematics of Mikhael Gromov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Laudatio for the Abel Prize winner Mikhael Gromov in Oslo, Norway, March 26, 2009. The lecture is recorded at htttp://media01.smartcom.no/ Microsite/webcast.aspx?eventid=4117......Laudatio for the Abel Prize winner Mikhael Gromov in Oslo, Norway, March 26, 2009. The lecture is recorded at htttp://media01.smartcom.no/ Microsite/webcast.aspx?eventid=4117...

  3. Shrub encroachment alters sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Jessica M.; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Ogle, Kiona; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitchell; Scott, Russell L.; Williams, David G.; Huxman, Travis E.

    2012-03-01

    A greater abundance of shrubs in semiarid grasslands affects the spatial patterns of soil temperature, moisture, and litter, resulting in fertile islands with potentially enhanced soil metabolic activity. The goal of this study was to quantify the microsite specificity of soil respiration in a semiarid riparian ecosystem experiencing shrub encroachment. We quantified the response of soil respiration to different microsite conditions created by big mesquite shrubs (near the trunk and the canopy edge), medium-sized mesquite, sacaton bunchgrasses, and open spaces. We hypothesized that soil respiration would be more temperature sensitive and less moisture sensitive and have a greater magnitude in shrub microsites compared with grass and open microsites. Field and incubation soil respiration data were simultaneously analyzed in a Bayesian framework to quantify the microsite-specific temperature and moisture sensitivities and magnitude of respiration. The analysis showed that shrub expansion increases the heterogeneity of respiration. Respiration has greater temperature sensitivity near the shrub canopy edge, and respiration rates are higher overall under big mesquite compared with those of the other microsites. Respiration in the microsites beneath medium-sized mesquites does not behave like a downscaled version of big mesquite microsites. The grass microsites show more similarity to big mesquite microsites than medium-sized shrubs. This study shows there can be a great deal of fine-scale spatial heterogeneity that accompanies shifts in vegetation structure. Such complexity presents a challenge in scaling soil respiration fluxes to the landscape for systems experiencing shrub encroachment, but quantifying this complexity is significantly important in determining overall ecosystem metabolic behavior.

  4. Rapid anthropogenic response to short-term aeolian-fluvial palaeoenvironmental changes during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the northern Negev Desert, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel; Katra, Itzhak; Agha, Nuha; Goring-Morris, A. Nigel; Porat, Naomi; Barzilai, Omry

    2014-09-01

    Archaeological investigations along Nahal Sekher on the eastern edge of Israel's northwestern Negev Desert dunefield revealed concentrations of Epipalaeolithic campsites associated respectively with ancient water bodies. This study, aimed at better understanding the connections between these camps and the water bodies, is concerned with a cluster of Natufian sites. A comprehensive geomorphological study integrating field mapping, stratigraphic sections, sedimentological analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages was conducted in the vicinity of a recently excavated Natufian campsite of Nahal Sekher VI whose artifacts directly overlay aeolian sand dated by OSL to 12.4 ± 0.7 and 11.7 ± 0.5 ka. Residual sequences of diagnostic silty sediments, defined here as low-energy fluvial fine-grained deposits (LFFDs), were identified within the drainage system of central Nahal Sekher around the Nahal Sekher VI site. LFFD sections were found to represent both shoreline and mid-water deposits. The thicker mid-water LFFD deposits (15.7 ± 0.7-10.7 ± 0.5 ka) date within the range of the Epipalaeolithic campsites, while the upper and shoreline LFFD units that thin out into the sands adjacent to the Nahal Sekher VI site display slightly younger ages (10.8 ± 0.4 ka-7.6 ± 0.4 ka). LFFD sedimentation by low-energy concentrated flow and standing-water developed as a result of proximal downstream dune-damming. These water bodies developed as a result of encroaching sand that initially crossed central Nahal Sekher by 15.7 ± 0.7 ka and probably intermittently blocked the course of the wadi. LFFD deposition was therefore a response to a unique combination of regional sand supply due to frequent powerful winds and does not represent climate change in the form of increased precipitation or temperature change. The chronostratigraphies affiliate the Natufian sites to the adjacent ancient water bodies. These relations reflect a rapid, but temporary anthropogenic response to a

  5. Rewetted industrial cutaway peatlands in western Ireland: a prime location for climate change mitigation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wilson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rewetting of drained industrial peatlands may reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and promote recolonisation by peat forming plant species. We investigated carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O dynamics over a three-year period in a rewetted industrial peatland in Ireland. Sample plots were established in bare peat, Juncus effusus-Sphagnum cuspidatum, Sphagnum cuspidatum and Eriophorum angustifolium dominated microsites. The relationships between fluxes and environmental variables were examined and regression models were used to provide an estimate of the annual GHG balance for each microsite. All the vegetated microsites were carbon sinks for the duration of the study. Highest uptake occurred in the Eriophorum microsite (146–583 g C m-2 yr-1, followed by Juncus-Sphagnum (35–204 g C m-2 yr-1 and Sphagnum (5–140 g C m-2 yr-1. The bare peat microsite was a source of 37–82 g C m-2 yr-1. No N2O fluxes were detected. Strong inter-annual variation was observed in all microsites, driven by variation in precipitation and subsequent changes in the position of the water table. In terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP, the microsites had either a cooling effect (Eriophorum, a close to neutral effect (Juncus-Sphagnum, Sphagnum or a warming effect (bare peat on the climate.

  6. Compound list: 2-nitrofluorene [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2-nitrofluorene 2NF 00160 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/2-nitroflu...orene.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/2-nitrofluorene.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ...

  7. Proceedings of Seminar on Nuclear Geology and Mining Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkarnain, Iskandar; Soeprapto; Soetarno, Djoko; H, Johan-Baratha; Effendi, Amir; Widiyanta; Arief, Erni-Rifandriah; Supriyadi; Yusron, Hari

    2004-01-01

    The proceedings contains the result research and development on nuclear geology and mining resources by the center for development of nuclear ore-National Nuclear Energy Agency, Indonesia. The proceedings consist of nuclear mining activity, exploration/exploitation mining mineral and processing, and environmental process. The proceedings consists of one article from keynote speaker and 22 articles from BATAN participants. (PPIN)

  8. Verder met inclusie en diversiteit : resultaten en actiepunten Onderwijsconferentie Hogeschool van Amsterdam 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepen, Mieke; Essen, Erik; Hogenstijn, Maarten; Veraa, Fiona

    ‘Hartstikke leuk om een dagje onder collega’s te zijn en te praten over onderwijs, maar wat heb ik erverder aan? Morgen moet ik gewoon weer aan het werk’. Deze houding over de onderwijsconferentie, en misschien wel conferenties in het algemeen, zal velen bekend in de oren klinken. Het is vaak lastig

  9. Civil-Military Relations: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Society 29, no. 3 (Spring 2003): 373-391. Sage Rosen , Frederik. "Third-Generation Civil-Military Relations: Moving Beyond the Security- Development Nexus... Barak , Oren. The Lebanese Army: A National Institution in a Divided Society. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2009. 272pp. (UA853 .L4B37

  10. 'Slobo, breng ons de salade'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.

    2008-01-01

    Wie in 1991 het nieuws uit de Balkan goed volgde, moet de naam Vukovar nog bekend in de oren klinken. De stad is gelegen in het uiterste oosten van Kroatië aan de Servische grens, waar het riviertje de Vuka met de daar ongeveer zeshonderd meter brede majestueuze Donau samenvloeit. Vukovar werd van

  11. 78 FR 53727 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Wisconsin Advisory Committee for Fact Finding on Hate Crimes in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Gill, Sikh Student Association--UW Madison Elana Kohn-Oren, Director, Jewish Community Relations Council Ibrahim Saeed, Ph.D., Islamic Center of Madison Steve Starkey, Executive Director, OutReach Panel 3 4:55 p.m. to 6:05 p.m. James L. Santelle, U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Wisconsin...

  12. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 78, Number 2, March-April 1935

    Science.gov (United States)

    1935-04-01

    Craig, C.A.C., assigned to command Battery "B" Captain Oren A. Mulkey, Infantry, assigned to Headquarters Company Pacific Sec- tor; and Lieutenant Norman ...a blow to the pride of our :1ble corps of instructors. By Lieutenant Eugene C. Smallwood , C.A .C. JENROLL~vrENT for additional members in the C.c.c

  13. Global forest sector modeling: application to some impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph. Buongiorno

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored the potential long-term effects of a warming climate on the global wood sector, based on Way and Oren's synthesis (Tree Physiology 30,669-688) indicating positive responses of tree growth to higher temperature in boreal and temperative climates, and negative responses in the topics. Changes in forest productivity were introduced in the Global...

  14. Trois observations de néphrome mésoblastique avant l'âge de 6 mois

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L. Sahnoun

    2005;12:561–3. [12] Malone PS, Ransley RA, Cook T. Congenital mesoblastic nephroma, renin production and hypertension. Journal of pediatric surgery Juin. 1989;24:599–600. [13] Oren F M ET Thomas F K. Hypperreninemia and congenital mesoblas- tic nephroma: case report and review of the literature. Urology (2000).

  15. Computers, gezondheid, ergonomie en arbeid : verslag van een discussiebijeenkomst, 18 en 19 oktober, University of Surrey (UK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thé, K.; Looze, M.P. de

    2000-01-01

    Een groep Europese onderzoekers kwam half oktober bij elkaar in Guildford (Engeland) op uitnodiging van Peter Buckle. Deze naam al velen bekend in de oren klinken, want hij is onderzoeker van wereldformaat op het gebied 'arbeidsgebonden klachten aan het bewegingsapparaat'. De bijeenkomst werd

  16. Image Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance that explains the process for getting images approved in One EPA Web microsites and resource directories. includes an appendix that shows examples of what makes some images better than others, how some images convey meaning more than others

  17. A common-garden study of resource-island effects on a native and an exotic, annual grass after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Amber N.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Plant-soil variation related to perennial-plant resource islands (coppices) interspersed with relatively bare interspaces is a major source of heterogeneity in desert rangelands. Our objective was to determine how native and exotic grasses vary on coppice mounds and interspaces (microsites) in unburned and burned sites and underlying factors that contribute to the variation in sagebrush-steppe rangelands of the Idaho National Lab, where interspaces typically have abiotic crusts. We asked how the exotic cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and native bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Löve) were distributed among the microsites and measured their abundances in three replicate wildfires and nearby unburned areas. We conducted a common-garden study in which soil cores from each burned microsite type were planted with seed of either species to determine microsite effects on establishment and growth of native and exotic grasses. We assessed soil physical properties in the common-garden study to determine the intrinsic properties of each microsite surface and the retention of microsite soil differences following transfer of soils to the garden, to plant growth, and to wetting/drying cycles. In the field study, only bluebunch wheatgrass density was greater on coppice mounds than interspaces, in both unburned and burned areas. In the common-garden experiment, there were microsite differences in soil physical properties, particularly in crust hardness and its relationship to moisture, but soil properties were unaffected by plant growth. Also in the experiment, both species had equal densities yet greater dry mass production on coppice-mound soils compared to interspace soils, suggesting microsite differences in growth but not establishment (likely related to crust weakening resulting from watering). Coppice-interspace patterning and specifically native-herb recovery on coppices is likely important for postfire resistance of this rangeland to cheatgrass.

  18. Plant Clonal Integration Mediates the Horizontal Redistribution of Soil Resources, Benefiting Neighboring Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xue-Hua; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Liu, Zhi-Lan; Gao, Shu-Qin; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Feng-Hong; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resources such as water taken up by plants can be released into soils through hydraulic redistribution and can also be translocated by clonal integration within a plant clonal network. We hypothesized that the resources from one (donor) microsite could be translocated within a clonal network, released into different (recipient) microsites and subsequently used by neighbor plants in the recipient microsite. To test these hypotheses, we conducted two experiments in which connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina were grown under both homogeneous and heterogeneous water regimes, with seedlings of Artemisia ordosica as neighbors. The isotopes [(15)N] and deuterium were used to trace the translocation of nitrogen and water, respectively, within the clonal network. The water and nitrogen taken up by P. anserina ramets in the donor microsite were translocated into the connected ramets in the recipient microsites. Most notably, portions of the translocated water and nitrogen were released into the recipient microsite and were used by the neighboring A. ordosica, which increased growth of the neighboring A. ordosica significantly. Therefore, our hypotheses were supported, and plant clonal integration mediated the horizontal hydraulic redistribution of resources, thus benefiting neighboring plants. Such a plant clonal integration-mediated resource redistribution in horizontal space may have substantial effects on the interspecific relations and composition of the community and consequently on ecosystem processes.

  19. Plant clonal integration mediates the horizontal redistribution of soil resources, benefiting neighbouring plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehua eYe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resources such as water taken up by plants can be released into soils through hydraulic redistribution and can also be translocated by clonal integration within a plant clonal network. We hypothesized that the resources from one (donor microsite could be translocated within a clonal network, released into different (recipient microsites and subsequently used by neighbour plants in the recipient microsite. To test these hypotheses, we conducted two experiments in which connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina were grown under both homogeneous and heterogeneous water regimes, with seedlings of Artemisia ordosica as neighbours. The isotopes [15N] and deuterium were used to trace the translocation of nitrogen and water, respectively, within the clonal network. The water and nitrogen taken up by P. anserina ramets in the donor microsite were translocated into the connected ramets in the recipient microsites. Most notably, portions of the translocated water and nitrogen were released into the recipient microsite and were used by the neighbouring A. ordosica, which increased growth of the neighbouring A. ordosica significantly. Therefore, our hypotheses were supported, and plant clonal integration mediated the horizontal hydraulic redistribution of resources, thus benefiting neighbouring plants. Such a plant clonal integration-mediated resource redistribution in horizontal space may have substantial effects on the interspecific relations and composition of the community and consequently on ecosystem processes.

  20. Post-fire redistribution of soil carbon and nitrogen at a grassland-shrubland ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan; Li, Junran; Ravi, Sujith; Dukes, David; Gonzales, Howell B.; Sankey, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    The rapid conversion of grasslands into shrublands has been observed in many arid and semiarid regions worldwide. Studies have shown that fire can provide certain forms of reversibility for shrub-grass transition due to resource homogenization and shrub mortality, especially in the early stages of shrub encroachment. Field-level post-fire soil resource redistribution has rarely been tested. Here we used prescribed fire in a shrubland-grassland transition zone in the northern Chihuahuan Desert to test the hypothesis that fire facilitates the remobilization of nutrient-enriched soil from shrub microsites to grass and bare microsites and thereby reduces the spatial heterogeneity of soil resources. Results show that the shrub microsites had the lowest water content compared to grass and bare microsites after fire, even when rain events occurred. Significant differences of total soil carbon (TC) and total soil nitrogen (TN) among the three microsites disappeared one year after the fire. The spatial autocorrelation distance increased from 1~2 m, approximately the mean size of an individual shrub canopy, to over 5 m one year after the fire for TC and TN. Patches of high soil C and N decomposed one year after the prescribed fire. Overall, fire stimulates the transfer of soil C and N from shrub microsites to nutrient-depleted grass and bare microsites. Such a redistribution of soil C and N, coupled with the reduced soil water content under the shrub canopies, suggests that fire might influence the competition between shrubs and grasses, leading to a higher grass, compared to shrub, coverage in this ecotone.

  1. Propagule pressure governs establishment of an invasive herb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramula, Satu; Jauni, Miia; van Ooik, Tapio

    2015-10-01

    The success of plant invasions may be limited by the availability of propagules and/or of suitable microsites, with microsite availability being affected by, for example, disturbance and interspecific competition. A mechanistic understanding of the contributions of propagule pressure and microsite limitation to plant invasions is therefore required to minimise future invasions. Here, we investigated the relative roles of propagule pressure, the availability of microsites, and their interaction on the establishment of an invasive herb, Lupinus polyphyllus, in two geographic regions representing different climate and growth conditions in Finland (a more productive southern region and a harsher central region). We carried out a field experiment in 14 L. polyphyllus populations, in which we manipulated both propagule pressure and disturbance. In a complementary greenhouse experiment, we manipulated propagule pressure and interspecific competition. Seedling establishment of L. polyphyllus was higher in the more productive southern region than in the harsher central region. The number of L. polyphyllus seedlings increased with increasing propagule pressure regardless of disturbance or interspecific competition. However, the number of L. polyphyllus seedlings per sown seed (relative establishment) tended to decrease with increasing propagule pressure, indicating that the positive effect of propagule pressure on early invasion is partially counteracted by density-dependent mortality at high seed densities. Our results highlight the dominant role of propagule pressure over disturbance and interspecific competition in the establishment of L. polyphyllus, suggesting that the early stage of invasion is limited by the availability of propagules rather than the availability of suitable microsites.

  2. Paradoxical versus modulated conditional inferences: An explanation from the Stoicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López-Astorga

    Full Text Available Abstract According to standard propositional logic, the inferences in which the conditional introduction rule is used are absolutely correct. However, people do not always accept inferences of that kind. Orenes and Johnson-Laird carried out interesting experiments in this way and, based on the general framework of the mental models theory, explained clearly in which cases and under which circumstances such inferences are accepted and rejected. The goals of this paper are both to better understand some aspects of Stoic logic and to check whether or not that very logic can also offer an account on this issue. My conclusions are that, indeed, this later logic can do that, and that the results obtained by Orenes and Johnson-Laird can be explained based on the information that the sources provide on Stoic logic.

  3. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida). STRIPED MULLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    Perciformes body; body bluish-gray dorsally and Family ............. . Mugilidae white ventrally; scales cycloid in young, feebly ctenoid in adults; dis- tinct... Mugilidae ) with special reference University Press, College to the seas of the Near East. Station. 327 pp. Aquaculture 5:65-80. Kilby, J. D. 1949. A...nddieaeso ____ ______ n to glfmullets ( Mugilidae ). Pages 411-Mugil cephalus L. in two gulf 493 in 0. H. Oren, ed. Aquacul- coastal areas of Florida. Q. J

  4. De taalvaardigheid van instromende studenten in kaart gebracht

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Elke; Van Houtven, Tine

    2010-01-01

    Er is veel te doen over de taalvaardigheid van instromende studenten in het hoger onderwijs. We worden om de oren geslagen met berichten over hoe slecht het met hun taal gesteld is. Maar is dit wel zo? Tijdens deze sessie zullen we verslag uitbrengen van een onderzoek naar de taalvaardigheid van 800 Vlaamse eerstejaarsstudenten. We zullen kort het onderzoeksopzet en de gebruikte testen toelichten, maar zullen vooral tijd besteden aan de resultaten die uit de studie naar voren kwamen. Daarbij ...

  5. Carbon Sequestration at United States Marine Corps Installations West

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    which was then entered into a GIS database . Because plant species are constrained by soils, climate and topography, landform is a robust...levels that inhibit leaf stomatal conductance (e.g., Oren 1993; Bunce et al. 1984; Körner 1994) and photosynthesis (Arnone et al. 2008). It appears that...layers of the soil, stimulating Rh more than plant photosynthesis . The larger negative NEE values (net CO2 uptake) and faster accumulation of ecosystem

  6. A characterization of trace zero bisymmetric nonnegative $5 \\times 5$ matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Somphotphisut, Somchai; Wiboonton, Keng

    2017-01-01

    Let $\\lambda_1 \\geq \\lambda_2 \\geq \\lambda_3 \\geq \\lambda_4 \\geq \\lambda_5 \\geq -\\lambda_1$ be real numbers such that $\\sum_{i=1}^5 \\lambda_i =0$. In \\cite{oren}, O. Spector prove that a necessary and sufficient condition for $\\lambda_1, \\lambda_2, \\lambda_3, \\lambda_4, \\lambda_5$ to be the eigenvalues of a symmetric nonnegative $5 \\times 5$ matrix is "$\\lambda_2+\\lambda_5

  7. The collection of the main issues for wind farm optimisation in complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Chen, Dandan; Han, Xingxing

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims at establishing the collection of the main issues for wind farm optimisation in complex terrain. To make wind farm cost effective, this paper briefly analyses the main factors influencing wind farm design in complex terrain and sets up a series of mathematical model that includes...... micro-siting, collector circuits, access roads design for optimization problems. The paper relies on the existing one year wind data in the wind farm area and uses genetic algorithm to optimize the micro-siting problem. After optimization of the turbine layout, single-source shortest path algorithm...

  8. Landfill: Comparison of pedogenesis between sites of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh plantation and naturalized herbaceus vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Lanfranco, J. W.; Marlats, R. M.; Baridon, E.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was compared different levels of pedogenetics process between sites with Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation and naturalized grass. The trial was installed on landfill soil cover in Villa Domínico, Buenos Aires Province, Argentine, CEAMSE, 34°40’S,50’’; 58°18’45’’W; 4m osl. At five age of trees and forteen of the Landfill was realized the following determination: 1- Physical and Chemicals caracterization of own microsite tree and analogical microsite without trees inf...

  9. Study of integrated optimization design of wind farm in complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Chen, Dandan; Han, Xingxing

    2017-01-01

    wind farm design in complex terrain and setting up integrated optimization mathematical model for micro-site selection, power lines and road maintenance design etc.. Based on the existing 1-year wind measurement data in the wind farm area, the genetic algorithm was used to optimize the micro......-site selection. On the basis of location optimization of wind turbine, the optimization algorithms such as single-source shortest path algorithm and minimum spanning tree algorithm were used to optimize electric lines and maintenance roads. The practice shows that the research results can provide important...

  10. Ultrafine Nanocrystalline CeO2@C-Containing NaAlH4 with Fast Kinetics and Good Reversibility for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Yongfeng; Wang, Ke; Li, You; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge

    2015-12-21

    A nanocrystalline CeO2@C-containing NaAlH4 composite is successfully synthesized in situ by hydrogenating a NaH-Al mixture doped with CeO2@C. Compared with NaAlH4 , the as-prepared CeO2@C-containing NaAlH4 composite, with a minor amount of excess Al, exhibits significantly improved hydrogen storage properties. The dehydrogenation onset temperature of the hydrogenated [NaH-Al-7 wt % CeO2@C]-0.04Al sample is 77 °C lower than that of the pristine sample because of a reduced kinetic barrier. More importantly, the dehydrogenated sample absorbs ∼4.7 wt % hydrogen within 35 min at 100°C and 10 MPa of hydrogen. Compositional and structural analyses reveal that CeO2 is converted to CeH2 during ball milling and that the newly formed CeH2 works with the excess of Al to synergistically improve the hydrogen storage properties of NaAlH4. Our findings will aid in the rational design of novel catalyst-doped complex hydride systems with low operating temperatures, fast kinetics, and long-term cyclability. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Precipitation, flood- and groundwaters of the Negev highlands. An isotopic study of desert hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.; Issar, A.

    1980-01-01

    Precipitation in the Negev highlands was found to be surprisingly depleted of 18 O and deuterium and generally characterized by ''deuterium excess'' values of d>15per mille. Isotopic compositions are relatively uniform over a wide area on any particular day, but differ appreciably from storm to storm. Thus, they are valuable tools for hydrographic analysis of flood-flows. Flood-flow samples, collected in Nahal-Zin and Nahal-Besor, were often even more depleted in heavy isotopes than the total rainstorm, indicating that run-off is generated selectively by high-intensity rains. The initial rush of the flood flushed away the surface salinity and saline accumulations in surface pools, but apparently does not involve sub-surface salinity to any great extent. Recharge to groundwater appears to be accompanied by a slight evaporative enrichment of the isotopes, more so in the case of waters recharged from flood-flows. Environmental tritium can be used as an indicator of direct flood-water contributions to the aquifers. (author)

  12. The beginning of metallurgy in the southern Levant: a late 6th millennium CalBC copper awl from Tel Tsaf, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Yosef; Klimscha, Florian; Shalev, Sariel; Rosenberg, Danny

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of metallurgy in the ancient Near East attracts much attention. The southern Levant, with the rich assemblage of copper artifacts from the Nahal Mishmar cave and the unique gold rings of the Nahal Qanah cave, is regarded as a main center of early metallurgy during the second half of the 5th millennium CalBC. However, a recently discovered copper awl from a Middle Chalcolithic burial at Tel Tsaf, Jordan Valley, Israel, suggests that cast metal technology was introduced to the region as early as the late 6th millennium CalBC. This paper examines the chemical composition of this item and reviews its context. The results indicate that it was exported from a distant source, probably in the Caucasus, and that the location where it was found is indicative of the social status of the buried individual. This rare finding indicates that metallurgy was first diffused [corrected] to the southern Levant through exchange networks and only centuries later involved local productionThis copper awl, the earliest metal artifact found in the southern Levant, indicates that the elaborate Late Chalcolithic metallurgy developed from a more ancient tradition.

  13. Inferring the Presence of Reverse Proxies Through Timing Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    primary platforms from which Internet attacks are launched today. Attacks such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS), spam, phishing , and identity...7,272,642. [23] Google Maps. (2014, August). Planetlabs. [24] vmware. (2015, May). [Online]. Available: http://kb.vmware.com/selfservice/ microsites

  14. Nutrient and salt relations of Pterocarpus officinalis L. in coastal wetlands of the Caribbean: assessment through leaf and soil analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernesto Medina; Elvira Cuevas; Ariel Lugo

    2007-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis L. is a dominant tree of freshwater coastal wetlands in the Caribbean and the Guiana regions. It is frequently associated with mangroves in areas with high rainfall and/or surface run-off. We hypothesized that P. officinalis is a freshwater swamp species that when occurring in association with mangroves occupies low-salinity soil microsites, or...

  15. Alpine treeline of western North America: linking organism-to-landscape dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George P. Malanson; David R. Butler; Daniel B. Fagre; Stephen J. Walsh; Diana F. Tomback; Lori D. Daniels; Lynn M. Resler; William K. Smith; Daniel J. Weiss; David L. Peterson; Andrew G. Bunn; Christopher A. Hiemstra; Daniel Liptzin; Patrick S. Bourgeron; Zehao Shen; Constance I. Millar

    2007-01-01

    Although the ecological dynamics of the alpine treeline ecotone are influenced by climate, it is an imperfect indicator of climate change. Mechanistic processes that shape the ecotone—seed rain, seed germination, seedling establishment and subsequent tree growth form, or, conversely tree diebackdepend on microsite patterns. Growth forms affect wind...

  16. Ground vegetation dynamics in mountain spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) forests recovering after air pollution stress impact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávrová, Eva; Cudlín, O.; Vavříček, D.; Cudlín, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 2 (2009), s. 305-321 ISSN 1385-0237 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : forest decline * norway spruce * microsite conditions * recovery * understorey layer Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.567, year: 2009

  17. Millipedes (Diplopoda) in birds' nests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tajovský, Karel; Mock, A.; Krumpál, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2001), s. 321-323 ISSN 1164-5563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : bird s nest s * microsites * millipedes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.317, year: 2001

  18. Shrub encroachment alters sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature and moisture 2115

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrub encroachment into grasslands creates a mosaic of different soil microsites ranging from open spaces to well-developed shrub canopies, and it is unclear how this affects the spatial variability in soil respiration characteristics, such as the sensitivity to soil temperature and moisture. This i...

  19. Seed and soil dynamics in shrubland ecosystems: proceedings; 2002 August 12-16; Laramie, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann L. Hild; Nancy L. Shaw; Susan E. Meyer; D. Terrance Booth; E. Durant McArthur

    2004-01-01

    The 38 papers in this proceedings are divided into six sections; the first includes an overview paper and documentation of the first Shrub Research Consortium Distinguished Service Award. The next four sections cluster papers on restoration and revegetation, soil and microsite requirements, germination and establishment of desired species, and community ecology of...

  20. Influence of light and soil moisture on Sierran mixed-conifer understory communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm North; Brian Oakley; Rob Fiegener; Andrew Gray; Michael. Barbour

    2005-01-01

    Sierra Nevada forests have high understory species richness yet we do not know which site factors influence herb and shrub distribution or abundance. We examined the understory of an old-growth mixed-conifer Sierran forest and its distribution in relation to microsite conditions. The forest has high species richness (98 species sampled), most of which are herbs with...

  1. Effects of animal activity on the absorption rate of soils in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rates of absorption into various microsites in Karoo soils were compared. The absorption of water by hard, bare intershrub soils was significantly increased by the presence of emergence holes of adult cicadas and near nest-mounds of the harvester ant Messor capensis. Both these insects play an important role in ...

  2. Numerical simulation of the aerodynamic field in complex terrain wind farm based on actuator disk model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Li, Chen Qi; Han, Xing Xing

    2015-01-01

    Study on the aerodynamic field in complex terrain is significant to wind farm micro-sitting and wind power prediction. This paper modeled the wind turbine through an actuator disk model, and solved the aerodynamic field by CFD to study the influence of meshing, boundary conditions and turbulence ...

  3. Clonality, genetic diversity and support for the diversifying selection hypothesis in natural populations of a flower-living yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, C M; Pozo, M I; Bazaga, P

    2011-11-01

    Vast amounts of effort have been devoted to investigate patterns of genetic diversity and structuring in plants and animals, but similar information is scarce for organisms of other kingdoms. The study of the genetic structure of natural populations of wild yeasts can provide insights into the ecological and genetic correlates of clonality, and into the generality of recent hypotheses postulating that microbial populations lack the potential for genetic divergence and allopatric speciation. Ninety-one isolates of the flower-living yeast Metschnikowia gruessii from southeastern Spain were DNA fingerprinted using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Genetic diversity and structuring was investigated with band-based methods and model- and nonmodel-based clustering. Linkage disequilibrium tests were used to assess reproduction mode. Microsite-dependent, diversifying selection was tested by comparing genetic characteristics of isolates from bumble bee vectors and different floral microsites. AFLP polymorphism (91%) and genotypic diversity were very high. Genetic diversity was spatially structured, as shown by amova (Φ(st)  = 0.155) and clustering. The null hypothesis of random mating was rejected, clonality seeming the prevailing reproductive mode in the populations studied. Genetic diversity of isolates declined from bumble bee mouthparts to floral microsites, and frequency of five AFLP markers varied significantly across floral microsites, thus supporting the hypothesis of diversifying selection on clonal lineages. Wild populations of clonal fungal microbes can exhibit levels of genetic diversity and spatial structuring that are not singularly different from those shown by sexually reproducing plants or animals. Microsite-dependent, divergent selection can maintain high local and regional genetic diversity in microbial populations despite extensive clonality. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Predicting the size and elevation of future mountain forests: Scaling macroclimate to microclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, S. T.; Smith, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    Global climate change is predicted to alter continental scale macroclimate and regional mesoclimate. Yet, it is at the microclimate scale that organisms interact with their physiochemical environments. Thus, to predict future changes in the biota such as biodiversity and distribution patterns, a quantitative coupling between macro-, meso-, and microclimatic parameters must be developed. We are evaluating the impact of climate change on the size and elevational distribution of conifer mountain forests by determining the microclimate necessary for new seedling survival at the elevational boundaries of the forest. This initial life stage, only a few centimeters away from the soil surface, appears to be the bottleneck to treeline migration and the expansion or contraction of a conifer mountain forest. For example, survival at the alpine treeline is extremely rare and appears to be limited to facilitated microsites with low sky exposure. Yet, abundant mesoclimate data from standard weather stations have rarely been scaled to the microclimate level. Our research is focusing on an empirical downscaling approach linking microclimate measurements at favorable seedling microsites to the meso- and macro-climate levels. Specifically, mesoclimate values of air temperature, relative humidity, incident sunlight, and wind speed from NOAA NCEI weather stations can be extrapolated to the microsite level that is physiologically relevant for seedling survival. Data will be presented showing a strong correlation between incident sunlight measured at 2-m and seedling microclimate, despite large differences from seedling/microsite temperatures. Our downscaling approach will ultimately enable predictions of microclimate from the much more abundant mesoclimate data available from a variety of sources. Thus, scaling from macro- to meso- to microclimate will be possible, enabling predictions of climate change models to be translated to the microsite level. This linkage between measurement

  5. Evidence for chemical interference effect of an allelopathic plant on neighboring plant species: A field study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio I Arroyo

    Full Text Available Many studies have reported the phytotoxicity of allelopathic compounds under controlled conditions. However, more field studies are required to provide realistic evidences for the significance of allelopathic interference in natural communities. We conducted a 2-years field experiment in a semiarid plant community (NE Spain. Specifically, we planted juvenile individuals and sowed seeds of Salsola vermiculata L., Lygeum spartum L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (three co-dominant species in the community beneath adult individuals of the allelopathic shrub A. herba-alba, and assessed the growth, vitality, seed germination and seedling survival of those target species with and without the presence of chemical interference by the incorporation of activated carbon (AC to the soil. In addition, juveniles and seeds of the same three target species were planted and sown beneath the canopy of adults of S. vermiculata (a shrub similar to A. herba-alba, but non-allelopathic and in open bare soil to evaluate whether the allelopathic activity of A. herba-alba modulates the net outcome of its interactions with neighboring plants under contrasting abiotic stress conditions. We found that vitality of A. herba-alba juveniles was enhanced beneath A. herba-alba individuals when AC was present. Furthermore, we found that the interaction outcome in A. herba-alba microsite was neutral, whereas a positive outcome was found for S. vermiculata microsite, suggesting that allelopathy may limit the potential facilitative effects of the enhanced microclimatic conditions in A. herba-alba microsite. Yet, L. spartum juveniles were facilitated in A. herba-alba microsite. The interaction outcome in A. herba-alba microsite was positive under conditions of very high abiotic stress, indicating that facilitative interactions predominated over the interference of allelopathic plants under those conditions. These results highlight that laboratory studies can overestimate the

  6. Evidence for chemical interference effect of an allelopathic plant on neighboring plant species: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Antonio I; Pueyo, Yolanda; Giner, M Luz; Foronda, Ana; Sanchez-Navarrete, Pedro; Saiz, Hugo; Alados, Concepción L

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have reported the phytotoxicity of allelopathic compounds under controlled conditions. However, more field studies are required to provide realistic evidences for the significance of allelopathic interference in natural communities. We conducted a 2-years field experiment in a semiarid plant community (NE Spain). Specifically, we planted juvenile individuals and sowed seeds of Salsola vermiculata L., Lygeum spartum L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (three co-dominant species in the community) beneath adult individuals of the allelopathic shrub A. herba-alba, and assessed the growth, vitality, seed germination and seedling survival of those target species with and without the presence of chemical interference by the incorporation of activated carbon (AC) to the soil. In addition, juveniles and seeds of the same three target species were planted and sown beneath the canopy of adults of S. vermiculata (a shrub similar to A. herba-alba, but non-allelopathic) and in open bare soil to evaluate whether the allelopathic activity of A. herba-alba modulates the net outcome of its interactions with neighboring plants under contrasting abiotic stress conditions. We found that vitality of A. herba-alba juveniles was enhanced beneath A. herba-alba individuals when AC was present. Furthermore, we found that the interaction outcome in A. herba-alba microsite was neutral, whereas a positive outcome was found for S. vermiculata microsite, suggesting that allelopathy may limit the potential facilitative effects of the enhanced microclimatic conditions in A. herba-alba microsite. Yet, L. spartum juveniles were facilitated in A. herba-alba microsite. The interaction outcome in A. herba-alba microsite was positive under conditions of very high abiotic stress, indicating that facilitative interactions predominated over the interference of allelopathic plants under those conditions. These results highlight that laboratory studies can overestimate the significance of

  7. Experimental and rendering-based investigation of laser radar cross sections of small unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Bacher, Emmanuel; Christnacher, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Laser imaging systems are prominent candidates for detection and tracking of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in current and future security scenarios. Laser reflection characteristics for laser imaging (e.g., laser gated viewing) of small UAVs are investigated to determine their laser radar cross section (LRCS) by analyzing the intensity distribution of laser reflection in high resolution images. For the first time, LRCSs are determined in a combined experimental and computational approaches by high resolution laser gated viewing and three-dimensional rendering. An optimized simple surface model is calculated taking into account diffuse and specular reflectance properties based on the Oren-Nayar and the Cook-Torrance reflectance models, respectively.

  8. 'Slobo, breng ons de salade'

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, B.

    2008-01-01

    Wie in 1991 het nieuws uit de Balkan goed volgde, moet de naam Vukovar nog bekend in de oren klinken. De stad is gelegen in het uiterste oosten van Kroatië aan de Servische grens, waar het riviertje de Vuka met de daar ongeveer zeshonderd meter brede majestueuze Donau samenvloeit. Vukovar werd van augustus tot september 1991 door eenheden van het door Serviërs gedomineerde Joegoslavische Volksleger (JNA) en Servische paramilitairen belegerd. Een verslag van een recent bezoek aan deze stad.

  9. A detection method of subrecent to recent tectonic activity in the anticlinal system of the northern Negev, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilberman, E.; Wachs, D.

    1988-01-01

    Geomorphological and geophysical methods combined with borehole information were employed to search for possible subrecent small-scale vertical movement along the anticlinal fold belt of the central Negev, Israel. Such tectonic deformation might indicate displacement on the buried reverse faults underneath the anticlines. Variations in the thickness of the alluvial fill in the study area, which are in accordance with the fold structures, could be an indication of recent folding activity along the anticlinal system. In order to detect these thickness variations in the alluvial fill, seismic refraction and electrical resistivity measurements were carries out along the valley of Nahal Besor, which crosses the anticlinal belt. The thickness variations of the alluvial fill along the valley were not found to indicate any significant tectonic movement along the anticlines during the Pleistocene. The thickest alluvium was found overlying a karst bedrock, hence karst relief is suggested to be responsible for these variations

  10. Alpine treeline of western North America: Linking organism-to-landscape dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, George P.; Butler, David R.; Fagre, Daniel B.; Walsh, Stephen J; Tomback, Diana F.; Daniels, Lori D.; Resler, Lynn M.; Smith, William K.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Peterson, David L.; Bunn, Andrew G.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.; Liptzin, Daniel; Bourgeron, Patrick S.; Shen, Zehao; Millar, Constance I.

    2007-01-01

    Although the ecological dynamics of the alpine treeline ecotone are influenced by climate, it is an imperfect indicator of climate change. Mechanistic processes that shape the ecotone—seed rain, seed germination, seedling establishment and subsequent tree growth form, or, conversely tree dieback—depend on microsite patterns. Growth forms affect wind and snow, and so develop positive and negative feedback loops that create these microsites. As a result, complex landscape patterns are generated at multiple spatial scales. Although these mechanistic processes are fundamentally the same for all forest-tundra ecotones across western North America, factors such as prior climate, underlying geology and geomorphology, and genetic constraints of dominant tree species lead to geographic differences in the responses of particular ecotones to climate change.

  11. THE ROLE OF TREEFALL COMPLEXES IN REGENERATION OF TREE SPECIES AND IN MAINTAINING OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF NATURAL BEECH AND DARK CONIFEROUS-BEECH FORESTS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Ripa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of maintaining biological diversity mechanisms is important for elaborating methods for the restoration of natural forests that most fully implement ecosystem functions. The objectives of work are: to identify intact beech and dark coniferous-beech forests of the Carpathians on the basis of analyzing history of nature management and field studies; to characterize the population structure of the main tree species in the intact forests of the Carpathians; to determine the renewal of various species of trees, shrubs, herbs and bryophytes to treefall microsites in the forest types studied. The objects of the research are monodominant beech forests and mixed (dark coniferous-beech forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians, in which beech (Fagus sylvatica, white fir (Abies alba and European spruce (Picea abies are the main dominant of tree sinusia. Monodominant beech forests (the age of stands 250–350 years were studied on 9 sample plots (from 1 to 1.05 ha laid in the Ugolsky forest range of the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve at an altitude of 600 to 1000 m above sea level, and also on the 2 sample plots (from 1 to 1.09 hectares laid in the Lower Volovets forestry at an altitude of 600–800 meters above sea level. Uneven-aged dark coniferous-beech forest (the age of forest stands is 250–300 years old was explored on one sample plot (1.2 ha laid in the Podlisnivsky forestry of the Carpathian National Park at an altitude of 750 m above sea level. Population analysis of the main tree and shrub species as well as geobotanical releves was made on the sample plots. Treefall microsite complexes were investigated to identify the peculiarities in the location of tree undergrowth, herb and moss species in beech and mixed forests. The following elements of treefall microsite complex were singled out: treefall pit, treefall mound and tree trunk. At each treefall microsite complex the research was carried out according to the following scheme: an

  12. Online promotion a must for hospital marketing professionals. Employ tactics to ensure your Web site is working to build your brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining an online presence and more effectively executing Web-based marketing strategies can help you better target consumers and increase brand recognition, says Eric Anderson, director of agency services at interactive marketing agency White Horse in Portland, OR. With consumers heading to the Internet for health information now more than ever, it's in your best interest to not only have a well-designed, user-friendly Web site, but also to take advantage of the Internet's capabilities with blogs and microsites.

  13. Wind flow simulation over flat terrain using CFD based software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Peter; Terziev, Angel; Genovski, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Velocity distribution recognition over definite place (terrain) is very important because due to that the zones with high energy potential could be defined (the fields with high velocities). This is a precondition for optimal wind turbine generators micro-sitting. In current work a simulation of the open flow over the flat terrain using the CFD based software is reviewed. The simulations are made of a real fluid flow in order to be defined the velocity fields over the terrain

  14. Whitebark pine facilitation at treeline: potential interactions for disruption by an invasive pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomback, Diana F; Blakeslee, Sarah C; Wagner, Aaron C; Wunder, Michael B; Resler, Lynn M; Pyatt, Jill C; Diaz, Soledad

    2016-08-01

    In stressful environments, facilitation often aids plant establishment, but invasive plant pathogens may potentially disrupt these interactions. In many treeline communities in the northern Rocky Mountains of the U.S. and Canada, Pinus albicaulis, a stress-tolerant pine, initiates tree islands at higher frequencies than other conifers - that is, leads to leeward tree establishment more frequently. The facilitation provided by a solitary (isolated) P. albicaulis leading to tree island initiation may be important for different life-history stages for leeward conifers, but it is not known which life-history stages are influenced and protection provided. However, P. albicaulis mortality from the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola potentially disrupts these facilitative interactions, reducing tree island initiation. In two Rocky Mountain eastern slope study areas, we experimentally examined fundamental plant-plant interactions which might facilitate tree island formation: the protection offered by P. albicaulis to leeward seed and seedling life-history stages, and to leeward krummholz conifers. In the latter case, we simulated mortality from C. ribicola for windward P. albicaulis to determine whether loss of P. albicaulis from C. ribicola impacts leeward conifers. Relative to other common solitary conifers at treeline, solitary P. albicaulis had higher abundance. More seeds germinated in leeward rock microsites than in conifer or exposed microsites, but the odds of cotyledon seedling survival during the growing season were highest in P. albicaulis microsites. Planted seedling survival was low among all microsites examined. Simulating death of windward P. albicaulis by C. ribicola reduced shoot growth of leeward trees. Loss of P. albicaulis to exotic disease may limit facilitation interactions and conifer community development at treeline and potentially impede upward movement as climate warms.

  15. Návrh webového portálu pro rozvoj dark tourismu v JMK

    OpenAIRE

    Vágnerová, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Concept of the web portal for development of the dark tourism in JMK. Bachelor thesis. Brno: MENDELU in Brno, 2016. This bachelor thesis is focusing on creating a concept of the web portal for development of the so called dark tourism in JMK. It researches current state of the dark tourism market and proposes suitable marketing mix for consequent propagation of the aforementioned web portal. Last part of thesis describes the actual concept and design of the microsite.

  16. Simulating the effects of site index variation within loblolly pine plantations using an individual tree growth and yield model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph L. Amateis; Harold E. Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    Site index is the most common metric of site productivity in loblolly pine plantations. Generally applied as a constant for a particular stand, it provides an overall measure of a site’s ability to grow trees. It is well known, however, that even the most uniform stands can have considerable variation in site index due to soil factors that influence microsite,...

  17. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the bacterial microbiota on lacustrine Cladophora glomerata (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braus, Michael J; Graham, Linda E; Whitman, Thea L

    2017-12-01

    The branched periphytic green alga Cladophora glomerata, often abundant in nearshore waters of lakes and rivers worldwide, plays important ecosystem roles, some mediated by epibiotic microbiota that benefit from host-provided surface, organic C, and O 2 . Previous microscopy and high-throughput sequencing studies have indicated surprising epibiont taxonomic and functional diversity, but have not included adequate consideration of sample replication or the potential for spatial and temporal variation. Here, we report the results of 16S rRNA amplicon-based phylum-to-genus taxonomic analysis of Cladophora-associated bacterial epibiota sampled in replicate from three microsites and at six times during the open-water season of 2014, from the same lake locale (Picnic Point, Lake Mendota, Dane Co., WI, USA) explored by high-throughput sequencing studies in two previous years. Statistical methods were used to test null hypotheses that the bacterial community: (i) is homogeneous across microsites tested, and (ii) does not change over the course of a growth season or among successive years. Results indicated a dynamic microbial community that is more strongly influenced by sampling day during the growth season than by microsite variation. A surprising diversity of bacterial genera known to be associated with the key function of methane-oxidation (methanotrophy), including relatively high-abundance of Crenothrix, Methylomonas, Methylovulum, and Methylocaldum-showed intraseasonal and interannual variability possibly related to temperature differences, and microsite preferences possibly related to variation in methane abundance. By contrast, a core assemblage of bacterial genera seems to persist over a growth season and from year to year, possibly transmitted by a persistent attached host resting stage. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  18. eMarketing for Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Marcial, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    These days advertorials, microsites, social networks, blogging and viral videos are just some manifestations of promoting libraries. E-marketing brings opportunities for libraries to connect whith their target groups. Different publications show how library users are esenciatially digital citizens and with e-marketing it is possible to connect with the users in their own natural habitat. It is also allows spreading a message with a lower cost than other strategies.

  19. Social media newsrooms in public relations: a conseptual framework and corporate practices in three countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zerfass, Ansgar; Schramm, Dana Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This is the authors' accepted and refereed manuscript to the article The rise of social media in organizational settings has opened up new horizons for strategic communication. However, there are also drawbacks. Arguably the most important one is increased complexity. Many communication departments use a multitude of platforms ranging from corporate websites, campaign microsites and blogs to services like Facebook, Twitter, and the like to communicate with stakeholders. Social ...

  20. An examination of the spatial variability of CO2 in the profile of managed forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, M.; Kellman, L.; Beltrami, H.

    2005-01-01

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) profiles are typically used in soil-gas exchange studies. Although surface flux measuring methods may be more efficient for deriving surface soil CO 2 exchange budgets, they do not provide enough information about the generation of gas through depth. This poses a challenge in quantifying the CO 2 generated from different zones and soil carbon pools through time. The combination of subsurface concentration profiles and estimates of soil diffusivity reveal where CO 2 is being generated in the soil. This combined approach offers greater awareness into processes controlling CO 2 production in soils through depth, and clarifies how soil CO 2 exchange processes in these ecosystems can be changed by management regimes and climate change. Although information about spatial variability in subsurface concentrations within forested soils is limited, it is assumed to be high because of the high spatial variability in soil CO 2 flux estimates and the large variation in vegetation distribution and topography within sites. In this study, the soil CO 2 profile was monitored during the fall of 2004 at depths of 0, 5, 20 and 35 cm at 10 microsites of a clear-cut and an 80 year old intact mixed forest in Atlantic Canada. Microsites were about 10 meters apart and represented a range of microtopographical conditions that typically encompass extremes in soil CO 2 profile patterns. Preliminary results reveal predictable patterns in concentration profiles through depth, and increasing CO 2 concentration with depth, consistent with a large soil source of CO 2 . The significant variability in the soil carbon profile between microsites in the clear-cut and intact forest sites will be investigated to determine if distinct microsite patterns can be identified. The feasibility of using this method for providing process-based versus soil C exchange budgeting information at forested sites will also be examined

  1. Seasonal changes in Sphagnum peatland testate amoeba communities along a hydrological gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Lamentowicz, Lukasz; Słowińska, Sandra; Słowiński, Michał; Muszak, Witold; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2014-10-01

    Testate amoebae are an abundant and functionally important group of protists in peatlands, but little is known about the seasonal patterns of their communities. We investigated the relationships between testate amoeba diversity and community structure and water table depth and light conditions (shading vs. insolation) in a Sphagnum peatland in Northern Poland (Linje mire) in spring and summer 2010. We monitored the water table at five sites across the peatland and collected Sphagnum samples in lawn and hummock micro-sites around each piezometer, in spring (3 May) and mid-summer (6 August) 2010. Water table differed significantly between micro-sites and seasons (Kruskal-Wallis test, p=0.001). The community structure of testate amoebae differed significantly between spring and summer in both hummock and lawn micro-sites. We recorded a small, but significant drop in Shannon diversity, between spring and summer (1.76 vs. 1.72). Strongest correlations were found between testate amoeba communities and water table lowering and light conditions. The relative abundance of mixotrophic species Hyalosphenia papilio, Archerella flavum and of Euglypha ciliata was higher in the summer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Weak Evidence of Regeneration Habitat but Strong Evidence of Regeneration Niche for a Leguminous Shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delerue, Florian; Gonzalez, Maya; Michalet, Richard; Pellerin, Sylvain; Augusto, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The identification of an ecological niche specific to the regeneration phase has mobilised significant attention. However, the importance of the regeneration niche concept remains unclear. Our main objective was to study the existence of such a regeneration niche for a leguminous shrub, Ulex europaeus. This study was carried out in southwest France in the context of water and nutrient stresses (mainly phosphorus limitation) due to the presence of nutrient-poor sandy soils. We analysed the regeneration of the species from the germination of seeds and emergence of new seedlings until the seedlings reached young shrub size. Our design included a P fertilisation treatment. We also investigated microsite characteristics (micro-topography and vegetation development) as they can interact with meteorological conditions and determine water availability for seeds and seedlings. We found that P availability controlled seedling growth and the time necessary to reach young shrub size. Water availability appeared to impact the species germination and seedlings survival. We also found that P and water availability depended on the interactions between microsite characteristics and climatic variations. Finally we found evidence that P and water availability are important ecological factors shaping the regeneration niche of the species, but we found weak evidence that any microsite would be appropriate for the regeneration of the species in the long term. Future studies regarding regeneration niches need to distinguish more clearly the ecological factors important for regeneration (the regeneration niche per se) and the physical world where the seedlings appear and develop (the regeneration habitat). PMID:26098877

  3. Weak Evidence of Regeneration Habitat but Strong Evidence of Regeneration Niche for a Leguminous Shrub.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Delerue

    Full Text Available The identification of an ecological niche specific to the regeneration phase has mobilised significant attention. However, the importance of the regeneration niche concept remains unclear. Our main objective was to study the existence of such a regeneration niche for a leguminous shrub, Ulex europaeus. This study was carried out in southwest France in the context of water and nutrient stresses (mainly phosphorus limitation due to the presence of nutrient-poor sandy soils. We analysed the regeneration of the species from the germination of seeds and emergence of new seedlings until the seedlings reached young shrub size. Our design included a P fertilisation treatment. We also investigated microsite characteristics (micro-topography and vegetation development as they can interact with meteorological conditions and determine water availability for seeds and seedlings. We found that P availability controlled seedling growth and the time necessary to reach young shrub size. Water availability appeared to impact the species germination and seedlings survival. We also found that P and water availability depended on the interactions between microsite characteristics and climatic variations. Finally we found evidence that P and water availability are important ecological factors shaping the regeneration niche of the species, but we found weak evidence that any microsite would be appropriate for the regeneration of the species in the long term. Future studies regarding regeneration niches need to distinguish more clearly the ecological factors important for regeneration (the regeneration niche per se and the physical world where the seedlings appear and develop (the regeneration habitat.

  4. Rainforest air-conditioning: the moderating influence of epiphytes on the microclimate in tropical tree crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuntz, Sabine; Simon, Ulrich; Zotz, Gerhard

    2002-05-01

    Epiphytes are often assumed to influence the microclimatic conditions of the tree crowns that they inhabit. In order to quantify this notion, we measured the parameters "temperature" (of the substrate surface and the boundary layer of air above it), "evaporative drying rate" and "evapotranspiration" at various locations within tree crowns with differing epiphyte assemblages. The host tree species was Annona glabra, which was either populated by one of three epiphyte species ( Dimerandra emarginata, Tillandsia fasciculata, or Vriesea sanguinolenta) or was epiphyte-free. We found that during the hottest and driest time of day, microsites in the immediate proximity of epiphytes had significantly lower temperatures than epiphyte-bare locations within the same tree crown, even though the latter were also shaded by host tree foliage or branches. Moreover, water loss through evaporative drying at microsites adjacent to epiphytes was almost 20% lower than at exposed microsites. We also found that, over the course of several weeks, the evapotranspiration in tree crowns bearing epiphytes was significantly lower than in trees without epiphytes. Although the influence of epiphytes on temperature extremes and evaporation rates is relatively subtle, their mitigating effect could be of importance for small animals like arthropods inhabiting an environment as harsh and extreme as the tropical forest canopy.

  5. Regolith properties under trees and the biomechanical effects caused by tree root systems as recognized by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Łukasz; Kasprzak, Marek

    2018-01-01

    Following previous findings regarding the influence of vascular plants (mainly trees) on weathering, soil production and hillslope stability, in this study, we attempted to test a hypothesis regarding significant impacts of tree root systems on soil and regolith properties. Different types of impacts from tree root system (direct and indirect) are commonly gathered under the key term of "biomechanical effects". To add to the discussion of the biomechanical effects of trees, we used a non-invasive geophysical method, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), to investigate the profiles of four different configurations at three study sites within the Polish section of the Outer Western Carpathians. At each site, one long profile (up to 189 m) of a large section of a hillslope and three short profiles (up to 19.5 m), that is, microsites occupied by trees or their remnants, were made. Short profiles included the tree root zone of a healthy large tree, the tree stump of a decaying tree and the pit-and-mound topography formed after a tree uprooting. The resistivity of regolith and bedrock presented on the long profiles and in comparison with the short profiles through the microsites it can be seen how tree roots impact soil and regolith properties and add to the complexity of the whole soil/regolith profile. Trees change soil and regolith properties directly through root channels and moisture migration and indirectly through the uprooting of trees and the formation of pit-and-mound topography. Within tree stump microsites, the impact of tree root systems, evaluated by a resistivity model, was smaller compared to microsites with living trees or those with pit-and-mound topography but was still visible even several decades after the trees were windbroken or cut down. The ERT method is highly useful for quick evaluation of the impact of tree root systems on soils and regolith. This method, in contrast to traditional soil analyses, offers a continuous dataset for the entire

  6. Forest rodents provide directed dispersal of Jeffrey pine seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, J.S.; Wall, S.B.V.; Jenkins, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    Some species of animals provide directed dispersal of plant seeds by transporting them nonrandomly to microsites where their chances of producing healthy seedlings are enhanced. We investigated whether this mutualistic interaction occurs between granivorous rodents and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) in the eastern Sierra Nevada by comparing the effectiveness of random abiotic seed dispersal with the dispersal performed by four species of rodents: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), yellow-pine and long-eared chipmunks (Tamias amoenus and T. quadrimaculatus), and golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis). We conducted two caching studies using radio-labeled seeds, the first with individual animals in field enclosures and the second with a community of rodents in open forest. We used artificial caches to compare the fates of seeds placed at the range of microsites and depths used by animals with the fates of seeds dispersed abiotically. Finally, we examined the distribution and survival of naturally establishing seedlings over an eight-year period.Several lines of evidence suggested that this community of rodents provided directed dispersal. Animals preferred to cache seeds in microsites that were favorable for emergence or survival of seedlings and avoided caching in microsites in which seedlings fared worst. Seeds buried at depths typical of animal caches (5–25 mm) produced at least five times more seedlings than did seeds on the forest floor. The four species of rodents differed in the quality of dispersal they provided. Small, shallow caches made by deer mice most resembled seeds dispersed by abiotic processes, whereas many of the large caches made by ground squirrels were buried too deeply for successful emergence of seedlings. Chipmunks made the greatest number of caches within the range of depths and microsites favorable for establishment of pine seedlings. Directed dispersal is an important element of the population dynamics of Jeffrey pine, a

  7. Grass-Shrub Associations over a Precipitation Gradient and Their Implications for Restoration in the Great Basin, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike F Holthuijzen

    Full Text Available As environmental stress increases positive (facilitative plant interactions often predominate. Plant-plant associations (or lack thereof can indicate whether certain plant species favor particular types of microsites (e.g., shrub canopies or plant-free interspaces and can provide valuable insights into whether "nurse plants" will contribute to seeding or planting success during ecological restoration. It can be difficult, however, to anticipate how relationships between nurse plants and plants used for restoration may change over large-ranging, regional stress gradients. We investigated associations between the shrub, Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis, and three common native grasses (Poa secunda, Elymus elymoides, and Pseudoroegneria spicata, representing short-, medium-, and deep-rooted growth forms, respectively, across an annual rainfall gradient (220-350 mm in the Great Basin, USA. We hypothesized that positive shrub-grass relationships would become more frequent at lower rainfall levels, as indicated by greater cover of grasses in shrub canopies than vegetation-free interspaces. We sampled aerial cover, density, height, basal width, grazing status, and reproductive status of perennial grasses in canopies and interspaces of 25-33 sagebrush individuals at 32 sites along a rainfall gradient. We found that aerial cover of the shallow rooted grass, P. secunda, was higher in sagebrush canopy than interspace microsites at lower levels of rainfall. Cover and density of the medium-rooted grass, E. elymoides were higher in sagebrush canopies than interspaces at all but the highest rainfall levels. Neither annual rainfall nor sagebrush canopy microsite significantly affected P. spicata cover. E. elymoides and P. spicata plants were taller, narrower, and less likely to be grazed in shrub canopy microsites than interspaces. Our results suggest that exploring sagebrush canopy microsites for restoration of native perennial

  8. Financial transmission rights meet Cournot: How TCCs curb market power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoft, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the problem of market power when generators face a demand curve limited by a transmission constraint. After demonstrating that the problem's importance originates in an inherent ambiguity in Cournot-Nash theory, the author reviews Oren's argument that generators in this situation capture all congestion rents. In the one-line case, this argument depends on an untested hypothesis while in the three-line case, the Nash equilibrium was misidentified. Finally, the argument that financial transmission rights (and TCCs in particular) will have zero market value is refuted by modeling the possibility of their purchase by generators. This allows transmission owners, who initially own the TCCs, to capture some of the congestion rent. In fact when total capacity exceeds line capacity by more than the capacity of the largest generator, TCCs should attain their perfectly competitive value, thereby curbing the market power of generators

  9. Proposal to consistently apply the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) to names of the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria), including those validly published under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)/International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN), and proposal to change Principle 2 of the ICNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinevich, Alexander V

    2015-03-01

    This taxonomic note was motivated by the recent proposal [Oren & Garrity (2014) Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64, 309-310] to exclude the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) from the wording of General Consideration 5 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), which entails unilateral coverage of these prokaryotes by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN; formerly the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, ICBN). On the basis of key viewpoints, approaches and rules in the systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature of prokaryotes it is reciprocally proposed to apply the ICNP to names of cyanobacteria including those validly published under the ICBN/ICN. For this purpose, a change to Principle 2 of the ICNP is proposed to enable validation of cyanobacterial names published under the ICBN/ICN rules. © 2015 IUMS.

  10. Policy Considerations for Using Forests to Mitigate Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Brown

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent article in Nature, “Soil Fertility Limits Carbon Sequestration by Forest Ecosystems in a CO2-Enriched Atmosphere” by Oren and colleagues[1], has been widely reported on, and often misinterpreted, by the press. The article dampens enthusiasm for accelerated forest growth due to CO2 fertilization and puts in question the fringe theory that the world’s forests can provide an automatic mitigation feedback. We agree that these results increase our understanding of the global carbon cycle. At the same time, their relevance in the context of the international climate change negotiations is much more complicated than portrayed by newspapers such as the New York Times (“Role of Trees in Curbing Greenhouse Gases is Challenged”, May 24, 2001 and the Christian Science Monitor (“Trees No Savior for Global Warming”, May 25, 2001.

  11. Studying Policy Transfer through the Lens of Social Network Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Brøgger, Katja; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    Studying Policy Transfer through the Lens of Social Network Analysis The panelists present the findings of a joint empirical research project carried out at Aarhus University (DPU/Copenhagen) and at Teachers College, Columbia University (New York). The research project succeeded to identify...... discursive networks of political stakeholders and policy advisors that were considered key actors in the Danish school reform. The research team investigated how these networks interrelate, change over time, and represent different constituents (government, academe, business), at times contradicting...... or collaborating with each other, respectively. Against the backdrop of globalization studies in comparative education, the research project attempted to identify borrowers, translators, and brokers of educational reform drawing on a complementary set of expertise from social network analysis methodology (Oren...

  12. Controls of Net Ecosystem Exchange at an Old Field, a Pine Plantation, and a Hardwood Forest under Identical Climatic and Edaphic Conditions-Isotopic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanton, J. P.; Mortazavi, B.

    2004-11-04

    During the past year we have submitted two manuscripts. 1. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions (in Press). Oecologia 2. Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Use of Keeling plots for determining sources of dissolved organic carbon in nearshore and open ocean systems (Published in Limnology and Oceanography (2004) Vol 49 pages 102-108). 3. Mortazavi, B., J. L. Prater, and J. P. Chanton (2004). A field-based method for simultaneous measurements of the 18O and 13C of soil CO2 efflux. Biogeosciences Vol 1:1-16 Most recent products delivered: Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Abiotic and biotic controls on the 13C of respired CO2 in the southeastern US forest mosaics and a new technique for measuring the of soil CO2 efflux. Joint Biosphere Stable Isotope Network (US) and Stable Isotopes in Biosphere Atmosphere Exchange (EU) 2004 Meeting, Interlaken, Switzerland, March 31-April 4, 2004. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003. Prater, J., Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Measurement of discrimination against 13C during photosynthesis and quantification of the short-term variability of 13C over a diurnal cycle. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003.

  13. The impact of land use on biological activity of agriculture soils. An State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Cerdà, Artemi; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2014-05-01

    Biological activity is a crucial soil property affecting soil sustainability and crop production. The unsuitable land management can lead to a loss in soil fertility and a reduction in the abundance and diversity of soil microorganisms. This can be as a consequence of high erosion rates due to the mismanagement of farmers (Cerdà et al., 2009a). However ecological practices and some organic amendments can promote the activities of soil microbial communities, and increase its biodiversity (García-Orenes et al., 2010; 2013). The impact of land use in microbiological properties of agriculture soil are presented and discussed in this review. Biological activity is quantified by microbial soil communities and soil enzyme activities to interpret the effects of soil management practices (Morugán-Coronado et al., 2013). The aim of biological activity tests is to give a reliable description of the state of agricultural soils under the effect of different land uses. Numerous methods have been used to determine the impact of land uses on microbiological properties. The current used methods for detecting microbial diversity are based on molecular techniques centered on the 16S and 18S rRNA encoding sequences such as CLPP: community-level physiological profiles; T-RFLP: terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism; DGGE: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis; OFRG: oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes, ARISA: Automated Ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, SSCP: single-strand conformation polymorphism. And techniques based on the cellular composition of the microbes such as PLFA: phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Other methods are based on the activity of microbes, for example, Cmic: microbial biomass carbon; SIR: substrate induced respiration; BSR: Basal soil respiration; qCO2 metabolic quotient; enzymatic activities (Urease, ß-glucosidase and phosphatase) (Deng, 2012). Agricultural land management can contribute to increased rates of erosion due to

  14. Quantifying postfire aeolian sediment transport using rare earth element tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, David; Gonzales, Howell B.; Ravi, Sujith; Grandstaff, David E.; Van Pelt, R. Scott; Li, Junran; Wang, Guan; Sankey, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Grasslands, which provide fundamental ecosystem services in many arid and semiarid regions of the world, are undergoing rapid increases in fire activity and are highly susceptible to postfire-accelerated soil erosion by wind. A quantitative assessment of physical processes that integrates fire-wind erosion feedbacks is therefore needed relative to vegetation change, soil biogeochemical cycling, air quality, and landscape evolution. We investigated the applicability of a novel tracer technique—the use of multiple rare earth elements (REE)—to quantify soil transport by wind and to identify sources and sinks of wind-blown sediments in both burned and unburned shrub-grass transition zone in the Chihuahuan Desert, NM, USA. Results indicate that the horizontal mass flux of wind-borne sediment increased approximately threefold following the fire. The REE tracer analysis of wind-borne sediments shows that the source of the horizontal mass flux in the unburned site was derived from bare microsites (88.5%), while in the burned site it was primarily sourced from shrub (42.3%) and bare (39.1%) microsites. Vegetated microsites which were predominantly sinks of aeolian sediments in the unburned areas became sediment sources following the fire. The burned areas showed a spatial homogenization of sediment tracers, highlighting a potential negative feedback on landscape heterogeneity induced by shrub encroachment into grasslands. Though fires are known to increase aeolian sediment transport, accompanying changes in the sources and sinks of wind-borne sediments may influence biogeochemical cycling and land degradation dynamics. Furthermore, our experiment demonstrated that REEs can be used as reliable tracers for field-scale aeolian studies.

  15. Response of Microbial Soil Carbon Mineralization Rates to Oxygen Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiluweit, M.; Denney, A.; Nico, P. S.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The rate of soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is known to be controlled by climatic factors as well as molecular structure, mineral-organic associations, and physical protection. What remains elusive is to what extent oxygen (O2) limitations impact overall rates of microbial SOM mineralization (oxidation) in soils. Even within upland soils that are aerobic in bulk, factors limiting O2 diffusion such as texture and soil moisture can result in an abundance of anaerobic microsites in the interior of soil aggregates. Variation in ensuing anaerobic respiration pathways can further impact SOM mineralization rates. Using a combination of (first) aggregate model systems and (second) manipulations of intact field samples, we show how limitations on diffusion and carbon bioavailability interact to impose anaerobic conditions and associated respiration constraints on SOM mineralization rates. In model aggregates, we examined how particle size (soil texture) and amount of dissolved organic carbon (bioavailable carbon) affect O2 availability and distribution. Monitoring electron acceptor profiles (O2, NO3-, Mn and Fe) and SOM transformations (dissolved, particulate, mineral-associated pools) across the resulting redox gradients, we then determined the distribution of operative microbial metabolisms and their cumulative impact on SOM mineralization rates. Our results show that anaerobic conditions decrease SOM mineralization rates overall, but those are partially offset by the concurrent increases in SOM bioavailability due to transformations of protective mineral phases. In intact soil aggregates collected from soils varying in texture and SOM content, we mapped the spatial distribution of anaerobic microsites. Optode imaging, microsensor profiling and 3D tomography revealed that soil texture regulates overall O2 availability in aggregate interiors, while particulate SOM in biopores appears to control the fine-scale distribution of anaerobic microsites. Collectively, our

  16. The alpine cushion plant Silene acaulis as foundation species: a bug's-eye view to facilitation and microclimate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Molenda

    Full Text Available Alpine ecosystems are important globally with high levels of endemic and rare species. Given that they will be highly impacted by climate change, understanding biotic factors that maintain diversity is critical. Silene acaulis is a common alpine nurse plant shown to positively influence the diversity and abundance of organisms--predominantly other plant species. The hypothesis that cushion or nurse plants in general are important to multiple trophic levels has been proposed but rarely tested. Alpine arthropod diversity is also largely understudied worldwide, and the plant-arthropod interactions reported are mostly negative, that is,. herbivory. Plant and arthropod diversity and abundance were sampled on S. acaulis and at paired adjacent microsites with other non-cushion forming vegetation present on Whistler Mountain, B.C., Canada to examine the relative trophic effects of cushion plants. Plant species richness and abundance but not Simpson's diversity index was higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetation. Arthropod richness, abundance, and diversity were all higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetated sites. On a microclimatic scale, S. acaulis ameliorated stressful conditions for plants and invertebrates living inside it, but the highest levels of arthropod diversity were observed on cushions with tall plant growth. Hence, alpine cushion plants can be foundation species not only for other plant species but other trophic levels, and these impacts are expressed through both direct and indirect effects associated with altered environmental conditions and localized productivity. Whilst this case study tests a limited subset of the membership of alpine animal communities, it clearly demonstrates that cushion-forming plant species are an important consideration in understanding resilience to global changes for many organisms in addition to other plants.

  17. Responses of non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions to climate change in boreal and subarctic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faubert, P.

    2010-07-01

    Non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions (BVOCs) have important roles in the global atmospheric chemistry but their feedbacks to climate change are still unknown. This thesis reports one of the first estimates of BVOC emissions from boreal and subarctic ecosystems. Most importantly, this thesis assesses the BVOC emission responses to four effects of climate change in these ecosystems: (1) the direct effect of warming, and its indirect effects via (2) water table drawdown, (3) change in the vegetation composition, and (4) enhanced UV-B radiation. BVOC emissions were measured using a conventional chamber method in which the compounds were collected on adsorbent and later analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. On a subarctic heath, warming by only 1.9-2.5 degC doubled the monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions. Such a high increase of BVOC emissions under a conservative warming cannot be predicted by the current models, which underlines the importance of a focus on BVOC emissions from the Subarctic under climate change. On a subarctic peatland, enhanced UV-B did not affect the BVOC emissions but the water table level exerted the major effect. The water table drawdown experimentally applied on boreal peatland microcosms decreased the emissions of monoterpenes and other VOCs (BVOCs with a lifetime>1 d) for the hollows (wet microsites) and that of all BVOC groups for the lawns (moderately wet microsites). The warming treatment applied on the lawn microcosms decreased the isoprene emission. The removal of vascular plants in the hummock (dry microsites) microcosms decreased the emissions of monoterpenes while the emissions between the microcosms covered with Sphagnum moss and bare peat were not different. In conclusion, the results presented in this thesis indicate that climate change has complex effects on the BVOC emissions. These results make a significant contribution to improving the modeling of BVOC emissions for a better understanding of

  18. Iron Redox Dynamics in Humid Tropical Forest Soils: Carbon Stabilization vs. Degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S. J.; Silver, W. L.; Hammel, K.

    2015-12-01

    Most terrestrial soils exhibit a patchwork of oxygen (O2) availability that varies over spatial scales of microsites to catenas to landscapes, and over temporal scales of minutes to seasons. Oxygen fluctuations often drive microbial iron (Fe) reduction and abiotic/biotic Fe oxidation at the microsite scale, contributing to anaerobic carbon (C) mineralization and changes in soil physical and chemical characteristics, especially the dissolution and precipitation of short-range ordered Fe phases thought to stabilize C. Thus, O2 fluctuations and Fe redox cycling may have multiple nuanced and opposing impacts on different soil C pools, illustrated by recent findings from Fe-rich Oxisols and Ultisols in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Spatial patterns in surface soil C stocks at the landscape scale correlated strongly (R2 = 0.98) with concentrations of reduced Fe (Fe(II)), reflecting constitutive differences in reducing conditions within and among sites that promote C accumulation in mineral soil horizons. Similarly, turnover times of a decadal-cycling pool of mineral-associated organic matter increased with Fe(II) across a catena, possibly reflecting the role of anaerobic microsites in long-term C stabilization. However, two different indices of short-range order Fe showed highly significant opposing relationships (positive and negative) with spatial variation in soil C concentrations, possibly reflecting a dual role of Fe in driving C stabilization via co-precipitation, and C solubilization and loss following dissimilatory Fe reduction. Consistent with the field data, laboratory incubations demonstrated that redox fluctuations can increase the contribution of biochemically recalcitrant C (lignin) to soil respiration, whereas addition of short-range order Fe dramatically suppressed lignin mineralization but had no impact on bulk soil respiration. Thus, understanding spatial and temporal patterns of Fe redox cycling may provide insight into explaining the

  19. Diurnal Freeze-Thaw Cycles Modify Winter Soil Respiration in a Desert Shrub-Land Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter soil respiration (Rs is becoming a significant component of annual carbon budgets with more warming in winter than summer. However, little is known about the controlling mechanisms of winter Rs in dryland. We made continuous measurements of Rs in four microsites (non-crust (BS, lichen (LC, moss (MC, and a mixture of moss and lichen (ML in a desert shrub-land ecosystem northern China, to investigate the causes of Rs dynamics in winter. The mean winter Rs ranged from 0.10 to 0.17 µmol CO2 m−2·s−1 across microsites, with the highest value in BS. Winter Q10 (known as the increase in respiration rate per 10 °C increase in temperature values (2.8–19 were much higher than those from the growing season (1.5. Rs and Q10 were greatly enhanced in freeze-thaw cycles compared to frozen days. Diurnal patterns of Rs between freeze-thaw and frozen days differed. Although the freeze-thaw period was relatively short, its cumulative Rs contributed significantly to winter Rs. The presence of biocrust might induce lower temperature, thus having fewer freeze-thaw cycles relative to bare soil, leading to the lower Rs for microsites with biocrusts. In conclusion, winter Rs in drylands was sensitive to soil temperature (Ts and Ts-induced freeze-thaw cycles. The temperature impact on Rs varied among soil cover types. Winter Rs in drylands may become more important as the climate is continuously getting warmer.

  20. Hydraulic architecture and tracheid allometry in mature Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benecke, C A; Martin, T A; Peter, G F

    2010-03-01

    Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine, LL) and Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii (slash pine, SL) frequently co-occur in lower coastal plain flatwoods of the USA, with LL typically inhabiting slightly higher and better-drained microsites than SL. The hydraulic architecture and tracheid dimensions of roots, trunk and branches of mature LL and SL trees were compared to understand their role in species microsite occupation. Root xylem had higher sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) and was less resistant to cavitation compared with branches and trunk sapwood. Root k(s) of LL was significantly higher than SL, whereas branch and trunk k(s) did not differ between species. No differences in vulnerability to cavitation were observed in any of the organs between species. Across all organs, there was a significant but weak trade-off between water conduction efficiency and safety. Tracheid hydraulic diameter (D(h)) was strongly correlated with k(s) across all organs, explaining >73% of the variation in k(s). In contrast, tracheid length (L(t)) explained only 2.4% of the variability. Nevertheless, for trunk xylem, k(s) was 39.5% higher at 20 m compared with 1.8 m; this increase in k(s) was uncorrelated with D(h) and cell-wall thickness but was strongly correlated with the difference in L(t). Tracheid allometry markedly changed between sapwood of roots, trunks and branches, possibly reflecting different mechanical constraints. Even though vulnerability to cavitation was not different for sapwood of roots, branches or the trunks of LL and SL, higher sapwood to leaf area ratio and higher maximum sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity in roots of LL are functional traits that may provide LL with a competitive advantage on drier soil microsites.

  1. Entre impératifs stratégiques et subsistance civile : approvisionnement insulaire, cabotage et petits ports en Bretagne-sud au XVIIIe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Cérino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years researchers in maritime history have shown a marked interest in port microsites and the modes of local coastal navigation. The present article is a contribution to this field: it illustrates the dynamics of Eighteenth-Century small ports in Southern Brittany which had to supply a strategic fortress of major importance for the kingdom of France. This computer-assisted case study bears on relatively neglected sources (the archives of the service of military supplies. It sheds some light on the living conditions of a garrison in the early modern age, assesses island-supplying problems and tackles the procedures used to remedy them.

  2. Mammalian engineers drive soil microbial communities and ecosystem functions across a disturbance gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, David J; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Woodhouse, Jason N; Neilan, Brett A

    2016-11-01

    The effects of mammalian ecosystem engineers on soil microbial communities and ecosystem functions in terrestrial ecosystems are poorly known. Disturbance from livestock has been widely reported to reduce soil function, but disturbance by animals that forage in the soil may partially offset these negative effects of livestock, directly and/or indirectly by shifting the composition and diversity of soil microbial communities. Understanding the role of disturbance from livestock and ecosystem engineers in driving soil microbes and functions is essential for formulating sustainable ecosystem management and conservation policies. We compared soil bacterial community composition and enzyme concentrations within four microsites: foraging pits of two vertebrates, the indigenous short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and the exotic European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and surface and subsurface soils along a gradient in grazing-induced disturbance in an arid woodland. Microbial community composition varied little across the disturbance gradient, but there were substantial differences among the four microsites. Echidna pits supported a lower relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Cyanobacteria, but a higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria than rabbit pits and surface microsites. Moreover, these microsite differences varied with disturbance. Rabbit pits had a similar profile to the subsoil or the surface soils under moderate and high, but not low disturbance. Overall, echidna foraging pits had the greatest positive effect on function, assessed as mean enzyme concentrations, but rabbits had the least. The positive effects of echidna foraging on function were indirectly driven via microbial community composition. In particular, increasing activity was positively associated with increasing relative abundance of Proteobacteria, but decreasing Acidobacteria. Our study suggests that soil disturbance by animals may offset, to some degree, the oft-reported negative

  3. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA). Report on Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabille, Eugéne; Prinsloo, Eric; Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    , to verify the results of the meso-scale modelling. The Measurements work package (WP2) is one of six work packages that collectively make up the Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) project. The measurements also provide observed wind climates at the measurement sites, which can be used by micrositing...... to be commissioned was WM06 (Sutherland) and this was completed on 17 September 2010. The outputs of WP2 are: i. Establish 10 high quality wind measurement stations providing three years of measurement data for calibration of the mesoscale modelling. ii. A database system for wind data collection and on-line Web...

  4. Denitrification activity and oxygen dynamics in Arctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Stahl, Henrik J.; Rysgaard, Søren

    2008-01-01

    denitrification activity (5-194 mu mol N m(-2) day(-1)) and anammox activity (3-5 mu mol N m(-2) day(-1)) in melt water from both first-year and multi-year sea ice was found. These values correspond to 27 and 7%, respectively, of the benthic denitrification and anammox activities in Arctic sediments. Although we...... a mosaic of microsites of high and low O-2 concentrations. Brine enclosures and channels were strongly O-2 depleted in actively melting sea ice, and anoxic conditions in parts of the brine system would favour anaerobic processes....

  5. Líquenes folícolas de la Estación Biológica La Selva, Costa Rica: inventario, comunidades y comparación florística de tipos de vegetación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lücking

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 280 foliicolous lichens and 12 lichenicolous fungi was found in an inventory made in the lowland rain forest at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. The species composition reflects 50 % of the world's diversity of foliicolous lichens and is representative for neotropical lowland rain forests. The most common species are Gyalectidium filicinum, Sporopodium leprieurii, Tricharia vainioi, Porina epiphylla, Phyllophiale alba, Trichothelium epiphyllum, Mazosia phyllosema, Tricharia urceolata, and Arthonia leptosperma. Many species show distinct microsite preferences: (1 Characteristic of the shady understory, including Arthoniaceae, Opegraphaceae, Pilocarpaceae, and Trichotheliaceae; (2 characteristic of light gaps, including Gomphillaceae and Ectolechiaceae; (3 characteristic of the canopy, including Asterothyriaceae and Gomphillaceae. Only few species exhibit preferences towards certain leaf types, either dicotyledoneous or palm leaves. The microsite preferences agree with earlier established indices, except for a few species for which modified indices are proposed. Communities resulting from these preferences are illustrated by clustering of phorophytes and associations of foliicolous lichens. The three principal associations correspond to the shady understory, light gaps and the canopy, whereas two subassociations reflect subtle phorophyte preferences. Species diversity and composition are strongly affected by the degree of disturbance of vegetation types at La Selva. Diversity is highest in the primary forest and lowest in young successional stages. The foliicolous lichen flora of open, anthropogenic vegetation resembles that of light gaps or the canopy in the primary forest, while species characteristic of the forest understory disappear.

  6. A theoretical analysis of population genetics of plants on restored habitats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogoliubov, A.G. [Botanical Institute, Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Seed and propagules used for habitat restoration are not likely to be closely adapted to local site conditions. Rapid changes of genotypes frequencies on local microsites and/or microevolution would allow plants to become better adapted to a site. These same factors would help to maintain genetic diversity and ensure the survival of small endangered populations. We used population genetics models to examine the selection of genotypes during establishment on restored sites. Vegetative spread was shown to affect selection and significantly reduce genetic diversity. To study general microevolution, we linked a model of resource usage with a genetics model and analyzed competition between genotypes. A complex suite of feasible ecogenetic states was shown to result. The state actually resulting would depend strongly on initial conditions. This analysis indicated that genetic structure can vary locally and can produce overall genetic variability that is not simply the result of microsite adaptations. For restoration activities, the implication is that small differences in seed source could lead to large differences in local genetic structure after selection.

  7. A theoretical analysis of population genetics of plants on restored habitats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogoliubov, A.G. [Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). Botanical Inst.; Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1997-07-01

    Seed and propagules used for habitat restoration are not likely to be closely adapted to local site conditions. Rapid changes of genotypes frequencies on local microsites and/or microevolution would allow plants to become better adapted to a site. These same factors would help to maintain genetic diversity and ensure the survival of small endangered populations. The authors used population genetics models to examine the selection of genotypes during establishment on restored sites. Vegetative spread was shown to affect selection and significantly reduce genetic diversity. To study general microevolution, the authors linked a model of resource usage with a genetics model and analyzed competition between genotypes. A complex suite of feasible ecogenetic states was shown to result. The state actually resulting would depend strongly on initial conditions. This analysis indicated that genetic structure can vary locally and can produce overall genetic variability that is not simply the result of microsite adaptations. For restoration activities, the implication is that small differences in seed source could lead to large differences in local genetic structure after selection.

  8. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais

  9. Obituary: Preston F. Gott, 1919-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Charles Wesley

    2003-12-01

    Preston F. Gott, Professor Emeritus of Physics and former Director of the Observatories at Texas Tech University, died 13 January 2002 after a bout with Cancer. Mr. Gott was born 21 November 1919 in Waxahachie (Ellis County) Texas. He received his Bachelor of Science and Master of Arts degrees from the University of Texas at Austin. His first wife, Edna Maynard Gott, passed away in 1986; their two children are Eugene Willard Gott and Edith Suzanne Gott. After his retirement from Texas Tech University in 1989, he married Orene Whitcomb Peddicord, M.D. on 14 May 1991 and they lived in Odessa, Texas. Preston joined the Texas Tech University (TTU) faculty in 1948 and taught physics and astronomy there for 41 years, before retiring in 1989. He was responsible for starting astronomy teaching within the Physics department. He also developed, and taught for many years, a very popular, hands-on photography course in that department. It is due to Preston's persistence and determination that TTU has two astronomy observatories devoted to teaching. Because of his efforts, the on-campus observatory, Igor, was donated to TTU by White Sands Proving Grounds, New Mexico. He is also primarily responsible for obtaining the land, equipment and construction funds for an off campus observatory. In 1991, the TTU Board of Regents named the latter facility the Preston F. Gott Skyview Observatory. He also developed a private Mountainside Observatory in Fort Davis, Texas. Until recently, Preston was listed as a Senior Scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA where he worked several summers on the moon and mars lander projects. In the 1950s and 1960s, he worked several summers at the White Sands Proving Grounds in New Mexico. In that period, he was also a consultant and frequent Visiting Scientist at the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. Preston was a very generous donor to the Department of Physics and the Texas Tech University. He endowed the Gott Gold Tooth

  10. High-pressure phase relations in the composition of albite NaAlSi3O8 constrained by an ab initio and quasi-harmonic Debye model, and their implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, L.; Liu, X.; Liu, H.; Dong, J.

    2010-12-01

    The high pressure physical-chemical behaviors of feldspar in subducted slab are very important to the geodynamic process in the deep interior of the Earth. Albite (NaAlSi3O8;Ab) is one of the few end members in the feldspar family, and its high-P behavior is obviously a prerequisite to the full understanding of the physical-chemical properties of feldspar at high pressures. So far it has been well accepted that Ab breaks down to the phase assemblage of Jadeite+Stishovite(NaAlSi2O6; Jd, SiO2; St,JS hereafter) at ~9-10 GPa. The JS phase assemblage might be stable up to ~23 GPa, and eventually directly change into the phase assemblage of calcium-ferrite type NaAlSiO4 (Cf) +2St (CS hereafter). However, some independent researches suggest there is an intermediate phase Na-hollandite (Na-Hall; a phase with the composition of NaAlSi3O8 and the structure of hollandite) between JS phase assemblage transition into CS phase assemblage (Liu 1978; Tutti 2007; Sekine and Ahrens, 1992; Beck et al., 2004). Whether Na-Hall is a thermodynamic stable phase under high P-T conditions remains unknown. In this work, phase relations in the composition of albite NaAlSi3O8 at pressures up to 40 GPa were constrained by a theoretical method that combines the ab initio calculation and quasi-harmonic Debyemodel. First, the P-T dependence of the thermodynamic potentials of the individual phase, St, Cf, Jd and the hypothetical Na-Holl were derived. Our results are generally in consistent agreement with available experimental data and previous theoretical predictions. Second, the Gibbs free energy of the hypothetical Na-Holl phase was compared with that of the phase assemblages JS and CS. Our results show that the Na-Holl phase is not a thermodynamically stable phase over the studied P-T conditions of 0-40 GPa and 100-600 K, which rules it out as a possible intermediate phase along the transition path from the JS phase assemblage to CS phase assemblage. Our calculations have predicted that the JS

  11. Influence of Acacia trees on soil nutrient levels in arid lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boever, Maarten; Gabriels, Donald; Ouessar, Mohamed; Cornelis, Wim

    2014-05-01

    The potential of scattered trees as keystone structures in restoring degraded environments is gaining importance. Scattered trees have strong influence on their abiotic environment, mainly causing changes in microclimate, water budget and soil properties. They often function as 'nursing trees', facilitating the recruitment of other plants. Acacia raddiana is such a keystone species which persists on the edge of the Sahara desert. The study was conducted in a forest-steppe ecosystem in central Tunisia where several reforestation campaigns with Acacia took place. To indentify the impact of those trees on soil nutrients, changes in nutrient levels under scattered trees of three age stages were examined for the upper soil layer (0-10 cm) at five microsites with increasing distance from the trunk. In addition, changes in soil nutrient levels with depth underneath and outside the canopy were determined for the 0-30 cm soil layer. Higher concentrations of organic matter (OM) were found along the gradient from underneath to outside the canopy for large trees compared to medium and small trees, especially at microsites close to the trunk. Levels of soluble K, electrical conductivity (EC), available P, OM, total C and N decreased whereas pH and levels of soluble Mg increased with increasing distance from tree. Levels of soluble Ca and Na remained unchanged along the gradient. At the microsite closest to the trunk a significant decrease in levels of soluble K, EC, OM, available P, total C and N, while a significant increase in pH was found with increasing depth. The concentration of other nutrients remained unchanged or declined not differently underneath compared to outside the canopy with increasing depth. Differences in nutrient levels were largely driven by greater inputs of organic matter under trees. Hence, Acacia trees can affect the productivity and reproduction of understory species with the latter in term an important source of organic matter. This positive feedback

  12. CO2 and CH4 fluxes and carbon balance in the atmospheric interaction of boreal peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm, J.

    1997-01-01

    Release of CO 2 from peat was studied using IR analyzer in a range of boreal peatlands under varying nutrient status and moisture conditions. Root associated CO 2 efflux was separated from the total release by experiments both in the field and in a greenhouse. Emissions of CO 2 and CH 4 (the latter by gas chromatography) were measured during the snow-covered period and their contribution to the annual fluxes of these gases was inspected. Ecosystem exchange of CO 2 under varying irradiation, temperature and moisture conditions was measured at different microsites at two peatland sites with different nutrient ecology. One site represented minerotrophic conditions during a wet growing season and the other site ombrotrophic conditions during an exceptionally dry growing season. Annual carbon balances were compiled for the two sites, and the role of the microsites in the annual carbon balance and CH 4 release was studied. The Holocene history of CO 2 sequestration and CH 4 emission dynamics in a raised mire were simulated using lateral and vertical growth rates derived from radiocarbon ages of peat samples from mire bottom and vertical cores. The model was formulated for a geographic information system (GIS). Artificial or natural lowering of water table increased CO 2 release from peat. A drought lasting from late May to July caused a 90 g C m 2 net loss in the annual C balance of a natural ombrotrophic bog. In drained forested sites the increase in peat CO 2 release could be even 100 %, but the development of the tree layer at least partially compensated for these losses. Wet conditions induced a net accumulation of 67 g C m -2 a -1 in the minerotrophic fen site, while the long term average accumulation rate is estimated to be only 15 g C m -2 a -1 for Finnish fens. Carbon balance in boreal peatlands is thus extremely sensitive to year-to-year climatic variations. Root activity of vascular plants contributed to the total peat CO 2 efflux by 10-40 % as root respiration

  13. Study of the factors affecting the karst volume assessment in the Dead Sea sinkhole problem using microgravity field analysis and 3-D modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Eppelbaum

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of sinkholes have appeared in the Dead Sea (DS coastal area in Israel and Jordan during two last decades. The sinkhole development is recently associated with the buried evaporation karst at the depth of 25–50 m from earth's surface caused by the drop of the DS level at the rate of 0.8–1.0 m/yr. Drop in the Dead Sea level has changed hydrogeological conditions in the subsurface and caused surface to collapse. The pre-existing cavern was detected using microgravity mapping in the Nahal Hever South site where seven sinkholes of 1–2 m diameter had been opened. About 5000 gravity stations were observed in the area of 200×200 m2 by the use of Scintrex CG-3M AutoGrav gravimeter. Besides the conventional set of corrections applied in microgravity investigations, a correction for a strong gravity horizontal gradient (DS Transform Zone negative gravity anomaly influence was inserted. As a result, residual gravity anomaly of –(0.08÷0.14 mGal was revealed. The gravity field analysis was supported by resistivity measurements. We applied the Emigma 7.8 gravity software to create the 3-D physical-geological models of the sinkholes development area. The modeling was confirmed by application of the GSFC program developed especially for 3-D combined gravity-magnetic modeling in complicated environments. Computed numerous gravity models verified an effective applicability of the microgravity technology for detection of karst cavities and estimation of their physical-geological parameters. A volume of the karst was approximately estimated as 35 000 m3. The visual analysis of large sinkhole clusters have been forming at the microgravity anomaly site, confirmed the results of microgravity mapping and 3-D modeling.

  14. The non-layering of gravel streambeds under ephemeral flood regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laronne, Jonathan B.; Reid, Ian; Yitshak, Yitshak; Frostick, Lynne E.

    1994-07-01

    The two-layer format common to perennial streambeds, in which a relatively coarse armour overlies a finer subarmour, develops as a function of both the ingress and subsequent near-surface winnowing of interstitial material and the selective non-entrainment or slower transport velocity of coarse clasts. Ephemeral streams appear to lack such vertical layering or are characterized by weak layer development. Some of this may be due to the degree of mixing associated with the scour-and-fill process. However, continuous monitoring of bedload discharge in the Nahal Yatir in the northern Negev Desert reveals that sediment transport rates are extremely high so that the chance of armour layer development through selective non-entrainment is much reduced. Indeed, a comparison of the bedload and bed material size-distributions confirms a high degree of similarity and hints at equal mobility regardless of clast size. The monitoring programme also indicates that the bed becomes highly mobile at comparatively modest fluid shear, so that practically all floods are associated with high transport rates. Consequently, the winnowing that might be brought about by low transport-rate events does not occur. Even within a single event, winnowing is precluded by the rapid nature of flow recession that is so characteristic of flash-floods. The high degree of bed material mobility is attributable, in part, to the lack of strength that would otherwise be a corollary of armour development. However, it also highlights the divergent nature of the feedback loops that govern the relationship between flow and channel deposit in ephemeral and perennial systems.

  15. Distribution patterns of terricolous and saxicolous lichens in extreme desert conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temina, M.

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of biodiversity in stressful habitats is of great interest because it elucidates relationships between organisms and their environment, as well as revealing the mechanisms of their survival and adaptation to extreme conditions. Deserts represent such stressful habitats where harsh climate and limited resources greatly influence the formation of biota. In order to understand the link between microscale environmental variability in extreme arid conditions and lichen biodiversity patterns, we conducted the present study. For this purpose, the structure and distribution of lichen communities on soil and cobbles at six stations at "Evolution Canyon" III (EC III), Nahal Shaharut, in the extreme southern Negev, Israel, were examined. The opposite slopes of the canyon represented specific ecological niches characterized by sharply different microclimatic conditions. The following characteristics of lichen communities were studied: species richness, systematic diversity, biogeographical elements, frequencies and distribution of species, their morphological and anatomical characteristics, reproductive strategy, and ecological peculiarities. In the research site three environmental variables were evaluated: soil moisture, and temperatures of soil and cobbles. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis was used to study the influence of these ecological variables on the distribution of lichen species. The lichen diversity of EC III was very poor and comprised 12 species (3 cyanoliches on soil vs. 9 phycolichens on cobbles). Most of them belong to a specific group of arid endemic elements, adapted to survive in extreme arid conditions in the deserts of the Levant. The harsh desert conditions of the canyon negatively influence the reproductive ability of lichens. This influence is expressed in the decreased sizes of fruit bodies in some species, and the frequent occurrence of sterile specimens among lichens found in the canyon. A comparative analysis of structure

  16. Utrecht by the Sea. Consequences of climatic change for the Netherlands; Utrecht aan Zee. Gevolgen van klimaatverandering voor Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H.; Jansen, J. (eds.)

    2003-07-01

    Based on present developments an overview is given of possible future changes in the Netherlands as a result of climatic change. [Dutch] Het wordt warmer op aarde en dus ook in Nederland. Hoewel de meeste Nederlanders wel oren hebben naar hogere temperaturen, zijn er meer nadelen dan voordelen. Wateroverlast, extreem weer, nieuwe ziekten en het uitsterven van flora en fauna. Echter, wanneer de Nederlander zich aanpast, kan hij wel degelijk ook de vruchten plukken van het warmere weer. Het boek beschrijft in welke situatie de mens nu is aanbeland en hoe onze toekomst er uit kan gaan zien. Komt malaria terug in Nederland? Rijden onze auto's over 50 jaar op waterstof? Gaan we nieuwe kerncentrales bouwen? Wat blijft er boven water van de provincies Noord-Holland, Zuid-Holland en Friesland? Wonen we over 100 jaar weer op terpen? Volgens de schrijvers van het boek gaat er de komende eeuw veel veranderen in Nederland. Utrecht aan Zee is het eerste boek over de verandering van ons klimaat en de gevolgen daarvan voor Nederland.

  17. Integrated pharmacokinetics of major bioactive components in MCAO rats after oral administration of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huaxu; Qian, Zhilei; Li, Huan; Guo, Liwei; Pan, Linmei; Zhang, Qichun; Tang, Yuping

    2012-05-07

    Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT, or Oren-gedoku-to in Japanese), an important multi-herb remedy in China and other Asia countries, has been used clinically to treat cerebral ischemia for decades. According to the previous studies we have reported, an HPLC method was developed and validated for determination of berberine, palmatine, baicalin, baicalein and geniposide simultaneously in MCAO rat plasma after administration of HLJDT aqueous extract. A classified integral pharmacokinetic method was put forward after having compared the integrated concentration-time profile with that of single component. An AUC based weighting approach was used for integrated principle. The results indicated the classified integral pharmacokinetic profile of index components from HLJDT could reveal the pharmacokinetic behavior of original components, and was corresponding to the holistic pharmacological effects of anti-ischemia with HLJDT. This study was aimed to explore an approach that could be applied to integrate the pharmacokinetic behavior of different components derived from HLJDT. The integrated pharmacokinetic results also provided more information for further understanding of the clinical cerebrovascular disease in use of HLJDT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term nitrogen regulation of forest carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Luo, Y.

    2009-12-01

    It is well established that nitrogen (N) limits plant production but unclear how N regulates long-term terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration in response to rising atmospheric C dioxide (CO2)(Luo et al., 2004). Most experimental evidence on C-N interactions is primarily derived from short-term CO2 manipulative studies (e.g. Oren et al., 2001; Reich et al., 2006a), which abruptly increase C inputs into ecosystems and N demand from soil while atmospheric CO2 concentration in the real world is gradually increasing over time (Luo & Reynolds, 1999). It is essential to examine long-term N regulations of C sequestration in natural ecosystems. Here we present results of a synthesis of more than 100 studies on long-term C-N interactions during secondary succession. C significantly accumulates in plant, litter and forest floor in most studies, and in mineral soil in one-third studies during stand development. Substantial increases in C stock are tightly coupled with N accretion. The C: N ratio in plant increases with stand age in most cases, but remains relatively constant in litter, forest floor and mineral soil. Our results suggest that natural ecosystems could have the intrinsic capacity to maintain long-term C sequestration through external N accrual, high N use efficiency, and efficient internal N cycling.

  19. Exclusivity and kinds of models in modulated disjunctive inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López-Astorga

    2019-01-01

    Full Text Available La regla de introducción de la disyunción, esto es, el esquema de la lógica clásica que, a partir de una premisa, lleva a concluir una disyunción transformando la premisa en uno de los términos de tal disyunción, es un problema cognitivo. Esto es así debido a que las personas solo utilizan esta regla en ciertas circunstancias. Por tanto, toda teoría que trate de describir el razonamiento humano tiene que explicar también este fenómeno. Basándose en la teoría de los modelos mentales, Orenes y Johnson-Laird proponen una explicación a este respecto, y este trabajo pretende mostrar que, aunque puede parecer que su explicación es contradictoria con algunos supuestos esenciales y ciertos desarrollos importantes de la teoría mencionada, tal no es verdaderamente el caso. Los puntos clave en este sentido que serán analizados son el modo en que la teoría de los modelos mentales realmente entiende la disyunción y la distinción que este mismo enfoque plantea entre Modelos Mentales y Modelos Completamente Explícitos.

  20. Mineral content in Sphagnum mosses from ombrotrophic bogs of southwestern Poland: pattern in species and elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronisław Wojtuń

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Major elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe were analyzed in 11 Sphagnum species from ombrotrophic bogs in southwestern Poland. The material included species from wet to dry microsites. The highest levels of elements were recorded for S. lindbergii, whereas S. balticum and S. cuspidatum were poorest in elements. The microhabitat gradient from hummock to hollow species is clearly reflected by decreasing concentrations of Ca and Mg, and increasing concentration of Na. Phosphorus, K and N were much more enriched into moss tissues than the remaining elements. These three nutrients were also accumulated in the upper green parts of mosses, while the concentrations of Na and Fe were higher in the bottom brown parts. There were no differences in Ca and Mg between the green and brown segments.

  1. Simulation of peat accumulation: an aid in carbon cycling research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierendonck, M.C. van (Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Hugo de Vries Laboratory)

    1992-01-01

    Some preliminary results of a technique used to compare primary production and peat accumulation data mainly from published sources and the results of a peat accumulation simulation model are presented. Emphasis is on differences among micro-sites (hummock, lawn, hollow and pool) and among various Sphagnum species (S. fuscum, S. magellanicum, S. cuspidatum and S. balticum) associated with raised bogs. The primary production of lawns and pools were significantly greater than those of hummocks and hollows. Sphagnum balticum had the highest primary production (mean=339 g/m[sup -]2a[sup -1]) Over 90 % of the primary production of Sphagnum fuscum is accumulated while for the other Sphagnum species, the value is <50 %. The data are used in a simulation model to show the influence of doubling of rainfall on primary production over a 50 year period

  2. Relative rates of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production by nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and nitrate respirers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, I. C.; Levine, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the atmospheric chemical and photochemical effects of biogenic nitric and nitrous oxide emissions. The magnitude of the biogenic emission of NO is noted to remain uncertain. Possible soil sources of NO and N2O encompass nitrification by autotropic and heterotropic nitrifiers, denitrification by nitrifiers and denitrifiers, nitrate respiration by fermenters, and chemodenitrification. Oxygen availability is the primary determinant of these organisms' relative rates of activity. The characteristics of this major influence are presently investigated in light of the effect of oxygen partial pressure on NO and N2O production by a wide variety of common soil-nitrifying, denitrifying, and nitrate-respiring bacteria under laboratory conditions. The results obtained indicate that aerobic soils are primary sources only when there is sufficient moisture to furnish anaerobic microsites for denitrification.

  3. Effects of sewage sludge stabilization on fertilizer value and greenhouse gas emissions after soil application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Nielsen, Martin P.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    was therefore to investigate the effect of sewage sludge stabilization techniques on the C and N mineralization and gaseous emissions from soil. A soil incubation was conducted to determine the rate of C and N mineralization and N2O and CH4 emissions of sewage sludge stabilized using different techniques....... Unstabilized sludge released up to 90% of their C content as CO2, part of which could be caused by release of CO2 from carbonates. Compared with this, sludge stabilization including anaerobic digestion and drying resulted in a reduction of the C mineralization rate of about 40%. Liming reduced C mineralization...... the value of the sludge as a fertilizer. Emissions of CH4 were also reduced through sludge stabilization and mainly occurred after application of easily degradable sludge types, which is likely to have enhanced the creation of anaerobic microsites. The stabilization processes also decreased emissions of N2O...

  4. The effect of wind on the rate of heat loss from avian cup-shaped nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, Caragh B; Seymour, Roger S

    2012-01-01

    Forced convection can significantly influence the heat loss from birds and their offspring but effects may be reduced by using sheltered micro-sites such as cavities or constructing nests. The structural and thermal properties of the nests of two species, the spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthagenys rufogularis) and yellow-throated miner (Manorina flavigula), were measured in relation to three wind speeds. Nest dimensions differ between the two species, despite the similar body mass of the incubating adults, however nest conductance is comparable. As wind speed increases, so does the rate of heat loss from the nests of both species, and further still during incubation recesses. The significance of forced convection through the nest is a near-doubling in heat production required by the parent, even when incubating at relatively low wind speeds. This provides confirmation that selecting a sheltered nest site is important for avian reproductive success.

  5. The effect of wind on the rate of heat loss from avian cup-shaped nests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caragh B Heenan

    Full Text Available Forced convection can significantly influence the heat loss from birds and their offspring but effects may be reduced by using sheltered micro-sites such as cavities or constructing nests. The structural and thermal properties of the nests of two species, the spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthagenys rufogularis and yellow-throated miner (Manorina flavigula, were measured in relation to three wind speeds. Nest dimensions differ between the two species, despite the similar body mass of the incubating adults, however nest conductance is comparable. As wind speed increases, so does the rate of heat loss from the nests of both species, and further still during incubation recesses. The significance of forced convection through the nest is a near-doubling in heat production required by the parent, even when incubating at relatively low wind speeds. This provides confirmation that selecting a sheltered nest site is important for avian reproductive success.

  6. AmeriFlux Measurement Component (AMC) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichl, Ken [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Biraud, Sebastien C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    An AMC system was installed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site, also known as NSA C1 at the ARM Data Archive, in August 2012. A second AMC system was installed at the third ARM Mobile Facility deployment at Oliktok Point, also known as NSA M1. This in situ system consists of 12 combination soil temperature and volumetric water content (VWC) reflectometers and one set of upwelling and downwelling photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) sensors, all deployed within the fetch of the Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System. Soil temperature and VWC sensors placed at two depths (10 and 30 cm below the vegetation layer) at six locations (or microsites) allow soil property inhomogeneity to be monitored across a landscape.

  7. Temporal patterns of foliar ozone symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelka, A H; Somers, G L; Renfro, J R

    2007-10-01

    Incidence and severity of ozone-induced foliar symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) along selected trails in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) were determined by two surveys/season conducted from 1992 through 1996. Overall incidence was 73%, and was 84%, 44%, 90%, 58%, and 82% for 1992-1996, respectively for the same clusters. Average incidence was 61% and 84% for the 1st and 2nd surveys, respectively. Seasonal comparisons showed two distinct injury groupings regarding incidence and severity of injury: 1992, 1994 and 1996 (high injury); 1993 and 1995 (low injury). No discernible patterns were observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic plants regarding height, herbivory or flowering. Regression analyses indicated no differentiation in foliar symptoms regarding topographic position, aspect, slope or elevation over the 5-year study period. Our findings indicate other micro-site or genetic factors may control ozone sensitivity of tall milkweed in GRSM.

  8. Simulation of peat accumulation: an aid in carbon cycling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierendonck, M.C. van

    1992-01-01

    Some preliminary results of a technique used to compare primary production and peat accumulation data mainly from published sources and the results of a peat accumulation simulation model are presented. Emphasis is on differences among micro-sites (hummock, lawn, hollow and pool) and among various Sphagnum species (S. fuscum, S. magellanicum, S. cuspidatum and S. balticum) associated with raised bogs. The primary production of lawns and pools were significantly greater than those of hummocks and hollows. Sphagnum balticum had the highest primary production (mean=339 g/m - 2a -1 ) Over 90 % of the primary production of Sphagnum fuscum is accumulated while for the other Sphagnum species, the value is <50 %. The data are used in a simulation model to show the influence of doubling of rainfall on primary production over a 50 year period

  9. Impacts of Geomorphic Disturbances on Plant Colonization in Ebba Valley, Central Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stawska Monika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming observed nowadays causes an increase in geomorphic activity in polar regions. Within the areas influenced by cold climatic conditions, relief dynamics and vegetation development are the main landscape shaping processes. The study is limited to the Ebba Valley (78°43’N; 16°37’E in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard, where geomorphologic observations and vegetation sampling were conducted in 2007. The valley was divided into three zones differentiated by dominating geomorphic activity and stability of deposits. The settlement and the evolution of plant cover have been documented there. The main factors that control well developed vegetation cover within raised marine terraces are frost heave and solifluction. In deeper parts of the valley, aeolian processes dominate and high differentiation of microsite conditions causes high variability in plant coverage. The area close to the Ebba glacier marginal zone is characterized by initial stages of plant colonisation where disturbance to vegetation is mainly caused by hydrological processes.

  10. Seed production, seed dispersal and seedling establishment of two afromontane tree species in and around a church forest: implications for forest restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrham Abiyu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Seed production, seed dispersal and seedling establishment are relevant life phases of plants. Understanding these processes and their patterns is essential to recognize vegetation dynamics and to apply it to forest restoration. Methods For Olea europaea and Schefflera abyssinica, fecundity was estimated using randomized branch sampling. Seed dispersal and seedling establishment were monitored using spatially explicit seed traps and plots. Dispersal functions were calibrated applying inverse modeling. Results O. europaea produced more seeds and had longer dispersal distances compared to S. abyssinica. Correlations between observed and predicted number of recruits were statistically significant. Seedlings of the two species showed different niche requirements. Conclusions The studied species were recruitment-limited due to low dispersal activity or lack of suitable microsites. Restoration relying on natural regeneration should overcome these limitations by increasing disperser visitation and reducing biotic and abiotic stresses.

  11. Utilization of peatlands as possible land resource for low-input agriculture: cultivation of Vaccinium species as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonutare, Tonu; Rodima, Ako; Rannik, Kaire; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2013-04-01

    The best way of soil protection is its sustainable and expedient use, which secures soils ecological functioning. Recent years, by exploitation of peat soils for their different use, has raised important issues concerning their input to global climate change as important source of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitters. The dynamics of GHG are determined by different factors as: site specific conditions including hydrology, soil type, vegetation, area management, including meteorological and climatic conditions. Therefore, in this current paper we are presenting the study results were we estimated CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from exhausted cultivated peatland with Vaccinium species and determined the soil chemical composition. For comparision a virgin state peatland was observed. The main goals of the paper are: (1) to present the experimental results of greenhouse gases generation and peat chemical composition (antioxidant activity of peat, C/N ratio, fiber content, water extractable phenolics) relationships on different microsites either on natural plant cover or Vaccinium species cultivation area on exhausted milled peat area; (2) to discuss how peat soil quality contributes to greenhouse gases emission; (3) and what kind of relationship reveals between low input agricultural system in which Vaccinium species are cultivated on exhausted milled peat area. The study are is located in nearby Ilmatsalu (58°23'N, 26°31'E) in South Estonia, inside of which the three microsites are determined. Microsites are different from each other by exploitation and plant cover type. 1). Natural plant cover, 2). Cultivated area with Vaccinium angustifolium x V. corymbosum, 3). Cultivated area with Vaccinium angustifolium. The determined soil type according to WRB was Fibri Dystric Histosol. The main part of study focuses on the analyses of greenhouse gases. For this purpose the closed chamber method was used. The greenhouse gas samples were collected from spring to autumn 2011 throughout

  12. Population ecology and conservation status of the last natural population of English yew Taxus baccata in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, Jens-Christian; Magård, Else

    1999-01-01

    English yew Taxus baccata L. has become extinct or rare in many parts of Europe. Here we investigate the status of the only natural population persisting in Denmark. While many other yew populations are declining, the Danish population increased from 2000 in 1998....... This was most likely due to the thinning of the tree stand at this site, as reproductive activity, strobilus production, and recruitment were enhanced at better lit microsites. The declining status of other populations is probably often caused by succession from open woodland to dense forest. The light...... dependency is consistent with the Quaternary history of yew. The sex ratio of the Danish yew population was female-biased, probably due to chance. Yew invaded forest areas neighbouring source populations at rates of 3 m yr−1, but forest management impeded this process....

  13. Effect of vegetation removal and water table drawdown on the non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions in boreal peatland microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubert, Patrick; Tiiva, Päivi; Rinnan, Åsmund; Räty, Sanna; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Holopainen, Toini; Rinnan, Riikka

    2010-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions are important in the global atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks to global warming are uncertain. Global warming is expected to trigger vegetation changes and water table drawdown in boreal peatlands, such changes have only been investigated on isoprene emission but never on other BVOCs. We aimed at distinguishing the BVOCs released from vascular plants, mosses and peat in hummocks (dry microsites) and hollows (wet microsites) of boreal peatland microcosms maintained in growth chambers. We also assessed the effect of water table drawdown (-20 cm) on the BVOC emissions in hollow microcosms. BVOC emissions were measured from peat samples underneath the moss surface after the 7-week-long experiment to investigate whether the potential effects of vegetation and water table drawdown were shown. BVOCs were sampled using a conventional chamber method, collected on adsorbent and analyzed with GC-MS. In hummock microcosms, vascular plants increased the monoterpene emissions compared with the treatment where all above-ground vegetation was removed while no effect was detected on the sesquiterpenes, other reactive VOCs (ORVOCs) and other VOCs. Peat layer from underneath the surface with intact vegetation had the highest sesquiterpene emissions. In hollow microcosms, intact vegetation had the highest sesquiterpene emissions. Water table drawdown decreased monoterpene and other VOC emissions. Specific compounds could be closely associated to the natural/lowered water tables. Peat layer from underneath the surface of hollows with intact vegetation had the highest emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and ORVOCs whereas water table drawdown decreased those emissions. The results suggest that global warming would change the BVOC emission mixtures from boreal peatlands following changes in vegetation composition and water table drawdown.

  14. Carbon balance of a boreal bog during a year with an exceptionally dry summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, J.; Silvola, J. [Univ. of Joensuu (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Schulman, L. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Systematics; Walden, J. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Nykaenen, H.; Martikainen, P.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Lab. of Environmental Microbiology

    1999-01-01

    Northern peatlands are important terrestrial carbon stores, and they show large spatial and temporal variation in the atmospheric exchange of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. Thus, annual carbon balance must be studied in detail in order to predict the climatic responses of these ecosystems. Closed-chamber methods were used to study CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in hollow, Sphagnum angustifolium lawn. S. fuscum lawn, and hummock microsites within an ombrotrophic S. fuscum bog. Micrometeorological tower measurements were used as a reference for the CH{sub 3} efflux from the bog. Low precipitation during May--August in 1994 and a warm July--August period caused the water table to drop by more than 15 cm below the peat surface in the hollows and to 48 cm below the surface in high hummocks. Increased annual total respiration exceeded gross production and resulted in a net C loss of 4--157 g/m{sup 2} in the different microsites. Drought probably caused irreversible desiccation in some lawns of S. angustifolium and S. balticum and in S. fuscum in the hummocks, while S. balticum growing in hollows retained its moisture and even increased its photosynthetic capacity during the July--August period. Seasonal (12 May--4 October) CH{sub 4} emissions ranged from 2 g CH{sub 4}-C/m{sup 2} in drier S. fuscum hummocks and lawns to 7 and 14 g/m{sup 2} in wetter S. angustifolium-S. balticum lawns and hollows, respectively.

  15. Ecohydrological implications of aeolian sediment trapping by sparse vegetation in drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Howell B.; Ravi, Sujith; Li, Junran; Sankey, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Aeolian processes are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in drylands, and important feedbacks exist among aeolian – hydrological processes and vegetation. The trapping of wind-borne sediments by vegetation may result in changes in soil properties beneath the vegetation, which, in turn, can alter hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Despite the relevance of aeolian transport to ecosystem dynamics, the interactions between aeolian transport and vegetation in shaping dryland landscapes where sediment distribution is altered by relatively rapid changes in vegetation composition such as shrub encroachment, is not well understood. Here, we used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling framework to investigate the sediment trapping efficiencies of vegetation canopies commonly found in a shrub-grass ecotone in the Chihuahuan Desert (New Mexico, USA) and related the results to spatial heterogeneity in soil texture and infiltration measured in the field. A CFD open-source software package was used to simulate aeolian sediment movement through three-dimensional architectural depictions of Creosote shrub (Larrea tridentata) and Black Grama grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) vegetation types. The vegetation structures were created using a computer-aided design software (Blender), with inherent canopy porosities, which were derived using LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measurements of plant canopies. Results show that considerable heterogeneity in infiltration and soil grain size distribution exist between the microsites, with higher infiltration and coarser soil texture under shrubs. Numerical simulations also indicate that the differential trapping of canopies might contribute to the observed heterogeneity in soil texture. In the early stages of encroachment, the shrub canopies, by trapping coarser particles more efficiently, might maintain higher infiltration rates leading to faster development of the microsites (among other factors) with enhanced ecological

  16. The Fate of Aspen in a World with Diminishing Snowpacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, K.; Link, T. E.; Seyfried, M. S.; Kemp, K. B.

    2010-12-01

    Aspen (Populus tremuloides) productivity is tightly coupled with soil moisture. In the mountainous regions of the western USA, annual replenishment of soil moisture commonly occurs during snowmelt. Therefore, snow pack depth and duration can play an important role in sustaining aspen productivity. The presence of almost 50 years of detailed climate data across an elevational transect in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in southwestern Idaho offers a novel opportunity to better understand the role of shifting precipitation patterns on aspen productivity. Over the past 50 years, the proportion of the precipitation falling in the form of snow decreased by almost a factor of 2 at mid to low elevations in the RCEW, coupled with a roughly four week advance of snow ablation, and decline of large snow drifts that release moisture into the early summer. Results from growth ring increment, stable isotope analysis, sapflux and a process model (Biome BGC), will be used to determine the impact of shifting precipitation patterns on tree productivity along this transect over the past 50 years. Aspen trees located on moist microsites continue to transpire water and maintain high stomatal conductance 21 days later in the growing season relative to individuals on drier microsites. Predictions of net primary productivity (NPP) in aspen are very sensitive to precipitation patterns. NPP becomes negative as early as day 183 (90 days post budbreak) for years with little winter and spring precipitation whereas, in years with ample winter and spring precipitation, NPP remains positive until day 260 when leaf fall occurs. These results give unique insight into the conditions that deciduous tree species will encounter in a warming climate where snow water equivalent continues to diminish and soil moisture declines soon after budbreak occurs.

  17. Multiyear impacts of partial throughfall exclusion on Buxus sempervirens in a Mediterranean forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Calcerrada, J.; Letts, M. G.; Rolo, V.; Roset, S.; Rambal, S.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study:We examined the impact of sustained partial throughfall exclusion on the functional performance of Buxus sempervirens L. in the understory of a Mediterranean evergreen forest. We further considered whether any impacts of throughfall exclusion were affected by light availability. Area of study: The study was conducted in the south of France. Material and methods: Several leaf physiological and branch structural traits were measured along a light gradient after seven years from the onset of a throughfall exclusion experiment (TEE). The results were analysed along with annual growth and survival data. Main results: Plant mortality was nil in both the throughfall exclusion and control treatments. Stem diameter growth was reduced by 39% in plants subjected to throughfall exclusion, but this difference was only significant at the p = 0.10 significance level. Leaf physiology remained unaffected by the TEE, but small changes were evident in branch structural traits in high light microsites following throughfall exclusion; branches had lower wood density in the TEE plot, and more biomass was partitioned to leaves relative to stems. Research highlights: These changes do not seem to reflect an acclimatory response that would enhance drought tolerance. Instead, we suggest that these drought effects might exacerbate vulnerability to xylem cavitation in the more open microsites. Reduced growth and increased vulnerability to drought may indicate an incipient decline in plant vitality following TEE. The extension of observations to the whole-plant level and longer periods will elucidate the consequences of these observations for plant fitness, and permit verification of the positive effect of shade on Buxus sempervirens under increased drought. (Author)

  18. Effects of gravel mulch on emergence of galleta grass seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, V.K.; Medrano, J.C.; Stanley, C.; Walo, M.D.

    1993-03-01

    The Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office, Technology Development and Program Management Division, has identified the need to clean up several sites on the Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range contaminated with surface plutonium. An important objective of the project identified as the Plutonium In Soils Integrated Demonstration is to develop technologies to stabilize and restore the disturbed sites after decontamination. Revegetation of these contaminated sites will be difficult due to their location in the arid Mojave and Great Basin Deserts. The major factors which will affect successful plant establishment and growth at these sites are limited and sporadic precipitation, limited soil water, extreme air and soil temperatures, limited topsoil, and herbivory . Research has shown that providing microsites for seed via mulching can aid in plant emergence and establishment. Since many of the soils at the sites slated for plutonium decontamination have a large percentage of gravel in the upper 10 cm of soil, the use of gravel as mulch could provide microsites for seed and stabilize soils during subsequent revegetation of the sites. In July 1992, EG ampersand G/EM Environmental Sciences Department initiated a greenhouse study to examine the possible benefits of gravel mulch. The specific objectives of this greenhouse study were to: (1) determine the effects seedling emergence and soil water, and (2) determine effects of irrigation rates on seedling emergence for gravel mulches and other conventional seedbed preparation techniques. A secondary objective was to determine the depth of gravel mulch that was optimal for seedling emergence. Results from this greenhouse study will assist in formulating specific reclamation plans for sites chosen for cleanup

  19. Optimizing the number and locations of turbines in a wind farm addressing energy-noise trade-off: A hybrid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Prateek; Mitra, Kishalay; Kulkarni, Kedar

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Concurrent resolution of turbine number and locations during micro-siting. • Effect of noise on energy-noise multi-objective optimization is demonstrated. • A hybrid algorithm is proposed utilizing probabilistic and deterministic methods. • ∼24% improved performance is achieved over the benchmark case study. • ∼29% enhanced efficiency over real-binary genetic algorithm alone can be observed. - Abstract: Micro-siting is an optimal way of placing turbines inside a wind farm while considering various design objectives and constraints. Using a well-established Jensen wake model and ISO-9613-2 noise calculation, this study performs a wind farm layout optimization based on a multi-objective trade-off between minimization of the noise propagation and maximization of the energy generation. A novel hybrid methodology is developed which is a combination of probabilistic real-binary coded multi-objective evolutionary algorithm and a newly proposed deterministic gradient based non-dominated normalized normal constraint method. Based on the Inverted Generational Distance metric, the performance of the proposed method is found to be better than the conventional normalized normal constraint method or the concerned evolutionary method alone. Moreover, in contrast to the previous studies, the generated non-dominated front is capable of providing a trade-off between various alternative energy-noise solutions, along with an additional information about the corresponding turbine numbers and their optimal location coordinates. As a result, the decision maker can choose from different competing wind turbine layouts based on existing noise and other standard regulations.

  20. State of the Art and Trends in Wind Resource Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Probst

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the significant rise of the utilization of wind energy the accurate assessment of the wind potential is becoming increasingly important. Direct applications of wind assessment techniques include the creation of wind maps on a local scale (typically 5 20 km and the micrositing of wind turbines, the estimation of vertical wind speed variations, prospecting on a regional scale (>100 km, estimation of the long-term wind resource at a given site, and forecasting. The measurement of wind speed and direction still widely relies on cup anemometers, though sonic anemometers are becoming increasingly popular. Moreover, remote sensing by Doppler techniques using the backscattering of either sonic beams (SODAR or light (LIDAR allowing for vertical profiling well beyond hub height are quickly moving into the mainstream. Local wind maps are based on the predicted modification of the regional wind flow pattern by the local atmospheric boundary layer which in turn depends on both topographic and roughness features and the measured wind rose obtained from one or several measurement towers within the boundaries of the planned development site. Initial models were based on linearized versions of the Navier-Stokes equations, whereas more recently full CFD models have been applied to wind farm micrositing. Linear models tend to perform well for terrain slopes lower than about 25% and have the advantage of short execution times. Long-term performance is frequently estimated from correlations with nearby reference stations with concurrent information and continuous time series over a period of at least 10 years. Simple methods consider only point-to-point linear correlations; more advanced methods like multiple regression techniques and methods based on the theory of distributions will be discussed. Both for early prospecting in regions where only scarce or unreliable reference information is available, wind flow modeling on a larger scale (mesoscale is becoming

  1. Variation in soil enzyme activity as a function of vegetation amount, type, and spatial structure in fire-prone Mediterranean shrublands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Ángeles G; Goirán, Silvana B; Vallejo, V Ramón; Bautista, Susana

    2016-12-15

    Fire-prone Mediterranean shrublands may be seriously threatened by land degradation due to progressive opening of the vegetation cover driven by increasing drought and fire recurrence. However, information about the consequences of this opening process for critical ecosystem functions is scant. In this work, we studied the influence of vegetation amount, type, and spatial pattern in the variation of extracellular soil enzyme activity (acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and urease) in fire-prone shrublands in eastern Spain. Soil was sampled in vegetation-patch and open-interpatch microsites in 15 shrubland sites affected by large wildfires in 1991. On average, the activities of the three enzymes were 1.5 (β-glucosidase and urease) to 1.7 (acid phosphatase) times higher in soils under vegetation patches than in adjacent interpatches. In addition, phosphatase activity for both microsites significantly decreased with the fragmentation of the vegetation. This result was attributed to a lower influence of roots -the main source of acid phosphatase- in the bigger interpatches of the sites with lower patch cover, and to feedbacks between vegetation pattern, redistribution of resources, and soil quality during post-fire vegetation dynamics. Phosphatase activity was also 1.2 times higher in patches of resprouter plants than in patches of non-resprouters, probably due to the faster post-fire recovery and older age of resprouter patches in these fire-prone ecosystems. The influence on the studied enzymes of topographic and climatic factors acting at the landscape scale was insignificant. According to our results, variations in the cover, pattern, and composition of vegetation patches may have profound impacts on soil enzyme activity and associated nutrient cycling processes in fire-prone Mediterranean shrublands, particularly in those related to phosphorus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Root proliferation in decaying roots and old root channels: A nutrient conservation mechanism in oligotrophic mangrove forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    1. In oligotrophic habitats, proliferation of roots in nutrient-rich microsites may contribute to overall nutrient conservation by plants. Peat-based soils on mangrove islands in Belize are characterized by the presence of decaying roots and numerous old root channels (0.1-3.5 cm diameter) that become filled with living and highly branched roots of Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia germinans. The objectives of this study were to quantify the proliferation of roots in these microsites and to determine what causes this response. 2. Channels formed by the refractory remains of mangrove roots accounted for only 1-2% of total soil volume, but the proportion of roots found within channels varied from 9 to 24% of total live mass. Successive generations of roots growing inside increasingly smaller root channels were also found. 3. When artificial channels constructed of PVC pipe were buried in the peat for 2 years, those filled with nutrient-rich organic matter had six times more roots than empty or sand-filled channels, indicating a response to greater nutrient availability rather than to greater space or less impedance to root growth. 4. Root proliferation inside decaying roots may improve recovery of nutrients released from decomposing tissues before they can be leached or immobilized in this intertidal environment. Greatest root proliferation in channels occurred in interior forest zones characterized by greater soil waterlogging, which suggests that this may be a strategy for nutrient capture that minimizes oxygen losses from the whole root system. 5. Improved efficiency of nutrient acquisition at the individual plant level has implications for nutrient economy at the ecosystem level and may explain, in part, how mangroves persist and grow in nutrient-poor environments.

  3. Do we miss the hot spots? – The use of very high resolution aerial photographs to quantify carbon fluxes in peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Becker

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate determination of carbon balances in heterogeneous ecosystems often requires the extrapolation of point based measurements. The ground resolution (pixel size of the extrapolation base, e.g. a land-cover map, might thus influence the calculated carbon balance, in particular if biogeochemical hot spots are small in size. In this paper, we test the effects of varying ground resolution on the calculated carbon balance of a boreal peatland consisting of hummocks (dry, lawns (intermediate and flarks (wet surfaces. The generalizations in lower resolution imagery led to biased area estimates for individual micro-site types. While areas of lawns and hummocks were stable below a threshold resolution of ~60 cm, the maximum of the flark area was located at resolutions below 25 cm and was then decreasing with coarsening resolution. Using a resolution of 100 cm instead of 6 cm led to an overestimation of total CO2 uptake of the studied peatland area (approximately 14 600 m2 of ~5% and an underestimation of total CH4 emission of ~6%. To accurately determine the surface area of scattered and small-sized micro-site types in heterogeneous ecosystems (e.g. flarks in peatlands, a minimum ground resolution appears necessary. In our case this leads to a recommended resolution of 25 cm, which can be derived by conventional airborne imagery. The usage of high resolution imagery from commercial satellites, e.g. Quickbird, however, is likely to underestimate the surface area of biogeochemical hot spots. It is important to note that the observed resolution effect on the carbon balance estimates can be much stronger for other ecosystems than for the investigated peatland. In the investigated peatland the relative hot spot area of the flarks is very small and their hot spot characteristics with respect to CH4 and CO2 fluxes is rather modest.

  4. The extreme environments and their microbes as models for extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckbach, J.; Oren, A.; Chela-Flores, J.

    2008-09-01

    Life exists almost everywhere on Earth. Presence of liquid water is a prerequisite for life (Oren, 2008). Living organisms are not only found in `normal' habitats (from the anthropocentric view). Many types, especially of microorganisms, not only tolerate harsh environmental conditions, but even thive in them. Such organisms that resist very harsh physical and chemical conditions in their habitats are termed `extremophiles'. Some extremophilic microorganisms are able to overcome more than one type of extreme conditions in their environment. For example, some `polyextremophiles' grow under hundreds of atmospheres of hydrostatic pressure (barophiles) and at very low, or alternatively at very high temperatures. In many hot springs there are acido-thermophiles that tolerate elevated temperatures and very low pH levels (e.g. the Cyanidium caldarium group, see Seckbach 1994). Members of Cyanidium are able to thrive in pure CO2, a condition not tolerated by most algae (Seckbach et al., 1970). Some thermophilic Archaea grow at temperatures up to 1130C and possibly even higher. In the Arctic and Antarctic regions and in the permafrost region in Siberia there are cold-loving microorganisms (psychrophiles) which are able to grow at -200C. Many types of Bacteria and Archaea tolerate extreme dryness, and spores of Bacillus and relatives that have been encapsulated within salt crystals may have survived in a dormant state for thousands and even millions of years, and still can be revived today. Other extremophiles tolerate salt concentrations up to saturation. Halophilic microorganisms such as found in the Dead Sea or in the Great Salt Lake have developed different strategies to cope with the high osmotic pressure of their environment. Some (e.g. the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina) balance the salts in their medium by accumulating organic compounds such as glycerol. Others (halophilic Archaea of the order Halobacteriales, as well as a few representatives of the

  5. Aleppo pine afforestation in the Massis del Caroig, Eastern Spain. The impact on soil water repellency and infiltration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Jordán, Antonio; Mataix Solera, Jorge; Úbeda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Paloma Hueso and co-workers (2014; 2015) researched the impact of soil treatment on soil erosion and organic matter recovery in Mediterranean types ecosystems and they demonstrated that the surface wash and the soil quality is determined by the soil management. Afforestation and proper management with fertilizers, mulches and vegetation recovery, are common strategies to flight against soil erosion in Mediterranean type ecosystems García Orenes et al., 2010; Barbera et al., 2012; García Orenes et al., 2012; Mekuria and Aynekulu, 2013; Jiménez et al., 2015; Tengberg et al., 2015; Tesfaye et al., 2015). However, Hueso et al., (2014; 2015) did not paid attention to the impact that water repellency can trigger in the runoff generation and water repellency when soils increase the organic matter. In Eastern Spain, afforestation with Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) was very popular during the XX century, although little is know about his impact on soil hydrology. Many of the impacts of afforestation were found positive (García et al., 2000; Maestre et al., 2003; Bellot et al., 2004; Maestre and Cortina, 2004; Chirino et al., 2006; Querejeta et al., 2008; ). This research shows the impact of Pinus halepensis Mill. on soil water repellency, in comparison to the natural scrubland and the cover of Quercus ilex. Within the El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera Experimental Station five types of vegetation covers were selected: Pinus halepensis, Quercus Ilex, Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Brachypodium retusum. The Water Drop Penetration Time method (Cerda and Doerr; 2007; 2008) was applied. A hundred drops were applied at the soil surface, 1, 2, 5 and 10 cm depth 5 times along the year 2013 under different soil moisture content. The results show that the water repllency of the soils is: Pinus Pinus halepensis > Quercus coccifera > Rosmarinus officinalis > Quercus ilex > Thymus vulgaris > Brachypodium retusum. This is related to the higher

  6. TALL HERB SPRUCE FORESTS AS CLIMAX COMMUNITIES ON LOWLAND SWAMPS OF BRYANSK POLESIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Evstigneev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nettle grey alder forests are a dominant forest type on lowland swamps in the Bryansk Polesie. They are formed as a result of repeated cuttings in the place of tall herb spruce forests. Tall herb spruce forests are very rare communities in the vegetation cover in this area due to clear cutting, melioration and peat extraction. An assessment of the succession status of tall herb spruce forests and nettle grey alder forests was carried out in this paper. The criteria of climax state and succession state of communities, developed for Eastern European forests, were used. These criteria are based on the degree of intensity of the following signs in the community: 1 the completeness of species composition of tree synusia; 2 the ontogenetic structure of tree species cenopopulation; 3 the gap-mosaic stand structure; 4 the diversity of microsites in soil cover; 5 the completeness of species composition and ecological-coenotic diversity of vascular species. We showed that tall herb spruce forest, as opposed to black alder forest, is close to communities of the climax type. This is evidenced by the following features of cenosis: firstly, all tree species in the area that covers the Bryansk Polesie and that are able to grow on lowland swamps are represented in the spruce forest (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus avium, Picea abies, Salix pentandra, Sorbus aucuparia, Ulmus glabra. Secondly, a steady turnover of generations is carried out in the cenopopulations of main edificators (Picea abies and Alnus glutinosa. This is evidenced by the complete and left-sided structure of their ontogenetic spectrum. Thirdly, a system of asynchronously developing gaps (parcels, which are formed on the site of old tree falls, is formed in the community. This ensures the continuous renewal of spruce and alder populations and creates conditions for the regeneration of other tree species. Fourthly, the structure of biogenic microsites has been formed

  7. Assessing different agricultural managements with the use of soil quality indices in a Mediteranean calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Vicky; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    residual (difference between calculated SOC by models and real SOC, analyzed in laboratory) as soil quality indices. We consider higher soil quality when the residuals are closer to cero or inside confidence intervals of the models (95%). As expected, the application of the models indicates that in all the treatments and the control plots (shrub on marls and shrub on limestone), the residuals are out of the confidence intervals for the models, showing a disequilibrium among soil properties because these treatments have been submitted to a perturbation such as the agricultural use. However, it can be observed that the residuals in the last sampling in control plots and some of the treatments, the least aggressive with the soil, are lower and therefore the soil it seems to the soil properties is achieving to their equilibrium among them. These soils are: Shrub on limestone and shrub on marls, Chipped pruned branches and Oat mulch non-plough. These results are in agreement with García-Orenes et al. (2010), who showed that the addition of oat straw to soil can be considered an effective soil management, because it produced an important increase of the different fractions of organic carbon and microbial activity, that it will be translated into a rapid improvement of soil quality. The application of the herbicides studied produced a decrease in all the soil parameters; these practices are not recommendable for a sustainable agricultural system in semiarid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem. -García-Orenes, F., Guerrero, C., Roldán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A. Campoy, M., Zornoza, R., Bárcenas, G., Caravaca, F., (2010). Soil microbial biomass and activity under different agricultural management systems in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem. Soil & Tillage Research 109: 110-115. -Zornoza, R., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Arcenegui, V., Mayoral, A.M., Morales, J. Mataix-Beneyto, J., 2007. Soil properties under natural forest in the Alicante Province of Spain. Geoderma

  8. The SAWO (Small And Well Organized) avatar teaches the importance of the aggregates on the soil system and how to determine their stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Cerdà, Artemi; Jordán, Antonio; Úbeda, Xavier; Pereira, Paulo

    2015-04-01

    Soil structure is the key factor that determine the soil quality as control the organic matter turnnover, soil biology and soil erodibility (Cerdà, 1996; 1998; Wick et al., 2014; Gelaw, 2015). There is a need to understand better the factors and the processes that act on the soil aggregation and the dynamics of the soil aggregation, which will make easier to understand the soil system functioning (Jordán et al., 2011; Jordán et al., 2012; Pulido Moncada et al., 2013). Fire, mines, grazing and agricultura (Cerdà, 2000; Mataix Solera et al., 2011; Cerdà et al., 2012; Hallett et al., 2014; Lozano et al., 2013) determines how the soil structure is highly affected by the humankind. And this determines the sustainability of the land managements (García Orenes et al., 2012; K¨ropfl et al., 2013; Mekuria and Aynekulu, 2013; Taguas et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). Aggregates are Small And Well Organized (SAWO) structures that allow the water to flow, the air fill the porous and the life to be diverse and abundant in the soil. The SAWO avatar will teach the importance of the functions and the services of the aggregates to students and other scientists, but also to any audience. This means that the experiments and the vocabulary to be used by SAWO will be very wide and rich. The Avatar SAWO will use different strategies and skills to teach the soil aggregation properties and characteristics. And also, how to measure. Easy to carry out experiments will be shown by SAWO to measure the aggregate stability in the field and in the laboratory, and the soil sampling in the field. The SAWO avatar will play a special attention to the impact of forest fires on aggregate stability changes and how to measure. The SAWO avatar will teach how to take samples in the field, how to transport and manage in the laboratory, and finally which measurements and test can be done to determine the aggregate stability. Acknowledgements To the "Ministerio de Economía and Competitividad" of

  9. Social order, subjectivity and collective action. Notes for the study of the social movements Orden social, subjetividad y acción colectiva. Notas para el estudio de los movimientos sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Retamozo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the concept of subjectivity to illuminate the study of social movements. Subjectivity can be seen as a mediator between social sructure and collective action. The article explores how the concept of subjectivity can be useful in the study of those social movements that question the established social order.

    El artículo presenta la categoría de subjetividad colectiva como herramienta para indagar en la constitución de los movimientos sociales. La concepción de subjetividad como un proceso de articulación de sentidos frente situaciones específicas nos conduce a plantear una serie de asuntos ligados a su lógica de conformación y su funcionamiento como una instancia de mediación entre la estructuración del orden social y la acción colecita. El artículo explora, además, algunos campos que se vinculan a la subjetividad y que sirven para una investigación de los movimientos que disputan la conformación del oren social., tales como la voluntad colectiva, los proyectos, los imaginarios y las demandas sociales.

     

     

     

     

  10. Designing competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, H.P.; Huntington, H.

    1998-01-01

    This volume of papers, originally presented at Stanford in March 1997 in a conference sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, examines several questions about the restructuring and deregulation of electricity markets. Its stated goal is to present guiding principles for evaluating proposals to restructure the US electric power industry. While a collection of essays is perhaps not the best place to lay out guiding principles, the volume does contain a great deal of learning about restructuring. The first essay is a reprint of Paul Joskow's excellent article in the ''Journal of Economic Perspectives''. An essay by William Hogan on the debate between zonal and locational pricing is next. Paul Kleindorfer lists the various governance schemes which other countries that have restructured have used to govern system operation, access to the market for power, and transmission ownership and pricing. One difficulty with the book, as well as the debate in the US, is that it fails to draw adequately upon the international experience. Shmuel Oren lays out the potential areas over which an ISO could have authority. The chapter by Stephen Rassenti and Vernon Smith that bilateral trading should never be allowed, implying that a mandatory pool should be established. A reduction in regulation may increase the incentives for technological innovation. Martin Baughman suggests a number of ways by which costs of transmitting and storing electricity may be reduced. Robert Wilson returns to the volume with a chapter on institutional design. To end the volume, Hung-Po Chao and Stephen Peck present an extension of their earlier work in the ''Journal of Regulatory Economics'' showing how markets for transmission rights would work in a transmission grid of three points

  11. The contribution of mulches to control high soil erosion rates in vineyards in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena; José Marqués, María; Novara, Agata

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion take place in degraded ecosystem where the lack of vegetation, drought, erodible parent material and deforestation take place (Borelli et al., 2013; Haregeweyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). Agriculture management developed new landscapes (Ore and Bruins, 2012) and use to trigger non-sustainable soil erosion rates (Zema et al., 2012). High erosion rates were measured in agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009), but it is also possible to develop managements that will control the soil and water losses, such as organic amendments (Marqués et al., 2005), plant cover (Marqués et al., 2007) and geotextiles (Giménez Morera et al., 2010). The most successful management to restore the structural stability and the biological activity of the agriculture soil has been the organic mulches (García Orenes et al; 2009; 2010; 2012). The straw mulch is also very successful on bare fire affected soil (Robichaud et al., 2013a; 2013b), which also contributes to a more stable soil moisture content (García-Moreno et al., 2013). The objective of this research is to determine the impact of two mulches: wheat straw and chipped branches, on the soil erosion rates in a rainfed vineyard in Eastern Spain. The research site is located in the Les Alcusses Valley within the Moixent municipality. The Mean annual temperature is 13 ºC, and the mean annual rainfall 455 mm. Soil are sandy loam, and are developed at the foot-slope of a Cretaceous limestone range, the Serra Grossa range. The soils use to be ploughed and the features of soil erosion are found after each thunderstorm. Rills are removed by ploughing. Thirty rainfall simulation experiments were carried out in summer 2011 during the summer drought period. The simulated rainfall lasted during 1 hour at a 45 mmh-1 intensity on 1 m2 plots (Cerdà and Doerr, 2010; Cerdà and Jurgensen 2011). Ten experiments were carried out on the control plots (ploughed), 10 on straw mulch covered plots, and 10 on chipped branches covered

  12. Morphological and genetic differences between Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia H. Ohba and Coptis japonica var. major Satake in Hokuriku area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Ando, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Yohei

    2018-03-01

    Coptis japonica is widely distributed in Japan, and its dried rhizome is a source of the domestic herbal medicine Coptidis Rhizoma ( Oren). There are three varieties of C. japonica, two of which, namely, C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major, are important as sources of traditional medicines. Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major are distinguishable on the basis of their ternate or biternate compound leaves, respectively. In the Hokuriku area, where both C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major grow naturally, some individual plants cannot be identified unambiguously on the basis of leaf morphology because changes in leaf morphology may occur due to intra-variety variation or crossbreeding between the two varieties. In addition, genetic differences between the two varieties have remained unclear. In this study, we employed new genetic and morphological classification approaches to discriminate between the two varieties. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the tetrahydroberberine oxidase gene, we found four conserved SNPs between the two varieties and were able to classify C. japonica into two varieties and crossbreeds. Furthermore, we introduced a new leaf type index based on the overall degree of leaflet dissection calculated by surface area of a leaflet and length of leaflet margin and petiolule. Using our new index we were able to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds more accurately than is possible with the conventional discrimination method. Our genetic and morphological classification methods may be used as novel benchmarks to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds.

  13. A case study of high Arctic anthropogenic disturbance to polar desert permafrost and ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M. S.; Pollard, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    using quadrat sampling for species richness and abundance. Soil measures consisted of temperature at depth, moisture content, and bioavailable nutrients, all augmented with hourly microclimate data. NMDS ordination was performed as an exploratory analysis of clustering between disturbed/undisturbed microsite differences. Further statistical analysis showed that disturbed polygon tops have an active layer 30% deeper than other microsites (p < .001) despite having no greater vegetation cover than undisturbed polygon tops. Conversely, disturbed troughs show no difference in active layer, but their soils have double the water content of other microsites (p < .001), likely accounting for a significantly greater, but less-diverse, biomass that may be buffering the active layer from further development. Our results suggest that a disturbance to the thermal regime of high Arctic ice-wedge polygon systems results in long-lasting and significant effects on the polar desert landscape. Understanding how the polar desert responds to disturbance after 60 years of ';recovery' will provide useful information for applying conceptual thermal models of landscape disturbance in the high Arctic, as well as information to governments and industries hoping to plan and minimize their impacts.

  14. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes and carbon balance in the atmospheric interaction of boreal peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, J.

    1997-12-31

    Release of CO{sub 2} from peat was studied using IR analyzer in a range of boreal peatlands under varying nutrient status and moisture conditions. Root associated CO{sub 2} efflux was separated from the total release by experiments both in the field and in a greenhouse. Emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} (the latter by gas chromatography) were measured during the snow-covered period and their contribution to the annual fluxes of these gases was inspected. Ecosystem exchange of CO{sub 2} under varying irradiation, temperature and moisture conditions was measured at different microsites at two peatland sites with different nutrient ecology. One site represented minerotrophic conditions during a wet growing season and the other site ombrotrophic conditions during an exceptionally dry growing season. Annual carbon balances were compiled for the two sites, and the role of the microsites in the annual carbon balance and CH{sub 4} release was studied. The Holocene history of CO{sub 2} sequestration and CH{sub 4} emission dynamics in a raised mire were simulated using lateral and vertical growth rates derived from radiocarbon ages of peat samples from mire bottom and vertical cores. The model was formulated for a geographic information system (GIS). Artificial or natural lowering of water table increased CO{sub 2} release from peat. A drought lasting from late May to July caused a 90 g C m{sup 2} net loss in the annual C balance of a natural ombrotrophic bog. In drained forested sites the increase in peat CO{sub 2} release could be even 100 %, but the development of the tree layer at least partially compensated for these losses. Wet conditions induced a net accumulation of 67 g C m{sup -2}a{sup -1} in the minerotrophic fen site, while the long term average accumulation rate is estimated to be only 15 g C m{sup -2}a{sup -1} for Finnish fens. Carbon balance in boreal peatlands is thus extremely sensitive to year-to-year climatic variations. Root activity of vascular plants

  15. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes and carbon balance in the atmospheric interaction of boreal peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, J

    1998-12-31

    Release of CO{sub 2} from peat was studied using IR analyzer in a range of boreal peatlands under varying nutrient status and moisture conditions. Root associated CO{sub 2} efflux was separated from the total release by experiments both in the field and in a greenhouse. Emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} (the latter by gas chromatography) were measured during the snow-covered period and their contribution to the annual fluxes of these gases was inspected. Ecosystem exchange of CO{sub 2} under varying irradiation, temperature and moisture conditions was measured at different microsites at two peatland sites with different nutrient ecology. One site represented minerotrophic conditions during a wet growing season and the other site ombrotrophic conditions during an exceptionally dry growing season. Annual carbon balances were compiled for the two sites, and the role of the microsites in the annual carbon balance and CH{sub 4} release was studied. The Holocene history of CO{sub 2} sequestration and CH{sub 4} emission dynamics in a raised mire were simulated using lateral and vertical growth rates derived from radiocarbon ages of peat samples from mire bottom and vertical cores. The model was formulated for a geographic information system (GIS). Artificial or natural lowering of water table increased CO{sub 2} release from peat. A drought lasting from late May to July caused a 90 g C m{sup 2} net loss in the annual C balance of a natural ombrotrophic bog. In drained forested sites the increase in peat CO{sub 2} release could be even 100 %, but the development of the tree layer at least partially compensated for these losses. Wet conditions induced a net accumulation of 67 g C m{sup -2}a{sup -1} in the minerotrophic fen site, while the long term average accumulation rate is estimated to be only 15 g C m{sup -2}a{sup -1} for Finnish fens. Carbon balance in boreal peatlands is thus extremely sensitive to year-to-year climatic variations. Root activity of vascular plants

  16. Steady as a rock: Biogeomorphic influence of nurse rocks and slope processes on kūpaoa (Dubautia menziesii) shrubs in Haleakalā Crater (Maui, Hawai'i)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Francisco L.

    2017-10-01

    This study examines biogeomorphic interactions between nurse rocks, slope processes, and 300 kūpaoa (Dubautia menziesii) shrubs in Haleakalā Crater (Maui, Hawai'i). Research objectives were to: assess the association of kūpaoa with substrates upslope and downslope of plants, and proximity to the closest rock uphill; contrast shrub/substrate relationships with site frequency of sediment types; measure surface soil shear-strength and compressibility on 50 paired locations near boulders; and investigate the aggregation characteristics and spatial patterns of kūpaoa in relation to rock and substrate variation. Data analyzed came from three 100-plant surveys at 3 sites: a plant census at 2720-2975 m altitude, and wandering-quarter transects (WQTs) across two areas (2610-2710 m); ground sediment cover was estimated along four phototransects on these sites. Data for the three 100-plant surveys included substrate type-outcrops, blocks, cobbles, pebbles, exposed soil, organic litter-upslope from each plant, and distance to the largest rock upslope. The two surveys examined along WQTs included substrate type found downslope from kūpaoa, plant height, plant diameters across and along the slope, and distance between successively censused plants. Most plants grew downslope of nurse rocks; > 74% were adjacent to blocks or outcrops, and > 17% near cobbles. Plants showed avoidance for finer substrates; only 5.3% and 2.7% grew on/near bare soils and pebbles, respectively. About 92% of kūpaoa were ≤ 10 cm downslope of rocks; > 89% grew ≤ 2 cm away, and 83% in direct contact with a rock. Some seedlings also grew on pukiawe (Leptecophylla tameiameiae) nurse plants. Several stable rock microsites protected plants from disturbance by slope processes causing debris shift. Site sediments were significantly finer than substrates near plants; shrubs grew preferentially adjacent to boulders > 20 cm wide, which were more common near plants than across sites. Soils downslope of 50

  17. Biogeomorphic and pedogenic impact of trees in three soil regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Łukasz; Šamonil, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation is an important factor of soil formation which together with topography, geology, climate and time modulates chemical and physical soil characteristics. Tree/soils/regolith interaction was recognized in recently uprooted trees and relict treethrow mounds and pits. In our present study we focus on effects of individual standing trees in pedogenesis and biogeomorphic processes. Constant pressure of tree root systems, changing hydric and temperature regime, together with rhizospheric microbes and root mycorrhizal associations may cause multiscale alterations to regolith and soils. We hypothesize different soil chemical properties under old tree stumps compared to unaffected control pedon resulted from affected pedogenetical pathways at the analyzed microsites. The present project highlights changes in soil properties under tree stumps in three different soil regions: Haplic Cambisols (Turbacz Reserve, Gorce Mts., Poland, hereafter HC), Entic Podzols (Zofin Reserve, Novohradske Mts., the Czech Republic, hereafter EP), Albic Podzols (Upper Peninsula, Michigan, USA, hereafter AP). These three regions represent different degrees of soil weathering and leaching. Pedons under fir, beech and hemlock stumps, as well as unaffected control pedons were sampled and laboratory analyzed for several chemical properties; active and exchangeable soil reaction, oxidized carbon, total nitrogen, and various forms of Fe, Al, Mn and Si. At the same time we studied age of the sampled tree stumps, as well as age of their death using radiocarbon technique and dendrochronology. While no effects of the soil-trees interactions can be visible on hillslope surface, we found important evidence of biomechanical activities of tree roots (e.g. root channels) and biochemical changes which add to the discussion about biogeomorphic and pedogenic significance of trees and tree roots as drivers of biomechanical weathering and soil processes in the decadal and centennial time scales. Preliminary

  18. Response of sphagnum peatland testate amoebae to a 1-year transplantation experiment along an artificial hydrological gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Fournier, Bertrand; Gilbert, Daniel; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2014-05-01

    Peatland testate amoebae (TA) are well-established bioindicators for depth to water table (DWT), but effects of hydrological changes on TA communities have never been tested experimentally. We tested this in a field experiment by placing Sphagnum carpets (15 cm diameter) collected in hummock, lawn and pool microsites (origin) at three local conditions (dry, moist and wet) using trenches dug in a peatland. One series of samples was seeded with microorganism extract from all microsites. TA community were analysed at T0: 8-2008, T1: 5-2009 and T2: 8-2009. We analysed the data using conditional inference trees, principal response curves (PRC) and DWT inferred from TA communities using a transfer function used for paleoecological reconstruction. Density declined from T0 to T1 and then increased sharply by T2. Species richness, Simpson diversity and Simpson evenness were lower at T2 than at T0 and T1. Seeded communities had higher species richness in pool samples at T0. Pool samples tended to have higher density, lower species richness, Simpson diversity and Simpson Evenness than hummock and/or lawn samples until T1. In the PRC, the effect of origin was significant at T0 and T1, but the effect faded away by T2. Seeding effect was strongest at T1 and lowest vanished by T2. Local condition effect was strong but not in line with the wetness gradient at T1 but started to reflect it by T2. Likewise, TA-inferred DWT started to match the experimental conditions by T2, but more so in hummock and lawn samples than in pool samples. This study confirmed that TA responds to hydrological changes over a 1-year period. However, sensitivity of TA to hydrological fluctuations, and thus the accuracy of inferred DWT changes, was habitat specific, pool TA communities being least responsive to environmental changes. Lawns and hummocks may be thus better suited than pools for paleoecological reconstructions. This, however, contrasts with the higher prediction error and species' tolerance for

  19. Spatial variation in microbial processes controlling carbon mineralization within soils and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendorf, Scott [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kleber, Markus [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Nico, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    Soils have a defining role in global carbon cycling, having one of the largest dynamic stocks of C on earth—3300 Pg of C are stored in soils, which is three-times the amount stored in the atmosphere and more than the terrestrial land plants. An important control on soil organic matter (SOM) quantities is the mineralization rate. It is well recognized that the rate and extent of SOM mineralization is affected by climatic factors and mineral-organic matter associations. What remained elusive is to what extent constraints on microbial metabolism induced by the respiratory pathway, and specifically the electron acceptor in respiration, control overall rates of carbon mineralization in soils. Therefore, physical factors limiting oxygen diffusion such as soil texture and aggregate size (soil structure) may therefore be central controls on C mineralization rates. The goal of our research was therefore to determine if variations in microbial metabolic rates induced by anaerobic microsites in soils are a major control on SOM mineralization rates and thus storage. We performed a combination of laboratory experiments and field investigations will be performed to fulfill our research objectives. We used laboratory studies to examine fundamental factors of respiratory constraints (i.e., electron acceptor) on organic matter mineralization rates. We ground our laboratory studies with both manipulation of field samples and in-field measurements. Selection of the field sites is guided by variation in soil texture and structure while having (other environmental/soil factors constant. Our laboratory studies defined redox gradients and variations in microbial metabolism operating at the aggregate-scale (cm-scale) within soils using a novel constructed diffusion reactor. We further examined micro-scale variation in terminal electron accepting processes and resulting C mineralization rates within re-packed soils. A major outcome of our research is the ability to quantitatively place

  20. Forest floor carbon exchange of a boreal black spruce forest in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, O.; Margolis, H. A.; Coursolle, C.

    2009-09-01

    This study reports continuous automated measurements of forest floor carbon (C) exchange over feathermoss, lichen, and sphagnum micro-sites in a black spruce forest in eastern North America during snow-free periods over three years. The response of soil respiration (Rs-auto) and forest floor photosynthesis (Pff) to environmental factors was determined. The seasonal contributions of scaled up Rs-auto adjusted for spatial representativeness (Rs-adj) and Pff (Pff-eco) relative to that of total ecosystem respiration (Re) and photosynthesis (Peco), respectively, were also quantified. Shallow (5 cm) soil temperature explained 67-86% of the variation in Rs-auto for all ground cover types, while deeper (50 and 100 cm) soil temperatures were related to Rs-auto only for the feathermoss micro-sites. Base respiration was consistently lower under feathermoss, intermediate under sphagnum, and higher under lichen during all three years. The Rs-adj/Re ratio increased from spring through autumn and ranged from 0.85 to 0.87 annually for the snow-free period. The Rs-adj/Re ratio was negatively correlated with the difference between air and shallow soil temperature and this correlation was more pronounced in autumn than summer and spring. Maximum photosynthetic capacity of the forest floor (Pff-max) saturated at low irradiance levels (~200 μmol m-2 s-1) and decreased with increasing air temperature and vapor pressure deficit for all three ground cover types, suggesting that Pff was more limited by desiccation than by light availability. Pff-max was lowest for sphagnum, intermediate for feathermoss, and highest for lichen for two of the three years. Pff normalized for light peaked at air temperatures of 5-8°C, suggesting that this is the optimal temperature range for Pff. The Pff-eco/Peco ratio varied from 13 to 24% over the snow-free period and reached a minimum in mid-summer when both air temperature and Peco were at their maximum. On an annual basis, Pff-eco accounted for 17

  1. Forest Floor Carbon Exchange of a Boreal Black Spruce Forest in Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, O.; Margolis, H. A.; Coursolle, C.

    2009-06-01

    This study reports continuous automated measurements of forest floor carbon (C) exchange over feathermoss, lichen, and sphagnum micro-sites in a black spruce forest in eastern North America during snow-free periods over three years. The response of soil respiration (Rs-auto) and forest floor photosynthesis (Pff) to environmental factors was determined. The seasonal contributions of scaled up Rs-auto adjusted for spatial representativeness (Rs-adj) and Pff (Pff-eco) relative to that of total ecosystem respiration (Re) and photosynthesis (Peco), respectively, were also quantified. Shallow soil temperature explained 67-86% of the variation in Rs-auto for all ground cover types, while deeper soil temperatures were related to Rs-auto only for the feathermoss micro-sites. Base respiration was consistently lower under feathermoss, intermediate under sphagnum, and higher under lichen during all three years. The Rs-adj/Re ratio increased from spring through autumn and ranged from 0.85 to 0.87 annually for the snow-free period. The Rs-adj/Re ratio was negatively correlated with the difference between air and shallow soil temperature and this correlation was more pronounced in autumn than summer and spring. Maximum photosynthetic capacity of the forest floor (Pffmax) saturated at low irradiance levels (~200 μmol m-2 s-1) and decreased with increasing air temperature and vapor pressure deficit for all three ground cover types, suggesting that Pff was more limited by desiccation than by light availability. Pffmax was lowest for sphagnum, intermediate for feathermoss, and highest for lichen for two of the three years. Pff normalized for light peaked at air temperatures of 5-8°C, suggesting that this is the optimal temperature range for Pff. The Pff-eco/Peco ratio varied seasonally from 13 to 24% and reached a minimum in mid-summer when both air temperature and Peco were at their maximum. On an annual basis, Pff-eco accounted for 17-18% of Peco depending on the year and the

  2. Towards the development of multifunctional molecular indicators combining soil biogeochemical and microbiological variables to predict the ecological integrity of silvicultural practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Vincent; Quiza, Liliana; Buffet, Jean-Philippe; Khdhiri, Mondher; Durand, Audrey-Anne; Paquette, Alain; Thiffault, Nelson; Messier, Christian; Beaulieu, Nadyre; Guertin, Claude; Constant, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    The impact of mechanical site preparation (MSP) on soil biogeochemical structure in young larch plantations was investigated. Soil samples were collected in replicated plots comprising simple trenching, double trenching, mounding and inverting site preparation. Unlogged natural mixed forest areas were used as a reference. Analysis of soil nutrients, abundance of bacteria and gas exchanges unveiled no significant difference among the plots. However, inverting site preparation resulted in higher variations of gas exchanges when compared with trenching, mounding and unlogged natural forest. A combination of the biological and physicochemical variables was used to define a multifunctional classification of the soil samples into four distinct groups categorized as a function of their deviation from baseline ecological conditions. According to this classification model, simple trenching was the approach that represented the lowest ecological risk potential at the microsite level. No relationship was observed between MSP method and soil bacterial community structure as assessed by high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene; however, indicator genotypes were identified for each multifunctional soil class. This is the first identification of multifunctional molecular indicators for baseline and disturbed ecological conditions in soil, demonstrating the potential of applied microbial ecology to guide silvicultural practices and ecological risk assessment. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Effects of Climate Change and Organic Matter Amendments on the Fate of Soil Carbon and the Global Warming Potential of CO2, CH4, and N2O Emissions in an Upland Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, M.; Muehe, E. M.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    Our current understanding of the mechanisms driving carbon stabilization in soil organic matter (SOM) and its release to the atmosphere is insufficient for predicting the response of soil carbon dynamics to future climatic conditions. The persistence of SOM has been studied primarily within the context of biochemical, physical, and geochemical protection from decomposition. More recently, bioenergetic constraints on SOM decomposition due to oxygen limitations have been demonstrated in submerged soils. However, the relevance of anaerobic domains in upland soils is uncertain. To better understand how upland soils will respond to climate change, we conducted a 52-day incubation of an upland soil at constant soil moisture (field capacity) under varying air temperatures (32°C and 37°C), CO2 concentrations (398 and 850 ppmv), and soil organic carbon contents (1.3%, 2.4%). Overall, we observed a stimulatory effect of future climate (elevated temperature and CO2) and higher carbon inputs on net SOM mineralization rates (higher CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions). Importantly, CH4 emissions were observed in the soils with added plant residue, indicating anaerobic microsites are relevant in upland soils, and significantly impact microbial respiration pathways, rates of SOM mineralization, and the global warming potential of trace gas emissions. These findings have important implications for positive soil carbon-climate feedbacks, and warrant further investigation into representing anaerobic soil domains of upland soils in biogeochemical models.

  4. Land crabs as key drivers in tropical coastal forest recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, E.S.; Krauss, K.W.; Green, P.T.; O'Dowd, D. J.; Sherman, P.M.; Smith, T. J.

    2009-01-01

    Plant populations are regulated by a diverse assortment of abiotic and biotic factors that influence seed dispersal and viability, and seedling establishment and growth at the microsite. Rarely does one animal guild exert as significant an influence on different plant assemblages as land crabs. We review three tropical coastal ecosystems-mangroves, island maritime forests, and mainland coastal terrestrial forests-where land crabs directly influence forest composition by limiting tree establishment and recruitment. Land crabs differentially prey on seeds, propagules and seedlings along nutrient, chemical and physical environmental gradients. In all of these ecosystems, but especially mangroves, abiotic gradients are well studied, strong and influence plant species distributions. However, we suggest that crab predation has primacy over many of these environmental factors by acting as the first limiting factor of tropical tree recruitment to drive the potential structural and compositional organisation of coastal forests. We show that the influence of crabs varies relative to tidal gradient, shoreline distance, canopy position, time, season, tree species and fruiting periodicity. Crabs also facilitate forest growth and development through such activities as excavation of burrows, creation of soil mounds, aeration of soils, removal of leaf litter into burrows and creation of carbon-rich soil microhabitats. For all three systems, land crabs influence the distribution, density and size-class structure of tree populations. Indeed, crabs are among the major drivers of tree recruitment in tropical coastal forest ecosystems, and their conservation should be included in management plans of these forests. ?? 2009 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  5. Visualizing Individual Tree Differences in Tree-Ring Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Trouillier

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Averaging tree-ring measurements from multiple individuals is one of the most common procedures in dendrochronology. It serves to filter out noise from individual differences between trees, such as competition, height, and micro-site effects, which ideally results in a site chronology sensitive to regional scale factors such as climate. However, the climate sensitivity of individual trees can be modulated by factors like competition, height, and nitrogen deposition, calling attention to whether average chronologies adequately assess climatic growth-control. In this study, we demonstrate four simple but effective methods to visually assess differences between individual trees. Using individual tree climate-correlations we: (1 employed jitter plots with superimposed metadata to assess potential causes for these differences; (2 plotted the frequency distributions of climate correlations over time as heat maps; (3 mapped the spatial distribution of climate sensitivity over time to assess spatio-temporal dynamics; and (4 used t-distributed Stochastic Neighborhood Embedding (t-SNE to assess which trees were generally more similar in terms of their tree-ring pattern and their correlation with climate variables. This suite of exploratory methods can indicate if individuals in tree-ring datasets respond differently to climate variability, and therefore, should not solely be explored with climate correlations of the mean population chronology.

  6. Structure of the epiphyte community in a tropical montane forest in SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxu Zhao

    Full Text Available Vascular epiphytes are an understudied and particularly important component of tropical forest ecosystems. However, owing to the difficulties of access, little is known about the properties of epiphyte-host tree communities and the factors structuring them, especially in Asia. We investigated factors structuring the vascular epiphyte-host community and its network properties in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Vascular epiphytes were surveyed in six plots located in mature forests. Six host and four micro-site environmental factors were investigated. Epiphyte diversity was strongly correlated with host size (DBH, diameter at breast height, while within hosts the highest epiphyte diversity was in the middle canopy and epiphyte diversity was significantly higher in sites with canopy soil or a moss mat than on bare bark. DBH, elevation and stem height explained 22% of the total variation in the epiphyte species assemblage among hosts, and DBH was the most important factor which alone explained 6% of the variation. Within hosts, 51% of the variation in epiphyte assemblage composition was explained by canopy position and substrate, and the most important single factor was substrate which accounted for 16% of the variation. Analysis of network properties indicated that the epiphyte host community was highly nested, with a low level of epiphyte specialization, and an almost even interaction strength between epiphytes and host trees. Together, these results indicate that large trees harbor a substantial proportion of the epiphyte community in this forest.

  7. A multi-scale approach of fluvial biogeomorphic dynamics using photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortobágyi, Borbála; Corenblit, Dov; Vautier, Franck; Steiger, Johannes; Roussel, Erwan; Burkart, Andreas; Peiry, Jean-Luc

    2017-11-01

    Over the last twenty years, significant technical advances turned photogrammetry into a relevant tool for the integrated analysis of biogeomorphic cross-scale interactions within vegetated fluvial corridors, which will largely contribute to the development and improvement of self-sustainable river restoration efforts. Here, we propose a cost-effective, easily reproducible approach based on stereophotogrammetry and Structure from Motion (SfM) technique to study feedbacks between fluvial geomorphology and riparian vegetation at different nested spatiotemporal scales. We combined different photogrammetric methods and thus were able to investigate biogeomorphic feedbacks at all three spatial scales (i.e., corridor, alluvial bar and micro-site) and at three different temporal scales, i.e., present, recent past and long term evolution on a diversified riparian landscape mosaic. We evaluate the performance and the limits of photogrammetric methods by targeting a set of fundamental parameters necessary to study biogeomorphic feedbacks at each of the three nested spatial scales and, when possible, propose appropriate solutions. The RMSE varies between 0.01 and 2 m depending on spatial scale and photogrammetric methods. Despite some remaining difficulties to properly apply them with current technologies under all circumstances in fluvial biogeomorphic studies, e.g. the detection of vegetation density or landform topography under a dense vegetation canopy, we suggest that photogrammetry is a promising instrument for the quantification of biogeomorphic feedbacks at nested spatial scales within river systems and for developing appropriate river management tools and strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Microhabitat characteristics of Lapland Longspur, Calcarius lapponicus, nests at Cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    We examined microsite characteristics at 21 Lapland Longspur (Calcarius lapponicus) nests and land cover types in which they occurred in Wapusk National Park, Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nests were located in four of six physiographic-vegetation land-cover types. Regardless of land-cover type, all but one nest was built on a pressure ridge or mound. Nests were built midway between the bottom and top of ridges or mounds with steeper slopes than was randomly available. Longspur nests had a distinctive southwest orientation (P < 0.001). Longspurs selected nest sites that consisted of comparatively greater amounts of shrub species and lesser amounts of moss than were randomly available. Nests were generally well concealed by vegetation (mean = 67.0%) and concealment was negatively associated with amount of graminoid species at the nest (P = 0.0005). Our nesting habitat data may facilitate a better understanding of breeding Lapland Longspur habitat requirements, and potential impacts of habitat degradation by increasing Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens) populations in the study area.

  9. The technical-economic problems concerning the search for sites for nuclear electricity generation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    An outline of technical-physical fundamentals, of the design and the mode of operation of LWR reactors is followed by a brief description of the licensing procedure. It is pointed out that safety cannot be a criterion for a site because nuclear power plants have to be safe on every site. The problem of nuclear power plants in the vicinity of towns or densely populated areas is dealt with briefly, too. A method is proposed which allows to find a possible site while investing little time on search and evaluation and which stores this site in a site provision plan. The choice of possible sites is made on three levels which are independent of each other. Possible nuclear power plant sites, on the first level, are considered on the basis of the dominating influence of waste heat discharge and network integration. On the second level, macro-sites are determined by examining the realizability of these possible sites by looking at negative criteria, and, on the third level, the 'fine points' planning stage, a pool of potential micro-sites is determined by applying the 'measure of value' analysis. This is followed by citing an analytical method with which the order of priority amongst 8 possible sites in the USA was determined. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Increasing the productivity of biomass plantations of Populus species and hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Final report, September 14, 1981--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBell, D.S.; Harrington, C.A.; Clendenen, G.W. [USDA Forest Service, Olympia, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This final report represents the culmination of eight years of biological research devoted to increasing the productivity of short rotation plantations of Populus trichocarpa and Populus hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Studies described herein provide an understanding of tree growth, stand development and biomass yield at various spacings, and how patterns thereof differ by Populus clone in monoclonal and polyclonal plantings. Also included is some information about factors related to wind damage in Populus plantings, use of leaf size as a predictor of growth potential, and approaches for estimating tree and stand biomass and biomass growth. The work was accomplished in three research plantations, all established cooperatively with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and located at the DNR Tree Improvement Center near Olympia. The first plantation was established in Spring 1986 to evaluate the highly touted {open_quotes}woodgrass{close_quotes} concept and compare it with more conventional short-rotation management regimes, using two Populus hybrid clones planted at five spacings. Besides providing scientific data to resolve the politicized {open_quotes}wood-grass{close_quotes} dispute, this plantation has furnished excellent data on stand dynamics and woody biomass yield. A second plantation was established at the same time; groups of trees therein received two levels of irrigation and different amounts of four fertilizer amendments, resulting in microsites with diverse moisture and nutrient conditions.

  11. Temporal patterns of foliar ozone symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappelka, A.H.; Somers, G.L.; Renfro, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Incidence and severity of ozone-induced foliar symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) along selected trails in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) were determined by two surveys/season conducted from 1992 through 1996. Overall incidence was 73%, and was 84%, 44%, 90%, 58%, and 82% for 1992-1996, respectively for the same clusters. Average incidence was 61% and 84% for the 1st and 2nd surveys, respectively. Seasonal comparisons showed two distinct injury groupings regarding incidence and severity of injury: 1992, 1994 and 1996 (high injury); 1993 and 1995 (low injury). No discernible patterns were observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic plants regarding height, herbivory or flowering. Regression analyses indicated no differentiation in foliar symptoms regarding topographic position, aspect, slope or elevation over the 5-year study period. Our findings indicate other micro-site or genetic factors may control ozone sensitivity of tall milkweed in GRSM. - Ground-level ozone has the potential to cause deleterious effects to tall milkweed growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

  12. U-TH-REE mobility and diffusion in granitic environments during alteration of accessory minerals and U-ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathelineau, M.; Vergneaud, M.

    1989-01-01

    U, Th and REE concentrations and distributions have been studied in granitic rocks, using a multidisciplinary approach involving micromapping of cracks in oriented samples, together with mineralogical and geochemical studies of the different U-Th-REE bearing phases. The behavior of U, Th and Nd, considered as chemical analogue elements of the radiotoxic nuclides, was investigated either in the vicinity of microsites (accessory mineral enviornment) or along plurimetric sections around U-ore bodies. The different granite minerals, especially the accessory minerals (uraninite, monazite, thorite, apatite, xeonotime), as well as U-ores, present different initial concentrations of U, Th and REE. Limitations to the analogy between these U-Th-REE concentrations and the radwastes is discussed as a function of their mineralogical features, chemical compostion, size and solubilities. These primary concentrations present different behavior when subjected to hydrothermal alteration, such as propylitization, phyllite type alteration, or clay alteration. Results show that in reduced media, in the temperature range 80-2000 0 C, the rate of mobilization of U, Th, REE is relatively moderate. However, fluids enriched in flourides, phosphates or carbonates may significantly solubilize and transport U and REE under specific conditions. In addition, the degree of opening of the microcracks and faults, as well as the oxidation-reduction processes, are critical parameters for the efficiency of the granitic geological barrier

  13. Nitrous oxide emissions from forested and harvested ecosystems in northeastern Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanaugh, K.; Kellman, L.; Beltrami, H.

    2005-01-01

    Although studies have shown that deforestation alters the emissions of nitrous oxides (N 2 O) from forest soils in tropical environments, little is known about the northern temperate and boreal forests. This study monitored the N 2 O soil emissions from two 3 year old harvested and intact forest pairs of contrasting soil texture. The study was conducted through the late summer to early fall period in the Acadian forest of Atlantic Canada in order to quantify N 2 O emissions associated with each landuse type, and to determine the factors controlling these emissions. The suitability of a photoacoustic gas monitor (PGM) for in situ field measurements of this gas was also evaluated. Each site was equipped with 11 permanent collars for surface flux measurements designed to capture the microsite variability. Subsurface soil gas samplers were installed at depths of 0, 10, 20 and 35 cm below the organic-mineral soil interface. A nonsteady-state vented surface flux chamber coupled to the PGM was used to regularly measure the surface fluxes in order to quantify the soil-atmosphere N 2 O exchanges. The important zones of N 2 O production in the profile were identified by less frequent measurements of subsurface gas concentrations. Soil nitrogen, soil bulk density, and soil pH were measured at each site. Preliminary results reveal that spatial and temporal variability in surface emissions are very high and that there is a difference in the magnitude of fluxes between harvested and intact forest pairs

  14. Are Protected Areas Required to Maintain Functional Diversity in Human-Modified Landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottee-Jones, H. Eden W.; Matthews, Thomas J.; Bregman, Tom P.; Barua, Maan; Tamuly, Jatin; Whittaker, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of forest to agriculture across the world’s tropics, and the limited space for protected areas, has increased the need to identify effective conservation strategies in human-modified landscapes. Isolated trees are believed to conserve elements of ecological structure, providing micro-sites for conservation in matrix landscapes, and facilitating seed dispersal and forest restoration. Here we investigate the role of isolated Ficus trees, which are of critical importance to tropical forest ecosystems, in conserving frugivore composition and function in a human-modified landscape in Assam, India. We surveyed the frugivorous birds feeding at 122 isolated Ficus trees, 33 fruit trees, and 31 other large trees across a range of 32 km from the nearest intact forest. We found that Ficus trees attracted richer and more abundant assemblages of frugivores than the other tree categories. However, incidence function estimates revealed that forest specialist species decreased dramatically within the first kilometre of the forest edge. Despite this, species richness and functional diversity remained consistent across the human-modified landscape, as habitat generalists replaced forest-dependent frugivores, and accounted for most of the ecological function found in Ficus trees near the forest edge. We recommend that isolated Ficus trees are awarded greater conservation status, and suggest that their conservation can support ecologically functional networks of frugivorous bird communities. PMID:25946032

  15. Structure of the epiphyte community in a tropical montane forest in SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingxu; Geekiyanage, Nalaka; Xu, Jianchu; Khin, Myo Myo; Nurdiana, Dian Ridwan; Paudel, Ekananda; Harrison, Rhett Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are an understudied and particularly important component of tropical forest ecosystems. However, owing to the difficulties of access, little is known about the properties of epiphyte-host tree communities and the factors structuring them, especially in Asia. We investigated factors structuring the vascular epiphyte-host community and its network properties in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Vascular epiphytes were surveyed in six plots located in mature forests. Six host and four micro-site environmental factors were investigated. Epiphyte diversity was strongly correlated with host size (DBH, diameter at breast height), while within hosts the highest epiphyte diversity was in the middle canopy and epiphyte diversity was significantly higher in sites with canopy soil or a moss mat than on bare bark. DBH, elevation and stem height explained 22% of the total variation in the epiphyte species assemblage among hosts, and DBH was the most important factor which alone explained 6% of the variation. Within hosts, 51% of the variation in epiphyte assemblage composition was explained by canopy position and substrate, and the most important single factor was substrate which accounted for 16% of the variation. Analysis of network properties indicated that the epiphyte host community was highly nested, with a low level of epiphyte specialization, and an almost even interaction strength between epiphytes and host trees. Together, these results indicate that large trees harbor a substantial proportion of the epiphyte community in this forest.

  16. Nitrogen removal on recycling water process of wastewater treatment plant effluent using subsurface horizontal wetland with continuous feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazkiaturrizki, T.; Soewondo, P.; Handajani, M.

    2018-01-01

    Recycling water is a generic term for water reclamation and reuse to solve the scarcity of water. Constructed wetlands have been recognized as providing many benefits for wastewater treatment including water supply and control by recycling water. This research aims to find the best condition to significantly remove nitrogen using constructed wetland for recycling water of Bojongsoang Waste Water Treatment Plan (WWTP) effluent. Using media of soil, sand, gravel, and vegetation (Typha latifolia and Scirpus grossus) with an aeration system, BOD and COD parameters have been remarkably reduced. On the contrary, the removal efficiency for nitrogen is only between 50-60%. Modifications were then conducted by three step of treatment, i.e., Step I is to remove BOD/COD using Typha latifolia with an aeration system, Step II is todecrease nitrogen using Scirpus grossus with/without aeration, and Step III isto complete the nitrogen removal with denitrification process by Glycine max without aeration. Results of the research show that the nitrogen removal has been successfully increased to a high efficiency between 80-99%. The combination of aeration system and vegetation greatly affects the nitrogen removal. The vegetation acts as the organic nitrogen consumer (plant uptake) for amino acids, nitrate, and ammonium as nutrition, as well as theoxygen supplier to the roots so that aerobic microsites are formed for ammonification microorganisms.

  17. AmeriFlux Measurement Component (AMC) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichl, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    An AMC system was installed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s North Slope Alaska (NSA) Barrow site, also known as NSA C1 at the ARM Data Archive, in August 2012. A second AMC system was installed at the third ARM Mobile Facility deployment at Oliktok Point, also known as NSA M1. This in situ system consists of 12 combination soil temperature and volumetric water content (VWC) reflectometers and one set of upwelling and downwelling PAR sensors, all deployed within the fetch of the Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System. Soil temperature and VWC sensors placed at two depths (10 and 30 cm below the vegetation layer) at six locations (or microsites) allow soil property inhomogeneity to be monitored across a landscape. The soil VWC and temperature sensors used at NSA C1 are the Campbell Scientific CS650L and the sensors at NSA M1 use the Campbell Scientific CS655. The two sensors are nearly identical in function, and vendor specifications are based on the CS650 unless otherwise stated.

  18. Demography of some non-native isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea in a Mid-Atlantic forest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hornung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduced species dominate the terrestrial isopod fauna in most inland habitats of North America, including urban landscapes. These non-native species are often very abundant and thus potentially play a significant role in detritus processing. We monitored isopod assemblages in an urban forest for a year to examine the relationship between surface activity and abiotic environmental factors, and to analyze reproductive characteristics that might contribute to their successful establishment. Using pitfall trap samples we recorded five species, two of which, Trachelipus rathkii and Cylisticus convexus, were highly abundant. We determined size, sex and reproductive state of each individual. Surface activity of both species reflected variability in abiotic stress factors for isopods, such as soil moisture and soil temperature. Early spring the main trigger was soil temperature while later in the season increasing temperature and decreasing soil moisture jointly affected population dynamics. Activity significantly correlated with soil moisture. The temporal pattern of sex ratios supported the secondary sex ratio hypothesis. Males dominated the samples on the onset of the mating season in search of females. The pattern was reversed as females searched for suitable microsites for their offspring. Size independent fecundity decreased as conditions became more stressful late in the season.

  19. Elevational Shifts in the Topographic Position of Polylepis Forest Stands in the Andes of Southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M. Toivonen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The patchy distribution of high-Andean treeline forests has provoked discussion about the relative importance of anthropogenic and climatic causes of this pattern, both of which vary with topography. We aimed to understand the topographic controls on the distribution of Polylepis subsericans treeline forests in the Andes of southern Peru, and the changes in these controls along an elevational gradient. We mapped Polylepis forests in the Cordillera Urubamba, Cusco, using high-resolution aerial images and related forest cover to topographic variables extracted from a digital terrain model (30-m resolution. The variables were selected based on their expected biological relevance for tree growth at high elevations. We constructed logistic regression models of forest cover, separately for each of five 100-m elevational belts. To deal with spatial autocorrelation, models were based on randomized 10% subsampling of the data with 1000 repetitions. The results suggest a consistent shift in topographic preference with elevation, with forests at lower elevations showing a preference for topographically protected sites near rivers and forests at higher elevations being increasingly restricted to north-facing and well-drained sites. Our study offers the first indication of the ability of Andean treeline forests to benefit from the topographic heterogeneity of the high-Andes. Providing that dispersal and establishment are possible, local relocation between microsites could help these forests to persist regionally in spite of changing climatic conditions.

  20. Temporal patterns of foliar ozone symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappelka, A.H. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: chappah@auburn.edu; Somers, G.L. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Renfro, J.R. [USDI National Park Service, Resource Management and Science Division, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg, TN 37738 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Incidence and severity of ozone-induced foliar symptoms on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) along selected trails in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) were determined by two surveys/season conducted from 1992 through 1996. Overall incidence was 73%, and was 84%, 44%, 90%, 58%, and 82% for 1992-1996, respectively for the same clusters. Average incidence was 61% and 84% for the 1st and 2nd surveys, respectively. Seasonal comparisons showed two distinct injury groupings regarding incidence and severity of injury: 1992, 1994 and 1996 (high injury); 1993 and 1995 (low injury). No discernible patterns were observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic plants regarding height, herbivory or flowering. Regression analyses indicated no differentiation in foliar symptoms regarding topographic position, aspect, slope or elevation over the 5-year study period. Our findings indicate other micro-site or genetic factors may control ozone sensitivity of tall milkweed in GRSM. - Ground-level ozone has the potential to cause deleterious effects to tall milkweed growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

  1. Recent and subrecent diatom flora of the Sudeten mountains: The Jeseníky Mts and The Jizerské hory Mts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisie Poulíčková

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the summary of recent and subrecent diatom flora within Sudeten mountain wetlands - the Jizerské Mts and the Jeseníky Mts Recent samples were taken during the years 2003 and 2006 - 2010. Herbarized bryophytes and fixed samples deposited in museums from the period 1898 - 1995 were used as a source of subrecent diatom flora. A total of 163 diatom species occurred at 70 microsites within 26 mires along the Czech-Polish-German border areas. Recent diatom flora of both areas seems to be comparable in terms of species richness and dominant species. Subrecent samples (herbarized bryophytes contain some less frequent species (representation < 1%, which do not belong to mire flora and can represent a contamination (e.g. planktic genera. Frustulia saxonica and Eunotia paludosa were the most frequent species. E. exigua related in Western Europe to acidification caused by acid rains, was less frequent in both historic and modern samples. Unfortunately, we have few historical herbarium specimens from the 70-ies and 80- ies to trace changes associated with air pollution.

  2. The Importance of Microtopography and Nurse Canopy for Successful Restoration Planting of the Slow-Growing Conifer Pilgerodendron uviferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Bauhus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that, owing to a lack of seed trees, the natural rate of recovery of fire-disturbed bog forests previously dominated by the endemic and endangered conifer Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don Florin is extremely slow. Hence, increasing the number of seed trees in the landscape through restoration planting could remove the principal biotic filter, limiting recovery of these forests. Here, we analyzed how the success of restoration plantings may be improved through the choice or manipulation of microsites in P. uviferum forests on Chiloé Island in North Patagonia. For this purpose, we manipulated microtopography in water-logged sites in bogs (mounds, flat terrain, mineral soil and changed canopy conditions (gaps, semi-open, closed canopy in upland sites with better drainage. In bogs, there was no significant effect of microtopography on growth and survival of P. uviferum plantings. However, fluorescence measurements indicated lower stress in seedlings established on mounds. Seedlings in upland areas established beneath a nurse canopy had lower mortality and higher relative shoot growth, foliar nutrients, photosynthetic light use efficiency and chlorophyll fluorescence values than those planted in the open. This indicates that seedlings of the slow growing P. uviferum can tolerate extremely wet conditions, yet suffer from stress when grown in the open. Here, the removal of canopy appeared to have also removed or reduced mycorrhizal networks for seedlings, leading to poorer nutrition and growth. Based on these results, recommendations for restoration plantings in highly degraded P. uviferum forests are presented.

  3. Periodical cicadas use light for oviposition site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Louie H

    2006-12-07

    Organisms use incomplete information from local experience to assess the suitability of potential habitat sites over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Although ecologists have long recognized the importance of spatial scales in habitat selection, few studies have investigated the temporal scales of habitat selection. In particular, cues in the immediate environment may commonly provide indirect information about future habitat quality. In periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.), oviposition site selection represents a very long-term habitat choice. Adult female cicadas insert eggs into tree branches during a few weeks in the summer of emergence, but their oviposition choices determine the underground habitats of root-feeding nymphs over the following 13 or 17 years. Here, field experiments are used to show that female cicadas use the local light environment of host trees during the summer of emergence to select long-term host trees. Light environments may also influence oviposition microsite selection within hosts, suggesting a potential behavioural mechanism for associating solar cues with host trees. In contrast, experimental nutrient enrichment of host trees did not influence cicada oviposition densities. These findings suggest that the light environments around host trees may provide a robust predictor of host tree quality in the near future. This habitat selection may influence the spatial distribution of several cicada-mediated ecological processes in eastern North American forests.

  4. Interannual variability of growth and reproduction in Bursera simaruba: the role of allometry and resource variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Stegen, James C; Swenson, Nathan G; Enquist, Carolyn A F; Enquist, Brian J

    2012-01-01

    Plants are expected to differentially allocate resources to reproduction, growth, and survival in order to maximize overall fitness. Life history theory predicts that the allocation of resources to reproduction should occur at the expense of vegetative growth. Although it is known that both organism size and resource availability can influence life history traits, few studies have addressed how size dependencies of growth and reproduction and variation in resource supply jointly affect the coupling between growth and reproduction. In order to understand the relationship between growth and reproduction in the context of resource variability, we utilize a long-term observational data set consisting of 670 individual trees over a 10-year period within a local population of Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. We (1) quantify the functional form and variability in the growth-reproduction relationship at the population and individual-tree level and (2) develop a theoretical framework to understand the allometric dependence of growth and reproduction. Our findings suggest that the differential responses of allometric growth and reproduction to resource availability, both between years and between microsites, underlie the apparent relationship between growth and reproduction. Finally, we offer an alternative approach for quantifying the relationship between growth and reproduction that accounts for variation in allometries.

  5. Methods to Improve Survival and Growth of Planted Alternative Species Seedlings in Black Ash Ecosystems Threatened by Emerald Ash Borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Bolton

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerald ash borer (EAB continues to spread across North America, infesting native ash trees and changing the forested landscape. Black ash wetland forests are severely affected by EAB. As black ash wetland forests provide integral ecosystem services, alternative approaches to maintain forest cover on the landscape are needed. We implemented simulated EAB infestations in depressional black ash wetlands in the Ottawa National Forest in Michigan to mimic the short-term and long-term effects of EAB. These wetlands were planted with 10 alternative tree species in 2013. Based on initial results in the Michigan sites, a riparian corridor in the Superior Municipal Forest in Wisconsin was planted with three alternative tree species in 2015. Results across both locations indicate that silver maple (Acer saccharinum L., red maple (Acer rubrum L., American elm (Ulmus americana L., and northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L. are viable alternative species to plant in black ash-dominated wetlands. Additionally, selectively planting on natural or created hummocks resulted in two times greater survival than in adjacent lowland sites, and this suggests that planting should be implemented with microsite selection or creation as a primary control. Regional landowners and forest managers can use these results to help mitigate the canopy and structure losses from EAB and maintain forest cover and hydrologic function in black ash-dominated wetlands after infestation.

  6. Patterned-ground facilitates shrub expansion in Low Arctic tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, Gerald V; Epstein, Howard E; Walker, Donald A; Matyshak, Georgiy; Ermokhina, Ksenia

    2013-01-01

    Recent expansion of tall shrubs in Low Arctic tundra is widely seen as a response to climate warming, but shrubification is not occurring as a simple function of regional climate trends. We show that establishment of tall alder (Alnus) is strongly facilitated by small, widely distributed cryogenic disturbances associated with patterned-ground landscapes. We identified expanding and newly established shrub stands at two northwest Siberian sites and observed that virtually all new shrubs occurred on bare microsites (‘circles’) that were disturbed by frost-heave. Frost-heave associated with circles is a widespread, annual phenomenon that maintains mosaics of mineral seedbeds with warm soils and few competitors that are immediately available to shrubs during favorable climatic periods. Circle facilitation of alder recruitment also plausibly explains the development of shrublands in which alders are regularly spaced. We conclude that alder abundance and extent have increased rapidly in the northwest Siberian Low Arctic since at least the mid-20th century, despite a lack of summer warming in recent decades. Our results are consistent with findings in the North American Arctic which emphasize that the responsiveness of Low Arctic landscapes to climate change is largely determined by the frequency and extent of disturbance processes that create mineral-rich seedbeds favorable for tall shrub recruitment. Northwest Siberia has high potential for continued expansion of tall shrubs and concomitant changes to ecosystem function, due to the widespread distribution of patterned-ground landscapes. (letter)

  7. Biological soil crusts exhibit a dynamic response to seasonal rain and release from grazing with implications for soil stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Aguilar A.; Huber-Sannwald, E.; Belnap, J.; Smart, D.R.; Arredondo, Moreno J.T.

    2009-01-01

    In Northern Mexico, long-term grazing has substantially degraded semiarid landscapes. In semiarid systems, ecological and hydrological processes are strongly coupled by patchy plant distribution and biological soil crust (BSC) cover in plant-free interspaces. In this study, we asked: 1) how responsive are BSC cover/composition to a drying/wetting cycle and two-year grazing removal, and 2) what are the implications for soil erosion? We characterized BSC morphotypes and their influence on soil stability under grazed/non-grazed conditions during a dry and wet season. Light- and dark-colored cyanobacteria were dominant at the plant tussock and community level. Cover changes in these two groups differed after a rainy season and in response to grazing removal. Lichens with continuous thalli were more vulnerable to grazing than those with semi-continuous/discontinuous thalli after the dry season. Microsites around tussocks facilitated BSC colonization compared to interspaces. Lichen and cyanobacteria morphotypes differentially enhanced resistance to soil erosion; consequently, surface soil stability depends on the spatial distribution of BSC morphotypes, suggesting soil stability may be as dynamic as changes in the type of BSC cover. Longer-term spatially detailed studies are necessary to elicit spatiotemporal dynamics of BSC communities and their functional role in biotically and abiotically variable environments. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The spatial structure of habitat selection: A caribou's-eye-view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Stephen J.; Schaefer, James A.; Schneider, David C.; Mahoney, Shane P.

    2009-03-01

    Greater understanding of habitat selection requires investigation at the scales at which organisms perceive and respond to their environment. Such knowledge could reveal the relative importance of factors limiting populations and the extent of response to habitat changes, and so guide conservation initiatives. We conducted a novel, spatially explicit analysis of winter habitat selection by caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) in Newfoundland, Canada, to elucidate the spatial scales of habitat selection. We combined conventional hierarchical habitat analysis with a newly developed geospatial approach that quantifies selection across scales as the difference in variance between available and used sites. We used both ordination and univariate analyses of lichen and plant cover, snow hardness and depth. This represents the first use of ordination with geostatistics for the assessment of habitat selection. Caribou habitat selection was driven by shallow, soft snow and high cover of Cladina lichens and was strongest at feeding microsites (craters) and broader feeding areas. Habitat selection was most evident at distance lags of up to 15 km, perhaps an indication of the perceptual abilities of caribou.

  9. Seedling recruitment of forb species under experimental microhabitats in alpine grassland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S. S.; Yu, L.; Lin, W. G.; Pingi, T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Which factors limit plant seedling recruitment in alpine meadow of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), China? This study examined the relative influence of seed mass and microsites (resulted from grazing disturbance) on field seedling emergence and survival of nineteen alpine herbaceous species with a range of traits in QTP. Seed mass had significant effects on seedling emergence and survival eliminating influence of light and nutrient variances among these species. The larger-seed species had more advantageous than the smaller-seed species in seedling survival, but it was disadvatage for seedling emergence, especially under high nutrient availability and low light intensity conditions. Light had obvious effects on seedling survival, but less effects on seedling emergence for these species. Moreover, nutrient and light treatments altered the regression relationships of seed mass and seedling emergence and survival and the order of significances was L25>L50>L100>L10>L4. These results suggested that seed mass may restrict seedling recruitment processes, however, light and nutrient availability all have significant effects on seedling emergence and survival for these alpine species. Moderate light intensity was propitious to seedling emergence and survival in alpine grassland. This suggests that ecological factors in alpine grassland provide a stochastic influence on different seed-mass species. These trends may help to explain why many small-seeded species of Asteraceae and Gramineae tend to be more abundant in disturbed habitats. (author)

  10. Fire-induced pine woodland to shrubland transitions in Southern Europe may promote shifts in soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, A G; Valdecantos, A; Vallejo, V R; Keizer, J J; Bloem, J; Baeza, J; González-Pelayo, O; Machado, A I; de Ruiter, P C

    2016-12-15

    Since the mid of the last century, fire recurrence has increased in the Iberian Peninsula and in the overall Mediterranean basin due to changes in land use and climate. The warmer and drier climate projected for this region will further increase the risk of wildfire occurrence and recurrence. Although the impact of wildfires on soil nutrient content in this region has been extensively studied, still few works have assessed this impact on the basis of fire recurrence. This study assesses the changes in soil organic C and nutrient status of mineral soils in two Southern European areas, Várzea (Northern Portugal) and Valencia (Eastern Spain), affected by different levels of fire recurrence and where short fire intervals have promoted a transition from pine woodlands to shrublands. At the short-term (fire recurrence (one to four fires). At the long-term (>5years), a decline in overall soil fertility with fire recurrence was also observed, with a drop between pine woodlands (one fire) and shrublands (two and three fires), particularly in the soil microsites between shrubs. Our results suggest that the current trend of increasing fire recurrence in Southern Europe may result in losses or alterations of soil organic matter, particularly when fire promotes a transition from pine woodland to shrubland. The results also point to labile organic matter fractions in the intershrub spaces as potential early warning indicators for shifts in soil fertility in response to fire recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Scale-dependent variation in nitrogen cycling and soil fungal communities along gradients of forest composition and age in regenerating tropical dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Bonnie G; Adams, Rachel; Branco, Sara; Powers, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    Rates of ecosystem nitrogen (N) cycling may be mediated by the presence of ectomycorrhizal fungi, which compete directly with free-living microbes for N. In the regenerating tropical dry forests of Central America, the distribution of ectomycorrhizal trees is affected by succession and soil parent material, both of which may exert independent influence over soil N fluxes. In order to quantify these interacting controls, we used a scale-explicit sampling strategy to examine soil N cycling at scales ranging from the microsite to ecosystem level. We measured fungal community composition, total and inorganic N pools, gross proteolytic rate, net N mineralization and microbial extracellular enzyme activity at multiple locations within 18 permanent plots that span dramatic gradients of soil N concentration, stand age and forest composition. The ratio of inorganic to organic N cycling was correlated with variation in fungal community structure, consistent with a strong influence of ectomycorrhiza on ecosystem-scale N cycling. However, on average, > 61% of the variation in soil biogeochemistry occurred within plots, and the effects of forest composition were mediated by this local-scale heterogeneity in total soil N concentrations. These cross-scale interactions demonstrate the importance of a spatially explicit approach towards an understanding of controls on element cycling. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Physicochemistry, morphology and leachability of selected metals from post-galvanized sewage sludge from screw factory in Łańcut, SE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galas Dagmara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphology, physicochemical properties, chemical composition of post-galvanized sewage sludge from Screw Factory in Łańcut, leachability and mobility of metals has been analyzed. The analyses with the use of scanning electron microscope with an adapter to perform chemical analysis of microsites (EDS showed that the material is characterized by a high fragmentation and a predominant number of irregularly shaped grains. The sewage sludge is alkaline with a large loss of ignition (34.6% and small bulk density (< 1 g/cm3. The EDS analyses evidenced presence of oxygen, silicon, calcium, chromium, iron and zinc in all examined areas, and presence of manganese and copper in selected areas indicating a non-uniform distribution of metals in the sewage sludge. Within one-stage mineralization and FAAS technique a predominant share of calcium, zinc and iron in terms of dry matter was recorded in the sewage sludge. The contents of Co, Cr, Cu, K, Mn, Ni and Pb in sewage sludge are below 1%. Evaluation of mobility and leaching of metals in sewage sludge was carried out by means of two parameters: accumulation coefficient of mobile fractions and leaching level related to the mass solubility of sewage sludge. The results indicate that the short-term or long-term storage of not inactivated post-galvanized sewage sludge can result in release of metals.

  13. The Relationship between an Invasive Shrub and Soil Moisture: Seasonal Interactions and Spatially Covarying Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong He

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that positive relationships between invasive plants and soil can contribute to further plant invasions. However, it remains unclear whether these relations remain unchanged throughout the growing season. In this study, spatial sequences of field observations along a transect were used to reveal seasonal interactions and spatially covarying relations between one common invasive shrub (Tartarian Honeysuckle, Lonicera tatarica and soil moisture in a tall grassland habitat. Statistical analysis over the transect shows that the contrast between soil moisture in shrub and herbaceous patches vary with season and precipitation. Overall, a negatively covarying relationship between shrub and soil moisture (i.e., drier surface soils at shrub microsites exists during the very early growing period (e.g., May, while in summer a positively covarying phenomenon (i.e., wetter soils under shrubs is usually evident, but could be weakened or vanish during long precipitation-free periods. If there is sufficient rainfall, surface soil moisture and leaf area index (LAI often spatially covary with significant spatial oscillations at an invariant scale (which is governed by the shrub spatial pattern and is about 8 m, but their phase relation in space varies with season, consistent with the seasonal variability of the co-varying phenomena between shrub invasion and soil water content. The findings are important for establishing a more complete picture of how shrub invasion affects soil moisture.

  14. Measurements of N2O and CH4 from the aerated composting of food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.; Sun, T.; Inamori, Y.; Mizuochi, M.; Kong, H.; Iwami, N.

    2000-01-01

    Emissions of N 2 O and CH 4 from an aerated composting system were investigated using small-scale simulated reactors. The results show relatively high emissions of N 2 O at the beginning of composting, in proportion to the application amount of food waste. After 2 days, the N 2 O emission decreased to 0.53 ppmv on average, near to the background level in the atmosphere (0.45 ppmv). The addition of composted cattle manure increased N 2 O emissions not only at the beginning of composting, but also during the later period and resulted in two peak emission curves. Good correlation was observed between the N 2 O concentration at the air outlet and NO 2 - concentration in waste, suggesting a generation pathway for N 2 O from NO 2 - to N 2 O. Methane was only detected in treatments containing composted cattle manure. The high emission of methane illustrates the involvement of anoxic/anaerobic microorganisms with the addition of composted manure. The result suggests the existence of anoxic or anaerobic microsite inside the waste particles even though ventilation was employed during the composting process

  15. On the reasons that natural regeneration is important for species coexistence in tropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Norden

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant regeneration plays a critical role in the maintenance of species diversity in tropical rainforests. This is a multistage process, including seed production, dispersal, germination and subsequent seedling establishment. All these stages represent major bottlenecks in plant demography, as early stages in the plant cycle (seeds and seedlings are the most vulnerable to environmental hazards, and are therefore subject to high mortality risks. The outcome of these ecological filters will determine not only seedling spatial distribution, but also the potential area of tree distribution. Seed dispersal and subsequent seedling establishment therefore play a critical role in the structuring of tree communities. Here, I review the main four ecological processes driving seedling recruitment in tropical forests. First, dispersal limitation is the failure of seeds to reach suitable microsites for seedling establishment. Once this filter is overcome, environmental factors can considerably affect seedling spatial distribution. Temporal fluctuations in these processes result in an important variation in recruitment success over time, and add a stochastic component to seedling regeneration. Finally, negative-density dependence regulates species relative abundance in the seedling layer by limiting conspecific recruitment through the attack of pathogen, fungi and herbivores.

  16. Non-critical string theory formulation of microtubule dynamics and quantum aspects of brain function

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nikolaos E

    1995-01-01

    Microtubule (MT) networks, subneural paracrystalline cytosceletal structures, seem to play a fundamental role in the neurons. We cast here the complicated MT dynamics in the form of a 1+1-dimensional non-critical string theory, thus enabling us to provide a consistent quantum treatment of MTs, including enviromental {\\em friction} effects. We suggest, thus, that the MTs are the microsites, in the brain, for the emergence of stable, macroscopic quantum coherent states, identifiable with the {\\em preconscious states}. Quantum space-time effects, as described by non-critical string theory, trigger then an {\\em organized collapse} of the coherent states down to a specific or {\\em conscious state}. The whole process we estimate to take {\\cal O}(1\\,{\\rm sec}), in excellent agreement with a plethora of experimental/observational findings. The {\\em microscopic arrow of time}, endemic in non-critical string theory, and apparent here in the self-collapse process, provides a satisfactory and simple resolution to the age...

  17. Long-term persistence of pioneer species in tropical forest soil seed banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalling, J W; Brown, T A

    2008-10-05

    In tropical forests, pioneer species regenerate from seeds dispersed directly into canopy gaps, and from seeds that persisted in soil seed banks before gap formation. However, life-history models suggest that selection for long-term persistence of seeds in soil should be weak, as persistence incurs a fitness cost resulting from prolonged generation time. We use a carbon dating technique to provide the first direct measurements of seed persistence in undisturbed tropical forest seed banks. We show that seeds germinate successfully from surface soil microsites up to 38 years after dispersal. Decades-long persistence may be common in pioneers with relatively large mass, and appears to be unrelated to specific regeneration requirements. In Croton billbergianus, a sub-canopy tree that recruits in abundant small gaps, long-term persistence is associated with short-distance ballistic seed dispersal. In Trema micrantha, a canopy tree with widespread dispersal, persistence is associated with a requirement for large gaps that form infrequently in old-growth forest.

  18. Are leaf glandular trichomes of oregano hospitable habitats for bacterial growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanoli, K; Thalassinos, G; Karpouzas, D; Bosabalidis, A M; Vokou, D; Constantinidou, H-I

    2012-05-01

    Phyllospheric bacteria were isolated from microsites around essential-oil-containing glands of two oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) lines. These bacteria, 20 isolates in total, were subjected to bioassays to examine their growth potential in the presence of essential oils at different concentrations. Although there were qualitative and quantitative differences in the essential oil composition between the two oregano lines, no differences were recorded in their antibacterial activity. In disk diffusion bioassays, four of the isolated strains could grow almost unrestrained in the presence of oregano oil, another five proved very sensitive, and the remaining 11 showed intermediate sensitivity. The strain least inhibited by oregano essential oil was further identified by complete16s rRNA gene sequencing as Pseudomonas putida. It was capable of forming biofilms even in the presence of oregano oil at high concentrations. Resistance of P. putida to oregano oil was further elaborated by microwell dilution bioassays, and its topology on oregano leaves was studied by electron microscopy. When inoculated on intact oregano plants, P. putida was able not only to colonize sites adjacent to essential oil-containing glands, but even to grow intracellularly. This is the first time that such prolific bacterial growth inside the glands has been visually observed. Results of this study further revealed that several bacteria can be established on oregano leaves, suggesting that these bacteria have attributes that allow them to tolerate or benefit from oregano secondary metabolites.

  19. Impact of Site Disturbances from Harvesting and Logging on Soil Physical Properties and Pinus kesiya Tree Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missanjo, Edward; Kamanga-Thole, Gift

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the impacts of soil disturbance and compaction on soil physical properties and tree growth and the effectiveness of tillage in maintaining or enhancing site productivity for intensively managed Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon sites in Dedza, Malawi. The results indicate that about fifty-two percent of the area of compacted plots was affected by the vehicular traffic. Seventy percent of the trees were planted on microsites with some degree of soil disturbance. Soil bulk density at 0-20 cm depth increased from 0.45 to 0.66 Mg m(-3) in the most compacted portions of traffic lanes. Soil strength in traffic lanes increased at all 60 cm depth but never exceeded 1200 kPa. Volumetric soil water content in compacted traffic lanes was greater than that in noncompacted soil. Total soil porosity decreased 13.8% to 16.1% with compaction, while available water holding capacity increased. The study revealed no detrimental effects on tree height and diameter from soil disturbance or compaction throughout the three growing season. At the ages of two and three, a tree volume index was actually greater for trees planted on traffic lanes than those on nondisturbed soil.

  20. Improved L-BFGS diagonal preconditioners for a large-scale 4D-Var inversion system: application to CO2 flux constraints and analysis error calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousserez, Nicolas; Henze, Daven; Bowman, Kevin; Liu, Junjie; Jones, Dylan; Keller, Martin; Deng, Feng

    2013-04-01

    large-scale 4D-Var system. The impact of using the diagonal preconditioners proposed by Gilbert and Le Maréchal (1989) instead of the usual Oren-Spedicato scalar will be first presented. We will also introduce new hybrid methods that combine randomization estimates of the analysis error variance with L-BFGS diagonal updates to improve the inverse Hessian approximation. Results from these new algorithms will be evaluated against standard large ensemble Monte-Carlo simulations. The methods explored here are applied to the problem of inferring global atmospheric CO2 fluxes using remote sensing observations, and are intended to be integrated with the future NASA Carbon Monitoring System.

  1. Long-term benefit of sunitinib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma in Latin America: retrospective analysis of patient clinical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaletz O

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Oren Smaletz,1 Matias Chacón,2 Ludmila de Oliveira Koch,1 Daniela R de Carvalho Rocha,1 Fernanda C Cardoso1 1Department of Oncology, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Medical Oncology Department, Alexander Fleming Institute, Buenos Aires, Argentina Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of Latin American patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC who experienced a progression-free survival (PFS for at least 15 months following treatment with sunitinib. Patients and methods: In this retrospective analysis, mRCC patients in two institutions in Latin America received sunitinib at a starting dose of either 50 mg/day for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks off treatment (Schedule 4/2 in repeated 6-week cycles or sunitinib 37.5 mg on a continuous daily dosing schedule. Clinical characteristics, tolerability, and PFS data were collected. Results: Twenty-nine patients with long-term clinical benefit from sunitinib were identified between September 2005 and August 2009. Median PFS was 23 months (range: 15–54 months. Two of the 29 patients with prolonged PFS achieved a complete response and additional eleven had a partial response. Most patients were aged <60 years, had good performance status, favorable or intermediate Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center prognostic risk, and disease limited to one or two sites. Dose reduction was necessary in all patients who started sunitinib at 50 mg/day administered on Schedule 4/2. Adverse events leading to dose reduction included grade 3 hand–foot syndrome, mucositis, fatigue, and hypertension. At the time of data cutoff, four patients were still receiving sunitinib treatment. Conclusion: Extended PFS can be achieved in Latin American patients with mRCC treated with sunitinib. Although the small sample size and retrospective nature of this evaluation preclude the identification of pretreatment predictive factors contributing to this benefit, the current analysis warrants

  2. Merged Shape from Shading and Shape from Stereo for Planetary Topographic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Laurence; Cook, Tony; Barnes, Dave; Parr, Gerhard; Kirk, Randolph

    2014-05-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of the Moon and Mars have traditionally been produced from stereo imagery from orbit, or from the surface landers or rovers. One core component of image-based DEM generation is stereo matching to find correspondences between images taken from different viewpoints. Stereo matchers that rely mostly on textural features in the images can fail to find enough matched points in areas lacking in contrast or surface texture. This can lead to blank or topographically noisy areas in resulting DEMs. Fine depth detail may also be lacking due to limited precision and quantisation of the pixel matching process. Shape from shading (SFS), a two dimensional version of photoclinometry, utilizes the properties of light reflecting off surfaces to build up localised slope maps, which can subsequently be combined to extract topography. This works especially well on homogeneous surfaces and can recover fine detail. However the cartographic accuracy can be affected by changes in brightness due to differences in surface material, albedo and light scattering properties, and also by the presence of shadows. We describe here experimental research for the Planetary Robotics Vision Data Exploitation EU FP7 project (PRoViDE) into using stereo generated depth maps in conjunction with SFS to recover both coarse and fine detail of planetary surface DEMs. Our Large Deformation Optimisation Shape From Shading (LDOSFS) algorithm uses image data, illumination, viewing geometry and camera parameters to produce a DEM. A stereo-derived depth map can be used as an initial seed if available. The software uses separate Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and SFS modules for iterative processing and to make the code more portable for future development. Three BRDF models are currently implemented: Lambertian, Blinn-Phong, and Oren-Nayar. A version of the Hapke reflectance function, which is more appropriate for planetary surfaces, is under development

  3. Climate Change and Land Use Impacts on Forests: What Have We Learned and What Do We Do Now? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change including drought and warmer temperatures alter carbon and water dynamics, and potentially species distributions. Drought severity is projected to increase in future, particularly in areas that are already dry. Globally, ecosystem studies using FLUXNET data show that photosynthesis is ~50% more sensitive to drought than respiration, leading to a decline in net carbon uptake (Schwalm et al. 2010). Experiments, primarily on potted plants, show that tree respiration responds less than photosynthesis to increased temperature because respiration acclimates while photosynthesis does not (Way & Oren 2010). Increased temperature generally increases growth of boreal and temperate trees, but not tropical trees. Snow cover in winter, or the lack thereof, can complicate matters. Field observations show that Alaska yellow-cedar mortality is occurring over large areas due to fine-root freezing that occurs in late winter and early spring when snow is not present to buffer soil temperatures (Hennon et al. 2012). Sensitivity to climate also varies with forest developmental stage. For instance, semi-arid pine saplings show more sensitivity to drought and higher inherent water-use efficiency than mature trees that can access deep soil water (Vickers et al. 2012); regeneration after wildfire in dry areas can fail repeatedly. Such species-specific sensitivity to climate indicates that the use of plant functional types to classify forests in models should be replaced or modified for regional assessments. Model-observation frameworks are used to produce projections of carbon and water cycling, vegetation shifts, and evaluation of land management options to mitigate climate change. For example, an analysis of land-sparing of productive, high biodiversity forests with high C sequestration potential and land-sharing (thinning for bioenergy and fire emissions reduction) in dry areas prone to fire produced estimates of greenhouse gas feedbacks to climate (Law et al. 2013

  4. Long term impact of organic amendments on forest soil properties under semiarid Mediterranean climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso González, Paloma; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose

    2017-04-01

    Soil degradation affects more than 52 million ha of land in countries of the European Union (Hueso-González et al., 2016). This problema is particularly serious in Mediterranean areas, where the effects of anthropogenic activities (tillage on slopes, deforestation, and pasture production) add to problems caused by prolonged periods of drought and intense and irregular rainfall (Martínez-Murillo et al., 2016). Depending on the scale of study, soil organic carbón (SOC) dynamics in Mediterranean forests have been found to be particularly sensitive to factors related to seasonal changes in temperature and soil moisture (Casals et al., 2000; Eaton et al., 2008; Hueso-González et al., 2014). During dry periods in theMediterranean area, the lack of water entering the soil matrix reduces organic contributions to the soil (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2016). These processes lead to reduced soil fertility and soil loss (García-Orenes et al., 2010). Restoring the native vegetation is one of the most effective ways to control soil degradation in Mediterranean areas, especially in very degraded areas. In the initial months after afforestation, vegetation cover establishment and soil quality could be better sustained if the soil was amended with an external extra source of organic matter (Hueso-González et al., 2016). The goal of this study was to test the effect of various organic amendments on select soil properties over a 54-month period. Five amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM), mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.; PM), sheep manure compost (SH), hydroabsorbent polymers (HP) and sewage sludge (RU). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10Mg ha-1. Soil from the afforested plots was sampled in the following: (i) spring 2012 (6 months postafforestation); (ii) spring 2013(18 months postafforestation); (iii) spring 2014 (30 months

  5. Economic wealth and soil erosion in new Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain or how to explain the Land Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemio; Pereira, Pauloq

    2014-05-01

    higher than rainfed agriculture soil (García Orenes et al., 2009). Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References Bono, E. 2010. Naranja y desarrollo. La base agrícola exportadora de la economía del País Valenciano y el modelo de crecimiento hacea afuera. PUV, Valencia, 203 pp. Cerdà, A. 2001. Erosión hídrica del suelo en el Territorio Valenciano. El estado de la cuestión a través de la revisión bibliográfica. Geoforma Ediciones, Logroño, 79 pp. Cerdá, A. 2007. Soil water erosion on road embankments in Eastern Spain. Science of the Total Environments 378, 151-155. Cerdà, A., Morera, A.G., Bodí, M.B. 2009. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34 (13), 1822-1830. García-Orenes, F., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bodí, M.B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R. & Sempere, J.G. 2009. Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research, doi:10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002 Liu, Y., Tao, Y., Wan, K.Y., Zhang, G.S., Liu, D.B., Xiong, G.Y., Chen, F. 2012. Runoff and nutrient losses in citrus orchards on sloping land subjected to different surface mulching practices in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area of China. Agricultural Water Management, 110, 34-40. Wang, L., Tang, L., Wang, X., Chen, F. 2010. Effects of alley crop planting on soil and nutrient losses in the citrus orchards of the Three Gorges Region. Soil and Tillage Research, 110 (2), 243-250.

  6. The effects of mulching on soil erosion by water. A review based on published data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Jordán, Antonio; Tarolli, Paolo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Among the soil conservation practices that have been recently implemented, mulching has been successfully applied in different contexts (Jordán et al., 2011), such as agricultural lands (García-Orenes et al. 2009; Prosdocimi et al., 2016), fire-affected areas (Prats et al., 2014; Robichaud et al., 2013) and anthropic sites (Hayes et al., 2005), to reduce water and soil losses rates. In these contexts, soil erosion by water is a serious problem, especially in semi-arid and semi-humid areas of the world (Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdan et al., 2010; Sadeghi et al., 2015). Although soil erosion by water consists of physical processes that vary significantly in severity and frequency according to when and where they occur, they are also strongly influenced by anthropic factors such as unsustainable farming practices and land-use changes on large scales (Cerdà, 1994; Montgomery, 2007). Although the beneficial effects of mulching are known, their quantification needs further research, especially in those areas where soil erosion by water represents a severe threat. In literature, there are still some uncertainties about how to maximize the effectiveness of mulching in the reduction of soil and water loss rates. First, the type of choice of the vegetative residues is fundamental and drives the application rate, cost, and consequently, its effectiveness. Second, it is important to assess application rates suitable for site-specific soil and environment conditions. The percentage of area covered by mulch is another important aspect to take into account, because it has proven to influence the reduction of soil loss. And third, the role played by mulching at catchment scale, where it plays a key role as barrier for breaking sediment and runoff connectivity. Given the seriousness of soil erosion by water and the uncertainties that still concern the correct use of mulching, this work aims to evaluate the effects of mulching on soil erosion rates and water losses in agricultural

  7. Modelo de web semántica para universidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Abad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A raíz del estudio de estado actual de micrositios y repositorios en la Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena se encontró que su información carecía de semántica óptima y adecuada. Bajo estas circunstancias, se plantea entonces la necesidad de crear un modelo de estructura de web semántica para Universidades, el cual posteriormente fue aplicado a micrositios y repositorio digital de la UPSE, como caso de prueba. Parte de este proyecto incluye la instalación de módulos de software con sus respectivas configuraciones y la utilización de estándares de metadatos como DUBLIN CORE, para la mejora del SEO (optimización en motores de búsqueda; con ello se ha logrado la generación de metadatos estandarizados y la creación de políticas para la subida de información. El uso de metadatos transforma datos simples en estructuras bien organizadas que aportan información y conocimiento para generar resultados en buscadores web. Al culminar la implementación del modelo de web semántica es posible decir que la universidad ha mejorado su presencia y visibilidad en la web a través del indexamiento de información en diferentes motores de búsqueda y posicionamiento en la categorización de universidades y de repositorios de Webometrics (ranking que proporciona clasificación de universidades de todo el mundo.   Abstract After examining the current microsites and repositories situation in University, Peninsula of Santa Elena´s, it was found that information lacked optimal and appropriate semantic. Under these circumstances, there is a need to create a semantic web structure model for Universities, which was subsequently applied to UPSE´s microsites and digital repositories, as a test study case. Part of this project includes the installation of software modules with their respective configurations and the use of metadata standards such as DUBLIN CORE, to improve the SEO (Search Engine Optimization; with these applications, it was

  8. Palaeoenvironmental drivers of vertebrate community composition in the Belly River Group (Campanian) of Alberta, Canada, with implications for dinosaur biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Thomas M; Evans, David C

    2016-11-15

    The Belly River Group of southern Alberta is one of the best-sampled Late Cretaceous terrestrial faunal assemblages in the world. This system provides a high-resolution biostratigraphic record of terrestrial vertebrate diversity and faunal turnover, and it has considerable potential to be a model system for testing hypotheses of dinosaur palaeoecological dynamics, including important aspects of palaeoecommunity structure, trophic interactions, and responses to environmental change. Vertebrate fossil microsites (assemblages of small bones and teeth concentrated together over a relatively short time and thought to be representative of community composition) offer an unparalleled dataset to better test these hypotheses by ameliorating problems of sample size, geography, and chronostratigraphic control that hamper other palaeoecological analyses. Here, we assembled a comprehensive relative abundance dataset of microsites sampled from the entire Belly River Group and performed a series of analyses to test the influence of environmental factors on site and taxon clustering, and assess the stability of faunal assemblages both temporally and spatially. We also test the long-held idea that populations of large dinosaur taxa were particularly sensitive to small-scale environmental gradients, such as the paralic (coastal) to alluvial (inland) regimes present within the time-equivalent depositional basin of the upper Oldman and lower Dinosaur Park Formations. Palaeoenvironment (i.e. reconstructed environmental conditions, related to relative amount of alluvial, fluvial, and coastal influence in associated sedimentary strata) was found to be strongly associated with clustering of sites by relative-abundance faunal assemblages, particularly in relation to changes in faunal assemblage composition and marine-terrestrial environmental transitions. Palaeogeography/palaeolandscape were moderately associated to site relative abundance assemblage clustering, with depositional setting

  9. Recent Relationships of Tree Establishment and Climate in Alpine Treelines of the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, M. J.; Graumlich, L. J.; Maher, E. J.

    2007-12-01

    pine (Pinus albicaulis) and Engelmann Spruce (Picea engelmannii) to significantly positive for subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa). Seedling establishment was consistently associated with microsite features such as resident trees and herbs that alter sunlight and temperature for small seedlings, and the effect was strongest for subalpine fir and least evident for whitebark pine. For all species and treelines, establishment in microsites with the least amount of overhead tree cover (furthest from forest in the alpine, in exposed locations) occurred in years with warmer summer temperatures. These patterns of establishment are consistent with previous and current experimental studies of terrestrial and solar radiation and temperature effects on tree seedlings at treeline. Our findings indicate that local treeline response to climate variability may vary as a function of current landscape patterns of tree and herb cover, and tree species assemblages that are unique to different treelines. Local shifts in tree species composition that are ongoing may thus pose a significant issue in forecasting future treeline change.

  10. Forest floor carbon exchange of a boreal black spruce forest in eastern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bergeron

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports continuous automated measurements of forest floor carbon (C exchange over feathermoss, lichen, and sphagnum micro-sites in a black spruce forest in eastern North America during snow-free periods over three years. The response of soil respiration (Rs-auto and forest floor photosynthesis (Pff to environmental factors was determined. The seasonal contributions of scaled up Rs-auto adjusted for spatial representativeness (Rs-adj and Pff (Pff-eco relative to that of total ecosystem respiration (Re and photosynthesis (Peco, respectively, were also quantified.

    Shallow (5 cm soil temperature explained 67–86% of the variation in Rs-auto for all ground cover types, while deeper (50 and 100 cm soil temperatures were related to Rs-auto only for the feathermoss micro-sites. Base respiration was consistently lower under feathermoss, intermediate under sphagnum, and higher under lichen during all three years. The Rs-adj/Re ratio increased from spring through autumn and ranged from 0.85 to 0.87 annually for the snow-free period. The Rs-adj/Re ratio was negatively correlated with the difference between air and shallow soil temperature and this correlation was more pronounced in autumn than summer and spring.

    Maximum photosynthetic capacity of the forest floor (Pff-max saturated at low irradiance levels (~200 μmol m−2 s−1 and decreased with increasing air temperature and vapor pressure deficit for all three ground cover types, suggesting that Pff was more limited by desiccation than by light availability. Pff-max was lowest for sphagnum, intermediate for feathermoss, and highest for lichen for two

  11. Interactions between fluids and natural clay rich sediments: experimental study in conditions simulating radioactive wastes underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubeuf, V.

    2000-10-01

    The behaviour of clay rich sediments, especially an argilite from Oxfordian of Haute-Marne, a siltite from Albian series of Marcoule (Gard) and a bentonite from Wyoming, were experimentally studied under physical-chemical conditions close of those of an underground radioactive waste storage. The several steps of the creation of the storage in deep formation were simulated experimentally, in particular: - the effect due to oxidation at ambient temperature and moisture degree related to the arrival of air in the gallery, was tested, especially the interaction between acid fluids generated at the micron-scale of the altered pyrite micro-site and the surrounding minerals of the sediment, - the alteration due to weathering (damping/drying cycles) to simulate the effect of a surface storage of the sediments, - and finally, water-rock interactions at 80 and 200 deg C, which reproduce the thermic stress induced by the deposit of type C radioactive containers (stage of re-hydration under thermic stress). The various simulations lead to rather similar behaviour of minerals in the sediment and solutions. Mineralogical, geochemical and crystallographic analyses show that most minerals in sediments are preserved with no evidence of mineral neo-formation. Nevertheless, the study by X-ray diffraction shows variations in the interlayer spacing in relation with modifications of the hydration states. Changes in the interlayer occupancy of the clays are due to cationic exchange of the sodium of the interlayer by the calcium issued from the dissolution of carbonate and gypsum dissolution. I/S like minerals crystal-chemistry generally display little changes in the tetrahedral and octahedral occupancy and a rather good stability of crystal structure. The cationic exchange capacity (CEC) of the clay sediment display un-significant variations: after the damping/drying cycles, the argilite of Haute-Marne has lost about 15 % of their bulk CEC and the effect of acid micro-environment at

  12. The barley straw residues avoid high erosion rates in persimmon plantations. Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    the high erosion losses. There is a need to find new plants or residues to protect the soils on persimmon orchards and they should be developed now that the farmers are increasing the land that produce persimmon. Straw has been seen as a very efficient to reduce the water losses in other agriculture lands (García Moreno et al., 2013), the soil losses in fire affected land (Robichaud et al., 2013a; 2013b; Fernandez and Vega, 2014), and soil properties on agriculture land (García Orenes et al., 2009; 2010; Jordán et al., 2010; García Orenes 2012). Those findings and the ones we show here must support the change to a more sustainable agriculture. This new advances in agronomy affect the control of the soil erosion (Tejeda and Benitez, 2014) but also the recovery of the soil quality (Mahmoud and Abd El-Kader, 2015). More research is need to find the right doses to be also sustainable from the economical point of view, and it is necessary to convince the farmers of the need to protect the soil. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE supported this research. References Bombino, G., Denisi, P., Fortugno, D., Tamburino, V., Zema, D.A., Zimbone, S.M. 2010. Land spreading of solar-dried citrus peel to control runoff and soil erosion. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment 140,145-154. Borrelli, P., Märker, M., Schütt, B. 2013. Modelling post-tree-haversting soil erosion and sediment deposi- tion potential in the Turano River Basin (Italian Central Apennine). Land Degradation & Development, DOI 10.1002/ldr.2214 Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais, Y., Boardman, J. 2009. Soil erosion and agriculture Soil and Tillage Research 106, 107-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2009.1 Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2008. The influence of ants on soil and water losses from an orange orchard in eastern Spain. Journal of Applied Entomology 132, 306-314. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2011. Ant mounds as a source of sediment on citrus orchard

  13. The use of straw mulch as a strategy to prevent extreme soil erosion rates in citrus orchard. A Rainfall simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2014-05-01

    in the paddy fields after harvesting and the straw is being as a residue that damages the air quality when burnt, the water quality due to the decomposition and the methane production, and is not accepted in the field by the farmers. This is a new problem as few years ago the rice straw was use for animal feeding. Many attempts were developed in the last decade to remove and use the straw to avoid fires and water pollution (Iranzo et al., 2004; Silvestre et al., 2013). Our goal is to test if a residue such as the rice straw can be transformed as a resource: soil erosion control. Straw has been seen as a very efficient to reduce the water losses in agriculture land (García Moreno et al., 2013), the soil losses in fire affected land (Robichaud et al., 2013a; 2013b; Fernandez and Vega, 2014), and soil properties (García Orenes et al., 2009; 2010; Jordán et al., 2010; García Orenes 2012). Rainfall simulations under 55 mm h-1 rainfall intensity during one hour on 0,25 m2 plots were carried out on plots paired plots: bare and covered with straw. The plots covered with straw had different straw mulch cover: from 10 to 100 % cover and from 0,005 g m2 to 300 g m2. The results show a positive effect of the straw cover that show an exponential relation between the straw cover and weight with the sediment yield. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE supported this research. References Bombino, G., Denisi, P., Fortugno, D., Tamburino, V., Zema, D.A., Zimbone, S.M. 2010. Land spreading of solar-dried citrus peel to control runoff and soil erosion. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment 140,145-154. Borrelli, P., Märker, M., Schütt, B. 2013. Modelling post-tree-haversting soil erosion and sediment deposition potential in the Turano River Basin (Italian Central Apennine). Land Degradation & Development, DOI 10.1002/ldr.2214 Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais, Y., Boardman, J. 2009. Soil erosion and agriculture Soil

  14. Body size and hosts of Triatoma infestans populations affect the size of bloodmeal contents and female fecundity in rural northwestern Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo E Gürtler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human sleeping quarters (domiciles and chicken coops are key source habitats of Triatoma infestans-the principal vector of the infection that causes Chagas disease-in rural communities in northern Argentina. Here we investigated the links among individual bug bloodmeal contents (BMC, mg, female fecundity, body length (L, mm, host blood sources and habitats. We tested whether L, habitat and host blood conferred relative fitness advantages using generalized linear mixed-effects models and a multimodel inference approach with model averaging. The data analyzed include 769 late-stage triatomines collected in 120 sites from six habitats in 87 houses in Figueroa, Santiago del Estero, during austral spring. L correlated positively with other body-size surrogates and was modified by habitat type, bug stage and recent feeding. Bugs from chicken coops were significantly larger than pig-corral and kitchen bugs. The best-fitting model of log BMC included habitat, a recent feeding, bug stage, log Lc (mean-centered log L and all two-way interactions including log Lc. Human- and chicken-fed bugs had significantly larger BMC than bugs fed on other hosts whereas goat-fed bugs ranked last, in consistency with average blood-feeding rates. Fecundity was maximal in chicken-fed bugs from chicken coops, submaximal in human- and pig-fed bugs, and minimal in goat-fed bugs. This study is the first to reveal the allometric effects of body-size surrogates on BMC and female fecundity in a large set of triatomine populations occupying multiple habitats, and discloses the links between body size, microsite temperatures and various fitness components that affect the risks of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi.

  15. Germination and seedling establishment in orchids: a complex of requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Hanne N; Dixon, Kingsley W; Jersáková, Jana; Těšitelová, Tamara

    2015-09-01

    Seedling recruitment is essential to the sustainability of any plant population. Due to the minute nature of seeds and early-stage seedlings, orchid germination in situ was for a long time practically impossible to observe, creating an obstacle towards understanding seedling site requirements and fluctuations in orchid populations. The introduction of seed packet techniques for sowing and retrieval in natural sites has brought with it important insights, but many aspects of orchid seed and germination biology remain largely unexplored. The germination niche for orchids is extremely complex, because it is defined by requirements not only for seed lodging and germination, but also for presence of a fungal host and its substrate. A mycobiont that the seedling can parasitize is considered an essential element, and a great diversity of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota have now been identified for their role in orchid seed germination, with fungi identifiable as imperfect Rhizoctonia species predominating. Specificity patterns vary from orchid species employing a single fungal lineage to species associating individually with a limited selection of distantly related fungi. A suitable organic carbon source for the mycobiont constitutes another key requirement. Orchid germination also relies on factors that generally influence the success of plant seeds, both abiotic, such as light/shade, moisture, substrate chemistry and texture, and biotic, such as competitors and antagonists. Complexity is furthermore increased when these factors influence seeds/seedling, fungi and fungal substrate differentially. A better understanding of germination and seedling establishment is needed for conservation of orchid populations. Due to the obligate association with a mycobiont, the germination niches in orchid species are extremely complex and varied. Microsites suitable for germination can be small and transient, and direct observation is difficult. An experimental approach using several

  16. Regeneration patterns of a long-lived dominant conifer and the effects of logging in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Alexandre F.; Forgiarini, Cristiane; Longhi, Solon Jonas; Brena, Doádi Antônio

    2008-09-01

    The regeneration ecology of the long-lived conifer Araucaria angustifolia was studied in São Francisco de Paula, southern Brazil. We evaluated the expectations that: (i) size distribution of populations of Araucaria angustifolia, a large conifer that dominates southern Brazil's mixed forests, is left-skewed in old-growth forests but right-skewed in logged forests, indicating chronic recruitment failure in the first kind of habitat as well as a recruitment pulse in the second; (ii) seedlings and juveniles are found under more open-canopy microsites than would be expected by chance; and (iii) reproductive females would be aggregated at the coarse spatial scales in which past massive recruitment events are expected to have occurred, and young plants would be spatially associated with females due to the prevalence of vertebrate and large-bird seed dispersers. Data were collected in the threatened mixed conifer-hardwood forests in southern Brazil in ten 1-ha plots and one 0.25-ha plot that was hit by a small tornado in 2003. Five of these plots corresponded to unlogged old-growth forests, three to forests where A. angustifolia was selectively logged ca. 60 years ago and two to forests selectively logged ca. 20 years ago. For the first time, ontogenetic life stages of this important conifer are identified and described. The first and second expectations were fulfilled, and the third was partially fulfilled, since seedlings and juveniles were hardly ever associated with reproductive females. These results confirm the generalization of the current conceptual model of emergent long-lived pioneer regeneration to Araucaria angustifolia and associate its regeneration niche to the occupation of large-scale disturbances with long return times.

  17. Improvement of AEP Predictions Using Diurnal CFD Modelling with Site-Specific Stability Weightings Provided from Mesoscale Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristov, Y; Oxley, G; Žagar, M

    2014-01-01

    The Bolund measurement campaign, performed by Danish Technical University (DTU) Wind Energy Department (also known as RISØ), provided significant insight into wind flow modeling over complex terrain. In the blind comparison study several modelling solutions were submitted with the vast majority being steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approaches with two equation k-ε turbulence closure. This approach yielded the most accurate results, and was identified as the state-of-the-art tool for wind turbine generator (WTG) micro-siting. Based on the findings from Bolund, further comparison between CFD and field measurement data has been deemed essential in order to improve simulation accuracy for turbine load and long-term Annual Energy Production (AEP) estimations. Vestas Wind Systems A/S is a major WTG original equipment manufacturer (OEM) with an installed base of over 60GW in over 70 countries accounting for 19% of the global installed base. The Vestas Performance and Diagnostic Centre (VPDC) provides online live data to more than 47GW of these turbines allowing a comprehensive comparison between modelled and real-world energy production data. In previous studies, multiple sites have been simulated with a steady neutral CFD formulation for the atmospheric surface layer (ASL), and wind resource (RSF) files have been generated as a base for long-term AEP predictions showing significant improvement over predictions performed with the industry standard linear WAsP tool. In this study, further improvements to the wind resource file generation with CFD are examined using an unsteady diurnal cycle approach with a full atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) formulation, with the unique stratifications throughout the cycle weighted according to mesoscale simulated sectorwise stability frequencies

  18. Contact & connect--an intervention to reduce depression stigma and symptoms in construction workers: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Witt, Katrina; Burnside, Lewis; Wilson, Caitlyn; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2015-10-16

    Males employed in the construction industry have high rates of suicide. Although reasons underpinning this risk are multifaceted, poor help-seeking and stigma are represent major contributors. Males in the construction industry are also exposed to other risk factors for mental ill health and suicide, including unemployment. Sigma-reducing interventions that are accessible and attractive to recently unemployed males in the construction industry could therefore improve help-seeking, and address depression and suicidal behaviour in this population. Contact&Connect will use a parallel individual randomized design to evaluate the effectiveness of a multimedia-based intervention aimed at reducing stigma. The intervention consists of a package of 12 brief contact interventions (BCIs) delivered over a six month period. BCIs will direct participants to informational programs and microsites. Content will address three major themes: debunking depression myths and stereotypes, normalisation, and empowerment. Target enrollment is 630 (315 in each arm), each to be followed for 12 months. Eligible participants will be males, between 30 and 64 years, unemployed at the time of recruitment, registered with Incolink (a social welfare trustee company for unemployed members of the construction industry), and own a smart phone with enabled internet connectivity. At present, there are no programs that have been shown to be effective in reducing stigma in the blue-collar male population. Contact&Connect promises to provide a tailored, efficient, and scalable approach to reducing stigma, depressive symptoms and suicidality among unemployed males. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12615000792527 (date of registration: 30 July, 2015).

  19. Space sequestration below ground in old-growth spruce-beech forests-signs for facilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Kampf, Friederike; Hilbrig, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Scientists are currently debating the effects of mixing tree species for the complementary resource acquisition in forest ecosystems. In four unmanaged old-growth spruce-beech forests in strict nature reserves in southern Sweden and northern Germany we assessed forest structure and fine rooting profiles and traits (≤2 mm) by fine root sampling and the analysis of fine root morphology and biomass. These studies were conducted in selected tree groups with four different interspecific competition perspectives: (1) spruce as a central tree, (2) spruce as competitor, (3) beech as a central tree, and (4) beech as competitor. Mean values of life fine root attributes like biomass (FRB), length (FRL), and root area index (RAI) were significantly lower for spruce than for beech in mixed stands. Vertical profiles of fine root attributes adjusted to one unit of basal area (BA) exhibited partial root system stratification when central beech is growing with spruce competitors. In this constellation, beech was able to raise its specific root length (SRL) and therefore soil exploration efficiency in the subsoil, while increasing root biomass partitioning into deeper soil layers. According to relative values of fine root attributes (rFRA), asymmetric below-ground competition was observed favoring beech over spruce, in particular when central beech trees are admixed with spruce competitors. We conclude that beech fine rooting is facilitated in the presence of spruce by lowering competitive pressure compared to intraspecific competition whereas the competitive pressure for spruce is increased by beech admixture. Our findings underline the need of spatially differentiated approaches to assess interspecific competition below ground. Single-tree approaches and simulations of below-ground competition are required to focus rather on microsites populated by tree specimens as the basic spatial study area.

  20. Space sequestration below ground in old-growth spruce-beech forests – signs for facilitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eBolte

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Scientists are currently debating the effects of mixing tree species for the complementary resource acquisition in forest ecosystems. In four unmanaged old-growth spruce-beech forests in strict nature reserves in southern Sweden and northern Germany we assessed forest structure and fine rooting profiles and traits (≤ 2 mm by fine root sampling and the analysis of fine root morphology and biomass. These studies were conducted in selected tree groups with four different interspecific competition perspectives: (1 spruce as a central tree, (2 spruce as competitor, (3 beech as a central tree, and (4 beech as competitor. Mean values of life fine root attributes like biomass (FRB, length (FRL, and root area index (RAI were significantly lower for spruce than for beech in mixed stands. Vertical profiles of fine root attributes adjusted to one unit of basal area (BA exhibited partial root system stratification when central beech is growing with spruce competitors. In this constellation, beech was able to raise its specific root length (SRL and therefore soil exploration efficiency in the subsoil, while increasing root biomass partitioning into deeper soil layers. According to relative values of fine root attributes (rFRA, asymmetric below-ground competition was observed favoring beech over spruce, in particular when central beech trees are admixed with spruce competitors. We conclude that beech fine rooting is facilitated in the presence of spruce by lowering competitive pressure compared to intraspecific competition whereas the competitive pressure for spruce is increased by beech admixture. Our findings underline the need of spatially differentiated approaches to assess interspecific competition below ground. Single-tree approaches and simulations of below-ground competition are required to focus rather on microsites populated by tree specimens as the basic spatial study area.

  1. Small-scale barriers mitigate desertification processes and enhance plant recruitment in a degraded semiarid grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fick, Stephen E; Decker, Cheryl E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Miller, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic desertification is a problem that plagues drylands globally; however, the factors which maintain degraded states are often unclear. In Canyonlands National Park on the Colorado Plateau of southeastern Utah, many degraded grasslands have not recovered structure and function >40 yr after release from livestock grazing pressure, necessitating active restoration. We hypothesized that multiple factors contribute to the persistent degraded state, including lack of seed availability, surficial soil-hydrological properties, and high levels of spatial connectivity (lack of perennial vegetation and other surface structure to retain water, litter, seed, and sediment). In combination with seeding and surface raking treatments, we tested the effect of small barrier structures (“ConMods”) designed to disrupt the loss of litter, seed and sediment in degraded soil patches within the park. Grass establishment was highest when all treatments (structures, seed addition, and soil disturbance) were combined, but only in the second year after installation, following favorable climatic conditions. We suggest that multiple limiting factors were ameliorated by treatments, including seed limitation and microsite availability, seed removal by harvester ants, and stressful abiotic conditions. Higher densities of grass seedlings on the north and east sides of barrier structures following the summer months suggest that structures may have functioned as artificial “nurse-plants”, sheltering seedlings from wind and radiation as well as accumulating wind-blown resources. Barrier structures increased the establishment of both native perennial grasses and exotic annuals, although there were species-specific differences in mortality related to spatial distribution of seedlings within barrier structures. The unique success of all treatments combined, and even then only under favorable climatic conditions and in certain soil patches, highlights that restoration success (and

  2. Anaerobic oxidation of methane in grassland soils used for cattle husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bannert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While the importance of anaerobic methane oxidation has been reported for marine ecosystems, the role of this process in soils is still questionable. Grasslands used as pastures for cattle overwintering show an increase in anaerobic soil micro-sites caused by animal treading and excrement deposition. Therefore, anaerobic potential methane oxidation activity of severely impacted soil from a cattle winter pasture was investigated in an incubation experiment under anaerobic conditions using 13C-labelled methane. We were able to detect a high microbial activity utilizing CH4 as nutrient source shown by the respiration of 13CO2. Measurements of possible terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic oxidation of methane were carried out. Soil sulfate concentrations were too low to explain the oxidation of the amount of methane added, but enough nitrate and iron(III were detected. However, only nitrate was consumed during the experiment. 13C-PLFA analyses clearly showed the utilization of CH4 as nutrient source mainly by organisms harbouring 16:1ω7 PLFAs. These lipids were also found as most 13C-enriched fatty acids by Raghoebarsing et al. (2006 after addition of 13CH4 to an enrichment culture coupling denitrification of nitrate to anaerobic oxidation of methane. This might be an indication for anaerobic oxidation of methane by relatives of "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" in the investigated grassland soil under the conditions of the incubation experiment.

  3. A novel insight into the cost-benefit model for the evolution of botanical carnivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovič, Andrej; Saganová, Michaela

    2015-06-01

    The cost-benefit model for the evolution of botanical carnivory provides a conceptual framework for interpreting a wide range of comparative and experimental studies on carnivorous plants. This model assumes that the modified leaves called traps represent a significant cost for the plant, and this cost is outweighed by the benefits from increased nutrient uptake from prey, in terms of enhancing the rate of photosynthesis per unit leaf mass or area (AN) in the microsites inhabited by carnivorous plants. This review summarizes results from the classical interpretation of the cost-benefit model for evolution of botanical carnivory and highlights the costs and benefits of active trapping mechanisms, including water pumping, electrical signalling and accumulation of jasmonates. Novel alternative sequestration strategies (utilization of leaf litter and faeces) in carnivorous plants are also discussed in the context of the cost-benefit model. Traps of carnivorous plants have lower AN than leaves, and the leaves have higher AN after feeding. Prey digestion, water pumping and electrical signalling represent a significant carbon cost (as an increased rate of respiration, RD) for carnivorous plants. On the other hand, jasmonate accumulation during the digestive period and reprogramming of gene expression from growth and photosynthesis to prey digestion optimizes enzyme production in comparison with constitutive secretion. This inducibility may have evolved as a cost-saving strategy beneficial for carnivorous plants. The similarities between plant defence mechanisms and botanical carnivory are highlighted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Solar Radiation-Associated Adaptive SNP Genetic Differentiation in Wild Emmer Wheat, Triticum dicoccoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing; Chen, Liang; Jin, Xiaoli; Zhang, Miaomiao; You, Frank M; Wang, Jirui; Frenkel, Vladimir; Yin, Xuegui; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Peng, Junhua

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome scans with large number of genetic markers provide the opportunity to investigate local adaptation in natural populations and identify candidate genes under positive selection. In the present study, adaptation genetic differentiation associated with solar radiation was investigated using 695 polymorphic SNP markers in wild emmer wheat originated in a micro-site at Yehudiyya, Israel. The test involved two solar radiation niches: (1) sun, in-between trees; and (2) shade, under tree canopy, separated apart by a distance of 2-4 m. Analysis of molecular variance showed a small (0.53%) but significant portion of overall variation between the sun and shade micro-niches, indicating a non-ignorable genetic differentiation between sun and shade habitats. Fifty SNP markers showed a medium (0.05 ≤ F ST ≤ 0.15) or high genetic differentiation ( F ST > 0.15). A total of 21 outlier loci under positive selection were identified by using four different F ST -outlier testing algorithms. The markers and genome locations under positive selection are consistent with the known patterns of selection. These results suggested that genetic differentiation between sun and shade habitats is substantial, radiation-associated, and therefore ecologically determined. Hence, the results of this study reflected effects of natural selection through solar radiation on EST-related SNP genetic diversity, resulting presumably in different adaptive complexes at a micro-scale divergence. The present work highlights the evolutionary theory and application significance of solar radiation-driven natural selection in wheat improvement.

  5. Assessing the impact of deforestation of the Atlantic rainforest on ant-fruit interactions: a field experiment using synthetic fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela D Bieber

    Full Text Available Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic 'seed' covered by a lipid-rich 'pulp', which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (≥3 mm of Pheidole (Myrmicinae, also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of

  6. Ecological Factors Influencing Norway Spruce Regeneration on Nurse Logs in a Subalpine Virgin Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Stroheker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of Picea abies in high-elevation mountain forests often depends on the presence of coarse woody debris (CWD, as logs provide sites with more favorable conditions for spruce regeneration compared to the forest floor. However, there is little quantitative knowledge on the factors that are conducive to or hindering spruce establishment on CWD. We examined spruce regeneration on CWD by sampling 303 plots (50 cm × 50 cm each on 56 downed logs in a virgin forest in the Swiss Alps. Variables describing microsite conditions were measured, and fungi were isolated from wood samples. To investigate the relationship between the ecological factors and establishment success, two models were fitted with seedling and sapling density as response variables, respectively. Besides log diameter, the models identified different ecological factors as significant for seedling and sapling establishment, i.e., regeneration depends on different factors in different development stages. Seedling density depended on the type of rot, log inclination, and decay stage. Sapling density depended mainly on light availability, cover by bark and moss, the time of tree fall, and the distance between the log surface and the forest floor. A total of 22 polypore fungi were isolated from the wood samples, four of them being threatened species. White- and brown-rot fungi were found in all decay stages. The visual assessment of the type of rot in the field corresponded in only 15% of cases to the type of rot caused by the isolated fungi; hence caution is needed when making field assessments of rot types.

  7. Body size and hosts of Triatoma infestans populations affect the size of bloodmeal contents and female fecundity in rural northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürtler, Ricardo E; Fernández, María Del Pilar; Cecere, María Carla; Cohen, Joel E

    2017-12-01

    Human sleeping quarters (domiciles) and chicken coops are key source habitats of Triatoma infestans-the principal vector of the infection that causes Chagas disease-in rural communities in northern Argentina. Here we investigated the links among individual bug bloodmeal contents (BMC, mg), female fecundity, body length (L, mm), host blood sources and habitats. We tested whether L, habitat and host blood conferred relative fitness advantages using generalized linear mixed-effects models and a multimodel inference approach with model averaging. The data analyzed include 769 late-stage triatomines collected in 120 sites from six habitats in 87 houses in Figueroa, Santiago del Estero, during austral spring. L correlated positively with other body-size surrogates and was modified by habitat type, bug stage and recent feeding. Bugs from chicken coops were significantly larger than pig-corral and kitchen bugs. The best-fitting model of log BMC included habitat, a recent feeding, bug stage, log Lc (mean-centered log L) and all two-way interactions including log Lc. Human- and chicken-fed bugs had significantly larger BMC than bugs fed on other hosts whereas goat-fed bugs ranked last, in consistency with average blood-feeding rates. Fecundity was maximal in chicken-fed bugs from chicken coops, submaximal in human- and pig-fed bugs, and minimal in goat-fed bugs. This study is the first to reveal the allometric effects of body-size surrogates on BMC and female fecundity in a large set of triatomine populations occupying multiple habitats, and discloses the links between body size, microsite temperatures and various fitness components that affect the risks of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi.

  8. Species associations overwhelm abiotic conditions to dictate the structure and function of wood-decay fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Daniel S; Covey, Kristofer R; Crowther, Thomas W; Sokol, Noah W; Morrison, Eric W; Frey, Serita D; van Diepen, Linda T A; Bradford, Mark A

    2018-04-01

    Environmental conditions exert strong controls on the activity of saprotrophic microbes, yet abiotic factors often fail to adequately predict wood decomposition rates across broad spatial scales. Given that species interactions can have significant positive and negative effects on wood-decay fungal activity, one possibility is that biotic processes serve as the primary controls on community function, with abiotic controls emerging only after species associations are accounted for. Here we explore this hypothesis in a factorial field warming- and nitrogen-addition experiment by examining relationships among wood decomposition rates, fungal activity, and fungal community structure. We show that functional outcomes and community structure are largely unrelated to abiotic conditions, with microsite and plot-level abiotic variables explaining at most 19% of the total variability in decomposition and fungal activity, and 2% of the variability in richness and evenness. In contrast, taxonomic richness, evenness, and species associations (i.e., co-occurrence patterns) exhibited strong relationships with community function, accounting for 52% of the variation in decomposition rates and 73% in fungal activity. A greater proportion of positive vs. negative species associations in a community was linked to strong declines in decomposition rates and richness. Evenness emerged as a key mediator between richness and function, with highly even communities exhibiting a positive richness-function relationship and uneven communities exhibiting a negative or null response. These results suggest that community-assembly processes and species interactions are important controls on the function of wood-decay fungal communities, ultimately overwhelming substantial differences in abiotic conditions. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Nonlinear CO2 flux response to 7 years of experimentally induced permafrost thaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Marguerite; Bracho, Rosvel; Celis, Gerardo; Hutchings, Jack; Natali, Susan M; Pegoraro, Elaine; Salmon, Verity G; Schädel, Christina; Webb, Elizabeth E; Schuur, Edward A G

    2017-09-01

    Rapid Arctic warming is expected to increase global greenhouse gas concentrations as permafrost thaw exposes immense stores of frozen carbon (C) to microbial decomposition. Permafrost thaw also stimulates plant growth, which could offset C loss. Using data from 7 years of experimental Air and Soil warming in moist acidic tundra, we show that Soil warming had a much stronger effect on CO 2 flux than Air warming. Soil warming caused rapid permafrost thaw and increased ecosystem respiration (R eco ), gross primary productivity (GPP), and net summer CO 2 storage (NEE). Over 7 years R eco , GPP, and NEE also increased in Control (i.e., ambient plots), but this change could be explained by slow thaw in Control areas. In the initial stages of thaw, R eco , GPP, and NEE increased linearly with thaw across all treatments, despite different rates of thaw. As thaw in Soil warming continued to increase linearly, ground surface subsidence created saturated microsites and suppressed R eco , GPP, and NEE. However R eco and GPP remained high in areas with large Eriophorum vaginatum biomass. In general NEE increased with thaw, but was more strongly correlated with plant biomass than thaw, indicating that higher R eco in deeply thawed areas during summer months was balanced by GPP. Summer CO 2 flux across treatments fit a single quadratic relationship that captured the functional response of CO 2 flux to thaw, water table depth, and plant biomass. These results demonstrate the importance of indirect thaw effects on CO 2 flux: plant growth and water table dynamics. Nonsummer R eco models estimated that the area was an annual CO 2 source during all years of observation. Nonsummer CO 2 loss in warmer, more deeply thawed soils exceeded the increases in summer GPP, and thawed tundra was a net annual CO 2 source. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Modeling photosynthesis of Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill using Bayesian inference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wei; Biber, Patrick D; Peterson, Mark S; Gong Chongfeng

    2012-01-01

    To study the impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on photosynthesis of coastal salt marsh plants in Mississippi, we developed a hierarchical Bayesian (HB) model based on field measurements collected from July 2010 to November 2011. We sampled three locations in Davis Bayou, Mississippi (30.375°N, 88.790°W) representative of a range of oil spill impacts. Measured photosynthesis was negative (respiration only) at the heavily oiled location in July 2010 only, and rates started to increase by August 2010. Photosynthesis at the medium oiling location was lower than at the control location in July 2010 and it continued to decrease in September 2010. During winter 2010–2011, the contrast between the control and the two impacted locations was not as obvious as in the growing season of 2010. Photosynthesis increased through spring 2011 at the three locations and decreased starting with October at the control location and a month earlier (September) at the impacted locations. Using the field data, we developed an HB model. The model simulations agreed well with the measured photosynthesis, capturing most of the variability of the measured data. On the basis of the posteriors of the parameters, we found that air temperature and photosynthetic active radiation positively influenced photosynthesis whereas the leaf stress level negatively affected photosynthesis. The photosynthesis rates at the heavily impacted location had recovered to the status of the control location about 140 days after the initial impact, while the impact at the medium impact location was never severe enough to make photosynthesis significantly lower than that at the control location over the study period. The uncertainty in modeling photosynthesis rates mainly came from the individual and micro-site scales, and to a lesser extent from the leaf scale. (letter)

  11. Heterogeneity of elemental composition and natural abundance of stables isotopes of C and N in soils and leaves of mangroves at their southernmost West Atlantic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognella, M M P; Soares, M L G; Cuevas, E; Medina, E

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove communities were selected in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, near their southernmost limit of distribution, to study mineral nutrient relation in soils and plants. Communities included three true mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia germinans, and two associated species, the fern Acrostichum danaeifolium, and the grass Spartina densiflora. The sites included communities in the lower Río Tavares near Florianopolis city, Sonho beach near Palhoça city, and the Santo Antonio lagoon. These sites included a full range of mangroves under humid climate where winter temperatures, instead of salinity, may be the main factor regulating their productive capacity and species composition. Soil salinity was determined by the concentration of soluble Na, and soil C and N were linearly correlated indicating their association in organic matter. Tavares site showed higher specific conductivity, and concentrations of Na and Mg in the soil layer below 40 cm depth, indicating larger influence of marine water. Isotopic signature of C increased with soil depth suggesting that microorganisms decomposing organic matter are releasing 13C depleted CO2. Nitrogen isotopic signature decreased with soil depth, indicating enrichment in 15N possibly as a result of denitrification in the upper soil layers. Mineral elements in leaf tissues showed A. schaueriana with higher concentrations of N, P, Na, K, Cu, Zn, and Na/Ca ratio. Spartina densiflora was characterized by the lowest N and K concentrations, and the highest concentrations of Al and Fe. Rhizophora mangle and L. racemosa had the highest Ca concentrations. Carbon isotopic signatures identified S. densiflora as a C4 plant, and A. schaueriana as the mangrove species occupying comparatively more water stressed microsites than the rest. Leaf nitrogen isotopic signatures were positive, in correspondence with the soil values. The results support the hypothesis that sites sampled were comparatively

  12. Nitrous oxide emissions from soils: how well do we understand the processes and their controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Dannenmann, Michael; Kiese, Ralf; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well established that soils are the dominating source for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), we are still struggling to fully understand the complexity of the underlying microbial production and consumption processes and the links to biotic (e.g. inter- and intraspecies competition, food webs, plant–microbe interaction) and abiotic (e.g. soil climate, physics and chemistry) factors. Recent work shows that a better understanding of the composition and diversity of the microbial community across a variety of soils in different climates and under different land use, as well as plant–microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, may provide a key to better understand the variability of N2O fluxes at the soil–atmosphere interface. Moreover, recent insights into the regulation of the reduction of N2O to dinitrogen (N2) have increased our understanding of N2O exchange. This improved process understanding, building on the increased use of isotope tracing techniques and metagenomics, needs to go along with improvements in measurement techniques for N2O (and N2) emission in order to obtain robust field and laboratory datasets for different ecosystem types. Advances in both fields are currently used to improve process descriptions in biogeochemical models, which may eventually be used not only to test our current process understanding from the microsite to the field level, but also used as tools for up-scaling emissions to landscapes and regions and to explore feedbacks of soil N2O emissions to changes in environmental conditions, land management and land use. PMID:23713120

  13. Nesting Large-Eddy Simulations Within Mesoscale Simulations for Wind Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Mirocha, J. D.; Chow, F. K.; Kosovic, B.; Lundquist, K. A.

    2008-12-01

    With increasing demand for more accurate atmospheric simulations for wind turbine micrositing, for operational wind power forecasting, and for more reliable turbine design, simulations of atmospheric flow with resolution of tens of meters or higher are required. These time-dependent large-eddy simulations (LES) account for complex terrain and resolve individual atmospheric eddies on length scales smaller than turbine blades. These small-domain high-resolution simulations are possible with a range of commercial and open- source software, including the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In addition to "local" sources of turbulence within an LES domain, changing weather conditions outside the domain can also affect flow, suggesting that a mesoscale model provide boundary conditions to the large-eddy simulations. Nesting a large-eddy simulation within a mesoscale model requires nuanced representations of turbulence. Our group has improved the Weather and Research Forecating model's (WRF) LES capability by implementing the Nonlinear Backscatter and Anisotropy (NBA) subfilter stress model following Kosoviæ (1997) and an explicit filtering and reconstruction technique to compute the Resolvable Subfilter-Scale (RSFS) stresses (following Chow et al, 2005). We have also implemented an immersed boundary method (IBM) in WRF to accommodate complex terrain. These new models improve WRF's LES capabilities over complex terrain and in stable atmospheric conditions. We demonstrate approaches to nesting LES within a mesoscale simulation for farms of wind turbines in hilly regions. Results are sensitive to the nesting method, indicating that care must be taken to provide appropriate boundary conditions, and to allow adequate spin-up of turbulence in the LES domain. This work is performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Phenological response of an Arizona dryland forest to short-term climatic extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica; de Beurs, Kirsten; Wynne, Randolph

    2015-01-01

    Baseline information about dryland forest phenology is necessary to accurately anticipate future ecosystem shifts. The overarching goal of our study was to investigate the variability of vegetation phenology across a dryland forest landscape in response to climate alterations. We analyzed the influence of site characteristics and climatic conditions on the phenological patterns of an Arizona, USA, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest during a five-year period (2005 to 2009) that encompassed extreme wet and dry precipitation regimes. We assembled 80 synthetic Landsat images by applying the spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion method (STARFM) to 500 m MODIS and 30 m Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data. We tested relationships between site characteristics and the timing of peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to assess the effect of climatic stress on the green-up of individual pixels during or after the summer monsoon. Our results show that drought-induced stress led to a fragmented phenological response that was highly dependent on microsite parameters, as both the spatial autocorrelation of peak timing and the number of significant site variables increased during the drought year. Pixels at lower elevations and with higher proportions of herbaceous vegetation were more likely to exhibit dynamic responses to changes in precipitation conditions. Our study demonstrates the complexity of responses within dryland forest ecosystems and highlights the need for standardized monitoring of phenology trends in these areas. The spatial and temporal variability of phenological signals may provide a quantitative solution to the problem of how to evaluate dryland land surface trends across time.

  15. Tree regeneration following drought- and insect-induced mortality in piñon-juniper woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Miranda D; Barger, Nichole N

    2013-10-01

    Widespread piñon (Pinus edulis) mortality occurred across the southwestern USA during 2002-2003 in response to drought and bark beetle infestations. Given the recent mortality and changes in regional climate over the past several decades, there is a keen interest in post-mortality regeneration dynamics in piñon-juniper woodlands. Here, we examined piñon and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) recruitment at 30 sites across southwestern Colorado, USA that spanned a gradient of adult piñon mortality levels (10-100%) to understand current regeneration dynamics. Piñon and juniper recruitment was greater at sites with more tree and shrub cover. Piñon recruitment was more strongly facilitated than juniper recruitment by trees and shrubs. New (post-mortality) piñon recruitment was negatively affected by recent mortality. However, mortality had no effect on piñon advanced regeneration (juveniles established pre-mortality) and did not shift juvenile piñon dominance. Our results highlight the importance of shrubs and juniper trees for the facilitation of piñon establishment and survival. Regardless of adult piñon mortality levels, areas with low tree and shrub cover may become increasingly juniper dominated as a result of the few suitable microsites for piñon establishment and survival. In areas with high piñon mortality and high tree and shrub cover, our results suggest that piñon is regenerating via advanced regeneration. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Natural regeneration processes in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), is the dominant plant species of large portions of semiarid western North America. However, much of historical big sagebrush vegetation has been removed or modified. Thus, regeneration is recognized as an important component for land management. Limited knowledge about key regeneration processes, however, represents an obstacle to identifying successful management practices and to gaining greater insight into the consequences of increasing disturbance frequency and global change. Therefore, our objective is to synthesize knowledge about natural big sagebrush regeneration. We identified and characterized the controls of big sagebrush seed production, germination, and establishment. The largest knowledge gaps and associated research needs include quiescence and dormancy of embryos and seedlings; variation in seed production and germination percentages; wet-thermal time model of germination; responses to frost events (including freezing/thawing of soils), CO2 concentration, and nutrients in combination with water availability; suitability of microsite vs. site conditions; competitive ability as well as seedling growth responses; and differences among subspecies and ecoregions. Potential impacts of climate change on big sagebrush regeneration could include that temperature increases may not have a large direct influence on regeneration due to the broad temperature optimum for regeneration, whereas indirect effects could include selection for populations with less stringent seed dormancy. Drier conditions will have direct negative effects on germination and seedling survival and could also lead to lighter seeds, which lowers germination success further. The short seed dispersal distance of big sagebrush may limit its tracking of suitable climate; whereas, the low competitive ability of big sagebrush seedlings may limit successful competition with species that track climate. An improved understanding of the

  17. A Model for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Infection and Disease Development in Lettuce, Based on the Effects of Temperature, Relative Humidity and Ascospore Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, John P.; Fawcett, Laura; Anthony, Steven G.; Young, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    The plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum can cause serious losses on lettuce crops worldwide and as for most other susceptible crops, control relies on the application of fungicides, which target airborne ascospores. However, the efficacy of this approach depends on accurate timing of these sprays, which could be improved by an understanding of the environmental conditions that are conducive to infection. A mathematical model for S. sclerotiorum infection and disease development on lettuce is presented here for the first time, based on quantifying the effects of temperature, relative humidity (RH) and ascospore density in multiple controlled environment experiments. It was observed that disease can develop on lettuce plants inoculated with dry ascospores in the absence of apparent leaf wetness (required for spore germination). To explain this, the model conceptualises an infection court area containing microsites (in leaf axils and close to the stem base) where conditions are conducive to infection, the size of which is modified by ambient RH. The model indicated that minimum, maximum and optimum temperatures for ascospore germination were 0.0, 29.9 and 21.7°C respectively and that maximum rates of disease development occurred at spore densities >87 spores cm−2. Disease development was much more rapid at 80–100% RH at 20°C, compared to 50–70% RH and resulted in a greater proportion of lettuce plants infected. Disease development was also more rapid at 15–27°C compared to 5–10°C (85% RH). The model was validated by a further series of independent controlled environment experiments where both RH and temperature were varied and generally simulated the pattern of disease development well. The implications of the results in terms of Sclerotinia disease forecasting are discussed. PMID:24736409

  18. Impact of matric potential and pore size distribution on growth dynamics of filamentous and non-filamentous soil bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra B Wolf

    Full Text Available The filamentous growth form is an important strategy for soil microbes to bridge air-filled pores in unsaturated soils. In particular, fungi perform better than bacteria in soils during drought, a property that has been ascribed to the hyphal growth form of fungi. However, it is unknown if, and to what extent, filamentous bacteria may also display similar advantages over non-filamentous bacteria in soils with low hydraulic connectivity. In addition to allowing for microbial interactions and competition across connected micro-sites, water films also facilitate the motility of non-filamentous bacteria. To examine these issues, we constructed and characterized a series of quartz sand microcosms differing in matric potential and pore size distribution and, consequently, in connection of micro-habitats via water films. Our sand microcosms were used to examine the individual and competitive responses of a filamentous bacterium (Streptomyces atratus and a motile rod-shaped bacterium (Bacillus weihenstephanensis to differences in pore sizes and matric potential. The Bacillus strain had an initial advantage in all sand microcosms, which could be attributed to its faster growth rate. At later stages of the incubation, Streptomyces became dominant in microcosms with low connectivity (coarse pores and dry conditions. These data, combined with information on bacterial motility (expansion potential across a range of pore-size and moisture conditions, suggest that, like their much larger fungal counterparts, filamentous bacteria also use this growth form to facilitate growth and expansion under conditions of low hydraulic conductivity. The sand microcosm system developed and used in this study allowed for precise manipulation of hydraulic properties and pore size distribution, thereby providing a useful approach for future examinations of how these properties influence the composition, diversity and function of soil-borne microbial communities.

  19. Nest-site selection and reproductive success of greater sage-grouse in a fire-affected habitat of northwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyer, Zachary B.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Espinosa, Shawn; Delehanty, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying links between micro-habitat selection and wildlife reproduction is imperative to population persistence and recovery. This information is particularly important for landscape species such as greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse). Although this species has been widely studied, because environmental factors can affect sage-grouse populations, local and regional studies are crucial for developing viable conservation strategies. We studied the habitat-use patterns of 71 radio-marked sage-grouse inhabiting an area affected by wildfire in the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada during 2009–2011 to determine the effect of micro-habitat attributes on reproductive success. We measured standard vegetation parameters at nest and random sites using a multi-scale approach (range = 0.01–15,527 ha). We used an information-theoretic modeling approach to identify environmental factors influencing nest-site selection and survival, and determine whether nest survival was a function of resource selection. Sage-grouse selected micro-sites with greater shrub canopy cover and less cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) cover than random sites. Total shrub canopy, including sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) and other shrub species, at small spatial scales (0.8 ha and 3.1 ha) was the single contributing selection factor to higher nest survival. These results indicate that reducing the risk of wildfire to maintain important sagebrush habitats could be emphasized in sage-grouse conservation strategies in Nevada. Managers may seek to mitigate the influx of annual grass invasion by preserving large intact sagebrush-dominated stands with a mixture of other shrub species. For this area of Nevada, the results suggest that ≥40% total shrub canopy cover in sage-grouse nesting areas could yield improved reproductive success. 

  20. The potential influence of short-term environmental variability on the composition of testate amoeba communities in Sphagnum peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Maura E; Booth, Robert K

    2011-07-01

    Testate amoebae are a group of moisture-sensitive, shell-producing protozoa that have been widely used as indicators of changes in mean water-table depth within oligotrophic peatlands. However, short-term environmental variability (i.e., sub-annual) also probably influences community composition. The objective of this study was to assess the potential influence of short-term environmental variability on the composition of testate amoeba communities in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands. Testate amoebae and environmental conditions, including hourly measurements of relative humidity within the upper centimeter of the peatland surface, were examined throughout the 2008 growing season at 72 microsites within 11 peatlands of Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, USA. Relationships among testate amoeba communities, vegetation, depth to water table, pH, and an index of short-term environmental variability (EVI), were examined using nonmetric multidimensional scaling and correlation analysis. Results suggest that EVI influences testate amoeba communities, with some taxa more abundant under highly variable conditions (e.g., Arcella discoides, Difflugia pulex, and Hyalosphenia subflava) and others more abundant when environmental conditions at the peatland surface were relatively stable (e.g., Archerella flavum and Bullinularia indica). The magnitude of environmental variability experienced at the peatland surface appears to be primarily controlled by vegetation composition and density. In particular, sites with dense Sphagnum cover had lower EVI values than sites with loose-growing Sphagnum or vegetation dominated by vascular plants and/or non-Sphagnum bryophytes. Our results suggest that more environmental information may be inferred from testate amoebae than previously recognized. Knowledge of relationships between testate amoebae and short-term environmental variability should lead to more detailed and refined environmental inferences.

  1. Phenological Response of an Arizona Dryland Forest to Short-Term Climatic Extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Walker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Baseline information about dryland forest phenology is necessary to accurately anticipate future ecosystem shifts. The overarching goal of our study was to investigate the variability of vegetation phenology across a dryland forest landscape in response to climate alterations. We analyzed the influence of site characteristics and climatic conditions on the phenological patterns of an Arizona, USA, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa forest during a five-year period (2005 to 2009 that encompassed extreme wet and dry precipitation regimes. We assembled 80 synthetic Landsat images by applying the spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion method (STARFM to 500 m MODIS and 30 m Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM data. We tested relationships between site characteristics and the timing of peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI to assess the effect of climatic stress on the green-up of individual pixels during or after the summer monsoon. Our results show that drought-induced stress led to a fragmented phenological response that was highly dependent on microsite parameters, as both the spatial autocorrelation of peak timing and the number of significant site variables increased during the drought year. Pixels at lower elevations and with higher proportions of herbaceous vegetation were more likely to exhibit dynamic responses to changes in precipitation conditions. Our study demonstrates the complexity of responses within dryland forest ecosystems and highlights the need for standardized monitoring of phenology trends in these areas. The spatial and temporal variability of phenological signals may provide a quantitative solution to the problem of how to evaluate dryland land surface trends across time.

  2. Impact of matric potential and pore size distribution on growth dynamics of filamentous and non-filamentous soil bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Alexandra B; Vos, Michiel; de Boer, Wietse; Kowalchuk, George A

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous growth form is an important strategy for soil microbes to bridge air-filled pores in unsaturated soils. In particular, fungi perform better than bacteria in soils during drought, a property that has been ascribed to the hyphal growth form of fungi. However, it is unknown if, and to what extent, filamentous bacteria may also display similar advantages over non-filamentous bacteria in soils with low hydraulic connectivity. In addition to allowing for microbial interactions and competition across connected micro-sites, water films also facilitate the motility of non-filamentous bacteria. To examine these issues, we constructed and characterized a series of quartz sand microcosms differing in matric potential and pore size distribution and, consequently, in connection of micro-habitats via water films. Our sand microcosms were used to examine the individual and competitive responses of a filamentous bacterium (Streptomyces atratus) and a motile rod-shaped bacterium (Bacillus weihenstephanensis) to differences in pore sizes and matric potential. The Bacillus strain had an initial advantage in all sand microcosms, which could be attributed to its faster growth rate. At later stages of the incubation, Streptomyces became dominant in microcosms with low connectivity (coarse pores and dry conditions). These data, combined with information on bacterial motility (expansion potential) across a range of pore-size and moisture conditions, suggest that, like their much larger fungal counterparts, filamentous bacteria also use this growth form to facilitate growth and expansion under conditions of low hydraulic conductivity. The sand microcosm system developed and used in this study allowed for precise manipulation of hydraulic properties and pore size distribution, thereby providing a useful approach for future examinations of how these properties influence the composition, diversity and function of soil-borne microbial communities.

  3. Shifts in wind energy potential following land-use driven vegetation dynamics in complex terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiannong; Peringer, Alexander; Stupariu, Mihai-Sorin; Pǎtru-Stupariu, Ileana; Buttler, Alexandre; Golay, Francois; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2018-10-15

    Many mountainous regions with high wind energy potential are characterized by multi-scale variabilities of vegetation in both spatial and time dimensions, which strongly affect the spatial distribution of wind resource and its time evolution. To this end, we developed a coupled interdisciplinary modeling framework capable of assessing the shifts in wind energy potential following land-use driven vegetation dynamics in complex mountain terrain. It was applied to a case study area in the Romanian Carpathians. The results show that the overall shifts in wind energy potential following the changes of vegetation pattern due to different land-use policies can be dramatic. This suggests that the planning of wind energy project should be integrated with the land-use planning at a specific site to ensure that the expected energy production of the planned wind farm can be reached over its entire lifetime. Moreover, the changes in the spatial distribution of wind and turbulence under different scenarios of land-use are complex, and they must be taken into account in the micro-siting of wind turbines to maximize wind energy production and minimize fatigue loads (and associated maintenance costs). The proposed new modeling framework offers, for the first time, a powerful tool for assessing long-term variability in local wind energy potential that emerges from land-use change driven vegetation dynamics over complex terrain. Following a previously unexplored pathway of cause-effect relationships, it demonstrates a new linkage of agro- and forest policies in landscape development with an ultimate trade-off between renewable energy production and biodiversity targets. Moreover, it can be extended to study the potential effects of micro-climatic changes associated with wind farms on vegetation development (growth and patterning), which could in turn have a long-term feedback effect on wind resource distribution in mountainous regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  4. Seasonal behavioral responses of an arid-zone passerine in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattinson, Nicholas B; Smit, Ben

    2017-10-01

    Many arid-zone animals have to forage under extremely hot conditions to maintain water and energy balance. The effect of high air temperatures (T air ) on the behavioral patterns of small endothermic animals-characterized by their high energy and water demands-will provide a valuable framework for understanding species vulnerability to climate warming. We determined the seasonal behavioral responses to changes in T air in a~10-g arid-zone passerine, the rufous-eared warbler (Malcorus pectoralis), in the Karoo semi-desert, South Africa. Rufous-eared warblers showed significant temperature-dependence in their behavior in summer, but not in winter. During summer, the warblers frequently experienced T air exceeding 40°C in the shade. For all observations 36°C, the warblers showed reductions in preening (40% decrease), foraging effort (56% decrease), and foraging success (15% decrease), as well as a significant increase in time spent engaged in evaporative cooling behavior. Moreover, as T air increased the warblers shifted increasingly off the ground and out of the full sun, into microsites in the shade (131% increase) and in shrubs (23% increase). In this regard, behavior varied seasonally, with the time spent in the shade 23% higher, and foraging effort 28% higher, in summer compared to winter across a range of moderate T air (15-30°C). Our findings emphasize the link between behavior and temperature in small birds inhabiting hot, arid environments, as well as the importance of understanding these responses for predicting biologically meaningful responses (and hence, vulnerability) of arid-zone avian communities to climactic shifts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of microhabitat on leaf traits in Digitalis grandiflora L. (Veronicaceae growing at forest edge and interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołodziejek J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological, anatomical and biochemical traits of the leaves of yellow foxglove (Digitalis grandiflora Mill. from two microhabitats, forest interior (full shade under oak canopy and forest edge (half shade near shrubs, were studied. The microhabitats differed in the mean levels of available light, but did not differ in soil moisture. The mean level of light in the forest edge microhabitat was significantly higher than in the forest interior. Multivariate ANOVA was used to test the effects of microhabitat. Comparison of the available light with soil moisture revealed that both factors significantly influenced the morphological and anatomical variables of D. grandiflora. Leaf area, mass, leaf mass per area (LMA, surface area per unit dry mass (SLA, density and thickness varied greatly between leaves exposed to different light regimes. Leaves that developed in the shade were larger and thinner and had a greater SLA than those that developed in the half shade. In contrast, at higher light irradiances, at the forest edge, leaves tended to be thicker, with higher LMA and density. Stomatal density was higher in the half-shade leaves than in the full-shade ones. LMA was correlated with leaf area and mass and to a lesser extent with thickness and density in the forest edge microsite. The considerable variations in leaf density and thickness recorded here confirm the very high variation in cell size and amounts of structural tissue within species. The leaf plasticity index (PI was the highest for the morphological leaf traits as compared to the anatomical and biochemical ones. The nitrogen content was higher in the “half-shade leaves” than in the “shade leaves”. Denser leaves corresponded to lower nitrogen (N contents. The leaves of plants from the forest edge had more potassium (K than leaves of plants from the forest interior on an area basis but not on a dry mass basis; the reverse was true for phosphorus.

  6. Restoration of floodplain meadows: Effects on the re-establishment of mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Grzegorz J.; Harnisch, Matthias; Otte, Annette; Bomanowska, Anna; Donath, Tobias W.

    2017-01-01

    Vascular plants serve as target species for the evaluation of restoration success as they account for most of the plant species diversity and vegetation cover. Although bryophytes contribute considerably to the species diversity of meadows, they are rarely addressed in restoration projects. This project is a first step toward making recommendations for including mosses in alluvial floodplain restoration projects. The opportunity to assess the diversity and ecological requirements of mosses on floodplain meadows presented itself within the framework of a vegetation monitoring that took place in 2014 on meadows located along the northern Upper Rhine. In this area, large-scale meadow restoration projects have taken place since 1997 in both the functional and fossil floodplains. Other studies have shown that bryophytes are generally present in green hay used in restoration, providing inadvertent bryophyte introduction. We compared bryophyte communities in donor and restored communities and correlated these communities with environmental variables—taking into account that the mosses on the restoration sites possibly developed from green hay. This analysis provided insights as to which species of bryophytes should be included in future restoration projects, what diaspores should be used, and how they should be transferred. Data on bryophyte occurrence were gathered from old meadows, and from restoration sites. We found distinct differences in bryophyte composition (based on frequency) in restored communities in functional flood plains compared to donor communities. Generally, restoration sites are still characterized by a lower species-richness, with a significantly lower occurrence of rare and red listed species and a lower species-heterogeneity. In conclusion, our research establishes what mosses predominate in donor and restored alluvial meadows along the northern Upper River, and what microsite conditions favour particular species. This points the way to deliberate

  7. Environmental variation shifts the relationship between trees and scatterhoarders along the continuum from mutualism to antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, Gina M; Goldberg, Adam S; Steele, Michael A; Dalgleish, Harmony J

    2018-05-01

    The conditional mutualism between scatterhoarders and trees varies on a continuum from mutualism to antagonism and can change across time and space, and among species. We examined 4 tree species (red oak [Quercus rubra], white oak [Quercus alba], American chestnut [Castanea dentata] and hybrid chestnut [C. dentata × Castanea mollissima) across 5 sites and 3 years to quantify the variability in this conditional mutualism. We used a published model to compare the rates of seed emergence with and without burial to the probability that seeds will be cached and left uneaten by scatterhoarders to quantify variation in the conditional mutualism that can be explained by environmental variation among sites, years, species, and seed provenance within species. All species tested had increased emergence when buried. However, comparing benefits of burial to the probability of caching by scatterhoarders indicated a mutualism in red oak, while white oak was nearly always antagonistic. Chestnut was variable around the boundary between mutualism and antagonism, indicating a high degree of context dependence in the relationship with scatterhoarders. We found that different seed provenances did not vary in their potential for mutualism. Temperature did not explain microsite differences in seed emergence in any of the species tested. In hybrid chestnut only, emergence on the surface declined with soil moisture in the fall. By quantifying the variation in the conditional mutualism that was not caused by changes in scatterhoarder behavior, we show that environmental conditions and seed traits are an important and underappreciated component of the variation in the relationship between trees and scatterhoarders. © 2018 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Floral biology of Senecio macrophyllus M. BIEB. (Asteraceae, a rare Central European steppe plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożenna Czarnecka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the flowering phase and plant pollination ecology is very important for understanding the life history of long-lived perennials. In the case of rare species, the information may have implications for conservation practices. Our studies on flower morphology and blooming biology of the vulnerable plant Senecio macrophyllus M. BIEB. were conducted in situ (flowering, activity of insect visitors in the largest population in SE Poland and in laboratory (light and scanning electron microscopy. The disc florets open diurnally with most intensive anthesis in the early afternoon and attract insect visitors with nectar and pollen. In highly protandrous disc florets, pollen viability decreases in time, whereas stigma receptivity increases. The upper part of the pistil forms a brush-like pollen presenter, covered with unicellular trichomes with chromoplasts. Pollen presentation lasts 4–11 hours per floret, and 8 days in a single head, the main function of which is to extend the availability of male gamets for reproduction. The number of florets per head, the head size, and the number of pollen grains produced per anther, and the pollen grain viability differed significantly between microsites. The finding indicates that, apart from the biotic factors, abiotic conditions may considerably influence generative reproduction of the species. In the study area, the principal visitors of S. macrophyllus flowers were Hymenoptera, with predominance of Apis mellifera (53.4% of visits. The remarkable share of butterflies (13.9% recognized as the long-distance moving insects may improve the genetic variability of individuals within a fragmented population. A more detailed study is necessary to explain the role of insect visitors in effective pollination and in gene transfer between patches. The assessment of optimal conditions for the generative reproduction is fundamental for the in situ conservation of this rare species.

  9. Accounting for Landscape Heterogeneity Improves Spatial Predictions of Tree Vulnerability to Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes, A. M.; Parolari, A.; Swenson, J. J.; Johnson, D. M.; Domec, J. C.; Jackson, R. B.; Pelak, N. F., III; Porporato, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Globally, as climate change continues, forest vulnerability to droughts and heatwaves is increasing, but vulnerability differs regionally and locally depending on landscape position. However, most models used in forecasting forest responses to heatwaves and droughts do not incorporate relevant spatial processes. To improve predictions of spatial tree vulnerability, we employed a non-linear stochastic model of soil moisture dynamics across a landscape, accounting for spatial differences in aspect, topography, and soils. Our unique approach integrated plant hydraulics and landscape processes, incorporating effects from lateral redistribution of water using a topographic index and radiation and temperature differences attributable to aspect. Across a watershed in central Texas we modeled dynamic water stress for a dominant tree species, Juniperus ashei. We compared our results to a detailed spatial dataset of drought-impacted areas (>25% canopy loss) derived from remote sensing during the severe 2011 drought. We then projected future dynamic water stress through the 21st century using climate projections from 10 global climate models under two scenarios, and compared models with and without landscape heterogeneity. Within this watershed, 42% of J. ashei dominated systems were impacted by the 2011 drought. Modeled dynamic water stress tracked these spatial patterns of observed drought-impacted areas. Total accuracy increased from 59%, when accounting only for soil variability, to 73% when including lateral redistribution of water and radiation and temperature effects. Dynamic water stress was projected to increase through the 21st century, with only minimal buffering from the landscape. During the hotter and more severe droughts projected in the 21st century, up to 90% of the watershed crossed a dynamic water stress threshold associated with canopy loss in 2011. Favorable microsites may exist across a landscape where trees can persist; however, if future droughts are

  10. EZID: Long term identifiers made easy (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, J.

    2013-12-01

    Scholarly research is producing ever increasing amounts of digital research data, and this data should be managed throughout the research life cycle both as part of good scientific practice, but also to comply with funder mandates, such as the 2013 OSTP Public Access Memo (http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/ostp_public_access_memo_2013.pdf). By assigning unique and persistent identifiers to data objects, data managers can gain control and flexibility over what can be a daunting task. This is due to the fact that the objects can be moved to new locations without disruption to links, as long as the identifier target is maintained. EZID is a tool that makes assigning and maintaining unique, persistent identifiers easy. It was designed and built by California Digital Library (CDL) and has both a user interface and a RESTful API. EZID currently offers services for two globally unique, persistent identifier schemes: Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and Archival Resource Keys (ARKs). DOIs are identifiers originating from the publishing world and are in widespread use for journal articles. CDL is able to offer DOIs because of being a founding member of DataCite (http://www.datacite.org/), an international consortium established to provide easier access to scientific research data on the Internet. ARKs are identifiers originating from the library, archive and museum community. Like DOIs, they become persistent when the objects and identifier forwarding information is maintained. DOIs and ARKs have a key role in data management and, therefore, in data management plans. DOIs are the recommended identifier for use in data citation, and ARKs provide the maximum flexibility needed for data documentation and management throughout the early phases of a project. The two identifier schemes are able to be used together, and EZID is made to work with both. EZID clients, coming from education, research, government, and the private sector, are utilizing the

  11. Microbial reduction of Fe(III) and turnover of acetate in Hawaiian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsel, Kirsten; Wagner, Christine; Trinkwalter, Tanja; Gössner, Anita S; Bäumler, Rupert; Drake, Harold L

    2002-04-01

    Soils contain anoxic microzones, and acetate is an intermediate during the turnover of soil organic carbon. Due to negligible methanogenic activities in well-drained soils, acetate accumulates under experimentally imposed short-term anoxic conditions. In contrast to forest, agricultural, and prairie soils, grassland soils from Hawaii rapidly consumed rather than formed acetate when incubated under anoxic conditions. Thus, alternative electron acceptors that might be linked to the anaerobic oxidation of soil organic carbon in Hawaiian soils were assessed. Under anoxic conditions, high amounts of Fe(II) were formed by Hawaiian soils as soon as soils were depleted of nitrate. Rates of Fe(II) formation for different soils ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 micromol (g dry weight soil)(-1) h(-1), but were not positively correlated to increasing amounts of poorly crystallized iron oxides. In general, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic activities were negligible. Supplemental acetate was rapidly oxidized to CO2 via the sequential reduction of nitrate and Fe(III) in grassland soil (obtained near Kaena State Park). Supplemental H2 stimulated the formation of Fe(II), but H2-utilizing acetogens appeared to also be involved in the consumption of H2. Approximately 270 micromol Fe(III) (g dry weight soil)(-1) was available for Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, and acetate became a stable end product when Fe(III) was depleted in long-term incubations. Most-probable-number estimates of H2- and acetate-utilizing Fe(III) reducers and of H2-utilizing acetogens were similar. These results indicate that (i) the microbial reduction of Fe(III) is an important electron-accepting process for the anaerobic oxidation of organic matter in Fe(III)-rich Hawaiian soils of volcanic origin, and (ii) acetate, formed by the combined activity of fermentative and acetogenic bacteria, is an important trophic link in anoxic microsites of these soils.

  12. Dissolved Organic Carbon in Leachate after Application of Granular and Liquid N-P-K Fertilizers to a Sugarcane Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaway, P A; Melland, A R; Antille, D L; Marchuk, S

    2018-05-01

    The progressive decline of soil organic matter (SOM) threatens the sustainability of arable cropping worldwide. Residue removal and burning, destruction of protected microsites, and the acceleration of microbial decomposition are key factors. Desorption of SOM by ammonia-based fertilizers from organomineral complexes in soil may also play a role. A urea- and molasses-based liquid fertilizer formulation and a urea-based granular formulation were applied at recommended and district practice rates, respectively, to soil leaching columns, with unfertilized columns used as controls. The chemistry of leachate collected from the columns, filled with two sandy soils differing in recent cropping history, was monitored over eight successive wet-dry drainage events. The pH, electrical conductivity, and concentration and species of N in leachate was compared with the concentration and aromaticity of dissolved organic C (DOC) to indicate if salt solutions derived from the two fertilizers extracted SOM from clay mineral sites. Cation exchange capacity and exchangeable cations in the soil were monitored at the start and end of the trial. Fertilizer application increased DOC in leachate up to 40 times above the control, but reduced aromaticity (specific ultraviolet light absorbance at 253.7 nm). Dissolved organic C was linearly proportional to leachate NH-N concentration. Exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil from fertilized columns at the end of both trials were significantly lower than in unfertilized soil, indicating that ammonium salt solutions derived from the fertilizers extracted cations and variably charged organic matter from soil mineral exchange sites. Desorption of organic matter and divalent cations from organomineral sites by ammonia-based fertilizers may be implicated in soil acidification. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Regeneration of Pinus pinaster Aiton after prescribed fires: Response to burn timing and biogeographical seed provenance across a climatic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagra, J; Ferrandis, P; Plaza-Álvarez, P A; Lucas-Borja, M E; González-Romero, J; Alfaro-Sánchez, R; De Las Heras, J; Moya, D

    2018-05-17

    Prescribed fires are used as a fuel reduction tool, but heat alter microsite conditions affecting the natural regeneration of Mediterranean pine forests. Our study tested the hypothesis that implementing prescription before or after pine seed release may influence the composition of tree communities by changing the regeneration patterns of Pinus pinaster Aiton across a climatic gradient in the eastern Iberian Peninsula. We ran a seed-sowing experiment to analyse the recruitment patterns of this pine species in prescribed-burned stands, in two different biogeographical seed provenances from wetter and drier areas than the local seeding site. Survival of seedlings was through one year, until the end of the first drought and winter period, respectively. >5400 seeds were sown during the study distributed in sixty plots (30 burned, 30 unburned) per site and treatment, with 10 seeding units per plot. General linear models (GLMs) and ANOVA analyses indicated higher performance for the Drier seed provenance in burned areas, whereas a similar performance was recorded in the control area. Control areas showed higher germination and success rates for plant establishment throughout the study period. Total germination and survival after one year were slightly higher, respectively, at northern sites due to massive mortality during summer in the southern stands. At the burned sites, the mean germination time was significantly longer in those seeds sown before fire passage than those sown after fire. Total germination and successful establishment were significantly higher in the individuals sown before the passage of the fire than in those sown after fire. Most of the mortality occurred in summer for the southern stand, while winter was the most constraining period at the northern sites. The understanding of the dynamics in this species' establishment can help managers to perform a better management planning according to the species' ecology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Prescribed fires effects on physico-chemical properties and quantity of runoff and soil erosion in a Mediterranean forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban Lucas-Borja, Manuel; Plaza Alvaréz, Pedro Antonio; Sagra, Javier; Alfaro Sánchez, Raquel; Moya, Daniel; Ferrandiz Gotor, Pablo; De las Heras Ibañez, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires have an important influence in forest ecosystems. Contrary to high severity fire, which may have negative impacts on the ecosystems, low severity induce small changes on soil properties. Thus and in order to reduce fire risk, low-severity prescribed fires have been widely used as a fuel reduction tool and silvicultural treatment in Mediterranean forest ecosystems. However, fire may alter microsite conditions and little is known about the impact of prescribed burning on the physico-chemical properties of runoff. In this study, we compared the effects of prescribed burning on physico-chemical properties and quantity of runoff and soil erosion during twelve months after a low severity prescribed fire applied in twelve 16 m2 plot (6 burned plots and 6 control plots used for comparison) set up in the Lezuza forest (Albacete, central-eastern Spain). Physico-chemical properties and quantity of runoff and soil losses were monitored after each rainfall event (five rainfall events in total). Also, different forest stand characteristics (slope, tree density, basal area and shrub/herbal cover) affecting each plot were measured. Results showed that forest stand characteristics were very similar in all used plots. Also, physico-chemical runoff properties were highly modified after the prescribed fire, increasing water pH, carbonates, bicarbonates, total dissolved solids and organic matter content dissolved in water. Electrical conductivity, calcium, sodium, chloride and magnesium were not affected by prescribed fire. Soil losses were highly related to precipitation intensity and tree interception. Tree intercepted the rainfall and significantly reduced soil losses and also runoff quantity. In conclusion and after the first six-month experiment, the influence of prescribed fires on physico-chemical runoff properties should be taken into account for developing proper prescribed burnings guidelines.

  15. Seasonal patterns of activity and community structure in an amphibian assemblage at a pond network with variable hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, Leonardo; Bologna, Marco A.; Luiselli, Luca

    2007-03-01

    We studied community structure and seasonal activity patterns in a system of four ponds with seasonally-variable hydrology at a Mediterranean area in central Italy. We used a set of field methods to assess species presence and relative frequency of observation. The network of ponds was inhabited by six species of amphibians, two salamanders and four frogs. The breeding phenology of the six species did not vary remarkably among ponds, but there were significant differences among species in use of ponds. Factorial analysis of pond similarity drawn from percentage composition of the amphibian fauna, revealed that each of the four ponds was treatable as independent units, with no influence of relative inter-pond distance. PCA analysis allowed us to spatially arrange the amphibian species into three main groups: two were monospecific groups (i.e., Triturus vulgaris and Bufo bufo) and the third consisted of those species that selected not only the largest-deepest ponds, but also the ephemeral ones (i.e., Triturus carnifex, Hyla intermedia, the green frogs and Rana dalmatina). Our results suggest that the inter-pond differences in riparian vegetation, water depth, aquatic vegetation structure/abundance, and soil composition may produce differences among pond ecological characteristics (i.e., water turbidity and temperature, shelter availability, abundance of oviposition micro-sites), which may in turn influence different patterns of use by amphibians. To our knowledge, this is the first study emphasizing the potential role of heterochrony in the maintenance of a high species richness in Mediterranean amphibian communities. Preservation of freshwater vertebrate biodiversity requires management and protection not only of the main ponds and water bodies but also the temporary and ephemeral shallow ponds.

  16. Facilitating the afforestation of Mediterranean polluted soils by nurse shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, María T; Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Murillo, José M; Marañón, Teodoro

    2015-09-15

    The revegetation of polluted sites and abandoned agricultural soils is critical to reduce soil losses and to control the spread of soil pollution in the Mediterranean region, which is currently exposed to the greatest soil erosion risk in Europe. However, events of massive plant mortality usually occur during the first years after planting, mainly due to the adverse conditions of high irradiance and drought stress. Here, we evaluated the usefulness of considering the positive plant-plant interactions (facilitation effect) in the afforestation of polluted agricultural sites, using pre-existing shrubs as nurse plants. We used nurse shrubs as planting microsites for acorns of Quercus ilex (Holm oak) along a gradient of soil pollution in southwestern Spain, and monitored seedling growth, survival, and chemical composition during three consecutive years. Seedling survival greatly increased (from 20% to more than 50%) when acorns were sown under shrub, in comparison to the open, unprotected matrix. Facilitation of seedling growth by shrubs increased along the gradient of soil pollution, in agreement with the stress gradient hypothesis that predicts higher intensity of the facilitation effects with increasing abiotic stress. Although the accumulation of trace elements in seedling leaves was higher underneath shrub, the shading conditions provided by the shrub canopy allowed seedlings to cope with the toxicity provoked by the concurrence of low pH and high trace element concentrations in the most polluted sites. Our results show that the use of shrubs as nurse plants is a promising tool for the cost-effective afforestation of polluted lands under Mediterranean conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Soil Minerals: AN Overlooked Mediator of Plant-Microbe Competition for Organic Nitrogen in the Rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandy, S.; Jilling, A.; Keiluweit, M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent research on the rate limiting steps in soil nitrogen (N) availability have shifted in focus from mineralization to soil organic matter (SOM) depolymerization. To that end, Schimel and Bennett (2004) argued that together with enzymatic breakdown of polymers to monomers, microsite processes and plant-microbial competition collectively drive N cycling. Here we present new conceptual models arguing that while depolymerization is a critical first step, mineral-organic associations may ultimately regulate the provisioning of bioavailable organic N, especially in the rhizosphere. Mineral-associated organic matter (MAOM) is a rich reservoir for N in soils and often holds 5-7x more N than particulate or labile fractions. However, MAOM is considered largely unavailable to plants as a source of N due to the physicochemical forces on mineral surfaces that stabilize organic matter. We argue that in rhizosphere hotspots, MAOM is in fact a potentially mineralizable and important source of nitrogen for plants. Several biochemical strategies enable plants and microbes to compete with mineral-organic interactions and effectively access MAOM. In particular, root-deposited low molecular weight compounds in the form of root exudates facilitate the biotic and abiotic destabilization and subsequent bioavailability of MAOM. We believe that the competitive balance between the potential fates of assimilable organic N — bound to mineral surfaces or dissolved and available for assimilation — depends on the specific interaction between and properties of the clay, soil solution, mineral-bound organic matter, and microbial community. For this reason, the plant-soil-MAOM interplay is enhanced in rhizosphere hotspots relative to non-rhizosphere environments, and likely strongly regulates plant-microbe competition for N. If these hypotheses are true, we need to reconsider potential soil N cycle responses to changes in climate and land use intensity, focusing on the processes by which

  18. Passerine migrant stopover duration and spatial behaviour at an urban stopover site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewagen, Chad L.; Slayton, Eric J.; Guglielmo, Christopher G.

    2010-09-01

    Migration routes of many Nearctic-Neotropical landbirds pass through the most urbanized regions of North America. Migrants are known to use urban habitats as stopover sites and often occur in cities at exceptional density; yet knowledge of migrant behaviour and ecology in such places is surprisingly limited. We radio-tracked ovenbirds ( Seiurus aurocapillus) during stopovers in a New York City park to obtain some of the first detailed information on how landbird migrants utilize an urban habitat as a stopover site. We examined fine-scale movement patterns, home range sizes, stopover durations, and how arrival condition affected each of these metrics. During both seasons, most birds moved widely throughout the site upon presumed arrival and then either continued migration that night or settled into a more defined area on subsequent days. Area usage varied markedly among individuals during both seasons, ranging 1-16 ha. Stopover durations averaged 3.0 days (range = 1-10 days) during spring and 2.9 days (range = 1-14 days) during autumn. Spatial behaviours and stopover durations were not influenced by arrival condition during spring, and during autumn only movement rates and displacement distances were significantly (negatively) condition-related. Our findings do not support previous assumptions that urban stopover habitats are only used by migrants briefly in times of urgency when alternatives are unavailable. At least half of the birds we studied stopped over for multiple days during both seasons, and bird movements were indicative of an ability to search for, locate, and occupy suitable micro-sites. Ovenbird behaviour in our study site was similar in many ways to what has been observed in recent telemetry studies of ovenbirds and other passerine migrants at various non-urban stopover sites.

  19. Assessing the impact of deforestation of the Atlantic rainforest on ant-fruit interactions: a field experiment using synthetic fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Ana Gabriela D; Silva, Paulo S D; Sendoya, Sebastián F; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2014-01-01

    Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic 'seed' covered by a lipid-rich 'pulp'), which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments) were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm) was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (≥3 mm) of Pheidole (Myrmicinae), also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of synthetic fruits

  20. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  1. Effects of sand burial and wind disturbances on moss soil crusts in a revegetated area of the Tennger Desert, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, R. L.; Li, X. R.; Liu, L. C.; Gao, Y. H.

    2012-04-01

    Sand burial and wind are two predominant natural disturbances in the desert ecosystems worldwide. However, the effects of sand burial and wind disturbances on moss soil crusts are still largely unexplored. In this study, two sets of experiments were conducted separately to evaluated the effects of sand burial (sand depth of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm) and wind blowing (wind speed of 0.2, 3, 6 and 9ms-1) on ecophysiological variables of two moss soil crusts collected from a revegetated area of the Tengger Desert, Northern China. Firstly, the results from the sand burial experiment revealed that respiration rate was significantly decreased and that moss shoot elongation was significantly increased after burial. In addition, Bryum argenteum crust showed the fastest speed of emergence and highest tolerance index, followed by Didymodon vinealis crust. This sequence was consistent with the successional order of the two moss crusts that happened in our study area, indicating that differential sand burial tolerance explains their succession sequence. Secondly, the results from the wind experiment showed that CO2 exchange, PSII photochemical efficiency, photosynthetic pigments, shoot upgrowth, productivity and regeneration potential of the two moss soil crust mentioned above were all substantially depressed. Furthermore, D. vinealis crust exhibited stronger wind resistance than B. argenteum crust from all aspects mentioned above. And this is comparison was identical with their contrasting microhabitats with B. argenteum crust being excluded from higher wind speed microsites in the windward slopes, suggesting that the differential wind resistance of moss soil crusts explains their microdistribution pattern. In conclusion, the ecogeomorphological processes of moss soil crusts in desert ecosystems can be largely determined by natural disturbances caused by sand burial and wind blowing in desert ecosystems.

  2. Seasonal temperature acclimatization in a semi-fossorial mammal and the role of burrows as thermal refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlow, Janet L.; Chappell, Mark A.; Camp, Meghan J.; Johnson, Timothy R.; Shipley, Lisa A.; Paul, David R.; Forbey, Jennifer S.

    2018-01-01

    Small mammals in habitats with strong seasonal variation in the thermal environment often exhibit physiological and behavioral adaptations for coping with thermal extremes and reducing thermoregulatory costs. Burrows are especially important for providing thermal refuge when above-ground temperatures require high regulatory costs (e.g., water or energy) or exceed the physiological tolerances of an organism. Our objective was to explore the role of burrows as thermal refuges for a small endotherm, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), during the summer and winter by quantifying energetic costs associated with resting above and below ground. We used indirect calorimetry to determine the relationship between energy expenditure and ambient temperature over a range of temperatures that pygmy rabbits experience in their natural habitat. We also measured the temperature of above- and below-ground rest sites used by pygmy rabbits in eastern Idaho, USA, during summer and winter and estimated the seasonal thermoregulatory costs of resting in the two microsites. Although pygmy rabbits demonstrated seasonal physiological acclimatization, the burrow was an important thermal refuge, especially in winter. Thermoregulatory costs were lower inside the burrow than in above-ground rest sites for more than 50% of the winter season. In contrast, thermal heterogeneity provided by above-ground rest sites during summer reduced the role of burrows as a thermal refuge during all but the hottest periods of the afternoon. Our findings contribute to an understanding of the ecology of small mammals in seasonal environments and demonstrate the importance of burrows as thermal refuge for pygmy rabbits. PMID:29576977

  3. Factors affecting post-control reinvasion by seed of an invasive species, Phragmites australis, in the central Platte River, Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatowitsch, Susan M.; Larson, Diane L.; Larson, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants, such as Phragmites australis, can profoundly affect channel environments of large rivers by stabilizing sediments and altering water flows. Invasive plant removal is considered necessary where restoration of dynamic channels is needed to provide critical habitat for species of conservation concern. However, these programs are widely reported to be inefficient. Post-control reinvasion is frequent, suggesting increased attention is needed to prevent seed regeneration. To develop more effective responses to this invader in the Central Platte River (Nebraska, USA), we investigated several aspects of Phragmites seed ecology potentially linked to post-control reinvasion, in comparison to other common species: extent of viable seed production, importance of water transport, and regeneration responses to hydrology. We observed that although Phragmites seed does not mature until very late in the ice-free season, populations produce significant amounts of viable seed (>50 % of filled seed). Most seed transported via water in the Platte River are invasive perennial species, although Phragmites abundances are much lower than species such as Lythrum salicaria, Cyperus esculentus and Phalaris arundinacea. Seed regeneration of Phragmites varies greatly depending on hydrology, especially timing of water level changes. Flood events coinciding with the beginning of seedling emergence reduced establishment by as much as 59 % compared to flood events that occurred a few weeks later. Results of these investigations suggest that prevention of seed set (i.e., by removal of flowering culms) should be a priority in vegetation stands not being treated annually. After seeds are in the seedbank, preventing reinvasion using prescribed flooding has a low chance of success given that Phragmites can regenerate in a wide variety of hydrologic microsites.

  4. Effects of soil characteristics, allelopathy and frugivory on establishment of the invasive plant Carpobrotus edulis and a co-occurring native, Malcolmia littorea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; González, Luís; Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The species Carpobrotus edulis, native to South Africa, is one of the major plant invaders of Mediterranean coastal ecosystems around the world. Invasion by C. edulis exerts a great impact on coastal habitats. The low number of native species in invaded communities points to the possible existence of mechanisms suppressing their germination. In this study we assessed whether soil factors, endozoochory, competition and allelopathic effects of the invader affect its own early establishment and that of the native species Malcolmia littorea. We used laboratory solutions representing different chemical composition and moisture of the soil, herbivore feeding assays to simulate seed scarification and rainwater solutions to account for the effect of differently aged C. edulis litter. We show that unlike that of the native species, germination and early growth of C. edulis was not constrained by low moisture. The establishment of C. edulis, in terms of germination and early growth, was increased by scarification of seeds following passage through the European rabbit intestines; the rabbits therefore may have potential implications for plant establishment. There was no competition between C. edulis and M. littorea. The litter of the invasive C. edulis, which remains on the soil surface for several years, releases allelopathic substances that suppress the native plant germination process and early root growth. The invasive species exhibits features that likely make it a better colonizer of sand dunes than the co-occurring native species. Allelopathic effects, ability to establish in drier microsites and efficient scarification by rabbits are among the mechanisms allowing C. edulis to invade. The results help to explain the failure of removal projects that have been carried out in order to restore dunes invaded by C. edulis, and the long-lasting effects of C. edulis litter need to be taken into account in future restoration projects.

  5. Effects of soil characteristics, allelopathy and frugivory on establishment of the invasive plant Carpobrotus edulis and a co-occurring native, Malcolmia littorea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Novoa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The species Carpobrotus edulis, native to South Africa, is one of the major plant invaders of Mediterranean coastal ecosystems around the world. Invasion by C. edulis exerts a great impact on coastal habitats. The low number of native species in invaded communities points to the possible existence of mechanisms suppressing their germination. In this study we assessed whether soil factors, endozoochory, competition and allelopathic effects of the invader affect its own early establishment and that of the native species Malcolmia littorea. We used laboratory solutions representing different chemical composition and moisture of the soil, herbivore feeding assays to simulate seed scarification and rainwater solutions to account for the effect of differently aged C. edulis litter. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that unlike that of the native species, germination and early growth of C. edulis was not constrained by low moisture. The establishment of C. edulis, in terms of germination and early growth, was increased by scarification of seeds following passage through the European rabbit intestines; the rabbits therefore may have potential implications for plant establishment. There was no competition between C. edulis and M. littorea. The litter of the invasive C. edulis, which remains on the soil surface for several years, releases allelopathic substances that suppress the native plant germination process and early root growth. CONCLUSIONS: The invasive species exhibits features that likely make it a better colonizer of sand dunes than the co-occurring native species. Allelopathic effects, ability to establish in drier microsites and efficient scarification by rabbits are among the mechanisms allowing C. edulis to invade. The results help to explain the failure of removal projects that have been carried out in order to restore dunes invaded by C. edulis, and the long-lasting effects of C. edulis litter need to be taken into account in future

  6. The Soil Sink for Nitrous Oxide: Trivial Amount but Challenging Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.; Savage, K. E.; Sihi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Net uptake of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) has been observed sporadically for many years. Such observations have often been discounted as measurement error or noise, but they were reported frequently enough to gain some acceptance as valid. The advent of fast response field instruments with good sensitivity and precision has permitted confirmation that some soils can be small sinks of N2O. With regards to "closing the global N2O budget" the soil sink is trivial, because it is smaller than the error terms of most other budget components. Although not important from a global budget perspective, the existence of a soil sink for atmospheric N2O presents a fascinating challenge for understanding the physical, chemical, and biological processes that explain the sink. Reduction of N2O by classical biological denitrification requires reducing conditions generally found in wet soil, and yet we have measured the N2O sink in well drained soils, where we also simultaneously measure a sink for atmospheric methane (CH4). Co-occurrence of N2O reduction and CH4 oxidation would require a broad range of microsite conditions within the soil, spanning high and low oxygen concentrations. Abiotic sinks for N2O or other biological processes that consume N2O could exist, but have not yet been identified. We are attempting to simulate processes of diffusion of N2O, CH4, and O2 from the atmosphere and within a soil profile to determine if classical biological N2O reduction and CH4 oxidation at rates consistent with measured fluxes are plausible.

  7. Metal availability in technosols prepared with composted sewage sludge and limestone outcrop affected by the presence of barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Alejandro; Navarro-Pedreño, José; Belén Almendro-Candel, María; Gómez, Ignacio; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume

    2017-04-01

    P, Morra L, Leone A, Pagano L, Alfani A (2009) Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on soil respiration and enzyme activities of two Mediterranean horticultural soils. Biol Fert Soils doi:10.1007/s00374-009-0365-z Jordán MM, Pina S, García-Orenes F, Almendro-Candel MB, García-Sánchez E (2008) Environmental risk evaluation of the use of mine spoils and treated sewage sludge in the ecological restoration of limestone quarries. Environ Geol doi:10.1007/s00254-007-0991-4 Jordão CP, Nascentes CC, Cecon PR, Fontes RLF, Pereira JL (2006) Heavy metal availability in soil amended with composted urban solid wastes. Environ Monit Assess doi:10.1007/s10661-006-1072-y Karaca A (2004) Effect of organic wastes on the extractability of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in soil. Geoderma doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.01.016 Navarro-Pedreño J, Almendro-Candel MB, Jordán-Vidal MM, Mataix-Solera J, García-Sánchez E (2004) Risk areas in the application of sewage sludge on degraded soils in Alicante province (Spain). In: Martin JF, Brebbia CA, Godfrey AE, Díaz de Terán JR (eds) Geo-Environment. WIT Press, Southampton, pp 293-302

  8. Heavy metal water pollution associated with the use of sewage sludge compost and limestone outcrop residue for soil restoration: effect of saline irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gimeno, Ana; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Gómez, Ignacio; Belén Almedro-Candel, María; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    The use of composted sewage sludge and limestone outcrop residue in soil restoration and technosol making can influence the mobility of heavy metals into groundwater. The use of compost from organic residues is a common practice in soil and land rehabilitation, technosol making, and quarry restoration (Jordán et al. 2008). Compost amendments may improve the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils (Jordão et al. 2006; Iovieno et al. 2009). However, the use of compost and biosolids may have some negative effects on the environment (Karaca 2004; Navarro-Pedreño et al. 2004). This experiment analyzed the water pollution under an experimental design based on the use of columns (0-30 cm) formed by both wastes. Two waters of different quality (saline and non-saline) were used for irrigation. The presence of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the leachates was checked under controlled conditions inside a greenhouse (mean values: 20°±5°C and around 60% relative humidity). Sixteen 30-cm tall columns made of PVC pipe with internal diameters of 10.5 cm were prepared. The columns were filled with one of these materials: either sewage sludge compost (SW) or limestone outcrop residue (LR), fraction (determine if the accumulation of heavy metals in waters may be determinant for future pollution. References: Iovieno P, Morra L, Leone A, Pagano L, Alfani A (2009) Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on soil respiration and enzyme activities of two Mediterranean horticultural soils. Biol Fert Soils doi:10.1007/s00374-009-0365-z. Jordán MM, Pina S, García-Orenes F, Almendro-Candel MB, García-Sánchez E (2008) Environmental risk evaluation of the use of mine spoils and treated sewage sludge in the ecological restoration of limestone quarries. Environ Geol doi:10.1007/s00254-007-0991-4. Jordão CP, Nascentes CC, Cecon PR, Fontes RLF, Pereira JL (2006) Heavy metal availability in soil amended with composted urban solid wastes. Environ Monit

  9. From the study of fire effects on individual soil properties to the development of soil quality indices. 1. The pioneer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Zornoza, Raúl

    2013-04-01

    water repellency induced by fire in calcareous Mediterranean forest soils. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 58, 1254-1259. Arcenegui, V., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Zornoza, R., Mataix-Beneyto, J., García-Orenes, F., 2008. Immediate effects of wildfires on water repellency and aggregate stability in Mediterranean calcareous soils. Catena 74, 219-226. Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S.H., 2004. Hydrophobicity and aggregate stability in calcareous topsoil from fire affected pine forests in southeastern Spain. Geoderma 118, 77-88. Mataix-Solera, J., Arcenegui, V., Guerrero, C., Jordán, M., Dlapa, P., Tessler, N., Wittenberg, L. 2008. Can terra rossa become water repellent by burning? A laboratory approach. Geoderma, 147, 178-184. Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Arcenegui, V., Jordán, A., Zavala, L.M., 2011. Fire effects on soil aggregation: a review. Earth-Science Reviews 109, 44-60 Zornoza, R., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Arcenegui, V., Mayoral, A.M., Morales, J. Mataix-Beneyto, J., 2007b. Soil properties under natural forest in the Alicante Province of Spain. Geoderma. 142, 334-341. Zornoza, R., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Arcenegui, V., Mataix-Beneyto, J., Gómez, I., 2008. Validating the effectiveness and sensitivity of two soil quality indices based on natural forest soils under Mediterranean conditions. Soil Biology & Biochemistry. 40, 2079-2087.

  10. Breve reflexão sobre autocuidado no planejamento de alta hospitalar pós-Transplante de medula óssea (TMO: relato de caso Breve reflexión sobre lo autocuidado en planeamiento de la alta después del Transplante de Médula Ósea: informe de caso A brief reflection on self-care in hospital discharge planning after a Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Marta Giunta da Silva

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo construir um instrumento que caracterizasse as demandas de autocuidado terapêutico de um indivíduo submetido ao TMO, refletindo sobre as intervenções de enfermagem no planejamento de alta hospitalar na óptica da teoria de autocuidado de Orem. Pelos critérios de inclusão obteve-se um indivíduo pós-TMO alogênico, portador de Leucemia Mielóide Crônica. A análise dos dados possibilitou avaliar os requisitos de autocuidado alterados e as intervenções de enfermagem se inseriram no sistema apoio-educação e no sistema parcialmente compensatório. O instrumento deverá ser refinado, mas pode-se sugerir sua utilização como suporte para a elaboração do planejamento de alta para pacientes de TMO.Este estudio tuvo por objetivo construir un instrumento para caracterizar las demandas del autocuidado terapéutico de un individuo sometido al transplante de médula ósea, reflexionando acerca de las intervenciones de la enfermería en la planeación de la alta hospitalaria, desde la óptica de la teoría del autocuidado de Oren. Por los criterios de inclusión se obtuvo una persona sometida al transplante del médula ósea alogénico, Portador de Leucemia Mieloide Crónica. El análisis de los datos permitió la evaluación de los requisitos de autocuidado alterados y las intervenciones de enfermería se situaron en el sistema apoyo-educación y en el sistema parcialmente compensatorio. El instrumento deberá refinarse, pero se puede sugerir su utilización como apoyo para la elaboración de la planeación del alta hospitalaria, para los pacientes del transplante de médula ósea.The purpose of this work was to construct an instrument that would enable the characterization of therapeutic self-care needs of an individual submitted to bone marrow transplantation (BMT by reflecting on nursing interventions in the planning of hospital discharge based on Orem's self-care theory. The inclusion criteria consisted in the

  11. Soil aggregates, organic matter turnover and carbon balance in a Mediterranean eroded vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Dazzi, Carmelo; Gristina, Luciano; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    The carbon cycle is being affected by the human impacts (Novara et al., 2011; Yan-Gui et al., 2013), and one of those is the intensification in the soil erosion in agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009; García Orenes et al., 2009). Vineyards also are affected by the human activities (Fernández Calviño, 2012). Vineyards in Sicily are cultivated on 110.000 ha, 10% of which on >10% slope. Deficiencies of soil organic matter are typical of the semi arid Mediterranean environment especially where traditional intensive cropping practices are adopted (Novara et al., 2012; 2013). These practices in vineyards could lead soil to intensive erosion processes (Novara et al., 2011). The fate of SOC under erosion processes is difficult to understand because of the influence of the erosion impact on SOC pathway, which depends on the different features of the process involved (detachment, transport and/or deposition). Soil erosion must be considered a net C source (Lal, 2003), as eroded soils have lower net primary productivity (NPP) (Dick and Gregorich, 2004) caused by reduction in the effective rooting depth and all in all determining decline in soil quality. Breakdown of aggregates and soil dispersion expose SOM to microbial/enzymatic processes and chemical soil properties (Dimoyiannis, 2012; Kocyigit and Demirci, 2012). Moreover the light fraction, transported by runoff, is labile and easily mineralized determining CO2 emission in the atmosphere (Jacinthe and Lal, 2004). Therefore, the carbon pool is lower in eroded than in un-eroded soil scapes and the rate of mineralization of soil organic matter is higher in sediments than in original soil. In this survey we show a research conducted on a slope sequence of three soil profiles in an irrigated vineyard located in Sambuca di Sicilia, Italy (UTM33-WGS84: 4169367N; 325011E). The SOC content was measured at depth intervals of 10 cm up to a depth of 60 cm in each pedon. Wet aggregate-size fractions with no prior chemical

  12. Effect of biosolid waste compost on soil respiration in salt-affected soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, Silvia; Gómez, Ignacio; García, Fuensanta; Navarro, José; Jordán, Manuel Miguel; Belén Almendro, María; Martín Soriano, José

    2013-04-01

    respiration, compost, electrical conductivity, salinization, Bac-Trac References: Abdelbasset Lakhdar, Mokded Rabhi, Tahar Ghnaya, Francesco Montemurro, Naceur Jedidi , Chedly Abdelly. Effectiveness of compost use in salt-affected soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials 171 (2009) pp 29-37. M. Tejada, C. Garcia, J.L. Gonzalez , M.T. Hernandez . Use of organic amendment as a strategy for saline soil remediation:Influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) pp 1413-1421. I. Gomez; J.M. Disla Soriano; J. Navarro-Pedreño; F. García-Orenes; M.B. Almendro-Candel; M.M. Jordan. Quantification of soil respiration in different saline soil of Alicante (Spain). EGU General Assembly (2012). Viena. Ed. Geophysycal Research Abstracts. Vol 14 EGU2012-2399,(2012). (Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MICINN. Project Ref.: CGL2009-11194)

  13. Soil erosion on road and railways embankments in the Canyoles river Basin. Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Antonio, Giménez-Morera; Félix Ángel, González-Peñaloza; María, Burguet; Paulo, Pereira; José Reyes, Ruiz

    2013-04-01

    1 to 7 %. Time to ponding was 135.8 seconds, ranging from 131.1 and 158.7 seconds within four road embankments. Time to runoff was also very quick, with 367 seconds, ranging from 326.9 to 376.9 seconds after the start of the rain. The runoff outlet was reached after 402.08 seconds, ranging from 367.1 to 428.5 seconds. Runoff was 56.25 % of the rainfall, ranging from 54.93 % in the Road1 embankments to 57.08 % on the Railway1 embamkments. Sediment concentration was 41.41 g l-1 in average for the 40 rainfall simulation experiments and ranged from 40.20 to 42.54 g l-1. After 78 mm h-1 (156 liters on the 2m2 plots) of simulated rainfall during one hour, the total runoff collected was 87.75 %, with a very low variability within the four studied embankments an the 40 research plots (9 % variation coefficient). The sediment yield collected during the 25-year return period experiments resulted in 3.67 Kg in average values with again a low spatial variability (18 % variation coefficient). The soil erosion registered in the four-studied road and railway embankments reached a value of 18.25 Mg ha-1 h-1. The results shown above demonstrate that the water and soil losses in the road embankments under intense thunderstorms are very high, which is a general trend in Mediterranean ecosystems due to the climatologically conditions and the lack of restoration and rehabilitation strategies (Cerdà, 2007). The comparison with other research under different land uses show that the soil losses are very high on the road embankments due to the impact of the slope and the bare soil (Bakr et al., 2012) and show higher erosion rates than the unpaved forest roads (Jordán and Martínez Zavala, 2008). Scrublands, meadows, forest, and agriculture land in general show much lower soil losses at the study area (García Orenes et al., 2009). This is why most of the current research is developing strategies to control the soil and water losses (Persyn et al., 2004: Xu et al., 2006; de Oñae et al

  14. Avatar' remarks on the carbon input threshold in the sloping croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; García-Díaz, Andrés; Menghin, Riccardo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    sequestration rates in a semiarid environment. Land Degradation & Development, 23: 82- 91. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1055 Barua, A. K., Haque, S. M. S. 2013. Soil characteristics and carbon sequestration potentials of vegetation in degraded hills of Chittagong, Bangladesh. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 63- 71. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1107 Batjes NH. 2014. Projected changes in soil organic carbon stocks upon adoption of recommended soil and water practices in teh Upper Tana River Catchment, Kenia. Land Degradation and Development, 25, 278-287. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2141 Beatriz Lozano-García and Luis Parras-Alcántara 2014 VARIATION IN SOIL ORGANIC CARBON AND NITROGEN STOCKS ALONG A TOPOSEQUENCE IN A TRADITIONAL MEDITERRANEAN OLIVE GROVE Land Degradation and development, 25, 297-304 | DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2284 Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais, Y., Boardman, J. 2009. Soil Erosion and Agriculture. Soil and Tillage Research, 107-108. doi:10.1016/j.still.2009.10.006 Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A., Bodí, M.B. 2009. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1822-1830. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1889 Debasish-Saha, S.S. Kukal and S.S. Bawa, 2014. SOIL ORGANIC CARBON STOCK AND FRACTIONS IN RELATION TO LAND USE AND SOIL DEPTH IN THE DEGRADED SHIWALIKS HILLS OF LOWER HIMALAYAS Land Degradation and Development, 25, 407-416. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2151 Debasish-Saha, S.S. Kukal and S.S. Bawa, 2014. SOIL ORGANIC CARBON STOCK AND FRACTIONS IN RELATION TO LAND USE AND SOIL DEPTH IN THE DEGRADED SHIWALIKS HILLS OF LOWER HIMALAYAS Land Degradation and Development, 25, 407-416. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2151 García-Orenes, F., Guerrero, C., Roldán, A.,Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Zornoza, R., Bárcenas, G., Caravaca. F. 2010. Soil microbial biomass and activity under different agricultural management systems in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem. Soil and Tillage Research. 109 (2): 110-115. 10.1016/j

  15. Impact of a prescribed fire on soil water repellency in a Banksia woodland (Western Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Ben; Tangney, Ryan; Miller, Russell; González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    contrast, extreme SWR was observed in the burned area (3750 s). This may be explained by a reduction of water repellency by burning (Zavala et al., 2009; Jordán et al., 2014), as environmental conditions led to an increase in control areas. Although prescribed burning usually do not produce high severity fires, evidences of high severity were found, due to prolonged smouldering caused by subsurface Banksia root clusters. In some cases, this led to release of iron oxides, observed as red spots in the surface. Fire in Mediterranean and semi-arid environments has a significant effect on microbial biomass and the composition of soil microbial communities during the post-fire period, when soil nutrients become available (Bárcenas-Moreno et al., 2011; Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). In our study, microbial activity increased sharply in the burned area and most likely contributed to a decrease of organic hydrophobic substances in the first centimetres of the soil profile. Bárcenas-Moreno et al. (2011) observed that bacterial activity increases immediately after fire, while fungi decreased and recovered slowly. These processes may contribute to explain differences in SWR following fire, since this soil property may be influenced by fungal activity (Lozano et al., 2013). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research has been partly funded by the University of Western Australia through the project "Soil water repellence in biodiverse semiarid environments: new insights and implications for ecological restoration" (UWA Research Collaboration Awards, Ref. ENV.2013.6.2-4) and the Spanish Ministry for Economy and Competitiveness through the research projects GEOFIRE (Ref. CGL2012-38655-C04-01) and POSTFIRE (Ref. CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R). REFERENCES Bárcenas-Moreno G, García-Orenes F, Mataix-Solera J, Mataix-Beneyto J, Bååth E. 2011. Soil microbial recolonisation after a fire in a Mediterranean forest. Biology and Fertility of Soils 47: 261-272. DOI: 10.1007/s00374-010-0532-2. Boer MM, Sadlet RJ

  16. Can the biogenicity of Europa's surfical sulfur be tested simultaneously with penetrators and ion traps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Bhattacherjee, A. B.; Dudeja, S.; Kumar, N.; Seckbach, J.

    2009-04-01

    the Jovian moon Europa. In: J. Seckbach and A. Oren (eds.) Microbial Mats, in the COLE series, to be published by Springer. http://www.ictp.it/~chelaf/Dudeja.pdf Greenberg, R. (2005) Europa-The Ocean Moon. Springer and Praxia Publishing, Chichester, p. 328 Grilli Caiola, M. and Billi, D. (2007) Chroococcidiopsis from Desert to Mars. In: Algae and Cyanobacteria in Extreme Environments. J. Seckbach (ed.) in the COLE series, Springer, Netherlands, pp. 553-568. Parker, B. C. et al. (1982) Removal of organic and inorganic matter from Antarctic lakes by aerial escape of bluegreen algal mats. J. Phycol. 18: 72-78. Sagan, C. (1967) Life on the Surface of Venus? Nature 216: 1198 - 1199. Seckbach, J. and Libby, W. F. (1970) Vegetative life on Venus?. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 2: 121-143. Seckbach, J. Oren, A. Chela-Flores, J. (2008) The extreme environments and their microbes as models for extraterrestrial life. 3rd European Planetary Science Congress, Münster, Germany, September. http://www.ictp.it/~chelaf/Munster.pdf Smith, A. et al. (2008) LunarEX - A proposal to cosmic vision. Experimental Astronomy 10.1007/s10686-008-9109-6 (August 21, 2008). http://www.ictp.it/~chelaf/Penetrator.pdf Sze, S. M. (1988) VLSI Technology, McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 333. Taylor, E.A. et al. (2007). A combined dust impact detector and ion trap mass spectrometer for a Europa orbiter, Geophysical Research Abstracts, 9: 10928, SRef-ID: 1607-7962/gra/EGU2007-A-10928, EGU. Todd, J.F.J. et al. (2007). Ion trap mass spectrometry on a comet nucleus: the Ptolemy instrument and the Rosetta space mission. J. Mass Spectrom. 42: 1-10. (*) Please notice that in the website references to the Academic Page of the first author the symbol twiddle should be in front of chelaf and not above the letter c, as it appears in the pdf version of this Abstract.

  17. Production, soil erosion and economic failure in new citrus plantations in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez Morera, Antonio; Carles membrado, Joan; Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix

    2013-04-01

    their neighboring mountain slopes. The interest of orange groves is not only economic, but also environmental. Although the traditional farming developed a beautiful man made landscape of terraces and irrigation ditches, the development of new irrigation systems by means of drips contributed to new plantations that removed the ditches and the terraces. Those changes are triggering intense soil erosion rates such were shown by previous researchers in Valencia (Cerdà et al., 2009). This impact is also shown in other regions with a similar citrus production evolution, and China is a clear example (Wang et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2012). This research evaluates the production and the cost of production, the economic investment in the establishment of the new citrus plantations and the revenues of 5 farms in the Canyoles river watershed in Eastern Spain. The soil erosion rates measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments in each farm by means of thunderstorms of 10 years return period (55 mm h-1) and by five-year survey by means of topographical measurements. The results show that the soil losses in the new plantation are extremely high, that the investments in the new plantation reached 18352 € ha-1 and that the revenues do not cover the expenses of production. Soil erosion measured since 2007 to 2011 show values that range from 7.54 to 56.76 Mg ha-1 year-1 and show a mean value of 28.45 Mg ha-1 year-1. Rainfall simulation experiments shown that the soil losses were very high as other researched found in new citrus plantations. The comparison with other land uses and agriculture crop and managements shown that soil erosion is higher in then new chemically treated plantations (Cerdà, 2002), and even higher that on road embankments (Cerdà, 2007) and rainfed agriculture soil (García Orenes et al., 2009), although the water repellency found was very low in comparison to organic farming orange plantations (González et al., 2012). The current situation of a high

  18. Pluvials, Droughts, the Mongol Empire, and Modern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessl, A. E.; Pederson, N.; Baatarbileg, N.; Anchukaitis, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the connections between climate, ecosystems, and society during historical and modern climatic transitions requires annual resolution records with high fidelity climate signals. Many studies link the demise of complex societies with deteriorating climate conditions, but few have investigated the connection between climate, surplus energy, and the rise of empires. Inner Asia in the 13th century underwent a major political transformation requiring enormous energetic inputs that altered human history. The Mongol Empire, centered on the city of Karakorum, became the largest contiguous land empire in world history (Fig. 1 inset). Powered by domesticated grazing animals, the empire grew at the expense of sedentary agriculturalists across Asia, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Although some scholars and conventional wisdom agree that dry conditions spurred the Mongol conquests, little paleoenvironmental data at annual resolution are available to evaluate the role of climate in the development of the Mongol Empire. Here we present a 2600 year tree-ring reconstruction of warm-season, self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI), a measure of water balance, derived from 107 live and dead Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) trees growing on a Holocene lava flow in central Mongolia. Trees growing on the Khorgo lava flow today are stunted and widely spaced, occurring on microsites with little to no soil development. These trees are extremely water-stressed and their radial growth is well-correlated with both drought (scPDSI) and grassland productivity (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)). Our reconstruction, calibrated and validated on instrumental June-September scPDSI (1959-2009) accounts for 55.8% of the variability in the regional scPDSI when 73% of the annual rainfall occurs. Our scPDSI reconstruction places historic and modern social change in Mongolia in the context of the range of climatic variability during the Common Era. Our record

  19. Elevated Rocky Mountain elk numbers prevent positive effects of fire on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Solance; Fettig, Stephen M.; Bowker, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) is the most widespread tree species in North America and has supported a unique ecosystem for tens of thousands of years, yet is currently threatened by dramatic loss and possible local extinctions. While multiple factors such as climate change and fire suppression are thought to contribute to aspen’s decline, increased browsing by elk (Cervus elaphus), which have experienced dramatic population increases in the last ∼80 years, may severely inhibit aspen growth and regeneration. Fires are known to favor aspen recovery, but in the last several decades the spatial scale and intensity of wildfires has greatly increased, with poorly understood ramifications for aspen growth. Here, focusing on the 2000 Cerro Grande fire in central New Mexico – one of the earliest fires described as a “mega-fire” - we use three methods to examine the impact of elk browsing on aspen regeneration after a mega-fire. First, we use an exclosure experiment to show that aspen growing in the absence of elk were 3× taller than trees growing in the presence of elk. Further, aspen that were both protected from elk and experienced burning were 8.5× taller than unburned trees growing in the presence of elk, suggesting that the combination of release from herbivores and stimulation from fire creates the largest aspen growth rates. Second, using surveys at the landscape level, we found a correlation between elk browsing intensity and aspen height, such that where elk browsing was highest, aspen were shortest. This relationship between elk browsing intensity and aspen height was stronger in burned (r = −0.53) compared to unburned (r = −0.24) areas. Third, in conjunction with the landscape-level surveys, we identified possible natural refugia, microsites containing downed logs, shrubs etc. that may inhibit elk browsing by physically blocking aspen from elk or by impeding elk’s ability to move through the forest patch. We did not find any

  20. Activity and diversity of methane-oxidizing bacteria in glacier forefields on siliceous and calcareous bedrock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Nauer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The global methane (CH4 cycle is largely driven by methanogenic archaea and methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB, but little is known about their activity and diversity in pioneer ecosystems. We conducted a field survey in forefields of 13 receding Swiss glaciers on both siliceous and calcareous bedrock to investigate and quantify CH4 turnover based on soil-gas CH4 concentration profiles, and to characterize the MOB community by sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis of pmoA. Methane turnover was fundamentally different in the two bedrock categories. Of the 36 CH4 concentration profiles from siliceous locations, 11 showed atmospheric CH4 consumption at concentrations of ~1–2 μL L−1 with soil-atmosphere CH4 fluxes of –0.14 to –1.1 mg m−2 d−1. Another 11 profiles showed no apparent activity, while the remaining 14 exhibited slightly increased CH4 concentrations of ~2–10 μL L−1 , most likely due to microsite methanogenesis. In contrast, all profiles from calcareous sites suggested a substantial, yet unknown CH4 source below our sampling zone, with soil-gas CH4 concentrations reaching up to 1400 μL L−1. Remarkably, most soils oxidized ~90 % of the deep-soil CH4, resulting in soil-atmosphere fluxes of 0.12 to 31 mg m−2 d−1. MOB showed limited diversity in both siliceous and calcareous forefields: all identified pmoA sequences formed only 5 operational taxonomic units (OTUs at the species level and, with one exception, could be assigned to either Methylocystis or the as-yet-uncultivated Upland Soil Cluster γ (USCγ. The latter dominated T-RFLP patterns of all siliceous and most calcareous samples, while Methylocystis dominated in 4 calcareous samples. Members of Upland Soil

  1. Predicting Pleistocene climate from vegetation in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Loehle

    2007-01-01

    ranges at lower abundance by retreating to moist microsites. These would be microrefugia not easily detected by pollen records, especially if most species became rare. These results mean that climate reconstructions based on terrestrial plant indicators will not be valid for periods with markedly different CO2 levels.

  2. INTEGRATED CONSERVATION OF THE RARE AND ENDANGERED THERMOPHILOUS SPECIES CYPERUS POLYSTACHYUS: INVESTIGATION ON RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES AND SHORT-TERM ASSESSMENT OF TRANSLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. CROSTI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyperus polystachyus Rottb. is a threatened species occurring in Europe only in two sites located in wetland habitat in mediterranean Southern Italy. According to the IUCN red list for Italy (1997, the species is listed as critically endangered (CR. This study investigated recruitment and habitat limitations referred to the population located south of Rome, in the Tor Caldara Regional Reserve. The site is an isolated island of vegetation. Natural expansion of the species is highly limited by the absence of “wet” sites in the surroundings. Importantly the study also endorsed an “in wild translocation program”, which aimed to decrease the risk of species extinction linked to demographic stochasticity, extreme climatic events or mismanagement. Seed germination, seed and site limitations, and germplasm translocation were investigated. Seed viability and seed germination were tested at the Rome Botanical Garden; results showed that the species has high recruitment potential, especially in thermophilous conditions. Germplasm (seeds was translocated in a vegetation remnant within the Protected Area of Decima Malafede overseen by RomaNatura, a Regional Agency for the management of PAs, which, together with the National Environment Research Institute (ISPRA was one of the partners in this research. The site limitation and translocation studies were undertaken in a glade with a seasonal pond. Seeds were sown and seedlings planted within an experimental framework, protected by a metal cage to prevent grazing. The new site is within the natural dispersion range of the species in an area with similar ecological and biogeographic conditions. It is surrounded by thermophilous oak woodland and cultivated fields which exclude germplasm escape. Results showed that, due to the germination behaviour, the establishment is limited by the absence of microsites suitable for recruitment. Competition with perennial species and delayed germination are the main

  3. INTEGRATED CONSERVATION OF THE RARE AND ENDANGERED THERMOPHILOUS SPECIES CYPERUS POLYSTACHYUS: INVESTIGATION ON RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES AND SHORT-TERM ASSESSMENT OF TRANSLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. FABRINI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyperus polystachyus Rottb. is a threatened species occurring in Europe only in two sites located in wetland habitat in mediterranean Southern Italy. According to the IUCN red list for Italy (1997, the species is listed as critically endangered (CR. This study investigated recruitment and habitat limitations referred to the population located south of Rome, in the Tor Caldara Regional Reserve. The site is an isolated island of vegetation. Natural expansion of the species is highly limited by the absence of “wet” sites in the surroundings. Importantly the study also endorsed an “in wild translocation program”, which aimed to decrease the risk of species extinction linked to demographic stochasticity, extreme climatic events or mismanagement. Seed germination, seed and site limitations, and germplasm translocation were investigated. Seed viability and seed germination were tested at the Rome Botanical Garden; results showed that the species has high recruitment potential, especially in thermophilous conditions. Germplasm (seeds was translocated in a vegetation remnant within the Protected Area of Decima Malafede overseen by RomaNatura, a Regional Agency for the management of PAs, which, together with the National Environment Research Institute (ISPRA was one of the partners in this research. The site limitation and translocation studies were undertaken in a glade with a seasonal pond. Seeds were sown and seedlings planted within an experimental framework, protected by a metal cage to prevent grazing. The new site is within the natural dispersion range of the species in an area with similar ecological and biogeographic conditions. It is surrounded by thermophilous oak woodland and cultivated fields which exclude germplasm escape. Results showed that, due to the germination behaviour, the establishment is limited by the absence of microsites suitable for recruitment. Competition with perennial species and delayed germination are the main

  4. The Neogene Environment of the Beardmore Glacier, Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Cantrill, D. J.; Francis, J. E.; Roof, S. R.

    2004-12-01

    Discontinuous sequences of Neogene marine and non-marine glacigenic sequences, including the Meyer Desert Formation (MDF), occur throughout the Transantarctic Mountains. The upper 85m of the MDF, consisting of interbedded diamictites, conglomerates, sandstones and siltstones, outcrops in the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at 85° 07'S, 166° 35'E. The location is about 170 km south of the confluence of the Beardmore Glacier with the Ross Ice Shelf and about 500 km north of the South Pole The glacial, fluvioglacial and glaciolacustrine facies of the MDF represent a dynamic glacial margin which advanced and retreated on at least four occasions. On at least one occasion, the retreat was sufficiently long for plants and animals to colonize the head of a major fjord which existed in the place of the existing Beardmore Glacier. From the fossils we have identified at least 18 species of plants, 3 species of insects, 2 species of freshwater mollusks, and a species of fish. The plant fossils consist of pollen, seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, wood, and in situ plants. The plants include a cryptogamic flora of mosses and liverworts, conifers, and angiosperms in the families Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Nothofagaceae, Ranunculaceae, Hippuridaceae, ?Caryophyllaceae, and ?Chenopodiaceae or ?Myrtaceae. The plants grew in a weakly developed soil developed on a complex periglacial environment that included moraines, glacial outwash streams, well-drained gravel ridges, and poorly drained depressions in which peat and marl were being deposited. The fossil assemblage represents a mosaic tundra environment of well- and poorly-drained micro-sites, in which nutrient availability would have been patchily distributed. Antarctica has been essentially in a polar position since the Early Cretaceous and at 85° S receives no sunlight from the middle of March until the end of September. Today, the annual radiation received is about 42% that of Tierra del Fuego at 55° S. During the Neogene

  5. Mitigating Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agricultural Landscape: The Role of Isotopic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Mohammad; Nguyen, Minh Long

    2014-05-01

    A review of studies from agricultural landscapes indicate that intensification of agricultural activities, inefficient use of reactive nitrogen (N) fertilizers and irrigation water, increasing human population and changes in their diet (more protein demand), high stocking rate (number of grazing livestock per hectare) and intensive cultivation are the major influencing factors for nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions into the atmosphere. Nitrification (both autotrophic and heterotrophic), denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are the three major microbial processes that produce greenhouse N2O and non-greenhouse gas (N2) and can sometimes occur concurrently in a given soil system. The contribution of N2O production from each of these microbial processes is inconclusive because of the complex interactions between various microbial processes and the physical and chemical conditions in soil microsite (s). Nitrous oxide emissions across an agricultural landscape from different N inputs (chemical fertilizers and animal manure) and soil types are also extremely variable both temporally and spatially and range from 1-20% of the applied N and could therefore represent agronomic loss. The available conventional methods such as acetylene (C2H2) inhibition and helium (He) cannot accurately measure both N2O and N2 and their ratio in a given soil. The use of 15N stable isotopic technique offers the best option to measure both N2O and N2 and to identify their source (nitrification and denitrification) with a greater accuracy. Manipulating soil and fertilizer management practices can minimise these gaseous N losses. For example the combined use of urease inhibitor like (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT) (trade name Agrotain®) and nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) with urea (100 kg N ha-1) or animal urine (600 kg N ha-1) was shown to reduce N losses by 39-53 % via denitrification-nitrification-DNRA processes. Other farm management

  6. Bringing back the rare - biogeochemical constraints of peat moss establishment in restored cut-over bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Peter; Blodau, Christian; Hölzel, Norbert; Kleinebecker, Till; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2016-04-01

    Sphagnum sods compared to control plots suggesting a direct impact of hummock mosses on microsite soil moisture conditions. However, with an increase of water levels towards winter season accompanied by increase of ferrous iron and concurrent increase of phosphate in pore waters of the upper peat layers the vitality was strongly positively related to plant available phosphate. This suggests that actively transferred hummock mosses suffering temporarily from desiccation during the dry summer season are able to recover also under relatively higher trophic conditions as long as water level and redox state favour an optimal supply of required water nutrients.

  7. 2000 Years of Drought Variability in Inner Asia from Tree Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessl, A. E.; Pederson, N.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Leland, C.; Byambasuren, O.; Nachin, B.; Andreu-Hayles, L.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding connections between climate, ecosystems, and society during historical and modern climatic transitions requires annual resolution records with high fidelity climate signals. In semi-arid regions, high temperatures are projected to increase the frequency, duration, and severity of droughts in coming decades. Between 1996-2014, Mongolia experienced an extended drought that coincided with a transition away from pastoralism as thousands of families lost their herds and migrated to informal urban settlements. Because Mongolia's climate is highly variable, it is difficult to place recent climatic extremes and associated social and ecological change in context without long records of climatic variability. Here we ask: how extreme was the 21st century drought in the last 2000 years? We present two 2000 year long tree-ring reconstructions of warm-season drought, derived from live and dead Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) trees from two lava flows in central Mongolia. Trees growing on the lava today are stunted and widely spaced, occurring on microsites with little to no soil development. These trees are water-stressed and their radial growth is correlated with both soil water availability (scPDSI) and grassland productivity (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)). To contextualize the severity of recent droughts and to explore potential forcing factors, we compare recent drought persistence to the distribution of events in the past and perform long control runs of GFDL climate model. Our reconstructions, calibrated and validated on instrumental June-August scPDSI (1959-2009) account for >55% of the variability in the regional scPDSI when >70% of the annual rainfall occurs. Our tree-ring data combined with existing reconstructions of temperature, meteorological data, and model results suggest that the early 21st century drought was the hottest and one of the most persistent droughts in the last 2000 years. These dry conditions were occurred with

  8. Species Composition at the Sub-Meter Level in Discontinuous Permafrost in Subarctic Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. M.; Palace, M. W.; Layne, M.; Varner, R. K.; Crill, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Northern latitudes are experiencing rapid warming. Wetlands underlain by permafrost are particularly vulnerable to warming which results in changes in vegetative cover. Specific species have been associated with greenhouse gas emissions therefore knowledge of species compositional shift allows for the systematic change and quantification of emissions and changes in such emissions. Species composition varies on the sub-meter scale based on topography and other microsite environmental parameters. This complexity and the need to scale vegetation to the landscape level proves vital in our estimation of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and dynamics. Stordalen Mire (68°21'N, 18°49'E) in Abisko and is located at the edge of discontinuous permafrost zone. This provides a unique opportunity to analyze multiple vegetation communities in a close proximity. To do this, we randomly selected 25 1x1 meter plots that were representative of five major cover types: Semi-wet, wet, hummock, tall graminoid, and tall shrub. We used a quadrat with 64 sub plots and measured areal percent cover for 24 species. We collected ground based remote sensing (RS) at each plot to determine species composition using an ADC-lite (near infrared, red, green) and GoPro (red, blue, green). We normalized each image based on a Teflon white chip placed in each image. Textural analysis was conducted on each image for entropy, angular second momentum, and lacunarity. A logistic regression was developed to examine vegetation cover types and remote sensing parameters. We used a multiple linear regression using forwards stepwise variable selection. We found statistical difference in species composition and diversity indices between vegetation cover types. In addition, we were able to build regression model to significantly estimate vegetation cover type as well as percent cover for specific key vegetative species. This ground-based remote sensing allows for quick quantification of vegetation

  9. Mining User spatiotemporal Behavior in Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure --using GEOSS Clearinghouse as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIA, J.; Yang, C.; Liu, K.; Huang, Q.; Li, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Big Data becomes increasingly important in almost all scientific domains, especially in geoscience where hundreds to millions of sensors are collecting data of the Earth continuously (Whitehouse News 2012). With the explosive growth of data, various Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure (GCI) (Yang et al. 2010) components are developed to manage geospatial resources and provide data access for the public. These GCIs are accessed by different users intensively on a daily basis. However, little research has been done to analyze the spatiotemporal patterns of user behavior, which could be critical to the management of Big Data and the operation of GCIs (Yang et al. 2011). For example, the spatiotemporal distribution of end users helps us better arrange and locate GCI computing facilities. A better indexing and caching mechanism could be developed based on the spatiotemporal pattern of user queries. In this paper, we use GEOSS Clearinghouse as an example to investigate spatiotemporal patterns of user behavior in GCIs. The investigation results show that user behaviors are heterogeneous but with patterns across space and time. Identified patterns include (1) the high access frequency regions; (2) local interests; (3) periodical accesses and rush hours; (4) spiking access. Based on identified patterns, this presentation reports several solutions to better support the operation of the GEOSS Clearinghouse and other GCIs. Keywords: Big Data, EarthCube, CyberGIS, Spatiotemporal Thinking and Computing, Data Mining, User Behavior Reference: Fayyad, U. M., Piatetsky-Shapiro, G., Smyth, P., & Uthurusamy, R. 1996. Advances in knowledge discovery and data mining. Whitehouse. 2012. Obama administration unveils 'BIG DATA' initiative: announces $200 million in new R&D investments. Whitehouse. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/big_data_press_release_final_2.pdf [Accessed 14 June 2013] Yang, C., Wu, H., Huang, Q., Li, Z., & Li, J. 2011. Using spatial

  10. Transcriptomes of Frankia sp. strain CcI3 in growth transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bickhart Derek M

    2011-08-01

    gene expression in aging cultures of CcI3 suggests significant cell heterogeneity even during normal growth on ammonia. The detection of abundant transcription of nif (nitrogen fixation genes likely reflects the presence of anaerobic, N-depleted microsites in the growing mycelium of the culture, and the presence of significantly elevated transposase transcription during starvation indicates the continuing evolution of the Frankia sp. strain CcI3 genome, even in culture, especially under stressed conditions. These studies also sound a cautionary note when comparing the transcriptomes of Frankia grown in root nodules, where cell heterogeneity would be expected to be quite high.

  11. Maximizing peatland forest regeneration success at lowest cost to the atmosphere. Effects of soil preparation on Scots pine seedling vitality and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, M.

    2013-06-01

    This dissertation investigated the impacts of soil preparation after clearcutting Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest on thick-peated soil from silvicultural and climatic standpoints. Three growing seasons after outplanting, mounding most effectively secured seedling survival, growth, and vitality through improved soil aeration of the planting spot. However, other presumed benefits of mounding to seedlings such as warmer soil temperatures and faster organic matter decomposition were not confirmed here. Regeneration in scalps was unsuccessful due to waterlogged soil. Importantly when scalping, only the humus layer should be scraped off without creating depressions in the peat. Seedling tolerance to desiccated as well as waterlogged peat soil over one growing season was remarkable in controlled conditions. The impact of drought, however, was more immediate and severe as root and shoot growth, fractional colonization of ectomycorrhizal fungi, and root hydraulic conductance were reduced. Nevertheless, maintenance of rather high photochemical efficiency (expressed as variable to maximal chlorophyll fluorescence, Fv/Fm) especially in current-year needles despite harsh drought seemed to indicate a potential for seedling recovery. Polyamine analysis also revealed that new needles are preferred in protecting the different parts of the seedlings against drought stress. Wet-stressed seedlings, on the other hand, exhibited few signs of suffering. It was also demonstrated how the experimental environment a controlled versus field setting influences seedling tolerance to stress. The differing moisture levels within comparable microsites dry vs. wet scalps and ditch vs. inverted mounds had little influence on seedling growth and condition although physiological upset (i.e., Fv/Fm) was evident within scalps. Namely, the wetter the soil was, the lower Fv/Fm was. The fear of soil preparation accelerating GHG emissions, particularly CO{sub 2}, from peat into the atmosphere

  12. Heterogeneity of elemental composition and natural abundance of stables isotopes of C and N in soils and leaves of mangroves at their southernmost West Atlantic range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. P. Tognella

    Full Text Available Abstract Mangrove communities were selected in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, near their southernmost limit of distribution, to study mineral nutrient relation in soils and plants. Communities included three true mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia germinans, and two associated species, the fern Acrostichum danaeifolium, and the grass Spartina densiflora. The sites included communities in the lower Río Tavares near Florianopolis city, Sonho beach near Palhoça city, and the Santo Antonio lagoon. These sites included a full range of mangroves under humid climate where winter temperatures, instead of salinity, may be the main factor regulating their productive capacity and species composition. Soil salinity was determined by the concentration of soluble Na, and soil C and N were linearly correlated indicating their association in organic matter. Tavares site showed higher specific conductivity, and concentrations of Na and Mg in the soil layer below 40 cm depth, indicating larger influence of marine water. Isotopic signature of C increased with soil depth suggesting that microorganisms decomposing organic matter are releasing 13C depleted CO2. Nitrogen isotopic signature decreased with soil depth, indicating enrichment in 15N possibly as a result of denitrification in the upper soil layers. Mineral elements in leaf tissues showed A. schaueriana with higher concentrations of N, P, Na, K, Cu, Zn, and Na/Ca ratio. Spartina densiflora was characterized by the lowest N and K concentrations, and the highest concentrations of Al and Fe. Rhizophora mangle and L. racemosa had the highest Ca concentrations. Carbon isotopic signatures identified S. densiflora as a C4 plant, and A. schaueriana as the mangrove species occupying comparatively more water stressed microsites than the rest. Leaf nitrogen isotopic signatures were positive, in correspondence with the soil values. The results support the hypothesis that

  13. Soil and vegetation-atmosphere exchange of NO, NH3, and N2O from field measurements in a semi arid grazed ecosystem in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delon, C.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Serça, D.; Loubet, B.; Camara, N.; Gardrat, E.; Saneh, I.; Fensholt, R.; Tagesson, T.; Le Dantec, V.; Sambou, B.; Diop, C.; Mougin, E.

    2017-05-01

    The alternating between dry and wet seasons and the consecutive microbial responses to soil water content in semiarid ecosystems has significant consequences on nitrogen exchanges with the atmosphere. Three field campaigns were carried out in a semi arid sahelian rangeland in Dahra (Ferlo, Senegal), two at the beginning of the wet season in July 2012 and July 2013, and the third one in November 2013 at the end of the wet season. The ammonia emission potentials of the soil ranged from 271 to 6628, indicating the soil capacity to emit NH3. The ammonia compensation point in the soil ranged between 7 and 150 ppb, with soil temperatures between 32 and 37 °C. Ammonia exchange fluctuated between emission and deposition (from -0.1-1.3 ng N.m-2 s-1), depending on meteorology, ambient NH3 concentration (5-11 ppb) and compensation point mixing ratios. N2O fluxes are supposed to be lower than NO fluxes in semi arid ecosystems, but in Dahra N2O fluxes (5.5 ± 1.3 ng N m-2 s-1 in July 2013, and 3.2 ± 1.7 ng N m-2 s-1 in November 2013) were similar to NO fluxes (5.7 ± 3.1 ng N m-2 s-1 in July 2012, 5.1 ± 2.1 ng N m-2 s-1 in July 2013, and 4.0 ± 2.2 ngN m-2 s-1 in November 2013). Possible reasons are the influence of soil moisture below the surface (where N2O is produced) after the beginning of the wet season, the potential aerobic denitrification in microsites, the nitrifier denitrification, and nitrification processes. The presence of litter and standing straw, and their decomposition dominated N compounds emissions in November 2013, whereas emissions in July 2012 and 2013, when the herbaceous strata was sparse, were dominated by microbial processes in the soil. CO2 respiration fluxes were high in the beginning (107 ± 26 mg m-2 h-1 in July 2013) and low in the end of the wet season (32 ± 5 mg m-2 h-1 in November 2013), when autotrophic and heterotrophic activity is reduced due to low soil moisture conditions These results confirm that contrasted ecosystem conditions due

  14. Patterns of in-soil methane production and atmospheric emission among different land covers of a Lake Erie estuarine wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey Sanchez, C.; Morin, T. H.; Stefanik, K. C.; Angle, J.; Wrighton, K. C.; Bohrer, G.

    2017-12-01

    Wetland soils store a great amount of carbon, but also accumulate and emit methane (CH4), a powerful greenhouse gas. To better understand the vertical and horizontal spatial variability of CH4 emissions, we monitored production and fluxes of CH4 in Old Woman Creek, an estuarine wetland of Lake Erie, Ohio, during the growing seasons of 2015 and 2016. Our combined observation methods targeted three different scales: 1) the eddy covariance technique provided continuous high frequency observations integrated over a large spatial footprint; 2) monthly chamber measurements provided sparse point measurements of fluxes in four distinct land-cover types in the wetland: open water, emergent vegetation (Typha spp.), floating vegetation (Nelumbo spp.) and mud flats; and 3) in-situ porewater dialysis samplers, "peepers", provided vertical CH4 concentration data in the soil at the same locations and temporal time steps as the chambers. In addition, we studied gene transcripts to quantify methanogenesis activity along the vertical soil profile. Using integrated chamber and EC measurements, we found an average surface emission rate from Typha, the most abundant vegetated land cover, of 219.4 g CH4-C m-2 y-1, which was much higher than rates reported in similar emergent vegetation types in other wetlands. There was large spatial variation of flux rates, with mud flats having the highest rates of CH4 emission, followed by Nelumbo and Typha patches, and with open water having the lowest emissions. Within the soil column, we applied a numerical model to convert soil methane concentrations to emissions rates. We found that, contrary to current ideas of methane production, most methane was being produced in the well-oxygenated surface soils, probably in anoxic microsites within the oxic layer. Our metatranscriptomic data supported these findings, clearly showing nine times greater methanogenic activity in oxic surface soils relative to deeper anoxic soils. Combined, our results provide

  15. Nutrient removal using biosorption activated media: preliminary biogeochemical assessment of an innovative stormwater infiltration basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Wanielista, Martin P.; Chang, Ni-Bin; Xuan, Zhemin; Harris, Willie G.

    2012-01-01

    Soil beneath a stormwater infiltration basin receiving runoff from a 22.7 ha predominantly residential watershed in central Florida, USA, was amended using biosorption activated media (BAM) to study the effectiveness of this technology in reducing inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus to groundwater. The functionalized soil amendment BAM consists of a 1.0:1.9:4.1 mixture (by volume) of tire crumb (to increase sorption capacity), silt and clay (to increase soil moisture retention), and sand (to promote sufficient infiltration), which was applied to develop a prototype stormwater infiltration basin utilizing nutrient reduction and flood control sub-basins. Comparison of nitrate/chloride (NO3-/Cl-) ratios for the shallow groundwater indicate that prior to using BAM, NO3- concentrations were substantially influenced by nitrification or variations in NO3- input. In contrast, for the prototype basin utilizing BAM, NO3-/Cl- ratios indicate minor nitrification and NO3- losses with the exception of one summer sample that indicated a 45% loss. Biogeochemical indicators (denitrifier activity derived from real-time polymerase chain reaction and variations in major ions, nutrients, dissolved and soil gases, and stable isotopes) suggest NO3- losses are primarily attributable to denitrification, whereas dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium is a minor process. Denitrification was likely occurring intermittently in anoxic microsites in the unsaturated zone, which was enhanced by increased soil moisture within the BAM layer and resultant reductions in surface/subsurface oxygen exchange that produced conditions conducive to increased denitrifier activity. Concentrations of total dissolved phosphorus and orthophosphate (PO43-) were reduced by more than 70% in unsaturated zone soil water, with the largest decreases in the BAM layer where sorption was the most likely mechanism for removal. Post-BAM PO43-/Cl- ratios for shallow groundwater indicate predominantly minor increases and

  16. Fast-growing Acer rubrum differs from slow-growing Quercus alba in leaf, xylem and hydraulic trait coordination responses to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Tomeo, Nicholas J; Hewins, Charlotte R; Rosenthal, David M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of historic soil chemistry changes associated with acid rain, i.e., reduced soil pH and a shift from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limitation, on the coordination of leaf water demand and xylem hydraulic supply traits in two co-occurring temperate tree species differing in growth rate. Using a full-factorial design (N × P × pH), we measured leaf nutrient content, water relations, leaf-level and canopy-level gas exchange, total biomass and allocation, as well as stem xylem anatomy and hydraulic function for greenhouse-grown saplings of fast-growing Acer rubrum (L.) and slow-growing Quercus alba (L.). We used principle component analysis to characterize trait coordination. We found that N-limitation, but not P-limitation, had a significant impact on plant water relations and hydraulic coordination of both species. Fast-growing A. rubrum made hydraulic adjustments in response to N-limitation, but trait coordination was variable within treatments and did not fully compensate for changing allocation across N-availability. For slow-growing Q. alba, N-limitation engendered more strict coordination of leaf and xylem traits, resulting in similar leaf water content and hydraulic function across all treatments. Finally, low pH reduced the propensity of both species to adjust leaf water relations and xylem anatomical traits in response to nutrient manipulations. Our data suggest that a shift from N- to P-limitation has had a negative impact on the water relations and hydraulic function of A. rubrum to a greater extent than for Q. alba We suggest that current expansion of A. rubrum populations could be tempered by acidic N-deposition, which may restrict it to more mesic microsites. The disruption of hydraulic acclimation and coordination at low pH is emphasized as an interesting area of future study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Function of Wildfire-Deposited Pyrogenic Carbon in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R. A. Pingree

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fire is an important driver of change in most forest, savannah, and prairie ecosystems and fire-altered organic matter, or pyrogenic carbon (PyC, conveys numerous functions in soils of fire-maintained terrestrial ecosystems. Although an exceptional number of recent review articles and books have addressed agricultural soil application of charcoal or biochar, few reviews have addressed the functional role of naturally formed PyC in fire-maintained ecosystems. Recent advances in molecular spectroscopic techniques have helped strengthen our understanding of PyC as a ubiquitous, complex material that is capable of altering soil chemical, physical, and biological properties and processes. The uniquely recalcitrant nature of PyC in soils is partly a result of its stable C = C double-bonded, graphene-like structure and C-rich, N-poor composition. This attribute allows it to persist in soils for hundreds to thousands of years and represent net ecosystem C sequestration in fire-maintained ecosystems. The rapid formation of PyC during wildfire or anthropogenic fire events short-circuits the normally tortuous pathway of recalcitrant soil C formation. Existing literature also suggests that PyC provides an essential role in the cycling of certain nutrients, greatly extending the timeframe by which fires influence soil processes and facilitating recovery in ecosystems where organic matter inputs are low and post-fire surface soil bacterial and fungal activity is reduced. The high surface area of PyC allows for the adsorption a broad spectrum of organic compounds that directly or indirectly influence microbial processes after fire events. Adsorption capacity and microsite conditions created by PyC yields a “charosphere” effect in soil with heightened microbial activity in the vicinity of PyC. In this mini-review, we explore the function of PyC in natural and semi-natural settings, provide a mechanistic approach to understanding these functions, and examine

  18. Tall shrub expansion facilitated by patterned ground in the northwest Siberian Low Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, G. V.; Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.; Matyshak, G.; Ermokhina, K.

    2011-12-01

    We integrated field observations with a time-series of satellite imagery to identify key biophysical attributes associated with tall shrub expansion and increased vegetation productivity within a forest-tundra ecotone near Kharp, northwest Siberia. Comparison of high-resolution Corona and QuickBird satellite photography indicates that alder (Alnus fruticosa) cover increased by ~10% since 1968. Additionally, areas of sharply increasing productivity detected using a Landsat TM/ETM+ time-series for 1985-2009 are consistently co-located with expanding shrub stands. Field observations made in 2011 revealed that most of the shrub expansion has occurred in areas of patterned ground in which abundant mineral-dominated microsites ("circles") have been maintained by cryogenic disturbance. In order to test whether shrub expansion was facilitated by circles, we established a series of transects according to categories of alder stand age and circle density. Along the transects, we mapped the location of alders and circles, measured soil organic depth and leaf area index (LAI), and characterized plant communities. In recent expansion areas, young alders occur almost exclusively on silt-rich circles that lack vegetation and surface organic matter. Alder abundance and LAI increased with the total area occupied by exposed circles. Analyses using spatial statistics indicate that young alders tend to occur in evenly-spaced groups that mirror the spacing of circles. This distribution pattern persists in older alder stands, especially where circles are large and widely-spaced. Stands on closely-spaced circles quickly develop dense canopies and low species-diversity. Based on ground- and satellite-based observations, we conclude that the abundance of mineral-dominated circles at Kharp has facilitated rapid alder expansion and associated alterations in plant community structure, composition, and productivity. Physical processes in areas of patterned ground promote continuous, rather than

  19. Post-fire wood management alters water stress, growth, and performance of pine regeneration in a Mediterranean ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranon-Jimenez, Sara; Castro, Jorge; Querejeta, José Ignacio; Fernandez-Ondono, Emilia; Allen, Craig D.

    2013-01-01

    , salvage logging has a detrimental effect on the ecophysiological performance and growth of naturally regenerating pine seedlings, compared to alternative post-fire management practices in which burnt logs and branches are left in situ. Improved seedling growth and performance is associated with the amelioration of microsite/microclimate conditions by the presence of residual burnt wood, which alleviates seedling drought stress and improves nutrient availability through the decomposition of woody debris.

  20. Down-scaling wind energy resource from mesoscale to local scale by nesting and data assimilation with a CFD model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraisamy Jothiprakasam, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    The development of wind energy generation requires precise and well-established methods for wind resource assessment, which is the initial step in every wind farm project. During the last two decades linear flow models were widely used in the wind industry for wind resource assessment and micro-siting. But the linear models inaccuracies in predicting the wind speeds in very complex terrain are well known and led to use of CFD, capable of modeling the complex flow in details around specific geographic features. Mesoscale models (NWP) are able to predict the wind regime at resolutions of several kilometers, but are not well suited to resolve the wind speed and turbulence induced by the topography features on the scale of a few hundred meters. CFD has proven successful in capturing flow details at smaller scales, but needs an accurate specification of the inlet conditions. Thus coupling NWP and CFD models is a better modeling approach for wind energy applications. A one-year field measurement campaign carried out in a complex terrain in southern France during 2007-2008 provides a well-documented data set both for input and validation data. The proposed new methodology aims to address two problems: the high spatial variation of the topography on the domain lateral boundaries, and the prediction errors of the mesoscale model. It is applied in this work using the open source CFD code Code-Saturne, coupled with the mesoscale forecast model of Meteo-France (ALADIN). The improvement is obtained by combining the mesoscale data as inlet condition and field measurement data assimilation into the CFD model. Newtonian relaxation (nudging) data assimilation technique is used to incorporate the measurement data into the CFD simulations. The methodology to reconstruct long term averages uses a clustering process to group the similar meteorological conditions and to reduce the number of CFD simulations needed to reproduce 1 year of atmospheric flow over the site. The assimilation

  1. Connections between transport in events and transport at landscape-structuring timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, C. J.; Lohse, K. A.; Troch, P. A.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-12-01

    the population of runoff events and processes that generate them. The results suggest that over the long term, slope-dependent transport processes (such as rainsplash, bioturbation and trampling) seem to play an important role in these steeper hillslopes in inverting the flow of resources. Over many storm and inter-storm periods, soil organic matter is transported downslope in plumes extending at least two canopy radii downslope from below woody-shrub canopies into the inter-space. This pattern was particularly evident where microtopography and soil properties create micro-sites protected from fluvial transport. While many of the patterns observed are similar to those from more stable geomorphic surfaces, the results suggest that long-term downslope transport processes in sloping terrain can disrupt the autogenic processes that reinforce the redistribution of resources under shrubs. This result has important implications for our understanding of the relationship between ecosystem function and landscape-scale transport in these environments.

  2. Sedimentology and paleoenvironments of a new fossiliferous late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary succession in the Rukwa Rift Basin, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtelela, Cassy; Roberts, Eric M.; Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah L.; Downie, Robert; Hendrix, Marc S.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Stevens, Nancy J.

    2017-05-01

    braided river system with increasingly abundant floodplain deposits and well-developed paleosols. Vertebrate fossils are sparse in member A, but common in member B, preserved both within pedogenic soil horizons and as isolated elements and microsites within fluvial channel facies associations. Faunal remains include fishes, turtles and crocodylians, along with well-preserved mammal cranial and post-cranial remains. In addition, freshwater gastropod shells are locally present in member A and continental trace fossils, including abundant fossilized termite nests, are present in both members.

  3. Aspects of the ecology of mat-forming lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Crittenden

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Lichen species in the genera Cladonia (subgenus Cladina, Cetraria, Stereocaulon and Alectoria are important vegetation components on well-drained terrain and on elevated micro-sites in peatlands in boreal-Arctic regions. These lichens often form closed mats, the component thalli in which grow vertically upwards at the apices and die off in the older basal regions; they are therefore only loosely attached to the underlying soil. This growth habit is relatively unusual in lichens being found in <0.5% of known species. It might facilitate internal nutrienr recycling and higher growth rates and, together with the production of allelochemicals, it might underlie the considerable ecological success of mat-forming lichens; experiments to critically assess the importance of these processes are required. Mat-forming lichens can constitute in excess of 60% of the winter food intake of caribou and reindeer. Accordingly there is a pressing need for data on lichen growth rates, measured as mass increment, in order to help determine the carrying capacity of winter ranges for rhese herbivores and to better predict recovery rates following grazing. Trampling during the snow-free season fragments lichen thalli; mat-forming lichens regenerate very successfully from thallus fragments provided trampling does nor re-occur. Frequent recurrence of trampling creates disturbed habitats from which lichens will rapidly become eliminated consistent with J.P. Grime's CSR strategy theory. Such damage to lichen ground cover has occurred where reindeer or caribou are unable to migrate away from their winter range such as on small islands or where political boundaries have been fenced; it can also occur on summer range that contains a significant lichen component and on winter range where numbers of migrarory animals become excessive. Species of Stereocaulon, and other genera that contain cyanobacteria (most notably Peltigera and Nephroma, are among the principal agents of

  4. Methane production potential and microbial community structure for different forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Ueyama, M.; Kominami, Y.; Endo, R.; Tokumoto, H.; Hirano, T.; Takagi, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Iwata, H.; Harazono, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Forest soils are often considered as a methane (CH4) sink, but anaerobic microsites potentially decrease the sink at the ecosystem scale. In this study, we measured biological CH4 production potential of soils at various ecosystems, including upland forests, a lowland forest, and a bog, and analyzed microbial community structure using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Three different types of soil samples (upland, bank of the stream, and center of the stream) were collected from Yamashiro forest meteorology research site (YMS) at Kyoto, Japan, on 11 May 2017. The soils were incubated at dark and anaerobic conditions under three different temperatures (37°C, 25°C, and 10°C) from 9 June 2017. The upland soils emitted CH4 with largest yields among the three soils at 37°C and 25°C, although no CH4 emission was observed at 10°C. For all temperature ranges, the emission started to increase with a 14- to 20-days lag after the start of the incubation. The lag indicates a slow transition to anaerobic conditions; as dissolved oxygen in water decreased, the number and/or activity of anaerobic bacteria like methanogens increased. The soils at the bank and center of the stream emitted CH4 with smaller yields than the upland soils in the three temperature ranges. The microbial community analyses indicate that methanogenic archaea presented at the three soils including the aerobic upland soil, but compositions of methanogenic archaea were different among the soils. In upland soils, hydrogenotrophic methanogens, such as Methanobacterium and Methanothermobacter, consisted almost all of the total methanogen detected. In the bank and center of the stream, soils contained approximately 10-25% of acetoclastic methanogens, such as Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta, among the total methanogen detected. Methanotrophs, a genus of Methanobacteriaceae, was appeared in the all types of soils. We will present results from same incubation and 16S rRNA analyses for other ecosystems, including

  5. Aboveground Net Primary Production of tree cover at the post-disturbance area in the Tatra National Park, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konôpka Bohdan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale disturbances under the conditions of Slovakia, caused especially by storm and bark beetle, bring dramatic decline in carbon budget of the country, besides other negative consequences. The largest disturbance in modern history of the Slovak forestry was the storm damage that occurred in November 2004. The Tatra National Park (TNP was one of the most affected regions. Thus, in this territory, two transects (T1 – the Danielov dom site and T2 – near the Horný Smokovec village were established to survey basic dendrometric properties of trees in young stands established after the disaster. The standing stock of aboveground biomass in tree cover for the spring and autumn 2014 was calculated using the recorded variables, i.e. tree height and diameter measured at the stem base, together with the region-specific allometric relations. Then, the Aboveground Net Primary Production (ANPP in tree cover was estimated with respect to its components (stem, branches and foliage. ANPP was 315 g m−2 per year (Transect T1, and 391 g m−2 per year (Transect T2. The differences in the structure of ANPP, i.e. contribution of tree components, were found between transects T1 and T2. They were caused by the contrasting tree species composition, specifically the ratios between Norway spruce and broadleaved species. Broadleaves allocated more biomass production to foliage than spruce. This phenomenon together with higher turnover (once a year of foliage caused that broadleaves manifest higher share of fast-cycling carbon in comparison to the amount of carbon sequestrated in woody parts (stem and branches. High variability of ANPP was found within the transects, i.e. among the plots (microsites. As for the representative estimation of the standing stock of aboveground part of tree cover as well as ANPP at the post-disturbance area in the TNP territory, the survey should be performed on a net of research plots. Only this approach enables reliable estimates

  6. BCO-DMO: Enabling Access to Federally Funded Research Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkade, D.; Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Rauch, S.; Shepherd, A.; Gegg, S. R.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies: Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research, February 23, 2013. http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/ostp_public_access_memo_2013.pdf

  7. Biotic constraints on the establishment and performance of native, naturalized, and invasive plants in Pacific Northwest (USA steppe and forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M. Connolly

    2017-02-01

    . Considered collectively, our results demonstrate how seed limitation and intact plant ground cover can limit the abundance and performance of naturalized species in Pacific Northwest steppe and low elevation forest, suggesting that local disturbance in both habitats creates microsites for these species to establish and survive. Future studies evaluating interactions between multiple barriers to establishment using more representatives from each immigration class will further reveal how biotic interactions ultimately influence the demography and distribution of non-native plants within these communities.

  8. From dust to varnish: Geochemical constraints on rock varnish formation in the Negev Desert, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Yonaton; Stein, Mordechai; Enzel, Yehouda

    2014-02-01

    its varnish formation, Mn2+ is oxidized by one of the mechanisms presented by Morgan (2005). Morgan's data pertains to the rate in which Mn2+ is removed from the solution, and not to the rate of precipitation of Mn-oxides; the assumption used here is that the formation rate of Mn oxides is equal or faster than the removal rate of Mn2+, and therefore it is governed by the removal rate of Mn2+ from the solution. The efficiency of dissolution and deposition of Mn in varnish is unknown. Therefore, our calculations are based on full utilization (i.e., all Mn in the dust is transformed into Mn oxides in the varnish). Dust is abundant and its supply does not limit the process: this assumption is probably valid for deserts in general and more so to the central and southern Negev. Oxidation can occur only when moisture is available. The main moisture contributor to the Negev varnish is most likely dew (Goldsmith et al., 2012). To quantify the annual dew amounts, we used Zangvil (1996) data of an average of ˜1400 h/yr, which was measured over a six year period (at Sde Boker located between Divshon I and Nahal Boker in Fig. 1). For the following calculations, we used sites located in the central Negev, where it can be assumed that these sites experienced a similar moister regime as in Sde Boker. Morgan (2005) calculated the half-life for oxidation of Mn2+ in an aqueous environment. As stated above, these conditions prevail during ˜1400 h yr-1. With a Mn concentration in the dust of ˜500 ppm, the maximum amounts of Mn that would accumulate a year is: 35,000, 490, and 36 ppmMn yr-1 via bacterial oxidation, metal oxide catalysts, and homogenous solution oxidation, respectively.To estimate accumulation rates of Mn in the varnish, we calculated the total amount of Mn (MnTOT) in the measured profiles of the varnish by using an integral of the area under the graphs of [Mn]/depth (% atom/μm) (see appendix in Goldsmith, 2011). The MnTOT was divided by 9000 yr (the time interval since

  9. Renewable energy respecting nature. A synthesis of knowledge on environmental impacts of renewable energy financed by the Research Council for Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Roel; Bevanger, Kjetil; Dijk, Jiska Van; Petrin, Zlatko; Brende, Hege

    2012-07-01

    societal and ecological interests, ensuring both socio-economic interests and ecological considerations. Research on environmental impacts of onshore wind power focused on the Smoela wind-power plant in Central Norway, which has received much attention regarding the extent of the conflicts especially with white-tailed eagles and the scope of consequent research (BirdWind). Although the white-tailed eagle population is stable, collisions with wind turbines account for more than half of detectable adult mortality. Much important knowledge was gained by utilising an advanced mix of methods and tools such as fatality searches using dogs, mobile avian radar, GPS telemetry and GIS modelling. The research has led to substantial advances for future development of mitigation measures; including micro-siting of turbines, bird-friendly turbine designs and real-time bird collision risk forewarning. CEDREN investigates both socio-economic impacts (SusGrid) and ecological impacts (OPTIPOL) of overhead power-lines. These may pose a potential risk to birds both through collisions and electrocution, which are highly site-, seasonal- and species-specific. Conversely, electrocution of birds represents an outage risk for the operator. Understanding landscape and design features related to these risks are important for new expansions and retrofitting solutions. Effects on ungulates and game birds related to power-line corridors are important; consequently also for outdoor activities including hunting. To take into account various stakeholders' perspectives, OPTIPOL has developed a least-cost-path analysis-tool to aid complex decision-making in routing of power lines. The ambition of the RENERGI programme to provide applicable knowledge and solutions for industry and policy-makers has so far increased the knowledge base on the impacts from renewable energy production. This has resulted in method development, disposed of existing misconceptions, and specific solutions for implementation and

  10. Soil erosion after forest fires in the Valencia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    et al., 2007; González-Pelayo et al., 2010b). The knowledge achieved on post-fire erosion must very valuable for new insights and new strategies for landscape management. This research will review the State-of-the-Art of the contribution of the research on soil erosion as a consequence of forest fires in the Valencia Region. The review will show the contribution of the pioneers in the 80's when the USLE and mapping was the main too, the use of plots under simulated and natural rainfall, and also the strategies to control the soil erosion. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References Abad, N., Bautista, S., Blade, C., Caturla, R.N. 2000. Seeding and mulching as erosion control techniques after wildfires in the Valencia region. En P. Balabanis, D. Peter, A. Ghazi y M. Tsogas (Eds.), Mediterranean Desertification Research Results and Policy Implications. Directorate-General Research, vol. 2. European Commission, Brussels, 419-429. Andreu, V., Imeson, A.C., Rubio, J.L. 2001. Temporal changes in soil aggregates and water erosion after a wildfire in a Mediterranean pine forest. Catena. 44, 69-84. Arcenegui, V., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Zornoza, R., Mataix-Beneyto, J., García-Orenes, F., 2008. Immediate effects of wildfires on water repellency and aggregate stability in Mediterranean calcareous soils. Catena 74, 219-226. Bautista, S., Bellot, J., Vallejo, R. 1996. Mulching treatment for postfire soil conservation in a semiarid ecosystem. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 10, 235-242. Bodí, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Stefan H. Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. 2012. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma 160, 599-607. Boix-Fayos, C. 1997. The roles of texture and structure in the water retention capacity of burnt Mediterranean soils with varying rainfall. Catena

  11. Time since plantation is the most important determining factor for soil erosion rates in vineyards. A case study in the valley of Les Alcusses valley, Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrígo Comino, Jesús; Keesstra, Saskia; Novara, Agata; García Díaz, Andrés; Jordán, Antonio; Brevik, Eric C.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Vineyards are known to suffer from soil erosion around the world (Novara et al., 2011; 2013; 2015; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2015; Prosdocimi et al., 2016; Rodrigo-Comino et al., 2016a; 2016b, 2016b). As in other crops in the Mediterranean such as citrus (Cerdà et al., 2009), olives (Taguas et al., 2015), persimmon (Cerdà et al., 2016) or apricot (Keesstra et al., 2016) plantations, there is a need to survey the spatial and temporal changes in soil erosion in vineyards. Soil redistribution in agricultural land is determined by human management due to the control it exerts on the vegetation cover and soil properties. This is why the time since plantation is important in soil erosion spatial and temporal distribution. Especially because during the plantation of the saplings, the soil is compacted and all other vegetation is removed. In our experiment we selected four paired plot research sites in the Les Alcusses valley, in Eastern Spain. We selected recently planted vineyards (1-year old) and 40-years old plantations. In total 80 rainfall simulations were performed with an intensity of 55 mm h-1 on small 0.25 m2 circular plots to determine the soil detachment by rainfall. The results show that soil erosion rates in the 40-year old vineyards were high (### a rate??), and in the recently planted ones were extremely high, on average six times higher. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C., 2016. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude

  12. Use of local pastoral species to increase fodder production of the saline rangelands in southern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Abderrazak; Tarhouni, Mohamed; Cardà, Artemi; Neffati, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project) References Anaya-Romero, M., S. K. Abd-Elmabod, M. Muñoz-Rojas, G. Castellano, C. J. Ceacero, S. Alvarez, M. Méndez, and D. De la Rosa. 2015. Evaluating Soil Threats Under Climate Change Scenarios in the Andalusia Region, Southern Spain. Land Degradation and Development 26 (5): 441-449. doi:10.1002/ldr.2363. Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C., 2016. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Res, 54, 2, 154-165 DOI: 10.1071/SR15092 Eskandari, H., Borji, M., Khosravi, H., Mesbahzadeh, T. Desertification of forest, range and desert in Tehran province, affected by climate change. (2016) Solid Earth, 7 (3), pp. 905-915. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/se-7-905-2016 Keesstra, S., P. Pereira, A. Novara, E. C. Brevik, C. Azorin-Molina, L. Parras-Alcántara, A. Jordán, and A. Cerdà. 2016. Effects of Soil Management Techniques on Soil Water Erosion in Apricot Orchards. Science of the Total Environment 551-552: 357-366. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.182. Mengistu, D., W. Bewket, and R. Lal. 2016. Conservation Effects on Soil Quality and Climate Change Adaptability of Ethiopian Watersheds. Land Degradation and Development 27 (6): 1603-1621. doi:10.1002/ldr.2376. Muñoz-Rojas, M., Erickson, T.E., Martini, D., Dixon, K.D., Merritt, D.J (2016) Climate and soil factors influencing seedling recruitment of plant species used for dryland restoration. SOIL 2:1-11, DOI: 10.5194/soil-2016-25 Prosdocimi, M., A. Jordán, P. Tarolli, S. Keesstra, A. Novara, and A. Cerdà. 2016. The Immediate Effectiveness of Barley Straw Mulch in Reducing Soil Erodibility and Surface

  13. Vegetation-induced soil water repellency as a strategy in arid ecosystems. A geochemical approach in Banksia woodlands (SW Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; Jordan, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    discussion should shed light on possible ecological plant strategies and specific adaptations for water uptake in such arid ecosystems of WA. Acknowledgements This research has been funded by the University of Western Australia (Research Collaboration Award 2015: 'Soil water repellence in biodiverse semi arid environments: new insights and implications for ecological restoration') and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (research projects GEOFIRE, CGL2012-38655-C04-01, and POSTFIRE, CGL 2013-47862-C2-1-R. References Benigno SM, Dixon KW, Stevens JC. 2014. Seedling mortality during biphasic drought in sandy Mediterranean soils. Funct Plant Biol 41: 1239-1248 DOI: 10.1071/FP13366 Doerr SH, Shakesby RA, Walsh RPD. 2000. Soil water repellency: its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth-Sci Rev 51: 33-65. DOI: 10.1016/S0012-8252(00)00011-8. Jordán A, Zavala LM, Mataix-Solera J, Doerr SH. 2013. Soil water repellency: origin, assessment and geomorphological consequences. Catena 108: 1-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2013.05.005. Jiménez-Morillo NT, González-Pérez JA, Jordán A, Zavala LM, de la Rosa JM, Jiménez-González MA, González-Vila FJ. 2014 Organic matter fractions controlling soil water repellency in sandy soils from the Doñana National Park (Southwestern Spain). Land Degrad. Develop. published online. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2314 Lozano E, Garcia-Orenes F, Barcenas-Moreno G, Jimenez-Pinilla P, Mataix-Solera J, Arcenegui V, Morugan-Coronado A, Mataix-Beneyto J. 2014. Relationships between soil water repellency and microbial community composition under different plant species in a Mediterranean semiarid forest. J Hydrol Hydromech 62: 101-107. DOI: 10.2478/johh-2014-0017

  14. The use of straw in vineyards and orchards to reduce soil and water losses in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; García-Díaz, Andrés; Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Jordán, Antonio; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant no. 603498 (RECARE Project). J. Rodrigo-Comino, was awarded with a scholar grant (FPU) by Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte de España (Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, Spain). References Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, Ó., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., Orenes, F.G., Ritsema, C.J. 2016. Use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency-high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Research 54, 154-165. Keesstra, S., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Azorin-Molina, C., Parras-Alcántara, L., Jordán, A., Cerdà, A. 2016. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards. Science of the Total Environment 551-552, 357-366. Mwango, S.B., B.M. Msanya, P. . Mtakwa, D.N. Kimaro, J. Deckers, and J. Poesen. 2016. Effectiveness of Mulching Under Miraba in Controlling Soil Erosion, Fertility Restoration and Crop Yield in the Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Land Degradation and Development 27 (4): 1266-1275. doi:10.1002/ldr.2332. Novara, A., Gristina, l., Saladino, S.S., Santoto, S., Cerdà, A. 2011. Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a Sicilian vineyard. Soil and Tillage Research 117, 140-147. García-Díaz, A., Allas, R.B., Gristina, L., Cerdà, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A. 2016. Carbon input threshold for soil carbon budget optimization in eroding vineyards. Geoderma 271, 144-149. Prosdocimi M., Burguet M., Di Prima S., Sofia G., Terol E., Rodrigo Comino, J., Cerdà A., Tarolli P. 2017. Rainfall simulation and Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry for the analysis of soil water erosion in Mediterranean vineyards. Science of the Total Environment 574, 204-215. Prosdocimi, M., Cerdà, A., Tarolli, P. 2016a. Soil water erosion on Mediterranean vineyards: A review. Catena 141, 1

  15. Factores que afectan la distribución circular del muérdago sin hojas Tristerix aphyllus (Loranthaceae sobre el cacto Echinopsis chilensis Factors affecting the circular distribution of the leafless mistletoe Tristerix aphyllus (Loranthaceae on the cactus Echinopsis chilensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAREZZA BOTTO-MAHAN

    2000-09-01

    observed circular distribution of the parasite inflorescence differed significantly from a uniform distribution based on a random process. We quantified the circular distribution of the seeds defecated on the cactus surface by Mimus thenca, the only bird responsible of seed dispersal. Our data did not support the idea of a directional seed deposition by the bird. To test the hypothesis that the observed circular distribution can be attributable to a differential seed survival due to microsite temperature variation, we infected cacti with seeds of T. aphyllus every 30ºand quantified the temperature associated to each angle. Our results revealed that even though seeds located in angles with higher sun exposure had the lowest haustorial disk formation, this variation in mortality is not sufficient to explain the angular polarity observed in this species. Inspection of inflorescences of T. aphyllus that emerged 17 months after the experimental infection, revealed mean angular values indistinguishable from the natural circular distribution. Assessment of the anatomical structure at two opposing angles of the cactus revealed striking differences in epidermal constitution, such as a four-fold thicker epidermis in north than in south facing samples due to formation of highly lignified bark. We suggest that bark formation is likely the most important factor determining the biased circular distribution of T. aphyllus

  16. Nutrient removal using biosorption activated media: Preliminary biogeochemical assessment of an innovative stormwater infiltration basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Wanielista, Martin P.; Chang, Ni-Bin; Xuan, Zhemin; Harris, Willie G.

    2012-01-01

    Soil beneath a stormwater infiltration basin receiving runoff from a 23 ha predominantly residential watershed in north-central Florida, USA, was amended using biosorption activated media (BAM) to study the effectiveness of this technology in reducing inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus to groundwater. The functionalized soil amendment BAM consists of a 1.0:1.9:4.1 mixture (by volume) of tire crumb (to increase sorption capacity), silt and clay (to increase soil moisture retention), and sand (to promote sufficient infiltration), which was applied to develop an innovative stormwater infiltration basin utilizing nutrient reduction and flood control sub-basins. Comparison of nitrate/chloride (NO 3 − /Cl − ) ratios for the shallow groundwater indicates that prior to using BAM, NO 3 − concentrations were substantially influenced by nitrification or variations in NO 3 − input. In contrast, for the new basin utilizing BAM, NO 3 − /Cl − ratios indicate minor nitrification and NO 3 − losses with the exception of one summer sample that indicated a 45% loss. Biogeochemical indicators (denitrifier activity derived from real-time polymerase chain reaction and variations in major ions, nutrients, dissolved and soil gases, and stable isotopes) suggest that NO 3 − losses are primarily attributable to denitrification, whereas dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium is a minor process. Denitrification was likely occurring intermittently in anoxic microsites in the unsaturated zone, which was enhanced by the increased soil moisture within the BAM layer and resultant reductions in surface/subsurface oxygen exchange that produced conditions conducive to increased denitrifier activity. Concentrations of total dissolved phosphorus and orthophosphate (PO 4 3− ) were reduced by more than 70% in unsaturated zone soil water, with the largest decreases in the BAM layer where sorption was the most likely mechanism for removal. Post-BAM PO 4 3− /Cl − ratios for shallow

  17. Factors responsible for the patchy distribution of natural soil water repellency in Mediterranean semiarid forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, E.; Jiménez-Pinilla, P.; Mataix-Solera, J.; González-Pérez, J. A.; García-Orenes, F.; Torres, M. P.; Arcenegui, V.; Mataix-Beneyto, J.

    2012-04-01

    Soil water repellency (WR) is commonly observed in forest areas showing wettable and water repellent patches with high spatial variability. This has important hydrological implications; in semiarid areas where water supply is limited, even slight WR may play an important role in infiltration patterns and distribution of water into the soil (Mataix-Solera et al., 2007). It has been proposed that the origin of WR is the release of organic compounds from different plants species and sources (due to waxes and other organic substances in their tissues; Doerr et al., 1998). However, the relationship between WR and plants may not always be a direct one: a group of fungi (mainly mycorrhizal fungi) and microorganisms could be also responsible for WR. The aim of this research is to study the relationships between WR in soils under different plant cover with selected soil properties and the quantity of fungi and their exudates. The study area is located in Southeast Spain, "Sierra de la Taja" near Pinoso (Alicante)), with a semiarid Mediterranean climate (Pm=260mm). Samples were taken in September 2011, when WR is normally strongest after summer drought. Soil samples were collected from the first 2.5cm of the mineral A horizon at microsites beneath each of the four most representative species (Pinus halepensis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Quercus. rotundifolia and Cistus albidus; n=15 per specie) and 5 samples from bare soil with no influence of any species. Different soil parameters were analyzed; water content, soil organic mater content (SOM), pH, WR, easily extractable glomalin (EEG), total mycelium and extractable lipids. The occurrence of WR was higher under P. halepensis (87% of samples) and Q. rotundifolia (60% of samples). Positive significant correlations were found between WR and SOM content for all species, with the best correlations for Pinus and Quercus (r=0.855**, r= 0.934** respectively). In addition, negative significant correlations were found between WR and p

  18. Using the Triple Labelling Technique to apportion N2O Emissions to Nitrification and Denitrification from different Nitrogen Sources at different Water-Filled-Pore-Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loick, Nadine; Dixon, Elizabeth R.; Repullo Ruibérriz de Torres, Miguel A.; Ciganda, Veronica; Lopez-Aizpun, Maria A.; Matthews, G. Peter; Müller, Christoph; Cardenas, Laura M.

    2017-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is considered to be an important greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for approximately 6% of the current global warming. The atmospheric N2O concentration has been increasing since the Industrial Revolution, with soils representing its major source, making the understanding of its sources and removal processes very important for the development of mitigation strategies. In soils N gases are mainly produced via nitrification and denitrification. It is assumed that under dry/aerobic conditions nitrification is the dominant N consuming process, while denitrification becomes dominant under wetter conditions promoting anaerobicity. Nitrification and denitrification may occur simultaneously in different microsites of the same soil but there is often uncertainty associated with which process dominates in a particular soil under specific conditions. N2O predominantly derives from incomplete denitrification of nitrate (NO3-). The existence of different pools of NO3- in soils, namely the native soil pool, and the fertiliser-added one, has been suggested through a series of laboratory incubation experiments (Meijide et al., 2010; Bergstermann et al., 2011) using the denitrification incubation system, DENIS (Cardenas et al., 2003), in which soil cores are incubated under an N-free atmosphere, allowing direct measurements of all emitted N gases (NO, N2O and N2) as well as CO2. A third pool, NO3- produced from nitrification of applied NH4+, can also be a source of N2O via denitrification and also from nitrification. In this study labelling of substrate-N with 15N is used to quantify the underlying gross N transformation rates and link them to N-emissions to identify the production and consumption pathways and temporal dynamics of N2O. In three experiments twelve soil cores each were incubated in the DENIS to measure gaseous emissions, while parallel incubations under the same conditions were set up for destructive soil sampling at 7 time points. Using the triple

  19. Microbial respiration and kinetics of extracellular enzymes activities through rhizosphere and detritusphere at agricultural site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löppmann, Sebastian; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Rhizosphere and detritusphere are soil microsites with very high resource availability for microorganisms affecting their biomass, composition and functions. In the rhizosphere low molecular compounds occur with root exudates and low available polymeric compounds, as belowground plant senescence. In detritusphere the substrate for decomposition is mainly a polymeric material of low availability. We hypothesized that microorganisms adapted to contrasting quality and availability of substrates in the rhizosphere and detritusphere are strongly different in affinity of hydrolytic enzymes responsible for decomposition of organic compounds. According to common ecological principles easily available substrates are quickly consumed by microorganisms with enzymes of low substrate affinity (i.e. r-strategists). The slow-growing K-strategists with enzymes of high substrate affinity are better adapted for growth on substrates of low availability. Estimation of affinity of enzyme systems to the substrate is based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics, reflecting the dependency of decomposition rates on substrate amount. As enzymes-mediated reactions are substrate-dependent, we further hypothesized that the largest differences in hydrolytic activity between the rhizosphere and detritusphere occur at substrate saturation and that these differences are smoothed with increasing limitation of substrate. Affected by substrate limitation, microbial species follow a certain adaptation strategy. To achieve different depth gradients of substrate availability 12 plots on an agricultural field were established in the north-west of Göttingen, Germany: 1) 4 plots planted with maize, reflecting lower substrate availability with depth; 2) 4 unplanted plots with maize litter input (0.8 kg m-2 dry maize residues), corresponding to detritusphere; 3) 4 bare fallow plots as control. Maize litter was grubbed homogenously into the soil at the first 5 cm to ensure comparable conditions for the herbivore and

  20. Scientific breakthroughs necessary for the commercial success of renewable energy (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, J.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years the wind energy industry has grown at an unprecedented rate, and in certain regions has attained significant penetration into the power infrastructure. This growth has been both a result of, and a precursor to, significant advances in the science and business of wind energy. But as a result of this growth and increasing penetration, further advances and breakthroughs will become increasingly important. These advances will be required in a number of different aspects of wind energy, including: resource assessment, operations and performance analysis, forecasting, and the impacts of increased wind energy development. Resource assessment has benefited from the development of tools specifically designed for this purpose. Despite this, the atmosphere is often portrayed in an extremely simplified manner by these tools. New methodologies should rely upon more sophisticated application of the physics of fluid flows. There will need to be an increasing reliance and acceptance of improved measurement techniques (remote sensing, volume rather than point measurements, etc), and more sophisticated and higher-resolution numerical methods for micrositing. The goals of resource assessment will have to include a better understanding of the variability and forecastability of potential sites. Operational and performance analysis are vital to quantifying how well all aspects of the business are being carried out. Operational wind farms generate large amounts of meteorological and mechanical data. Data mining and detailed analysis of this data has proven to be invaluable to shed light upon poorly understood aspects of the science and industry. Future analysis will need to be even more rigorous and creative. Worthy topics of study include the impact of turbine wakes upon downstream turbine performance, how to utilize operational data to improve resource assessment and forecasting, and what the impacts of large-scale wind energy development might be. Forecasting is an

  1. Spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture in a restored reach of an Alpine river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    replicates for each FPZ and depth. At all monitoring locations the occurrence of water saturation in a given soil layer could be related to river discharge and additional soil moisture peaks in topsoil to rain events. However, absolute soil moisture levels during unsatured conditions exhibited strong spatial variability in all FPZ, probably mainly due to variability in soil texture and plant cover. In addition, in the grass zone the major summer floodings changed conditions at least temporarily. On one hand, the soil's field capacity apparently increased stepwise with each flooding, which may be explained either by fresh input of fine sediments or by retarded wetting of hydrophobic microsites rich in soil organic matter. On the other hand, the dominant canary reed grass was irreversibly flattened by each flood and replaced by a new generation of small seedlings. Processes and events as those described before complicate predictions of soil moisture in highly dynamic and biologically active systems like colonized gravel bars. In addition, it has consequences for the rate of sensitive biogeochemical processes such as denitrification which is strongly affected by soil moisture.

  2. Putative adaptive inter-slope divergence of transposon frequency in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) at "Evolution Canyon", Mount Carmel, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiles, Avigdor; Raz, Shmuel; Ben-Abu, Yuval; Nevo, Eviatar

    2015-10-14

    small differences. The large gap among the 11 TEs favored on the NFS was significant and supports our rejection of drift as the only explanation of the distribution of the slope differences. The gaps in the distribution of the differences separated the putative TEs with strong enough selection from those TEs that couldn't overrule the migration. The results are compared and contrasted with the directional effect of the frequencies of the same TEs in the study of global climatic comparisons across thousands of kilometers. From the 11 putative adaptive TEs in the local "Evolution Canyon," six differentiate in the same direction as in the continental comparisons and four in the opposite direction. One TE, FBti0019144, differentiated in EC in the same direction as in Australia and in the opposite direction to that of North America. We presume that the major divergent evolutionary driving force at the local EC microsite is natural selection overruling gene flow. Therefore, after we rejected drift as an explanation of all the large slope differences, we regarded them as putatively adaptive. In order to substantiate the individual TE adaptation, we need to increase the sample sizes and reveal the significant adaptive TEs. The comparison of local and global studies show only partial similarity in the adaptation of the TEs, because of the dryness of the ecologically tropical climate in EC, in contrast to the wet tropical climate in the global compared climates. Moreover, adaptation of a TE may be expressed only in part of the time and specific localities.

  3. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Docherty, Kathleen; Anning, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    the species richness at the monument. Also important is the wide range of conditions at the site. The diversity of plants results from a wide variety of soil types and aspects (from the cool, moist Cliff Dweller Canyon to dry mesa slopes) and an abundance of water from the West Fork of the Gila River. In turn, the vertebrate communities respond to this diversity of vegetation, topography, and microsites. For example, for each taxonomic group we found species that were only associated with a single community type, most often the riparian areas along the West and Middle forks of the Gila River. We found cause for significant concern with regard to loss of species in the last few decades. One species of amphibian (Chiricahua leopard frog) is certainly extirpated from the area. Three other species of amphibians (Mexican spadefoot, Woodhouse's toad, and red-spotted toad), reported as being 'common' in the area in 1971, were not found during our surveys. In addition, we did not find three species of rodents that were found in 1965: silky pocket mouse, Ord's kangaroo rat, and southern grasshopper mouse. The monument's aquatic vertebrate component, in particular, may be at a critical juncture whereby other species, such as gartersnakes, may be poised for extirpation. Declining abundance of native fish species has been demonstrated from long-term monitoring of these communities along the Middle Fork of the Gila River. This report includes lists of species recorded by us or species likely to be recorded with additional survey effort. It also includes management implications from our work - how the monument staff might better maintain or enhance the unique biological resources of the monument. This study is the first step in a long-term process of compiling information on the biological resources of the monument and its surrounding areas. We recommend additional inventory and monitoring studies and identify components of our effort that could be improved upon

  4. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Chiricahua National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Halvorson, William L.; Anning, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    at the intergrades between the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts with influences from the Great Plains and Madrean ecological provinces. The diversity of plants results from a wide variety of soil types and aspects (from cool, moist canyons to semi-desert grasslands to pine forests). In turn, the vertebrate communities respond to this diversity of vegetation, topography, and microsites. For example, for each taxonomic group we found that some species were only associated with a single community type, most often the riparian areas or semi-desert grasslands. The area of highest species richness for most groups was the western-most portion of Bonita Canyon. The low species richness observed in the amphibian and reptile community was likely because the monument is at the elevational edge of the more species-rich semi-desert grasslands. This report includes management implications from our work and suggestions for how the monument staff might better maintain or enhance the unique biological resources of the monument. We suggest additional inventory, monitoring, and research studies and we identify components of our effort that could be improved upon, either through the application of new techniques (e.g., establishment of vegetation monitoring plots) or by extending the temporal and/or spatial scope of our work.

  5. Importancia de la heterogeneidad ambiental en la ecología de plantas carnívoras mediterráneas: implicaciones para la conservación Environmental heterogeneity and the ecology of carnivorous plants: implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regino Zamora

    2002-03-01

    . Pinguicula vallisneriifolia inhabits wet limestone rock walls and cliffs, being able to reproduce by seeds and asexually (by stolons and axillary buds. The complex orography of Mediterranean mountains favors sunny (hot and dry and shady (cool and wet contrasting expositions. Along the sun-shade gradient, there were variations in plant flowering phenology, as well as in animal species that interacted with the plants (prey, pollinators and kleptoparasites, even at a very restricted spatial scale. The ecological consequence is that the marked spatial variability in abiotic conditions results in a site-specific mosaic of plant-animal interactions, and hence of selective pressures of animals upon plants. Plant populations have also different demographic structures depending on the microhabitat (sunny, dry versus wet, shady. As a result, different demographic patterns appear on different localities or different habitats within the same locality: populations living in moist, shady patches show high proportions of seedlings as plants reproduce both sexually and asexually, resulting in viable populations. On the contrary, plants living in dry, sunny rocky substrates, despite sexual and asexual reproduction, have no seedling recruitment because of wet microsite limitation. These populations are, therefore, dominated by vegetative individuals. Practical guiadance are provided in order to preserve these microclimatically structured populations

  6. Impacts of single and recurrent wildfires on topsoil moisture regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pelayo, Oscar; Malvar, Maruxa; van den Elsen, Erik; Hosseini, Mohammadreza; Coelho, Celeste; Ritsema, Coen; Bautista, Susana; Keizer, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    The increasing fire recurrence on forest in the Mediterranean basin is well-established by future climate scenarios due to land use changes and climate predictions. By this, shifts on mature pine woodlands to shrub rangelands are of major importance on forest ecosystems buffer functions, since historical patterns of established vegetation help to recover from fire disturbances. This fact, together with the predicted expansion of the drought periods, will affect feedback processes of vegetation patterns since water availability on these seasons are driven by post-fire local soil properties. Although fire impacts of soil properties and water availability has been widely studied using the fire severity as the main factor, little research is developed on post-fire soil moisture patterns, including the fire recurrence as a key explanatory variable. The following research investigated, in pine woodlands of north central Portugal, the short-term consequences (one year after a fire) of wildfire recurrence on the surface soil moisture content (SMC) and on effective soil water (SWEFF, parameter that includes actual daily soil moisture, soil field capacity-FC and permanent wilting point-PWP). The study set-up includes analyses at two fire recurrence scenarios (1x- and 4x-burnt since 1975), at a patch level (shrub patch/interpatch) and at two soil depths (2.5 and 7.5 cm) in a nested approach. Understanding how fire recurrence affects water in soil over space and time is the main goal of this research. The use of soil moisture sensors in a nested approach, the rainfall features and analyses on basic soil properties as soil organic matter, texture, bulk density, pF curves, soil water repellency and soil surface components will establish which factors has the largest role in controlling soil moisture behavior. Main results displayed, in a seasonal and yearly basis, no differences on SMC as increasing fire recurrence (1x- vs 4x-burnt) neither between patch/interpatch microsites at

  7. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth

  8. Long-term water repellency in organic olive orchards in the Cànyoles River watershed. The impact of land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Neris, Jonay

    2015-04-01

    Soil water repellency is being researched in many enviroments of the world due to the fact that after two decades of intense investigations we found that soil water repellency is a soil property that can be found at any ecosystem (Atanassava and Doerr, 2011; Goebel et al., 2011; Mataix-Solera et al., 2013; Roper et al., 2013; Young et al., 2013; Badía-Villas et al., 2014; Jordán et al., 2014; Whelan et al., 2014). Soil water repellency inhibits or delays infiltration, encourage surface runoff but also the preferential flow in cracks and other macropores (Arye et al., 2011; Jordán et al., 2011; Madsen et al., 2011; Spohn and Rilling, 2012; García-Moreno et al., 2013; Hallin et al., 2013). Water repellency has been found in many soil types and it is present after forest fire, on forested land and also in agriculture soils (Granjed et al., 2013; Bodí et al., 2012; García Orenes et al., 2013; Jordán et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Dlapa et al., 2013; González-Peñaloza et al., 2012; López Garrido et al., 2012; León et al., 2013; Hewelke et al., 2014; Santos et al., 2014; Kröpfl et al., 2013). This paper show the measurements caried out by means of the water drop penetration time (WDPT) method in olive plantation in the Cànyoles watershed in Eastern Spain. Conservation practices applied such as no-tillage, manure addition, application of herbicides may contribute to increase soil organic matter and, hence, soil water repellency, and this is unknow under Mediterranean type ecosystems. The effect of long-term addition of plant residues and organic manure, no-tillage and no chemical fertilization (MNT), annual addition of plant residues and no-tillage (NT), application of conventional herbicides and no-tillage (H), and conventional tillage (CT) on soil water repellency in Mediterranean calcareous citrus-cropped soils (Eastern Spain) has been studied. Water repellency was observed in MNT soils, which may be attributed to the input of hydrophobic organic

  9. Extreme soil erosion rates in citrus slope plantations and control strategies. A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Pereira, Paulo; Reyes Ruiz Gallardo, José; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Burguet, María

    2013-04-01

    irrigated land, and this contributes to increase the soil losses due to the sloping terrain. Although citrus is a world wide food, and occupy a large surface little is being researched on their impact on soil erosion, land degradation and strategies to control the soil, water and nutrient losses. This paper review the research developed until now and the results show that there is a poor background on this topic. It is necessary to develop research projects to improve the knowledge on the impact of citrus plantations on soil degradation and soil erosion. Another key information from the literature review done, is that most of the research was done in two regions of China and one of the Mediterranean. Definitively, a poor understanding of a huge environmental problem that need more scientific research. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857 supported this research. References Bombino, G., Denisi, P., Fortugno, D., Tamburino, V., Zema, D.A., Zimbone, S.M. 2010. Land spreading of solar-dried citrus peel to control runoff and soil erosion. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 140, 145-154. Cerdà, A., Giménez Morera, A., Burguet, M., Arcenegui, V., González Peñaloza, F.A., García-Orenes, F., Pereira, P. 2012. The impact of the farming, abandonment and agricultural intensification on loss of water and soil. The example of the northern slopes of the Serra Grossa, Eastern Spain [El impacto del cultivo, el abandono y la intensificación de la agricultura en la pérdida de agua y suelo. el ejemplo de la vertiente norte de la serra grossa en el este peninsular] Cuadernos de Investigacion Geografica, 38 (1), 75-94. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2008. The influence of ants on soil and water losses from an orange orchard in eastern Spain. Journal of Applied Entomology, 132 (4), 306-314. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2011. Ant mounds as a source of sediment on citrus orchard plantations in eastern Spain. A three-scale rainfall simulation

  10. Watershed health assessment to monitor land degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Hazbavi, Zeinab; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    ). References Cerdà, A., A. G. Morera, and M. B. Bodí. 2009. Soil and Water Losses from New Citrus Orchards Growing on Sloped Soils in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34 (13): 1822-1830. doi:10.1002/esp.1889. Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C., 2016. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Res, 54, 2, 154-165 DOI: 10.1071/SR15092 Choudhury, B. U., A. R. Fiyaz, K. P. Mohapatra, and S. Ngachan. 2016. Impact of Land Uses, Agrophysical Variables and Altitudinal Gradient on Soil Organic Carbon Concentration of North-Eastern Himalayan Region of India. Land Degradation and Development 27 (4): 1163-1174. doi:10.1002/ldr.2338. Davudirad, A. A., S. H. Sadeghi, and A. Sadoddin. 2016. The Impact of Development Plans on Hydrological Changes in the Shazand Watershed, Iran. Land Degradation and Development 27 (4): 1236-1244. doi:10.1002/ldr.2523. Fava, F., G. Pulighe, and A. T. Monteiro. 2016. Mapping Changes in Land Cover Composition and Pattern for Comparing Mediterranean Rangeland Restoration Alternatives. Land Degradation and Development 27 (3): 671-681. doi:10.1002/ldr.2456. Fernández-Romero, M. L., B. Lozano-García, L. Parras-Alcántara, C. D. Collins, and J. M. Clark. 2016. Effects of Land Management on Different Forms of Soil Carbon in Olive Groves in Mediterranean Areas. Land Degradation and Development 27 (4): 1186-1195. doi:10.1002/ldr.2327. Ferreira, A. C. C., L. F. C. Leite, A. S. F. de Araújo, and N. Eisenhauer. 2016. Land-use Type Effects on Soil Organic Carbon and Microbial Properties in a Semi-Arid Region of Northeast Brazil. Land Degradation and Development 27 (2): 171-178. doi:10.1002/ldr.2282. Gómez-Acata, E. S., I. Valencia-Becerril, C

  11. Soil erosion measurements by means of experimental plots to determine best land management strategies in vineyards and olive orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Jordan, Antonio; Brevik, Erik; Nova, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Azorín-Molina, César; Yazdanpanah, Najme; Mahmoodabadi, Majid; Pereira, Paulo; Burguet, María

    2016-04-01

    simulation experiments to assess soil properties under different management (Cerdà, 1997; Cerdà, 1998a; Cerdà 1998b; Cerdà, 2001). The results from the soil erosion plots monitoring demonstrate the positive impact of vegetation to reduce soil loss. In addition, we proved that the use of straw, chipped pruned branches and rock fragments as surface cover reduces soil losses (Cerdà et al., 2015, Pereira et al., 2015; Prosdocimi et al., 2016). Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project) and by the Spanish Government with the research Project CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R. References Borrelli, P., Märker, M., Schütt, B. 2015. Modelling Post-Tree-Harvesting soil erosion and sediment deposition potential in the turano river basin (Italian central apennine. Land Degradation and Development, 26, 356-366. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2214 Cerdà, A. 1997.The effect of patchy distribution of Stipa tenacissima L. on runoff and erosion. Journal of Arid Environments, 36 (1), pp. 37-51.DOI: 10.1006/jare.1995.0198 Cerdà, A. 1998a. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes, 12 (7), pp. 1031-1042. Cerdà, A. 1998b Soil aggregate stability under different Mediterranean vegetation types. Catena, 32 (2), pp. 73-86. DOI: 10.1016/S0341-8162(98)00041-1 Cerdà, A. 2001. Effects of rock fragment cover on soil infiltration, interrill runoff and erosion. European Journal of Soil Science, 52 (1), pp. 59-68. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2389.2001.00354.x Cerdà, A. 2007. Soil water erosion on road embankments in eastern Spain. Science of the Total Environment, 378 (1-2), 151-155. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.01.041 Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C

  12. The use of chipped pruned branches to control the soil and water losses in citrus plantations in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Ritsema, Coen J.; Burguet, María

    2016-04-01

    three sites the soil erosion is reduced in one order of magnitude in average as a consequence of the cover of the chipped pruned branches (78.45 % in average cover) in comparison to the bare (control) soils. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project). References Berendse, F., van Ruijven, J., Jongejans, E., Keesstra, S. 2015. Loss of plant species diversity reduces soil erosion resistance. Ecosystems, 18 (5), 881-888. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-015-9869-6 Biswas H., Raizada A., Mandal D., Kumar S., Srinivas S., Mishra P. K. 2015. Identification of areas vulnerable to soil erosion risk in India using GIS methods. Solid Earth, 6 (4), pp. 1247-1257. DOI: 10. 5194/se-6-1247-2015v Brevik, E. C., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Pereg, L., Quinton, J. N., Six, J., and Van Oost, K.: The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL, SOIL, 1, 117-129, doi:10.5194/soil-1-117-2015, 2015. Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. and Bodí, M.B. 2009.Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1822-1830. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1889 Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C., 2015. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Res. (In press) Colazo, J.C., Buschiazzo, D. 2015. The Impact of Agriculture on Soil Texture Due to Wind Erosion.Land Degradation and Development, 26 (1), 62-70 DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2297 Decock, C.,J. Lee, M. Necpalova, E. I. P. Pereira, D. M. Tendall, J. Six. 2015 Mitigating N2O emissions from soil: from patching leaks to transformative action. SOIL, 1, 687-694, doi:10

  13. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    . Integrated geophysical investigations at the Halutza archaeological site. Proceed. of the 64 EAGE Conf., Florence, Italy, P151, 4 pp. Eppelbaum, L., Ben-Avraham, Z., Itkis, S., and Kouznetsov, S., 2001a. First results of self-potential method application at archaeological sites in Israel. Trans. of the EUG XI Intern. Symp., Strasbourg, France, p. 657. Eppelbaum, L.V. and Itkis, S.E., 2000. Magnetic investigations in the Proto-Historic site to the east of Tel Megiddo. In: (Eds. I. Finkelstein, D. Ussishkin and B. Halpern), Monograph Series of the Inst. of Archaeology, Emery and Claire Yass Publications in Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, "Megiddo III", Monogr. Ser. No. 18, 504-514. Eppelbaum, L.V. and Itkis, S.E., 2001. Detailed magnetic investigations at the ancient Roman site Banias II (northern Israel). Proceed. of the 1st Intern Symp. on Soil and Archaeology, Szazhalombatta, Hungary, 13-16. Eppelbaum, L.V. and Itkis, S.E., 2003. Geophysical examination of the Christian archaeological site Emmaus-Nicopolis (central Israel). Collection of Papers of the XIX CIPA Conf. "New Perspectives to Save the Cultural Heritage", Antalya, Turkey, 395-400. Eppelbaum, L.V., Itkis, S.E., Fleckenstein, K.-H., and Fleckenstein, L., 2007. Latest results of geophysical-archaeological investigations at the Christian archaeological site Emmaus-Nicopolis (central Israel). Proceed. of the 69th EAGE Conference, P118, London, Great Britain, 5 pp. Eppelbaum, L.V., Itkis, S.E., and Gopher A., 2009a. Interpreting magnetic data at Nahal Zehora II. In: (Ed. A. Gopher), Monograph Series of the Inst. of Archaeology, Emery and Claire Yass Publications in Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, "Archaeological investigations at the sites of Nahal-Zehora", Monogr. Ser. No. 19. Eppelbaum, L.V., Itkis, S.E., and Khesin, B.E., 2000a. Optimization of magnetic investigations in the archaeological sites in Israel, In: Special Issue of Prospezioni Archeologiche "Filtering, Modeling and Interpretation of Geophysical Fields

  14. Consecuencias de las variaciones microclimáticas sobre la visita de insectos polinizadores en dos especies de Chaetanthera (Asteraceae en los Andes de Chile central Consequences of microclimate variation on insect pollinator visitation in two species of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae in the central Chilean Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN TORRES-DÍAZ

    2007-12-01

    ás variación en las tasas de visitas a flores que la densidad de capítulos florales en los parches. Nuestros resultados aportan valiosa información sobre las potenciales consecuencias del cambio climático global en la polinizaciónInsect pollinator activity can be influenced by biotic (e.g., patch floral density and floral display or by abiotic factors (e.g., temperature, wind velocity, cloudiness. In spite of microsite, seasonal and interannual variation in temperature in the alpine zone, the consequences of local microclimatic variation on pollinator activity has been rarely studied in high mountain ecosystems. In this study we compared flower visitation rates on a north-facing slope and a west-facing slope in Chaetanthera apiculata (3,100 m of altitude and on an east-facing slope and a west-facing slope in Chaetanthera lycopodioides (3,300 m of altitude. We studied the breeding system in each species in order to determine level of dependence on external pollinators. While the north-facing slope inhabited by C. apiculata was warmer (1.8 °C and visited (7.8-fold more frequently than the west-facing slope, in C. lycopodioides the east-facing slope was warmer (3 °C and visited more frequently (4-fold than the west-facing slope. In C. apiculata only Faunula leucoglene (Lepidóptera: Satyridae showed higher activity in the warmer population. In C. lycopodioides, F. leucoglene and Liphantus sp. (Himenóptera:Andrenidae showed higher activity rates in the warmer population. Flower visitation rate in Faunula leucoglene was correlated with temperature in C. apiculata and C. lycopodioides. Both C. apiculata and C. lycopodioides are partially self-compatible, and thus require exogenous pollen for maximum seed set. Our results show that in high elevation environments flower visitation rates can be highly variable and that microclimatic conditions can be more important for pollinator variation among populations than head density. Our results offer valuable insights on the

  15. Why most agricultural terraces in steep slopes in semiarid SE Spain remain well preserved since their abandonment 50 years go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantón, F.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the agricultural terraces in mountain environments are abandoned, like those from the Filabres range in Almería, SE Spain. While many of such terraces show signs of soil erosion (wall disruptions, surface crusts, pipes and gullies, others in steep slopes remain well preserved after 50 years since their abandonment and still seem to play an active role against soil erosion. In order to know both magnitude of soil erosion and controlling factors in different types of abandoned terraces, a rainfall simulation campaign with a portable sprinkler was carried out in 45 representative microsites. Runoff, derived-infiltration and sediment production were measured and their relationships to basic soil parameters (particle size distribution, pH, EC, organic matter content, aggregate stability, geomorphic position, and ground cover, were examined. Under the average applied rainfall intensity (48 mm/h, which represents a precipitation with a return period of 5 years in the area, narrow bench terraces from steep hillslopes, have larger infiltration values and deliver less sediments than large bank terraces in alluvial plains. The presence of stony pavement sieving crusts on narrow-bench terraces and also on un-terraced alluvial fans, play an essential armouring effect against soil erosion while favouring water infiltration. Considerations are made about the evolution of the different types of traditional terraces in the area under both past agricultural and present abandoned status, and also about possible uses under a sustainable land management policy.

    Una gran parte de las terrazas agrícolas en zonas de montaña están abandonadas, como las de la Sierra de los Filabres en Almería, SE de España. Si bien muchas de dichas terrazas muestran señales de erosión hídrica (destrucción de muros, encostramiento superficial, piping y cárcavas, otras en laderas con pendientes acusadas siguen bien conservadas tras 50 años de abandono y

  16. A Habitat-based Wind-Wildlife Collision Model with Application to the Upper Great Plains Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forcey, Greg, M.

    2012-08-28

    compared among species, our model outputs provide a convenient and easy landscape-level tool to quickly screen for siting issues at a high level. The model resolution is suitable for state or multi-county siting but users are cautioned against using these models for micrositing. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recently released voluntary land-based wind energy guidelines for assessing impacts of a wind facility to wildlife using a tiered approach. The tiered approach uses an iterative approach for assessing impacts to wildlife in levels of increasing detail from landscape-level screening to site-specific field studies. Our models presented in this paper would be applicable to be used as tools to conduct screening at the tier 1 level and would not be appropriate to complete smaller scale tier 2 and tier 3 level studies. For smaller scale screening ancillary field studies should be conducted at the site-specific level to validate collision predictions.

  17. Modelling spatial distribution of soil steady state infiltration rate in an urban park (Vingis Parkas, Vilnius, Lithuania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Bogunovic, Igor; Menchov, Oleksandr

    2016-04-01

    infiltration rate was 69 mm h-1, with a minimum of 12.72 mm h-1 and a maximum of 692.31 mm h-1. The spatial variability was extremely high (coefficient of variation of 153.71). Among the methods tested the most accurate was SK (RMSE=0.542) and the least precise TPS (RMSE=0.695). With the exception of the IDW5, all the correlations between observed and estimated values were significant at a p<0.05. All the residuals followed the normal distribution. Steady state infiltration was high in the southern and central part of the plot (where the human impact is high) and low in the northern part of the park, where forests are denser. References Bisantino, T., Bingner, R., Chouaib, W., Gentile, F., Trisorio Liuzzi, G. (2015) Estimation of runoff, peak discharge and sediment load at the event scale in a medium-size mediterranean watershed using the annagnps model Land Degradation and Development, 26, 340-355. Brevik, E. C., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Pereg, L., Quinton, J. N., Six, J., Van Oost, K. (2015) The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL. SOIL, 1, 117-129. Cassinari, C., Manfredi, P., Giupponi, L., Trevisan, M., Piccini, C. (2015). Relationship between hydraulic properties and plant coverage of the closed-landfill soils in Piacenza (Po Valley, Italy). Solid Earth, 6, 929-943. Cerdà, A. (1996) Seasonal variability of infiltration rates under contrasting slope conditions in southeast Spain. Geoderma, 69, 217-232. Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C. (2015) The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Research (In press) Cerdà, A. (2001) Effects of rock fragment cover on soil infiltration, interrill runoff and erosion. European Journal of Soil Science, 52, 59-68. Cerdà, A. (1997) Seasonal changes

  18. EDITORIAL: Focus on Attosecond Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Krausz, Ferenc; Starace, Anthony F.

    2008-02-01

    Chelkowski and A D Bandrauk Broadband generation in a Raman crystal driven by a pair of time-delayed linearly chirped pulses Miaochan Zhi and Alexei V Sokolov Ultrafast nanoplasmonics under coherent control Mark I Stockman Attosecond pulse carrier-envelope phase effects on ionized electron momentum and energy distributions: roles of frequency, intensity and an additional IR pulse Liang-You Peng, Evgeny A Pronin and Anthony F Starace Angular encoding in attosecond recollision Markus Kitzler, Xinhua Xie, Stefan Roither, Armin Scrinzi and Andrius Baltuska Polarization-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy with high harmonics Y Mairesse, S Haessler, B Fabre, J Higuet, W Boutu, P Breger, E Constant, D Descamps, E Mével, S Petit and P Salières Macroscopic effects in attosecond pulse generation T Ruchon, C P Hauri, K Varjú, E Mansten, M Swoboda, R López-Martens and A L'Huillier Monitoring long-term evolution of molecular vibrational wave packet using high-order harmonic generation M Yu Emelin, M Yu Ryabikin and A M Sergeev Intense single attosecond pulses from surface harmonics using the polarization gating technique S G Rykovanov, M Geissler, J Meyer-ter-Vehn and G D Tsakiris Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields M F Kling, J Rauschenberger, A J Verhoef, E Hasović, T Uphues, D B Milošević, H G Muller and M J J Vrakking Self-compression of optical laser pulses by filamentation A Mysyrowicz, A Couairon and U Keller Towards efficient generation of attosecond pulses from overdense plasma targets N M Naumova, C P Hauri, J A Nees, I V Sokolov, R Lopez-Martens and G A Mourou Quantum-path control in high-order harmonic generation at high photon energies Xiaoshi Zhang, Amy L Lytle, Oren Cohen, Margaret M Murnane and Henry C Kapteyn Time-resolved mapping of correlated electron emission from helium atom in an intense laser pulse C Ruiz and A Becker Pump and probe ultrafast electron dynamics in LiH: a computational study

  19. Design and Experimental Evaluation of an Electromagnetic Acceleration System for Fast Safety Rods; Etude Theorique et Experimentale d'un Mecanisme Electromagnetique d'acceleration pour des Barres de Securite; Proektirovanie i ehksperimental'naya otsenka ehlektromagnitnoj sistemy uskoreniya dlya avarijnykh sterzhnej bystrogo dejstviya; Proyecto y Estudio Experimental de un Sistema Electromagnetico de Aceleracion para Barras Rapidas de Seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosch, P.; Kraus, H. -J.; Uhrig, H. [Kernreaktor Bau- und Betriebs-Gesellschaft m.b.H., Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1964-06-15

    rapida de seguridad para un conjunto rapido de potencia nula (SNEAK). Se esta ensayando un prototipo de dicha barra. Los resultados obtenidos hasta ahora han sido muy satisfactorios. (author) [Russian] Sistema avarijnoj zashhity reaktora dolzhna dej stv ov at' s minimal'noj za d erzh k oj , esli ona prednaznachena dlja kontrolja ochen' bystryh otklonenij reaktivnosti. V jelektronnyh chastjah sistemy avarijnoj zashhity mozhno ochen' legko dobit'sja bystrogo srabatyvanija, t o gd a kak sokrashhenie vremeni m ehanicheskogo vysvobozhdenija avarijnogo sterzhnja javljaetsja trudnoj za d a ch ej. Bole etshhatel'nye issledovanija pokazyvajut, chto pomimo nebol'shogo vremeni vysvobozhdenija, preimushhestvo daet vysokaja pervonachal'naja skorost' sterzhnja. Pri odinakovom kolichestve vremeni, zatrach i v a emom na v v edenie st erzh n ja , sterzhni s ravnomernoj skorost'ju n emn ogo p revoshodjat sterzhni s ravnomernym u skoreiem . - Na osnovanii jetih soobrazhenij mozhno schi t a t' , chto impul'snoe u sk oren ie ja vlja etsja pravil'nym metodom vvedenija avarijnyh sterzhnej dlja ustranenija bystryh otklonenij r e aktivnosti, tak kak jeto daet nebol'shuju zaderzhku i obespechivaet vysokuju pervonachal'nuju skorost'. Ustanovleno, chto v avarijnyh sterzhnjah mozhno primenit' jelektromagnitnyj impul'snyj g en er ator. On imeet sledujushhie preimushhestva: a) nebol'shoe kolichestvo komponentov prostoj i prochnoj konstrukcii, kotorye mogut byt' legko vkljucheny v avarijnyj sterzhen', a takzhe mogut byt' skonstruirovany dlja u slovij, sushhestvujushhih okolo aktivnoj zony (vysokie urovni temperatury i izluchenija); b) jen ergi ja , privodjashhaja v dvizhenie sterzhni, akkumuliruetsja v jelek trok on den satore i p o jet om u takzhe mozhet byt' ispol'zovana v sluchae prekrashhenija jenergopitanija; v) konstrukciju legko mozhno prisposobit' k tomu, chtoby ona mogla svobodno i be sp r e pjatstvenno padat' v sluchae prekrashhenija impul'sov. V doklade opisyvajutsja rezul

  20. Rock fragment cover controls the sediment detachment in citrus plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Brevik, Eric; Giménez Morera, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Masto, Reginald E.; Jordán, Antonio; Wang, Juan

    2016-04-01

    conditions. The objective of this research is to determine the impact of the rock fragment cover on soil and water losses in citrus plantations. Within the Corral Roig Soil Erosion Research Station, located in the Municipality of Montesa, 82 plots were selected with different rock fragment cover. In each circular plot of 0.25 m2, a rainfall simulation experiments was carried out at 55 mm h-1 of rainfall intensity during 1 hour under dry conditions in the Summer of 2013 under very dry conditions. It was found that the soil erosion rates are related to percentage of bare soil, and negatively correlated to the rock fragment covers. A cover of 30 % of rock fragments reduces the loss of soil with 81%. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project). References Cerdà, A. 1999. Parent material and vegetation affect soil erosion in eastern Spain. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 63 (2), 362-368. Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. and Bodí, M.B. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1822-1830. 2009. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1889 Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C., 2015. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Res. (In press) Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2011. Ant mounds as a source of sediment on citrus orchard plantations in eastern Spain. A three-scale rainfall simulation approachCatena, 85 (3), 231-236. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2011.01.008 Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2008.The influence of ants on soil and water losses from an orange orchard in

  1. The use of straw to reduce the soil and water losses in agriculture and forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean Type-Ecosystem. The Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Artemi; Burguet, Maria; Keesstra, Saskia; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Hedo, Javier; Brevik, Eric; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Jordan, Antonio; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Taguas, Encarnacion

    2016-04-01

    ., Raizada A., Mandal D., Kumar S., Srinivas S., Mishra P. K. 2015. Identification of areas vulnerable to soil erosion risk in India using GIS methods. Solid Earth, 6 (4), pp. 1247-1257. DOI: 10. 5194/se-6-1247-2015v Brevik, E. C., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Pereg, L., Quinton, J. N., Six, J., and Van Oost, K.: The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL, SOIL, 1, 117-129, doi:10.5194/soil-1-117-2015, 2015. Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. and Bodí, M.B. 2009. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1822-1830. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1889 Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C., 2015. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Res. (In press) Colazo, J.C., Buschiazzo, D. 2015. The Impact of Agriculture on Soil Texture Due to Wind Erosion.Land Degradation and Development, 26 (1), 62-70 DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2297 Dai, Q., Liu, Z., Shao, H., Yang, Z. 2015. Karst bare slope soil erosion and soil quality: A simulation case study. Solid Earth, 6 (3), 985-995.DOI: 10.5194/se-6-985-2015 Decock, C.,J. Lee, M. Necpalova, E. I. P. Pereira, D. M. Tendall, J. Six. 2015 Mitigating N2O emissions from soil: from patching leaks to transformative action. SOIL, 1, 687-694, doi:10.5194/soil-1-687-2015, Erkossa T., Wudneh A., Desalegn B., Taye G. 2015. Linking soil erosion to on-site financial cost: Lessons from watersheds in the Blue Nile basin. Solid Earth, 6 (2), 765-774. DOI: 10. 5194/se-6-765-2015 Jordán-López, A., Martínez-Zavala, L., & Bellinfante, N. 2009. Impact of different parts of unpaved forest roads on runoff and sediment yield in a Mediterranean area. Science of the total environment, 407(2), 937

  2. Ash wettability conditions splash erosion in the postfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; de Celis, Reyes; García-Moreno, Jorge; Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth; Alanís, Nancy; Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    -Solera (Ed.) Incendios Forestales, Suelos y Erosión Hídrica. Caja Mediterráneo CENACAM Font Roja-Alcoi. Alicante. Pp.: 5-40. Mataix-Solera J, Guerrero C, Arcenegui V, Bárcenas G, Zornoza R, Pérez-Bejarano A, Bodí MB, Mataix-Beneyto J, Gómez I, García-Orenes F, Navarro-Pedreño J, Jordán MM, Cerdà A, Doerr SH, Úbeda X, Outeiro L, Jordán A, Zavala LM. 2009. Los incendios forestales y el suelo: un resumen de la investigación realizada por el Grupo de Edafología Ambiental de la UMH en colaboración con otros grupos. In: Cerdà A, Mataix-Solera J. (Eds.). El efecto de los incendios forestales sobre los suelos en España. El estado de la cuestión visto por los científicos españoles. Universitat de Valencia. Valencia. Pp.: 185-218. Mataix-Solera J, Cerdà A, Arcenegui V, Jordán A, Zavala LM. 2011. Fire efects on soil aggregation: a review. Earth-Science Reviews 109, 44-60 Neary DG, Klopatek CC, DeBano LF, Ffolliott PF. 1999. Fire effects on belowground sustainability: a review and synthesis. Forest Ecology and Management 122, 51-71. Pausas JG, Verdú M. 2005. Plant persistence traits in fire-prone ecosystems of the Mediterranean Basin: a phylogenetic approach. Oikos 109, 196-202. Pereira P, Úbeda X, Outeiro L, Martin D. 2009. Factor analysis applied to fire temperature effects on water quality. In: Gómez E, Álvarez K (Eds.), Forest Fires: Detection, Suppression and Prevention. Series Natural Disaster Research, Prediction and Mitigation, Nova Science Publishers, New York, NY. Pp.: 273-285 Pereira P, Cerdà A, Úbeda X, Mataix-Solera J, Martin D, Jordán A, Burguet M. 2013. Spatial models for monitoring the spatio-temporal evolution of ashes after fire - a case study of a burnt grassland in Lithuania. Solid Earth 4, 153-165. Sevink J, Imeson AC, Verstraten JM. 1989. Humus form development and hillslope runoff, and the effects of fire and management, under Mediterranean forest in N.E. Spain. Catena 16, 461-475. Stark NM, 1977. Fire and nutrient cycling in a