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Sample records for nacl suiyoekichu ni

  1. Characterization of corrosion resistant on NiCoCr coating layer exposed to 5%NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiarti, E.; Sundawa, R.; Desiati, R. D.; Zaini, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    Highly corrosion resistant of carbon steel coated NiCoCr was applied in corrosive of marine environtment. Carbon steel coated NiCoCr was prepared by a two step technique of NiCo electro-deposition and Cr pack cementation. The samples were exposed to 5 wt.% NaCl for 48 and 168 hours. The microstructure and corrosion product were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated NiCoCr was found to be better than that of carbon steel substrate without coating. The results showed the microstructure of 48 h corroded sample has duplex layer composed of inner α-(Ni,Co), α-Cr and outer Cr2O3, while a quite thin and continues protective oxide of Cr2O3 was observed in outer layer of 168 h corroded sample. The formation of oxide scale rich in Cr2O3 has contributed for the better corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated NiCoCr, whereas the formation of non protective oxide of iron might caused low corrosion resistance of carbon steel substrate.

  2. Corrosion Behavior of High Pressure Die Cast Al-Ni and Al-Ni-Ca Alloys in 3.5% NaCl Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthanari, Srinivasan; Jang, Jae Cheol; Shin, Kwang Seon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this investigation corrosion behavior of newly developed high-pressure die cast Al-Ni (N15) and Al-Ni-Ca (NX1503) alloys was studied in 3.5% NaCl solution. The electrochemical corrosion behavior was evaluated using open circuit potential (OCP) measurement, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization results validated that NX1503 alloy exhibited lower corrosion current density (i{sub corr}) value (5.969 μA/cm{sup 2}) compared to N15 (7.387 μA/cm{sup 2}). EIS-Bode plots revealed a higher impedance (|Z|) value and maximum phase angle value for NX1503 than N15 alloy. Equivalent circuit curve fitting analysis revealed that surface layer (R{sub 1}) and charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) values of NX1503 alloy was higher compared to N15 alloy. Immersion corrosion studies were also conducted for alloys using fishing line specimen arrangement to simultaneously measure corrosion rates from weight loss (P{sub W}) and hydrogen volume (P{sub H}) after 72 hours and NX1503 alloy had lower corrosion rate compared to N15 alloy. The addition of Ca to N15 alloy significantly reduced the Al{sub 3}Ni intermetallic phase and further grain refinement may be attributed for reduction in the corrosion rate.

  3. Paradoxes of the influence of small Ni impurity additions in a NaCl crystal on the kinetics of its magnetoplasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshits, V. I.; Darinskaya, E. V.; Koldaeva, M. V.; Petrzhik, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study of magnetoplasticity in two types of NaCl crystals differing in impurity content only by a small Ni addition (0.06 ppm) in one of them, NaCl(Ni), has been carried out. Two methods of sample magnetic exposure were used: in a constant field B = 0-0.6 T and in crossed fields in the EPR scheme—the Earth's field B Earth (50 μT) and a variable pumping field tilde B( ˜ 1 μ T) at frequencies ν 1 MHz. In the experiments in the EPR scheme, the change of the field orientation from tilde B bot B_{Earth} to . {tilde B} |B_{Earth} led to almost complete suppression of the effect in the NaCl(Ni) crystals and reduced only slightly (approximately by 20%) the height of the resonance peak of dislocation mean paths in the crystals without Ni, with the amplitude of the mean paths in NaCl(Ni) in the orientation tilde B bot B_{Earth} having been appreciably lower than that in NaCl. In contrast, upon exposure to a constant magnetic field, a more intense effect was observed in the crystal with Ni. The threshold pumping field amplitude tilde B, below which the effect is absent under resonance conditions, for the NaCl(Ni) crystals turned out to be a factor of 5 smaller than that for NaCl, while the thresholds of a constant magnetic field coincide for both types of crystals. All these differences are discussed in detail and interpreted.

  4. SAE 1045 steel/WC-Co/Ni-Cu-Ni/SAE 1045 steel joints prepared by dynamic diffusion bonding: Microelectrochemical studies in 0.6 M NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreatta, Francesco; Matesanz, Laura; Akita, Adriano H.; Paussa, Luca; Fedrizzi, Lorenzo; Fugivara, Cecilio S.; Gomez de Salazar, Jose M.; Benedetti, Assis V.

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion of SAE 1045 steel/WC-Co/Ni-Cu-Ni/SAE 1045 steel interfaces was investigated in 0.6 M NaCl solution using an electrochemical microcell, which enables local electrochemical characterization at the micrometer scale. Two pieces of steel, one with a WC-Co coating covered with Ni (12 μm) and Cu (5 μm) layers, and the other with a Ni (15 μm) layer, were welded by dynamic diffusion bonding. A WC-Co coating was applied to the steel by the high velocity oxygen-fuel process, and Ni-Cu and Ni layers by electroplating. Polarization curves were recorded using an electrochemical microcell. Different regions of welded samples were investigated, including steel, cermet coating, and steel/cermet and steel/Ni-Cu-Ni/cermet interfaces. Optical and electronic microscopes were employed to study the corroded regions. Potentiodynamic polarization curves obtained using the microcell revealed that the base metal was more susceptible to corrosion than the cermet. In addition, cermet steel/cermet and steel/Ni-Cu-Ni/cermet joints exhibited different breakdown potentials. Steel was strongly corroded in the regions adjacent to the interfaces, while the cermet was less corroded. Iron oxides/hydroxides and chloride salts were the main corrosion products of steel. After removal of the superficial layer of corrosion products, iron oxides were mainly observed. Chloride ions were detected mainly on a copper-enriched layer placed between two Ni-enriched layers.

  5. Acid-base behavior of the gaspeite (NiCO3(s)) surface in NaCl solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Jiménez, Adrián; Mucci, Alfonso; Pokrovsky, Oleg S; Schott, Jacques

    2010-08-03

    Gaspeite is a low reactivity, rhombohedral carbonate mineral and a suitable surrogate to investigate the surface properties of other more ubiquitous carbonate minerals, such as calcite, in aqueous solutions. In this study, the acid-base properties of the gaspeite surface were investigated over a pH range of 5 to 10 in NaCl solutions (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 M) at near ambient conditions (25 +/- 3 degrees C and 1 atm) by means of conventional acidimetric and alkalimetric titration techniques and microelectrophoresis. Over the entire experimental pH range, surface protonation and electrokinetic mobility are strongly affected by the background electrolyte, leading to a significant decrease of the pH of zero net proton charge (PZNPC) and the pH of isoelectric point (pH(iep)) at increasing NaCl concentrations. This challenges the conventional idea that carbonate mineral surfaces are chemically inert to background electrolyte ions. Multiple sets of surface complexation reactions (i.e., ionization and ion adsorption) were formulated within the framework of three electrostatic models (CCM, BSM, and TLM) and their ability to simulate proton adsorption and electrokinetic data was evaluated. A one-site, 3-pK, constant capacitance surface complexation model (SCM) reproduces the proton adsorption data at all ionic strengths and qualitatively predicts the electrokinetic behavior of gaspeite suspensions. Nevertheless, the strong ionic strength dependence exhibited by the optimized SCM parameters reveals that the influence of the background electrolyte on the surface reactivity of gaspeite is not fully accounted for by conventional electrostatic and surface complexation models and suggests that future refinements to the underlying theories are warranted.

  6. Pitting corrosion of copper in aqueous solutions containing phosphonic acid as an inhibitor. Hosuhon san wo inhibita toshite fukumu suiyoekichu ni okeru do no koshiku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y. (Muroran Univ., Hokkaido (Japan). Graduate School); Seri, O.; Tagashira, K. (Muroran Univ., Hokkaido (Japan)); Nagata, K. (Sumitomo Light Metal Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Technical Research Lab.)

    1993-09-15

    Phosphonic acid-based inhibitors that are poured into cooling water for copper-tube circulation systems for open heat-accumulators were studied on their influence on pitting corrosion of copper. Amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) dissolved into distilled water to 50 ppm was used for the immersion corrosion test. The corrosion-proof effect of additives such as ZnSO4, benzotriazole (BTA) was tested too. 0.5 mm thick phosphate-treated copper plates with a hole of 5 mm in diameter were used as test specimens. Pitting corrosion on the copper plate occurred when ATMP, BTA and ZnSO4 coexisted. It was proved that SO4 [sup 2-] is essential since Na2SO4 in stead of ZnSO4 induced also corrosion. The pitting took place when 0.6 ppm or more of SO4 [sup 2-] was present in a BTA-added ATMP solution. It was observed that the pitting is prone to occur with increase of SO4 [sup 2-] and the number of pitting increases. The following relationship is established when pitting corrosion occurs; E[sub b] [le] E[sub corr], where the former is a potential value at which current density shows a steep increase and the latter is an average value of spontaneous electrode potential showing a plateau. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Removal of minute amount of furfural in ethanol aqueous solution by use of batch-rectification; Kaibun seiryu ni yoru ethanol suiyoekichu no biryo furfural no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, K.; Shimoda, M.; Uemura, Y.; Hatate, Y. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-10

    Furfural is produced in the distillation stage of low-class distilled spirit manufacturing and badly influences the quality of products. The removal of minute amount of furfural in an ethanol aqueous solution was thus investigated by an Oldershow-type batch-rectifying column consisting of ten plates. Furfural of 50 ppm was added to an ethanol aqueous solution of 6.6 mole% as raw materials. If the ethanol concentration in the upper distillation plates is set high, furfural is forecast to be concentrated in the intermediate plate. In an experiment, side-cut was carried out at this plate. If side-cut is performed at the seventh-plate tray from the top, the total side-cut rate is 12%. In this case, 77% of furfural is removed. The side-cut rate of ethanol at that time was 11%. Moreover, 85% of furfural was removed when ethanol with high concentration was extracted from the top under total reflux conditions and when side-cut was carried out. Only 9% of ethanol was distilled in this case. It was confirmed that furfural can be separated using a multi-plate batch-distilling column. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Kinetin Reversal of NaCl Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Adriana; Dehan, Klara; Itai, Chanan

    1978-01-01

    Leaf discs of Nicotiana rustica L. were floated on NaCl in the presence of kinetin or abscisic acid. On the 5th day 14CO2 fixation, [3H]leucine incorporation, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll content were determined. Kinetin either partially or completely reversed the inhibitory effects of NaCl while ABA had no effect. PMID:16660618

  9. Diffusion of calcium in pure and doped NaCl; Diffusion du calcium dans NaCl pur et dope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slifkin, L; Brebec, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    We have determined, by diffusion experiments of Ca in pure and doped NaCl, the activation energy for the calcium jumps and the binding energy between calcium ion and vacancy. (authors) [French] Nous avons determine, par des mesures de diffusion du Ca dans NaCl pur et NaCl dope avec CaCl{sub 2}, l'energie d'activation relative aux sauts du calcium et l'energie de liaison lacune-calcium. (auteurs)

  10. Energy stored in irradiated NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidiard, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    Recently reported measurements of the energy stored in heavily irradiated NaCl are reviewed in the light of recent understanding of radiation-damage processes in this material. It is shown that, in the ranges of temperatures and dose rates of these experiments, the F-centres produced by the irradiation are retained principally in the form of colloids: the stored energy is thus a direct measure of the number of F-centres retained in this form. Comparison of these results with the prediction of the recently proposed theory of colloid growth shows that the predictions of the dependence of colloid growth rates upon temperature and dose rate are qualitatively correct. The dependence of stored energy dose, however, appears to require the inclusion of a thermally activated back-reaction and possible modifications to the theory are briefly discussed. However, further experiments in this range of temperatures and dose rates are necessary for more quantitative tests of the theory. This reconsideration of the data does not alter the broad conclusion as to the relative insignificance of stored energy in a natural salt formation used as a radioactive waste repository, although more extensive measurements permitting a more exact test of theory would allow better predictions to be made for such applications. (author)

  11. EPR spectroscopy on irradiated nickel tetracyanide in NaCl host lattice: mechanism for the simultaneous formation of reduced and oxidized species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga de Araujo, M.; Pinhal, Nelson Moreira; Vugman, Ney Vernon

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidized and reduced Ni 2+ complexes produced by X-ray irradiation on single crystals of NaCl doped with [Ni(CN) 4 ] 2- is studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance at room temperature. The interdependent generation of these two complexes is attributed to migration of the charge compensating vacancy from the reduced to the oxidized complex in a reversible reaction. At higher X-ray doses, there is a predominant formation of the reduced complex

  12. Secretory NaCl and volume flow in renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyenbach, K W

    1986-05-01

    This review attempts to give a retrospective survey of the available evidence concerning the secretion of NaCl and fluid in renal tubules of the vertebrate kidney. In the absence of glomerular filtration, epithelial secretory mechanisms, which to this date have not been elucidated, are responsible for the renal excretion of NaCl and water in aglomerular fish. However, proximal tubules isolated from glomerular fish kidneys of the flounder, killifish, and the shark also have the capacity to secrete NaCl and fluid. In shark proximal tubules, fluid secretion appears to be driven via secondary active transport of Cl. In another marine vertebrate, the sea snake, secretion of Na (presumably NaCl) and fluid is observed in freshwater-adapted and water-loaded animals. Proximal tubules of mammals can be made to secrete NaCl in vitro together with secretion of aryl acids. An epithelial cell line derived from dog kidney exhibits secondary active secretion of Cl when stimulated with catecholamines. Tubular secretion of NaCl and fluid may serve a variety of renal functions, all of which are considered here. The occurrence of NaCl and fluid secretion in glomerular proximal tubules of teleosts, elasmobranchs, and reptiles and in mammalian renal tissue cultures suggests that the genetic potential for NaCl secretion is present in every vertebrate kidney.

  13. Explosive phenomena in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    denHartog, HW; Vainshtein, DI; Matthews, GE; Williams, RT

    1997-01-01

    In heavily irradiated NaCl crystals explosive phenomena can be initiated during irradiation or afterwards when samples are heated to temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C. During irradiation of NaCl Na and Cl-2 precipitates and void structures are produced along with the accumulation of stored

  14. Electron scattering in graphene with adsorbed NaCl nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drabińska, Aneta, E-mail: Aneta.Drabinska@fuw.edu.pl; Kaźmierczak, Piotr; Bożek, Rafał; Karpierz, Ewelina; Wysmołek, Andrzej; Kamińska, Maria [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Wołoś, Agnieszka [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Pasternak, Iwona; Strupiński, Włodek [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Krajewska, Aleksandra [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-01-07

    In this work, the results of contactless magnetoconductance and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed for a graphene sample after its immersion in NaCl solution were presented. The properties of the immersed sample were compared with those of a non-immersed reference sample. Atomic force microscopy and electron spin resonance experiments confirmed the deposition of NaCl nanoparticles on the graphene surface. A weak localization signal observed using contactless magnetoconductance showed the reduction of the coherence length after NaCl treatment of graphene. Temperature dependence of the coherence length indicated a change from ballistic to diffusive regime in electron transport after NaCl treatment. The main inelastic scattering process was of the electron-electron type but the major reason for the reduction of the coherence length at low temperatures was additional, temperature independent, inelastic scattering. We associate it with spin flip scattering, caused by NaCl nanoparticles present on the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the D and D′ bands intensities for graphene after its immersion in NaCl solution. An analysis of the D, D′, and G bands intensities proved that this additional scattering is related to the decoration of vacancies and grain boundaries with NaCl nanoparticles, as well as generation of new on-site defects as a result of the decoration of the graphene surface with NaCl nanoparticles. The observed energy shifts of 2D and G bands indicated that NaCl deposition on the graphene surface did not change carrier concentration, but reduced compressive biaxial strain in the graphene layer.

  15. Electron scattering in graphene with adsorbed NaCl nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabińska, Aneta; Kaźmierczak, Piotr; Bożek, Rafał; Karpierz, Ewelina; Wysmołek, Andrzej; Kamińska, Maria; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Pasternak, Iwona; Strupiński, Włodek; Krajewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the results of contactless magnetoconductance and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed for a graphene sample after its immersion in NaCl solution were presented. The properties of the immersed sample were compared with those of a non-immersed reference sample. Atomic force microscopy and electron spin resonance experiments confirmed the deposition of NaCl nanoparticles on the graphene surface. A weak localization signal observed using contactless magnetoconductance showed the reduction of the coherence length after NaCl treatment of graphene. Temperature dependence of the coherence length indicated a change from ballistic to diffusive regime in electron transport after NaCl treatment. The main inelastic scattering process was of the electron-electron type but the major reason for the reduction of the coherence length at low temperatures was additional, temperature independent, inelastic scattering. We associate it with spin flip scattering, caused by NaCl nanoparticles present on the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the D and D′ bands intensities for graphene after its immersion in NaCl solution. An analysis of the D, D′, and G bands intensities proved that this additional scattering is related to the decoration of vacancies and grain boundaries with NaCl nanoparticles, as well as generation of new on-site defects as a result of the decoration of the graphene surface with NaCl nanoparticles. The observed energy shifts of 2D and G bands indicated that NaCl deposition on the graphene surface did not change carrier concentration, but reduced compressive biaxial strain in the graphene layer

  16. Polishing large NaCl windows on a continuous polisher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, R.

    1979-01-01

    The Helios and Antares CO 2 fusion laser systems incorporate numerous large sodium chloride windows. These must be refinished periodically, making necessary a consistent and predictable polishing capability. A continuous polisher (or annular lap) which might at Kirtland's Developmental Optical Facility. Large NaCl windows had not been polished on this type of machine. The machine has proven itself capable of producing lambda/16 figures at 633 nm (HeNe) with extremely smooth surfaces on glass. Since then, we have been working exclusively on NaCl optics. Due to different polishing parameters between NaCl and glass, and the slight solubility of the pitch in the slurry, this phase presents new problems. The work on glass will be reviewed. Results on NaCl to date will be reported. The potential of this type of machine relative to prisms, thin and irregularly shaped optics will be discussed

  17. Effects of different NaCl Concentrations on germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Salinity refers to the salt content of any given system. By nature, arid .... Effect of varying concentrations of NaCl on seed germination of Amaranthus hybridus in percentages. .... Osmotic differences could explain this phenomenon where by ...

  18. Comparison of Corrosion Behavior of Electrochemically Deposited Nano-Cobalt-Coated Ni Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Aqeeli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion behavior of nano-coblat-coated Ni sheet was compared with pure Ni and 20% Fe-Ni alloy sheet using potentiodynamic polarization and linear polarization technique in 0.1 M NaCl solution at room temperature. Results showed that corrosion resistance properties of nano-Co-coated Ni sheet were almost same as that of pure Ni sheet, however corrosion resistance of 20% Fe-Ni sheet was decreased significantly. Pitting potential of 20% Fe-Ni sheet was subsequently decreased as compared to pure Ni sheet as well as nano-cobalt-coated Ni sheet. SEM/EDS analysis of the corroded surfaces showed that both pure Ni and nano-coblat-coated Ni sheet did not show any appreciable corrosion however significant corrosion was observed in the case of 20% Fe-Ni sheet.

  19. Composite coatings of titanium-aluminum nitride for steel against corrosion induced by solid NaCl deposit and water vapor at 600 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Li

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite coatings (Ti,AlN with different Al content were deposited on a wrought martensite steel 1Cr11Ni2W2MoV by reactive multi-arc ion plating. With the addition of Al to the coatings, the crystallographic structure of them changed from B1 NaCl to B4 ZnS, the relevant hardness and adhesive strength firstly increased then decreased and their oxidation-resistance was also dramatically improved. It was indicated that the introduction of Al was beneficial to (Ti,AlN coatings against corrosion induced by NaCl(s in wet oxygen at 600 °C as well as wet corrosion in NaCl solution at ambient temperature.

  20. NaCl samples for optical luminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catli, S.

    2005-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) have been used broadly for luminescence dosimetry and dating. In many cases, it has been pointed out that the decay of the OSL do not generally behave according to a simple exponential function. In this study the Infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL) intensity from NaCl samples were experimentally measured. The decay curves for this sample were fitted to some functions and it is in good agreement with the function y = α + b exp(-cx). The IRSL decay curves from NaCl using different β-doses have been obtained and investigated their dose response

  1. Magnetoplastic effect in irradiated NaCl and LiF crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'shitz, V.I.; Darinskaya, E.V.; Kazakova, O.L.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of low x-ray irradiation doses (≅10 2 rad) on the magnetoplastic effect - the detachment of dislocations from paramagnetic centers under the action of an external magnetic field B - in alkali-halide crystals has been investigated. The measurements were performed on LiF crystals and three types of NaCl crystals, differing in impurity content. The dependence of the mean free path l of the dislocations on the rotational frequency ν of a sample in a magnetic field was especially sensitive to low irradiation doses. In unirradiated crystals this dependence is a single-step dependence and is characterized by a critical frequency ν c ∝B 2 above which the magnetoplastic effect is not observed. The frequency ν c depends only on the type of paramagnetic centers, and not on their density. Even the lowest irradiation dose employed ( c2 , that is insensitive to the irradiation dose, and that corresponds to the appearance of magnetically sensitive stoppers of a new type under irradiation. The initial critical frequency ν c1 , as a rule, also varies with the dose, reflecting the change in state of the impurity complexes (Ca in NaCl and Mg in LiF). Specifically, it is shown for NaCl(Ca) crystals that as the irradiation dose increases, the frequency ν c1 increases, gradually approaching the value ν c2 , so that by the time the dose is ≅300 rad, the dependence l(ν) once again becomes a single-step dependence, dropping sharply only for ν≥ν c2 . It is shown that the addition of a small number of Ni atoms to a NaCl crystal makes the Ca complexes radiation resistant, and the critical frequency ν c1 corresponding to them initially equals ν c2 for crystals with no Ni. The recombination kinetics of radiation defects in the case in which the samples are irradiated under a tungsten lamp was investigated. A possible physical model of the observed dependences is discussed

  2. Nano-sized precipitated formations in irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugonyako, Anton V.

    2007-01-01

    The interest in the formation of radiation damage in alkali halides and in particular, in NaCl, is stimulated by the fact that rock-salt in stable geological formations is a prominent candidate medium for storage of high-level waste (HLW) of nuclear power plants. Since the 1950s, scientists and

  3. Corrosion behavior of novel imitation-gold copper alloy with rare earth in 3.5% NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.L.; Li, Z.; Zhu, A.Y.; Luo, L.Y.; Liang, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → The design alloy has better anti-tarnish property than that of H7211 alloy during salt-spray test. → The corrosion rate of design alloy is much lower than that of H7211 alloy as immersed in NaCl solution. → In the low frequency region, the capacitive behavior normally faded and diffusion process had a key role. → In the medium frequency region, the Bode pattern showed a capacitive behavior. -- Abstract: A novel imitation-gold copper alloy with rare earth was designed and prepared. The corrosion behavior of the alloy immersed in 3.5% NaCl solution and its anti-tarnish property in the salt spray for different days has been studied. The designed alloy (CuZnAlNiMeRe) has more excellent anti-tarnish property and lower corrosion rate than those of currency coinage materials of H7211 alloy (used in China). A uniform and compact of corrosion film has been formed after the designed alloy immersed in 3.5% NaCl solution. The corrosion current densities I corr of the alloy decreased while the polarization resistance R p increased with time. The capacitance of the corrosion product film C film of the alloy decreased while the charge transfer resistance R ct . The Warburg diffusion impedance W R and the resistance of the equivalent circuit R increased with time.

  4. Propagating particle density fluctuations in molten NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmel, F.; Hosokawa, S.; Pilgrim, W.-C.; Lorenzen, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the observation of acoustic modes in the spectra of molten NaCl measured over a large momentum transfer range using synchrotron radiation. A surprisingly large positive dispersion was deduced with a mode velocity exceeding the adiabatic value by nearly 70%. The large effect seems to be describable as a viscoelastic reaction of the liquid. Additionally, the derived dispersion resembles the Q-ω relation of the acoustic modes in liquid sodium. As an explanation for the large positive dispersion we propose that the density fluctuations in molten NaCl can be interpreted as a decoupled motion of the lighter and smaller cations on a nearly resting anionic background. These molten alkali halide measurements are the first experimental evidences for the so-called fast sound in a binary ionic liquid

  5. Tolerance of soil flagellates to increased NaCl levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    The ability of heterotrophic flagellates to survive and adapt to increasing salinities was investigated in this study. Whole soil samples were subjected to salinities corresponding to marine conditions and clonal cultures were used to perform growth and adaptation experiments at a wide range...... of different salinities (0-50 ppm). More morphotypes tolerant to elevated NaCl levels were found in road verge soil that was heavily exposed to de-icing salt than in less exposed soils, though there were fewer tolerant than intolerant morphotypes in all soils examined. Heterotrophic flagellates isolated...... on a freshwater medium from a non-exposed soil were unable to thrive at salinities above 15 ppt, and showed reduced growth rates even at low salt salinities (1-5 ppt). The findings suggest that heterotrophic soil flagellates are less tolerant to NaCl than their aquatic relatives, possibly due to their long...

  6. Temperature dependence of thermal pressure for NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra K.; Pande, Brijesh K.; Pandey, Anjani K.

    2018-05-01

    Engineering applications of the materials can be explored upto the desired limit of accuracy with the better knowledge of its mechanical and thermal properties such as ductility, brittleness and Thermal Pressure. For the resistance to fracture (K) and plastic deformation (G) the ratio K/G is treated as an indication of ductile or brittle character of solids. In the present work we have tested the condition of ductility and brittleness with the calculated values of K/G for the NaCl. It is concluded that the nature of NaCl can be predicted upto high temperature simply with the knowledge of its elastic stiffness constant only. Thermoelastic properties of materials at high temperature is directly related to thermal pressure and volume expansion of the materials. An expression for the temperature dependence of thermal pressure is formulated using basic thermodynamic identities. It is observed that thermal pressure ΔPth calculated for NaCl by using Kushwah formulation is in good agreement with the experimental values also the thermal pressure increases with the increase in temperature.

  7. Manipulating Single Microdroplets of NaCl Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utoft, Anders; Kinoshita, Koji; Bitterfield, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    fraction of S = 1.9, the saturation concentration of NaCl in aqueous solution as measured with nanograms of material (5.5 ± 0.1 M), the diffusion coefficient for water in octanol, D = (1.96 ± 0.10) × 10−6 cm2/s, and the effect of the solvent’s activity on dissolution kinetics. It is further shown...... growth are affected by changing the bathing medium from octanol to decane. A much slower loss of water-solvent and concomitant slower up-concentration of the NaCl solute resulted in a lower tendency to nucleate and slower crystal growth because much less excess material was available at the onset...... of nucleation in the decane system as compared to the octanol system. Thus, the crystal structure is reported to be dendritic for NaCl solution microdroplets dissolving rapidly and nucleating violently in octanol, while they are formed as single cubic crystals in a gentler way for solution-dissolution in decane...

  8. Effects of environment on the release of Ni, Cr, Fe, and Co from new and recast Ni-Cr alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyar, Perihan; Can, Gülşen; Atakol, Orhan

    2014-07-01

    The addition of previously cast alloy to new alloy for economic reasons may increase the release of elements. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the immersion period, immersion media, and addition of previously cast alloy to new alloy on the release of elements. Disk-shaped specimens were prepared from a Ni-Cr alloy (Ni: 61 wt%, Cr: 26 wt%, Mo: 11 wt%, Si: 1.5 wt%, Fe, Ce, Al, and Co alloy (group N) and 50% new/50% recast alloy (group R). After the immersion of the specimens in both NaCl (pH 4) and artificial saliva (pH 6.7) for 3, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days, the release of ions was determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Data were analyzed with a 3-way ANOVA (α=.001). The release of Ni was significantly affected by the immersion period, of Ni and Cr by the alloy and media (Palloy (Palloy in artificial saliva was 109.71 for Ni, 6.49 for Cr, 223.22 for Fe, and 29.90 μg/L for Co. The release of Co in NaCl was below the detection limit in both groups. The release of Ni in NaCl and artificial saliva increased with the length of the immersion period in both groups. The release of Cr and Fe was higher in artificial saliva than in NaCl in group R, regardless of the immersion period. The release of Co in NaCl was below the detection limit in both groups. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization and electrochemical properties of Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 multiphase coatings prepared by HVOF spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdian, M. M.; Raeissi, K.; Salehi, M.

    2012-11-01

    Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 powders were produced by mechanical alloying (MA) of Ni-25 at.% Si powder mixture. Then, the as-milled powders were sprayed onto copper substrate using high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process. The phase composition and microstructure of the coatings were examined by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were also employed to study corrosion performance of the coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results showed that although single phase Ni3Si was formed during annealing of Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 powders, but, only Ni(Si) and Ni5Si2 are present in HVOF coatings and no new phase has been formed during spraying. The coatings had microhardness up to 746 HV0.05. Further investigations showed the corrosion performance of multiphase coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution was better than that of copper substrate. The phase transitions during MA, HVOF and annealing processes were discussed in association with Ni-Si phase diagram and nature of each process.

  10. NaCl salinity affects lateral root development in Plantago maritima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, M; Wenisch, J; Elzenga, JTM; Stulen, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    Root growth and morphology were assessed weekly in hydroponically-grown seedlings of the halophyte Plantago maritima L. during exposure to 0, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl for 21 d. Relative growth rate was reduced by 25% at 200 mM NaCl. The lower NaCl treatments did not affect relative growth rates.

  11. Electrolytic coloration of O22--doped NaCl crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Fang; Gu Hongen; Song Cuiying; Wang Na; Guo Meili; Wang Fen; Liu Jia

    2007-01-01

    O 2 2- -doped NaCl crystals are colored electrolytically by using a pointed cathode and a flat anode at various temperatures and voltages, which mainly benefit from appropriate coloration temperatures and voltages as well as anode structure of used electrolysis apparatus. Characteristic OH - , U, V 2 m , U A , V 2 , V 3 , O 2- -V a + complex, F, R 1 , R 2 and M absorption bands are observed in absorption spectra of the colored crystals. Production and conversion of color centers in electrolytic coloration is explained. Current-time curves for electrolytic colorations and their relationships with electrolytic colorations were given

  12. Evaluation of Iron Nickel Oxide Nanopowder as Corrosion Inhibitor: Effect of Metallic Cations on Carbon Steel in Aqueous NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhry, A. U.; Mishra, Brajendra [Colorado School of Mines, Denver (United States); Mittal, Vikas [The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of iron-nickel oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}.NiO) nanopowder (FeNi) as an anti-corrosion pigment for a different application. The corrosion protection ability and the mechanism involved was determined using aqueous solution of FeNi prepared in a corrosive solution containing 3.5 wt.% NaCl. Anti-corrosion abilities of aqueous solution were determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on line pipe steel (API 5L X-80). The protection mechanism involved the adsorption of metallic cations on the steel surface forming a protective film. Analysis of EIS spectra revealed that corrosion inhibition occurred at low concentration, whereas higher concentration of aqueous solution produced induction behavior.

  13. Rootstock Effect on the Tolerance of cv. Hass Avocado Plants to Nacl Stress Efecto del Portainjerto en la Tolerancia de Plantas de Palto cv. Hass al Estrés por NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Castro V

    2009-09-01

    control con 30 mg L-1 de Cl- y de plantas tratadas con 200 mg L-1 de Cl-, mediante el uso de NaCl en la solución nutritiva (5.64 mM. No hubo interacción entre el NaCl y los portainjertos para las variables de crecimiento vegetativo ni en el contenido interno foliar o radical de K+ ni el radical de Ca+2. A nivel de tasa de asimilación de carbono, Nabal fue uno de los portainjertos que presentó las mayores tasas bajo tratamiento con NaCl, retuvo la máxima concentración de cloruro a nivel radical y limitó en mayor medida la concentración que se encontró en las hojas del cv. Hass, por lo tanto se presenta como un portainjerto promisorio en la tolerancia a sales.

  14. Irradiation induced creep in whiskers of NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, J.A.A.

    1977-09-01

    Whiskers of NaCl have been grown and irradiated under flexion by X-rays (approximately 2x10 7 R/h) at room temperature and the residual curvature measured. Complete recovery of the initial form of the whisker within an hour's annealing at 400 0 C proves clearly that the observed deformation (creep) is due to the presence of dislocation loops. The choice of NaCl extremely simplifies the experiment and its interpretation since X-rays create point defects one by one. Moreover, this mode of irradiation, at room temperature, produces a very simple situation: perfect interstitial dislocation loops and immobile point defects which are little influenced by the applied stress. The flexion leads to a stress system which hardly differs from an uniaxial stress. One can study separately the preferential nucleation of dislocation loops and their differential growth by carrying out an irradiation under stress followed by an irradiation without stress and vice versa. It is shown that the induced creep is mostly due to the preferential nucleation of dislocation loops and is little affected by the differential growth of these loops. The nucleation period of the loops is very short: a dose of approximately 10 -5 d.p.a. is largely sufficient for the quasi completion of dislocation loops in a crystal having an impurity concentration of approximately 10 -3 [fr

  15. Measurement and modeling of CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Huang, Shengli; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    over climate change and energy security. This work is an experimental and modeling study of two fundamental properties in high pressure CO2–NaCl brine equilibrium, i.e., CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density. A literature review of the available data was presented first...

  16. Corrosion behaviour of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-W and Ni-Fe-W alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriraman, K.R.; Ganesh Sundara Raman, S.; Seshadri, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    The present work deals with evaluation of corrosion behaviour of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-W and Ni-Fe-W alloys. Corrosion behaviour of the coatings deposited on steel substrates was studied using polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques in 3.5% NaCl solution while their passivation behaviour was studied in 1N sulphuric acid solution. The corrosion resistance of Ni-W alloys increased with tungsten content up to 7.54 at.% and then decreased. In case of Ni-Fe-W alloys it increased with tungsten content up to 9.20 at.% and then decreased. The ternary alloy coatings exhibited poor corrosion resistance compared to binary alloy coatings due to preferential dissolution of iron from the matrix. Regardless of composition all the alloys exhibited passivation behaviour over a wide range of potentials due to the formation of tungsten rich film on the surface

  17. CO2 Fixation by Membrane Separated NaCl Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Hyun Sic; Lee, Ju Sung; Han, Junyoung

    2015-01-01

    for converting CO2 into CaCO3 requires high temperature and high pressure as reaction conditions. This study proposes a method to fixate CaCO3 stably by using relatively less energy than existing methods. After forming NaOH absorbent solution through electrolysis of NaCl in seawater, CaCO3 was precipitated...... crystal product was high-purity calcite. The study shows a successful method for fixating CO2 by reducing carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere while forming high-purity CaCO3.......Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), a major cause of global warming, have been rising due to industrial development. Carbon capture and storage (CCS), which is regarded as the most effective way to reduce such atmospheric CO2 concentrations, has several environmental and technical...

  18. Computer simulation of aqueous Na-Cl electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummer, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Soumpasis, D.M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysikalische Chemie (Karl-Friedrich-Bonhoeffer-Institut), Goettingen (Germany); Neumann, M. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    1993-11-01

    Equilibrium structure of aqueous Na-Cl electrolytes between 1 and 5 mol/l is studied by means of molecular dynamics computer simulation using interaction site descriptions of water and ionic components. Electrostatic interactions are treated both with the newly developed charged-clouds scheme and with Ewald summation. In the case of a 5 mol/l electrolyte, the results for pair correlations obtained by the two methods are in excellent agreement. However, the charged-clouds technique is much faster than Ewald summation and makes simulations at lower salt concentrations feasible. It is found that both ion-water and ion-ion correlation functions depend only weakly on the ionic concentration. Sodium and chloride ions exhibit only a negligible tendency to form contact pairs. In particular, no chloride ion pairs in contact are observed.

  19. Computer simulation of aqueous Na-Cl electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummer, G.; Soumpasis, D.M.; Neumann, M.

    1993-01-01

    Equilibrium structure of aqueous Na-Cl electrolytes between 1 and 5 mol/l is studied by means of molecular dynamics computer simulation using interaction site descriptions of water and ionic components. Electrostatic interactions are treated both with the newly developed charged-clouds scheme and with Ewald summation. In the case of a 5 mol/l electrolyte, the results for pair correlations obtained by the two methods are in excellent agreement. However, the charged-clouds technique is much faster than Ewald summation and makes simulations at lower salt concentrations feasible. It is found that both ion-water and ion-ion correlation functions depend only weakly on the ionic concentration. Sodium and chloride ions exhibit only a negligible tendency to form contact pairs. In particular, no chloride ion pairs in contact are observed

  20. Impaired NaCl taste thresholds in Zn deprived rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosvic, G.M.; Slotnick, B.M.; Nelson, N.; Henkin, R.I.

    1986-01-01

    Zn deficiency is a relatively common cause of loss of taste acuity in humans. In some patients replacement with exogenous Zn results in rapid reversal of the loss whereas in others prolonged treatment is needed to restore normal taste function. To study this 300 gm outbred Sprague Dawley rats were given Zn deficient diet (< 1 ppm Zn) supplemented with Zn in drinking water (0.1 gm Zn/100 gm body weight). Rats were trained in an automated operant conditions procedure and NaCl taste thresholds determined. During an initial training period and over two replications mean thresholds were 0.006% and mean plasma Zn was 90 +/- 2 μg/dl (M +/- SEM) determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Rats were then divided into two groups; in one (3 rats) Zn supplement was removed, in the other (4 rats), pair-fed with the former group, Zn supplement was continued. In 10 days NaCl thresholds in Zn deprived rats increased significantly (0.07%, p < 0.01) and in 17 days increased 13 fold (0.08%) but thresholds for pair fed, supplemented rats remained constant (0.006%). There was no overlap in response between any rat in the two groups. Plasma Zn at 17 days in Zn-deprived rats was significantly below pair-fed rats (52 +/- 13 vs 89 +/- 6 μg/dl, respectively, P < 0.01). At this time Zn-deprived rats were supplemented with Zn for 27 days without any reduction in taste thresholds. These preliminary results are consistent with previous observations in Zn deficient patients

  1. Crystallographic characterization of cement pastes hydrated with NaCl; Caracterizacao cristalografica de pastas de cimento hidratadas com NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Carina Gabriela de Melo e; Martinelli, Antonio Eduardo; Melo, Dulce Maria Araujo; Melo, Marcus Antonio de Freitas; Melo, Vitor Rodrigo de Melo e [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the major current challenges faced by oil companies is the exploration of pre salt basins. Salt layers deposited upon the evaporation of ocean water and continental separation are mainly formed by NaCl and isolate immense oil reservoirs. The mechanical stability and zonal isolation of oil wells that run through salt layers must be fulfilled by cement sheaths saturated with NaCl to assure chemical compatibility between cement and salt layer. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of NaCl addition on the hydration of oil well cement slurries as well as identifying the nature of crystalline phases present in the hardened cement. To that end, cement slurries containing NaCl were mixed, hardened and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that the presence of NaCl affects the formation of hydration products by the presence of Friedel's salt. The intensity of the corresponding peaks increase as the contents of NaCl in the slurry increase. High concentrations of NaCl in Portland slurries increase the setting time of cement and the presence of Friedel's salt decreases the strength of the hardened cement. (author)

  2. IRSL characteristics of NaCl and KCl relative to dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanir, Guenes; Hicabi Boeluekdemir, M.; Catli, Serap; Tel, Eyyuep

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine and compare the dosimetric properties of NaCl and KCl samples using infrared-stimulated luminescence (IRSL) technique. For a material to be used as dosimeter, both the IRSL temperature dependence and the radiation dose response have critical importance. In this work the IRSL characteristics from NaCl and KCl samples were experimentally investigated as a function of temperature and laboratory radiation doses. Dosimetric properties of NaCl and KCl samples were found significantly different. The IRSL signals displayed by NaCl were found to be more stable, reliable and agreeable than those of KCl

  3. Corrosion Resistance Of Electroless Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P Multilayer Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao G.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P multilayer coatings were prepared by deposition of Cu layer between two Ni–P layers. The Cu layer was deposited by metal displacement reaction between Cu2+ and Fe atoms. Corrosion behavior of single-layer Ni-P coatings, double-layer Ni-P/Cu coatings, and three-layer Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P coatings were investigated by electrochemical tests in 3.5% NaCl solution. The three-layer coatings exhibited more positive Ecorr and decreased Icorr compared with conventional single-layer Ni-P coatings, which indicated an improved corrosion resistance. The polarization curves of the three-layer coatings were characterized by two passive regions. The improved corrosion resistance was not only attributed to the function of the blocked pores of Cu. The Cu interlayer also acted as a sacrificial layer instead of a barrier in the coatings, which altered the corrosion mechanism and further improved the corrosion resistance of the coatings.

  4. Passivity of alloy C-22 in NaCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Martin A.; Carranza, Ricardo M.

    2004-01-01

    Alloy C-22 has been proposed as the corrosion resistant barrier of high-level waste nuclear containers. This alloy must be resistant to corrosion in multi-ionic solutions for a period of time as long as 10,000 years. The aim of the present work was to study the corrosion behavior of alloy C-22 in NaCl solutions. General and crevice corrosion were studied by means of electrochemical techniques. Open circuit potential was measured over the time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out at open circuit and passivity potentials, as well as cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves. Corrosion rates obtained by EIS measurements were acceptable for a waste nuclear container ( P ) values increased with open circuit potential and polarization time at constant potential. This was attributed to an increase in oxide film thickness and its aging respectively. The passive oxide form on alloy C-22 at the studied conditions presented a n-type semiconductor behavior in the passive potential range. Repassivation potential values (E R1 ) were determined for alloy C-22 at the studied conditions using PCA probes. (author) [es

  5. Accurate thermoelastic tensor and acoustic velocities of NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcondes, Michel L., E-mail: michel@if.usp.br [Physics Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 05508-090 (Brazil); Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States); Shukla, Gaurav, E-mail: shukla@physics.umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States); Minnesota supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States); Silveira, Pedro da [Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States); Wentzcovitch, Renata M., E-mail: wentz002@umn.edu [Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States); Minnesota supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geology and geophysics, their measurement at high pressures and temperatures are still challenging. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy, approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, and numerical/methodological approximations, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a method to improve the calculated thermoelastic tensor by using highly accurate thermal equation of state (EoS). The corrective scheme is general, applicable to crystalline solids with any symmetry, and can produce accurate results at conditions where experimental data may not exist. We apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a material whose structural properties have been challenging to describe accurately by standard ab initio methods and whose acoustic/seismic properties are important for the gas and oil industry.

  6. Effect of mycorrhiza symbiosis on the Nacl salinity in Sorghum bicolor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine mycorrhizal symbiosis on the Nacl salinity tolerance in Sorghum bicolor (aspydfyd cultivar), an experiment with two factors was done in Damghan Islamic Azad University laboratory (Iran) in 2007. The first factor with two levels (mycorihizal and non-mycorihizal) and second factor with six levels Nacl ...

  7. Visible laser induced positive ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles prepared by droplet rapid drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mao-Xu; Guo, Deng-Zhu; Xing, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Geng-Min

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NaCl nanoparticles were firstly prepared by heat induced explosion on silicon wafer. ► We found that laser induced ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles are more prominent. ► We found that water adsorption can efficiently enhance laser induced ion emissions. ► The ultra-photothermal effect in NaCl nanoparticles was observed and explained. - Abstract: A novel convenient way for the formation of sodium chloride (NaCl) nanoparticles on silicon wafer is proposed by using a droplet rapid drying method. The laser induced positive ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles with and without water treatment is demonstrated by using a laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, with laser intensity well below the plasma formation threshold. It is found that the positive ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles are obviously higher than that from microsize NaCl particles under soft 532 nm laser irradiations, and water adsorption can efficiently enhance the ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles. The initial kinetic energies of the emitted ions are estimated as 16–17 eV. The synergy of the ultra-thermal effect in nanomaterials, the defect-mediated multiphoton processes, and the existence of intermediate states in NaCl-water interfaces are suggested as the mechanisms.

  8. Combined Effects of Boron and NaCl on Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHEN Mei-nan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the combined effects of boron(Band NaCl on the growth of wheat, a pot experiment was conducted using wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn.seedlings. Boron concentrations of culture medium were set as 0, 50 mg·kg-1 and 100 mg·kg-1, and NaCl concentrations were 0, 1 g·kg-1 and 2 g·kg-1. The results showed that both boron and NaCl could significantly inhibit wheat growth. At 50 mg B·kg-1, NaCl aggravated growth inhibition caused by boron. At 100 mg B·kg-1, however, NaCl alleviated the inhibition caused by boron. The combined stress of boron and NaCl significantly increased the root to shoot ratio of wheat. NaCl inhibited the uptake of boron by wheat. It suggests that under severe boron stress, NaCl is able to alleviate boron toxicity in wheat by increasing root to shoot ratio and reducing boron uptake.

  9. Adsorption of small NaCl clusters on surfaces of silicon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amsler, Maximilian; Alireza Ghasemi, S; Goedecker, Stefan; Neelov, Alexey; Genovese, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    We have studied possible adsorption geometries of neutral NaCl clusters on the disordered surface of a large silicon model tip used in non-contact atomic force microscopy. The minima hopping method was used to determine low energy model tip configurations as well as ground state geometries of isolated NaCl clusters. The combined system was treated with density functional theory. Alkali halides have proven to be strong structure seekers and tend to form highly stable ground state configurations whenever possible. The favored adsorption geometry for four Na and four Cl atoms was found to be an adsorption of four NaCl dimers due to the formation of Cl-Si bonds. However, for larger NaCl clusters, the increasing energy required to dissociate the cluster into NaCl dimers suggests that adsorption of whole clusters in their isolated ground state configuration is preferred.

  10. [Effect of NaCl stress on ion compartmentation, photosynthesis and growth of Salicornia bigelovii Torr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Yan; Zhao, Ke-Fu

    2004-02-01

    Seedlings of Salicornia bigelovii Torr. were treated with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100, 300, 600 mmol/L). Ion contents, Na(+) subcelluar localization, photosynthetic rate, ultrastructure of chloroplast and other parameters were measured. The data showed both fresh and dry weight of whole plant of Salicornia bigelovii Torr. under salinity were higher than the control. When NaCl concentration is about 300 mmol/L Salicornia bigelovii Torr. grow strongest. The contents of Na(+) and Cl(-) and c(Na)/c(K) in shoots increased with the salinity. Both Na(+) and Cl(-) were mainly transported to shoots. Ion X-ray microanalysis indicated Na(+) was mainly compartmentalized into vacuoles. Photosynthetic rate increased with the salinity under NaCl 100-300 mmol/L, but declined under NaCl 600 mmol/L. Ultrastructure of chloroplast was destroyed by NaCl 600 mmol/L.

  11. NaCl responsive taste cells in the mouse fungiform taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, R; Horio, N; Murata, Y; Yasumatsu, K; Shigemura, N; Ninomiya, Y

    2009-03-17

    Previous studies have demonstrated that rodents' chorda tympani (CT) nerve fibers responding to NaCl can be classified according to their sensitivities to the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) blocker amiloride into two groups: amiloride-sensitive (AS) and -insensitive (AI). The AS fibers were shown to respond specifically to NaCl, whereas AI fibers broadly respond to various electrolytes, including NaCl. These data suggest that salt taste transduction in taste cells may be composed of at least two different systems; AS and AI ones. To further address this issue, we investigated the responses to NaCl, KCl and HCl and the amiloride sensitivity of mouse fungiform papilla taste bud cells which are innervated by the CT nerve. Comparable with the CT data, the results indicated that 56 NaCl-responsive cells tested were classified into two groups; 25 cells ( approximately 44%) narrowly responded to NaCl and their NaCl response were inhibited by amiloride (AS cells), whereas the remaining 31 cells ( approximately 56%) responded not only to NaCl, but to KCl and/or HCl and showed no amiloride inhibition of NaCl responses (AI cells). Amiloride applied to the basolateral side of taste cells had no effect on NaCl responses in the AS and AI cells. Single cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) experiments indicated that ENaC subunit mRNA was expressed in a subset of AS cells. These findings suggest that the mouse fungiform taste bud is composed of AS and AI cells that can transmit taste information differently to their corresponding types of CT fibers, and apical ENaCs may be involved in the NaCl responses of AS cells.

  12. Effect of NaCl treatments on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rong-fang; Yuan, Gao-feng; Wang, Qiao-mei

    2013-01-01

    To understand the regulation mechanism of NaCl on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts, the germination rate, fresh weight, contents of glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as myrosinase activity of broccoli sprouts germinated under 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mmol/L of NaCl were investigated in our experiment. The results showed that glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts were significantly enhanced and the activity of myrosinase was inhibited by 100 mmol/L of NaCl. However, the total glucosinolate content in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts was markedly decreased although the fresh weight was significantly increased after treatment with NaCl at relatively low concentrations (20, 40, and 60 mmol/L). NaCl treatment at the concentration of 60 mmol/L for 5 d maintained higher biomass and comparatively higher content of glucosinolates in sprouts of broccoli with decreased myrosinase activity. A relatively high level of NaCl treatment (100 mmol/L) significantly increased the content of sulforaphane in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts compared with the control. These results indicate that broccoli sprouts grown under a suitable concentration of NaCl could be desirable for human nutrition. PMID:23365011

  13. Proteomic changes in Debaryomyces hansenii upon exposure to NaCl stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Hébraud, Michel; Chambon, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    The proteome of the highly NaCl-tolerant yeast Debaryomyces hansenii was investigated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE), and 47 protein spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) followed by mass spectrometry (MS...... 7% and 4% of the rate in medium without NaCl. In addition, the number of protein spots detected on 2D gels prepared from cells exposed to 8% and 12% (w/v) NaCl exceeded less than 28% of the number of protein spots detected on 2D gels prepared from cells without added NaCl. Several proteins were...

  14. Regeneration of plantlets under NaCl stress from NaN3 treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... plant regeneration under NaCl stressed conditions was assessed in some sugarcane ( ... cell is a useful work for the establishment of pure form of ... balance. The relative water contents (RWC) were calculated .... J. Life Sci.

  15. Swelling/deswelling of polyacrylamide gels in aqueous NaCl solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swelling kinetics of water-swollen polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels (WSG) was investigated in various ... parameter, χ, were calculated and found to decrease with increase in [NaCl]. Collective ..... in other words, increase in hydrophilicity.

  16. Elevated NaCl concentration improves cryotolerance and developmental competence of porcine oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, L; Du, Y; Liu, Y

    2009-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure has been reported to improve the fertilizing or developmental ability of mammalian spermatozoa, oocytes and embryos. This study investigated the effect of another stress, temporarily increased NaCl concentration, on cryotolerance and developmental competence of porcine...

  17. Phase equilibria of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide simple hydrates in the presence of methanol, (methanol + NaCl) and (ethylene glycol + NaCl) aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Amir H.; Richon, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Dissociation conditions of H 2 S or CO 2 hydrate + inhibitor aqueous solution are reported. → Methanol, methanol + NaCl and EG + NaCl aqueous solutions are considered as inhibitors. → Comparisons are made between our experimental data and the corresponding literature data. - Abstract: This work aims at reporting the dissociation pressures of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide simple hydrates in the presence of methanol, (methanol + NaCl) and (ethylene glycol + NaCl) aqueous solutions at different temperatures and various concentrations of inhibitor in aqueous solution. The equilibrium results were generated using an isochoric pressure-search method. These values are compared with some selected experimental data from the literature on the dissociation conditions of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide simple hydrates in the presence of pure water to show the inhibition effects of the above mentioned aqueous solutions. Comparisons are finally made between our experimental values and the corresponding literature data. Some disagreements among the literature data and our data are found.

  18. Utilizing NaCl to increase the porosity of electrospun materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, L.D.; Andric, T.; Freeman, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Electrospinning has emerged as a popular method for creating scaffolding materials used in tissue engineering applications to repair or replace damaged tissues. To become a viable scaffold material, however, pore sizes in electrospun materials must be increased to improve cell infiltration. Deposition of NaCl crystals during electrospinning was utilized to help overcome this obstacle. The NaCl crystals are released above the rotating collection mandrel and become incorporated into the poly(L-lactide) electrospun material. The NaCl then leaches out of the electrospun material creating larger pores: average pore diameter of 48.7 μm for PLLA-NaCl electrospinning versus 5.5 μm for PLLA alone electrospinning. Electrospun PLLA scaffolds with NaCl pores have a lower elastic modulus (8.05 MPa) and yield stress (349 kPa) and a higher yield strain (0.04) compared to their traditional counterparts (40.36 MPa, 676 kPa, and 0.0188). Decreased elastic modulus and yield stress would be beneficial to tissue engineering of elastic tissues including skin. The presence of NaCl pores did not significantly affect the cellular proliferation of MC3T3 cells but did allow for cell infiltration into the electrospun material. Therefore, the creation of large pores through NaCl leaching can significantly improve the performance of electrospun materials for tissue engineering applications by improving cellular infiltration.

  19. Composite Ni-Co-fly ash coatings on 5083 aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, C.N., E-mail: chpanag@metal.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780 Athens (Greece); Georgiou, E.P.; Tsopani, A.; Piperi, L. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    Ni-Co-fly ash coatings were deposited on zincate treated 5083 wrought aluminium alloy substrates with the aid of the electrodeposition technique. Structural and chemical characterization of the produced composite coatings was performed with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) techniques. The Ni-Co-fly ash coatings were found to consist of a crystalline Ni-Co solid solution with dispersed fly ash particles. In addition, chemical analysis of the Ni-Co matrix showed that it consisted of 80 wt.% Ni and 20 wt.% Co. The co-deposition of fly ash particles leads to a significant increase of the microhardness of the coating. The corrosion behaviour of the Ni-Co-fly ash/zincate coated aluminium alloy, in a 0.3 M NaCl solution (pH = 3.5), was studied by means of potentiodynamic corrosion experiments.

  20. Experimental determination of the H2O + 15 wt% NaCl and H2O + 25 wt% NaCl liquidi to 1.4 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, P.; Schmidt, C.

    2009-12-01

    The binary H2O+NaCl is one of the most important model systems for chloridic fluids in many geologic environments such as the Earth’s crust, upper mantle, and subducting slabs, and is also applicable to extraterrestrial icy planetary bodies (e.g., Manning 2004, Zolensky et al., 1999). The knowledge on phase equilibria and PVTx properties of this system is still fragmentary at high pressures, e.g., very little has been reported on liquidi at compositions Daniel 2008). In this study, we investigated the liquidus of 15 and 25 wt% NaCl solutions at pressures up to 1.4 GPa. The experiments were performed using a hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (Bassett et al. 1993) modified for Raman spectroscopy and accurate temperature measurements. A quartz chip, halite, and water were loaded into the sample chamber, which also contained a small trapped air bubble (10 vol%) when it was sealed. The actual salinity was then determined from measurement of the vapor-saturated liquidus temperature. The sample chamber was then compressed until the bubble disappeared. After freezing, phase transitions occurring with increasing temperature were observed optically, and the pressure was determined from the frequency shift of the 464 cm-1 Raman line of quartz (Schmidt and Ziemann 2000). The sample chamber was then compressed further, and the experiment was repeated at various bulk densities until a pressure of ~1.4 GPa was attained. At some conditions, Raman spectra were acquired for identification of the phase assemblage. The solution always crystallized to a single phase upon cooling above ~0.15 GPa at 25 wt% NaCl and above ~1 GPa at 15 wt% NaCl. Raman spectra in the OH stretching region indicate that this phase contains or is a NaCl hydrate other than hydrohalite, probably in solid solution with ice. Melting of this phase produced liquid and hydrohalite and/or ice VI. Ice VI was the last solid that dissolved upon heating, between 1100 MPa, 3 °C and 1370 MPa, 17 °C for 15 wt% NaCl and at

  1. Effect of NaCl on seed germination in some Centaurium Hill. Species (Gentianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of high NaCl concentrations on seed germination in both light and darkness was examined in the species Centaurium pulchellum, C. erythraea, C. littorale, C. spicatum, and C. tenuiflorum. Salt tolerance was found to depend on the life history of the seeds. To be specific, seeds of all five species failed to complete germination when exposed to continuous white light if kept all the time in the presence of 100-200 mM and greater NaCl concentrations. However, when after two weeks NaCl was rinsed from the seeds and the seeds were left in distilled water under white light for an additional two weeks, all species completed germination to a certain extent. The percent of germination not only depended on NaCl concentration in the prior medium, but was also species specific. Thus, seeds of C. pulchellum, C. erythraea, and C. littorale completed germination well almost irrespective of the salt concentration previously experienced. On the other hand, seeds of C. tenuiflorum completed germination poorly if NaCl concentrations in the prior media were greater than 200 mM. When seeds after washing were transferred to darkness for an additional 14 days, they failed to complete germination if previously imbibed on media containing NaCl concentrations greater than 400 mM. However, the seeds of all species, even if previously imbibed at 800 mM NaCl, could be induced to complete germination in darkness by 1 mM gibberellic acid. .

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi mitigates nacl induced adverse effects on solanum lycopersicum l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeer, H.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of AMF on the growth and physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activities, plant growth regulators and inorganic nutrients in tomato grown under salt stress condition. Tomato plants were exposed to different concentrations of NaCl alone (0, 50 and 150 mM) and in combination with AMF (0mM+AMF, 50mM+AMF and 150mM+AMF). Spore population and colonization, growth and biomass yield, pigments, membrane stability index and malondialdehyde were negatively affected. Exposure of plants to combination of NaCl and AMF showed positive impact on the above parameters. Proline and antioxidant enzyme activity increased with increasing concentration of NaCl and further increase was observed in plants treated with NaCl in combination with AMF. Acid and alkaline phosphatase, hydrolytic enzymes and pectinase are also affected with increasing concentration of salt. However plants treated with NaCl in combination with AMF balances the above enzymatic activity. Salt stress decreases the auxin concentration in plants but application of AMF has been shown to restore the auxin content. ABA increases with salt concentration but less accumulation of ABA have been found in plants treated with AMF. Regarding the nutrient uptake, Na+ and Na;K ratio increased and P, K, Mg and Ca decreases with increasing concentration of NaCl. Enhanced accumulation of P, K, Mg, Ca and K:N ratio and less uptake of Na+ was observed in presence of AMF. The results confirm that NaCl imposes threat to the survival of tomato plants and application of AMF mitigates the negative effect to an appreciable level. (author)

  3. Ni hombres ni mujeres providenciales

    OpenAIRE

    Montaño Virreira, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    Debo advertir a la y el lector de este texto que lo que a continuación se presenta no es, ni de lejos, una propuesta realista, si por ella entendemos la traducción, enclave mujer, de las actuales tendencias de liderazgo político vigentes en la región. Por el contrario, intento argumentaren favor de un liderazgo que supere el caudillismo como estilo y se aproxime al máximo hacia el respeto de las formas, entendiendo que sin ellas no es posible construir la democracia. Para hacerlo reviso rápid...

  4. Characterisation of electrodeposited and heat-treated Ni-Mo-P coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Regis L.; Casciano, Paulo N.S.; Correia, Adriana N.; Lima-Neto, Pedro de, E-mail: pln@ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The electrodeposition, hardness and corrosion resistance properties of Ni-Mo-P coatings were investigated. Characterisations of the electrodeposited coatings were carried out using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis techniques. Corrosion tests were performed at room temperature in 10-1 mol dm-3 NaCl solutions and by potentiodynamic linear polarisation. Amorphous Ni-Mo-P coatings were successfully obtained by electrodeposition using direct current. The coating composition showed to be dependent on the bath composition, current density and bath temperature. Both P and Mo contents contribute for the hardness properties of the Ni-Mo-P coatings and the absence of cracks is a requirement to produce electrodeposited Ni-Mo-P coatings with good hardness properties. The hardness values increase with heat-treatment temperature due to the precipitation of Ni, Ni{sub 3}P and NiMo phases during the heat treatment. The corrosion resistance of the electrodeposited Ni-Mo-P amorphous coatings increases with P content in the layer. Among the electrodeposited Ni-Mo-P amorphous coatings, Ni{sub 78}Mo{sub 10}P{sub 12} presented the best hardness and corrosion-resistance properties. The results showed that the addition of P is beneficial for the hardness and corrosion resistance properties of the Ni-Mo-based coatings. (author)

  5. Surface microstructures and corrosion resistance of Ni-Ti-Nb shape memory thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Li, Yan; Huang, Xu; Gibson, Des; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Jiao; Sun, Lu; Fu, Yong Qing

    2017-08-01

    Ni-Ti-Nb and Ni-Ti shape memory thin films were sputter-deposited onto silicon substrates and annealed at 600 °C for crystallization. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that all of the annealed Ni-Ti-Nb films were composed of crystalline Ni-Ti (Nb) and Nb-rich grains. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) tests showed that the surfaces of Ni-Ti-Nb films were covered with Ti oxides, NiO and Nb2O5. The corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ti-Nb films in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was investigated using electrochemical tests such as open-circuit potential (OCP) and potentio-dynamic polarization tests. Ni-Ti-Nb films showed higher OCPs, higher corrosion potentials (Ecorr) and lower corrosion current densities (icorr) than the binary Ni-Ti film, which indicated a better corrosion resistance. The reason may be that Nb additions modified the passive layer on the film surface. The OCPs of Ni-Ti-Nb films increased with further Nb additions, whereas no apparent difference of Ecorr and icorr was found among the Ni-Ti-Nb films.

  6. Proteins associated with adaptation of cultured tobacco cells to NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.K.; Handa, A.K.; Hasegawa, P.M.; Bressan, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Cultured tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Wisconsin 38) adapted to grow in medium containing high levels of NaCl or polyethylene glycol (PEG) produce several new or enhanced polypeptide bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyarylamide gel electrophoresis. The intensities of some of the polypeptide bands increase with increasing levels of NaCl adaptation, while the intensities of other polypeptide bands are reduced. Synthesis of 26-kilodalton polypeptide(s) occurs at two different periods during culture growth of NaCl adapted cells. Unadapted cells also incorporate 35 S into a 26-kilodalton polypeptide during the later stage of culture growth beginning at midlog phase. The 26-kilodalton polypeptides from adapted and unadapted cells have similar partial proteolysis peptide maps and are immunologically cross-reactive. During adaptation to NaCl, unadapted cells synthesize and accumulate a major 26-kilodalton polypeptide, and the beginning of synthesis corresponds to the period of osmotic adjustment and culture growth. From their results, the authors suggest an involvement of the 26-kilodalton polypeptide in the adaptation of cultured tobacco cells to NaCl and water stress. 38 references, 11 figures, 2 tables

  7. Irreversible dilation of NaCl contaminated lime-cement mortar due to crystallization cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubelli, B.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Huinink, H.P.; Groot, C.J.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of damage occurring in NaCl contaminated materials has not been clarified yet. Apart from crystallization pressure, other hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause of decay. Irreversible dilation has been observed in a few cases but has never been studied in a more systematic way. The aim of the research is to contribute to the modeling of this phenomenon. In the present paper the effect of NaCl on the hydric and hygric behavior of a lime-cement mortar is extensively studied. The results indicate that NaCl influences the hydric and hygric dilation behavior of the material. The material contaminated with NaCl shrinks during dissolution and dilates during crystallization of the salt. This dilation is irreversible and sufficient to damage the material after few dissolution/crystallization cycles. This behavior is not restricted to NaCl, but is observed in the presence of other salts as well (NaNO 3 and KCl). Outcomes of electron microscopy studies suggest that salts causing irreversible dilation tend to crystallize as layers on the pore wall

  8. The initial stages of NaCl dissolution: Ion or ion pair solvation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes, Jiri; Michaelides, Angelos

    2009-03-01

    The interaction of water with rock salt (NaCl) is important in a wide variety of natural processes and human activities. A lot is known about NaCl dissolution at the macroscopic level but we do not yet have a detailed atomic scale picture of how salt crystals dissolve. Here we report an extensive series of density functional theory, forcefield and molecular dynamics studies of water clusters at flat and defective NaCl surfaces and NaCl clusters. The focus is on answering seemingly elementary questions such as how many water molecules are needed before it becomes favorable to extract an ion or a pair of ions from the crystal or the cluster. It turns out, however, that the answers to these questions are not so straightforward: below a certain number of water molecules (˜ 12) solvation of individual ions is less costly and above this number solvation of ion pairs is favored. These results reveal a hitherto unknown complexity in the NaCl dissolution process born out of a subtle interplay between water-water and water-ion interactions.

  9. Ab initio interionic potentials for NaCl by multiple lattice inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuo; Chen Nanxian

    2002-01-01

    Based on the Chen-Moebius lattice inversion and a series of pseudopotential total-energy curves, a different method is presented to derive the ab initio interionic pair potentials for B1-type ionic crystals. Comparing with the experimental data, the static properties of B1- and B2-type NaCl are well reproduced by the interionic potentials. Moreover, the phase stability of B1-NaCl has been described by the energy minimizations from the global deformed and disturbed states. The molecular-dynamics simulations for the molten NaCl indicate that the calculated mean-square displacements, radial distribution function, and diffusion coefficients gain good agreements with the experimental results. It can be concluded that the inversion pair potentials are valid over a wide range of interionic separations for describing the structural properties of B1-type ionic crystals

  10. Proteomic analysis of the response to NaCl stress of Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Li, Pei-Zhao; Sun, Jin-Wei; Huo, Gui-Cheng; Liu, Li-Bo

    2014-11-01

    Lactobacillus bulgaricus is commonly used in dairy products as a starter culture. Its viability during freeze-drying is of commercial interest. Here a significant (p bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was achieved during freeze-drying when it was prestressed with 2 % (w/v) NaCl for 2 h in the late growth phase. To understand the mechanism of this stress-related viability improvement in L. bulgaricus, protein synthesis was analyzed by 2D difference gel electrophoresis. Nine protein spots were significantly altered by NaCl and were subsequently identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. The functions of the proteins included stress-related protein synthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, nucleotide biosynthesis, sugar metabolism, transport systems, and vitamin biosynthesis. These findings provide a considerable background regarding the NaCl stress response of L. bulgaricus.

  11. Neutralization of Hydroxide Ion in Melt-Grown NaCl Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterson, Dumas A.

    1961-01-01

    Many recent studies of solid-state phenomena, particularly in the area of crystal imperfections, have involved the use of melt-grown NaCl single crystals. Quite often trace impurities in these materials have had a prominent effect on these phenomena. Trace amounts of hydroxide ion have been found in melt-grown NaCl crystals. This paper describes a nondestructive method of neutralizing the hydroxide ion in such crystals. Crystals of similar hydroxide content are maintained at an elevated temperature below the melting point of NaCl in a flowing atmosphere containing. dry hydrogen chloride. Heat treatment is continued until an analysis of the test specimens shows no excess hydroxide ion. A colorimetric method previously described4 is used for this analysis.

  12. Equilibrium chemical transformations in NaPO3 + NaCl melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarskaya, E.N.; Rodionov, Yu.I.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the problems of the burial of solidified radioactive wastes into different geological rock formations, in particular into massives of rock-salt, the state of molten polyphosphate-chloride mixtures (taking into account the chemical character of the interaction of their components) for a prolonged period of time. The equilibrium products of the reaction in the NaPO 3 -NaCl system were studied in melts in air in the composition range of 30-70 mole % NaCl. It was shown that with increase in the NaCl content in the mixtures, the polyphosphate gradually depolymerizes to sodium tri-, di-, and monophosphates, and the composition of the equilibrium melts is dependent only on the ratio between the components in the initial molten mixtures. The time until the equilibrium is attained is shorter, the higher is the experimental temperature

  13. Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation Ability of NaCl and Sea Salt Aerosol Particles at Cirrus Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert; Kaufmann, Julia; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Ullrich, Romy; Leisner, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    In situ measurements of the composition of heterogeneous cirrus ice cloud residuals have indicated a substantial contribution of sea salt in sampling regions above the ocean. We have investigated the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of sodium chloride (NaCl) and sea salt aerosol (SSA) particles at cirrus cloud temperatures between 235 and 200 K in the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere aerosol and cloud chamber. Effloresced NaCl particles were found to act as ice nucleating particles in the deposition nucleation mode at temperatures below about 225 K, with freezing onsets in terms of the ice saturation ratio, Sice, between 1.28 and 1.40. Above 225 K, the crystalline NaCl particles deliquesced and nucleated ice homogeneously. The heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency was rather similar for the two crystalline forms of NaCl (anhydrous NaCl and NaCl dihydrate). Mixed-phase (solid/liquid) SSA particles were found to act as ice nucleating particles in the immersion freezing mode at temperatures below about 220 K, with freezing onsets in terms of Sice between 1.24 and 1.42. Above 220 K, the SSA particles fully deliquesced and nucleated ice homogeneously. Ice nucleation active surface site densities of the SSA particles were found to be in the range between 1.0 · 1010 and 1.0 · 1011 m-2 at T < 220 K. These values are of the same order of magnitude as ice nucleation active surface site densities recently determined for desert dust, suggesting a potential contribution of SSA particles to low-temperature heterogeneous ice nucleation in the atmosphere.

  14. A possible NaCl pathway in the bioregenerative human life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskiy, V. I.; Gribovskaya, I. V.

    One of the ways to involve NaCl in the mass exchange of the bioregenerative human life support system (BLSS) is to grow some vegetables and leafy greens that can accumulate sodium chloride at high concentrations in their edible biomass. Lettuce, celery cabbage, chard, dill and radish plants were grown hydroponically in Knop's nutrient solution. In the first series of experiments, at the end of the growth period the plants were grown on solutions containing 2-14 g/L of NaCl for 1-5 days. It was found that the amount of sodium in edible biomass of the plants increased with NaCl concentration in the solution and with the time plants were irrigated with that solution. The content of NaCl in the biomass of leaves and edible roots was considerable—up to 10% dry matter. At the same time, the amount of water in the leaves decreased and productivity of the treatment plants was 14-28% lower than that of the control ones, grown on Knop's solution. The treatment plants contained less than half of the amount of nitrates recorded in the control ones. Expert evaluation showed that the taste of the vegetables and leafy greens of the treatment group were not inferior to the taste of the control plants. In the second series of experiments, prior to being grown on the NaCl solution, the plants were irrigated with water for 2, 4 or 6 days. It was found that lower salt status of the plants was not favorable for increased salt accumulation in their biomass. If a human consumes 30 g salad vegetables and follows a low-sodium diet (3 g/d of table salt), it may be feasible to recycle NaCl in the BLSS using vegetables and leafy greens.

  15. Effect of NaCl and KCl on irradiated diploid yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirtaev, K.G.; Lobachevskij, P.N.; Lyu Gvan Son

    1984-01-01

    Irradiated dipload yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae kept in NaCl and KCl solutions died more readily than nonirradiated cells: the death rate was a functaon of radiation Jose and temperature of exposure. It was suggested that the radiation-induced injury to mass cell structures was responsible for the death rate. It was shown that the postirradiataon recovery of cells from radiation damages proceeded in KCl solution two-three times slower than mn water, and it was inhibited completely in NaCl solution

  16. Low-field NMR determination of water distribution in meat batters with NaCl and polyphosphate addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jun-Hua; Deng, Ya-Min; Jia, Na; Li, Ru-Ren; Cao, Jin-Xuan; Liu, Deng-Yong; Li, Jian-Rong

    2016-06-01

    The objective was to elucidate the influence of NaCl and polyphosphates in the stage of protein swelling on the water-holding capacity (WHC) of meat batter. The meat batters were formulated with salt in different ways by adding established amounts of only NaCl, only polyphosphates, jointly adding NaCl and polyphosphates, and a control without any salt. An increase (pwater retention was found when a combination of NaCl and polyphosphates was used. A high textural parameter was observed in the two treatments with NaCl, but not in the group with only polyphosphate. For the polyphosphate group, T22 was lower (pwater, particularly with polyphosphate, but polyphosphate could not be an equal substitute for NaCl given its resulting lowest textural properties and poor microstructure. By presenting different hydration states in the protein swelling stage, the meat batter qualities were differentiated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Solid solution cermet: (Ti,Nb)(CN)-Ni cermet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hanjung; Jung, Sun-A

    2014-11-01

    Solid solution powders without W, (Ti,Nb)(CN) powders with a B1 structure (NaCl like), were synthesized by high energy milling and carbothermal reduction in nitrogen. The range of molar ratios of Ti/Nb for forming complete (Ti,Nb)(CN) phase was broader than that of Ti/W for the (Ti,W)(CN) phase because carbide or carbonitride of Nb had a B1 crystal structure identical to Ti(CN) while WC had a hexagonal crystal structure. The results revealed that the hardness of (Ti,Nb)(CN)-Ni cermets was higher than that of (Ti,W)(CN)-Ni cermets. The lower density of the (Ti,Nb)(CN) powder contributed to the higher hardness compared to (Ti,W)(CN) because the volumetric ratio of (Ti,Nb)(CN) in the (Ti,Nb)(CN)-Ni cermets was higher than that of (Ti,Nb)(CN) in the (Ti,W)(CN)-Ni cermets at the same weight ratio of Ni. Additionally, it was assumed that intrinsic the properties of (Ti,Nb)(CN) could also be the cause for the high hardness of the (Ti,Nb)(CN)-Ni cermets.

  18. Microstructure and Properties of Ni and Ni/Al2O3 Coatings Electrodeposited at Various Current Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Góral A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents investigations of an influence of various direct current densities on microstructure, residual stresses, texture, microhardness and corrosion resistance of the nickel coatings electrodeposited from modified Watt’s baths. The properties of obtained coatings were compared to the nano-crystalline composite Ni/Al2O3 coatings prepared under the same plating conditions. The similarities and differences of the obtained coatings microstructures visible on both their surfaces and cross sections and determined properties were presented. The differences in the growth character of the Ni matrix and in the microstructural properties were observed. All electrodeposited Ni and Ni/Al2O3 coatings were compact and well adhering to the steel substrates. The thickness and the microhardness of the Ni and Ni/Al2O3 deposits increased significantly with the current density in the range 2 - 6 A/dm2. Residual stresses are tensile and they reduced as the current density increased. The composite coatings revealed better protection from the corrosion of steel substrate than pure nickel in solution 1 M NaCl.

  19. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0 - 24 h under 200 ...

  20. Over-expression of Arabidopsis DnaJ (Hsp40) contributes to NaCl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... levels of DnaJ in their transgenic sense lines exhibited tolerance to NaCl stress. Under 120 mM ... polymerase chain reaction; RT-PCR, reverse transcriptase –. PCR; CTAB ..... Engineering salt tolerance in plants. Curr. Opin.

  1. [Effects of NaCl stress on cation contents in different pumpkin cultivars' seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Xin; Chen, Gui-Lin; Ren, Liang-Yu; Wang, Peng

    2008-03-01

    With the seedlings of 19 pumpkin cultivars as test materials, this paper studied the variations of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+, SN+, K+ and SNa+, ca2+ in their shoots and roots under the stress of 300 mmol NaCl x L(-1). The results showed that after an 8-day exposure to 300 mmol NaCl x L(-1), the Na+ content in the seedlings increased significantly while the K+ content decreased, resulting in the brokenness of ion balance. The root Na+ content, shoot Na+/K+ and Na+/Ca2+ ratios, and SNa+, K+ and SNa+, Ca2+ of Cucurbita moschata (Q1) were significantly higher than those of C. maxima (H2) and C. ficifolia (H3). The variation tendency of these parameters of different pumpkin cultivars' seedlings were nearly consistent with the salt injury index of the seedlings under NaCl stress, which further proved that the strong salt-tolerance of Q1 was related to the lower values of shoot Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+, SNa+, K+ and SNa+, Ca2+, and the high contents of K+ and Ca2+, while the salt-sensitivity of H2 and H3 was related to the higher values of shoot Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+, SNa+, K+ and SNa+, Ca2+, and low contents of K+ and Ca2+ under NaCl stress.

  2. Response of Eucalyptus occidentais to water stress induced by NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, C.

    1978-01-01

    Eucalyptus occidentalis plants were exposed to NaCl in their culture solution for various time. Determination of cytokinin, abscisic acid, /sup 14/C leucine incorporation of E. occidentalis, a xerophyte, does not differ from the response of mesophytes to such treatments. 13 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  3. The effect of NaCl substitution by KCl on telemea cheese properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai ANGHELOIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial or total substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride on the chemical composition, texture profile and sensory properties of Telemea cheese during 28 days of ripening at 4°C was evaluated in the current study. Telemea cheese was ripened in 4 different brine solutions (20%, wt/wt made from different NaCl:KCl ratios as follows: (NaCl (A, KCl (B, 1NaCl:1KCl (C and 1NaCl:2KCl (D. The physicochemical properties of Telemea cheese (dry matter, fat, protein, ash, pH, total nitrogen (TN, water soluble nitrogen (WSN and ripening degree values were determined after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of ripening. Dry matter, pH and ripening degree values were significantly (p < 0.05 affected during ripening. The results of this study indicated that replacing 66% NaCl with KCl influenced the texture profile and sensorial characteristics of Telemea cheese.

  4. Growth responses of NaCl stressed rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... Growth responses of NaCl stressed rice (Oryza sativa. L.) plants ... 2008), which is a real threat to human's food security. Existed situation may ..... content and composition of essential oil and minerals in black cumin. (Nigella ...

  5. Effect of NaCl salinity on nitrate uptake in Plantago maritima L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, Michael; Posthumus, F.S; Elzenga, J.T.M.; Stulen, I.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of plants to NaCl salinity reduces the rate of nitrate net uptake by the roots. Previous studies showed that this effect was due to a reduced nitrate influx, which could only partially be explained by a lower demand of nitrate for growth. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that

  6. PLASMA-MEMBRANE LIPID ALTERATIONS INDUCED BY NACL IN WINTER-WHEAT ROOTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSOUR, MMF; VANHASSELT, PR; KUIPER, PJC

    A highly enriched plasma membrane fraction was isolated by two phase partitioning from wheat roots (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vivant) grown with and without 100 mM NaCl. The lipids of the plasma membrane fraction were extracted and characterized. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were

  7. The effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of NaCl priming with KNO3 on the germination traits and seedling growth of four Helianthus annuus L. cultivars under salinity conditions. Seeds of four spring sunflower (Armawireski, Airfloure, Alestar and Ismailli) were primed with KNO3 (-1.0 M Pa) for 24 h in ...

  8. Effects of NaCl stress on seed germination, early seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of salt stress on seed germination, early seedling growth and some physiological characteristics were evaluated for four cauliflower species in seven treatments of salinity including 0 (control), 34, 68, 102, 136, 170 and 204 mM NaCl in a three replicated randomized completely block design (RCBD). This result shows ...

  9. Morphological, Physiological, and Structural Responses of Two Species of Artemisia to NaCl Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of salt stress on Artemisia scoparia and A. vulgaris “Variegate” were examined. A. scoparia leaves became withered under NaCl treatment, whereas A. vulgaris “Variegate” leaves were not remarkably affected. Chlorophyll content decreased in both species, with a higher reduction in A. scoparia. Contents of proline, MDA, soluble carbohydrate, and Na+ increased in both species under salt stress, but A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher level of proline and soluble carbohydrate and lower level of MDA and Na+. The ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ in A. vulgaris “Variegate” under NaCl stress were higher. Moreover, A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher transport selectivity of K+/Na+ from root to stem, stem to middle mature leaves, and upper newly developed leaves than A. scoparia under NaCl stress. A. vulgaris “Variegate” chloroplast maintained its morphological integrity under NaCl stress, whereas A. scoparia chloroplast lost integrity. The results indicated that A. scoparia is more sensitive to salt stress than A. vulgaris “Variegate.” Salt tolerance is mainly related to the ability of regulating osmotic pressure through the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates and proline, and the gradient distribution of K+ between roots and leaves was also contributed to osmotic pressure adjustment and improvement of plant salt tolerance.

  10. Effects of exogenous salinity (NaCl) gradient on Cd release in acidified contaminated brown soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; Rong, Yong; Mao, Li; Gao, Zhiyuan; Liu, Xiaoyu; Dong, Zhicheng

    2018-02-01

    Taking acidified Cd contaminated brown soil in Yantai as the research object, based on different exogenous salinity (NaCl) gradient (0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, 1.5%, 2% and 5%), indoor simulation experiments of Cd release were carried out after field investigation. Results showed that there was a significantly positive relation (r>0.90) between Cd release concentration/amount/ratio and exogenous salt (NaCl). Besides, the more exogenous salt (NaCl) was added; maximum release concentration/amount of Cd appeared the earlier. It was found that exogenous salt (NaCl) addition could obviously promote Cd release from acidified Cd contaminated brown soil. It was believed that this could be mainly due to the cation exchange between Cd2+ and Na+, together with the dissociation and/or complexation between Cl- and Cd2+. In addition, available adsorption sites reduction by exchange base in soil causing Cd changed from solid state to soil solution was also a probable reason.

  11. Terahertz reflection spectroscopy of aqueous NaCl and LiCl solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Merbold, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    frequencies. Whereas both the real and imaginary part of the permittivity of NaCl increases with concentration,we see that the imaginary part of the permittivity of LiCl (related to the absorption)decreases with increasing salt concentration. We relate these changes to the behavior...

  12. AFM of metallic nano-particles and nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaynutdinov, R; Vainshtein, DI; Hak, SJ; Tolstikhina, A; Den Hartog, HW

    2003-01-01

    AFM investigations are reported for heavily, electron irradiated NaCl crystals in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode-with an UHV AFM/STM Omicron system. To avoid chemical reactions between the radiolytic Na and oxygen and water, the irradiated samples were cleaved and prepared for the

  13. Irreversible dilation of NaCl contaminated lime-cement mortar due to crystallization cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Groot, C.J.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of damage occurring in NaCl contaminated materials has not been clarified yet. Apart from crystn. pressure, other hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause of decay. Irreversible dilation has been obsd. in a few cases but has never been studied in a more systematic way. The

  14. Effect of NaCl on Asparagus Quality, Production and Mineral Leaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruistum, van G.; Poll, J.T.K.; Meijer, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the incidence of Fusarium oxysporum and F. redolens on asparagus roots was reduced by field applications of NaCl. F. oxysporum and F. redolens are important diseases in asparagus crops causing physiological rust (brown discoloration on the harvested spears), reduced

  15. The release of stored energy in heavily irradiated NaCl explosive reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vainshtein, D.; Bemt, M. van den; Seinen, J.; Datema, H.C.; Hartog, H.W. den

    1995-01-01

    During irradiation of NaCl with ionizing radiation at moderate temperatures (50-150 degrees C) irregular structures of very fine Na and Cl nano-precipitates are formed. The increase of the temperature to a value between 50 and 250 degrees C might induce explosive reactions between radiolytic Na and

  16. Heteroepitaxial strain in alkali halide thin films: KCl on NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1999-01-01

    We have pet-formed Monte Carlo simulations of the properties of a NaCl (001) surface covered by full or partial layers of KCl, for coverages up to 5 monolayers (ML). A wide variety of structures of the film is found. For integer ML coverages we find the continuous, so-called floating mode rumple ...

  17. Color kinetics and acrylamide formation in NaCl soaked potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Bustos, Oscar; Mery, Domingo

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of color development in blanched and blanched-NaCl impregnated potato slices during frying by using the dynamic method and also to evaluate the effect of NaCl in reducing acrylamide formation in potato chips. The measurement of color was done b...

  18. Evaluation of Potential Effects of NaCl and Sorbic Acid on Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoleta Zeaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prophage-encoded staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA is recognized as the main cause of staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP, a common foodborne intoxication disease, caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Studies on the production of SEA suggest that activation of the SOS response and subsequent prophage induction affect the regulation of the sea gene and the SEA produced, increasing the risk for SFP. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of NaCl and sorbic acid, in concentrations relevant to food production, on SOS response activation, prophage induction and SEA production. The impact of stress was initially evaluated on steady state cells for a homogenous cell response. NaCl 2% was found to activate the SOS response, i.e., recA expression, and trigger prophage induction, in a similar way as the phage-inducer mitomycin C. In contrast, sorbic acid decreased the pH of the culture to a level where prophage induction was probably suppressed, even when combined with NaCl stress. The impact of previous physiological state of the bacteria was also addressed on cells pre-exposed to NaCl, and was found to potentially affect cell response upon exposure to further stress. The results obtained highlight the possible SFP-related risks arising from the use of preservatives during food processing.

  19. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of Ni-containing hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Hossain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical corrosion characteristics of the thermally treated 2 wt % Ni-containing Al-6Si-0.5Mg alloy were studied in NaCl solutions. The corrosion behavior of thermally treated (T6 Al-6Si-0.5Mg (-2Ni alloys in 0.1 M NaCl solution was investigated by electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization technique consisting of linear polarization method using the fit of Tafel plot and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS techniques. Generally, linear polarization experiments revealed a decrease of the corrosion rate at thermal treated Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni alloy. The EIS test results showed that there is no significant change in charge transfer resistance (Rct after addition of Ni to Al-6Si-0.5Mg alloy. The magnitude of the positive shift in the open circuit potential (OCP, corrosion potential (Ecorr and pitting corrosion potential (Epit increased with the addition of Ni to Al-6Si-0.5Mg alloy. The forms of corrosion in the studied Al-6Si-0.5Mg alloy (except Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni alloy are pitting corrosion as obtained from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM study.

  20. Effect of NaCl on thermophilic (55°C) methanol degradation in sulfate reducing granular sludge reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallero, M.V.G.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of NaCl on thermophilic (55degreesC) methanol conversion in the presence of excess of sulfate (COD/SO42-=0.5) was investigated in two 6.5L lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors inoculated with granular sludge previously not adapted to NaCl
    The effect of NaCl on thermophilic

  1. Effect of NaCl on the hydric and hygric dilation behaviour of lime-cement mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Huinink, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of damage due to NaCl crystallization has not been clarified yet. Apart from crystallization pressure, other hypotheses have been proposed to explain the decay. Irreversible dilation during NaCl crystallization has been observed in a few cases but has never been studied in a systematic

  2. An experimental study on the erosion behavior of pseudoelastic TiNi alloy in dry sand and in aggressive media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.; Li, D.Y. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-11-30

    The corrosive erosion behavior of Ti-51at.%Ni alloy under different erosion conditions was studied and compared to that of 304 stainless steel. Erosion tests were performed in a slurry-pot tester with dry sand, 3.5% NaCl slurry and 0.1 moll{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} slurry containing 30% silica sand, respectively. Synergistic effects of corrosion and erosion were studied in steady corrosion, polarization, dry sand erosion and micro-wear experiments. An electrochemical-scratching test characterized the failure and recovery of the passive film formed on TiNi alloy in 3.5% NaCl and 0.1 mol l{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions, respectively. In both dry sand and the corrosive media, the TiNi alloy exhibited considerably greater erosion resistance than 304 stainless steel. (orig.)

  3. Study on the spectrum of photonic crystal cavity and its application in measuring the concentration of NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yun [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing (China). Dept. of Physics; Wuxi Institute of Commerce, Wuxi (China). School of Electromechanical Technology; Xie, Xun; Hao, Jiong-Ju; Yang, Hong-Wei [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing (China). Dept. of Physics; Yang, Ze-Kun [Lanzhou Univ. (China). School of Information Science and Engineering; Xu, Zhi-Gang [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing (China). College of Agriculture

    2017-07-01

    In this article, we propose an approach to measure solution concentrations by using photonic crystal cavities. Based on the experimental data, the refractive index of a NaCl solution is proportional to the concentration. Filling the proposed photonic crystal cavity with a NaCl solution, we calculate the spectral transmission using the transfer matrix method. We found that the cavity transmittance was proportional to the refractive index of the NaCl solution, and thus we obtained a linear relationship between cavity transmittance and the concentration of the NaCl solution. The formula was found by fitting the simulation results with experimental data. Such a formula can be applied to the measurement of an unknown concentration of NaCl solution utilizing a photonic crystal cavity.

  4. Characteristics of injury and recovery of net NO3- transport of barley seedlings from treatments of NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobus, G.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The nature of the injury and recovery of nitrate uptake (net uptake) from NaCl stress in young barley (Hordeum vulgare L, var CM 72) seedlings was investigated. Nitrate uptake was inhibited rapidly by NaCl, within 1 minute after exposure to 200 millimolar NaCl. The duration of exposure to saline conditions determined the time of recovery of NO3- uptake from NaCl stress. Recovery was dependent on the presence of NO3- and was inhibited by cycloheximide, 6-methylpurine, and cerulenin, respective inhibitors of protein, RNA, and sterol/fatty acid synthesis. These inhibitors also prevented the induction of the NO3- uptake system in uninduced seedlings. Uninduced seedlings exhibited endogenous NO3- transport activity that appeared to be constitutive. This constitutive activity was also inhibited by NaCl. Recovery of constitutive NO3- uptake did not require the presence of NO3-.

  5. NaCl stress impact on the key enzymes in glycolysis from Lactobacillus bulgaricus during freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Sun, Jinwei; Qi, Xiaoxi; Liu, Libo

    2015-01-01

    The viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in freeze-drying is of significant commercial interest to dairy industries. In the study, L.bulgaricus demonstrated a significantly improved (p enzymes in glycolysis during 2% NaCl stress were studied. NaCl stress significantly enhanced (p enzymes (phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase) decreased during freeze-drying, and NaCl stress were found to improve activities of these enzymes before and after freeze-drying. However, a transcriptional analysis of the corresponding genes suggested that the effect of NaCl stress on the expression of the pfk2 gene was not obvious. The increased survival of freeze-dried cells of L. bulgaricus under NaCl stress might be due to changes in only the activity or translation level of these enzymes in different environmental conditions but have no relation to their mRNA transcription level.

  6. The Salty Scrambled Egg: Detection of NaCl Toward CRL 2688

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highberger, J. L.; Thomson, K. J.; Young, P. A.; Arnett, D.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2003-08-01

    NaCl has been detected toward the circumstellar envelope of the post-AGB star CRL 2688 using the IRAM 30 m telescope, the first time this molecule has been identified in a source other than IRC +10216. The J=7-->6, 11-->10, 12-->11, and 18-->17 transitions of NaCl at 1, 2, and 3 mm have been observed, as well as the J=8-->7 line of the 37Cl isotopomer. The J=12-->11 line was also measured at the ARO 12 m telescope. An unsuccessful search was additionally conducted for AlCl toward CRL 2688, although in the process new transitions of NaCN were observed. Both NaCl and NaCN were found to be present in the AGB remnant wind, as suggested by their U-shaped line profiles, indicative of emission arising from an optically thin, extended shell-like source of radius ~10"-12". These data contrast with past results in IRC +10216, where the distribution of both molecules is confined to within a few arcseconds of the star. A high degree of excitation is required for the transitions observed for NaCl and NaCN; therefore, these two species likely arise in the region where the high-velocity outflow has collided with the remnant wind. Here the effects of shocks and clumping due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities have raised the densities and temperatures significantly. The shell source is thus likely to be clumpy and irregular. The chemistry producing the sodium compounds is consequently more complex than simple LTE formation. Abundances of NaCl and NaCN, relative to H2, are f~1.6×10-10 and ~5.2×10-9, respectively, while the upper limit to AlCl is f<2×10-9. These values differ substantially from those in IRC +10216, where AlCl has an abundance near 10-7. The NaCl observations additionally indicate a chlorine isotope ratio of 35Cl/37Cl=2.1+/-0.8 in CRL 2688, suggestive of s-process enhancement of chlorine 37.

  7. Characterization and corrosion behaviour of CoNi alloys obtained by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvera, S. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia y Materiales, México, D. F. (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Sánchez-Marcos, J. [Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Palomares, F.J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM-CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Salas, E. [Spline Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facilities, ESRF, BP 220-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Arce, E.M. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia y Materiales, México, D. F. (Mexico); Herrasti, P., E-mail: pilar.herrasti@uam.es [Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    CoNi alloys including Co{sub 30}Ni{sub 70}, Co{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} and Co{sub 70}Ni{sub 30} were prepared via mechanical alloying using Co and Ni powders. The crystallinity and short-range order were studied using X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results show that the milling process increases the number of vacancies, especially around the Co atoms, while the milling time decreases the crystalline size and enhances the crystallinity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterise the chemical composition of the samples surface. The magnetic properties were analysed using zero-field cooling, field cooling and a magnetic hysteresis loops. The magnetic saturation moment is approximately 1.05 μ{sub B}/atom; this value decreases with the mechanical alloying time, and it is proportional to the cobalt concentration. The polarization and impedance curves in different media (NaCl, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH) showed similar corrosion resistance values. The corrosion resistance increased in the order NaCl, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH. A good passivation layer was formed in NaOH due to the cobalt and nickel oxides on the particle surfaces. - Highlights: • Ni{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} alloys were synthesized by mechanical alloying • Milling time decrease size and enhances crystallinity. • Oxygen is not present in a significant percentage in bulk but is detected on the surface. • Magnetic saturation moment is 1.05 mB/atom and decrease with mechanical allowing time • Corrosion resistance is higher in NaOH than in NaCl or HCl solutions.

  8. Characterization and corrosion behaviour of CoNi alloys obtained by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera, S.; Sánchez-Marcos, J.; Palomares, F.J.; Salas, E.; Arce, E.M.; Herrasti, P.

    2014-01-01

    CoNi alloys including Co 30 Ni 70 , Co 50 Ni 50 and Co 70 Ni 30 were prepared via mechanical alloying using Co and Ni powders. The crystallinity and short-range order were studied using X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results show that the milling process increases the number of vacancies, especially around the Co atoms, while the milling time decreases the crystalline size and enhances the crystallinity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterise the chemical composition of the samples surface. The magnetic properties were analysed using zero-field cooling, field cooling and a magnetic hysteresis loops. The magnetic saturation moment is approximately 1.05 μ B /atom; this value decreases with the mechanical alloying time, and it is proportional to the cobalt concentration. The polarization and impedance curves in different media (NaCl, H 2 SO 4 and NaOH) showed similar corrosion resistance values. The corrosion resistance increased in the order NaCl, H 2 SO 4 and NaOH. A good passivation layer was formed in NaOH due to the cobalt and nickel oxides on the particle surfaces. - Highlights: • Ni x Co 100-x alloys were synthesized by mechanical alloying • Milling time decrease size and enhances crystallinity. • Oxygen is not present in a significant percentage in bulk but is detected on the surface. • Magnetic saturation moment is 1.05 mB/atom and decrease with mechanical allowing time • Corrosion resistance is higher in NaOH than in NaCl or HCl solutions

  9. Surface microstructures and corrosion resistance of Ni-Ti-Nb shape memory thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Li, Yan, E-mail: liyan@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Huang, Xu [Memry Corporation, Bethel, CT 06801 (United States); Gibson, Des [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Zheng, Yang; Liu, Jiao; Sun, Lu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Fu, Yong Qing, E-mail: richard.fu@northumbria.ac.uk [Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • The corrosion resistance of Ni-Ti-Nb shape memory thin films is investigated. • Modified surface oxide layers improve the corrosion resistance of Ni-Ti-Nb films. • Further Nb additions reduce the potential corrosion tendency of the films. - Abstract: Ni-Ti-Nb and Ni-Ti shape memory thin films were sputter-deposited onto silicon substrates and annealed at 600 °C for crystallization. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that all of the annealed Ni-Ti-Nb films were composed of crystalline Ni-Ti (Nb) and Nb-rich grains. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) tests showed that the surfaces of Ni-Ti-Nb films were covered with Ti oxides, NiO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ti-Nb films in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was investigated using electrochemical tests such as open-circuit potential (OCP) and potentio-dynamic polarization tests. Ni-Ti-Nb films showed higher OCPs, higher corrosion potentials (E{sub corr}) and lower corrosion current densities (i{sub corr}) than the binary Ni-Ti film, which indicated a better corrosion resistance. The reason may be that Nb additions modified the passive layer on the film surface. The OCPs of Ni-Ti-Nb films increased with further Nb additions, whereas no apparent difference of E{sub corr} and i{sub corr} was found among the Ni-Ti-Nb films.

  10. Corrosion behavior of nanostructured Ni-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite films: A study of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.M.; Cai, C.; Xue, M.Z.; Liu, Y.G. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Yin, J.Y.; Zhang, Z. [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory for Light Alloy Materials Technology, JiaXing (China); Li, J.F. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha (China); Yang, J.F. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University (China)

    2012-07-15

    Ni-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposite films with both the consecutive Ni crystallites and dispersed Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} particles in the nanometer range have been fabricated using DC electroplating technique, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion resistance of the Ni-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposite film has been compared to that of pure Ni coating through polarization. Meanwhile, the corrosion process of Ni-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposite film in neutral 3.5% NaCl solution has been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the Ni-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposite film is more resistant to corrosion than the pure Ni coating. The corrosion of Ni-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposite film is controlled by electrochemical step, and the whole corrosion process is divided into two sequential stages. The main corrosion type of Ni-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposite films in neutral 3.5% NaCl solution is pitting. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Calculation of inelastic helium atom scattering from H2/ NaCl(001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruch, L.W.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Traeger, F.

    2011-01-01

    The one-phonon inelastic low energy helium atom scattering theory is adapted to cases where the target monolayer is a p(1 × 1) commensurate square lattice. Experimental data for para-H2/NaCl(001) are re-analyzed and the relative intensities of energy loss peaks in the range 6 to 9 meV are determi......The one-phonon inelastic low energy helium atom scattering theory is adapted to cases where the target monolayer is a p(1 × 1) commensurate square lattice. Experimental data for para-H2/NaCl(001) are re-analyzed and the relative intensities of energy loss peaks in the range 6 to 9 me...

  12. Evaluation of NaCl Salinity Stress Using Three Different Laboratory Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Laleh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different salinity levels of NaCl on germination of safflower (cv. Esfahan 24 seeds under three different incubation methods, a factorial experiment was carried out based on a complete randomize design with three replications. Salinity levels were 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 dSm-1 (NaCl and incubation methods were sandwich method, and using petri dishes with open or closed doors. The results showed that among investigated traits, including germination percentage and rate, length, fresh and dry weight of root and shoot, salinity had the highest negative correlation with germination percentage. There was not a significant difference in germination percentage between 5 dSm-1 and control, but increasing salinity levels to 10, 15 and 20 dSm-1 led to 13, 23.50 and 39.74 % reduction in germination percentage, respectively, compared to control (P

  13. Effect of Acacia Gum, NaCl, and Sucrose on Physical Properties of Lotus Stem Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Balmeet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences in east Asian part of the world pave the way for consumption of lotus stem starch (LSS) in preparations such as breakfast meals, fast foods, and traditional confectioneries. The present study envisaged the investigation and optimization of additives, that is, acacia gum, sodium chloride (NaCl), and sucrose, on water absorption (WA), water absorption index (WAI), and water solubility index (WSI) of LSS employing response surface methodology (RSM). Acacia gum resulted in increased water uptake and swelling of starch; however, NaCl reduced the swelling power of starch by making water unavailable to starch and also due to starch-ion electrostatic interaction. Sucrose restricted the water absorption by binding free water and decreased amylose leaching by building bridges with starch chains and thus forming rigid structure. PMID:26904639

  14. Reaction of metal oxides with molten mixtures NaPO3+NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarskaya, E.N.; Mityakhina, V.S.; Rodionov, Yu.I.; Silin, M.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    By methods of solubility determination and paper chromatography it is shown, that Fe 2 O 3 solution in NaPO 3 +NaCl melts in the air relizes due to its chemical interaction with solvent resulting in formation of iron and sodium binary di- and monophosphates depending on melt-solvent initial composition, its attainment of equilibrium state and experiment temperature. It is established, that oxides increased solubility in melts with NaCl initial content ∼30 mol.% is specified by sodium tri- and tricyclophosphates presence in the melts. On this basis of NGR-spectroscopy data the presence of iron, europium, tin and sodium binary di- and monophosphates in some chloride-polyphosphate melts is confirmed

  15. Short-pulse CO2-laser damage studies of NaCl and KCl windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newnam, B.E.; Nowak, A.V.; Gill, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    The damage resistance of bare surfaces and the bulk interior of NaCl and KCl windows was measured with a short-pulse CO 2 laser at 10.6 μm. Parametric studies with 1.7-ns pulses indicated that adsorbed water was probably the limiting agent on surface thresholds in agreement with previous studies at long pulsewidths. Rear-surface thresholds up to 7 J/cm 2 were measured for polished NaCl windows, whereas KCl surfaces damaged at approximately 60% of this level. The breakdown electric-field thresholds of exit surfaces were only 50% of the value of the bulk materials. The pulsewidth dependence of surface damage from 1 to 65 ns, in terms of incident laser fluence, increased as t/sup 1/3/

  16. Thermoluminescence and recovery processes in pure and doped NaCl after 20 K irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, F.J.; Aguilar, M.; Jaque, F.; Agullo-Lopez, F.

    1980-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) spectra after X-ray irradiation at 20 K have been investigated for pure as well as divalent cation doped NaCl. The F-centre decay has also been determined in pure and Ca and Mg doped NaCl for comparison purposes. A clear decrease in F-centre concentration appears to correlate with glow peaks at 44 and 50 K for pure and Ca-doped samples. Main glow peak appearing at 69 K is not associated to any appreciable F-centre decay step. Below liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) all peaks show both σ and π exciton emission bands. Above LNT, the glow peaks for doped samples show the σ emission together with another band at 410 nm, whereas pure samples still present the intrinsic emission bands. (author)

  17. Recovery of phenol of industrial wastewaters with NaCl treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serna, Iveth; Torres, Jesus; Hoyos Bibian

    2003-01-01

    A technique for phenol recovery from residual wastewater, which has been made in an empiric way in some local industries, is explored in this work. It was carried out an experimental design that takes into account the concentration of NaCl as the entrance variable and the phenol recovery percentage as the exit variable. The statistical analysis of data determined that the best operation point is 25 Celsius degrade, with a initial ph between 2 and 3, an initial concentration of 6% and 21,5% for phenol and NaCl respectively, achieving a phenol recovery of 79 % with a phenol concentration in the organic phase of 83%. Besides the experimental part some theories are exposed dealing with the separation of a no electrolyte and water by salt addition

  18. Effect of applied voltage and initial concentration to desalting NaCl solution using electrodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubakri, Ali; Gzara, Lassaad; Dhahbi, Mahmoud; Bouguecha, Salah

    2009-01-01

    The desalination process of electrodialysis is one of membrane separation that competes with reverse osmosis for desalination of brackish water and seawater. In this work water desalination using a laboratory electrodialysis was performed and evaluated to desalting aqueous solutions containing 5000, 10000 and 20000 mg/L NaCl at different applied potential (10, 15 and 20 V) and at a constant flow rate of 3 L/min. Nine electrodialysis runs were performed. The results showed that the increasing of applied potential and decreasing of NaCl concentration have an important effect to enhance the electrodialysis performance. The efficiencies of each experiment were evaluated as function of specific power consumption with the electrical energy consumed in electrodialysis stack. It was obtained that the specific power consumption increased when the salt concentration and applied voltage increased. A laboratory electrodialysis stack containing fifteen cation exchange membranes and fifteen anion exchange membranes of 0,716 m 2 total effective area was used.

  19. Radiation induced color center and colloid formation in synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, P.W.; Swyler, K.J.; Klaffky, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    F-center and colloid particle formation has been studied in synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt crystals with apparatus for making optical absorption measurements during irradiation. F-center and colloid formation are functions of temperature, dose, dose rate, strain applied prior to irradiation and numerous other factors. Many of the observed properties are in accord with the Jain-Lidiard theory for radiation induced F-center and colloid growth above room temperature

  20. MARINATED WITH EFFECT OF NaCl AND SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE BROMATOLOGICAL PROPERTIES ON THE MEAT GOAT

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Peña F.; Daniel Salvador Duran O; Luis Carlos Baleta M.

    2014-01-01

    Goat meat has all the significant nutritional characteristics by consumers to be an excellent alternative supply; therefore, this study proposes the use of a mixture of NaCl, sodium tripolyphosphate, laurel and rosemary extracts as marginalisers agents using maceration technique marinade as facilitator system and applying vacuum packaging and storage at refrigeration of an overall strategy of modernization. In the finished product bromatologic variables pH, fat, protein, water holding c...

  1. Liquid Scintillation counting Standardization of 22 NaCl by the CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1995-09-01

    We describe a procedure for preparing a stable solution of ''22 NaCl for liquid scintillation counting and its counting stability and spectral evolution in Insta-Gel''R is studied. The solution has been standardised in terms of activity concentration by the CIEMAT/NIST method with discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies lower than 0.4/% and an overall uncertainty of 0.35%

  2. Liquid Scintillation Counting Standardization of 22NaCl by te CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a procedure for preparing a stable solution of ''22NaCl for liquid scintillation counting and its counting stability and spectral evolution in Insta-Gel''R is studied. The solution has been standardised in terms of activity concentration by the CIEMAT/NIST method with discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies lower than 0.4 % and an overall uncertainty of 0.35 %. (Author) 4 refs

  3. Combinations of nisin with salt (NaCl) to control Listeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effect of combinations of nisin with salt (NaCl) to control Listeria monocytogenes on sheep natural sausage casings. Casings were inoculated with 3.0 x 105 cfu/g final inocula of L. monocytogenes, stored at 6°C in different solutions of nisin at 0, 100, 150 and 200 ìg/g. Each combined with salt at 0, 4, ...

  4. A thermoluminescence study of Z2-centres in terbium-doped NaCl crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.N.; Ahmed, I.M.; Pandaraiah, N.; Rao, U.V.S.; Babu, V.H.

    1983-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL), optical absorption are used to correlate thermal annealing of Z 2 -centres with TL peak occurring around 110 0 C in terbium-doped NaCl crystals. The TL glow peak occurring around 190 0 C is attributed to the thermal annealing of F-centres. The thermal activation parameters are calculated for both Z 2 - and F-centre peaks. (author)

  5. Influence of NaCl salinity on growth analysis of strawberry cv. Camarosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mirdehghan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of salinity effect on growth analysis of strawberry, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan in 2010. This study was carried out RCBD design with 4 replications to determine the influence of salinity (30, 60, 90 Mmol and control with distilled water on strawberry growth analysis. Results indicated that relative growth rate (RGR, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area ratio (LAR and dry matter accumulation were decreased with increasing salinity. The lowest RGR, CGR and LAR were observed in 90 Mmol NaCl salinity. Results also indicated that maximum dry matter accumulations were observed in 1050, 1200 and 1400 degree days in 30, 60 and 90 Mmol NaCl salinity, respectively. Water salinity more than 30 Mmol NaCl L-1 will decreased fresh fruit yield more than 50 percent in hydroponics strawberry production. Dry mass partitioning in NaCl-stressed plants was in favor of crown and petioles and at expense of root, stem and leaf whereas leaf, stem and root DM progressively declined with an increase in salinity.

  6. Forward flux sampling calculation of homogeneous nucleation rates from aqueous NaCl solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Haji-Akbari, Amir; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2018-01-28

    We used molecular dynamics simulations and the path sampling technique known as forward flux sampling to study homogeneous nucleation of NaCl crystals from supersaturated aqueous solutions at 298 K and 1 bar. Nucleation rates were obtained for a range of salt concentrations for the Joung-Cheatham NaCl force field combined with the Extended Simple Point Charge (SPC/E) water model. The calculated nucleation rates are significantly lower than the available experimental measurements. The estimates for the nucleation rates in this work do not rely on classical nucleation theory, but the pathways observed in the simulations suggest that the nucleation process is better described by classical nucleation theory than an alternative interpretation based on Ostwald's step rule, in contrast to some prior simulations of related models. In addition to the size of NaCl nucleus, we find that the crystallinity of a nascent cluster plays an important role in the nucleation process. Nuclei with high crystallinity were found to have higher growth probability and longer lifetimes, possibly because they are less exposed to hydration water.

  7. Effects of dilute aqueous NaCl solution on caffeine aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Bhanita; Paul, Sandip, E-mail: sandipp@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India)

    2013-11-21

    The effect of salt concentration on association properties of caffeine molecule was investigated by employing molecular dynamics simulations in isothermal-isobaric ensemble of eight caffeine molecules in pure water and three different salt (NaCl) concentrations, at 300 K temperature and 1 atm pressure. The concentration of caffeine was taken almost at the solubility limit. With increasing salt concentration, we observe enhancement of first peak height and appearance of a second peak in the caffeine-caffeine distribution function. Furthermore, our calculated solvent accessible area values and cluster structure analyses suggest formation of higher order caffeine cluster on addition of salt. The calculated hydrogen bond properties reveal that there is a modest decrease in the average number of water-caffeine hydrogen bonds on addition of NaCl salt. Also observed are: (i) decrease in probability of salt contact ion pair as well as decrease in the solvent separated ion pair formation with increasing salt concentration, (ii) a modest second shell collapse in the water structure, and (iii) dehydration of hydrophobic atomic sites of caffeine on addition of NaCl.

  8. Effect of halopriming on the induction of nacl salt tolerance in different wheat genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Hussain, F.; Rehmanullah, M.; Majeed, A.

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress limiting plant growth and productivity of wide range of crops with impairing effects on germination and yield. The present study was conducted to assess the induction of salt tolerance in seven wheat genotypes (Bakhtawar-92, Bhakar-2002, Fakhar-e-Sarhad, Khyber-87, Nasir-2000, Pirsabak-2005, and Uqab-2000) at germination and seedling stage through halo-priming with NaCl. Seeds of each wheat genotype were halo-primed separately. Halo-primed seeds of each wheat genotype were subjected to 0.02 (control), 2, 4, 6 and 8 dS/m NaCl salinity under laboratory conditions. Germination percentage age varied significantly among various wheat genotypes; however, differences between different salt concentrations were non-significant. All the seedling growth characters (germination, plumule growth, fresh and dry weight of seedling and moisture contents) exhibited significant differences among wheat genotypes as well as under the applied salt concentration except for radicle growth which varied non-significantly under salt stress. Interaction between various wheat genotypes and salt concentration was also significant for all the seedling growth characters, while it was non-significant for germination percentage age. It is concluded that NaCl proved to be effective priming agents in inducing salt tolerance in the tested wheat genotypes. (author)

  9. Supercooling of aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions under acoustic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Y J; Wei, B

    2006-10-14

    The supercooling capability of aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions is investigated at containerless state by using acoustic levitation method. The supercooling of water is obviously enhanced by the alkali metal ions and increases linearly with the augmentation of concentrations. Furthermore, the supercooling depends on the nature of ions and is 2-3 K larger for NaCl solution than that for KCl solution in the present concentration range: Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to reveal the intrinsic correlation between supercoolability and microstructure. The translational and orientational order parameters are applied to quantitatively demonstrate the effect of ionic concentration on the hydrogen-bond network and ice melting point. The disrupted hydrogen-bond structure determines essentially the concentration dependence of supercooling. On the other hand, the introduced acoustic pressure suppresses the increase of supercooling by promoting the growth and coalescence of microbubbles, the effective nucleation catalysts, in water. However, the dissolved ions can weaken this effect, and moreover the degree varies with the ion type. This results in the different supercoolability for NaCl and KCl solutions under the acoustic levitation conditions.

  10. Effects of dilute aqueous NaCl solution on caffeine aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Bhanita; Paul, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    The effect of salt concentration on association properties of caffeine molecule was investigated by employing molecular dynamics simulations in isothermal-isobaric ensemble of eight caffeine molecules in pure water and three different salt (NaCl) concentrations, at 300 K temperature and 1 atm pressure. The concentration of caffeine was taken almost at the solubility limit. With increasing salt concentration, we observe enhancement of first peak height and appearance of a second peak in the caffeine-caffeine distribution function. Furthermore, our calculated solvent accessible area values and cluster structure analyses suggest formation of higher order caffeine cluster on addition of salt. The calculated hydrogen bond properties reveal that there is a modest decrease in the average number of water-caffeine hydrogen bonds on addition of NaCl salt. Also observed are: (i) decrease in probability of salt contact ion pair as well as decrease in the solvent separated ion pair formation with increasing salt concentration, (ii) a modest second shell collapse in the water structure, and (iii) dehydration of hydrophobic atomic sites of caffeine on addition of NaCl

  11. Charging induced emission of neutral atoms from NaCl nanocube corners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceresoli, Davide; Zykova-Timan, Tatyana; Tosatti, Erio

    2008-01-01

    Detachment of neutral cations/anions from solid alkali halides can in principle be provoked by donating/subtracting electrons to the surface of alkali halide crystals, but generally constitutes a very endothermic process. However, the amount of energy required for emission is smaller for atoms located in less favorable positions, such as surface steps and kinks. For a corner ion in an alkali halide cube the binding is the weakest, so it should be easier to remove that atom, once it is neutralized. We carried out first principles density functional calculations and simulations of neutral and charged NaCl nanocubes, to establish the energetics of extraction of neutralized corner ions. Following hole donation (electron removal) we find that detachment of neutral Cl corner atoms will require a limited energy of about 0.8 eV. Conversely, following the donation of an excess electron to the cube, a neutral Na atom is extractable from the corner at the lower cost of about 0.6 eV. Since the cube electron affinity level (close to that a NaCl(100) surface state, which we also determine) is estimated to lie about 1.8 eV below vacuum, the overall energy balance upon donation to the nanocube of a zero-energy electron from vacuum will be exothermic. The atomic and electronic structure of the NaCl(100) surface, and of the nanocube Na and Cl corner vacancies are obtained and analyzed as a byproduct

  12. Recuperación de fenol de aguas residuales industriales por tratamiento con NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveth Serna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se explora una técnica para la recuperación de fenol de aguas residuales que hasta el momento se ha realizado en forma empírica en algunas industrias locales. Se realizó un diseño experimental donde se tomó la concentración de NaCl como variable de entrada del proceso y el porcentaje de recuperación de fenol como variable de salida. El análisis estadístico de los datos muestra que la concentración de NaCl es una variable de suma importancia en el proceso. Se determinó que el mejor punto de operación está a 25º C, con un pH inicial entre 2 y 3, una concentración inicial de fenol de 6% y concentración inicial de NaCl de 21,5%, logrando una recuperación del fenol del 79 % con una concentración de fenol en la fase orgánica del 83 %. Además de la parte experimental, en el trabajo se exponen algunas teorías desarrolladas acerca de la separación de una solución de no electrolito y agua por adición de sal.

  13. Reactions of metal oxides with molten NaPO3 + NaCl mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarskaya, E.N.; Mityakhina, V.S.; Rodionov, Yu.I.; Silin, M.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    We consider the dissolution mechanism for iron (III), europium(III), and tin(IV) oxides in molten NaPO 3 + NaCl that are responsible for the peak solubilities. We chose Fe 2 O 3 as the basic material since this occurs in large amounts around damaged metal structures in rock salt mines in a proposed zone for storing vitrified radioactive wastes. Solubility measurement and paper chromatography show that Fe 2 O 3 dissolves in molten NaPO 3 + NaCl in air by reaction with the solvent to give double iron and sodium diphosphates and monophosphates in accordance with the initial solution-in-the-melt composition, the degree of equilibration, and the temperature. The elevated solubilities for initial NaCl contents close to 30 mole % are due to sodium triphosphates and tricyclophosphates present in these melts. Moessbauer spectroscopy confirms that double iron, europium and tin diphosphates and monophosphates containing sodium occur in these chloride-polyphosphate melts

  14. Cephradine as corrosion inhibitor for copper in 0.9% NaCl solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasić, Žaklina Z.; Petrović Mihajlović, Marija B.; Radovanović, Milan B.; Simonović, Ana T.; Antonijević, Milan M.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of (6R,7R)-7-[[(2R)-2-amino-2-cyclohexa-1,4-dien-1-ylacetyl]amino]-3-methyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azobicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid (cephradine) on corrosion behavior of copper in 0.9% NaCl solution was investigated. The electrochemical methods including the open circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations were used for this investigation. According to the results obtained by potentiodynamic polarization, cephradine acts as mixed type inhibitor. Also, the results obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicate that cephradine provides good copper protection in 0.9% NaCl solution. The inhibition efficiency of cephradine increases with increasing its concentration. The scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirms that a protective layer is formed on the copper surface due to the adsorption of cephradine on the active sites on the copper surface. Adsorption of cephradine in 0.9% NaCl solution follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Quantum chemical calculations are in agreement with results obtained by electrochemical measurements.

  15. The equation of state of B2-type NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, S

    2010-01-01

    The equation of state (EOS) of B2-type NaCl has been investigated to 270 GPa and 3000 K using the first-principles molecular dynamics method and high-pressure experiments in a diamond anvil cell. We used the high-pressure experimental data to determine the compressibility at room temperature, and used the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the projector augmented-wave method (PAW) in simulations to calculate the thermal pressure. A Vinet EOS fitted to the room temperature data yielded an isothermal bulk modulus of B T0 = 39.25 GPa and a pressure derivative of B T0 ' = 4.72. The high-temperature data from the first-principles calculations were fitted to the thermal pressure EOS. The resulting calculated parameters of the thermal pressure, αB T (V 0 ,T) and (δB T /δT) V , were 3.28 x 10 -3 (GPa/K) and 4.3 x10 -4 (GPa/K), respectively. A small volume dependence of the thermal pressure of B2-type NaCl was revealed from the analysis of our data. A significant temperature dependence of the calculated Grueneisen parameters was confirmed. This indicates that the conventional approach using the Mie-Grueneisen approximation is likely to have a significant uncertainty in determining the EOS for B2-type NaCl, and that an intrinsic anharmonicity should be considered to analyze the EOS.

  16. Body Temperatures During Exercise in Deconditioned Dogs: Effect of NACL and Glucose Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Usciko, H.

    2000-01-01

    Infusion of glucose (Glu) into normal exercising dogs attenuates the rise in rectal temperature (Delta-Tre) when compared with delta-Tre during FFA infusion or no infusion. Rates of rise and delta-=Tre levels are higher during exercise after confinement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if Glu infusion would attenuate the exercise-induced excess hyperthermia after deconditioning. Rectal and quadricep femoris muscle temperatures (Tmu) were measured in 7 male, mongrel dogs dogs (19.6 +/- SD 3.0 kg) during 90 minutes of treadmill exercise (3.1 +/-SD 0.2 W/kg) with infusion (30ml/min/kg) of 40% Glu or 0.9% NaCL before BC) and after confinement (AC) in cages (40 x 110 x 80 cm) for 8 wk. Mean (+/-SE body wt. were 19.6 +/- 1.1 kg BC and 19.5 +/- 1.1kg AC, exercise VO2 were not different (40.0 - 42.0 mi/min/kg-1). With NaCl AC, NaCl BC, GluAC, and GluBC: Delta-Tre were, 1.8, 1.4, 1.3 and 0.9C respectively; and Delta-Tmu were 2.3, 1.9, 1.6, and 1.4C. respectively (Pbody temperature with Glu infusion must affect avenues of heat dissipation.

  17. Determination of oxidative stress in wheat leaves as influenced by boron toxicity and NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Sajid; Saleh, Livia; Witzel, Katja; Plieth, Christoph; Mühling, Karl H

    2012-07-01

    Boron (B) toxicity symptoms are visible in the form of necrotic spots and may worsen the oxidative stress caused by salinity. Hence, the interactive effects of combined salinity and B toxicity stress on antioxidative activities (TAC, LUPO, SOSA, CAT, and GR) were investigated by novel luminescence assays and standard photometric procedures. Wheat plants grown under hydroponic conditions were treated with 2.5 μM H₃BO₃ (control), 75 mM NaCl, 200 μM H₃BO₃, or 75 mM NaCl + 200 μM H₃BO₃, and analysed 6 weeks after germination. Shoot fresh weight (FW), shoot dry weight (DW), and relative water content (RWC) were significantly reduced, whereas the antioxidative activity of all enzymes was increased under salinity compared with the control. High B application led to necrotic leaf spots but did not influence growth parameters. Following NaCl + B treatment, shoot DW, RWC, SOSA, GR, and CAT activities remained the same compared with NaCl alone, whereas the TAC and LUPO activities were increased under the combined stress compared with NaCl alone. However, shoot FW was significantly reduced under NaCl + B compared with NaCl alone, as an additive effect of combined stress. Thus, we found an adjustment of antioxidative enzyme activity to the interactive effects of NaCl and high B. The stress factor "salt" mainly produced more oxidative stress than that of the factor "high B". Furthermore, addition of higher B in the presence of NaCl increases TAC and LUPO demonstrating that increased LUPO activity is an important physiological response in wheat plants against multiple stresses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. DNA scanning mechanism of T4 endonuclease V. Effect of NaCl concentration on processive nicking activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruskin, E.A.; Lloyd, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    T4 endonuclease V is a pyrimidine dimer-specific endonuclease which generates incisions in DNA at the sites of pyrimidine dimers by a processive reaction mechanism. A model is presented in which the degree of processivity is directly related to the efficacy of the one-dimensional diffusion of endonuclease V on DNA by which the enzyme locates pyrimidine dimers. The modulation of the processive nicking activity of T4 endonuclease V on superhelical covalently closed circular DNA (form I) which contains pyrimidine dimers has been investigated as a function of the ionic strength of the reaction. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to separate the three topological forms of the DNA which were generated in time course reactions of endonuclease V with dimer-containing form I DNA in the absence of NaCl, and in 25, 50, and 100 mM NaCl. The degree of processivity was evaluated in terms of the mass fraction of form III (linear) DNA which was produced as a function of the fraction of form I DNA remaining. Processivity is maximal in the absence of NaCl and decreases as the NaCl concentration is increased. At 100 mM NaCl, processivity is abolished and endonuclease V generates incisions in DNA at the site of dimers by a distributive reaction mechanism. The change from the distributive to a processive reaction mechanism occurs at NaCl concentrations slightly below 50 mM. The high degree of processivity which is observed in the absence of NaCl is reversible to the distributive mechanism, as demonstrated by experiments in which the NaCl concentration was increased during the time course reaction. In addition, unirradiated DNA inhibited the incision of irradiated DNA only at NaCl concentrations at which processivity was observed

  19. Effect Of Low-Temperature Annealing On The Properties Of Ni-P Amorphous Alloys Deposited Via Electroless Plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guanlin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous Ni-P alloys were prepared via electroless plating and annealing at 200°C at different times to obtain different microstructures. The effects of low-temperature annealing on the properties of amorphous Ni-P alloys were studied. The local atomic structure of the annealed amorphous Ni-P alloys was analyzed by calculating the atomic pair distribution function from their X-ray diffraction patterns. The results indicate that the properties of the annealed amorphous Ni-P alloys are closely related to the order atomic cluster size. However, these annealed Ni-P alloys maintained their amorphous structure at different annealing times. The variation in microhardness is in agreement with the change in cluster size. By contrast, the corrosion resistance of the annealed alloys in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution increases with the decrease in order cluster size.

  20. Métodos instrumentales para la determinación de NaCl en las salmueras de aceitunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García García, P.

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Aplicability of flame photometric and ion selective (sodium or chloride methods to determinate NaCI concentration in olive brines in comparison with the official one (Volhard, which uses AgNO3, is studied. According to the results using standard solutions or fermentative olive brines without previous lye treatment, no proportional systematic or constant systematic errors are detected and the percentaje of NaCl is evaluated by them with the same accuracy as by the reference. However, when the flame photometric or sodium ion-selective methods are used to determine this compound in Spanish olive brines, there is a deviation in comparison with the values obtained by the official one (Volhard that is correlated with the combine acidity concentration of the solution. This fact is due to the presence of sodium organic salts, called combined acidity, that are formed during the lye treatment or "cocido" that these fruits are given before fermentation. Nevertheless, is does not represent any problem as there is a good correlation between such combined acidity and the magnitude of the deviation, that permit to calculate the corresponding correction factor. In addition these problems can be solved using the chloride selective ion method.

    Se estudia la aplicación de la fotometría de llama y el empleo de electrodos selectivos de iones cloruro o sodio, para la determinación de la concentración de NaCl en las salmueras de aceitunas de mesa, comparándolos con el actualmente utilizado de valoración de nitrato de plata (Volhard. De acuerdo con los resultados, la utilización de los mismos a soluciones patrones o de aceitunas en salmuera no da lugar a errores sistemáticos porporcionales ni constantes, pudiéndose analizar dicho compuesto con la misma precisión que con el procedimiento de referencia. Sin embargo, cuando se analizan las correspondientes a las elaboradas al estilo español, los valores que se obtienen con la fotometría de

  1. Preparation and corrosion resistance of electroless Ni-P/SiC functionally gradient coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Long; Liu, Ling-Yun; Dou, Yong; Zhang, Wen-Zhu; Jiang, Wen-Feng

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the protective electroless Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy substrate were successfully prepared. The prepared Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings were characterized for its microstructure, morphology, microhardness and adhesion to the substrate. The deposition reaction kinetics was investigated and an empirical rate equation for electroless Ni-P/SiC plating on AZ91D magnesium alloy was developed. The anticorrosion properties of the Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies. The potentiodynamic polarization measurements revealed that the SiC concentration in the bath and heat treatment can influence the corrosion protection performance of electroless deposited Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings. EIS studies indicated that higher charge transfer resistance and slightly lower capacitance values were obtained for Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings compared to Ni-P coatings. The corrosion resistance of the Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings increases initially and decreases afterwards with the sustained increasing of immersion time in the aggressive medium. The electroless Ni-P/SiC gradient coatings can afford better corrosion protection for magnesium alloy substrate compared with Ni-P coatings.

  2. Long-term adaptation of methanol-fed thermophilic (55°C) sulfate-reducing reactors to NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallero, M.V.G.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was operated during 273 days at increasing NaCl concentrations (0.5-12.5 g NaCl l(-1)) to assess whether the stepwise addition of the salt NaCl results in the acclimation of that sludge. The 6.5-1 thermophilic (55 degreesC), sulfidogenic

  3. A new automated NaCl based robust method for routine production of gallium-68 labeled peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Michael K.; Mueller, Dirk; Baum, Richard P.; Leonard Watkins, G.; Breeman, Wouter A.P.

    2013-01-01

    A new NaCl based method for preparation of gallium-68 labeled radiopharmaceuticals has been adapted for use with an automated gallium-68 generator system. The method was evaluated based on 56 preparations of [ 68 Ga]DOTATOC and compared to a similar acetone-based approach. Advantages of the new NaCl approach include reduced preparation time ( 97%), and specific activity (>40 MBq nmole −1 [ 68 Ga]DOTATOC) and is well-suited for clinical production of radiopharmaceuticals. - Highlights: ► A NaCl based automated production of Ga-68-radiopharmaceuticals is described. ► Using 5 M NaCl for pre-purification of 68Ga eliminates the need for organic solvents. ► The method provides for high efficiency, specific activity, and radiochemical purity. ► The new method eliminates the need for the quality control by gas chromatography

  4. Synthesis of NaCl Single Crystals with Defined Morphologies as Templates for Fabricating Hollow Nano/micro-structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, B.B.; Jin, P.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    . These naturally abundant NaCl single crystal templates are water-soluble, environmentally-friendly and uniform in both geometry and size, and hence are ideal for preparing high quality hollow nano/micro structures. The new approach may have the potential to replace the conventional hard or soft template...... approaches. Furthermore, this work has revealed the formation mechanism of nano/micron NaCl crystals with different sizes and geometries....

  5. Proteomic and Physiological Analyses Reveal Putrescine Responses in Roots of Cucumber Stressed by NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major environmental constraint that threatens agricultural productivity. Different strategies have been developed to improve crop salt tolerance, among which the effects of polyamines have been well reported. To gain a better understanding of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. responses to NaCl and unravel the underlying mechanism of exogenous putrescine (Put alleviating salt-induced damage, comparative proteomic analysis was conducted on cucumber roots treated with NaCl and/or Put for 7 days. The results showed that exogenous Put restored the root growth inhibited by NaCl. 62 differentially expressed proteins implicated in various biological processes were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The four largest categories included proteins involved in defense response (24.2%, protein metabolism (24.2%, carbohydrate metabolism (19.4% and amino acid metabolism (14.5%. Exogenous Put up-regulated most identified proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, implying an enhancement in energy generation. Proteins involved in defense response and protein metabolism were differently regulated by Put, which indicated the roles of Put in stress resistance and proteome rearrangement. Put also increased the abundance of proteins involved in amino acid metabolism. Meanwhile, physiological analysis showed that Put could further up-regulated the levels of free amino acids in salt stressed-roots. In addition, Put also improved endogenous polyamines contents by regulating the transcription levels of key enzymes in polyamine metabolism. Taken together, these results suggest that Put may alleviate NaCl-induced growth inhibition through degradation of misfolded/damaged proteins, activation of stress defense, and the promotion of carbohydrate metabolism to generate more energy.

  6. Evaluation of the corrosion behavior of the al-356 alloy in NaCl solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Vásquez Rendón

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular metals are a new class of materials with promising applications and a unique combination of physical, chemical and mechanical properties. The Al-356 alloy is used to manufacture metal foams from NaCl preforms. Despite the usefulness of these materials, their performance may be affected by corrosion due to residual salt. This paper reports the study of the behavior of the Al-356 alloy in chloride solutions by electrochemical techniques in rotating disk electrode. The cathodic reaction of oxygen reduction is the crucial stage of process dissolution of the material, which shows that is the oxygen transport which limits the corrosion process.

  7. Mini-review: regulation of the renal NaCl cotransporter by hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Vega, Lorena; Gamba, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The renal thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter, NCC, is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule. The activity of this cotransporter is critical for regulation of several physiological variables such as blood pressure, serum potassium, acid base metabolism, and urinary calcium excretion. Therefore, it is not surprising that numerous hormone-signaling pathways regulate NCC activity to maintain homeostasis. In this review, we will provide an overview of the most recent evidence on NCC modulation by aldosterone, angiotensin II, vasopressin, glucocorticoids, insulin, norepinephrine, estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, and parathyroid hormone. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Corrosion monitoring of the AA2024 alloy in NaCl solutions by electrochemical noise measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aballe, A.; Bethencourt, M.; Botana, F.J.; Marcos, M.; Rodriguez-Chacon, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The behaviour of the AA2024 alloy against corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution has been monitored. In this environment the alloy can be easily damaged under small anodic polarizations. Linear Polarization, electrochemical impedance, spectroscopy and electrochemical noise measurement have been used as experimental techniques. Data from ENM have been analyzed using statistical parameters and Chaos Theory. The results here obtained suggest that ENM is particularly useful to monitored systems that can be modified using other electrochemical techniques. (Author) 11 refs

  9. AFM of metallic nano-particles and nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl

    OpenAIRE

    Gaynutdinov, R; Vainshtein, DI; Hak, SJ; Tolstikhina, A; Den Hartog, HW

    2003-01-01

    AFM investigations are reported for heavily, electron irradiated NaCl crystals in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode-with an UHV AFM/STM Omicron system. To avoid chemical reactions between the radiolytic Na and oxygen and water, the irradiated samples were cleaved and prepared for the experiments in UHV At the surface of freshly cleaved samples, we have observed sodium nano-precipitates with shapes, which depend on the irradiation dose and the volume fraction of the radiolytic Na...

  10. The europium and praseodymium hydrolysis in a 2M NaCl environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez R, M.; Lopez G, H.; Solache R, M.; Rojas H, A.

    1998-01-01

    It was studied the europium and praseodymium hydrolysis in a 2M NaCl ion force environment at 303 K, through two methods: this one extraction with dissolvents (lanthanide-water-NaCl-dibenzoylmethane) in presence of a competitive ligand (diglycolic acid) and that one direct potentiometric titration, of soluble species, followed by a computer refining. The values of one or another techniques of the first hydrolysis constants obtained were similar, which demonstrates that the results are reliable. The set of data obtained on the stability constants of hydrolysis products allowed to draw up the distribution diagrams of chemical species, as europium as praseodymium in aqueous environment. (Author)

  11. Crevice corrosion resistance of high alloyed materials in 3.5 % NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alar, Vesna; Stojanovic, Ivan; Simunovic, Vinko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of applied torque on the corrosion behaviour of W.-Nr. 1.4404 and 1.4462 stainless steels and W.-Nr. 2.4605 and 2.4858 nickel alloys with crevices were investigated using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization method. Crevice corrosion (material-to-polytetrafluoroethylene) was tested in 3.5 % NaCl solution at 22 C. The corroded surface was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate similar trends in susceptibility to crevice corrosion with increasing torque. Among the four specimens, the W.-Nr. 1.4404 is the most susceptible to crevice corrosion. (orig.)

  12. Geochemical models of the precipitation of halite (NaCl) in gas fields; Modelamiento geoquimico de la precipitacion de Halita (NaCl) en yacimientos de gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombana O, Jose L; Jaramillo, Elizabeth A; Alzate E, Guillermo A

    2005-07-01

    The reservoir modeling is a tool that every day takes more importance in the petroleum industry due to multiple problems presented an also that can be afforded by it during the production of reservoir fluids from the porous media in petroleum reservoir. One of these is the formation damage which is reflected as a petrophysic properties change, caused among other factors by the scale precipitation of halite (NaCl) as a consequence of the original state alteration and thermodynamic balance disruption between the porous media and the fluids inside by the gas flow. By the gas flow over the connate water, the porous media reduce its water saturation due to water transferring from liquid to gas state. In this study, a numeric model is developed to model the formation damage for halite precipitation. The model covers one-dimensional monophasic and iso thermic gas flow and evaluates the porosity and permeability changes of porous media due to halite precipitation. The model application for different conditions of temperature, connate water salinity, water saturation,and porosity indicates the following: the biggest damage is caused to the beginning of the porous media,temperature influences considerably the water vaporization rate and therefore the amount of halite precipitation, the lower the porosity of the porous media the bigger the formation damage degree, and finally, higher salinity and water saturation for the connate water in the porous media higher the formation damage degree is reached by the gas flow.

  13. NaCl islands decorated with 2D or 3D 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaonan; Silly, Fabien

    2010-01-01

    The formation of PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride) nanostrutures on Au(1 1 1)-(22x√(3)) covered with NaCl islands has been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Atomically resolved STM images show that NaCl grows as (1 0 0)-terminated layers on Au(1 1 1)-(22x√(3)). Local atomic hexagonal packing has also been observed in the NaCl(1 0 0) layer. At submonolayer NaCl coverage, PTCDA forms two-dimensional islands on the Au(1 1 1) surface and nucleate preferentially at the NaCl island step edges. When the Au surface is fully covered with NaCl layers, PTCDA molecules form three-dimensional molecular clusters decorating the step edges of NaCl layers.

  14. NaCl islands decorated with 2D or 3D 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Xiaonan [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL-9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Silly, Fabien, E-mail: Fabien.silly@cea.fr [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL-9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); CEA, IRAMIS, SPCSI, Nanostructures and Organic Semiconductors Laboratory, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); UPMC, IPCM, UMR CNRS 7201, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2010-01-15

    The formation of PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride) nanostrutures on Au(1 1 1)-(22x{radical}(3)) covered with NaCl islands has been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Atomically resolved STM images show that NaCl grows as (1 0 0)-terminated layers on Au(1 1 1)-(22x{radical}(3)). Local atomic hexagonal packing has also been observed in the NaCl(1 0 0) layer. At submonolayer NaCl coverage, PTCDA forms two-dimensional islands on the Au(1 1 1) surface and nucleate preferentially at the NaCl island step edges. When the Au surface is fully covered with NaCl layers, PTCDA molecules form three-dimensional molecular clusters decorating the step edges of NaCl layers.

  15. Decay of 57Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Scardino, A.M. dos.

    1987-01-01

    The decay of 57 Ni to 57 Co was studied by gamma ray spectroscopy using both singles and coincidence spectra. The sources were obtained with the 58 Ni (Y,n) 57 Ni reaction. Natural metallic nickel was irradiated in the bremsstrahluhng beam of the linear accelerator of the Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo with 30 MeV electrons. The singles espectra were taken with 104 cc HPGe detector and the coincidences espectra with 27 and 53cc Ge(Li) and 104 cc. HPGe detectors. The energies of transitions that follow the 57 Ni decay were measured using 56 Co as standard (which was obtained by (Y,np) reaction in 58 Ni) and taking into account the cascade cross-over relations. (author) [pt

  16. Understanding the corrosion behavior of isomorphous Cu–Ni alloy from its electron work function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.C.; Lu, H.; Li, D.Y., E-mail: dongyang.li@ualberta.ca

    2016-04-15

    The electrode potential or galvanic series is usually used to reflect the nobility of metals and semi-metals. However, this potential is environment-dependent and the intrinsic nobility of a metal is ultimately governed by its electron stability, which can be represented by the electron work function (EWF). This article reports our studies on the corrosion behavior of isomorphous Cu–Ni alloy in HCl and NaCl solutions, respectively. It was demonstrated that the EWF of the alloy increased as the Ni concentration was increased, so did the corrosion resistance in the acidic solution. In the sodium chloride solution, however, the trend was reversed due to adsorption, hydrolysis and the formation of oxide scale on Cu-rich samples, which more or less prevented them from further corrosion in this solution. In order to confirm this, corrosive wear tests were performed to analyze the performance of the alloy when the effect of oxide scale was eliminated or minimized by the mechanical action. - Highlights: • Increasing %Ni resulted in higher overall electron work function of Cu–Ni alloy. • Higher EWF corresponded to higher resistance to corrosion in a HCl solution. • Trend was reversed in a NaCl solution due to the formation of oxide scale. • During slurry-jet tests, alloys with higher EWFs performed better.

  17. Understanding the corrosion behavior of isomorphous Cu–Ni alloy from its electron work function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.C.; Lu, H.; Li, D.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The electrode potential or galvanic series is usually used to reflect the nobility of metals and semi-metals. However, this potential is environment-dependent and the intrinsic nobility of a metal is ultimately governed by its electron stability, which can be represented by the electron work function (EWF). This article reports our studies on the corrosion behavior of isomorphous Cu–Ni alloy in HCl and NaCl solutions, respectively. It was demonstrated that the EWF of the alloy increased as the Ni concentration was increased, so did the corrosion resistance in the acidic solution. In the sodium chloride solution, however, the trend was reversed due to adsorption, hydrolysis and the formation of oxide scale on Cu-rich samples, which more or less prevented them from further corrosion in this solution. In order to confirm this, corrosive wear tests were performed to analyze the performance of the alloy when the effect of oxide scale was eliminated or minimized by the mechanical action. - Highlights: • Increasing %Ni resulted in higher overall electron work function of Cu–Ni alloy. • Higher EWF corresponded to higher resistance to corrosion in a HCl solution. • Trend was reversed in a NaCl solution due to the formation of oxide scale. • During slurry-jet tests, alloys with higher EWFs performed better.

  18. Thermoluminescence analysis of co-doped NaCl at low temperature irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.m [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas, IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Furetta, C. [Touro University Rome, Circne Gianicolense 15-17, 00153 Rome (Italy); Flores J, C.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    The thermoluminescent response and kinetics parameters of NaCl, doubly activated by Ca-Mn and Cd-Mn ions, exposed to gamma radiation are analyzed. The doped NaCl samples were irradiated at relative low temperature, i.e. at the liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) and at dry ice temperature (DIT), and the glow curves obtained after 2 Gy of gamma irradiation were analyzed using the computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD). An evident variation in the glow curve structure after LNT and DIT was observed. It seems that different kinds of trapping levels are activated at relative low temperature. The original two prominent peaks in compositions A (Ca,Mn) and B (Ca,Mn) have been changed in only one main peak with satellites in the low temperature side of the glow curves. In compositions C (Cd,Mn) and D (Cd,Mn), low temperature peaks become stronger and prominent than the high temperature peaks; this effect could be explained considering that the trapping probability for low temperature traps, the one very close to the conduction band, is enhanced by low temperatures during irradiation.

  19. Inhibitive Behaviour of Corrosion of Aluminium Alloy in NaCl by Mangrove Tannin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solhan Yahya; Afidah Abdul Rahim; Affaizza Mohd Shah; Rohana Adnan

    2011-01-01

    Anticorrosion potential of mangrove tannins on aluminium alloys AA6061 in NaCl solution has been studied using potentiodynamic polarisation method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The study was carried out in different pH of corrosive medium in the absence and presence of various concentrations of tannin. The corrosion inhibition behaviour of the mangrove tannin on AA6061 aluminium alloy corrosion was found to be dependant on the pH of NaCl solution. Our results showed that the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing tannins concentration in chloride solution at pH 6. Treatment of aluminium alloy 6061 with all concentrations of mangrove tannins reduced the current density, thus decreased the corrosion rate. Tannins behaved as mixed inhibitors at pH 6 and reduction in current density predominantly affected in cathodic reaction. Meanwhile, at pH 12, addition of tannins shifted the corrosion potential to more cathodic potentials and a passivating effect was observed in anodic potentials. SEM studies have shown that the addition of tannins in chloride solution at pH 12 reduced the surface degradation and the formation of pits. (author)

  20. Computer simulation of radiation damage in NaCl using a kinetic rate reaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soppe, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    Sodium chloride and other alkali halides are known to be very susceptible to radiation damage in the halogen sublattice when exposed to ionizing radiation. The formation of radiation damage in NaCl has generated interest because of the relevance of this damage to the disposal of radioactive waste in rock salt formations. In order to estimate the long-term behaviour of a rock salt repository, an accurate theory describing the major processes of radiation damage in NaCl is required. The model presented in this paper is an extended version of the Jain-Lidiard model; its extensions comprise the effect of impurities and the colloid nucleation stage on the formation of radiation damage. The new model has been tested against various experimental data obtained from the literature and accounts for several well known aspects of radiation damage in alkali halides which were not covered by the original Jain-Lidiard model. The new model thus may be expected to provide more reliable predictions for the build-up of radiation damage in a rock salt nuclear waste repository. (Author)

  1. NaCl protects against Cd and Cu-induced toxicity in the halophyte Atriplex halimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankaji, I.; Sleimi, N.; Gómez-Cadenas, A.; Pérez-Clemente, R.M.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the extent of Cd- and Cu-induced oxidative stress and the antioxidant response triggered in the halophyte species Atriplex halimus after metallic trace elements exposure. Plants were treated for one month with Cd2+ or Cu2+ (400 µM) in the absence or presence of 200 mM NaCl in the irrigation solution. The interaction between salinity and heavy metal stress was analyzed in relation to plant growth, tissue ion contents (Na+, K+ and Mg2+), oxidative damage and antioxidative metabolism. Data indicate that shoot and root weight significantly decreased as a consequence of Cd2+- or Cu2+-induced stress. Metallic stress leads to unbalanced nutrient uptake by reducing the translocation of K+ and Mg2+ from the root to the shoot. The levels of malondialdehyde increased in root tissue when Cd, and especially Cu, were added to the irrigation solution, indicating that oxidative damage occurred. Results showed that NaCl gave a partial protection against Cd and Cu induced toxicity, although these contaminants had distinct influence on plant physiology. It can be concluded that salinity drastically modified heavy metal absorption and improved plant growth. Salinity also decreased oxidative damage, but differently in plants exposed to Cd or Cu stress.

  2. Effects of road de-icing salt (NaCl) on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzo, Domenico; Hecnar, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Vast networks of roads cover the earth and have numerous environmental effects including pollution. A major component of road runoff in northern countries is salt (mostly NaCl) used as a winter de-icing agent, but few studies of effects of road salts on aquatic organisms exist. Amphibians require aquatic habitats and chemical pollution is implicated as a major factor in global population declines. We exposed wood frog tadpoles to NaCl. Tests revealed 96-h LC50 values of 2636 and 5109 mg/l and tadpoles experienced reduced activity, weight, and displayed physical abnormalities. A 90 d chronic experiment revealed significantly lower survivorship, decreased time to metamorphosis, reduced weight and activity, and increased physical abnormalities with increasing salt concentration (0.00, 0.39, 77.50, 1030.00 mg/l). Road salts had toxic effects on larvae at environmentally realistic concentrations with potentially far-ranging ecological impacts. More studies on the effects of road salts are warranted. - Road salts have toxic effects on amphibians at environmentally realistic concentrations

  3. Effects of road de-icing salt (NaCl) on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanzo, Domenico [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, ON, P7B 5E1 (Canada); Hecnar, Stephen J. [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, ON, P7B 5E1 (Canada)]. E-mail: stephen.hecnar@lakeheadu.ca

    2006-03-15

    Vast networks of roads cover the earth and have numerous environmental effects including pollution. A major component of road runoff in northern countries is salt (mostly NaCl) used as a winter de-icing agent, but few studies of effects of road salts on aquatic organisms exist. Amphibians require aquatic habitats and chemical pollution is implicated as a major factor in global population declines. We exposed wood frog tadpoles to NaCl. Tests revealed 96-h LC50 values of 2636 and 5109 mg/l and tadpoles experienced reduced activity, weight, and displayed physical abnormalities. A 90 d chronic experiment revealed significantly lower survivorship, decreased time to metamorphosis, reduced weight and activity, and increased physical abnormalities with increasing salt concentration (0.00, 0.39, 77.50, 1030.00 mg/l). Road salts had toxic effects on larvae at environmentally realistic concentrations with potentially far-ranging ecological impacts. More studies on the effects of road salts are warranted. - Road salts have toxic effects on amphibians at environmentally realistic concentrations.

  4. Cr-Ni ALLOY ELECTRODEPOSITION AND COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONAL PURE Cr COATING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moniruzzaman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cr coating is widely used as the outer surface of precision parts due to its attractive appearance and superior corrosion resistance properties. It is obtained by electrodeposition via a conventional bath with hexavalent Cr ions. This manufacturing technique has many drawbacks, such as very low efficiency and high operating temperature and it is hazardous to health. In this work, we studied a Cr-Ni alloy deposition technique and compared the alloy coating properties to those with conventional Cr coating. Sequential two-step alloy electrodeposition was also compared. We took varying concentrations of Cr, Ni and complexing agents for the electrodeposition of Cr-Ni alloy and sequential Cr-Ni alloy coating on mild steel. Operating parameters, i.e. current density and temperature, were varied to examine their effects on the coating properties. The coatings thus obtained were characterized by visual observation, corrosion test, microhardness measurement, morphology and chemical analysis. The Cr-Ni alloy coating was found to be more corrosion resistant in 5% NaCl solution and harder than the pure Cr coating obtained by conventional electrodeposition. Toxic gas was produced in a much lower extent in the alloy coating than the conventional Cr coating technique. Again, the two-step Cr-Ni alloy coating was found better in terms of corrosion resistance as well as hardness compared to the Cr-Ni alloy coating. The process was also found to be much more environmentally friendly.

  5. Electrodeposition of amorphous Ni-P coatings onto Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C.B [Department of Chemistry, Yuquan campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cao, F.H [Department of Chemistry, Yuquan campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, Z. [Department of Chemistry, Yuquan campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)]. E-mail: eaglezzy@zjuem.zju.edu.cn; Zhang, J.Q [Department of Chemistry, Yuquan campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection of Metals, Institute of Metal Research, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2006-12-15

    Decorative and protective Ni-P amorphous coatings were electroplated onto NdFeB permanent magnet from an ortho-phosphorous acid contained bath. The influences of the main electroplating technological parameters including current density, bath pH, bath temperature and H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} on the structure and chemical composition of Ni-P coatings were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques in conjunction with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDX). The optimized amorphous Ni-P coated NdFeB can stand for ca. 180 h against neutral 3.0 wt.% NaCl salt spray without any pitting corrosion. Meanwhile, the results also showed that large phosphorous content is the precondition for Ni-P coatings to possess the amorphous structure, but too much high phosphorous content can damage the amorphous structure due to the separation of superfluous P from Ni{sub 2}P/Ni{sub 3}P and the resultant formation of multi-phase coatings (such as Ni{sub 2}P-P)

  6. A comparative study of functional properties of normal and wooden breast broiler chicken meat with NaCl addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Tong; Zhao, Xue; Han, Minyi; Cai, Linlin; Deng, Shaolin; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian

    2017-09-01

    The selection of broilers for augmented growth rate and breast has brought about wooden-breast (WB) muscle abnormalities, which caused substantial economic losses. The objective of this study was to compare water holding capacity, water mobility and distribution, salt-soluble protein (SSP) content, and protein profiles of normal and WB chicken meat with different additions of NaCl. Thirty WB and 30 normal chicken breasts were selected from a deboning line of a major Chinese processing plant at 2 to 3 h post mortem. Two different meat batters were formulated to 150 mg/g meat protein and different NaCl contents (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%). Results indicated that as NaCl contents increased, the cooking loss of meat batters decreased (P meat showed different protein profiles, with myosin heavy chain exhibiting a higher intensity at ≥3% salt level. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR)revealed an increased T22 and higher P22 in raw WB meat compared to normal meat (P meat batters, WB meat batters had reduced T21 and lower immobilized water proportions at low NaCl contents (meat gels. Meat gels prepared from WB had a lower proportion of water within the myofibrillar protein matrix and a greater proportion of exuded bulk water at NaCl contents meat, meat batters and gels, water distribution and mobility of WB exhibited significant differences compared to normal meat. The addition of NaCl affected water mobility and distributions in meat batters, with a level of 3% NaCl eliminating the differences between processed normal and WB meat products. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH CAIR GARAM BAHAN BAKU 30˚ Be UNTUK PENGASINAN IKAN GABUS RENDAH NACl DAN MENGANDUNG Mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilawati Nilawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pengasinan merupakan metode pengawetan yang sudah lama dengan menggunakan garam krosok namun pengasinan dengan  limbah cair garam 30˚ Be belum banyak dilakukan. Keuntungan dengan metode ini akan menghasilkan produk ikan asin yang rendah NaCl dan tinggi kandungan Mg. Penelitian ini menggunakan 1 variabel yaitu konsentrasi limbah cair garam 30˚ Be  yaitu B0 (0 persen- kontrol, B10 (10 persen. B20 (20 persen, B30 (30 persen,  B40(40 persen, B50 (50 persen  dan kontrol  B100 (100 persen  serta kontrol pembanding penggaraman kering dengan garam bahan baku G100 (100 persen atau dikenal garam krosok. Hasil penelitian diperoleh kandungan NaCl murni pada pemakaian larutan 30˚ Be sebanyak 10 persen  sebesar 6,952 persen. Dan pada konsentrasi limbah cair garam 30˚ Be dengan konsentrasi   50 persen diperoleh kndungan NaCl murni sebesar 15,478 persen, namun untuk kontrol yang menggunakan garam krosok maka NaCl nya paling tinggi, sedangkan kontrol dengan 100 persen larutan 30˚ Be kandungan NaCl murninya sampai 25,134 persen, yang menggunakan garam bahan baku  kandungan NaCl sebesar 43,864 persen.  Perlakuan yang terbaik diperoleh pada pemakaian larutan garam 30˚ Be pada konsentrasi 40 persen. Kandungan Magnesium pada     penelitian ini berkisar antara 0,387 Sampai  3,444  persen.  Perlakuan mulai konsentrasi 30 persen keatas   penampakan ikan asin putih kecoklatan , empuk, bersih, namun kalau dibawah 30 persen penampakannya kecoklatan muda, daging liat agak keras namun NaCl nya rendah

  8. Imbibition and percentage of germination of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. seeds under NaCl stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Diego

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    In Colombia cape gooseberry is often grown on salt affected soils. The present study evaluated the effect of increasing NaCl concentrations on imbibition and percentage of germination of ‘Colombia’ ecotype cape gooseberry seeds. Under controlled laboratory conditions (25/20°C day/night temperature, 80% relative humidity, and a 12 hour photoperiod, the seeds were subjected to 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM NaCl concentrations (corresponding to respective electrical conductivity levels of 0.8, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, and 12.2 dS m-1, during an evaluation period of 299 hours. A significantly lower imbibition level, expressed as 35% of the fresh weight accumulated by the control seeds, was observed in the 120 mM NaCl treatment. At the end of the experiment, respective germination percentages of 97.6% and 96.4% were recorded in the salt-free seeds and in those exposed to 30 mM NaCl. In contrast, only 62.5% of those seeds treated with 120 mM NaCl germinated. Root malformations such as lack of elongation were observed in the highest NaCl concentration treatment. Regarding its germination process, cape gooseberry can be classified as moderately tolerant to sodium. In effect, after 299 h of treatment, there was no statistical difference in imbibition level or percentage of germination between the 0, 30 and 60 mM NaCl treatments.

  9. Dry sliding wear behavior and corrosion resistance of NiCrBSi coating deposited by activated combustion-high velocity air fuel spray process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shenglin; Zheng, Xueping; Geng, Gangqiang

    2010-01-01

    NiCrBSi is a Ni-based superalloy widely used to obtain high wear and corrosion resistant coatings. This Ni-based alloy coating has been deposited onto 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel using the AC-HVAF technique. The structure and morphologies of the Ni-based coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The wear resistance and corrosion resistance were studied. The tribological behaviors were evaluated using a HT-600 wear test rig. The wear resistance of the Ni-based coating was shown to be higher than that of the 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel because Fe 3 B, with high hardness, was distributed in the coating so the dispersion strengthening in the Ni-based coating was obvious and this increased the wear resistance of the Ni-based coating in a dry sliding wear test. Under the same conditions, the worn volume of 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel was 4.1 times greater than that of the Ni-based coating. The wear mechanism is mainly fatigue wear. A series of the electrochemical tests was carried out in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution in order to examine the corrosion behavior. The mechanisms for corrosion resistance are discussed.

  10. Bridging exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia, E-mail: nataliarin@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro [Departamento de Física & IUTA, EPI, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33203 Gijón (Spain); Martínez-Blanco, David [Servicios Científico-Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbón, CSIC, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Fernández Barquín, Luis [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Puente-Orench, Inés [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Among all bi-magnetic core(transition metal)@shell(transition metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), Ni@NiO ones show an onset temperature for the exchange bias (EB) effect far below the Néel temperature of bulk antiferromagnetic NiO. In this framework, the role played by the magnetism of NiO at the nanoscale is investigated by comparing the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiO and Ni@NiO NPs. With the aim of bridging the two systems, the diameter of the NiO NPs (~4 nm) is chosen to be comparable to the shell thickness of Ni@NiO ones (~2 nm). The EB effect in Ni@NiO NPs is attributed to the exchange coupling between the core and the shell, with an interfacial exchange energy of ΔE~0.06 erg cm{sup −2}, thus comparable to previous reports on Ni/NiO interfaces both in thin film and NP morphologies. In contrast, the EB detected in NiO NPs is explained in a picture where uncompensated spins located on a magnetically disordered surface shell are exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. In all the studied NPs, the variation of the EB field as a function of temperature is described according to a negative exponential law with a similar decay constant, yielding a vanishing EB effect around T~40–50 K. In addition, the onset temperature for the EB effect in both NiO and Ni@NiO NPs seems to follow a universal dependence with the NiO crystallite size. - Highlights: • Comparison of the exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles. • Universal temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Suggested similar physical origin of the effect in both systems. • Size and crystallinity of the NiO shell hold the key for exchange bias properties.

  11. Effect of NaCl upon an Al-Si casting alloy hipoeutec; Efecto del NaCl sobre una aleacion de Al-Si hipoeutectica vaciada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Delgado, E.J.; Ortega de la Rosa, R. [Istituto Tecnologico de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico)]. E-mail: enriquemartinez_1999@yahoo.com; rubin_ortega_2002@yahoo.com.mx; Cisneros Guerrero, M.A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Saltillo, Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)]. E-mail: cisneros@its.mx; Haro Rodriguez, S. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico)]. E-mail: haros907@hotmail.com

    2009-10-15

    This work, comprehends the study about the effect of NaCl kind Halite upon the morphology of eutectic Silicon and porosity in a cast hipoeutectic Al-Si alloy. The melting was carried out in two furnaces, the first to combustion of LP gas in graphite crucible to increase the content of Si in the alloy from 0.13 to 5% wt using metallic silicon with a purity of 99.35% wt, and the second of electric resistances in the same kind of crucible to control the temperature at 750 degrees Celsius. The melting material was casting into molds of sand shell. To add the salt into the metallic bath, two techniques were used; one with injection by means of Argon gas and the other on by gravity, both cases three quantities of salt were used, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5% wt respectively, powdered and preheated at 150 degrees Celsius during 60 min. The obtained samples were analyzed metallographily evidencing the modification of the eutectic Si, presenting the best results the samples with 1.5 and 2.5% wt of salt added by gravity. Too was obtained effect of Salt upon the degassing of bath metallic, where the simples with 1.5% wt presented the best results. Finally, by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy, the precipitates present were characterized in the samples. [Spanish] Este trabajo comprende el estudio del efecto del NaCl tipo Halita sobre la morfologia del Si eutectico y la porosidad en una aleacion fundida Al-Si hipoeutectica. La fusion se llevo a cabo en dos hornos, el primero a combustion con gas LP en crisol de grafito con la finalidad de incrementar el contenido de Si en la aleacion de 0.13 a 5% en peso, utilizando silicio metalico con una pureza de 99.35%, y el segundo de resistencias electricas en el mismo tipo de crisol para controlar la temperatura a 750 grados Celsios. El material fundido fue vaciado en modelos de arena. La sal se anadio al bano metalico a 0.5, 1.5 y 2.5% en peso, respectivamente, pulverizada y precalentada a 150 grados Celsios durante 60 min, mediante dos

  12. Anodic dissolution and corrosion of alloy Cu30Ni in chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotarev, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    The anodic and corrosion behavior of alloy Cu30Ni is studied in a solution of 3 N NaCl + 0.01 N HCl by a radiometric method using gamma isotopes of 58 Co (as a marker for Ni) and 64 Cu in combination with electrochemical measurements. It was established that under stationary conditions there was uniform dissolution of the alloy both during free corrosion and anodic polarization. The authors obtained partial anodic dissolution curves for the components of the alloy. It was shown that the dissolution kinetics differed from the mechanisms controlling dissolution of the corresponding pure metals. During corrosion of the alloy in an oxygen atmosphere a back precipitation of copper on the surface of the alloy was not observed. The characteristics observed in the corrosion-electrochemical behavior of the alloy in concentrated chloride solutions can be explained by the presence of Ni on the surface of the dissolving alloy

  13. Lithium fluxes indicate presence of Na-Cl cotransport (NCC) in human lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauf, Peter K; Chimote, Ameet A; Adragna, Norma C

    2008-01-01

    During regulatory volume decrease (RVD) of human lens epithelial cells (hLECs) by clotrimazole (CTZ)-sensitive K fluxes, Na-K-2Cl cotransport (NKCC) remains active and K-Cl cotransport (KCC) inactive. To determine whether such an abnormal behavior was caused by RVD-induced cell shrinkage, NKCC was measured in the presence of either CTZ or in high K media to prevent RVD. NKCC transports RbCl + NaCl, and LiCl + KCl; thus ouabain-insensitive, bumetanide-sensitive (BS) or Cl-dependent (ClD) Rb and Li fluxes were determined in hyposmotic high NaCl media with CTZ, or in high KCl media alone, or with sulfamate (Sf) or nitrate as Cl replacement at varying Rb, Li or Cl mol fractions (MF). Unexpectedly, NKCC was inhibited by 80% with CTZ (IC(50) = 31 microM). In isosmotic (300 mOsM) K, Li influx was approximately 1/3 of Rb influx in Na, 50% lower in Sf, and bumetanide-insensitive (BI). In hypotonic (200 mOsM) K, only the ClD but not BS Li fluxes were detected. At Li MFs from 0.1-1, Li fluxes fitted a bell-shaped curve maxing at approximately 0.6 Li MF, with the BS fluxes equaling approximately 1/4 of the ClD-Li influx. The difference, i.e. the BI/ClD Li influx, saturated with increasing Li and Cl MFs, with K(ms) for Li of 11 with, and 7 mM without K, and of approximately 46 mM for Cl. Inhibition of this K-independent Li influx by thiazides was weak whilst furosemide (<100 microM) was ineffective. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blots verified presence of both NKCC1 and Na-Cl cotransport (NCC). In conclusion, in hyposmotic high K media, which prevents CTZ-sensitive K flux-mediated RVD in hLECs, NKCC1, though molecularly expressed, was functionally silent. However, a K-independent and moderately thiazide-sensitive ClD-Li flux, i.e. LiCC, likely occurring through NCC was detected operationally and molecularly. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. OpenNI cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Falahati, Soroush

    2013-01-01

    This is a Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes enriched with explained code and relevant screenshots to ease your learning curve. If you are a beginner or a professional in NIUI and want to write serious applications or games, then this book is for you. Even OpenNI 1 and OpenNI 1.x programmers who want to move to new versions of OpenNI can use this book as a starting point. This book uses C++ as the primary language but there are some examples in C# and Java too, so you need to have about a basic working knowledge of C or C++ for most cases.

  15. Growth, structure and magnetic properties of FePt nanostructures on NaCl(001) and MgO(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liscio, F; Maret, M; Doisneau-Cottignies, B; Makarov, D; Albrecht, M; Roussel, H

    2010-01-01

    A comparison of the structural and magnetic properties of FePt nanostructures grown at different temperatures on NaCl(001) and MgO(001) substrates is presented. A strong influence of the deposition temperature on the epitaxial growth as well as on the size distribution of FePt nanostructures grown on NaCl substrates is observed. In spite of a large lattice mismatch between FePt and NaCl, a 'cube-over-cube' growth of nanostructures with a narrow size distribution was achieved at 520 K. Moreover, the growth of FePt nanostructures on NaCl(001) is not preceded by the formation of a wetting layer as observed on MgO(001). The higher degree of L1 0 chemical ordering in FePt nanostructures grown on MgO(001) accompanied by the absence of L1 0 variants with an in-plane tetragonal c-axis indicates that the tensile epitaxial stress induced by the MgO substrate is a key factor in the formation of the L1 0 phase with an out-of-plane c-axis. Superparamagnetic behavior is revealed for the FePt nanostructures grown on NaCl(001) due to their small size and relatively poor chemical order.

  16. Highly porous open cell Ti-foam using NaCl as temporary space holder through powder metallurgy route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Nidhi; Mondal, D.P.; Dutta Majumdar, J.; Badkul, Anshul; Jha, A.K.; Khare, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► NaCl crystals has been used as space holder. ► Variation of NaCl:Ti ratio varies porosity (65–80%). ► NaCl is cubic but the cells are spherical. ► Two types of pores: micro and macro pores are obtained. ► Foams are suitable for bones scaffolds and engineering applications. - Abstract: Open cell Titanium-foam (Ti-foam) with varying porosities (65–80%) was prepared using sodium chloride (NaCl) particles as space holder through powder metallurgy route. In order to ensure sufficient handling strength in cold compacted pallets, 2 wt.% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solutions (5 wt.% PVA in water) was mixed with the mixture of Ti and NaCl powders prior to cold compaction. After sintering, NaCl salt was removed by dissolving it in hot water. Detailed Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction studies of the prepared Ti-foams were conducted to examine any physical and chemical changes in the phase constituents. The micro-architectural characteristics, density vis-a-vis porosity, and compressive deformation behavior of the synthesized foams were evaluated to examine their suitability as biomaterial and engineering applications

  17. Optically stimulated luminescence of natural NaCl mineral from Dead Sea exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman L, J.; Cruz Z, E.; Pina L, Y. I.; Marcazzo, J.

    2016-10-01

    Luminescence properties such as radioluminescence, thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence have been studied on natural sodium chloride (NaCl) for dosimetric purposes in retrospective dosimetry (Timar-Gabor et al., 2013; Druzhyna et al., 2016). In this work, the optically stimulated luminescence (Cw-OSL) emissions of natural salt minerals, collected from Dead Sea in summer of 2015, were studied. The Cw-OSL dose response of natural salt was analyzed in the range between 0.2 and 10 Gy gamma dose of "6"0Co. Samples exposed at 3 Gy exhibited good repeatability with a variation coefficient of 4.6%. The thermal stability of the Cw-OSL response was analyzed to different temperatures from 50 up to 250 degrees Celsius using a heating rate of 5 degrees Celsius. The results showed that the natural Dead Sea salt minerals could be applied as natural dosimeter of gamma radiation. (Author)

  18. Optically stimulated luminescence of natural NaCl mineral from Dead Sea exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman L, J.; Cruz Z, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Pina L, Y. I. [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marcazzo, J., E-mail: jesus.roman@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco - UNICEN, Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina)

    2016-10-15

    Luminescence properties such as radioluminescence, thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence have been studied on natural sodium chloride (NaCl) for dosimetric purposes in retrospective dosimetry (Timar-Gabor et al., 2013; Druzhyna et al., 2016). In this work, the optically stimulated luminescence (Cw-OSL) emissions of natural salt minerals, collected from Dead Sea in summer of 2015, were studied. The Cw-OSL dose response of natural salt was analyzed in the range between 0.2 and 10 Gy gamma dose of {sup 60}Co. Samples exposed at 3 Gy exhibited good repeatability with a variation coefficient of 4.6%. The thermal stability of the Cw-OSL response was analyzed to different temperatures from 50 up to 250 degrees Celsius using a heating rate of 5 degrees Celsius. The results showed that the natural Dead Sea salt minerals could be applied as natural dosimeter of gamma radiation. (Author)

  19. Temperature dependence of volume thermal expansion for NaCl and KCl crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhenghua

    2005-01-01

    A new relation for predicting volume thermal expansion of alkali halides at high temperatures is derived based on the assumption that the two different diffusional driving force models presented, respectively, by Sharma and Sharma (Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 29 (1991) 637) and Singh (J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63 (2002) 1935) are equivalent. The input parameters needed for the calculation are the volume thermal expansion coefficient and the isothermal Anderson-Gruneisen parameter, both at room temperature and zero pressure, which are available from the literature. The tests on NaCl and KCl crystals demonstrate that the agreement between the calculated results obtained by this relation and the corresponding experimental data is very good. The applicability of the relation as well as some thermodynamic relationships included in its derivation is discussed

  20. Effect of NaCl salinity on the germination and seedling growth of some medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Z; Hussain, F [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Botany

    2010-04-15

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Plantago ovata Forssk., and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were tested in 0.05 (Control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl. ANOVA revealed highly significant differences for plumule growth while germination percentage, radicle growth, seedling fresh and dry weight and moisture contents showed non-significant variation under various salt concentrations. However, the differences among the species for all the parameters studied were highly significant. The findings suggest that these medicinal species might tolerate moderate levels of salinity and can be tried for cultivation on marginal salted soils. (author)

  1. Vegetative growth performance of five medicinal plants under NaCl salt stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Z; Hussain, F [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Botany

    2010-02-15

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L., Plantago ovata Forssk, and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were grown in pots containing loamy soil with 0.21(Control) 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl to see their salinity tolerance. Various concentrations of salt had a highly significant effect upon the survival %age, plant height, number of branches, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root moisture contents. Number of leaves also varied significantly. However, leaf length and shoot moisture contents exhibited non-significant differences. Differences among the test species for all the parameters under consideration were also highly significant. The findings suggest that the test species are tolerant to moderate salinity i.e., 7.5 dS/m and might be tried on saline soils to obtain some biomass. (author)

  2. Metallic Na formation in NaCl crystals with irradiation of electron or vacuum ultraviolet photon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owaki, Shigehiro [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan). Coll. of Integrated Arts and Sciences; Koyama, Shigeko; Takahashi, Masao; Kamada, Masao; Suzuki, Ryouichi

    1997-03-01

    Metallic Na was formed in NaCl single crystals with irradiation of a variety of radiation sources and analyzed the physical states with several methods. In the case of irradiation of 21 MeV electron pulses to the crystal blocks, the optical absorption and lifetime measurement of positron annihilation indicated appearance of Na clusters inside. Radiation effects of electron beam of 30 keV to the crystals in vacuum showed the appearance of not only metallic Na but atomic one during irradiation with Auger electron spectroscopy. Intense photon fluxes in vacuum ultraviolet region of synchrotron radiation were used as another source and an analyzing method of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed the metallic Na layered so thick that bulk plasmon can exist. (author)

  3. vegetative growth performance of five medicinal plants under NaCl salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Hussain, F.

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L., Plantago ovata Forssk, and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were grown in pots containing loamy soil with 0.21(Control) 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl to see their salinity tolerance. Various concentrations of salt had a highly significant effect upon the survival %age, plant height, number of branches, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root moisture contents. Number of leaves also varied significantly. However, leaf length and shoot moisture contents exhibited non-significant differences. Differences among the test species for all the parameters under consideration were also highly significant. The findings suggest that the test species are tolerant to moderate salinity i.e., 7.5 dS/m and might be tried on saline soils to obtain some biomass. (author)

  4. Effect of NaCl salinity on the germination and seedling growth of some medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Hussain, F.

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Plantago ovata Forssk., and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were tested in 0.05 (Control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl. ANOVA revealed highly significant differences for plumule growth while germination percentage, radicle growth, seedling fresh and dry weight and moisture contents showed non-significant variation under various salt concentrations. However, the differences among the species for all the parameters studied were highly significant. The findings suggest that these medicinal species might tolerate moderate levels of salinity and can be tried for cultivation on marginal salted soils. (author)

  5. MARINATED WITH EFFECT OF NaCl AND SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE BROMATOLOGICAL PROPERTIES ON THE MEAT GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Peña F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Goat meat has all the significant nutritional characteristics by consumers to be an excellent alternative supply; therefore, this study proposes the use of a mixture of NaCl, sodium tripolyphosphate, laurel and rosemary extracts as marginalisers agents using maceration technique marinade as facilitator system and applying vacuum packaging and storage at refrigeration of an overall strategy of modernization. In the finished product bromatologic variables pH, fat, protein, water holding capacity, tenderness and moisture during the days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 were evaluated in chilled storage. The results showed that the treatment is marinated improves water retention, protein retention and raises the pH of the product from the first day of storage because we can say that the application of the marinating process by mashing influences bromatological significantly on properties of meat goat breed Santander , becoming an alternative to industrialization

  6. Analysis of luminescence from common salt (NaCl) for application to retrospective dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spooner, N.A.; Smith, B.W.; Williams, O.M.; Creighton, D.F.; McCulloch, I.; Hunter, P.G.; Questiaux, D.G.; Prescott, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL), Optically-Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and Infrared-Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) emitted from a set of 19 salt (NaCl) samples were studied for potential application to retrospective dosimetry. TL emission spectra revealed intense TL emissions from most samples, centred on 590 nm; UV and blue emissions were also found. Significant thermally-induced sensitivity changes were observed and TL, OSL and IRSL growth curves were measured. Pulse anneal analysis was performed, as was quantitative imaging of the TL, OSL and IRSL to assess sample heterogeneity. Kinetic analysis found lifetimes at 20 °C of the 200 °C and 240 °C TL peaks to be 0.6 ka and 4 ka respectively; sufficient for application to retrospective dosimetry.

  7. Stress corrosion cracking of 350 maraging steel in 3.5 Wt. % NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.; Hussain, T.; Tauqir, A.; Hashmi, F.H.; Khan, A.Q.

    1993-01-01

    Stress corrosion behavior of 350 maraging steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was investigated. The results suggest that the steel is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking as the time to failure was always considerably shorter, as compared to those in air at the same stress level. The fracture mode was nearly intergranular and occasionally transgranular. There was no definite trend for the different modes of failure. The strain rate effect was also considered and the results show that the stress corrosion cracks were absent at strain rate high than 1.97 x 10/sup -4/S/sup -1/ and lower than 1.29 x 10/sup -7/S/sup -1/. The critical strain rate range was found to be between 6.4 x 10/sup -7/ to 3.24 x10/sup -5/S /sup -1/. (author)

  8. Manipulating Single Microdroplets of NaCl Solutions: Solvent Dissolution, Microcrystallization, and Crystal Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utoft, Anders; Kinoshita, Koji; Bitterfield, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    that the same Epstein−Plesset (EP) model, which was originally developed for diffusion-controlled dissolution and uptake of gas, and successfully applied to liquid-in-liquid dissolution, can now also be applied to describe the diffusion-controlled uptake of water from a water-saturated environment using...... of nucleation in the decane system as compared to the octanol system. Thus, the crystal structure is reported to be dendritic for NaCl solution microdroplets dissolving rapidly and nucleating violently in octanol, while they are formed as single cubic crystals in a gentler way for solution-dissolution in decane....... These new techniques and analyses can now also be used for any other system where all relevant parameters are known. An example of this is control of drug/hydrogel/emulsion particle size change due to solvent uptake....

  9. The study of some physico-chemical properties of melt KCl - NaCl mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtech Špeťuch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the surface tension of the melt mixture of salts NaCl and KCl at temperatures 750, 800 and 850 °C by maximum bubble pressure method. Some difference between measured values of the surface tension as dependence on the method of calculation was observed. This difference results from the diameter of used capillary and does not depend on the temperature. The differences between experimentally measured values of surface tension and literary sources are trivial. The experimental results are in accordance with the literature data confirming unsuitability of maximum bubble pressure method for measurement of the melt density. The experimental result will be used as a base for the study of melt salts ternary systems. On the other side maximum bubble pressure method is the most suitable method for measurement of surface tension of melt salts, but it is unsuitable for measurement of the melt density.

  10. Spontaneous nano-gap formation in Ag film using NaCl sacrificial layer for Raman enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyungchan; Jeon, Wook Jin; Kim, Youngho; Choi, Jae-Young; Yu, Hak Ki

    2018-03-01

    We report the method of fabrication of nano-gaps (known as hot spots) in Ag thin film using a sodium chloride (NaCl) sacrificial layer for Raman enhancement. The Ag thin film (20-50 nm) on the NaCl sacrificial layer undergoes an interfacial reaction due to the AgCl formed at the interface during water molecule intercalation. The intercalated water molecules can dissolve the NaCl molecules at interfaces and form the ionic state of Na+ and Cl-, promoting the AgCl formation. The Ag atoms can migrate by the driving force of this interfacial reaction, resulting in the formation of nano-size gaps in the film. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity of Ag films with nano-size gaps has been investigated using Raman reporter molecules, Rhodamine 6G (R6G).

  11. Halopriming of seeds imparts tolerance to NaCl and PEG induced stress in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jisha, K C; Puthur, Jos T

    2014-07-01

    The investigation was carried out to study the effect of halopriming on NaCl and polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG-6000) induced stress tolerance potential of three Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek varieties, with varied abiotic stress tolerance potential. Halopriming is a seed priming technique in which the seeds were soaked in various salt solutions (in this study NaCl was used). The results of the study indicated that the application of stresses (both NaCl and PEG) induced retardation of growth attributes (measured in terms of shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight) and decrease in physiological attributes like total chlorophyll content, metabolites, photosynthetic and mitochondrial activity of the seedlings in all three V. radiata (L.) varieties. However, halopriming of the seeds could reduce the extent of decrease in these biological attributes. NaCl and PEG stress also caused increase in MDA content (a product of membrane lipid peroxidation) in all the varieties studied and this increase was significantly minimized under halopriming. From the present investigation it was evident that among the green gram varieties studied, Pusa Vishal, a NaCl tolerant variety showed enhanced tolerance to NaCl and PEG induced stress, when the seeds were subjected to halopriming followed by Pusa Ratna (stress sensitive variety). Pusa 9531 (drought tolerant variety) also showed positive halopriming effects but it was less significant when compared to other two varieties. It could be concluded that halopriming improved the drought and salinity stress tolerance potential of all varieties and it was significantly higher in the Pusa Vishal as compared to Pusa 9531 and Pusa Ratna.

  12. Effects of NaCl on Fermentative Metabolism of Mature Green Tomatoes cv. Ailsa Craig in Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Fragkostefanakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of osmotic strength on gene expression and activity of the major enzymes of fermentative metabolism of mature green tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig has been studied by exposing fruit to brine containing 0 (water, 5 and 10 % NaCl. The fruits were surface sterilized prior to treatment to prevent the growth of microbes naturally present on the skin of the fruit. Changes in fruit expression of fermentation genes and the activity of the respective enzymes as well as physicochemical quality characteristics (soluble solid content, titratable acidity, pH and firmness were studied in both fruit and brine for 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days. Discrepancies in responses that resulted from the different salt concentrations were obtained at molecular and quality levels. The complex kinetics of solutes between the fruit and the surrounding solution due to osmotic potential has led to different responses of the tissue to fermentation. Tomato fruit showed cracking soon after storage in water; water-stored fruit had higher titratable acidity, lower soluble solid content, and higher induction of anaerobic metabolism as indicated by the expression or the activity of the fermentation enzymes compared to fruit stored in brine with 5 or 10 % NaCl. No cracking was observed in fruit stored in 5 (isotonic or 10 % NaCl (hypertonic brine, though in the latter, signs of dehydration were observed. The presence of salt in brine reduced the intensity of fermentative metabolism as indicated by the lower gene expression and enzyme activity. However, fruit stored in brine with 5 % NaCl survived longer than with 0 or 10 % NaCl. The presence of 5 % NaCl in brine caused mild changes of both the fermentative metabolism and the physicochemical characteristics and prevented fruit deterioration during storage.

  13. A new automated NaCl based robust method for routine production of gallium-68 labeled peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael K.; Mueller, Dirk; Baum, Richard P.; Watkins, G. Leonard; Breeman, Wouter A. P.

    2017-01-01

    A new NaCl based method for preparation of gallium-68 labeled radiopharmaceuticals has been adapted for use with an automated gallium-68 generator system. The method was evaluated based on 56 preparations of [68Ga]DOTATOC and compared to a similar acetone-based approach. Advantages of the new NaCl approach include reduced preparation time ( 97%), and specific activity (> 40 MBq nmole−1 [68Ga]DOTATOC) and is well-suited for clinical production of radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:23026223

  14. Domain structure of human complement C4b extends with increasing NaCl concentration: implications for its regulatory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Ka Wai; Wright, David W; Gor, Jayesh; Swann, Marcus J; Perkins, Stephen J

    2016-12-01

    During the activation of complement C4 to C4b, the exposure of its thioester domain (TED) is crucial for the attachment of C4b to activator surfaces. In the C4b crystal structure, TED forms an Arg 104 -Glu 1032 salt bridge to tether its neighbouring macroglobulin (MG1) domain. Here, we examined the C4b domain structure to test whether this salt bridge affects its conformation. Dual polarisation interferometry of C4b immobilised at a sensor surface showed that the maximum thickness of C4b increased by 0.46 nm with an increase in NaCl concentration from 50 to 175 mM NaCl. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that the sedimentation coefficient s 20,w of monomeric C4b of 8.41 S in 50 mM NaCl buffer decreased to 7.98 S in 137 mM NaCl buffer, indicating that C4b became more extended. Small angle X-ray scattering reported similar R G values of 4.89-4.90 nm for C4b in 137-250 mM NaCl. Atomistic scattering modelling of the C4b conformation showed that TED and the MG1 domain were separated by 4.7 nm in 137-250 mM NaCl and this is greater than that of 4.0 nm in the C4b crystal structure. Our data reveal that in low NaCl concentrations, both at surfaces and in solution, C4b forms compact TED-MG1 structures. In solution, physiologically relevant NaCl concentrations lead to the separation of the TED and MG1 domain, making C4b less capable of binding to its complement regulators. These conformational changes are similar to those seen previously for complement C3b, confirming the importance of this salt bridge for regulating both C4b and C3b. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. In situ AFM study on barite (0 0 1) surface dissolution in NaCl solutions at 30 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahara, Yoshihiro; Makio, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We examined barite surface dissolution behavior in NaCl solutions by AFM. • Step retreat and step splitting behavior changed with the NaCl concentration. • Etch pit formation and development differed in each NaCl solution. • Step retreat and etch pit growth rates increased with the NaCl concentration. • We assessed the effects of temperature and NaCl concentration on these rates. - Abstract: This paper reports in situ observations on barite (0 0 1) surface dissolution behavior in 0.1–0.001 M NaCl solutions at 30 °C using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The step retreating on barite (0 0 1) surfaces changed with increasing NaCl solution concentrations. In solutions with a higher NaCl concentration (⩾0.01 M), many steps showed curved or irregular fronts during the later experimental stage, while almost all steps in solutions with a lower NaCl concentration exhibited straight or angular fronts, even during the late stage. The splitting phenomenon of the initial 〈h k 0〉 one-layer steps (7.2 Å) into two half-layer steps (3.6 Å) occurred in all NaCl solutions, while that of the initial [0 1 0] one-layer steps observed only in the 0.1 M NaCl solution. The step retreat rates increased with an increasing NaCl solution concentration. We observed triangular etch pit and deep etch pit formation in all NaCl solutions, which tended to form late in solutions with lower NaCl concentrations. The deep etch pit morphology changed with increasing NaCl solution concentrations. A hexagonal form elongated in the [0 1 0] direction was bounded by the {1 0 0}, {3 1 0}, and (0 0 1) faces in a 0.001 M NaCl solution, and a rhombic form was bounded by the {5 1 0} and (0 0 1) faces in 0.01 M and 0.1 M NaCl solutions. An intermediate form was observed in a 0.005 M NaCl solution, which was defined by {1 0 0}, a curved face tangent to the [0 1 0] direction, {3 1 0}, and (0 0 1) faces: the intermediate form appeared between the hexagonal and rhombic forms in

  16. Electrodeposition of Ni(OH)2 reinforced polyaniline coating for corrosion protection of 304 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Syed, Junaid Ali; Gao, Yangzhi; Lu, Hongbin; Meng, Xiangkang

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, polyaniline (PANI) coating was electropolymerized in the presence of phosphoric acid with subsequent deposition of Ni(OH)2 particles. The Ni(OH)2 reinforced PANI coating significantly enhances the corrosion resistance of 304 stainless steel (304SS) in comparison with the pristine PANI coating. The galvanostatically deposited Ni(OH)2 particles fill the pores of the pristine PANI coating and improves the coatings hydrophobicity which decreases the diffusion of aggressive media. Importantly, the Rp values of Ni(OH)2 reinforced PANI coating is much higher than that of pristine PANI coating and the Ni(OH)2 reinforced PANI coating presents a long-term anti-corrosive ability (360 h) in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. The prolonged corrosion protection of Ni(OH)2 reinforced PANI coating is attributed to the improved physical barrier as well as the facile formation of passive oxide film that sustain the anodic protection of the coating.

  17. Gd-Ni-Si system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodak, O.I.; Shvets, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    By X-ray phase analysis method isothermal cross section of phase diagram of the Gd-Ni-Si system at 870 K is studied. The existence of nine previously known compounds (GdNisub(6.72)Sisub(6.28), GdNi 10 Si 2 , GdNi 5 Si 3 , GdNi 4 Si, GdNi 2 Si 2 , GdNiSi 3 , GdNiSi 2 , Gd 3 Ni 6 Si 2 and GdNiSi) is confirmed and three new compounds (GdNisub(0.2)Sisub(1.8), Gdsub(2)Nisub(1-0.8)Sisub(1-1.2), Gd 5 NiSi 4 ) are found. On the base of Gd 2 Si 3 compound up to 0.15 at. Ni fractions, an interstitial solid solution is formed up to 0.25 at Ni fractions dissolution continues of substitution type. The Gd-Ni-Si system is similar to the Y-Ni-Si system

  18. Internal carbonitriding behavior of Ni-V, Ni-Cr, and Ni-3Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.T.; Douglass, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Ni-2V, Ni-5V, Ni-12V, Ni-10Cr, Ni-20Cr, and Ni-3Nb alloys were carbonitrided in C 3 H 6 and NH 3 gas mixtures (bal H 2 ) over the range 700--1,000 C. Carbonitridation of Ni-12V and Ni-20Cr in C 3 H 6 /NH 3 /H 2 (1.5/1.5/97 v/o) and (1.5/10/88.5 v/o) produced duplex subscales consisting of near-surface nitrides with underlying carbides. Growth of each zone obeyed the parabolic rate law under most conditions. The presence of carbon generally did not effect the depth of the nitride zones compared to nitriding the alloys in NH 3 /H 2 (10/90 v/o). However, at 700 C, the nitride zones were deeper in the carbonitrided Ni-V alloys and Ni-20Cr. The presence of nitrogen generally increased the depth of the carbide zones in Ni-12V and Ni-20Cr compared to carburizing these alloys in C 3 H 6 /H 2 (1.5/98.5 v/o). VN, CrN, and NbN formed in Ni-V, Ni-Cr, and Ni-Nb alloys, respectively, whereas the underlying carbide layers contained V 4 C 3 in Ni-12V, Cr 3 C 2 above a zone of Cr 7 C 3 in Ni-20Cr, and NbC in Ni-3Nb. The solubilities and diffusivities of nitrogen and carbon in nickel were determined. Nitrogen and carbon each exhibited retrograde solubility with temperature in pure Ni in both carbonitriding environments. Nitrogen diffusion in nickel was generally lower in each carbonitriding mixture compared to nitrogen diffusion in a nitriding environment, except at 700 C when nitrogen diffusion was higher. Carbon diffusion in nickel was generally higher in the carbonitriding environments compared to carbon diffusion in a carburizing environment

  19. Tolerancia de plantas de feijoa (Acca sellowiana [Berg] Burret a la salinidad por NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casierra-Posada Fánor Ernesto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Los efectos de la salinidad por NaCl sobre la producción y la distribución de la biomasa, la toma de agua y el área foliar total fueron investigados en plantas de feijoa (Acca sellowiana [Berg] Burret cultivadas en materas con suelo bajo condiciones de invernadero, durante ocho meses. Los tratamientos con la sal comenzaron 60 d después del transplante. El NaCl fue agregado en diferentes concentraciones: 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 mM de NaCl en el suelo. Estas concentraciones correspondieron a conductividades eléctricas de 2,8; 4,6; 6,1; 8,4 y 11,1 dS· m-1, respectivamente. Para evitar el choque osmótico, el tratamiento salino fue impuesto progresivamente, aumentando la concentración de sal cada semana hasta alcanzar la

  20. The Effects of NaCl Concentration and Confining Pressure on Mechanical and Acoustic Behaviors of Brine-Saturated Sandstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Hua Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the mechanical behavior of rock with brine saturation, conventional triaxial experiments were carried out on sandstone for a range of confining pressures (0–60 MPa and NaCl concentrations (0–30%. As the confining pressure and NaCl concentration increased, the triaxial compressive strength, crack damage threshold, Young’s modulus, cohesion, and internal friction angle all increased. Real-time ultrasonic wave and acoustic emission (AE techniques were used to obtain the relationship between acoustic behavior and stress level during the whole triaxial compression process. During the whole deformation process, the evolution of P-wave velocity and accumulated AE count could be divided into four phases. The microstructural characteristics of brine-saturated sandstone, before and after loading, indicated that the strength enhancement mechanism may be attributed to an increase in inter-particle friction resulting from salt crystallisation around the points of contact. The angle of friction increased by more than 86% at maximum NaCl concentration compared to that for distilled water. The NaCl deposition in the pore space resulted in nonlinear strength increases for the brine-saturated sandstone specimens with increasing salinity. The present study is expected to improve the knowledge of the strength and failure mechanisms of sedimentary rock in deep saline aquifers.

  1. Extracting Tenebrio molitor protein while preventing browning: effect of pH and NaCl on protein yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, L.; Boekel, van T.; Lakemond, C.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of insects as an alternative protein source for food applications was investigated by studying the effect of pH and NaCl on extraction yield of water-soluble proteins from Tenebrio molitor, while preventing browning due to polyphenol oxidation. Minimum protein solubility (29.6%) was at

  2. Corrosion electrochemical behaviors of silane coating coated magnesium alloy in NaCl solution containing cerium nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, F.; Li, Q.; Zhong, X.K.; Gao, H.; Dai, Y.; Chen, F.N. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University Chongqing (China)

    2012-02-15

    Sol-gel coatings cannot provide adequate corrosion protection for metal/alloys in the corrosive environments due to their high crack-forming potential. This paper demonstrates the possibility to employ cerium nitrate as inhibitor to decrease the corrosion development of sol-gel-based silane coating on the magnesium alloy in NaCl solution. Cerium nitrate was added into the NaCl solution where the silane coating coated magnesium alloy was immersed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine surface morphology of the silane coating coated magnesium alloy immersed in NaCl solutions doped and undoped with cerium nitrate. The corrosion electrochemical behaviors were investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The results showed that the introduction of cerium nitrate into NaCl solution could effectively inhibit the corrosion of the silane coating coated magnesium alloy. Moreover, the influence of concentration of cerium nitrate on the corrosion inhibition and the possible inhibiting mechanism were also discussed in detail. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Thermodiffusive behaviour of NaCl and KCl aqueous solutions a model for the Na-K pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta, F.S.; Mita, D.G.; Perna, G.; Scala, G.

    1975-01-01

    In NaCl and KCl aqueous nonisothermal solutions K + inverts its sense of migration within the physiological concentration range; Na + behaves similarly at much lower concentrations. These findings are discussed in relation to solute induced modifications of water structure and of their influence on thermal diffusion. A possible evolutionary model of a thermodiffusive mechanism for the sodium potassium pump is also suggested

  4. Field and laboratory investigations on the effects of road salt (NaCl) on stream macroinvertebrate communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasius, B.J.; Merritt, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Short-term exposure to road salt did not significantly affect stream macro-invertebrate communities. - Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the effects of road salt (NaCl) on stream macroinvertebrates. Field studies investigated leaf litter processing rates and functional feeding group composition at locations upstream and downstream from point source salt inputs in two Michigan, USA streams. Laboratory studies determined the effects of increasing NaCl concentrations on aquatic invertebrate drift, behavior, and survival. Field studies revealed that leaves were processed faster at upstream reference sites than at locations downstream from road salt point source inputs. However, it was sediment loading that resulted in partial or complete burial of leaf packs, that affected invertebrate activity and confounded normal leaf pack colonization. There were no significant differences that could be attributed to road salt between upstream and downstream locations in the diversity and composition of invertebrate functional feeding groups. Laboratory drift and acute exposure studies demonstrated that drift of Gammarus (Amphipoda) may be affected by NaCl at concentrations greater than 5000 mg/l for a 24-h period. This amphipod and two species of limnephilid caddisflies exhibited a dose response to salt treatments with 96-h LC 50 values of 7700 and 3526 mg NaCl/l, respectively. Most other invertebrate species and individuals were unaffected by NaCl concentrations up to 10,000 mg/l for 24 and 96 h, respectively

  5. Effect of NaCl Priming on Seed Germination of Tunisian Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Under Salinity Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souguir, Maher

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one major problem of increasing production in crop growing areas throughout the world. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of NaCl priming on seed germination of Tunisian fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. under salinity conditions. Seeds of fenugreek were primed with NaCl (4g/l for 36 h in continuous 25°C. Experimental factors were included 2 priming treatments (NaCl and non-priming as control and five salinity solution (4,6,8,10 and 12 gl-1. Results showed that seed priming increased final germination percentage, germination speed and radicle length over the non-primed treatment. At the lowest levels of salinity, there were no notable differences between primed and non-primed seeds, but with increasing salinity levels, primed seeds showed the better performance than non-primed seeds. These results indicated that NaCl priming significantly improved seed performance under salinity conditions.

  6. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: NaCl and temperature-time profile effects and kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Capuano, E.; Nguyen, H.T.; Mogol, B.A.; Kocadagli, T.; Goncuoglu Tas, N.; Hamzalioglu, A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Gokmen, V.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of recipe and temperature–time on the formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during biscuit baking. Baking experiments were performed with biscuits of two different recipes, with and without NaCl, at 180 °C, 190 °C and 200 °C.

  7. Rhizospheric salt tolerant bacteria improving plant growth in single and mixed culture inoculations under NaCl stress (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afrasayab, S.; Hasnain, S.

    2005-01-01

    Salt tolerant bacterial strains isolated from rhizosphere of Mazus plant (inhabitant of salt range) were used singly (ST -1; ST -2; ST -3; ST -4) and in mixed combinations (ST -1,3,4; ST -2,3,4) to improve the growth to Tricticum aestivum in the pot experiments. Growth and yield of T. aestivum var. Inqlab-91 plants exposed to NaCl stress (0.75% NaCl) was markedly affected. Na/sup +//K/sup +/ ratios in shoots and roots were profoundly increased under NaCl stress. Bacterial inoculations improved plant growth under salt stress. Bacterial combinations ST - 1,3,4 and ST -2,3,4 were more effective in stimulating growth and showed prominent results as compared to their pure cultures. Mono and mixed bacterial inoculations improved yield parameters of wheat. ST -1,3,4 mixed culture inoculation maximally improved yield under salt stress. Generally bacterial inoculations resulted in increase in Na/sup +//K/sup +/ ratios in shoots and roots under salt free and salt stress conditions. Overall ST -1,3,4 mixed inoculation yielded promising results under NaCl stress, hence 168 rRNA gene sequence analysis of its pure cultures was obtained for their identification to genus level. (author)

  8. Densities of L-Glutamic Acid HCl Drug in Aqueous NaCl and KCl Solutions at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryshetti, Suresh; Raghuram, Noothi; Rani, Emmadi Jayanthi; Tangeda, Savitha Jyostna

    2016-04-01

    Densities (ρ ) of (0.01 to 0.07) {mol}{\\cdot } {kg}^{-1} L-Glutamic acid HCl (L-HCl) drug in water, and in aqueous NaCl and KCl (0.5 and 1.0) {mol}{\\cdot } {kg}^{-1} solutions have been reported as a function of temperature at T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K and atmospheric pressure. The accurate density (ρ ) values are used to estimate the various parameters such as the apparent molar volume (V_{2,{\\upphi }}), the partial molar volume (V2^{∞}), the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient (α 2), the partial molar expansion (E2^{∞}), and Hepler's constant (partial 2V2^{∞}/partial T2)P. The Cosphere overlap model is used to understand the solute-solvent interactions in a ternary mixture (L-HCl drug + NaCl or KCl + water). Hepler's constant (partial 2V2^{∞}/partial T2)_P is utilized to interpret the structure-making or -breaking ability of L-HCl drug in aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions, and the results are inferred that L-HCl drug acts as a structure maker, i.e., kosmotrope in aqueous NaCl solutions and performs as a structure breaker, i.e., chaotrope in aqueous KCl solutions.

  9. Ultrasonic cavitation erosion of Ti in 0.35% NaCl solution with bubbling oxygen and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D G; Wang, J D; Chen, D R; Liang, P

    2015-09-01

    The influences of oxygen and nitrogen on the ultrasonic cavitation erosion of Ti in 0.35%NaCl solution at room temperature, were investigated using a magnetostrictive-induced ultrasonic cavitation erosion (CE) facility and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The roles of oxygen and nitrogen in the composition and the electronic property of the passive film on Ti, were studied by Mott-Schottky plot and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the mass loss of Ti in 0.35%NaCl solution increased with increasing cavitation time. Bubbling oxygen can evidently increase the resistance of ultrasonic cavitation erosion comparing with bubbling nitrogen. XPS results showed that the thickness of the passive film on Ti in 0.35%NaCl solution in the case of bubbling oxygen for 3 weeks, was about 7 nm, and the passive film was mainly composed of TiO2 with an anatase structure. While TiO2 with a rutile structure was found to be the major component of the passive film on Ti in 0.35%NaCl solution in the case of bubbling nitrogen for 3 weeks, and the film thickness was 5 nm. The results extracted from Mott-Schottky plot showed that the passive film on Ti in the case of bubbling oxygen had more donor density than the passive film on Ti in the case of bubbling nitrogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural and optical properties of a NaCl single crystal doped with CuO nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addala, S.; Bouhdjer, L.; Halimi, O.; Boudine, B.; Sebais, M.; Chala, A.; Bouhdjar, A.

    2013-01-01

    A cupric oxide (CuO) nanocrystal-doped NaCl single crystal and a pure NaCl single crystal are grown by using the Czochralski (Cz) method. A number of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption in the UV—visible range, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy are used to characterize the obtained NaCl and NaCl:CuO crystals. It is observed that the average radius of CuO crystallites in NaCl:CuO crystal is about 29.87 nm, as derived from the XRD data analysis. Moreover, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy results confirm the existence of the monoclinic CuO phase in NaCl crystal. UV—visible absorption measurements indicate that the band gap of the NaCl:CuO crystal is 434 nm (2.85 eV), and it shows a significant amount of blue-shift (ΔE g = 1 eV) in the band gap energy of CuO, which is due to the quantum confinement effect exerted by the CuO nanocrystals. The PL spectrum of the NaCl:CuO shows a broad emission band centred at around 438 nm, which is consistent with the absorption measurement. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  11. Systematic UHV-AFM experiments on Na nano-particles and nano-structures in NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugonyako, A.V.; Turkin, A.A.; Gaynutdinov, R.; Vainshtein, D.I.; Hartog, H.W. den; Bukharaev, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Results of systematic AFM (atomic force microscopy) experiments on heavily and moderatly irradiated NaCl samples are presented. The sodium nanoparticles and structures of nanoparticles are poduced in sodium chloride during irradiation. The AFM images of the nanoparticles have been obtained in ultra

  12. P2Y2 receptor knock-out mice display normal NaCl absorption in medullary thick ascending limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Delgado Marques

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Local purinergic signals modulate renal tubular transport. Acute activation of renal epithelial P2 receptors causes inhibition of epithelial transport and thus, should favor increased water and salt excretion by the kidney. So far only a few studies have addressed the effects of extracellular nucleotides on ion transport in the thick ascending limb. In the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL, basolateral P2X receptors markedly (~25% inhibit NaCl absorption. Although this segment does express both apical and basolateral P2Y2 receptors, acute activation of the basolateral P2Y2 receptors had no apparent effect on transepithelial ion transport. Here we studied, if the absence of the P2Y2 receptor causes chronic alterations in mTAL NaCl absorption by comparing basal and AVP-stimulated transepithelial transport rates. We used perfused mouse mTALs to electrically measure NaCl absorption in juvenile (35 days male mice. Using microelectrodes, we determined the transepithelial voltage (Vte and the transepithelial resistance (Rte and thus, transepithelial NaCl absorption (equivalent short circuit current, I’sc.We find that mTALs from adult wild type (WT mice have significantly lower NaCl absorption rates when compared to mTALs from juvenile WT mice. This could be attributed to significantly higher Rte values in mTALs from adult WT mice. This pattern was not observed in mTALs from P2Y2 receptor knockout (KO mice. In addition, adult P2Y2 receptor KO mTALs have significantly lower Vte values compared to the juvenile. No difference in absolute I´sc was observed when comparing mTALs from WT and KO mice. AVP stimulated the mTALs to similar increases of NaCl absorption irrespective of the absence of the P2Y2 receptor. No difference was observed in the medullary expression level of NKCC2 in between the genotypes.These data indicate that the lack of P2Y2 receptors does not cause substantial differences in resting and AVP-stimulated NaCl absorption in

  13. Thermoluminescence and F centers of manganese doped NaCl and NaCl-CKl crystals exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somera, L.; Cruz Z, E.; Roman L, J.; Hernandez A, J. M.; Murrieta S, H.

    2015-10-01

    Alkali halides crystals doped with rare earths or transition metals have been widely studied due to the luminescence properties. In particular, NaCl and KCl single crystals present thermally stimulated luminescence (Tl) after gamma irradiation. The NaCl and the NaCl KCl mixed crystal doped with manganese (MnCl 2 ) impurity were grown by using the Czochralski method. The emission characteristic of Mn 2+ was observed at 543 nm. The crystals were exposed between 0.02 and 10 kGy gamma dose from 60 Co irradiator. Optical absorption at room temperature shows the peaked band at 452 nm corresponding to the manganese impurity. The F bands, was ascribed to the electron trapped in the anion vacancy in the lattice, were obtained at 452 nm and 455 nm belonging to NaCl:Mn and NaCl KCl:Mn, respectively. The F band increases as the doses increase and it was bleaching by the UV light at 470 nm. The glow curves of the samples show the first glow peak between 92-103 degrees C, while the second main peak was observed at 183 degrees C for the undoped NaCl and at 148 and 165 degrees C for the NaCl:Mn and NaCl-KCl:Mn, respectively. The main peak was slowly bleaching when the irradiated sample was illuminated with F (470 nm) light. Optical bleaching confirms that the F center has an important participation in the thermoluminescent response. The glow curves structure from the thermal bleaching suggests the participation of different kind of traps. Also, the kinetics parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and the kinetic order (b) were investigated. (Author)

  14. Thermoluminescence and F centers of manganese doped NaCl and NaCl-CKl crystals exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somera, L.; Cruz Z, E.; Roman L, J. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Hernandez A, J. M.; Murrieta S, H., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.mx [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Alkali halides crystals doped with rare earths or transition metals have been widely studied due to the luminescence properties. In particular, NaCl and KCl single crystals present thermally stimulated luminescence (Tl) after gamma irradiation. The NaCl and the NaCl KCl mixed crystal doped with manganese (MnCl{sub 2}) impurity were grown by using the Czochralski method. The emission characteristic of Mn{sup 2+} was observed at 543 nm. The crystals were exposed between 0.02 and 10 kGy gamma dose from {sup 60}Co irradiator. Optical absorption at room temperature shows the peaked band at 452 nm corresponding to the manganese impurity. The F bands, was ascribed to the electron trapped in the anion vacancy in the lattice, were obtained at 452 nm and 455 nm belonging to NaCl:Mn and NaCl KCl:Mn, respectively. The F band increases as the doses increase and it was bleaching by the UV light at 470 nm. The glow curves of the samples show the first glow peak between 92-103 degrees C, while the second main peak was observed at 183 degrees C for the undoped NaCl and at 148 and 165 degrees C for the NaCl:Mn and NaCl-KCl:Mn, respectively. The main peak was slowly bleaching when the irradiated sample was illuminated with F (470 nm) light. Optical bleaching confirms that the F center has an important participation in the thermoluminescent response. The glow curves structure from the thermal bleaching suggests the participation of different kind of traps. Also, the kinetics parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and the kinetic order (b) were investigated. (Author)

  15. Effect of Molybdenum on the Corrosion Behavior of High-Entropy Alloys CoCrFeNi2 and CoCrFeNi2Mo0.25 under Sodium Chloride Aqueous Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro A. Rodriguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of high-entropy alloys (HEAs CoCrFeNi2 and CoCrFeNi2Mo0.25 was investigated in 3.5 wt. percent sodium chloride (NaCl at 25°C by electrochemical methods. Their corrosion parameters were compared to those of HASTELLOY® C-276 (UNS N10276 and stainless steel 316L (UNS 31600 to assess the suitability of HEAs for potential industrial applications in NaCl simulating seawater type environments. The corrosion rates were calculated using corrosion current determined from electrochemical experiments for each of the alloys. In addition, potentiodynamic polarization measurements can indicate active, passive, and transpassive behavior of the metal as well as potential susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Cyclic voltammetry (CV can confirm the alloy susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS elucidates the corrosion mechanism under studied conditions. The results of the electrochemical experiments and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses of the corroded surfaces revealed general corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi2Mo0.25 and HASTELLOY C-276 and pitting corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi2 and stainless steel 316L.

  16. Fragile to strong crossover at the Widom line in supercooled aqueous solutions of NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Corradini, D.; Rovere, M., E-mail: rovere@fis.uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy)

    2013-11-28

    We study by molecular dynamics simulations the dynamical properties of an aqueous solution of NaCl at a concentration of 0.67 mol/kg upon supercooling. In a previous study of the same ionic solution, we have located the liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) and determined the Widom line connected to the liquid-liquid transition. We present here the results obtained from the study of the self-intermediate scattering function in a large range of temperatures and densities approaching the LLCP. The structural relaxation is in agreement with the mode coupling theory (MCT) in the region of mild supercooling. In the deeper supercooled region the α-relaxation time as function of temperature deviates from the MCT power law prediction showing a crossover from a fragile to a strong behavior. This crossover is found upon crossing the Widom line. The same trend was found in bulk water upon supercooling and it appears almost unchanged by the interaction with ions apart from a shift in the thermodynamic plane toward lower pressures and higher temperatures. These results show that the phenomenology of supercooled water transfers from bulk to solution where the study of the supercooled region is experimentally less difficult.

  17. Geochemical models of the precipitation of halite (NaCl) in gas fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombana O, Jose L; Jaramillo, Elizabeth A; Alzate E, Guillermo A

    2005-01-01

    The reservoir modeling is a tool that every day takes more importance in the petroleum industry due to multiple problems presented an also that can be afforded by it during the production of reservoir fluids from the porous media in petroleum reservoir. One of these is the formation damage which is reflected as a petrophysic properties change, caused among other factors by the scale precipitation of halite (NaCl) as a consequence of the original state alteration and thermodynamic balance disruption between the porous media and the fluids inside by the gas flow. By the gas flow over the connate water, the porous media reduce its water saturation due to water transferring from liquid to gas state. In this study, a numeric model is developed to model the formation damage for halite precipitation. The model covers one-dimensional monophasic and iso thermic gas flow and evaluates the porosity and permeability changes of porous media due to halite precipitation. The model application for different conditions of temperature, connate water salinity, water saturation,and porosity indicates the following: the biggest damage is caused to the beginning of the porous media,temperature influences considerably the water vaporization rate and therefore the amount of halite precipitation, the lower the porosity of the porous media the bigger the formation damage degree, and finally, higher salinity and water saturation for the connate water in the porous media higher the formation damage degree is reached by the gas flow.

  18. Electrochemical corrosion response of a low carbon heat treated steel in a NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, W.R.; Peixoto, L.C.; Garcia, L.R.; Garcia, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, State University of Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    Dual-phase (DP) steels are produced from a specific heat treatment procedure and have recently emerged as a potential class of engineering materials for a number of structural and automobile applications. Such steels have high strength-to-weight ratio and reasonable formability. The present study aims to investigate the effects of four different and conventional heat treatments (i.e., hot rolling, normalizing, annealing, and intercritical annealing) on the resulting microstructural patterns and on the electrochemical corrosion behavior. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel plots were carried out on heat treated steel samples in a 0.5 M NaCl solution at 25 C with neutral pH. An equivalent circuit analysis was also used to provide quantitative support for the discussions. The normalizing and the annealing heat treatments have provided the highest and the lowest corrosion resistances, respectively. The intercritical annealing and as-received (hot rolled) low carbon steel samples have shown similar corrosion behavior. Although a deleterious effect on the corrosion resistance has been verified for DP steel due to the residual stress from the martensite formation, it combines good mechanical properties with intermediate electrochemical corrosion resistance. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Interfacial free energy of the NaCl crystal-melt interface from capillary wave fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Jorge; MacDowell, Luis G; Sanz, Eduardo

    2015-04-07

    In this work we study, by means of molecular dynamics simulations, the solid-liquid interface of NaCl under coexistence conditions. By analysing capillary waves, we obtain the stiffness for different orientations of the solid and calculate the interfacial free energy by expanding the dependency of the interfacial free energy with the solid orientation in terms of cubic harmonics. We obtain an average value for the solid-fluid interfacial free energy of 89 ± 6 mN m(-1) that is consistent with previous results based on the measure of nucleation free energy barriers [Valeriani et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 194501 (2005)]. We analyse the influence of the simulation setup on interfacial properties and find that facets prepared as an elongated rectangular stripe give the same results as those prepared as squares for all cases but the 111 face. For some crystal orientations, we observe at small wave-vectors a behaviour not consistent with capillary wave theory and show that this behavior does not depend on the simulation setup.

  20. Investigation of Fumed Silica/Aqueous NaCl Superdielectric Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Jenkins

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A constant current charge/discharge protocol which showed fumed silica filled to the point of incipient wetness with aqueous NaCl solution to have dielectric constants >108 over the full range of dielectric thicknesses of 0.38–3.9 mm and discharge times of 0.25–>100 s was studied, making this material another example of a superdielectric. The dielectric constant was impacted by both frequency and thickness. For time to discharge greater than 10 s the dielectric constant for all thicknesses needed to be fairly constant, always >109, although trending higher with increasing thickness. At shorter discharge times the dielectric constant consistently decreased, with decreasing time to discharge. Hence, it is reasonable to suggest that for time to discharge >10 s the dielectric constant at all thicknesses will be greater than 109. This in turn implies an energy density for a 5 micron thick dielectric layer in the order of 350 J/cm3 for discharge times greater than 10 s.

  1. Investigation of Fumed Silica/Aqueous NaCl Superdielectric Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Natalie; Petty, Clayton; Phillips, Jonathan

    2016-02-20

    A constant current charge/discharge protocol which showed fumed silica filled to the point of incipient wetness with aqueous NaCl solution to have dielectric constants >10⁸ over the full range of dielectric thicknesses of 0.38-3.9 mm and discharge times of 0.25->100 s was studied, making this material another example of a superdielectric. The dielectric constant was impacted by both frequency and thickness. For time to discharge greater than 10 s the dielectric constant for all thicknesses needed to be fairly constant, always >10⁸, although trending higher with increasing thickness. At shorter discharge times the dielectric constant consistently decreased, with decreasing time to discharge. Hence, it is reasonable to suggest that for time to discharge >10 s the dielectric constant at all thicknesses will be greater than 10⁸. This in turn implies an energy density for a 5 micron thick dielectric layer in the order of 350 J/cm³ for discharge times greater than 10 s.

  2. Glycine Betaine and Proline Production in Eucalyptus Plant under NaCl Harassing Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, T. M.; Bano, A.; Ashraf, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out to study the production of Proline and Betaine by applying Abscisic acid (ABA) treatment under NaCl and water stressed conditions. The seeds of four provenances of Eucalyptus camaldulesnis were obtained from the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Provenance I), Punjab Forest Research Institute, Faisalabad (Provenance II), Bio-saline Research Station-I, Lahore (Provenance III) and Bio-saline Research Station-II of Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad (Provenance 1V). It was observed that Proline and Betaine accumulation increased significantly in all the provenances with increase in drought or salt stress, ABA alone and in combination with drought. Provenance II and III species remained successful in maintaining higher Proline and Betaine accumulation as compared to Provenances I and IV. From the results it can be concluded that ABA treatment remains successful in enhancing Proline and Betaine production and maintaining the physiological parameters necessary to enhance plant growth both under salt and in combination with drought condition. (author)

  3. Thermal behaviour of the thermoluminescent dosemeter CaSO4: Dy + NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio Filho, J.

    1988-01-01

    Thermoluminescent materials are widely applied in radiation dosimetry. Nevertheless to obtain a good degree of reliability, it is necessary to subject the materials to an adequate thermal treatment, before and after irradiation, conveniently controlling temperature, heating time and cooling rate. It has been observed that the TLD CaSO 4 : Dy + NaCl loses 10% of its sensivity after each utilization cycle with the thermal treatment usually recomended. This fact establishes a severe limitation in works requiring a good measurement precision. Several alternative procedures, which overcome this limitation, have been studied. Two of the procedures yielded excellent results, with a coefficient of variation of 1 to 1.3%. One of them consist of two heating cycles at 300 0 C during 15 and three hours respectively, before irradiation, followed by a heating cycle at 100 0 C during 15 minutes, after irradiation. In a second procedure the material is heated at 300 0 C during three hours, pre-irradiation, followed by a heating cycle at 100 0 C. during 15 minutes, after irradiation. In all cases the heating cycle are followed by fast cooling periods. (author) [pt

  4. Corrosion behavior of duplex polyaniline/epoxy coating on mild steel in 3% NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Milica M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior and thermal stability of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on mild steel and on mild steel with electrochemically deposited polyaniline (PANI film were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The aim of the paper was to present new findings on the corrosion protection of mild steel by a duplex PANI/-epoxy coating in 3% NaCI solution and to determine the effect of thin PANI film on the protective properties of the coating. PANI film was deposited electrochemically on mild steel from an aqueous solution of 0.5 mol dm"3 sodium benzoate and 0.1 mol dm"3 aniline at a constant current density of 1.5 mA cm"2. Non-pigmented epoxy coatings on mild steel and on mild steel with PANI film were obtained by cathodic electrode position at constant voltage and stirring conditions. The resin concentration in the electrode position bath was 10 wt.% solid dispersion in water at pH 5.7. The applied voltage was 250 V, the temperature 26°C and the deposition time 3 min. It was shown that thin PANI film could be used to modify the surface of mild steel prior to epoxy coating deposition, due to the increased corrosion protection of a duplex PANI/epoxy coating comparing to an epoxy coating on mild steel in 3% NaCl solution.

  5. Hygroscopic Behavior of Multicomponent Aerosols Involving NaCl and Dicarboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Jing, Bo; Guo, Yu-Cong; Zhang, Yun-Hong; Ge, Mao-Fa

    2016-02-25

    Atmospheric aerosols are usually complex mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds. The hygroscopicity of mixed particles is closely related to their chemical composition and interactions between components, which is still poorly understood. In this study, the hygroscopic properties of submicron particles composed of NaCl and dicarboxylic acids including oxalic acid (OA), malonic acid (MA), and succinic acid (SA) with various mass ratios are investigated with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) system. Both the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) method and extended aerosol inorganics model (E-AIM) are applied to predict the water uptake behaviors of sodium chloride/dicarboxylic acid mixtures. For NaCl/OA mixed particles, the measured growth factors were significantly lower than predictions from the model methods, indicating a change in particle composition caused by chloride depletion. The hygroscopic growth of NaCl/MA particles was well described by E-AIM, and that of NaCl/SA particles was dependent upon mixing ratio. Compared with model predictions, it was determined that water uptake of the NaCl/OA mixture could be enhanced and could be closer to the predictions by addition of levoglucosan or malonic acid, which retained water even at low relative humidity (RH), leading to inhibition of HCl evaporation during dehydration. These results demonstrate that the coexisting hygroscopic species have a strong influence on the phase state of particles, thus affecting chemical interactions between inorganic and organic compounds as well as the overall hygroscopicity of mixed particles.

  6. Migration rates of brine inclusions in single crystals of NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    Rock-salt deposits have been considered as a possible medium for the permanent storage of high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuel. Brine inclusions present in natural salt can migrate toward the waste if the temperature and the temperature gradients in the vicinity of the radioactive waste are large enough. This migration is due to the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the salt-brine interface, ion diffusion through the brine droplet, and the precipitation of salt at the cold side of the salt brine interface. In order to quantify the problem, the migration rate of these brine inclusions must be estimated under various repository conditions. This paper estimates migration rates for all-liquid brine inclusions in single crystals of NaCl by utilizing recent data for brines and the model of Anthony and Cline [T.R. Anthony and H.E. Cline, J. Appl. Phys., 42, pp. 3380-387 (1971)]. The predictions are compared with experimentally measured migration rates. 4 figures, 6 tables

  7. Importance of van der Waals interaction on structural, vibrational, and thermodynamic properties of NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Michel L.; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.; Assali, Lucy V. C.

    2018-05-01

    Thermal equations of state (EOS) are essential in several scientific domains. However, experimental determination of EOS parameters may be limited at extreme conditions, therefore, ab initio calculations have become an important method to obtain them. Density functional theory (DFT) and its extensions with various degrees of approximations for the exchange and correlation (XC) energy is the method of choice, but large errors in the EOS parameters are still common. The alkali halides have been problematic from the onset of this field and the quest for appropriate DFT functionals for such ionic and relatively weakly bonded systems has remained an active topic of research. Here we use DFT + van der Waals functionals to calculate vibrational properties, thermal EOS, thermodynamic properties, and the B1 to B2 phase boundary of NaCl with high precision. Our results reveal a remarkable improvement over the performance of standard local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation functionals for all these properties and phase transition boundary, as well as great sensitivity of anharmonic effects on the choice of XC functional.

  8. Nipah Virus (NiV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Nipah Virus (NiV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , ...

  9. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Bare, Cr3C2-(NiCr) and Cr3C2-(NiCr) + 0.2wt.%Zr Coated SuperNi 718 at 900 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgal, Deepa; Singh, Surendra; Prakash, Satya

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion in incinerators, power plants, and chemical industries are frequently encountered due to the presence of salts containing sodium, sulphur, and chlorine. To obviate this problem, bare and coated alloys were tested under environments simulating the conditions present inside incinerators and power plants. 0.2 wt.% zirconium powder was incorporated in the Cr3C2-(NiCr) coating powder. The original powder and Zr containing powder was sprayed on Superni 718 alloy by D-gun technique. The bare and coated alloys were tested under Na2SO4 + K2SO4 + NaCl + KCl and Na2SO4 + NaCl environment. The corrosion rate of specimens was monitored using weight change measurements. Characterization of the corrosion products has been done using FE-SEM/EDS and XRD techniques. Bare and coated alloys showed very good corrosion resistance under given molten salt environments. Addition of 0.2wt.%Zr in Cr3C2-25%(NiCr) coating further greatly reduced the oxidation rate as well as improved the adherence of oxide scale to the coating surface during the time of corrosion.

  10. Nanocrystalline soft ferromagnetic Ni-Co-P thin film on Al alloy by low temperature electroless deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aal, A. Abdel; Shaaban, A.; Hamid, Z. Abdel

    2008-01-01

    Soft ferromagnetic ternary Ni-Co-P films were deposited onto Al 6061 alloy from low temperature Ni-Co-P electroless plating bath. The effect of deposition parameters, such as time and pH, on the plating rate of the deposit were examined. The results showed that the plating rate is a function of pH bath and the highest coating thickness can be obtained at pH value from 8 to10. The surface morphology, phase structure and the magnetic properties of the prepared films have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and vibrating magnetometer device (VMD), respectively. The deposit obtained at optimum conditions showed compact and smooth with nodular grains structure and exhibited high magnetic moments and low coercivety. Potentiodynamic polarization corrosion tests were used to study the general corrosion behavior of Al alloys, Ni-P and Ni-Co-P coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution. It was found that Ni-Co-P coated alloy demonstrated higher corrosion resistance than Ni-P coating containing same percent of P due to the Co addition. The Ni-Co-P coating with a combination of high corrosion resistance, high hardness and excellent magnetic properties would be expected to enlarge the applications of the aluminum alloys

  11. NaCl islands decorated with 2D or 3D 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Xiaonan; Silly, Fabien

    2010-01-01

    The formation of PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride) nanostrutures on Au(1 1 1)-(22 x root 3) covered with NaCl islands has been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Atomically resolved STM images show that NaCl grows as (1 0 0)-terminated layers on Au(1 1 1)-(22 x

  12. Growth and luminescent properties of the Ce, Pr doped NaCl single crystals grown by the modified micro-pulling-down method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Yuui, E-mail: y-yokota@tagen.tohoku.ac.j [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University/2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University/2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Nikl, Martin [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic/6253, Prague (Czech Republic); Yoshikawa, Akira [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University/2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University/2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    We have investigated luminescent properties of nondope, Ce and Pr doped NaCl [nondope NaCl, Ce:NaCl, Pr:NaCl] single crystals grown by a modified micro-pulling-down method with a removable chamber system. Nondope, Ce 1% and Pr 1% doped NaCl crystals with a single phase of NaCl structure were obtained and the crystals indicated general crystal quality by the X-ray rocking curve measurement. For the nondope NaCl and Pr:NaCl crystals, the transmittance spectra indicated almost more than 60% in the wavelength from 200 to 800 nm and an absorption of Ce{sup 3+} ion was observed in the transmittance spectrum of Ce:NaCl crystal. The emission spectrum originated from Ce{sup 3+} 5d-4f transition appeared around 300 nm in the photoluminescence spectrum and the decay time was 19.7 ns.

  13. Growth and luminescent properties of the Ce, Pr doped NaCl single crystals grown by the modified micro-pulling-down method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Yuui; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Nikl, Martin; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated luminescent properties of nondope, Ce and Pr doped NaCl [nondope NaCl, Ce:NaCl, Pr:NaCl] single crystals grown by a modified micro-pulling-down method with a removable chamber system. Nondope, Ce 1% and Pr 1% doped NaCl crystals with a single phase of NaCl structure were obtained and the crystals indicated general crystal quality by the X-ray rocking curve measurement. For the nondope NaCl and Pr:NaCl crystals, the transmittance spectra indicated almost more than 60% in the wavelength from 200 to 800 nm and an absorption of Ce 3+ ion was observed in the transmittance spectrum of Ce:NaCl crystal. The emission spectrum originated from Ce 3+ 5d-4f transition appeared around 300 nm in the photoluminescence spectrum and the decay time was 19.7 ns.

  14. Biocompatibility and corrosion behavior of the shape memory NiTi alloy in the physiological environments simulated with body fluids for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Amin-Ahmadi, Behnam; Zare, Mehrnoush

    2010-01-01

    Due to unique properties of NiTi shape memory alloys such as high corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, super elasticity and shape memory behavior, NiTi shape memory alloys are suitable materials for medical applications. Although TiO 2 passive layer in these alloys can prevent releasing of nickel to the environment, high nickel content and stability of passive layer in these alloys are very debatable subjects. In this study a NiTi shape memory alloy with nominal composition of 50.7 atom% Ni was investigated by corrosion tests. Electrochemical tests were performed in two physiological environments of Ringer solution and NaCl 0.9% solution. Results indicate that the breakdown potential of the NiTi alloy in NaCl 0.9% solution is higher than that in Ringer solution. The results of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) reveal that low pitting corrosion occurred in Ringer solution compared with NaCl solution at potentiostatic tests. The pH value of the solutions increases after the electrochemical tests. The existence of hydride products in the X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the decrease of the concentration of hydrogen ion in solutions. Topographical evaluations show that corrosion products are nearly same in all samples. The biocompatibility tests were performed by reaction of mouse fibroblast cells (L929). The growth and development of cells for different times were measured by numbering the cells or statistics investigations. The figures of cells for different times showed natural growth of cells. The different of the cell numbers between the test specimen and control specimen was negligible; therefore it may be concluded that the NiTi shape memory alloy is not toxic in the physiological environments simulated with body fluids.

  15. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, Samar; Verma, H. C.

    2016-01-01

    Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles of the series Ni1-xMnxO (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) are successfully synthesized using a low temperature hydrothermal method. Samples up to 6% Mn-doping are single phase in nature as observed from powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. Rietveld refinement of the XRD data shows that all the single phase samples crystallize in the NaCl like fcc structure with space group Fm-3m. Unit cell volume decreases with increasing Mn-doping. Pure NiO nanoparticles show weak ferromagnetism, may be due to nanosize nature. Introduction of Mn within NiO lattice improves the magnetic properties significantly. Room temperature ferromagnetism is found in all the doped samples whereas the magnetization is highest for 2% Mn-doping and then decreases with further doping. The ZFC and FC branches in the temperature dependent magnetization separate well above 350 K indicating transition temperature well above room temperature for 2% Mn-doped NiO Nanoparticle. The ferromagnetic Curie temperature is found to be 653 K for the same sample as measured by temperature dependent magnetization study using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in high vacuum.

  16. Ni República parlamentaria ni presidencialista

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Tardío, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Revista de Estudios Políticos (Nueva Época), Núm. 123. Enero-Marzo 2004 Este trabajo está dedicado al estudio de un aspecto básico del sistema político de la II República española (1931-1936): el modelo de presidencia de la República y de relaciones de la misma con el parlamento y el gobierno. Aquí se sostiene que la Segunda República, de acuerdo con su Constitución, no fue un régimen parlamentario ni presidencial. Combinó de forma extraña y ambigua elementos de ambos modelos. Probablement...

  17. Liquid Scintillation Counting Standardization of {sup 2}2NaCl by te CIEMAT/NIST method; Calibracion por Centelleo Liquido del ''22NaCl, mediante el metodo CIEMAT/NIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1995-07-01

    We describe a procedure for preparing a stable solution of ''22NaCl for liquid scintillation counting and its counting stability and spectral evolution in Insta-Gel''R is studied. The solution has been standardised in terms of activity concentration by the CIEMAT/NIST method with discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies lower than 0.4 % and an overall uncertainty of 0.35 %. (Author) 4 refs.

  18. Global transcriptome profiling of Salicornia europaea L. shoots under NaCl treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinbiao; Zhang, Meiru; Xiao, Xinlong; You, Jinjin; Wang, Junru; Wang, Tao; Yao, Yinan; Tian, Changyan

    2013-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits agriculture productivity worldwide. Salicornia europaea is well adapted to extreme saline environments with more than 1,000 mM NaCl in the soil, so it could serve as an important model species for studying halophilic mechanisms in euhalophytes. To obtain insights into the molecular basis of salt tolerance, we present here the first extensive transcriptome analysis of this species using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. A total of 41 and 39 million clean reads from the salt-treated (Se200S) and salt-free (SeCKS) tissues of S. europaea shoots were obtained, and de novo assembly produced 97,865 and 101,751 unigenes, respectively. Upon further assembly with EST data from both Se200S and SeCKS, 109,712 high-quality non-redundant unigenes were generated with a mean unigene size of 639 bp. Additionally, a total of 3,979 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between the Se200S and SeCKS libraries, with 348 unigenes solely expressed in Se200S and 460 unigenes solely expressed in SeCKS. Furthermore, we identified a large number of genes that are involved in ion homeostasis and osmotic adjustment, including cation transporters and proteins for the synthesis of low-molecular compounds. All unigenes were functionally annotated within the COG, GO and KEGG pathways, and 10 genes were validated by qRT-PCR. Our data contains the extensive sequencing and gene-annotation analysis of S. europaea. This genetic knowledge will be very useful for future studies on the molecular adaptation to abiotic stress in euhalophytes and will facilitate the genetic manipulation of other economically important crops.

  19. Global transcriptome profiling of Salicornia europaea L. shoots under NaCl treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbiao Ma

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits agriculture productivity worldwide. Salicornia europaea is well adapted to extreme saline environments with more than 1,000 mM NaCl in the soil, so it could serve as an important model species for studying halophilic mechanisms in euhalophytes. To obtain insights into the molecular basis of salt tolerance, we present here the first extensive transcriptome analysis of this species using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000.A total of 41 and 39 million clean reads from the salt-treated (Se200S and salt-free (SeCKS tissues of S. europaea shoots were obtained, and de novo assembly produced 97,865 and 101,751 unigenes, respectively. Upon further assembly with EST data from both Se200S and SeCKS, 109,712 high-quality non-redundant unigenes were generated with a mean unigene size of 639 bp. Additionally, a total of 3,979 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected between the Se200S and SeCKS libraries, with 348 unigenes solely expressed in Se200S and 460 unigenes solely expressed in SeCKS. Furthermore, we identified a large number of genes that are involved in ion homeostasis and osmotic adjustment, including cation transporters and proteins for the synthesis of low-molecular compounds. All unigenes were functionally annotated within the COG, GO and KEGG pathways, and 10 genes were validated by qRT-PCR.Our data contains the extensive sequencing and gene-annotation analysis of S. europaea. This genetic knowledge will be very useful for future studies on the molecular adaptation to abiotic stress in euhalophytes and will facilitate the genetic manipulation of other economically important crops.

  20. The Effect of WNK4 on the Na+-Cl- Cotransporter Is Modulated by Intracellular Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazúa-Valenti, Silvana; Chávez-Canales, María; Rojas-Vega, Lorena; González-Rodríguez, Xochiquetzal; Vázquez, Norma; Rodríguez-Gama, Alejandro; Argaiz, Eduardo R; Melo, Zesergio; Plata, Consuelo; Ellison, David H; García-Valdés, Jesús; Hadchouel, Juliette; Gamba, Gerardo

    2015-08-01

    It is widely recognized that the phenotype of familial hyperkalemic hypertension is mainly a consequence of increased activity of the renal Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) because of altered regulation by with no-lysine-kinase 1 (WNK1) or WNK4. The effect of WNK4 on NCC, however, has been controversial because both inhibition and activation have been reported. It has been recently shown that the long isoform of WNK1 (L-WNK1) is a chloride-sensitive kinase activated by a low Cl(-) concentration. Therefore, we hypothesized that WNK4 effects on NCC could be modulated by intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl(-)]i), and we tested this hypothesis in oocytes injected with NCC cRNA with or without WNK4 cRNA. At baseline in oocytes, [Cl(-)]i was near 50 mM, autophosphorylation of WNK4 was undetectable, and NCC activity was either decreased or unaffected by WNK4. A reduction of [Cl(-)]i, either by low chloride hypotonic stress or coinjection of oocytes with the solute carrier family 26 (anion exchanger)-member 9 (SLC26A9) cRNA, promoted WNK4 autophosphorylation and increased NCC-dependent Na(+) transport in a WNK4-dependent manner. Substitution of the leucine with phenylalanine at residue 322 of WNK4, homologous to the chloride-binding pocket in L-WNK1, converted WNK4 into a constitutively autophosphorylated kinase that activated NCC, even without chloride depletion. Elimination of the catalytic activity (D321A or D321K-K186D) or the autophosphorylation site (S335A) in mutant WNK4-L322F abrogated the positive effect on NCC. These observations suggest that WNK4 can exert differential effects on NCC, depending on the intracellular chloride concentration. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. Study of constraints in using household NaCl salt for retrospective dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashmawy, M.

    2018-05-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of 5 different household NaCl salts and one analytical salt were determined to investigate the possible factors that affect the reliability of using household salt for retrospective dosimetry. Salts' TL sensitivities were found to be particle-size dependent and approached saturation at the largest size, whereas for salts that have the same particle size, the TL sensitivity depended on their origin. TL dependence on the particle size interprets significant variations in TL response reported in the literature for the same salt patch. The first TL readout indicated that all salts have similar glow curves with one distinctive peak. Typical second TL readout at two different doses showed a dramatic decrease in TL sensitivity associated with a significant change in the glow curve structure possessing two prominent peaks. Glow curve deconvolution (GCD) of the first TL readout for all salts yielded 6 individual glow peaks of first-order kinetics, whereas in GCD of second TL readouts, 5 individual glow peaks of second-order kinetics were obtained. Similarities in the glow curve structures of the first and second TL readouts suggest that additives such as KIO3 and MgCO3 have no effect on the TL process. Fading effect was evaluated for the salt of highest TL sensitivity, and it was found that the integral TL intensity decreased gradually and lost 40% of its initial value over 2 weeks, after which it remained constant. Results conclude that a household salt cannot be used for retrospective dosimetry without considering certain constraints such as the salt's origin and particle size. Furthermore, preparedness for radiological accidents and accurate dose reconstructions require that most of the commonly distributed household salt brands should be calibrated in advance and stored in a repository to be recalled in case of accidents.

  2. Continuous modification of AK11 silumin with multicomponent salt on base of NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pezda

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sodium belongs to the most effective modifying agents. The sodium can be brought into metal bath in metallic form or in form of chemical compounds comprising sodium, the most often in form of NaF. In the both above mentioned cases action of sodium is of very short duration, (what constitutes its main disadvantage, as lasting for about 15-20 minutes, mainly due to its evaporation from metal bath.Prolongation of modifying agent’s action can be accomplished due to technology of continuous introduction of sodium to metal bath. That technology is based on continuous electrolysis of sodium salt, occurring directly in melting pot with liquid alloy. Application of solid electrolyte – conducting sodium ions (ionic conductance – and simultaneously maintaining solid state of aggregation in melting and superheating temperature of alloy, i.e. 600÷800°C is indispensable for such process. Suitable sodium salt which is placed in retort produced from solid electrolyte shall undergo dissociation, and next electrolysis, in result of applied direct current. Sodium ions arisen during the dissociation of sodium salts and electrolysis are “conveyed” through retort walls made from solid electrolyte. In contact with liquid alloy as cathode, sodium ions pass to atomic state, modifying the alloy. The paper discusses results of initial study concerning process of continuous modification of AK11 silumin with use of multicomponent sodium salt on base of NaCl, shows results of tensile strength Rm and measurement of voltage drop for the alloy in solid state. Values of those parameters have confirmed obtained modification effect of investigated alloys. Assurance of stable run of continuous modification process brings about necessity of a further research aimed at optimization of parameters of the process.

  3. Structure and composition of layers of Ni-Co-Mn-In Heusler alloys obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisz, Grzegorz; Sagan, Piotr; Stefaniuk, Ireneusz; Cieniek, Bogumil; Maziarz, Wojciech; Kuzma, Marian

    2017-01-01

    In present work we were analysing thin layers of Ni-Co-Mn-In alloys, grown by pulsed laser deposition method (PLD) on Si, NaCl and glass substrates. For target ablation the second harmonics of YAG:Nd 3+ laser was used. The target had the composition Ni 45 Co 5 Mn 34.5 In 14.5 . The morphology of the layers and composition were studied by electron microscopy TESCAN Vega3 equipped with microanalyzer EDS – Easy EdX system working with Esprit Bruker software. The X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD), performed on spectrometer Bruker XRD D8 Advance system, reveals Ni 2 -Mn-In cubic phase having lattice constant a = 6.02Å.

  4. Coloration dependence in the thermoluminescence properties of the double doped NaCl single crystals under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Mejorada, G.; Gelover-Santiago, A.L.; Frias, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the behaviour of calcium manganese doped NaCl single crystals under gamma irradiation is reported. Various single crystals of NaCl doped with Ca and Mn have been irradiated at different doses with ionising radiation. The production of defects has been correlated to the increase in the intensity of the thermo luminescent glow curve as a function of doses. The glow curves intensity as a function of doses shows the potential use of these materials as dosimeters. Optical properties of such crystals after irradiation with gamma rays have also been studied; results have shown their potentiality as a good detector and optical store memory devices. Since the creations of colour centres by photons with energy less than the band gap energy has been detected also in ns 2 -ion doped alkali halides. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. 24-Epibrassinolide ameliorates the adverse effect of salt stress (NaCl on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibn Maaouia-Houimli Samira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the role of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL in inducing plant tolerance to salinity. Seedlings of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. were grown in the presence of 70 mM NaCl and were sprayed with 10-6 M EBL at 7 days after transplantation and were sampled at 28 day. The plants exposed to NaCl exhibited a significant decline in relative growth rate, net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency. However, the follow up treatment with EBL significantly improved the above parameters. EBL treated plants had greater relative growth rate compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of EBL increased photosynthesis by increasing stomatal conductance in both control and salt stressed plants and may have contributed to the enhanced growth. The water use efficiency was improved because CO2 assimilation is more important than the transpiration.

  6. Laboratory studies of galvanic corrosion. III. Effect of velocity in NaCl and substitute ocean water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfeld, F.; Kenkel, J.V.

    1977-01-01

    The galvanic corrosion behavior of 4340 steel coupled to Type 304 stainless steel, Cu, Ti-6Al-4V, Al 2024, Al 6061, and zinc has been studied in 3.5 percent NaCl and ASTM substitute ocean water as a function of velocity using a rotating galvanic couple electrode holder. For steel coupled to Type 304 stainless steel, Cu or Ti, the galvanic current generally increases proportional to the square root of the rotation speed in both media. The increase is, however, smaller in the substitute ocean water. For couples involving Al alloys and Zn, the galvanic current has a more complicated dependence on velocity in substitute ocean water than in 3.5 percent NaCl

  7. Electrokinetic properties of tantalum oxide deposited on model substrate in NaCl and LiCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorova, M.P.; Bogdanova, N.F.; Ermakova, L.Eh.; Bobrov, P.V.

    1997-01-01

    Electrokinetic characteristics of tantalum oxide have been studied using a model system - a plane-parallel capillary in chloride solutions containing monocharge (H + , Na + , Li + ) counterions in a wide range of pH and concentrations. It is shown that position of isoelectric point (IEP) of Ta 2 O 5 depends on concentration and type of counterion, moreover, the dependence is not explained in the framework of classical notions of the influence of counterion specific adsorption on IEP position. Electrokinetic potential of Ta 2 O-5 surface at the background of diluted LiCl solutions is higher in its absolute value, than at the background of NaCl solutions according to direct lyotropic series. The results of measurements of the capillary resistance dependence on pH at the background of NaCl and LiCl solutions 10 -3 -10 -1 M are used for the calculation of efficiency and specific surface conductivity factors

  8. Radiation inactivation of angiotensin-converting enzyme in solutions. Communication 3. The effect of NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlova, M.A.; Kost, O.A.; Nikol'skaya, I.I.; Troshina, N.N.; Binevskij, P.V.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of 0-0.15 M NaCl on the dose response of angiotensin-converting enzyme is described. The data represented at three-dimensional surfaces demonstrate the existence of special areas where definite mechanisms of dose response are predominant. In acidic and alkaline media, the regions of high values of enzyme activation can be emphasized; moreover, the oscillations of enzyme activity can also be detected. At pH 7.5, when angiotensin-converting enzyme conformation is less rigid, activation peaks on the three-dimensional surface are less pronounced indicating the decreasing effect of NaCl on dose response at this pH value [ru

  9. Changes in growth, carbon and nitrogen enzyme activity and mRNA accumulation in the halophilic microalga Dunaliella viridis in response to NaCl stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Nianjun; Sun, Xue

    2016-12-01

    Many species of microalga Dunaliella exhibit a remarkable tolerance to salinity and are therefore ideal for probing the effects of salinity. In this work, we assessed the effects of NaCl stress on the growth, activity and mRNA level of carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes of D. viridis. The alga could grow over a salinity range of 0.44 mol L-1 to 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, but the most rapid growth was observed at 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl, followed by 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl. Paralleling these growth patterns, the highest initial and total Rubisco activities were detected in the presence of 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl, decreasing to 37.33% and 26.39% of those values, respectively, in the presence of 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, respectively. However, the highest extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity was measured in the presence of 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl, followed by 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl. Different from the two carbon enzymes, nitrate reductase (NR) activity showed a slight change under different NaCl concentrations. At the transcriptional level, the mRNAs of Rubisco large subunit ( rbcL), and small subunit ( rbcS), attained their highest abundances in the presence of 1.00 and 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl, respectively. The CA mRNA accumulation was induced from 0.44 mol L-1 to 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, but the NR mRNA showed the decreasing tendency with the increasing salinity. In conclusion, the growth and carbon fixation enzyme of Rubisco displayed similar tendency in response to NaCl stress, CA was proved be salt-inducible within a certain salinity range and NR showed the least effect by NaCl in D. viridis.

  10. Three-Dimensional Porous Nickel Frameworks Anchored with Cross-Linked Ni(OH)2 Nanosheets as a Highly Sensitive Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Weiwei; He, Haiping; Sun, Pengcheng; Ye, Zhizhen; Huang, Jingyun

    2018-05-02

    A facile and scalable in situ microelectrolysis nanofabrication technique is developed for preparing cross-linked Ni(OH) 2 nanosheets on a novel three-dimensional porous nickel template (Ni(OH) 2 @3DPN). For the constructed template, the porogen of NaCl particles not only induces a self-limiting surficial hot corrosion to claim the "start engine stop" mechanism but also serves as the primary battery electrolyte to greatly accelerate the growth of Ni(OH) 2 . As far as we know, the microelectrolysis nanofabrication is superior to the other reported Ni(OH) 2 synthesis methods due to the mild condition (60 °C, 6 h, NaCl solution, ambient environment) and without any post-treatment. The integrated Ni(OH) 2 @3DPN electrode with a highly suitable microstructure and a porous architecture implies a potential application in electrochemistry. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, the electrode was employed for nonenzymatic glucose sensing, which exhibits an outstanding sensitivity of 2761.6 μA mM -1 cm -2 ranging from 0.46 to 2100 μM, a fast response, and a low detection limit. The microelectrolysis nanofabrication is a one-step, binder-free, entirely green, and therefore it has a distinct advantage to improve clean production and reduce energy consumption.

  11. Ion association in concentrated NaCl brines from ambient to supercritical conditions: results from classical molecular dynamics simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collings Matthew D

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Highly concentrated NaCl brines are important geothermal fluids; chloride complexation of metals in such brines increases the solubility of minerals and plays a fundamental role in the genesis of hydrothermal ore deposits. There is experimental evidence that the molecular nature of the NaCl–water system changes over the pressure–temperature range of the Earth's crust. A transition of concentrated NaCl–H2O brines to a "hydrous molten salt" at high P and T has been argued to stabilize an aqueous fluid phase in the deep crust. In this work, we have done molecular dynamic simulations using classical potentials to determine the nature of concentrated (0.5–16 m NaCl–water mixtures under ambient (25°C, 1 bar, hydrothermal (325°C, 1 kbar and deep crustal (625°C, 15 kbar conditions. We used the well-established SPCE model for water together with the Smith and Dang Lennard-Jones potentials for the ions (J. Chem. Phys., 1994, 100, 3757. With increasing temperature at 1 kbar, the dielectric constant of water decreases to give extensive ion-association and the formation of polyatomic (NanClmn-m clusters in addition to simple NaCl ion pairs. Large polyatomic (NanClmn-m clusters resemble what would be expected in a hydrous NaCl melt in which water and NaCl were completely miscible. Although ion association decreases with pressure, temperatures of 625°C are not enough to overcome pressures of 15 kbar; consequently, there is still enhanced Na–Cl association in brines under deep crustal conditions.

  12. Effect of gamma radiation on different explants of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) to induce NaCl tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Rosati, A.

    1997-01-01

    Clonal lines tolerant to NaCl were obtained by combining in vitro culture and gamma radiation in two Peruvian varieties 'Amarillo de Quillabamba' and 'Nemanete'. The most suitable explants were pedicel sections and leaf blades. Embryogenic callus was induced on basal MS basal medium containing 0.5 ppm 2,4-D. The embryogenic calli were irradiated with 5 Gy from a 137 Cs source. Several putative mutants appeared to be stable. (author). 9 refs, 3 tabs

  13. Persaingan Tanaman Jagung (Zea Mays) dan Rumput Teki (Cyperus Rotundus) pada Pengaruh Cekaman Garam (NaCl)

    OpenAIRE

    Pranasari, Rizka Amalia; Nurhidayati, Tutik; Purwani, Kristanti Indah

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan Zea mays yang bersaing dengan Cyperus rotundus pada pengaruh cekaman garam (NaCl).Metode yang digunakan replacement series menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 3 ulangan. Dengan perlakuan cekaman garam (NaCl) 0ppm, 500ppm, 1000ppm, dan 1500ppm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada kultur tunggal terjadi persaingan intraspesies antara Zea mays maupun Cyperus rotundus sedangkan pada kultur campuran terjadi persaingan interspesies ant...

  14. Clostridium tyrobutyricum strains show wide variation in growth at different NaCl, pH, and temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruusunen, Marjo; Surakka, Anu; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2012-10-01

    Outgrowth from Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores in milk can lead to butyric acid fermentation in cheeses, causing spoilage and economical loss to the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth of 10 C. tyrobutyricum strains at different NaCl, pH, and temperature conditions. Up to 7.5-fold differences among the maximum growth rates of different strains in the presence of 2.0% NaCl were observed. Five of 10 strains were able to grow in the presence of 3.0% NaCl, while a NaCl concentration of 3.5% was completely inhibitory to all strains. Seven of 10 strains were able to grow at pH 5.0, and up to 4- and 12.5-fold differences were observed among the maximum growth rates of different strains at pH 5.5 and 7.5, respectively. The maximum growth temperatures varied from 40.2 to 43.3°C. The temperature of 10°C inhibited the growth of all strains, while 8 of 10 strains grew at 12 and 15°C. Despite showing no growth, all strains were able to survive at 10°C. In conclusion, wide variation was observed among different C. tyrobutyricum strains in their ability to grow at different stressful conditions. Understanding the physiological diversity among the strains is important when designing food control measures and predictive models for the growth of spoilage organisms in cheese.

  15. Métodos instrumentales para la determinación de NaCl en las salmueras de aceitunas

    OpenAIRE

    García García, P.; Brenes Balbuena, M.; Garrido Fernández, A.

    1991-01-01

    Aplicability of flame photometric and ion selective (sodium or chloride) methods to determinate NaCI concentration in olive brines in comparison with the official one (Volhard), which uses AgNO3, is studied. According to the results using standard solutions or fermentative olive brines without previous lye treatment, no proportional systematic or constant systematic errors are detected and the percentaje of NaCl is evaluated by them with the same accuracy as by the...

  16. Effect of gamma radiation on different explants of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) to induce NaCl tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Rosati, A [Biology Dept., National Agriculture Univ., La Molina, Lima (Peru)

    1997-07-01

    Clonal lines tolerant to NaCl were obtained by combining in vitro culture and gamma radiation in two Peruvian varieties `Amarillo de Quillabamba` and `Nemanete`. The most suitable explants were pedicel sections and leaf blades. Embryogenic callus was induced on basal MS basal medium containing 0.5 ppm 2,4-D. The embryogenic calli were irradiated with 5 Gy from a {sup 137}Cs source. Several putative mutants appeared to be stable. (author). 9 refs, 3 tabs.

  17. The effect of NaCl on room-temperature-processed indium oxide nanoparticle thin films for printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Häming, M., E-mail: Marc.Haeming@yahoo.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Baby, T.T. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Garlapati, S.K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, KIT-TUD Joint Research Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Jovanka-Bontschits-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Krause, B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hahn, H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, KIT-TUD Joint Research Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Jovanka-Bontschits-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Helmholtz Institute Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Dasgupta, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry (ITCP), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4003 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The effect of NaCl ink additive on indium oxide nanoparticle thin films is analyzed. • NaCl changes the thin film morphology and its chemical structure. • NaCl decomposes the nanoparticle shell leading to lower charge transport barriers. • Explanation of the increase in field effect mobility from 1 to >12 cm{sup 2}/Vs. • Understanding of the ink drying process and the nanoparticle agglomeration behavior. - Abstract: One of the major challenges in flexible electronics industry is the fabrication of high-mobility field-effect transistors (FETs) at ambient conditions and on inexpensive polymer substrates compatible with roll-to-roll printing technology. In this context, a novel and general route towards room-temperature fabrication of printed FETs with remarkably high field-effect mobility (μ{sub FET}) above 12 cm{sup 2}/Vs has recently been developed. A detailed understanding of the chemical structure of the involved nanoparticle (NP) thin films, prepared by chemical flocculation, is essential for further optimization of the charge transport properties of such devices. In this study, we thus analyze indium oxide NP thin films with and without NaCl additive using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is demonstrated that the introduction of a sodium chloride additive to the ink leads to a strongly altered film morphology and a modification of the NP shell. The results suggest that, as a consequence of the additive, the charge-transport barriers between individual indium oxide NPs are lowered, facilitating long-range charge percolation paths despite the presence of a significant concentration of carbonaceous residues.

  18. WATER EXTRACT OF PURPLE SWEET POTATO TUBERS REDUCES BLOOD PRESSURE 0F HYPERTENSIVE RATS INDUCED BY NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE JAWI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Compliance of hypertensive patients to take medication is one of many determinant factors to achieve successful treatment. Side effects and the expensive price of drugs are the causes of the incompliance of patients taking the medication. Utilization of herbal medicine is a new hope to resolve the issue. Purple sweet potato tuber is a plant part that expected has beneficial effect in lowering blood pressure because it contains anthocyanins which are antioxidants and can preserve endothelial function. To prove these hypothesis, a study was conducted with randomized control group pre and post-test design. The  study was done on 20 adult male Wistar rats that were divided into two groups of 10 rats.  Both groups of rats were made hypertensive by administering high doses of NaCl. Control group of rats given only NaCl alone for 14 days. Treatment group were given NaCl and water extract of purple sweet potato tuber with a dose of 4 cc per day for 14 days. Before treatment and during treatment, blood pressure were taken everyday with special sphygmomanometer. The results indicate a significant difference in blood pressure between the control group with treatment (P = 0.0001. In the treatment group, it was observed that there was a significant decrease in blood pressure compared to the control group (P=0.0001. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that administration of purple sweet potato tuber water extract may lower high blood pressure of rats induced by NaCl.

  19. Systematic UHV-AFM experiments on Na nano-particles and nano-structures in NaCl

    OpenAIRE

    Sugonyako, A.V.; Turkin, A.A.; Gaynutdinov, R.; Vainshtein, D.I.; Hartog, H.W. den; Bukharaev, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Results of systematic AFM (atomic force microscopy) experiments on heavily and moderatly irradiated NaCl samples are presented. The sodium nanoparticles and structures of nanoparticles are poduced in sodium chloride during irradiation. The AFM images of the nanoparticles have been obtained in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode with an Omicron UHV AFM/STM system. The sizes and arrangements of the observed particles depend on the irradiation conditions. The melting behaviour of the...

  20. Direct synthesis of solid and hollow carbon nanospheres over NaCl crystals using acetylene by chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra Kishore, S.; Anandhakumar, S.; Sasidharan, M., E-mail: sasidharan.m@res.srmuniv.ac.in

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Hollow and solid carbon nanospheres were synthesized by CVD method. • NaCl was used as template for direct growth of carbon nanospheres. • Separation of NaCl from the mixture is made easy by dissolving in water. • The hollow carbon nanospheres exhibit high specific capacity in Li-ion batteries than the graphite anodes. - Abstract: Carbon nanospheres (CNS) with hollow and solid morphologies have been synthesised by a simple chemical vapour deposition method using acetylene as a carbon precursor. Sodium chloride (NaCl) powder as a template was used for the direct growth of CNS via facile and low-cost approach. The effect of various temperatures (500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C) and acetylene flow rates were investigated to study the structural evolution on the carbon products. The purified CNS thus obtained was characterized by various physicochemical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, and cyclicvoltametry. The synthesised hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. After 25 cycles of repeated charge/discharge cycles, the discharge and charge capacities were found to be 574 mAh/g and 570 mAh/g, respectively which are significantly higher than the commercial graphite samples.

  1. The Cathodic Behavior of Ti(III) Ion in a NaCl-2CsCl Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Jiao, Shuqiang; Hu, Liwen; Guo, Zhancheng

    2016-02-01

    The cathodic behavior of Ti(III) ions in a NaCl-2CsCl melt was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and square wave voltammetry with a tungsten electrode being the working electrode at different temperatures. The results show that the cathodic behavior of Ti(III) ion consists of two irreversible steps: Ti3+ + e = Ti2+ and Ti2+ + 2 e = Ti. The diffusion coefficient for the Ti(III) ion in the NaCl-2CsCl eutectic is 1.26 × 10-5 cm2 s-1 at 873 K (600 °C), increases to be 5.57 × 10-5 cm2 s-1 at 948K (675°C), and further rises to 10.8 × 10-5 cm2 s-1 at 1023 (750 °C). Moreover, galvanostatic electrolysis performed on a titanium electrode further presents the feasibility of electrodepositing metallic titanium in the molten NaCl-2CsCl-TiCl3 system.

  2. Effects of NaCl and seawater induced salinity on survival and reproduction of three soil invertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, C S; Lopes, I; Sousa, J P; Chelinho, S

    2015-09-01

    The increase of global mean temperature is raising serious concerns worldwide due to its potential negative effects such as droughts and melting of glaciers and ice caps leading to sea level rise. Expected impacts on soil compartment include floodings, seawater intrusions and use of saltwater for irrigation, with unknown effects on soil ecosystems and their inhabitants. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of salinisation on soil ecosystems due to sea level rise. The reproduction and mortality of three standard soil invertebrate species (Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus crypticus, Hypoaspis aculeifer) in standard artificial OECD soil spiked with serial dilutions of seawater/gradient of NaCl were evaluated according to standard guidelines. An increased sensitivity was observed in the following order: H. aculeifer≪E. crypticus≈F. candida consistent with the different exposure pathways: springtails and enchytraeids are exposed by ingestion and contact while mites are mainly exposed by ingestion due to a continuous and thick exoskeleton. Although small differences were observed in the calculated effect electrical conductivity values, seawater and NaCl induced the same overall effects (with a difference in the enchytraeid tests where a higher sensitivity was found in relation to NaCl). The adverse effects described in the present study are observed on soils not considered saline. Therefore, the actual limit to define saline soils (4000 μS cm(-1)) does not reflect the existing knowledge when considering soil fauna. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Corrosion mitigation of J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution by a macrocyclic inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ambrish [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation (Southwest Petroleum University), Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Department of Chemistry, LFTS, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144402 (India); Lin, Yuanhua, E-mail: yhlin28@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation (Southwest Petroleum University), Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Obot, I.B. [Centre of Research Excellence in Corrosion, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Ebenso, Eno E. [Department of Chemistry, School of Mathematical & Physical Sciences, North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735 (South Africa); Material Science Innovation & Modelling (MaSIM) Focus Area, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735 (South Africa); Ansari, K.R.; Quraishi, M.A. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: SECM studies revealed decrease of steady current in the presence of inhibitor while it increased for 3.5% NaCl solution that acted as the conductor. - Highlights: • J55 steel protection in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO{sub 2} by HPT. • Potentiodynamic polarization curves reveal that the actions of HPT are mixed type. • The adsorption of HPT obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. • Scanning electrochemical microscopy is used to discuss the insulated and conductive surface. - Abstract: 1,2,4,7,9,10-Hexaazacyclo-pentadeca-10,15-dien-3,5,6,8-tetraone (HPT) a macrocyclic compound has been studied using electrochemical methods and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) techniques. The R{sub ct} values increased and C{sub dl} values decreased with the increase in concentration of the inhibitor. The corrosion inhibition of J55 steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution saturated with CO{sub 2} by polarization studies revealed that HPT acted as a mixed type inhibitor. The adsorption of HPT on the J55 steel surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters (K{sub ads}, ΔG°{sub ads}) were also computed and discussed.

  4. Corrosion mitigation of J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution by a macrocyclic inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ambrish; Lin, Yuanhua; Obot, I.B.; Ebenso, Eno E.; Ansari, K.R.; Quraishi, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: SECM studies revealed decrease of steady current in the presence of inhibitor while it increased for 3.5% NaCl solution that acted as the conductor. - Highlights: • J55 steel protection in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO 2 by HPT. • Potentiodynamic polarization curves reveal that the actions of HPT are mixed type. • The adsorption of HPT obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. • Scanning electrochemical microscopy is used to discuss the insulated and conductive surface. - Abstract: 1,2,4,7,9,10-Hexaazacyclo-pentadeca-10,15-dien-3,5,6,8-tetraone (HPT) a macrocyclic compound has been studied using electrochemical methods and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) techniques. The R ct values increased and C dl values decreased with the increase in concentration of the inhibitor. The corrosion inhibition of J55 steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution saturated with CO 2 by polarization studies revealed that HPT acted as a mixed type inhibitor. The adsorption of HPT on the J55 steel surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters (K ads , ΔG° ads ) were also computed and discussed.

  5. Fatty acids, essential oil, and phenolics modifications of black cumin fruit under NaCl stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgou, Soumaya; Bettaieb, Iness; Saidani, Moufida; Marzouk, Brahim

    2010-12-08

    This research evaluated the effect of saline conditions on fruit yield, fatty acids, and essential oils compositions and phenolics content of black cumin (Nigella sativa). This plant is one of the most commonly found aromatics in the Mediterranean kitchen. Increasing NaCl levels to 60 mM decreased significantly the fruits yield by 58% and the total fatty acids amount by 35%. Fatty acids composition analysis indicated that linoleic acid was the major fatty acid (58.09%) followed by oleic (19.21%) and palmitic (14.77%) acids. Salinity enhanced the linoleic acid percentage but did not affect the unsaturation degree of the fatty acids pool and thus the oil quality. The essential oil yield was 0.39% based on the dry weight and increased to 0.53, 0.56, and 0.72% at 20, 40, and 60 mM NaCl. Salinity results on the modification of the essential oil chemotype from p-cymene in controls to γ-terpinene/p-cymene in salt-stressed plants. The amounts of total phenolics were lower in the treated plants. Salinity decreased mainly the amount of the major class, benzoics acids, by 24, 29, and 44% at 20, 40, and 60 mM NaCl. The results suggest that salt treatment may regulate bioactive compounds production in black cumin fruits, influencing their nutritional and industrial values.

  6. NaCl Effects on In Vitro Germination and Growth of Some Senegalese Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Mahamadou; Ourèye SY, Mame

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharian regions. It contributes to man food security by providing a protein-rich diet. However, its production is limited by abiotic stresses such as salinity. This study aims to evaluate the salt tolerance of 15 cowpea cultivars, at germination stage. The seed germination process consisted of sowing them in agarified water (8 g·L−1) supplemented with 6 different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM). Results highlighted that high salt concentrations drastically reduced germination and significantly delayed the process for all varieties. A cowpea varietal effect towards the salt tolerance was noticed. Genotypes Diongoma, 58-78, and 58-191 were more salt-tolerant cultivars while Mougne and Yacine were more salt-sensitive ones as confirmed in the three groups of the dendrogram. NaCl effects on the early vegetative growth of seedlings were assessed with a tolerant (58-191) and a susceptible (Yacine) cultivar. Morphological (length and dry biomass) and physiological (chlorophyll and proline contents) parameter measurements revealed a negative effect of high (NaCl). However, 58-191 was much more salt tolerant, and the chlorophyll and proline contents were higher than those of Yacine genotype at increasing salt concentrations. PMID:25937976

  7. CT-guided lung biopsy: incidence of pneumothorax after instillation of NaCl into the biopsy track

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billich, Christian; Brenner, Gerhard; Schmidt, Stefan A.; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Pauls, Sandra [University of Ulm, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Ulm (Germany); Muche, Rainer [University of Ulm, Institute of Biometrics, Ulm (Germany); Krueger, Stefan [University of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine, Ulm (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether instillation of NaCl 0.9% solution into the biopsy track reduces the incidence of pneumothoraces after CT-guided lung biopsy. A total of 140 consecutive patients with pulmonary lesions were included in this prospective study. All patients were alternatingly assigned to one of two groups: group A in whom the puncture access was sealed by instillation of NaCl 0.9% solution during extraction of the guide needle (n = 70) or group B for whom no sealing was performed (n = 70). CT-guided biopsy was performed with a 18-G coaxial system. Localization of lesion (pleural, peripheral, central), lesion size, needle-pleural angle, rate of pneumothorax and alveolar hemorrhage were evaluated. In group A, the incidence of pneumothorax was lower compared to group B (8%, 6/70 patients vs. 34%, 24/70 patients; P < 0.001). All pneumothoraces occurred directly post punctionem after extraction of the guide needle. One patient in group A and eight patients in group B developed large pneumothoraces requiring chest tube placement (P = 0.01). The frequency of pneumothorax was independent of other variables. After CT-guided biopsy, instillation of NaCl 0.9% solution into the puncture access during extraction of the needle significantly reduces the incidence of pneumothorax. (orig.)

  8. Chemistry of Frozen NaCl and MgSO4 Brines - Implications for Surface Expression of Europa's Ocean Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. V.; Hodyss, R. P.; Choukroun, M.; Vu, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    The composition of Europa's subsurface ocean is a critical determinant of its habitability, but current analysis of the ocean composition is limited to its expression on the Europan surface. While there is observational evidence indicating that ocean materials make their way to the surface, our understanding of the chemical processes that can alter this material under Europan surface conditions is limited. We present experimental data on the chemistry of mixed solutions of NaCl and MgSO4 as they are frozen to 100 K, replicating the conditions that may occur when subsurface ocean fluids are emplaced onto Europa's surface. Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to study the formation of salts during the freezing process, and the interaction of ions in the frozen brines. Our data indicate that mixed aqueous solutions of NaCl and MgSO4 form Na2SO4 and MgCl2 preferentially when frozen, rather than making NaCl and MgSO4 precipitates. The detection of epsomite (MgSO4Ÿ•7H2O) on Europa's surface may therefore imply an ocean composition relatively low in sodium, unless radiolytic chemistry converts MgCl2 to MgSO4 as suggested by Hand and Brown 2013 (ApJ 145 110). These results have important implications for the interpretation of remote sensing data of Europa's surface.

  9. CT-guided lung biopsy: incidence of pneumothorax after instillation of NaCl into the biopsy track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billich, Christian; Brenner, Gerhard; Schmidt, Stefan A.; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Pauls, Sandra; Muche, Rainer; Krueger, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether instillation of NaCl 0.9% solution into the biopsy track reduces the incidence of pneumothoraces after CT-guided lung biopsy. A total of 140 consecutive patients with pulmonary lesions were included in this prospective study. All patients were alternatingly assigned to one of two groups: group A in whom the puncture access was sealed by instillation of NaCl 0.9% solution during extraction of the guide needle (n 70) or group B for whom no sealing was performed (n = 70). CT-guided biopsy was performed with a 18-G coaxial system. Localization of lesion (pleural, peripheral, central), lesion size, needle-pleural angle, rate of pneumothorax and alveolar hemorrhage were evaluated. In group A, the incidence of pneumothorax was lower compared to group B (8%, 6/70 patients vs. 34%, 24/70 patients; P < 0.001). All pneumothoraces occurred directly post punctionem after extraction of the guide needle. One patient in group A and eight patients in group B developed large pneumothoraces requiring chest tube placement (P 0.01). The frequency of pneumothorax was independent of other variables. After CT-guided biopsy, instillation of NaCl 0.9% solution into the puncture access during extraction of the needle significantly reduces the incidence of pneumothorax. (orig.)

  10. Luminescence of BaCl2:Eu2+ particles dispersed in the NaCl host excited by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushak, A.S.; Savchyn, P.V.; Vistovskyy, V.V.; Demkiv, T.M.; Dacyuk, J.R.; Myagkota, S.V.; Voloshinovskii, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    BaCl 2 :Eu 2+ microcrystals embedded in the NaCl host have been obtained in the NaCl–BaCl 2 (1 mol%)–EuCl 3 (0.02 mol%) crystalline system. The influence of the annealing conditions on the formation of such particles has been studied. In particular, long-term annealing (at 200 °S during 100 h) promotes the microcrystals formation in the NaCl–BaCl 2 –Eu crystalline system. The subsequent heat treatment (annealed at 600 °S during 72 h and quenched to room temperature) is shown to lead to the destruction of the majority of these particles. The luminescent-kinetic properties of BaCl 2 :Eu 2+ microcrystals have been studied upon the ultra-violet excitation by the synchrotron radiation. The X-ray excited luminescence has been measured in order to estimate the distribution of europium ions between microcrystals and the NaCl host. The excitation mechanisms of Eu 2+ ions in the NaCl–BaCl 2 –Eu crystalline system are discussed. - Highlights: ► The formation of BaCl 2 :Eu 2+ microcrystals of 1–100 μm size embedded in the NaCl host is revealed. ► Annealing at 600 °C leads to the destruction of significant number of embedded microcrystals. ► The luminescent parameters of microcrystals is similar to ones of single crystal analogs.

  11. Effect of tonicity on 22NaCl solution uptake by rabbit eye in vivo and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenberger, J.; Bartosova, D.; Babicky, A.

    1979-01-01

    Solutions of 22 NaCl in saline or distilled water differ with respect to their ocular uptake. Studies were performed on eyes of living rabbits as well on the enucleated rabbit eyes. Chromatographic paper strips (15x2 mm) were soaked in both solutions, stretched over the cornea and left in contact for 1 min. Radioactivities of paper strips and rabbit eyes were measured and the ocular uptake of 22 Na was expressed as percentual values of the total radioactivities contained in the paper strips before their application to the corneal surface. Values of the ocular uptake of 22 NaCl solved in distilled water exceeded more than twice the values found in experiments where 22 Na solution in saline was used. The use of carrier-free 22 NaCl solutions in distilled water is recommended for the method measuring the ocular uptake hydrodynamics on basis of ocular 22 Na clearance. Uptake of 22 Na in enucleated eyes was twenty-five per cent higher in comparison with the eyes of living rabitts. (author)

  12. Effects of prior cold work on corrosion and corrosive wear of copper in HNO3 and NaCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Songbo; Li, D.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of prior cold work on corrosion and corrosive wear behavior of copper in 0.1 M HNO 3 and 3.5% NaCl solutions, respectively, were investigated using electrochemical tests, electron work function measurements, and sliding corrosive wear tests with and without cathodic protection. Optical microscope and SEM were employed to examine the microstructure and worn surfaces. It was shown that, in general, the prior cold work raised the corrosion rate, but the effect differed in different corrosive media. In both the solutions, pure mechanical wear decreased with an increase in cold work. The prior cold work had a significant influence on the corrosive wear of copper, depending on the corrosive solution and the applied load. In the 0.1 M HNO 3 solution, the ratio of the wear loss caused by corrosion-wear synergism to the total wear loss increased with the cold work and became saturated when the cold work reached a certain level. In the 3.5% NaCl solution, however, this ratio decreased initially and then became relatively stable with respect to the cold work. It was observed that wear of copper in the 3.5% NaCl solution was larger than that in 0.1 M HNO 3 solution, although copper showed lower corrosion rate in the former solution. The experimental observations and the possible mechanisms involved are discussed

  13. Microstructural development in NiAl/Ni-Si-B/Ni transient liquid phase bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, W.F.; Orel, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based investigation of microstructural development during transient liquid phase bonding of near-stoichiometric NiAl to commercial purity nickel is presented in this article. The work described employed Ni-4.5 wt pct Si-3.2 wt pct B (BNi-3) melt-spun interlayers. The precipitation of both Ni-Al based phases and borides within the joint and adjacent substrate regions is discussed. The article considers martensite formation (within the NiAl substrate) and the precipitation of L1 2 type phases (both within the joint and at the interface with the NiAl substrate). The relative roles of the two substrate materials (NiAl and Ni) in the isothermal resolidification process are identified. The preferential formation of Ni 3 B boride phases in the Ni substrate near the original location of the Ni substrate-joint interface is discussed and contrasted with the absence of similar events in the NiAl substrate

  14. NaCl and osmolarity produce different responses in organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis neurons, sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, Brian J; Browning, Kirsteen N; Stocker, Sean D

    2017-09-15

    Changes in extracellular osmolarity stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion through a central osmoreceptor; however, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater sympathoexcitatory and pressor response than infusion of hypertonic mannitol/sorbitol. Neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) sense changes in extracellular osmolarity and NaCl. In this study, we discovered that intracerebroventricular infusion or local OVLT injection of hypertonic NaCl increases lumbar sympathetic nerve activity, adrenal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure whereas equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol did not alter any variable. In vitro whole-cell recordings demonstrate the majority of OVLT neurons are responsive to hypertonic NaCl or mannitol. However, hypertonic NaCl stimulates a greater increase in discharge frequency than equi-osmotic mannitol. Intracarotid or intracerebroventricular infusion of hypertonic NaCl evokes a greater increase in OVLT neuronal discharge frequency than equi-osmotic sorbitol. Collectively, these novel data suggest that subsets of OVLT neurons respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity and subsequently regulate body fluid homeostasis. These responses probably reflect distinct cellular mechanisms underlying NaCl- versus osmo-sensing. Systemic or central infusion of hypertonic NaCl and other osmolytes readily stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion. In contrast, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) than equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol. Although these responses depend on neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), these observations suggest OVLT neurons may sense or respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in Sprague-Dawley rats. First, intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion (5 μl/10 min) of 1.0 m NaCl produced a significantly greater

  15. Ni landsbyer i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Denne rapport beskriver en evaluering af statsstøttede forsøg med at styrke og udvikle mindre lokalsamfund. Forsøgene er gennemført i ni kommuner. Da der i disse år er stor opmærksomhed om de små byers og samfunds udviklingsmuligheder, har erfaringerne fra forsøgsprojekterne bred interesse. Forsø...

  16. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layek, Samar, E-mail: samarlayek@gmail.com; Verma, H.C.

    2016-01-01

    Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles of the series Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) are successfully synthesized using a low temperature hydrothermal method. Samples up to 6% Mn-doping are single phase in nature as observed from powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. Rietveld refinement of the XRD data shows that all the single phase samples crystallize in the NaCl like fcc structure with space group Fm-3m. Unit cell volume decreases with increasing Mn-doping. Pure NiO nanoparticles show weak ferromagnetism, may be due to nanosize nature. Introduction of Mn within NiO lattice improves the magnetic properties significantly. Room temperature ferromagnetism is found in all the doped samples whereas the magnetization is highest for 2% Mn-doping and then decreases with further doping. The ZFC and FC branches in the temperature dependent magnetization separate well above 350 K indicating transition temperature well above room temperature for 2% Mn-doped NiO Nanoparticle. The ferromagnetic Curie temperature is found to be 653 K for the same sample as measured by temperature dependent magnetization study using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in high vacuum. - Highlights: • Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles are prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. • Unit cell volume decreases with increasing doping concentration. • Mn-doping leads to room temperature ferromagnetism in NiO nanoparticles. • Magnetization is highest for 2% Mn-doping. • Above 2%, magnetization decreases with increasing doping.

  17. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layek, Samar; Verma, H.C.

    2016-01-01

    Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles of the series Ni_1_−_xMn_xO (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) are successfully synthesized using a low temperature hydrothermal method. Samples up to 6% Mn-doping are single phase in nature as observed from powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. Rietveld refinement of the XRD data shows that all the single phase samples crystallize in the NaCl like fcc structure with space group Fm-3m. Unit cell volume decreases with increasing Mn-doping. Pure NiO nanoparticles show weak ferromagnetism, may be due to nanosize nature. Introduction of Mn within NiO lattice improves the magnetic properties significantly. Room temperature ferromagnetism is found in all the doped samples whereas the magnetization is highest for 2% Mn-doping and then decreases with further doping. The ZFC and FC branches in the temperature dependent magnetization separate well above 350 K indicating transition temperature well above room temperature for 2% Mn-doped NiO Nanoparticle. The ferromagnetic Curie temperature is found to be 653 K for the same sample as measured by temperature dependent magnetization study using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in high vacuum. - Highlights: • Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles are prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. • Unit cell volume decreases with increasing doping concentration. • Mn-doping leads to room temperature ferromagnetism in NiO nanoparticles. • Magnetization is highest for 2% Mn-doping. • Above 2%, magnetization decreases with increasing doping.

  18. Investigation on corrosion and wear behaviors of nanoparticles reinforced Ni-based composite alloying layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiang; Tao Jie; Jiang Shuyun; Xu Zhong

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of amorphous SiO 2 particles in corrosion and wear resistance of Ni-based metal matrix composite alloying layer, the amorphous nano-SiO 2 particles reinforced Ni-based composite alloying layer has been prepared by double glow plasma alloying on AISI 316L stainless steel surface, where Ni/amorphous nano-SiO 2 was firstly predeposited by brush plating. The composition and microstructure of the nano-SiO 2 particles reinforced Ni-based composite alloying layer were analyzed by using SEM, TEM and XRD. The results indicated that the composite alloying layer consisted of γ-phase and amorphous nano-SiO 2 particles, and under alloying temperature (1000 deg. C) condition, the nano-SiO 2 particles were uniformly distributed in the alloying layer and still kept the amorphous structure. The corrosion resistance of composite alloying layer was investigated by an electrochemical method in 3.5%NaCl solution. Compared with single alloying layer, the amorphous nano-SiO 2 particles slightly decreased the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Cr-Mo-Cu alloying layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the passive films formed on the composite alloying consisted of Cr 2 O 3 , MoO 3 , SiO 2 and metallic Ni and Mo. The dry wear test results showed that the composite alloying layer had excellent friction-reduced property, and the wear weight loss of composite alloying layer was less than 60% of that of Ni-Cr-Mo-Cu alloying layer

  19. Efecto del NaCl en plántulas de curarí (Tabebuia serratifolia en condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Ramírez

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del cloruro de sodio (NaCl durante la germinación y el desarrollo inicial de las plántulas de curarí (Tabebuia serratifolia, en condiciones de laboratorio. Las semillas se colocaron en cinco concentraciones de NaCl: 2, 4, 6, 8 y 10 dS m-1, y en agua destilada (testigo, con una conductividad eléctrica entre 0,02 y 0,04 dS m-1. Se empleó un diseño experimental completamente al azar, con cinco repeticiones, y se aplicó un análisis de varianza. Se determinó el porcentaje de germinación (PG y la tasa de germinación (TG; y se midió la longitud del tallo (LT, la longitud de la raíz (LR, el área cotiledonal (AC, la biomasa fresca (BF y la biomasa seca (BS. La concentración de NaCl mostró efectos significativos para las variables PG, TG, BS, LT, LR y AC. Se obtuvo un 79,6 % de germinación y una TG de 1,66 días, cuando las semillas se sometieron a 6 dS m-1 de NaCl. Las concentraciones de 8 y 10 dS m-1 disminuyeron significativamente el PG, la LT y el AC de las plántulas, y retardaron la TG. Se concluye que las plántulas de curarí mostraron tolerancia a la condición salina del NaCl hasta 6 dS m-1, por lo que esta especie se puede utilizar con fines agroforestales en los sistemas de producción agropecuaria, así como en la recuperación de áreas que presenten problemas moderados de salinidad.

  20. Impact of NaCl reduction in Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses on development and autolysis of DL-starter cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lise; Ryssel, Mia; Svendsen, Carina

    2015-01-01

    of two commercial DL-starter cultures (C1 and C2) used in the production of Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses were affected by reduced NaCl levels. Cheeses containing .... Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), distribution of bacteria as single cells or microcolonies, their viability in the cheeses and cell autolysis were monitored during ripening, as well as the impact of NaCl content and autolysis on the formation of free amino acids (FAA). Reduction of NaCl resulted in higher LAB...

  1. The effect of pH on the corrosion behavior of intermetallic compounds Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) and Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) + 2Mo in sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priyotomo, Gadang, E-mail: gada001@lipi.go.id; Nuraini, Lutviasari, E-mail: Lutviasari@gmail.com [Research Center for Metallurgy and Material, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Kawasan PUSPIPTEK Gd.474, Setu, Tangerang Selatan, Banten 15314 (Indonesia); Kaneno, Yasuyuki, E-mail: kaneno@mtr.osakafu-u.ac.id [Department of Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2015-12-29

    The corrosion behavior of the intermetallic compounds, Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) (L1{sub 2}: single phase) and Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) + 2Mo (L1{sub 2} and (L12 + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region), has been investigated using an immersion test, electrochemical method and surface analytical method (SEM; scanning electron microscope and EDAX: Energy Dispersive X-ray) in 0.5 kmol/m{sup 3} NaCl solutions at various pH. The corrosion behavior of nickel alloy C-276 was studied under the same experimental conditions as a reference. It was found that the uniform attack was observed on Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) for the immersion test at lower pH, while the pitting attack was observed on this compound for this test at neutral solution. Furthermore, Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti)+2Mo had the preferential dissolution of L1{sub 2} compared to (L1{sub 2} + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region at lower pH, while pitting attack occurred in (L1{sub 2} + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region at neutral solution. For both intermetallic compounds, the magnitude of pitting and uniform attack decrease with increasing pH of solutions. From the immersion test and polarization curves, the corrosion resistance of Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti)+2Mo is lower than that of Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti), while the nickel alloy C-276 is the highest one at various pH of solutions. On the other hand, in the lower pH of solutions, the corrosion resistance of tested materials decreased significantly compared to those in neutral and higher pH of solutions.

  2. Fatigue of orthodontic nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in different fluids under constant mechanical stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prymak, O.; Klocke, A.; Kahl-Nieke, B.; Epple, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro the fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and CuNiTi orthodontic wires when subjected to forces and fluids which are present intraorally. The wires were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) while they were immersed into different fluids with mechanical loading parameters similar to those that are subjected in the mouth. The characteristic temperatures of transitions and a rough surface structure on the perimeter of the wires were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively, before and after the DMA experiments. Stainless steel wires were used for comparison. In general, NiTi wires fractured earlier than the stainless steel specimens. Survival times were lower for the NiTi wires when immersed in fluids (water, citric acid, NaCl solution, artificial saliva, and fluoridated artificial saliva) than in air. SEM surface analysis showed that the NiTi and CuNiTi wires had a rougher surface than steel wires. The fracture occurred within a short number of loading cycles. Until fracture occurred, the mechanical properties remained mostly constant

  3. Fatigue of orthodontic nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in different fluids under constant mechanical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prymak, O.; Klocke, A.; Kahl-Nieke, B.; Epple, M

    2003-07-25

    The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro the fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and CuNiTi orthodontic wires when subjected to forces and fluids which are present intraorally. The wires were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) while they were immersed into different fluids with mechanical loading parameters similar to those that are subjected in the mouth. The characteristic temperatures of transitions and a rough surface structure on the perimeter of the wires were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively, before and after the DMA experiments. Stainless steel wires were used for comparison. In general, NiTi wires fractured earlier than the stainless steel specimens. Survival times were lower for the NiTi wires when immersed in fluids (water, citric acid, NaCl solution, artificial saliva, and fluoridated artificial saliva) than in air. SEM surface analysis showed that the NiTi and CuNiTi wires had a rougher surface than steel wires. The fracture occurred within a short number of loading cycles. Until fracture occurred, the mechanical properties remained mostly constant.

  4. Structural, electronic, and mechanical properties of CoN and NiN. An ab initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amudhavalli, A.; Manikandan, M.; Cinthia, A. Jemmy; Rajeswarapalanichamy, R. [NMSSVN College, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Physics; Iyakutti, K. [SRM Univ., Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Physics and Nanotechnology

    2017-07-01

    The structural stabilities of cobalt mononitride (CoN) and nickel mono-nitride (NiN) were investigated among the crystal structures, namely, NaCl (B1), CsCl (B2), and zinc blende (B3). It was found that the zinc blende (B3) phase was the most stable phase for both nitrides. A pressure-induced structural phase transition from B3 to B1 phase was predicted in these nitrides. The computed lattice parameter values were in agreement with the experimental values and other theoretical values. The electronic structures reveal that these nitrides are metallic at zero pressure. The computed elastic constants indicate that CoN and NiN are mechanically stable in the B1 and B3 phases. The variations of the elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, and elastic anisotropy factor with pressure were investigated. The Debye temperature θ{sub D} values are reported for both the nitrides in their B1 and B3 phases. The high-pressure NaCl phase of both CoN and NiN were found to be ferromagnetic.

  5. The europium and praseodymium hydrolysis in a 2M NaCl environment; La hidrolisis del europio y del praseodimio en un medio 2M de NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez R, M.; Lopez G, H.; Solache R, M.; Rojas H, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de quimica, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    It was studied the europium and praseodymium hydrolysis in a 2M NaCl ion force environment at 303 K, through two methods: this one extraction with dissolvents (lanthanide-water-NaCl-dibenzoylmethane) in presence of a competitive ligand (diglycolic acid) and that one direct potentiometric titration, of soluble species, followed by a computer refining. The values of one or another techniques of the first hydrolysis constants obtained were similar, which demonstrates that the results are reliable. The set of data obtained on the stability constants of hydrolysis products allowed to draw up the distribution diagrams of chemical species, as europium as praseodymium in aqueous environment. (Author)

  6. PROPRIEDADES EMULSIONANTES E SOLUBILIDADE DA CASEÍNA BOVINA: 2. EFEITO DA ADIÇÃO DE NaCl EMULSIFYING PROPERTIES AND SOLUBILITY OF CASEIN: 2. EFFECTS OF THE NaCl ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Jardim DUARTE

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da adição de NaCl sobre algumas propriedades funcionais da caseína e de seus hidrolisados trípticos, foi estudado em dois valores de pH (4,0 e 5,0. Para tal, foi adicionado um teor de 0,02M do sal às soluções-tampão empregadas no preparo das amostras. Foram determinadas a solubilidade protéica, a capacidade emulsificante (EC, o índice de atividade emulsificante (EAI e a estabilidade das emulsões (ES, e o raio médio dos glóbulos de gordura (R foi calculado. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que, nos dois valores de pH estudados, a adição de NaCl levou a um aumento significativo da solubilidade e da EC da caseína e de todos os hidrolisados trípticos. Por outro lado, diminuiu os valores de EAI da caseína e elevou os dos hidrolisados, tendo sido observado o oposto para o tamanho dos glóbulos de gordura. Com relação à ES, a da caseína apresentou ligeiro aumento no pH 5,0, enquanto que apenas alguns hidrolisados trípticos tiveram a sua ES elevada em pH 4,0 ou 5,0.The effect of the NaCl addition on the emulsifying properties of casein and tryptic casein hydrolysates was studied in two pH values (4,0 e 5,0. A 0.02 M concentration of salt was added to the buffer solutions used for preparing the samples. The protein solubility, the emulsifying capacity (EC, the emulsifying activity index (EAI and the emulsion stability (ES were determined. The mean radius (R of fat droplets was also calculated. The results showed that the addition of NaCl increased the solubility and the EC of casein and casein hydrolysates, in both pH values. However, this salt addition reduced the EAI of casein and increased that of the hydrolysates.The opposite was observed relating to the R of fat droplets. Regarding the ES, that of casein presented little increase in pH 5.0, and the same result was obtained for only some hydrolysates in pH 5.0 or 4.0.

  7. Experimental measurements of thermoelectric and electrochemical potentials in sandstones saturated with NaCl electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinov, E.; Jackson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of the self-potential (SP) have been used to characterize subsurface flow in numerous settings, including volcanoes, earthquake zones, and geothermal fields. Thermoelectric (TE) and electrochemical (EC) potentials contribute to the measured SP if gradients in temperature and/or concentration are present, yet few experimental measurements of EC and TE potentials in natural porous media have been reported. Each is the sum of a diffusion and exclusion potential: the former arises when ions of contrasting mobility migrate at different rates down a temperature or concentration gradient; the latter arises when there is a temperature or concentration gradient across an electrically charged porous medium in which co-ions of the same polarity have been excluded from the pore-space. Here we report measurements of the SP arising from temperature or concentration gradients across clean (clay-free) sandstone samples saturated with NaCl electrolyte over the salinity range 5x10-5 to 1M. Electrical potentials are measured using non-polarizing Ag/AgCl electrodes, and temperature or salinity gradients are induced by placing the saturated samples in contact with electrolyte reservoirs of contrasting temperature or concentration. Our experimental methodology accounts for the temperature- and concentration-dependent electrode response. We find that the TE potential responds linearly to the applied temperature difference, allowing a TE potential coupling coefficient to be determined; the value of this decreases as the electrolyte concentration increases, from +0.056mV/K at 10-4 M to -0.126mV/K at 1M. The EC potential increases as the concentration ratio increases, from a minimum of 1.8mV at a salinity ratio of 1.13, to a maximum of 24.8mV at salinity ratio of 102, before decreasing to 19.5mV at salinity ratio of 103. In both cases, at high values of concentration (>0.01M) the measured potential is diffusion dominated, while at lower concentration the exclusion potential is

  8. Reduction mechanism of Ni2+ into Ni nanoparticles prepared from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. March 2009 physics pp. 577–586. Reduction mechanism of Ni2+ into Ni ..... and at high field, no domain wall is available and hence, the system becomes a .... [23] J Ding, T Tsuzuki, P G McCormick and R Street, J. Phys. D: Appl.

  9. Impact of NaCl reduction in Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses on proliferation and autolysis of DL-starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Lise; Ryssel, Mia; Svendsen, Carina; Høier, Erik; Andersen, Ulf; Hammershøj, Marianne; Møller, Jean R; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-11-20

    Reduction of sodium chloride (NaCl) in cheese manufacturing is a challenge for the dairy industry. NaCl has a profound role on microbial development influencing cheese sensory and technological properties. The purpose of this work was to investigate how proliferation, distribution and autolysis of two commercial DL-starter cultures (C1 and C2) used in the production of Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses were affected by reduced NaCl levels. Cheeses containing autolysis were monitored during ripening, as well as the impact of NaCl content and autolysis on the formation of free amino acids (FAA). Reduction of NaCl resulted in higher LAB counts at the early stages of ripening, with differences between the two DL-starter cultures. The unsalted cheeses produced with C1 had retained a significantly higher number of the initial LAB counts (cfu/g) after 1 and 2 weeks of ripening (i.e. 58% and 71%), compared to the normal-salted cheeses (i.e. 22% and 21%), whereas no significant difference was found between the reduced-salt (i.e. 31% and 35%) and normal-salted cheeses. At the later stages of ripening (i.e. 7 and 11 weeks) NaCl had no significant influence. For cheeses produced with C2, a significant influence of NaCl was only found in cheeses ripened for 7 weeks, where the unsalted and reduced-salt cheeses had retained a significantly higher number of the initial LAB counts (cfu/g) (i.e. 39% and 38%), compared to the normal-salted cheeses (i.e. 21%). In the Samsoe cheeses, bacteria were organized as single cells, in groups of 2-3 cells or in groups of ≥4 cells. During ripening the decrease in the number of viable bacteria was mainly due to a reduction in the number of viable bacteria organized in groups of ≥4 cells. A negative correlation between NaCl content and PepX activity was observed. At the end of ripening the total FAA content was lower in the unsalted cheeses, compared to the reduced- and normal-salted cheeses. In conclusion, NaCl had a significant influence on

  10. Relationship between NaCl- and H2O2-induced cytosolic Ca2+ increases in response to stress in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghao Jiang

    Full Text Available Salinity is among the environmental factors that affect plant growth and development and constrain agricultural productivity. Salinity stress triggers increases in cytosolic free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+]i via Ca(2+ influx across the plasma membrane. Salinity stress, as well as other stresses, induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. It is well established that ROS also triggers increases in [Ca(2+]i. However, the relationship and interaction between salinity stress-induced [Ca(2+]i increases and ROS-induced [Ca(2+]i increases remain poorly understood. Using an aequorin-based Ca(2+ imaging assay we have analyzed [Ca(2+]i changes in response to NaCl and H2O2 treatments in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that NaCl and H2O2 together induced larger increases in [Ca(2+]i in Arabidopsis seedlings than either NaCl or H2O2 alone, suggesting an additive effect on [Ca(2+]i increases. Following a pre-treatment with either NaCl or H2O2, the subsequent elevation of [Ca(2+]i in response to a second treatment with either NaCl or H2O2 was significantly reduced. Furthermore, the NaCl pre-treatment suppressed the elevation of [Ca(2+]i seen with a second NaCl treatment more than that seen with a second treatment of H2O2. A similar response was seen when the initial treatment was with H2O2; subsequent addition of H2O2 led to less of an increase in [Ca(2+]i than did addition of NaCl. These results imply that NaCl-gated Ca(2+ channels and H2O2-gated Ca(2+ channels may differ, and also suggest that NaCl- and H2O2-evoked [Ca(2+]i may reduce the potency of both NaCl and H2O2 in triggering [Ca(2+]i increases, highlighting a feedback mechanism. Alternatively, NaCl and H2O2 may activate the same Ca(2+ permeable channel, which is expressed in different types of cells and/or activated via different signaling pathways.

  11. Na/Cl molar ratio changes during a salting cycle and its application to the estimation of sodium retention in salted watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongbing; Huffine, Maria; Husch, Jonathan; Sinpatanasakul, Leeann

    2012-08-01

    Using soil column experiments and data from natural watersheds, this paper analyzes the changes in Na/Cl molar ratios during a salting cycle of aqueous-soil systems. The soil column experiments involved introducing NaCl salt at various initial concentrations into multiple soil columns. At the start of a salting cycle in the column experiments, sodium was adsorbed more than chloride due to cation exchange processes. As a result, the initial Na/Cl molar ratio in column effluent was lower than 1, but increased thereafter. One-dimensional PHREEQC geochemical transport simulations also were conducted to further quantify these trends under more diverse scenarios. The experimentally determined Na/Cl molar ratio pattern was compared to observations in the annual salting cycle of four natural watersheds where NaCl is the dominant applied road deicing salt. Typically, Na/Cl molar ratios were low from mid-winter to early spring and increased after the bulk of the salt was flushed out of the watersheds during the summer, fall and early winter. The established relationship between the Na/Cl molar ratios and the amount of sodium retention derived from the column experiments and computer simulations present an alternative approach to the traditional budget analysis method for estimating sodium retention when the experimental and natural watershed patterns of Na/Cl molar ratio change are similar. Findings from this study enhance the understanding of sodium retention and help improve the scientific basis for future environmental policies intended to suppress the increase of sodium concentrations in salted watersheds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Growth and cellular ion content of a salt-sensitive symbiotic system Azolla pinnata-Anabaena azollae under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Vandna; Sharma, Naveen Kumar; Rai, Ashwani K

    2006-09-01

    Salinity, at a concentration of 10 mM NaCl affected the growth of Azolla pinnata-Anabaena azollae association and became lethal at 40 mM. Plants exposed up to 30 mM NaCl exhibited longer roots than the control, especially during the beginning of incubation. Average root number in plants exposed to 10 and 20 mM NaCl remained almost the same as in control. A further rise in NaCl concentration to 30 mM reduced the root number, and roots shed off at 40 mM NaCl. Presence of NaCl in the nutrient solution increased the cellular Na+ of the intact association exhibiting differential accumulation by individual partners, while it reduced the cellular Ca2+ level. However, cellular K+ content did not show significant change. Cellular Na+ based on fresh weight of respective individual partners (host tissues and cyanobiont) remained higher in the host tissues than the cyanobiont, while reverse was true for K+ and Ca2+ contents. The contribution of A. azollae in the total cellular ion content of the association was a little because of meagre contribution of the cyanobiont mass (19-21%). High salt sensitivity of Azolla-Anabaena complex is due to an inability of the association to maintain low Na+ and high Ca2+ cellular level.

  13. Inhibition of nitrate reduction by NaCl adsorption on a nano-zero-valent iron surface during a concentrate treatment for water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yuhoon; Kim, Dogun; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) has been considered as a possible material to treat water and wastewater. However, it is necessary to verify the effect of the matrix components in different types of target water. In this study, different effects depending on the sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on reductions of nitrates and on the characteristics of NZVI were investigated. Although NaCl is known as a promoter of iron corrosion, a high concentration of NaCl (>3 g/L) has a significant inhibition effect on the degree of NZVI reactivity towards nitrate. The experimental results were interpreted by a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson reaction in terms of inhibition, and the decreased NZVI reactivity could be explained by the increase in the inhibition constant. As a result of a chloride concentration analysis, it was verified that 7.7-26.5% of chloride was adsorbed onto the surface of NZVI. Moreover, the change of the iron corrosion product under different NaCl concentrations was investigated by a surface analysis of spent NZVI. Magnetite was the main product, with a low NaCl concentration (0.5 g/L), whereas amorphous iron hydroxide was observed at a high concentration (12 g/L). Though the surface was changed to permeable iron hydroxide, the Fe(0) in the core was not completely oxidized. Therefore, the inhibition effect of NaCl could be explained as the competitive adsorption of chloride and nitrate.

  14. Some studies about the NaCl:Ca2+ :Mn2+ and NaCl: Cd2+ :Mn2+ dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdiguel G, H.; Flores J, C.; Camarillo G, E.; Espejel P, R.; Cabrera B, E.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H.; Cruz Z, E.; Ramos B, S.; Negron, A.

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays, a great interest by counting with dosemeters of characteristics such as a high stability, of easy operation and easier production exists. Looking for a commitment with all these characteristics,a possibility to use the system NaCl: Ca 2+ :Mn 2+ and NaCl: Cd 2+ :Mn 2+ as dosemeters was studied. The studies were realized irradiating with gamma radiation from a 60 Co source. The crystals that were used as samples did not suffer any thermal treatment previous to irradiation. The supplied doses were 10, 30, 60, 100, 300, and 600 rads. 24 hours after irradiation the thermoluminescent response was obtained. In the case of the system NaCl: Ca 2+ :Mn 2+ several thermoluminescent bands were observed (BTL). Two concentrations of Mn 2+ with only one concentration of Ca 2+ (1%) were studied. For the case of the smaller concentration of Mn 2+ (0.1%) 4 BTL were observed, whereas for a greater concentration (0.3%) just 2 BTL were detected. The positions of the maximum of the BTL peaks differ for both concentrations, this possible due to what the nature of the traps for both cases differs by the type of precipitates present in the net. For the case of the system NaCl: Cd 2+ (1%) :Mn 2+ (0.1% and 0.5%) a similar situation to the previous was found, although in this case for both manganese concentrations just 2 BTL were observed; however all the peaks seem to be the superposition of several bands. Despite the apparent complexity of the thermoluminescent response, such response as function of the dose shows that both systems present a stable response to gamma radiation in the interval from 10 to 600 rads. In the case of calcium it is had a response of linear type of the Tl intensity depending on the dose, whereas for the cadmium system a supra linear response seems to exist. Nowadays, studies for determining the BTL origin being carried out. (Author)

  15. Radiation damage studies on synthetic NaCl crystals and natural rock salt for waste disposal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaffky, R.W.; Swyler, K.J.; Levy, P.W.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation damage studies are being made on synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt crystals from various localities, including potential repository sites. Measurements are being made with equipment for recording the radiation induced F-center and colloid particle absorption bands during irradiation with 1.5 MeV electrons at various temperatures. A technique has been developed to resolve the overlapping F-center and colloid bands. The resulting spectra and curves of absorption vs. dose provide information on colloid particle size and concentration, activation energies for processes occurring during colloid formation, and additional data suggesting that both strain and radiation induced dislocations contribute to the colloid formation process

  16. Long Term Corrosion Experiment of Steel Rebar in Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete in NaCl Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Asmara, Y. P.; Siregar, J. P.; Tezara, C.; Nurlisa, Wan; Jamiluddin, J.

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on an experimental investigation to identify the effects of fly ash on the electrochemical process of concrete during the curing time. A rebar was analysed using potentiostat to measure the rest potential, polarization diagram, and corrosion rate. Water-to-cement ratio and amount of fly ash were varied. After being cured for 24 hours at a temperature of 65°C, the samples were immersed in 3.5% of NaCl solution for 365 days for electrochemical measurement. Measurements of ...

  17. Reactive Ni/Ti nanolaminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D. P.; Bai, M. M.; Rodriguez, M. A.; McDonald, J. P.; Jones, E. Jr.; Brewer, L.; Moore, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    Nickel/titanium nanolaminates fabricated by sputter deposition exhibited rapid, high-temperature synthesis. When heated locally, self-sustained reactions were produced in freestanding Ni/Ti multilayer foils characterized by average propagation speeds between ∼0.1 and 1.4 m/s. The speed of a propagating reaction front was affected by total foil thickness and bilayer thickness (layer periodicity). In contrast to previous work with compacted Ni-Ti powders, no preheating of Ni/Ti foils was required to maintain self-propagating reactions. High-temperature synthesis was also stimulated by rapid global heating demonstrating low ignition temperatures (T ig )∼300-400 deg. C for nanolaminates. Ignition temperature was influenced by bilayer thickness with more coarse laminate designs exhibiting increased T ig . Foils reacted in a vacuum apparatus developed either as single-phase B2 cubic NiTi (austenite) or as a mixed-phase structure that was composed of monoclinic B19 ' NiTi (martensite), hexagonal NiTi 2 , and B2 NiTi. Single-phase, cubic B2 NiTi generally formed when the initial bilayer thickness was made small.

  18. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm{sup 2}. The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased.

  19. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae

    2015-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm 2 . The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased

  20. Mechanical properties and wear and corrosion resistance of electrodeposited Ni-Co/SiC nanocomposite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lei; Sun Chufeng; Gao Ping; Zhou Feng; Liu Weimin

    2006-01-01

    Ni-Co/SiC nanocomposite coatings with various contents of SiC nano-particulates were prepared by electrodeposition in a Ni-Co plating bath containing SiC nano-particulates to be co-deposited. The influences of the nanoparticulates concentration, current density, stirring rate and temperature of the plating bath on the composition of the coatings were investigated. The shape and size of the SiC nano-particulates were observed and determined using a transmission electron microscope. The polarization behavior of the composite plating bath was examined on a PAR-273A potentiostat/galvanostat device. The wear behavior of the Ni-Co/SiC nanocomposite coatings was evaluated on a ball-on-disk UMT-2MT test rig. The worn surface morphologies of the Ni-Co/SiC nanocomposite coatings were observed using a scanning electron microscope. The corrosion behavior of the nanocomposite coatings was evaluated by charting the Tafel curves of the solution of 0.5 mol L -1 NaCl at room temperature. It was found that the cathodic polarization potential of the composite electrolyte increased with increasing SiC concentration in the plating bath. The microhardness and wear and corrosion resistance of the nanocomposite coatings also increased with increasing content of the nano-SiC in the plating bath, and the morphologies of the nanocomposite coatings varied with varying SiC concentration in the plating bath as well. Moreover, the co-deposited SiC nano-particulates were uniformly distributed in the Ni-Co matrix and contributed to greatly increase the microhardness and wear resistance of the Ni-Co alloy coating

  1. Corrosion behavior of oxide-covered Cu47Ti34Zr11Ni8 (Vitreloy 101) in chloride-containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, N.; Conner, R.D.; Garrett, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Enrichment of Ti/Zr (as TiO 2 /ZrO 2 ) and depletion of Cu/Ni due to thermodynamically driven segregation. • Dominant corrosion mechanism is pitting. • Pit interiors were depleted of Ti and Zr due to equilibrium solubilization of oxide layer. • Corrosion can be explained by equilibrium and metal nobility arguments. - Abstract: The corrosion resistance of oxides that form in air on Vitreloy 101 (Cu 47 Ti 34 Zr 11 Ni 8 ) metallic glass ribbons in NaCl and HCl solutions was studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization. The air-exposed alloy was covered by a TiO 2 /ZrO 2 layer overlying a Cu-enriched region beneath. Ni was absent at the surface. Segregation of Ti and Zr was driven by exothermic oxide formation. Immersion in NaCl or HCl caused pitting corrosion by local Galvanic reactions that depleted less noble Ti, Zr and Ni from the pit interiors, leaving them rich in more noble Cu. Corrosion products containing Ti and Zr accumulated around the pit. Pits were most numerous in 1.0 M HCl due to TiO 2 (s)/Ti 3+ (aq) equilibrium that resulted in rapid solubilization of the oxide, creating local weaknesses and an increased rate of pit formation. On average, Ti preferentially dissolved from the oxide in accord with metal nobility arguments

  2. Effects of glycine and current density on the mechanism of electrodeposition, composition and properties of Ni-Mn films prepared in ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiacheng; Guo, Xingwu; Wang, Shaohua; Zhang, Zhicheng; Dong, Jie; Peng, Liming; Ding, Wenjiang

    2016-03-01

    The effects of glycine on the mechanism of electrodeposition of Ni-Mn alloy film prepared in ChCl-urea ionic liquid were studied in order to control the composition, microstructure and properties of the film. The cyclic voltammograms revealed that the presence of glycine in the ionic liquid can inhibit the reduction of Ni2+ ions but promote the reduction of Mn2+ ions in the cathodic scan. However, it promoted the dissolution of both Ni and Mn deposits in the ChCl-urea ionic liquids during the reverse scan. Glycine changed the mode of Ni-Mn film growth from Volmer-Weber mode into Stranski-Krastanov mode. The Mn content in the Ni-Mn film increased with the increase of concentration of glycine and current density. The Ni-Mn alloy film with 3.1 at.% Mn exhibited the lowest corrosion current density of 3 × 10-7 A/cm2 compared with other films prepared and exhibited better corrosion resistance than pure Ni film in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution.

  3. Microstructure and corrosion properties of CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Qingfeng [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Feng, Kai, E-mail: fengkai@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Lu, Fenggui [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Li, Ruifeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212003 (China); Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Equimolar CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy coating are prepared by laser cladding. • The cladding layer forms a simple FCC phase solid solution with identical dendritic structure. • The cladding layer exhibits a noble corrosion resistance in both 3.5 wt.% NaCl and 0.5 M sulfuric acid. • Element segregation makes Cr-depleted interdendrites the starting point of corrosion reaction. - Abstract: Equimolar CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy (HEA) is one of the most notable single phase multi-component alloys up-to-date with promising mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. However, the study on the corrosion behavior of CrMnFeCoNi HEA coating has still been lacking. In this paper, HEA coating with a nominal composition of CrMnFeCoNi is fabricated by laser surface alloying and studied in detail. Microstructure and chemical composition are determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are used to investigate the corrosion behavior. The coating forms a simple FCC phase with an identical dendritic structure composed of Fe/Co/Ni-rich dendrites and Mn/Ni-rich interdendrites. Both in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution and 0.5 M sulfuric acid the coating exhibits nobler corrosion resistance than A36 steel substrate and even lower i{sub corr} than 304 stainless steel (304SS). EIS plots coupled with fitted parameters reveal that a spontaneous protective film is formed and developed during immersion in 0.5 M sulfuric acid. The fitted R{sub t} value reaches its maximum at 24 h during a 48 h’ immersion test, indicating the passive film starts to break down after that. EDS analysis conducted on a corroded surface immersed in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} reveals that corrosion starts from Cr-depleted interdendrites.

  4. Comparative study of electroless Co-Ni-P plating on Tencel fabric by Co0-based and Ni0-based activation for electromagnetic interference shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Siyi; Zhao, Hang; Hou, Lei; Lu, Yinxiang

    2017-10-01

    The primary objective of this research work was to develop high-performance conductive fabrics with desired electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE), excellent durability and improved corrosion resistance. Such conductive fabrics were fabricated by combining an ultra-low-cost electroless plating method with an alkoxy silane self-assembly technology, which involved successive steps of modification, activation, Co-Ni-P coating deposition and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) thin coatings assembling. Malic acid (MA) was selected to modify the pristine Tencel (TS) substrates, and the probably interaction mechanism was investigated by FT-IR measurement. Co0 and Ni0 nanoparticles (NPs) were used as the activators to initiate electroless plating, respectively, and thereby two categories of Co-Ni-P coatings with different Co/Ni atomic ratio were obtained. Both of them presented compact morphologies and preferential (1 1 1) crystal orientation, which were validated by FE-SEM and XRD measurements. Owing to the lower square resistance and higher magnetic properties, the Co-Ni-P coated fabric activated by Co0 activator showed a higher EMI SE (18.2-40.1 dB) at frequency of 30-1000 MHz. APTMS thin coatings were then assembled on the top of alloy coated fabrics to act as anti-corrosion barriers. Electrochemical polarization measurement in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution showed that top-APTMS coated conductive fabric exhibited a higher corrosion resistance than the one in absence of APTMS assembly. Overall, the whole process of fabrication could be performed in several hours (or less) without any specialized equipment, which shows a great potential as EMI shielding fabrics in mass-production.

  5. Evaluation of Effect of Silicon on NaCl Tolerance in Annual Medicago scutellata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Azizi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Salinity is one of the most important stress resulting depletion of vegetation in large areas of the world including some regions of Iran. Reduction of plant growth due to salinity occurs with a range of mechanisms, including low external water potential, ion toxicity and interfere with the uptake. Silicon (Si is the second most abundant element in soil and could efficiently mitigate the effects of various biotic and abiotic stresses, such as drought, heavy metal toxicity and salinity on plants. Medicago scutellata is an important leguminous forage crop throughout the world that could increase soil nitrogen content via reduction of atmospheric nitrogen. To our knowledge, no study have examined the interaction of salinity and Si nutrition in Medicago scutellata or how the beneficial effects of Si in salt-stressed M. scutellata plants (if any are exerted. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of silicon nutrition on salt tolerance of Medicago scutellata. Materials and Methods Seeds of alfalfa (Medicago scutellata L. were sterilized with a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution and were incubated in a moistened paper towel. Then, they germinated in the dark at 255  C for 48 h. Healthy seedlings of uniform sizes were selected for hydroponic culture (Hoagland solution in a 10×15×15 cm plastic pots. A factorial experiment carried out based on a completely randomized design with two factors. The first factor was salinity, including 0 and 100 mM NaCl and the second was silicon nutrition, including 0, 0.75 and 1.5 m.M sodium silicate. The pH of the nutrient solution was adjusted daily at 6.4  0.2 and nutrient solution was refreshed weekly. During the experiment, maximum and minimum air temperatures were 30ºC and 21ºC respectively, and the mean relative humidity was 67%. Four weeks after exerting the treatments, plants were harvested and used for the assessment of growth parameters and chemical analyses

  6. Effect of NaCl induced floc disruption on biological disintegration of sludge for enhanced biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Kaliappan, S; Adish Kumar, S; Yeom, Ick Tae; Rajesh Banu, J

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the influence of NaCl mediated bacterial disintegration of waste activated sludge (WAS) was evaluated in terms of disintegration and biodegradability of WAS. Floc disruption was efficient at 0.03 g/g SS of NaCl, promoting the shifts of extracellular proteins and carbohydrates from inner layers to extractable--soluble layers (90 mg/L), respectively. Outcomes of sludge disintegration reveal that the maximum solubilization achieved was found to be 23%, respectively. The model elucidating the parameter evaluation, explicates that floc disrupted--bacterially disintegrated sludge (S3) showed superior biodegradability of about 0.23 (gCOD/gCOD) than the bacterially disintegrated (S2) and control (S3) sludges of about 0.13 (gCOD/gCOD) and 0.05 (gCOD/gCOD), respectively. Cost evaluation of the present study affords net profits of approximately 2.5 USD and -21.5 USD in S3 and S2 sludge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Corrosion control of copper in 3.5 wt.% NaCl Solution by Domperidone: Experimental and Theoretical Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dan; Xiang, Bin; Liang, Yuanpeng; Song, Shan; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Domperidone has good inhibition effect for copper in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. • Domperidone acts as an anodic type inhibitor. • The SEM and AFM analyses support the weight loss, polarization, and EIS data. • Molecular dynamics (MD) method simulates the adsorption model of domperidone on Cu surface. • The adsorption of domperidone on copper surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. - Abstract: Inhibition of copper corrosion in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by domperidone was investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results revealed that domperidone was an anodic inhibitor with a maximum achievable inhibition efficiency of 94.2%. The results of SEM and AFM studies further confirmed the inhibition action of domperidone. Quantum chemical calculation and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation showed that the domperidone molecule could be adsorbed on copper surface through the imidazolidinone ring, benzene ring and N atom of hexaheterocyclic. Adsorption of domperidone was found to follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm

  8. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed particles composed of NaCl and water-soluble organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water-soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray elemental microanalysis. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of sodium malonate and sodium glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles.

  9. Corrosion mechanism of Al, Al–Zn and Al–Zn–Sn alloys in 3 wt.% NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khireche, S.; Boughrara, D.; Kadri, A.; Hamadou, L.; Benbrahim, N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We elaborate Al–5Zn–xSn sacrificial anodes (x = 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4%). • Increasing Sn amount does activate Al alloys. • The anode dissolution in NaCl initiates at precipitations where Sn is enriched. • Sn enhances uniform attack on the surface of the Al alloy. • Al–Zn–Sn anodes perform better than the Al–Zn anode. - Abstract: The effect of zinc and tin addition to pure aluminum was investigated in 3 wt.% NaCl solution. The corrosion behavior of the elaborated samples (Al, Al–Zn and Al–Zn–Sn) was studied by open circuit potential, Tafel plot and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. For the microstructure characterization, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy were used. The aluminum activation increases in the following order: Al < Al–5Zn < Al–5Zn–0.1Sn < Al–5Zn–0.2Sn < Al–5Zn–0.4Sn. The impedance measurements and the microscopic observations confirmed the great activity of Al–Zn and Al–Zn–Sn compared to pure Al. The segregation at the grain boundaries leads to intergranular corrosion

  10. Ultrasound degradation of xanthan polymer in aqueous solution: Its scission mechanism and the effect of NaCl incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, H M; Annuar, M S M; Simarani, K

    2017-11-01

    Degradation of xanthan polymer in aqueous solution by ultrasonic irradiation was investigated. The effects of selected variables i.e. sonication intensity, irradiation time, concentration of xanthan gum and molar concentration of NaCl in solution were studied. Combined approach of full factorial design and conventional one-factor-at-a-time was applied to obtain optimum degradation at sonication power intensity of 11.5Wcm -2 , irradiation time 120min and 0.1gL -1 xanthan in a salt-free solution. Molecular weight reduction of xanthan gum under sonication was described by an exponential decay function with higher rate constant for polymer degradation in the salt free solution. The limiting molecular weight where fragments no longer undergo scission was determined from the function. The incorporation of NaCl in xanthan solution resulted in a lower limiting molecular weight. The ultrasound-mediated degradation of aqueous xanthan polymer chain agreed with a random scission model. Side chain of xanthan polymer is proposed to be the primary site of scission action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition effect of 4-amino-antipyrine on the corrosion of copper in 3 wt.% NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Song; Chen Wen; Luo Hongqun [Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li Nianbing, E-mail: linb@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4-Amino-antipyrine (AAP) has inhibition behaviour for copper corrosion in 3.0 wt.% NaCl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AAP acted as a mixed-type inhibitor with anodic predominance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption of AAP on the copper surface obeys the Langmuir isotherm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum chemical calculations were applied to explain the experimental results. - Abstract: The effect of 4-amino-antipyrine (AAP) on the corrosion of copper in 3.0 wt.% NaCl was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarisation, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results revealed that AAP acts as a mixed-type inhibitor with more pronounced effect on anodic domain and the inhibition efficiency decreases with increasing the temperature. The adsorption of AAP was found to obey the Langmuir isotherm. Surface characterisation was performed using scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Quantum chemical calculations show that AAP has large negative charge in nitrogen and oxygen atoms, which facilitates the adsorption of AAP on the copper surface.

  12. Application of mutation breeding technique for producing NaCl tolerant plants of banana in tissue culture and greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedadi, C.; Rahimi, M.; Naserian, B.; Rahmani, E.; Neshan, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: To study of possibility to induce salt tolerant clones in banana by using mutation technique, an experiment was conducted with factorial (gamma irradiation and salt concentration factors) in a CRD design. In this research, plantlets of banana cv. Dwarf Cavendish were produced by subculture of irradiated shoot tips. It deserves to mention that consequent subculturing was aimed at getting rid of chimera. Next, these explants were transferred to MS medium containing 2.5 mg. l- 1 BAP and NaCl concentrations of 0, 6, 7, 8, 9 g.l -1 for 2 months .Then, living buds were transferred to medium without salt. After one month, we repeated the first stage. All living buds rooted and were transferred to potted soil. Acclimatized plants were irrigated weekly with above NaCl solution. Other irrigation was done with salt-free water. There was also a negative relation between salt concentration and survival - proliferation. In second salinity stress, salt had no significant difference on survival percentage. No-significant difference of effect salt on survival in second salinity stress was observed. (author)

  13. Influence of immersion freezing in NaCl solutions and of frozen storage on the viscoelastic behavior of mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribero, G G; Rubiolo, A C; Zorrilla, S E

    2007-06-01

    The freezing of Mozzarella cheese by immersion in NaCl solutions may be an innovative procedure for the dairy industry because it combines conveniently salting and freezing processes. In this work, the influence of this type of freezing method and of the frozen storage of samples on the viscoelastic behavior of Mozzarella cheese was studied. Slabs (2 x 10 x 10 cm(3)) were immersed in 23% w/w NaCl solutions (control samples: 4 degrees C, 90 min; frozen samples: -15 degrees C, 180 min). Half of the frozen samples were immediately thawed at 4 degrees C . The other half was stored at -20 degrees C for 2 mo and then was thawed at 4 degrees C (frozen-stored samples). Samples were stored at 4 degrees C and assayed at 1, 7, 14, 20, 27, 34, and 41 d. Rheological tests were carried out in oscillatory mode (parallel-plate geometry, diameter: 20 mm, gap: 1 mm, frequency: 1 Hz). Strain sweeps were run (0.001 immersion freezing of Mozzarella cheese affects some of the studied parameters, the differences observed between frozen and frozen-stored samples with control samples were small. Therefore, it was considered that the immersion freezing might be useful for the manufacture and commercialization of Mozzarella cheese.

  14. Luminescence properties of common salt (NaCl available in Nigeria for use as accident dosimeter in radiological emergency situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Ayobami Ademola

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a radiological accident or attack, it is important to assess and quantify radiation dose to the population. This could be done using materials in the vicinity that are sensitive to ionizing radiation. Common salt (NaCl is known to be a sensitive thermoluminescence (TL phosphor. Luminescence properties of common salt (NaCl used in Nigeria were investigated using an automated luminescence reader Risø TL/OSL-DA-15, with attention focused more on the Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL. Strong radiation-induced TL and OSL signals were observed. The TL peaks occurred at about 100 °C, 240 °C and 280 °C. The dose response of both the TL and OSL signals showed a linear relationship. From the OSL pulse anneal curve with TL curve, a preheat temperature of 190 °C for 10 s was found adequate for the OSL measurements. There was no significant difference in the OSL decay for stimulation temperatures of 100 and 120 °C. Fading experiment over a storage period of 14 days showed about 13 and 3% decrease in the OSL signal of sample 1 and sample 2, respectively. The ratios of measured to given dose for dose recovery test were within ±19% of unity. Within the limit of error the samples could be used as a complementary emergency dosimeter in radiological accident situation.

  15. Gene Transcription and Virulence Potential of Listeria monocytogenes Strains After Exposure to Acidic and NaCl Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Jespersen, Lene

    2009-01-01

    transcription were observed both after exposure to shock (six genes) and after long-term adaptation to stress (18 genes). In the shock experiments, a transient induction of clpC and clpE was seen for both strains, while transient induction of sigB, inlA, and inlB was observed for strain 4140 only; actA was only...... induced in EGD-e after NaCl shock. The longterm stress experiments were included to imitate the stress conditions encountered by L. monocytogenes when present in food products. Long-term adaptation of EGD-e to acidic stress induced transcription of iap and repressed flaA, while genes related to stress......Gene transcription and virulence potential of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes, EGD-e and 4140, were compared by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and in a Caco-2 in vitro model after exposure to acidic (pH 5.5) and NaCl (4.5% w=v) stress. Strain-dependent differences in gene...

  16. Effects of NaCl, pH, and Potential on the Static Creep Behavior of AA1100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Quanhe; Quesnel, David J.

    2013-03-01

    The creep rates of AA1100 are measured during exposure to a variety of aggressive environments. NaCl solutions of various concentrations have no influence on the steady-state creep behavior, producing creep rates comparable to those measured in lab air at room temperature. However, after an initial incubation period of steady strain rate, a dramatic increase of strain rate is observed on exposure to HCl solutions and NaOH solutions, as well as during cathodic polarization of specimens in NaCl solutions. Creep strain produces a continuous deformation and elongation of the sample surface that is comparable to slow strain rates at crack tips thought to control the kinetics of crack growth during stress corrosion cracking (SCC). In this experiment, we separate the strain and surface deformation from the complex geometry of the crack tip to better understand the processes at work. Based on this concept, two possible explanations for the environmental influences on creep strain rates are discussed relating to the anodic dissolution of the free surface and hydrogen influences on deformation mechanisms. Consistencies of pH dependence between corrosion creep and SCC at low pH prove a creep-involved SCC mechanism, while the discrepancies between corrosion creep behavior and previous SCC results at high pH indicate a rate-limit step change in the crack propagation of the SCC process.

  17. Effect of nanocrystalline phase on the electrochemical behavior of the alloy Ti{sub 60}Ni{sub 40}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, Shubhra, E-mail: shubhramathur3@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Jagannath Gupta Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jaipur 303905 (India); Jain, Rohit [Department of Physics, Jagannath Gupta Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jaipur 303905 (India); Kumar, Praveen [Surface Physics and Nanostructure Group, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sachdev, K.; Sharma, S.K. [Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, JLN-Marg, Jaipur 302017 (India)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polarization studies carried out on different structural states of the alloy Ti{sub 60}Ni{sub 40}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystalline state exhibits superior corrosion resistance as compared to other states of the alloy Ti{sub 60}Ni{sub 40}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS results show that nanocrystalline specimen contains only TiO{sub 2} species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It leads to the formation of adherent and stable film and improves the corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Polarization studies were carried out on crystalline, amorphous and nanocrystalline states of the alloy Ti{sub 60}Ni{sub 40} in 1 M NaCl aqueous medium at room temperature. It was observed that nanocrystalline state exhibits superior corrosion resistance as compared to other states of the alloy Ti{sub 60}Ni{sub 40}. Cyclic voltammetry studies and weight loss data corroborates the polarization studies. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique was used in order to decipher the nature of the oxide film formed after corrosion test on the specimens of the alloy Ti{sub 60}Ni{sub 40}. The crystalline specimen of the alloy Ti{sub 60}Ni{sub 40} shows the presence of Ti{sup 2+}, Ti{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 4+} species along with some unoxidized Ti in metallic form (Ti{sup 0}) whereas the amorphous specimen consists of Ti{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 4+} species. On the other hand nanocrystalline specimen contains only Ti{sup 4+} species. Thus it is likely that the presence of fewer species and the absence of Ti{sup 3+} in the oxide film formed on nanocrystalline specimen of Ti{sub 60}Ni{sub 40} lead to the formation of a film with greater homogeneity and protective quality in comparison to the films formed on crystalline and amorphous states of the alloy Ti{sub 60}Ni{sub 40} in 1 M NaCl aqueous medium.

  18. Synthesis and electrochemical behavior of nanostructured cauliflower-shape Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vinay; Kawaguchi, Toshikazu; Miura, Norio

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides were electrochemically deposited onto stainless steel electrode by electrochemical method and characterized for their structural and supercapacitive properties. The SEM images indicated that the obtained Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides had cauliflower-type nanostructure. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed the formation of Co 3 O 4 , NiO, Co and Ni. The EDX elemental mapping images indicated that Ni, Co and O are distributed uniformly. The deposited Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides showed good supercapacitive characteristics with a specific capacitance of 331 F/g at 1 mA/cm 2 current density in 1 M KOH electrolyte. A mechanism of the formation of cauliflower-shape Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides was proposed. A variety of promising applications in the fields such as energy storage devices and sensors can be envisioned from Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides

  19. Glomus etunicatum root inoculation and foliar application of acetyl salicylic acid induced nacl tolerance by regulation of nacl and lenhx1 gene expression and improved photosynthetic performance in tomato seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazanfar, B.; Chihui, C.; Liu, H.; Ahmad, I.; Khan, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Salinity stress hampers plant growth and cause significant yield losses thus induction of salinity stress tolerance in crop plants is one of major goals of agriculture research. Arbuscular mycorhizae fungi Glomus etunicatum and acetyl salicylic acid were tested for induction of NaCl stress tolerance in tomato seedlings, cultivar No. 4. The seedlings were inoculated with Glomus etunicatum and exogenously sprayed with acetyl salicylic acid (0.30 mM) followed by salinity stress (150 mM). It was observed that both Glomus etunicatum and acetyl salicylic acid (singly or in combination) were significantly effective to minimize the injurious effects of salinity by improving root morphological parameters (length, diameter, surface area, volume and number of tips, nodes, bifurcations and connections), photosynthetic parameters (net photosynthesis Pn, stomatal conductance Gs) and chlorophyll contents compared to sole salinity treatment. The bio-inoculant Glomus etunicatum and chemical ameliorator acetyl salicylic acid also notably improved vegetative (fresh and dry weights) and reproductive growth (percent seedlings with flower buds and opened flowers, number of flower buds and opened flowers per seedling) of the plants as compared to the sole salinity treatment. The studied salt responsive genes (LeNHX1 and NaCl) were also regulated to different extents in seedling roots and leaves which was consistent with enhanced salinity stress tolerance. From these observations it is suggested that the individual or synergetic use of the AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and acetyl salicylic acid can be useful for tomato cultivation in the marginally salinity effected soils and warrants further investigations. (author)

  20. Osmotic and ionic effects of NaCl and Na2SO4 salinity on Phragmites australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagter, Majken; Bragato, Claudia; Malagoli, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Osmotic and ion-specific effects of NaCl and Na2SO4 on Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex. Steud. were investigated in a laboratory experiment by examining effects of iso-osmotic solutions of NaCl and Na2SO4 on growth, osmolality of cell sap, proline content, elemental composition and gas exchange....... Plants were supplied with a control standard nutrient solution (Ψ = -0.09 MPa) or solutions of NaCl or Na2SO4 at water potentials of -0.50, -1.09 or -1.74 MPa. Salt treatments increased root concentrations of Na and S or Cl, whereas P. australis had efficient mechanisms for exclusion of Na and S...... and partly Cl ions from the leaves. Incomplete exclusion of Cl from the leaves may affect aboveground biomass production, which was significantly more reduced by NaCl than Na2SO4. Stomatal conductance was negatively influenced by decreasing water potentials caused by NaCl or Na2SO4, implying that a non...

  1. Effect of the partial NaCl substitution by other chloride salts on the volatile profile during the ripening of dry-cured lacón

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, R.; Munekata, P.E.; Cittadini, A.; Lorenzo, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    The influence of three salting treatments (treatment II: 50% NaCl-50% KCl; III: 45% NaCl-25% KCl-20% CaCl2-10% MgCl2; IV: 30% NaCl-50% KCl-15% CaCl2-5% MgCl2) on the formation of volatile compounds throughout the process was studied and compared to those of a control “lacón” (treatment I: 100% NaCl). There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing, particularly during the dry-ripening stage. The most abundant chemical family in all the formulations, in the final product was hydrocarbons followed by aldehydes. The total volatile compound release was more intense in the control “lacóns” (1164 AU×106 ·g–1dry matter) than in “lacóns” from formulations II, III and IV (817–891 AU×106 ·g−1dry matter). The “lacóns” from formulation I showed the highest amounts of aldehydes. The “lacóns” from formulations I and II presented the highest amounts of hydrocarbons. The main conclusion is that the replacement of NaCl produces changes in the volatile profile and could be affect the aroma of “lacón”. (Author)

  2. Improve the corrosion and cytotoxic behavior of NiTi implants with use of the ion beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisner, L. L., E-mail: llm@isps.tsc.ru; Meisner, S. N. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, 2/4 Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk, 634021 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenina Avenue, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Matveeva, V. A.; Matveev, A. L. [Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch,Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    The corrosion resistance behavior and cytotoxicity of binary NiTi-base alloy specimens subjected to surface modification by silicon ion beams and the proliferative ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) of rat marrow on an ion-implanted surface of the alloy have been studied. The silicon ion beam processing of specimen surfaces is shown to bring about a nearly two-fold improvement in the corrosion resistance of the material to attack by acqueous solutions of NaCl and human plasma and a drastic decrease in the nickel concentration after immersion of the specimens into the solutions for ∼3400 and ∼6000 h, respectively. It is found that MSC proliferation strongly depends on the surface structure, roughness and chemical condition of NiTi implants.

  3. Radiochemical method for 63Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Nilsson, U.; Hallstadius, L.

    1985-01-01

    A radianalytical method for the determination of 63 Ni content in environmental samples of activated corrosion products is described. After chemical separation and electrodepositing of 63 Ni on silver briquets, the chemical yield is determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis. For the detection of low-energy beta activity, an open gas flow GM-counter with an anticoincidence guard counter is put to use

  4. Effect of substrate temperature on corrosion performance of nitrogen doped amorphous carbon thin films in NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khun, N.W. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liu, E., E-mail: MEJLiu@ntu.edu.s [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2009-07-01

    Nitrogen doped amorphous carbon (a-C:N) thin films were deposited on p-Si substrates by DC magnetron sputtering at varying substrate temperature from room temperature (RT) to 300 {sup o}C. The bonding structure, surface morphology and adhesion strength of the a-C:N films were investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-scratch testing. The corrosion behavior of the a-C:N films was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization test in a 0.6 M NaCl solution. The results indicated that the corrosion resistance of the films depended on the sp{sup 3}-bonded cross-link structure that was significantly affected by the substrate temperature.

  5. Corrosion behavior of aluminum doped diamond-like carbon thin films in NaCl aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, N W; Liu, E

    2010-07-01

    Aluminum doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:Al) thin films were deposited on n-Si(100) substrates by co-sputtering a graphite target under a fixed DC power (650 W) and an aluminum target under varying DC power (10-90 W) at room temperature. The structure, adhesion strength and surface morphology of the DLC:Al films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-scratch testing and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The corrosion performance of the DLC:Al films was investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization testing in a 0.6 M NaCl aqueous solution. The results showed that the polarization resistance of the DLC:Al films increased from about 18 to 30.7 k(omega) though the corrosion potentials of the films shifted to more negative values with increased Al content in the films.

  6. Effect of substrate temperature on corrosion performance of nitrogen doped amorphous carbon thin films in NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, N.W.; Liu, E.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen doped amorphous carbon (a-C:N) thin films were deposited on p-Si substrates by DC magnetron sputtering at varying substrate temperature from room temperature (RT) to 300 o C. The bonding structure, surface morphology and adhesion strength of the a-C:N films were investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-scratch testing. The corrosion behavior of the a-C:N films was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization test in a 0.6 M NaCl solution. The results indicated that the corrosion resistance of the films depended on the sp 3 -bonded cross-link structure that was significantly affected by the substrate temperature.

  7. Corrosion Prevention of Steel Reinforcement in 7.5% NaCl Solution using Pure Magnesium Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer Murthy, Yogesh; Gandhi, Sumit; Kumar, Abhishek

    2018-03-01

    The current work investigates the performance of pure Magnesium on corrosion prevention of steel reinforcements by way of sacrificial anoding. Two set of six steel reinforcements were tested for half-cell potential, weight loss, anode efficiency and tensile strength for each of the sacrificial anodes in a high chloride atmosphere of 7.5% NaCl in tap water. Significant reduction in weight of anode was observed during the initial 12 days. The reduction in weight of steel reinforcements tied with anodes was found to be negligible, while that of reinforcements without anodes was significantly higher. Five distinct zones of corrosion were observed during the test. The tensile strength of steel cathodically protected by Mg alloy anodes was found less affected. It could be concluded that pure Mg anode provides an effective way of corrosion mitigation.

  8. Pitting resistance and mechanism of TiN-coated Inconel 600 in 100 C NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, C.B.; Kim, J.S.; Chun, S.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    TiN films were deposited on Inconel 600 by PACVD method using a gaseous mixture of TiCl 4 , N 2 , H 2 and Ar, and their pitting resistance and mechanism in 100 C NaCl solution were investigated. Anodic polarization measurement of TiN-coated Inconel 600 was compared with that of bare Inconel 600. TiN-coated Inconel 600 has a higher E np and a lower pit depth than bare Inconel 600. It also shows a smaller pit aspect ratio due to the concentration of the corrosion in the Inconel 600 contacted with the TiN film. When the Inconel 600 has a rough surface, E np decreases and the pit density increases to a great extent. However, E corr , pit depth and pit aspect ratio are not affected. ((orig.))

  9. Influence of NaCl on Biochemical Parameters of Two Cultivars of Stevia rebaudiana Regenerated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharuti Rathore

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity occupies a prominent place among the soil problems that threaten the sustainability of agriculture over a vast area in the world. It affects plant morpho-physiology and ultimately leads to reduction in productivity. It is essential to test important medicinal plants for their salinity tolerance as research efforts aim to explore economic benefits under saline conditions. Keeping in view the importance of Stevia and salinity, present study had been designed to investigate the effect of salinity on biochemical parameters in two Stevia genotypes. Two node microcuttings were subjected to MS media supplemented with different NaCl concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 mM. Chlorophyll amount was observed to be decreased as compared to sugars, proline and phenols with increased salt concentrations.

  10. Slow positron beam study of corrosion behavior of AM60B magnesium alloy in NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.; Zhu, Z.J.; Wang, J.J.; Wu, Y.C.; Zhai, T.; Song, G.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Positron annihilation is a sensitive tool to characterize the corrosion layer. • The interfacial voids promoted the formation of Mg(OH) 2 corrosion layer. • Mg(OH) 2 precipitated during early corrosion stage provided a temporary protection. - Abstract: The corrosion behavior of super vacuum die-cast AM60B magnesium alloys immersed in a 5 wt% NaCl solution was investigated by slow positron beam technique, XRD, XPS, SEM and potentiodynamic polarization tests. The XRD and XPS results indicated that Mg(OH) 2 was main corrosion product in the salt solution. With prolonging the immersion time, a significant decrease of Doppler-broadened annihilation line-width parameter near the surface after corrosion was observed and interpreted that the pre-existing interfacial voids between oxide film and matrix might promote the formation of Mg(OH) 2 corrosion layer. Polarization tests found that Mg(OH) 2 could provide a temporary protection.

  11. KANDUNGAN NATRIUM (Na DAN GARAM (NaCl DALAM IKAN ASIN KERING MENTAH DAN GORENG DI PASAR ANYAR BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Yuniati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui kandungan natrium (Na dan garam (NaCl dalam 10 jenis ikan asin kering yang beredar di Pasar Anyar Bogor. Analisis natrium dilakukan terhadap ikan asin mentah, setelah dicuci, dan setelah digoreng dengan menggunakan flamefometer. Analisis garam dilakukan dengan titrasi argentometri terhadap ikan asin mentah. Hasil analisis menunjukkan, kandungan Na dan garam dalam ikan asin sangat beragam besarnya berturut-turut berkisar antara 0,3-8,1% dan 5,7-21,2%. Ikan asin yang mempunyai kadar Na dan garam tinggi adalah ikan sepat, peda putih dan gabus. Jumlah air dalam ikan asin juga bervariasi, berkisar antara 10,3-46,8%. pencucian dan penggorengan dapat menurunkan kadar garam ataupun natrium sebesar 37,4%.

  12. Effect of Salt Stress (NaCl on Germination and Early Seedling Parameters of Three Pepper Cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloui Hassen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major environmental problem that lead to a deterioration of agricultural land and, as a result, to a reduction in crop productivity worldwide. This research tested the effect of different salinity levels on germination and early seedling growth of three pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cultivars which were "Beldi", "Baklouti" and "Anaheim Chili". Experimental treatment included 7 concentrations of NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 g/l. Results indicated that all investigate traits were affected by salt stress. Salt stress affected on germination parameters and radicle and plumule length. Fresh weight and dry weight of evaluated seedlings was also affected. "Anaheim Chili" cultivar was shown to be the most restraint cultivar to salt stress in comparison to "Beldi" and "Baklouti" cultivars.

  13. Experimental study of formation and dynamics of cavitation bubbles and acoustic flows in NaCl, KCl water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybkin, K. A.; Bratukhin, Yu. K.; Lyubimova, T. P.; Fatallov, O.; Filippov, L. O.

    2017-07-01

    The acoustic flows and the phenomena associated with them arising under the action of ultrasound of different power on distilled water and aqueous solutions of a mixture of NaCl and KCl salts of various concentrations are studied experimentally. It is found that in the distilled water, under the action of ultrasound, the appearance of inertial and non-inertial cavitation bubbles takes place, then the formation of stable clusters, the distance between which depends on the power of the ultrasound source is observed. Experiments show that an increase in the mass concentration of salts in water leads to the decrease in the average diameter of the arising inertial cavitation bubbles and to the gradual decrease in their number, up to an almost complete disappearance at nearly 13% of the concentration of the salt mixture in the water.

  14. Electronic structure of Ni/sub 3/Al and Ni/sub 3/Ga alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Pong, W F; Chang, Y K; Tsai, M H; Hsieh, H H; Pieh, J Y; Tseng, P K; Lee, J F; Hsu, L S

    1999-01-01

    This work investigates the charge transfer and Al(Ga) p-Ni d hybridization effects in the intermetallic Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) alloy using the NiL/sub 3.2/- and K-edge and Al(Ga)K X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements. We find that the intensity of white-line features at the NiL/sub 3.2/-edge in the Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni /sub 3/Ga) alloy decreased in comparison with that of pure Ni, which can be attributed to the enhancement of Ni3d states filling and the depletion of the density of Ni 3d unoccupied states in the Ni/sub 3 /Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) alloy. Two clear features are also observed in the Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) XANES spectrum at the Al(Ga) K-edge, which can be assigned to the Al(Ga) unoccupied 3p (4p) states and their hybridized states with the Ni 3d/4sp states above the Fermi level in Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga). The threshold at Al K-edge XANES for Ni/sub 3/Al clearly shifts towards higher photon energies relative to that of pure Al, indicating that Al loses charges upon forming Ni/sub 3 /Al. ...

  15. An experimental and thermodynamic equilibrium investigation of the Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni partitioning during sewage sludge incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingyong; Fu, Jiewen; Ning, Xun'an; Sun, Shuiyu; Wang, Yujie; Xie, Wuming; Huang, Shaosong; Zhong, Sheng

    2015-09-01

    The effects of different chlorides and operational conditions on the distribution and speciation of six heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni) during sludge incineration were investigated using a simulated laboratory tubular-furnace reactor. A thermodynamic equilibrium investigation using the FactSage software was performed to compare the experimental results. The results indicate that the volatility of the target metals was enhanced as the chlorine concentration increased. Inorganic-Cl influenced the volatilization of heavy metals in the order of Pb>Zn>Cr>Cu>Mn>Ni. However, the effects of organic-Cl on the volatility of Mn, Pb and Cu were greater than the effects on Zn, Cr and Ni. With increasing combustion temperature, the presence of organic-Cl (PVC) and inorganic-Cl (NaCl) improved the transfer of Pb and Zn from bottom ash to fly ash or fuse gas. However, the presence of chloride had no obvious influence on Mn, Cu and Ni. Increased retention time could increase the volatilization rate of heavy metals; however, this effect was insignificant. During the incineration process, Pb readily formed PbSiO4 and remained in the bottom ash. Different Pb compounds, primarily the volatile PbCl2, were found in the gas phase after the addition of NaCl; the dominant Pb compounds in the gas phase after the addition of PVC were PbCl2, Pb(ClO4)2 and PbCl2O4. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Nitriding behavior of Ni and Ni-based binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonovic, Matej

    2015-01-15

    Gaseous nitriding is a prominent thermochemical surface treatment process which can improve various properties of metallic materials such as mechanical, tribological and/or corrosion properties. This process is predominantly performed by applying NH{sub 3}+H{sub 2} containing gas atmospheres serving as the nitrogen donating medium at temperatures between 673 K and 873 K (400 C and 600 C). NH{sub 3} decomposes at the surface of the metallic specimen and nitrogen diffuses into the surface adjacent region of the specimen whereas hydrogen remains in the gas atmosphere. One of the most important parameters characterizing a gaseous nitriding process is the so-called nitriding potential (r{sub N}) which determines the chemical potential of nitrogen provided by the gas phase. The nitriding potential is defined as r{sub N} = p{sub NH{sub 3}}/p{sub H{sub 2}{sup 3/2}} where p{sub NH{sub 3}} and p{sub H{sub 2}} are the partial pressures of the NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} in the nitriding atmosphere. In contrast with nitriding of α-Fe where the nitriding potential is usually in the range between 0.01 and 1 atm{sup -1/2}, nitriding of Ni and Ni-based alloys requires employing nitriding potentials higher than 100 atm{sup -1/2} and even up to ∞ (nitriding in pure NH{sub 3} atmosphere). This behavior is compatible with decreased thermodynamic stability of the 3d-metal nitrides with increasing atomic number. Depending on the nitriding conditions (temperature, nitriding potential and treatment time), different phases are formed at the surface of the Ni-based alloys. By applying very high nitriding potential, formation of hexagonal Ni{sub 3}N at the surface of the specimen (known as external nitriding) leads to the development of a compound layer, which may improve tribological properties. Underneath the Ni{sub 3}N compound layer, two possibilities exist: (i) alloying element precipitation within the nitrided zone (known as internal nitriding) and/or (ii) development of metastable and

  17. Inhibitory effect of konjac glucomanan on pitting corrosion of AA5052 aluminium alloy in NaCl solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kegui; Yang, Wenzhong; Xu, Bin; Chen, Yun; Yin, Xiaoshuang; Liu, Ying; Zuo, Huanzhen

    2018-05-01

    A natural carbohydrate polymer, konjac glucomanan, has been extracted from commercial product and studied as a green corrosion inhibitor for AA5052 aluminium alloy in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution by high-performance gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, electrochemical measurement and surface characterization techniques. The results of GPC measurements suggest the weight-average molecular weight and the number-average molecular weight of KGM with 98.2% purity are 1.61 × 10 5  g/mol and 1.54 × 10 5  g/mol, respectively. Potentiodynamic polarization curves show konjac glucomanan behaves as a mixed-type inhibitor with dominant anodic effect and that its maximum efficiency at 200 ppm is 94%. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies reveal the resistance of oxide film is approximately two orders of magnitude greater than the resistance of adsorbed inhibitor layer and that they both increase with KGM concentration. Moreover, in-situ electrochemical noise (EN) detection demonstrates that the growth and propagation stages of the pitting corrosion germinating on metal surface are blocked by polysaccharide additive, which is confirmed by the surface analysis of aluminium alloy using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy. At last, it is found that the addition of KGM makes it harder for water droplet containing NaCl to wet the metallic substrate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Re-evaluation of the fludrocortisone test: duration, NaCl supplementation and cut-off limits for aldosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Christina; Bergenfelz, Anders; Larsson, Johanna; Nerbrand, Christina; Valdemarsson, Stig; Wihl, Anders; Isaksson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of secondary hypertension. Thus, the aims of this study were: (1) to clarify whether the fludrocortisone suppression test (FST), which confirms autonomous aldosterone secretion, is reliable when carried out during a shorter period of time and (2) to confirm the importance of NaCl supplementation. The cut-off limits already obtained for aldosterone in healthy subjects during the FST were applied in hypertensive patients with a high aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR). The healthy subjects were allocated to three groups. Fludrocortisone was administered 4 times daily over 4 days and sodium chloride was supplemented in 3 different doses. The result was applied in 24 hypertensive patients, in 24 healthy subjects (10 women (23-38 years old) and 14 men (23-58 years old)) and in 24 patients with hypertension and high ARR (16 women (45-74 years old) and 8 men (56-73 years old)). Blood pressure, aldosterone, renin, potassium and sodium were measured. After three days of FST, there was a significant decrease in the serum level of aldosterone in the healthy subjects, regardless of high or low sodium chloride supplementation (p<0.001). The decrease in serum aldosterone was significantly less pronounced in patients with PA than in healthy subjects and hypertensive patients without PA (p<0.001). The 95th percentile of plasma aldosterone at the end of the test was 225 pmol/L. The FST can be shortened to 3 days and a daily 500 mg NaCl supplementation is sufficient. A cut-off value for aldosterone of 225 pmol/L after 4 days with FST is appropriate.

  19. Effect of Short Term NaCl Stress on Cultivars of S. lycopersicum: A Comparative Biochemical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitali Roy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a crop plant with high fruit nutritive value and other useful properties. The cultivation of this species is dependent on many environmental factors, e.g. temperature, salinity, nutrients etc, affecting the yield and reproductive potential of the plant. Salinity in soil or water is of increasing importance to agriculture because it causes stress to crop plants. Plants exposed to an excess amount of salts such as NaCl undergo osmotic stress, water deficit and ionic imbalances and can increase production of reactive oxygen species(ROS. Higher plants possess very efficient enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative defense mechanisms that allow the scavenging of ROS and protection of cellular components from oxidative damage. Studies were conducted to investigate the effect of short term salinity stress on some physiological alterations in three tomato cultivars Pusa Ruby(PR, Punjab Keshari (PK and Ailsa Craig(AC. Some biochemical parameters (anthocyanin and carotenoeid content, polyamines, proline, cysteine, peroxidase and malondialdehyde were set and applied at two month old stage of tomato plants. Three tomato cultivars were grown in 0.5xMS for 2 months and at this stage, they were treated with 0 and 200mM NaCl for a short period of six hours in hydroponic conditions. The genotypes exhibited different responses in terms of different osmoprotectant, antioxidant, and pigment level. The relationships among the salinity and accumulation of these compounds in leaf were then determined. It was concluded that, tomato cultivars under study responded differently showing their sensitivity or tolerance to salinity stress. Among three cultivars PK appeared to be more tolerant genotype than the other two cultivars PR and AC. PK could rapidly evolve physiological and antioxidant mechanisms to adapt to salt and manage the oxidative stress. The research was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications.

  20. Comparative study on structure, corrosion and hardness of Zn-Ni alloy deposition on AISI 347 steel aircraft material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanamuthu, RM. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Gihung, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Mohan, S., E-mail: sanjnamohan@yahoo.com [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, (CSIR), Karaikudi 630 006, Tamilnadu (India); Saravanan, G. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, (CSIR), Karaikudi 630 006, Tamilnadu (India); Lee, Chang Woo, E-mail: cwlee@khu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Gihung, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrodeposition of Zn-Ni alloy on AISI 347 steel as an aircraft material has been carried out from various baths. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of pulse duty cycle on thickness, current efficiency and hardness reached maximum values at 40% duty cycle and for 50 Hz frequencies average current density of 4 A dm{sup -2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The XRF characterizations of 88:12% Zn-Ni alloy provided excellent corrosion resistance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is found that Zn-Ni alloy on AISI 347 aircraft material has better structure and corrosion resistance by pulse electrodeposits from electrolyte-4. - Abstract: Zn-Ni alloys were electrodeposited on AISI 347 steel aircraft materials from various electrolytes under direct current (DCD) and pulsed electrodepositing (PED) techniques. The effects of pulse duty cycle on thickness, current efficiency and hardness of electrodeposits were studied. Alloy phases of the Zn-Ni were indexed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Microstructural morphology, topography and elemental compositions were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). The corrosion resistance properties of electrodeposited Zn-Ni alloy in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution obtained by DCD and PED were compared using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. Elemental analysis showed that 88% of Zn and 12% of Ni obtained from electrolyte-4 by PED technique at 40% duty cycle for 50 Hz frequencies having better corrosion resistance than that of deposits obtained from other electrolytes.

  1. Variables affecting the acceptability of radappertized ground beef products. Effects of food grade phosphates, NaCl, fat level, and grinding methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.S.; Shults, G.W.; Mason, V.C.; Wierbicki, E.

    1977-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effect of different variables on the quality of an irradiated ground beef product. Factors studied included: different food-grade phosphates; NaCl content; fat content; and size of grind. The influence of these variables on the cooking loss (moisture retention), shear press values and sensory scores was studied. The addition of phosphates and NaCl was desirable in controlling cooking losses. The most effective phosphate was tetrasodium pyrophosphate. The addition of NaCl decreased the shear press force required to penetrate the beef patty, i.e., it tenderized the product. Phosphate addition did not affect the shear press force. Increased fat content increased the cooking losses, but did not affect the shear press force. Irradiation with sterilizing doses had a marked effect on decreasing the shear press force

  2. Simulation of NaCl and KCl mass transfer during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation: a numerical solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bona

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The association of dietary NaCl with arterial hypertension has led to a reduction in the levels of this salt in cheeses. For salting, KCl has been used as a partial substitute for NaCl, which cannot be completely substituted without affecting product acceptability. In this study a sensorially adequate saline solution (NaCl/KCl was simultaneously diffused during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation. The simultaneous multicomponent diffusion during the process was modeled with Fick’s second generalized law. The system of partial differential equations formed was solved by the finite element method (FEM. In the experimental data concentration the deviation for NaCl was of 7.3% and for KCl of 5.4%, both of which were considered acceptable. The simulation of salt diffusion will allow control and modulation of salt content in Prato cheese, permitting the prediction of final content from initial conditions.

  3. Exogenous proline relieves growth inhibition caused by NaCl in petunia cells: Metabolism of L-[15M]-proline followed by 15N NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyser, J.W.; Chacon, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Exogenous proline stimulated the growth of Petunia hybrida cells on 195 mM NaCl 10-fold as compared with cells grown on 195 mM CaCl medium minus proline. L-[ 15 N]-proline was fed to cells growing on 0 and 195 mM CaCl, and its metabolism was followed by 15 N NMR analysis of cell extracts. Total proline and amino acids were determined by ninhydrin assay. Proline and primary amino acids were easily resolved in NMR spectra and the amount of 15 N-label which remained in proline was determined. Reduced catabolism of proline in cells grown on NaCl was evident. The role of exogenous proline in conferring increased NaCl tolerance in this nonhalophyte will be discussed

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis (Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate) survival under combinations of pH and NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis (Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate; potential bioterrorism agent) survival under different levels of NaCl and pH. B. thailandensis in Luria Bertani broth supplemented with NaCl (0-3%), and pH-adjusted to 4-7 was treated with gamma irradiation (0-0.5 kGy). Surviving cell counts of bacteria were then enumerated on tryptic soy agar. Data for the cell counts were also used to calculate D 10 values (the dose required to reduce 1 log CFU/mL of B. thailandensis). Cell counts of B. thailandensis were decreased (P 10 values ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 kGy, regardless of NaCl and pH level. These results indicate that low doses of gamma irradiation should be a useful treatment in decreasing the potential bioterrorism bacteria, which may possibly infect humans through foods.

  5. Ni4Ti3 precipitate structures in Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holec, D.; Bojda, O.; Dlouhy, A.

    2008-01-01

    Non-uniform distributions of Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitate crystallographic variants are investigated in a Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy after aging, assisted by external stress. A finite-element method model is presented that considers the elastic anisotropy of the B2 parent phase and also mutual misorientations of grains in a polycrystalline sample. On loading by the external stress, the stress is redistributed in the microstructure and the precipitation of some Ni 4 Ti 3 crystallographic variants becomes distinctly favorable in grain boundary regions since these variant configurations minimize the elastic interaction energy. The volume fraction of the affected grain boundary regions is calculated and the numerical results are compared with the data obtained by differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy

  6. Effect of Ta Additions on the Microstructure, Damping, and Shape Memory Behaviour of Prealloyed Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa N. Saud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Ta additions on the microstructure and properties of Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys was investigated in this paper. The addition of Ta significantly affects the green and porosity densities; the minimum percentage of porosity was observed with the modified prealloyed Cu-Al-Ni-2.0 wt.% Ta. The phase transformation temperatures were shifted towards the highest values after Ta was added. Based on the damping capacity results, the alloy of Cu-Al-Ni-3.0 wt.% Ta has very high internal friction with the maximum equivalent internal friction value twice as high as that of the prealloyed Cu-Al-Ni SMA. Moreover, the prealloyed Cu-Al-Ni SMAs with the addition of 2.0 wt.% Ta exhibited the highest shape recovery ratio in the first cycle (i.e., 100% recovery, and when the number of cycles is increased, this ratio tends to decrease. On the other hand, the modified alloys with 1.0 and 3.0 wt.% Ta implied a linear increment in the shape recovery ratio with increasing number of cycles. Polarization tests in NaCl solution showed that the corrosion resistance of Cu-Al-Ni-Ta SMA improved with escalating Ta concentration as shown by lower corrosion current densities, higher corrosion potential, and formation of stable passive film.

  7. Effect of Ta Additions on the Microstructure, Damping, and Shape Memory Behaviour of Prealloyed Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saud, Safaa N; Hamzah, E; Bakhsheshi-Rad, H R; Abubakar, T

    2017-01-01

    The influence of Ta additions on the microstructure and properties of Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys was investigated in this paper. The addition of Ta significantly affects the green and porosity densities; the minimum percentage of porosity was observed with the modified prealloyed Cu-Al-Ni-2.0 wt.% Ta. The phase transformation temperatures were shifted towards the highest values after Ta was added. Based on the damping capacity results, the alloy of Cu-Al-Ni-3.0 wt.% Ta has very high internal friction with the maximum equivalent internal friction value twice as high as that of the prealloyed Cu-Al-Ni SMA. Moreover, the prealloyed Cu-Al-Ni SMAs with the addition of 2.0 wt.% Ta exhibited the highest shape recovery ratio in the first cycle (i.e., 100% recovery), and when the number of cycles is increased, this ratio tends to decrease. On the other hand, the modified alloys with 1.0 and 3.0 wt.% Ta implied a linear increment in the shape recovery ratio with increasing number of cycles. Polarization tests in NaCl solution showed that the corrosion resistance of Cu-Al-Ni-Ta SMA improved with escalating Ta concentration as shown by lower corrosion current densities, higher corrosion potential, and formation of stable passive film.

  8. Increased frequency and severity of developmental deformities in rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa) embryos exposed to road deicing salts (NaCl and MgCl2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Gareth R.; French, Susannah S.; Brodie, Edmund D.

    2013-01-01

    Road-side aquatic ecosystems in North America are annually polluted with millions of tons of road deicing salts, which threaten the survival of amphibians which live and breed in these habitats. While much is known of the effects of NaCl, little is known of the second most-commonly used deicer, MgCl 2 , which is now used exclusively in parts of the continent. Here we report that environmentally relevant concentrations of both NaCl and MgCl 2 cause increased incidence of developmental deformities in rough-skinned newt hatchlings that developed embryonically in these salts. In addition, we provide some of the first quantification of severity of different deformities, and reveal that increased salt concentrations increase both deformity frequency and severity. Our work contributes to the growing body of literature that suggests salamanders and newts are particularly vulnerable to salt, and that the emerging pollutant, MgCl 2 is comparable in its effects to the more traditionally-used NaCl. - Highlights: ► Rough-skinned newt embryos were raised in NaCl and MgCl 2 road deicing salts. ► We quantified the frequency and severity of resulting developmental deformities. ► Both salts caused increased frequency and severity of developmental deformities. ► Effects of MgCl 2 , an emerging stressor, are comparable to traditionally-used NaCl. ► Newts and salamanders may be more susceptible to road salt than frogs and toads. - Two commonly used road deicing salts, NaCl and MgCl 2 , caused increased frequency and severity of developmental deformities in rough-skinned newt embryos.

  9. The scid mutation does not affect slowly repairing potentially lethal damage that is sensitive to 0.23 M NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Ikebuchi, Makoto; Fushiki, Masato; Komatsu, Kenshi.

    1996-01-01

    The repair of slowly repairing potentially lethal damage (PLD) in radiosensitive cells from the severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mouse was compared with that in Balb/c 3T3 cells with ''wild-type'' radiosensitivity and that in RD13B2 cells derived from scid cells whose sensitivity is normal because of the presence of fragments of human chromosome 8. Treatment with 0.23 M NaCl was used for fixation of slowly repairing PLD. The scid cells repaired PLD sensitive to 0.23 M NaCl to a great extent whin 3-4 h, similarly to Balb/c 3T3 and RD13B2 cells. This indicates that the scid mutation hardly affects the repair of PLD sensitive to 0.23 M NaCl. On the other hand, as reported previously, the rapidly repairing PLD that is sensitive to 0.5 M NaCl was repaired only slowly (3-4 h) in scid cells, in contrast to the rapid repair (within 1 h) seen with Balb/c 3T3 and RD13B2. This suggests that scid mutation is responsible for this repair at reduced rate. To confirm the independence of repair of 0.23 M NaCl-sensitive PLD from that of 0.5 M NaCl-sensitive PLD, both treatments with 0.23 M NaCl and 0.5 M NaCl were combined in each line. It is found that the repair of either PLD was not affected by the other treatment. The scid mutation impaired only the repair of 0.5 M NaCl-sensitive PLD. (author)

  10. MAPK-mediated regulation of growth and essential oil composition in a salt-tolerant peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Wang, Wenwen; Li, Guilong; Guo, Kai; Harvey, Paul; Chen, Quan; Zhao, Zhongjuan; Wei, Yanli; Li, Jishun; Yang, Hetong

    2016-11-01

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) is an important and commonly used flavoring agent worldwide, and salinity is a major stress that limits plant growth and reduces crop productivity. This work demonstrated the metabolic responses of essential oil production including the yield and component composition, gene expression, enzyme activity, and protein activation in a salt-tolerant peppermint Keyuan-1 with respect to NaCl stress. Our results showed that Keyuan-1 maintained normal growth and kept higher yield and content of essential oils under NaCl stress than wild-type (WT) peppermint.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and qPCR results showed that compared to WT seedlings, a 150-mM NaCl stress exerted no obvious changes in essential oil composition, transcriptional level of enzymes related to essential oil metabolism, and activity of pulegone reductase (Pr) in Keyuan-1 peppermint which preserved the higher amount of menthol and menthone as well as the lower content of menthofuran upon the 150-mM NaCl stress. Furthermore, it was noticed that a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein exhibited a time-dependent activation in the Keyuan-1 peppermint and primarily involved in the modulation of the essential oil metabolism in the transcript and enzyme levels during the 12-day treatment of 150 mM NaCl. In all, our data elucidated the effect of NaCl on metabolic responses of essential oil production, and demonstrated the MAPK-dependent regulation mechanism of essential oil biosynthesis in the salt-tolerant peppermint, providing scientific basis for the economic and ecological utilization of peppermint in saline land.

  11. NaCl stress-induced changes in the essential oil quality and abietane diterpene yield and composition in common sage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taieb Tounekti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how increasing NaCl salinity in the medium can affects the essential oils (EOs composition and phenolic diterpene content and yield in leaves of Salvia officinalis L. The protective role of such compounds against NaCl stress was also argued with regard to some physiological characteristics of the plant (water and ionic relations as well as the leaf gas exchanges. Materials and Methods: Potted plants were exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 75 and 100 mM for 4 weeks during July 2012. Replicates from each treatment were harvested after 0, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of adding salt to perform physiological measurements and biochemical analysis. Results: Sage EOs were rich in manool, viridiflorol, camphor, and borneol. Irrigation with a solution containing 100 mM NaCl for 4 weeks increased considerably 1.8-cineole, camphor and beta-thujone concentrations, whereas lower concentrations (50 and 75 mM had no effects. On the contrary, borneol and viridiflorol concentrations decreased significantly under the former treatment, while manool and total fatty acid concentrations were not affected. Leaf extracts contained also several diterpenes such as carnosic acid (CA, carnosol (CAR and 12- and #1054;-methoxy carnosic acid (MCA. The concentrations and total contents of CA and MCA increased after 3 weeks of irrigation with 75 or 100 mM NaCl. The 50 mM NaCl had no effect on these diterpenes. Our results suggest a protective role for CA against salinity stress. Conclusion: This study may provide ways to manipulate the concentration and yield of some phenolic diterpenes and EOs in sage. In fact soil salinity may favour a directional production of particular components of interest. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 208-216

  12. Ni4Ti3 precipitate structures in Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holec, David; Bojda, Ondřej; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 481, Sp. Iss. (2008), s. 462-465 ISSN 0921-5093. [ESOMAT 2006. Bochum, 10.09.2006-15.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : NiTi shape memory alloys * Ni4Ti3 precipitates * Multi-step martensitic transformations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2008

  13. Nanocontainer-Enhanced Self-Healing for Corrosion-Resistant Ni Coating on Mg Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhi-Hui; Li, Dan; Skeete, Zakiya; Sharma, Anju; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2017-10-18

    The ability to manipulate the functionalization of Ni coating is of great importance in improving the corrosion resistance of magnesium (Mg) alloy for many industrial applications. In the present work, MCM-41 type mesoporous silica nanocontainers (MSNs) loaded with corrosion inhibitor (NaF) were synthesized and employed as smart reinforcements to enhance the integrity and corrosion inhibition of the Ni coating. The incorporation of the F-loaded MSNs (F@MSNs) to enhance the corrosion resistant capacity of a metallic coating is reported for the first time. The mesoporous structures of the as-prepared MSNs and F@MSNs were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle X-rays scattering (SAXS), and N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data demonstrated the successful immobilization of fluoride ion on the MSNs and formation of a magnesium fluoride (MgF 2 ) protective film at the corrosion sites of the Mg alloy upon soaking in a F@MSNs-containing NaCl solution. The results from potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for both bare Mg alloy and Ni coatings with and without F@MSNs have revealed a clear decrease in corrosion rate in a corrosive solution for a long-time immersion due to the introduction of F@MSNs. These findings open new opportunities in the exploration of self-healing metallic coatings for highly enhanced anticorrosion protection of Mg alloy.

  14. Electronic structure of Ni-- and Ni2--ethylene cluster complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basch, H.; Newton, M.D.; Moskowitz, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The electronic structure of metal cluster--ethylene complexes has been investigated by carrying out ab initio bonding pair-correlated, self-consistent field, and configuration interaction (CI) calculations on the NiC 2 H 4 and Ni 2 C 2 H 4 species. The π-NiC 2 H 4 and π-Ni 2 C 2 H 4 cluster complexes are found to be bound, the former only with CI, while disigma-Ni 2 C 2 H 4 has only a repulsive Ni 2 --C 2 H 4 ground state potential curve. The bonding in the π-type cluster complexes can be described as follows: The metal atom configuration is 3d 9 4s 1 with the 4s hybridized (by the metal 4p) away from the ethylene molecule, thereby allowing the π orbital to form a dative sigma bond with the metal atom. The bonding interaction is promoted by the presence of a second nickel atom behind the first one, leading to a 4s orbital electron deficiency of the bonded nickel atom and thus making this nickel atom a better electron acceptor. Back donation from the occupied metal 3d into the ethylene π* molecular orbital also takes place to some extent, and thus both features of the classical Dewar--Chatt--Duncanson model are observed. The π-Ni 2 C 2 H 4 species is analyzed in terms of the addition of a bare nickel atom to a π-NiC 2 H 4 cluster complex, with concomitant stabilization of the orbitals of the bonded nickel atom. A study of the excited electronic states of π-NiC 2 H 4 shows that low-lying 4s→π* and 3d→π* (M→L) charge transfer transitions are predicted. The former is not observed experimentally, probably due to the diffuse nature of the 4s orbital. The relationship between small cluster--ethylene complex systems and ethylene chemisorption on a nickel metal surface is discussed

  15. Structure of formations on the NaCl monocrystal surface following simultaneous irradiation of it by hydrocarbon molecule flow and Ne/sup +/ ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derevyanchenko, A S; Palatnik, L S; Martynov, I S; Seryugin, A L; Gritsyna, V V; Koval' , A G; Kiyan, T S; Fogel' , Ya M [Khar' kovskii Gosudarstvennyi Univ. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1975-07-01

    The structure of a film growing on the surface of NaCl crystal with a simultaneous irradiation of the film with molecules of hydrocarbons and Ne ions has been investigated. At the first stage of formation the film has a net structure of graphite with an abnormally large internet distance. At the subsequent stage of growing hollow spherulites are formed in the film, their walls having the structure of the third phase of carbon - carbine and dendrites - crystals with the structure of NaCl forming inside of the growing film.

  16. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT K2 HPO4, NaCl LEVELS AND TWO DIFFERENT TEMPARATURES ON SOME EMULSION PROPERTIES OF GOAT MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARAKAYA

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Different levels of K2 HPO4 (0.00 %, 0.25 % and 0.50 % and NaCl (2.5 % and 3.0 % were added into goat meat, at the two different temperatures (11o C and 18o C in order to investigate the emulsion properties in the model emulsion system. Emulsion capacity (EK, emulsion viscocity (EV, emulsion stability ratio (ES, the ratio of separated water (ESO and oil (EYO ratio from the emulsion, and the emulsion pH were determined. K2 HPO4 and NaCl levels and the oil temperatures have significant effect (p

  17. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT K2 HPO4, NaCl LEVELS AND TWO DIFFERENT TEMPARATURES ON SOME EMULSION PROPERTIES OF GOAT MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa KARAKAYA; Hüsnü Yusuf GÖKALP; Ramazan BAYRAK

    1996-01-01

    Different levels of K2 HPO4 (0.00 %, 0.25 % and 0.50 %) and NaCl (2.5 % and 3.0 %) were added into goat meat, at the two different temperatures (11o C and 18o C) in order to investigate the emulsion properties in the model emulsion system. Emulsion capacity (EK), emulsion viscocity (EV), emulsion stability ratio (ES), the ratio of separated water (ESO) and oil (EYO) ratio from the emulsion, and the emulsion pH were determined. K2 HPO4 and NaCl levels and the oil temperatures have significant ...

  18. Crevice Corrosion on Ni-Cr-Mo Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Jakupi; D. Zagidulin; J.J. Noel; D.W. Shoesmith

    2006-01-01

    Ni-Cr-Mo alloys were developed for their exceptional corrosion resistance in a variety of extreme corrosive environments. An alloy from this series, Alloy-22, has been selected as the reference material for the fabrication of nuclear waste containers in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository located in Nevada (US). A possible localized corrosion process under the anticipated conditions at this location is crevice corrosion. therefore, it is necessary to assess how this process may, or may not, propagate if the use of this alloy is to be justified. Consequently, the primary objective is the development of a crevice corrosion damage function that can be used to assess the evolution of material penetration rates. They have been using various electrochemical methods such as potentiostatic, galvanostatic and galvanic coupling techniques. Corrosion damage patterns have been investigated using surface analysis techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. All crevice corrosion experiments were performed at 120 C in 5M NaCl solution. Initiating crevice corrosion on these alloys has proven to be difficult; therefore, they have forced it to occur under either potentiostatic or galvanostatic conditions

  19. Radioactive 63Ni in biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzak, K.S.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Applications of 63 Ni in biological research are reviewed, with emphasis upon recent investigations of nickel metabolism and toxicology in experimental animals. The radiochemistry of 63 Ni is summarized, including consideration of the preparation of certain 63 Ni compounds (e.g. 63 Ni(CO) 4 and 63 Ni 3 S 2 ) that are of current interest in toxicology, teratology and cancer research. Practical guidance is given regarding the detection and determination of 63 Ni in biological materials by autoradiography and liquid scintillation spectrometry. (author)

  20. Superstructure of NiAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozue, Tatsuhiro; Kobayashi, Hisao; Kamimura, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2001-01-01

    The structural transition in NiAs was studied by neutron diffraction on the single crystalline sample. The crystal structure of NiAs has been reported to be bottom-centered orthorhombic with Cmc2 1 symmetry (niccolite-type). The measurement of temperature dependence of the powder X-ray diffraction revealed that NiAs undergoes a structural transition to the NiAs-type at T t =335 K. In present neutron diffraction experiment at room temperature, we observed the reflections indexed on the basis of the orthorhombic unit cell. The intensities of these reflections are qualitatively explained in terms of the niccolite-type structure with taking account of three domain structures, except for the weak reflections indexed as (001), (003) and (012). Then, the intensities of (001), (002) and (004) reflections were measured in temperature range of 20 to 420 K. The temperature dependences of (002) and (004) reflections qualitatively agree with those of the calculated intensities using the atomic positions of niccolite-type structure. However, the temperature dependence of (001) reflection shows the anomaly around T t , which suggests the symmetry of crystal structure of NiAs is not the Cmc2 1 symmetry. (author)

  1. Thermal stability and electrical characteristics of NiSi films with electroplated Ni(W) alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Yuhang; Hu Anmin; Li Ming; Mao Dali

    2011-01-01

    In this study, an electroplating method to deposited Ni, crystalline NiW(c-NiW), amorphous NiW (a-NiW) films on P-type Si(1 0 0) were used to form Ni-silicide (NiSi) films. After annealed at various temperatures, sheet resistance of Ni/Cu, c-NiW/Cu and a-NiW/Cu was measured to observe the performance of those diffusion barrier layers. With W added in the barrier layer, the barrier performance was improved. The results of XRD and resistance measurement of the stacked Si/Ni(W)/Cu films reveal that Cu atom could diffuse through Ni barrier layer at 450 deg. C, could diffuse through c-NiW at 550 deg. C, but could hardly diffuse through a-NiW barrier layer. c-NiW layer has a better barrier performance than Ni layer, meanwhile the resistance is lower than a-NiW layer.

  2. Giant magnetoimpedance effect in sputtered single layered NiFe film and meander NiFe/Cu/NiFe film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Zhou, Y.; Lei, C.; Zhou, Z.M.; Ding, W.

    2010-01-01

    Giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect on NiFe thin film is very promising due to its application in developing the magnetic field sensors with highly sensitivity and low cost. In this paper, the single layered NiFe thin film and NiFe/Cu/NiFe thin film with a meander structure are prepared by the MEMS technology. The influences of sputtering parameters, film structure and conductor layer width on GMI effect in NiFe single layer and meander NiFe/Cu/NiFe film are investigated. Maximum of the GMI ratio in single layer and sandwich film is 5% and 64%, respectively. The results obtained are useful for developing the high-performance magnetic sensors based on NiFe thin film.

  3. High Ni in Archean tholeiites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Nicholas T.

    1991-03-01

    Archean tholeiites generally have higher Ni, Co. Cr and Fe than most younger tholeiites with similar MgO contents. These characteristics cannot be attributed to high T or P batch melting in the Archean mantle, because, although such melts are enriched in siderophile elements, they have higher MgO than normal tholeiites. As primary melts fractionate to lower MgO, they lose Ni, Co and Cr. Nor can the differences between Archean and younger tholeiites be attributed to secular variation in mantle compositions because Archean komatiites have Ni, Co, Cr contents similar to modern (Gorgona) komatiites. It is suggested that the high siderophile element content of Archean tholeiites results from mixing of either komatiitic with basaltic magmas, as might occur in an ascending, melting mantle plume or column, or of komatiite and more evolved rocks, as may take place when komatiite encounters and assimilates crustal rocks.

  4. Does stimulation of NaCl secretion in in vitro perfused rectal gland tubules of Squalus acanthias increase membrane capacitance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, R; Thiele, I; Warth, R; Bleich, M

    1998-07-01

    NaCl secretion in rectal gland tubules (RGT) of Squalus acanthias requires the activation of Cl– channels in the luminal membrane. The RGT and its mechanism of activation are an early evolutionary paradigm of exocrine secretion. The respective Cl– channels probably resemble the shark equivalent of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Activation of these Cl– channels occurs via cAMP. It has been hypothesized that the activation of CFTR occurs via exocytosis or inhibited endocytosis. To examine this question directly by electrical measurements we have performed whole-cell patch-clamp analyses of in vitro perfused RGT. NaCl secretion was stimulated by a solution (Stim) containing forskolin (10 µmol/l), dibutyryl-cAMP (0.5 mmol/l) and adenosine (0.5 mmol/l). This led to the expected strong depolarization and an increase in membrane conductance (G m). The membrane capacitance (C m) was measured by a newly devised two-frequency synchronous detector method. It was increased by Stim significantly from 5.00±0.22 to 5.17±0.21 pF (n=50). The increase in C m correlated with the increase in G m with a slope of 51 fF/nS. Next the effect of furosemide (500 µmol/l) was examined in previously stimulated RGT. Furosemide was supposed to inhibit coupled Na+2Cl–K+ uptake and to reduce cell volume but not membrane trafficking of Cl– channels. Furosemide reduced G m slightly (due to the fall in cytosolic Cl– concentration) and C m to the same extent by which Stim had increased it. Both changes were statistically significant, and the slope of ΔC m/ΔG m was similar to that caused by Stim. Inhibitors of microtubules or actin (colchicine, phalloidin and cytochalasin D added at 10 µmol/l to the pipette solution and dialysed for >10 min) did not alter cell voltage, G m or C m, nor did these inhibitors abolish the stimulatory effect of cAMP. These data suggest that the small C m changes observed with Stim reflect a minor cell volume increase and an

  5. The effect of fatty acid surfactants on the uptake of nitric acid to deliquesced NaCl aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ammann

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface active organic compounds have been observed in marine boundary layer aerosol. Here, we investigate the effect such surfactants have on the uptake of nitric acid (HNO3, an important removal reaction of nitrogen oxides in the marine boundary layer. The uptake of gaseous HNO3 on deliquesced NaCl aerosol was measured in a flow reactor using HNO3 labelled with the short-lived radioactive isotope 13N. The uptake coefficient γ on pure deliquesced NaCl aerosol was γ=0.5±0.2 at 60% relative humidity and 30 ppb HNO3(g. The uptake coefficient was reduced by a factor of 5–50 when the aerosol was coated with saturated linear fatty acids with carbon chain lengths of 18 and 15 atoms in monolayer quantities. In contrast, neither shorter saturated linear fatty acids with 12 and 9 carbon atoms, nor coatings with the unsaturated oleic acid (C18, cis-double bond had a detectable effect on the rate of HNO3 uptake. It is concluded that it is the structure of the monolayers formed, which determines their resistance towards HNO3 uptake. Fatty acids (C18 and C15, which form a highly ordered film in the so-called liquid condensed state, represent a significant barrier towards HNO3 uptake, while monolayers of shorter-chain fatty acids (C9, C12 and of the unsaturated oleic acid form a less ordered film in the liquid expanded state and do not hinder the uptake. Similarly, high contents of humic acids in the aerosol, a structurally inhomogeneous, quite water soluble mixture of oxidised high molecular weight organic compounds did not affect HNO3 uptake. As surfactant films on naturally occurring aerosol are expected to be less structured due to their chemical inhomogeneity, it is likely that their inhibitory effect on HNO3 uptake is smaller than that observed here for the C15 and C18 fatty acid monolayers.

  6. Surface diffusivity of cleaved NaCl crystals as a function of humidity: Impedance spectroscopy measurements and implications for crack healing in rock salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelemeijer, P.J.; Peach, C.J.; Spiers, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Rock salt offers an attractive host rock for geological storage applications, because of its naturally low permeability and the ability of excavation-induced cracks to heal by fluid-assisted diffusive mass transfer. However, while diffusive transport rates in bulk NaCl solution are rapid and well

  7. Salt exclusion and mycorrhizal symbiosis increase tolerance to NaCl and CaCl2 salinity in ‘Siam Queen’ basil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on growth and nutrient uptake in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Plants were fertilized with a complete nutrient solution and exposed to no, low, or moderate levels of salinity from NaCl or CaCl2. Plants in the control and moderate salinity tre...

  8. Study on the deterioration process of a chromium-free conversion coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy in NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Ming; Wu Shusen; An Ping; Luo Jirong

    2006-01-01

    The morphology of a chromium-free conversion coating for AZ91D magnesium alloy was observed with an Atomic Force Microscopy. The results showed the uniform conversion coating has a relatively smooth appearance with shallow valleys. The EDX results indicated that the compositions of the coating were mainly compounds of Mg, Al, Mn, P, Ca and O. The XRD result showed that the coating contained amorphous materials and a small quantity of crystalline compound. The pitting product of the coating in NaCl water solution mainly composed of Mg, Cl, Mn, P, Ca and O. The corrosion behavior of the samples in NaCl solution was also studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which was characterized by one capacitive loop and one inductive loop. Based upon study on both a mathematical model for Faradic admittance of coating in NaCl solution and EIS, it could be considered that the inductive loop was caused by the adsorption of Cl anion and the appearance of pitting corrosion. A degradation mechanism of the coating in NaCl solution is set forth: dissolution velocity of the Cl - adsorption regions of the coating is higher than those non-adsorption regions, for Cl - anions are selective adsorption at some regions of coating surface. When the adsorption regions of coating layer are penetrated by dissolution, the pitting comes into being. The degradation mechanism of conversion coating and the mathematical model are consistent with the EIS results, polarization measurement results and coating's corrosion test results

  9. Influence of Rhizobacterium Inoculation on NaCl Salinity Tolerance in Pusa Sukomal and RC101 Varieties of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhna Chaturvedi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in cowpea plants. In the present study, the effect of rhizobacterium strains BR2 and BR3 on the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. varieties—Pusa Sukomal and RC101—tolerance to 0, 25, 50, and 75 mM concentrations of NaCl salinity was evaluated. The rate of growth, in general, was high in plants irrigated with 25 mM NaCl saline water as compared to control, and thereafter, the growth reduced with increase in salinity concentrations. The results revealed that treating the seeds with rhizobacteria accompanied by NaCl salinity increased growth parameters of the cowpea plant as compared to the seeds irrigated with sodium chloride alone. Treatment with rhizobacteria mitigated the harmful effect of NaCl, and the growth was significantly better than the plants growing in saline water without rhizobacterium inoculation. The overall performance of Pusa Sukomal with BR3 strain was found to be better than the other combinations tested. Flowering in field plants started within 45 days of sowing, and the seeds in plants irrigated with saline water, in the presence of rhizobacterium, were found to be healthy as compared to control seeds. Seed protein profile was analyzed by SDS PAGE gel studies.

  10. Applicability of iron phosphate glass medium for loading NaCl originated from seawater used for cooling the stricken power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amamoto, Ippei; Kobayashi, Hidekazu; Yokozawa, Takuma; Yamashita, Teruo; Nagai, Takayuki; Kitamura, Naoto; Takebe, Hiromichi; Mitamura, Naoki; Tsuzuki, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    As the part of investigation for immobilization of the sludge as one of the radioactive wastes arising from the treatment of contaminated water at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, applicability of vitrification method has been evaluated as a candidate technique. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of NaCl as one of the main constituents of sludge, on glass formation and glass properties. Two kinds of iron phosphate glass (IPG) media in the xFe 2 O 3 -(100-x)P 2 O 5 , with x=30 and 35 (mol%) were chosen and the glass formation, structure and properties including density, coefficient of thermal expansion, glass transition temperature, onset crystallization temperature and chemical durability of NaCl-loaded IPG were studied. The results are summarized as follows. Sodium chloride, NaCl could be loaded into IPG medium as Na 2 O and Cl contents and their loading ratio could be up to 19 and 15 mol%, respectively. Majority of Cl content of raw material NaCl was thought to be volatilized during glass melting. Loading NaCl into IPG induces to de-polymerize glass network of phosphate chains, leads to decrease both glass transition and onset crystallization temperatures, and to increase coefficient of thermal expansion. NaCl-loaded IPG indicated good chemical durability in case of using 35Fe 2 O 3 - 65P 2 O 5 medium. (authors)

  11. A density model based on the Modified Quasichemical Model and applied to the (NaCl + KCl + ZnCl2) liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouzilleau, Philippe; Robelin, Christian; Chartrand, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A model for the density of multicomponent inorganic liquids. ► The density model is based on the Modified Quasichemical Model. ► Application to the (NaCl + KCl + ZnCl 2 ) ternary liquid. ► A Kohler–Toop-like asymmetric interpolation method was used. - Abstract: A theoretical model for the density of multicomponent inorganic liquids based on the Modified Quasichemical Model has been presented previously. By introducing in the Gibbs free energy of the liquid phase temperature-dependent molar volume expressions for the pure components and pressure-dependent excess parameters for the binary (and sometimes higher-order) interactions, it is possible to reproduce, and eventually predict, the molar volume and the density of the multicomponent liquid phase using standard interpolation methods. In the present article, this density model is applied to the (NaCl + KCl + ZnCl 2 ) ternary liquid and a Kohler–Toop-like asymmetric interpolation method is used. All available density data for the (NaCl + KCl + ZnCl 2 ) liquid were collected and critically evaluated, and optimized pressure-dependent model parameters have been found. This new volumetric model can be used with Gibbs free energy minimization software, to calculate the molar volume and the density of (NaCl + KCl + ZnCl 2 ) ternary melts.

  12. Differentially expressed genes in Populus simonii x P. nigra in respnse to NaCl stress using cDNA-AFLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinity is an important environmental factor limiting growth and productivity of plants, and affects almost every aspect of the plant physiology and biochemistry. The objective of this study was to apply cDNA-AFLP and to identify differentially expressed genes in response to NaCl stress vs. no-stre...

  13. Relative transcription of Listeria monocytogenes virulence genes in liver pâtés with varying NaCl content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Thorsen, Line; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    three liver pâtés with reduced NaCl content of which one also has been supplied with organic acids (Ca-acetate and Ca-lactate). The three strains (EGD-e: reference strain; O57: more NaCl sensitive; 6896: more NaCl tolerant) were selected out of twelve strains based on their growth in BHI broth adjusted......B for both O57 and 6896 were significantly higher when the strains were grown in BHI compared to the standard liver pâté. Reducing the NaCl content of the standard liver pâté did not change relative transcription levels of prfA, inlA, sigB or clpC (except for prfA in O57 and sigB in 6896). However......, the presence of Ca-acetate and Ca-lactate induced relative transcription of the stress response gene, clpC, for all three strains. This study demonstrates that relative microbial gene transcription can be measured in complex food matrices and points to the need for designing experimental set-ups in real food...

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis (Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate) survival under combinations of pH and NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, Jeollabuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyoung-Hee [Department of Oral Microbiology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeollabuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon, E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.k [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, Jeollabuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis (Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate; potential bioterrorism agent) survival under different levels of NaCl and pH. B. thailandensis in Luria Bertani broth supplemented with NaCl (0-3%), and pH-adjusted to 4-7 was treated with gamma irradiation (0-0.5 kGy). Surviving cell counts of bacteria were then enumerated on tryptic soy agar. Data for the cell counts were also used to calculate D{sub 10} values (the dose required to reduce 1 log CFU/mL of B. thailandensis). Cell counts of B. thailandensis were decreased (P<0.05) as irradiation dose increased, and no differences (P>=0.05) in cell counts of the bacteria were observed among different levels of NaCl and pH. D{sub 10} values ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 kGy, regardless of NaCl and pH level. These results indicate that low doses of gamma irradiation should be a useful treatment in decreasing the potential bioterrorism bacteria, which may possibly infect humans through foods.

  15. Effects of NaCl and soaking temperature on the phenolic compounds, α-tocopherol, γ-oryzanol and fatty acids of glutinous rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammapat, Pornpisanu; Meeso, Naret; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2015-05-15

    Soaking is one of the important steps of the parboiling process. In this study, we investigated the effect of changes in different sodium chloride (NaCl) content (0%, 1.5% and 3.0% NaCl, w/v) of soaking media and soaking temperatures (30°C, 45°C and 60°C) on the phenolic compounds (α-tocopherol, γ-oryzanol) and on the fatty acids of glutinous rice, compared with unsoaked samples. Overall, the total phenolic content, total phenolic acids, γ-oryzanol, saturated fatty acid and mono-unsaturated fatty acid of the glutinous rice showed an increasing trend as NaCl content and soaking temperature increased, while α-tocopherol and polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased. Soaking at 3.0% NaCl provided the highest total phenolic content, total phenolic acids and γ-oryzanol (0.2mg GAE/g, 63.61 μg/g and 139.76 mg/100g, respectively) for the soaking treatments tested. Nevertheless, the amount of α-tocopherol and polyunsaturated fatty acid were found to be the highest (18.30/100g and 39.74%, respectively) in unsoaked rice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of NaCl on textural changes and protein and lipid degradation during the ripening stage of sufu, a Chinese fermented soybean food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.; Wang, J.H.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Sufu is made by solid state fungal fermentation (using Actinomucor elegans) of tofu, followed by salting and maturation in dressing mixtures containing salt, alcohol and various other ingredients. NaCl in dressing mixtures strongly affected the changes in textural properties and the hydrolysis of

  17. Effect of pH and chloride on the micro-mechanism of pitting corrosion for high strength pipeline steel in aerated NaCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yafei; Cheng, Guangxu; Wu, Wei; Qiao, Qiao; Li, Yun; Li, Xiufeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pitting behavior of X80 steel in aerated NaCl solutions is studied systematically. • Unique large pit morphology is observed in neutral/acidic NaCl solutions. • In low pH solutions, pit will propagate in the horizontal direction, leading to the shallow shape of pitting morphology; in high pH solutions, the pit sizes are much smaller. • Film growth, which is dependent on the pH and chloride concentration, has great influence on the cathodic reaction by affecting oxygen diffusion process. - Abstract: The pitting corrosion mechanism of high strength pipeline steel in aerated NaCl solutions with different pH and chloride content was investigated, using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The pitting behavior in alkaline solutions was found to be significantly different from that in neutral and acidic solutions. Electrochemical results and SEM images indicate that the product film formed on the steel surface results in different corrosion behavior in an alkaline solution. SEM images show that pH and chloride concentration in the bulk solution have a great influence on the pitting morphology. Unique large pit morphology due to corrosion in neutral/acidic solutions with 0.05 mol/L NaCl was observed. The relationship between solution pH and the effect of chloride concentration is also discussed

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis ( Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate) survival under combinations of pH and NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis ( Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate; potential bioterrorism agent) survival under different levels of NaCl and pH. B. thailandensis in Luria Bertani broth supplemented with NaCl (0-3%), and pH-adjusted to 4-7 was treated with gamma irradiation (0-0.5 kGy). Surviving cell counts of bacteria were then enumerated on tryptic soy agar. Data for the cell counts were also used to calculate D10 values (the dose required to reduce 1 log CFU/mL of B. thailandensis). Cell counts of B. thailandensis were decreased ( P<0.05) as irradiation dose increased, and no differences ( P≥0.05) in cell counts of the bacteria were observed among different levels of NaCl and pH. D10 values ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 kGy, regardless of NaCl and pH level. These results indicate that low doses of gamma irradiation should be a useful treatment in decreasing the potential bioterrorism bacteria, which may possibly infect humans through foods.

  19. Study of the structural and electronic properties of YC using DFT: The true ground state is a NiAs-like structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rahim, G P; Rodríguez M, J A; Moreno-Armenta, M G

    2013-01-01

    We study the structural and electronic properties of YC in volume using density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), using the scheme of Wu-Cohen 2006 and Tran et al. 2007. Several crystal structures were considered: Nickel Arsenide (NiAs), Sodium Chloride (NaCl), Cesium Chloride (CsCl), and zincblende (ZB). A new fact that we present in this paper is the inclusion of the NiAs-like structure, which is the true ground state (GS) for YC. We calculated the density of states (DOS) and the band structure and found that YC is non-magnetic and its behavior is metallic-like. The lattice parameter alatt is 3.69 Å and the c/a = 1.47. Cohesion energy (Ecoh) is −12.90 eV, which is very close to Ecoh of the NaCl structure. Therefore, YC exists in these two structures. Our results with respect to alatt, bulk modulus (B), Ecoh, and the main features of the electronic properties are in good agreement with those found by other researchers. Other researchers found a transition from NaCl to CsCl, but we found a new transition from NiAs to CsCl, where the volume diminishes ∼10% and its transition pressure (PT ∼79 GPa) is very close to the 80 GPa of the former. The contraction can fracture the material if it is worked on near the transition. For pressures before and after the transition, YC maintains non-magnetic and metallic behaviors

  20. Relation between shape of Ni-particles and Ni migration in Ni-YSZ electrodes – a hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hauch, Anne; Sun, Xiufu

    2016-01-01

    This is an attempt to explain a phenomenon of total depletion of Ni next to the electrolyte in Ni-YSZ cermet electrodes in solid oxide electrolysis cells during electrolysis at high current density/overpotential. Intuitively, we would think that Ni would always migrate down the steam partial...

  1. Hot corrosion behavior of Ni based Inconel 617 and Inconel 738 superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Awadi, G.A., E-mail: gaberelawdi@yahoo.com [Atomic Energy Authority, NRC, Cyclotron Project, Abo-zabal, 13759 Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Samad, S., E-mail: salem_abdelsamad@yahoo.com [Atomic Energy Authority, NRC, Cyclotron Project, Abo-zabal, 13759 Cairo (Egypt); Elshazly, Ezzat S. [Atomic Energy Authority, NRC, Metallurgy Dept., Abo-zabal, 13759 Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Supperalloy good resistance to high temperature oxidation. • Ni-base alloy IN738 and Inconel 617 good resistance to hot corrosion. • Corrosion resistance of supperalloys depending on environment of abrasive ions such as (NaCl or NaSO{sub 4}). • Hot corrosion resistance depend on what the oxides phases where formed. - Abstract: Superalloys are extensively used at high temperature applications due to their good oxidation and corrosion resistance properties in addition to their high stability were made at high temperature. Experimental measurements of hot corrosion at high temperature of Inconel 617 and Inconel 738 superalloys. The experiments were carried out at temperatures 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C for different exposure times to up to 100 h. The corrosive media was NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} sprayed on the specimens. Seven different specimens were used at each temperature. The corrosion process is endothermic and the spontaneity increased by increasing temperature. The activation energy was found to be Ea = 23.54 and E{sub a} = 25.18 KJ/mol for Inconel 738 and Inconel 617 respectively. X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) was used to analyze the formed scale. The morphology of the specimen and scale were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the major corrosion products formed were NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and Co Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinles, in addition to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  2. Effect of the partial NaCl substitution by other chloride salts on the volatile profile during the ripening of dry-cured lacón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of three salting treatments (treatment II: 50% NaCl-50% KCl; III: 45% NaCl-25% KCl-20% CaCl2-10% MgCl2; IV: 30% NaCl-50% KCl-15% CaCl2-5% MgCl2 on the formation of volatile compounds throughout the process was studied and compared to those of a control “lacón” (treatment I: 100% NaCl. There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing, particularly during the dry-ripening stage. The most abundant chemical family in all the formulations, in the final product was hydrocarbons followed by aldehydes. The total volatile compound release was more intense in the control “lacóns” (1164 AU_106·g-1dry matter than in “lacóns” from formulations II, III and IV (817-891 AUx106·g-1dry matter. The “lacóns” from formulation I showed the highest amounts of aldehydes. The “lacóns” from formulations I and II presented the highest amounts of hydrocarbons. The main conclusion is that the replacement of NaCl produces changes in the volatile profile and could be affect the aroma of “lacón”.Se estudió la influencia de tres tratamientos de salado (tratamiento II: 50 % NaCl-50 % KCl; III: 45 % NaCl-25 % KCl-20 % CaCl2-10 % MgCl2; IV: 30 % NaCl-50 % KCl-15 % CaCl2-5 % MgCl2 en la formación de compuestos volátiles durante la elaboración de lacón, en comparación con un control (tratamiento I: 100 % NaCl. Hubo una intensa formación de compuestos volátiles durante el procesado, principalmente durante la fase de secado-maduración. La familia química más abundante en el producto final fueron los hidrocarbonos, seguidos por los aldehídos. La liberación de volátiles fue más intensa en los lacones control (1164 AU_106·g-1 materia seca que en los otros lacones (817-891 AUx106· g-1 materia seca. Los lacones de la formulación I mostraron las mayores cantidades de aldehídos, y los lacones de las formulaciones I y II presentaron los mayores contenidos de hidrocarburos. La principal conclusi

  3. Preparation and properties of Fe{sub 80−x}Ni{sub x}P{sub 14}B{sub 6} bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ling; Ma, XiuHua [School of Physics Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830046 (China); Li, Qiang, E-mail: qli@xju.edu.cn [School of Physics Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830046 (China); Zhang, Jijun [School of Physics Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830046 (China); Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Dong, Yaqiang; Chang, Chuntao [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 80−x}Ni{sub x}P{sub 14}B{sub 6} (x = 20–50 at.%) BMGs were prepared by fluxing and J-quenching techniques. • The highest GFA is reached at x = 40 and the corresponding critical diameter is up to 2.5 mm. • The present FeNi-based BMGs exhibit very large ε{sub p} and the ε{sub p} of Fe{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 14}B{sub 6} BMG is 11.7%. • The present FeNi-based BMGs have much higher corrosion resistance than stainless steel. - Abstract: Bulk Fe{sub 80−x}Ni{sub x}P{sub 14}B{sub 6} (x = 20, 30, 40, 50 at.%) glassy alloy rods with the diameters of 1.0–2.5 mm were synthesized by combining fluxing technique and J-quenching technique. The glassy alloy rods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It is found that the range of supercooled liquid region (ΔT{sub x}) is 27–32 K. The saturation magnetization of Fe{sub 80−x}Ni{sub x}P{sub 14}B{sub 6} (x = 20, 30, 40, 50 at.%) bulk glassy alloys gradually decreases from 1.13 T to 0.58 T with increasing Ni content from x = 20 to x = 50. More importantly, the present quaternary FeNiPB bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) shows a significant plastic strain, in particular, the plastic strain of Fe{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 14}B{sub 6} BMG reaches as high as 11.7%. The corrosion resistance of the present FeNiPB BMGs was studied by weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization curves and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that the corrosion resistance of the present FeNiPB BMGs in 0.5 M NaCl and 1 M HCl solution increases with Ni content, and further the present FeNiPB BMGs exhibit larger E{sub corr} values and lower I{sub corr} values, i.e. higher corrosion resistances, than that of stainless steel.

  4. Ni-NiO core-shell inverse opal electrodes for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Kang, Soon Hyung; Zhu, Kai; Kim, Jin Young; Neale, Nathan R; Frank, Arthur J

    2011-05-14

    A general template-assisted electrochemical approach was used to synthesize three-dimensional ordered Ni core-NiO shell inverse opals (IOs) as electrodes for supercapacitors. The Ni-NiO IO electrodes displayed pseudo-capacitor behavior, good rate capability and cycling performance. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  5. CONFIGURATION-INTERACTION IN NI METAL AND NI-ALLOYS AND HIGH-ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TANAKA, A; JO, T; SAWATZKY, GA

    We discuss the electronic state of Ni atoms in Ni metal and of Ni impurity in Cu and Au metals from the viewpoint of 3d configuration interaction (CI) using the Anderson impurity model including atomic multiplets. On the basis of the discussion, we give an interpretation for the Ni 2p-core X-ray

  6. Iodine capture by Hofmann-type clathrate Ni(II)(pz)[Ni(II)(CN)_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massasso, Giovanni; Long, Jerome; Haines, Julien; Devautour-Vinot, Sabine; Maurin, Guillaume; Larionova, Joulia; Guerin, Christian; Guari, Yannick; Grandjean, Agnes; Onida, Barbara; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The thermally stable Hofmann-type clathrate framework Ni(II)(pz)[Ni(II)(CN)_4] (pz = pyrazine) was investigated for the efficient and reversible sorption of iodine (I_2) in the gaseous phase and in solution with a maximum adsorption capacity of 1 mol of I_2 per 1 mol of Ni(II)pz)[Ni(II)(CN)_4] in solution. (authors)

  7. Density functional theory study of the interfacial properties of Ni/Ni3Si eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yuhong; Wen, Zhiqin; Hou, Hua; Guo, Wei; Han, Peide

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the heterogeneous nucleation potential of α-Ni grains on Ni 3 Si particles in Ni-Ni 3 Si eutectic alloy, the work of adhesion (W ad ), fracture toughness (G), interfacial energy (γ i ), and electronic structure of the index (0 0 1), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) Ni/Ni 3 Si interfaces with two different cohesive manners are investigated using first-principles method based on density functional theory. Results indicate that the center site stacking sequence (OM) is preferable to continue the natural stacking sequence of bulk Ni and Ni 3 Si. Since OM stacking interfaces have larger W ad , G and γ i than that of the top site stacking (OT) interfaces. The Ni/Ni 3 Si (1 1 0) interface with OM stacking has the best mechanical properties. Therefore, the formation of this interface can improve the stability, ductility and fracture toughness of Ni-Ni 3 Si eutectic alloy. The calculated interfacial energy of Ni/Ni 3 Si (0 0 1), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) interfaces with OM stacking proves the excellent nucleation potency of Ni 3 Si particles for α-Ni phase from thermodynamic considerations. Besides, the electronic structure and chemical bonding of (1 1 0) interface with OM stacking are also discussed.

  8. Oxygen-rich Mass Loss with a Pinch of Salt: NaCl in the Circumstellar Gas of IK Tauri and VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, S. N.; Apponi, A. J.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2007-10-01

    The NaCl molecule has been observed in the circumstellar envelopes of VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) and IK Tauri (IK Tau)-the first identifications of a metal refractory in oxygen-rich shells of evolved stars. Five rotational transitions of NaCl at 1 and 2 mm were detected toward VY CMa and three 1 mm lines were observed toward IK Tau, using the telescopes of the Arizona Radio Observatory. In both objects, the line widths of the NaCl profiles were extremely narrow relative to those of other molecules, indicating that sodium chloride has not reached the terminal outflow velocity in either star, likely a result of early condensation onto grains. Modeling the observed spectra suggests abundances, relative to H2, of f~5×10-9 in VY CMa and f~4×10-9 in IK Tau, with source sizes of 0.5" and 0.3", respectively. The extent of these sources is consistent with the size of the dust acceleration zones in both stars. NaCl therefore appears to be at least as abundant in O-rich shells as compared to C-rich envelopes, where f~(0.2-2)×10-9, although it appears to condense out earlier in the O-rich case. Chemical equilibrium calculations indicate that NaCl is the major carrier of sodium at T~1100 K for oxygen-rich stars, with predicted fractional abundances in good agreement with the observations. These measurements suggest that crystalline salt may be an important condensate for sodium in both C- and O-rich circumstellar shells.

  9. Density of Liquid Ni-Cr Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloy was measured by a modified sessile drop method. The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloywas found to decrease with increasing temperature and Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of liquidNi-Cr alloy increases with increasing the Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of Ni-Cr alloy determinedin the present work shows a positive deviation from the linear molar volume.

  10. Corrosion behaviour of Mg-Cu and Mg-Mo composites in 3.5% NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budruk Abhijeet, S.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Gupta, M.

    2008-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of pure magnesium, Mg-Cu (0.3, 0.6, and 1 vol.%) and Mg-Mo (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 vol.%) composites has been studied in 3.5% NaCl solution by weight loss and polarisation methods. Corrosion rates determined by weight loss method were considerably higher than that determined by polarisation method. The corrosion rate increased with increasing volume fraction of reinforcement in Mg-Cu and Mg-Mo composites. At the same volume fraction of reinforcement, molybdenum reinforced composite corroded faster than copper reinforced composite. The galvanic current density between Mg-Cu and Mg-Mo couples has been experimentally measured using zero resistance ammeter technique. The experimentally observed galvanic current densities were in close agreement with those obtained using mixed potential theory analysis. SEM observation of corroded samples confirmed microgalvanic activity at the matrix/reinforcement interfaces. The poor corrosion resistance of composites has been attributed to microgalvanic effects between the matrix and reinforcements and inferior quality of surface films

  11. Investigation of sodalites for conditioning halide salts (NaCl and NaI): Comparison of two synthesis routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardez, Isabelle; Campayo, Lionel; Rigaud, Danielle; Chartier, Myriam; Calvet, Aurelie [CEA, Laboratoire d' Etudes des Materiaux Ceramiques pour le Conditionnement, Site de Marcoule, Batiment 208, B.P. 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Sodalites with the general formula Na{sub 8}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}X{sub 2} (where X = Cl or I) were investigated for ceramic conditioning of halide salts (NaCl and NaI). Because of the tendency of halides to volatilize at high temperature, two synthesis routes were tested to optimize the halide content in the sodalite phase. The first is based on heating at high temperature of a [nepheline NaAlSiO{sub 4} + salt] mixture prepared by a dry process. The second, performed at low temperature, consists of the reaction in aqueous media between kaolinite (Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and the salt. The present study compares these two syntheses and examines differences between chloro-sodalite and iodo-sodalite based on X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The next step will consist in sintering the resulting powder samples to obtain dense ceramics. (authors)

  12. A comparative corrosion behavior of Mg, AZ31 and AZ91 alloys in 3.5% NaCl solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of Mg, AZ31 and AZ91 has been evaluated in 3.5% NaCl solution using weight loss, electrochemical polarization and impedance measurements. Corrosion rate derived from the weight losses demonstrated the occurrence of steeply fast corrosion reaction on AZ91 alloy after three hours of immersion, indicating the start of galvanic corrosion. An increase of corrosion rate with immersion time was also observed for AZ31 but with lesser extent than AZ91 alloy. Whereas Mg metals showed a decrease of corrosion rate with immersion time, suggesting the formation of a protective layer on their surfaces. In contrast, the corrosion current density (Icorr derived from the Tafel plots, exhibited their corrosion resistances in order of Mg > AZ91 > AZ31. Electrochemical charge transfer resistance (Rct and double layer capacitance measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, are well in accordance with the measured Icorr. EIS measurements with time and microstructural examination of the corroded and uncorroded samples are helpful in elucidation of results measured by electrochemical polarization.

  13. Inhibition of Corrosion of Carbon Steel in 3.5% NaCl Solution by Myrmecodia Pendans Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atria Pradityana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitor is a substance that is added to the corrosive media to inhibit corrosion rate. Organic inhibitors are preferred to inorganic ones since they are environmentally friendly. One of the organic compounds which is rarely reported as a corrosion inhibitor is Myrmecodia Pendans. The organic compounds can be adsorbed on the metal surface and block the active surface to reduce the rate of corrosion. In this study, the used pipe was carbon steel API 5L Grade B with 3.5% NaCl solution as the corrosion medium. The objective of this research was to analyze the inhibition mechanism Myrmecodia Pendans towards carbon steel in a corrosion medium. Concentration variations of extract Myrmecodia Pendans were 0–500 ppm. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR was used for chemical characterization of Myrmecodia Pendans. Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS were used to measure the corrosion rate and behaviour. From the electrochemical measurements, it was found that the addition of 400 mg/L inhibitor gave the highest inhibition efficiency. Myrmecodia Pendans acted as a corrosion inhibitor by forming a thin layer on the metal surface.

  14. Investigation of electrochemical reduction of GeO2 to Ge in molten CaCl2-NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Liangbin; He, Rui; Wang, Zhiyong; Peng, Junjun; Jin, Xianbo; Chen, George Z.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical reduction of solid GeO 2 has been investigated in the mixed CaCl 2 -NaCl melt at 1023 K for developing a more efficient process for preparation of Ge. Cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic electrolysis were applied to study the GeO 2 -loaded metallic cavity electrode. In addition, porous GeO 2 pellets were reduced by potentiostatic and constant cell voltage electrolysis with a graphite anode, and the electrolysis products were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, focusing on understanding the reduction mechanism and the impact of electrode potential on the product purity. It was found that the reduction of GeO 2 to Ge occurred at a potential of about -0.50 V (vs. Ag/Ag + ), but generating various calcium germanates simultaneously, whose reduction was a little more difficult and needed a potential more negative than -1.00 V. However, if the cathode potential exceeded -1.60 V, Ca (or Na) - Ge intermetallic compounds might form. These results gave an appropriate potential range between -1.10 and -1.40 V for the production of pure germanium. Rapid electrolysis of GeO 2 to pure Ge has been realized at a cell voltage of 2.5 V with a current efficiency of about 92%

  15. Corrosion Behavior of Cu40Zn in Sulfide-Polluted 3.5% NaCl Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Q. N.; Xu, N.; Bao, Y. F.; Jiang, Y. F.; Gu, W.; Yang, Z.; Zheng, Y. G.; Qiao, Y. X.

    2017-10-01

    The corrosion behavior of a duplex-phase brass Cu40Zn in clean and sulfide-polluted 3.5% NaCl solutions was investigated by conducting electrochemical and gravimetric measurements. The corrosion product films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The presence of sulfide shifted the corrosion potential of Cu40Zn toward a more negative value by 100 mV and increased the mass loss rate by a factor of 1.257 compared with the result in the clean solution. The corrosion product film in the clean solution was thin and compact; it mainly consisted of oxides, such as ZnO and Cu2O. By contrast, the film in the sulfide-polluted solution was thick and porous. It mainly contained sulfides and zinc hydroxide chloride (i.e., Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O). The presence of sulfide ions accelerated the corrosion damage of Cu40Zn by hindering the formation of protective oxides and promoting the formation of a defective film which consisted of sulfides and hydroxide chlorides.

  16. [Effects of seed priming on physiology of seed germination and seeding growth of Marsdenia tenacissima under NaCl stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xue-feng; Liu, Li; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Li, Chao; Wang, Ping-li; Yang, Sheng-chao; Hang, Yue-yu

    2015-01-01

    To offer the reference and method for salt damage in the cultivation of Marsdenia tenacissima, the seeds of M. tenacissima collected from Maguan city ( Yunnan province) were taken as the test materials to study the effects of different priming materials on improving germination and growth under high-level salt stress condition. Four different treatments, which were GA3, KNO3-KH2PO4, PEG-6000, NaCl, combined with ANOVA were applied to test the performance of germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, MDA, SOD, and CAT. The results showed that the seed germination was obviously inhibited under salt stress and the soaked seeds with different priming materials could alleviate the damage of salt stress. Under these treatments, the activities of SOD, CAT the content of soluble protein significantly increased. While the content of MDA significantly decreased. The maximum index was obtained when treated with 1.20% KNO3-KH2PO4, the germination percentage increased from 52.67% to 87.33% and the activity of SOD increased from 138.01 to 219.44 respectively. Comparing with the treatment of 1.20% KNO3-KH2PO4, the germination percentage of treating with 300 mg x L(-1) GA3 increased from 52.67% to 80.67%, while the activity of SOD increased from 138.01 to 444.61.

  17. Long Term Corrosion Experiment of Steel Rebar in Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete in NaCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Asmara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on an experimental investigation to identify the effects of fly ash on the electrochemical process of concrete during the curing time. A rebar was analysed using potentiostat to measure the rest potential, polarization diagram, and corrosion rate. Water-to-cement ratio and amount of fly ash were varied. After being cured for 24 hours at a temperature of 65°C, the samples were immersed in 3.5% of NaCl solution for 365 days for electrochemical measurement. Measurements of the half-cell potential and corrosion current density indicated that the fly ash has significant effects on corrosion behaviour of concrete. Although fly ash tends to create passivity on anodic current, it increases corrosion rate. The corrosion potential of this concrete mixture decreases compared to concrete without fly ash. From the result, it can be summarized that concrete mixture with 70% of OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement and 30% fly ash has shown the best corrosion resistance.

  18. Corrosion Behaviour of Heat - Treated Al-6063/ SiCp Composites Immersed in 5 wt% NaCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth ALANEME

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of SiC volume percent and temper conditions (namely, as-cast, solutionized, and artificial age hardening at 180°C and 195°C on the corrosion behaviour of Al (6063 composites and its monolithic alloy immersed in 5wt% NaCl solution has been investigated. Al (6063 - SiC particulate composites containing 6, 12 and 15 volume percent SiC were produced by premixing the SiC particles with borax additive and then adopting two step stir casting. Mass loss and corrosion rate measurements were utilized as criteria for evaluating the corrosion behaviour of the composites. The results show that the corrosion susceptibility of the Al (6063 - SiCp composites was higher than that of the monolithic alloy, and for most cases the corrosion rate of the composites increased with increase in volume percent of SiC. However, it was discovered that the nature of the passive films formed on the composites was sufficiently stable to reduce significantly the corrosion rate of the composites after 13days of immersion. This trend was observed to be consistent for all heat-treatment conditions utilized.

  19. Uniconazole effect on endogenous hormones, proteins and proline contents of barley plants (Hordium vulgare under salinity stress (NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED A. BAKHETA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bakheta MA, Hussein MM. 2014. Uniconazole effect on endogenous hormones, proteins and proline contents of barley plants (Hordium vulgare under salinity stress (NaCl. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 39-44. Pot experiments were carried out during two growth seasons 2010 / 2011 under greenhouse conditions of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt to investigate the response of barley plants (Hordium vulgare L grown under salinity stress (2500 or 5000 ppm to spraying with solutions of uniconazole at 150 or 200 ppm. The obtained results showed that irrigation with saline solutions caused increases in the amounts of abscisic acid (ABA, crude protein, total soluble-protein and proline contents. The results showed that spraying barley plants grown under saline solutions with uniconazole increased endogenous hormone contents of ABA, cytokinins, crude protein, total soluble protein and proline but caused decreases in the amounts of endogenous indole acetic acid (IAA and gibberellic acid (GA3. High protection of abscisic acid in treating plants with uniconazole and under salt stress (interaction effect increases proline, proteins and soluble protein which has been proposed to act as compatible solutes that adjust the osmotic potential in the cytoplasm. Thus, these biochemical characters can be used as a metabolic marker in relation to salinity stress.

  20. Curcuminoid Compounds Isolated from Curcuma domestica Val. as Corrosion Inhibitor Towards Carbon Steel in 1 % NaCl Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandias, D.; Bundjali, B.; Wahyuningrum, D.

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in 1 % NaCl solution by curcuminoids has been studied at 27 degree Celsius using weight loss and electrochemical method. The determination of corrosion inhibition efficiency (% eff) utilising weight loss method at the concentration of 80 ppm showed the best result of 78.70 % for third isolated fraction. Further determination utilising Tafel method showed the following results: raw pure extract of curcuminoid gave 89.88 % at 50 ppm; the first isolated fraction gave 46.50 % at 80 ppm; the second isolated fraction gave 44.83 % at 30 ppm; and the third isolated fraction gave 92.44 % at 70 ppm. Based on the analysis of Tafel extrapolation curve, the raw pure extract and the third fraction of curcuminoid acted as anodic inhibitor, whereas the first and the second fraction performed as cathodic inhibitors. The evaluations of synergism parameter (S θ ) indicate that the enhancement in inhibition efficiency towards raw pure extract was caused by the presence of second and third fractions as cathodic and anodic inhibitors. The contribution of steric hindrance of methoxy groups in curcuminoid structure causes the decrease in curcuminoid activity to be adsorbed on the electrode (carbon steel) surface. (author)

  1. Pit nucleation on as-cast aluminiuim alloy AW-5083 in 0.01M NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolić N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of aluminium alloys in a wide range of technical applications is related mostly to the two facts: they facilitate weight saving of final products (if compared to the steel and they are prone to spontaneous passivity due to the coherent surface oxide layer which impedes further reaction of aluminium with the environment. Among the commercial Al alloys, EN AW-5083 alloy is a representative non-heat treatable Al-Mg based alloy which possesses many interesting characteristics as a structural material, such as low price, moderately high strength, high formability in conjunction with superplasticity and good corrosion resistance in marine atmospheres. Aiming to enhance the knowledge of possible interactions of studied alloy EN AW-5083 in as-cast condition with chloride media, electrochemical measurements were used to follow the pitting behaviour in 0.01 M NaCl. The results of tests have shown that susceptibility of alloy to pitting corrosion is strongly influenced by the microstructural constituents of the alloy in as-cast condition.

  2. Electrochemistry of oxygen-free curium compounds in fused NaCl-2CsCl eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipenko, A.; Maershin, A.; Smolenski, V.; Novoselova, A.; Kormilitsyn, M.; Bychkov, A.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the electrochemical study of Cm(III) in fused NaCl-2CsCl eutectic in the temperature range 823-1023 K. Transient electrochemical techniques such as cyclic, differential pulse and square wave voltammetry, and chronopotentiometry have been used in order to investigate the reduction mechanism of curium ions up to the metal. The results obtained show that the reduction reaction takes place in a single step Cm(III)+3e-bar →Cm(0). The diffusion coefficient of [CmCl 6 ] 3- complex ions was determined by cyclic voltammetry at different temperatures by applying the Berzins-Delahay equation. The validity of the Arrhenius law was also verified and the activation energy for diffusion was found to be 44.46 kJ/mol. The apparent standard electrode potential of the redox couple Cm(III)/Cm(0) was found by chronopotentiometry at several temperatures. The thermodynamic properties of curium trichloride have also been calculated.

  3. Laser alloyed Al-Ni-Fe coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, SL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce crack-free thin surface layers consisting of binary (Al-Ni, Al-Fe) and ternary (Al-Ni-Fe) intermetallic phases by means of a high power laser beam. The laser surface alloying was carried out by melting Fe and Ni...

  4. Synthesis of Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} and Gas Absorption and Release Characteristics of Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}, Ni, or Ti-Added MgH{sub 2}–Based Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Jun; Lee, Seong Ho; Kwon, Sung Nam; Park Il Woo; Song, Myoung Youp [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    A sample [named Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl)] was synthesized by milling ZnCl{sub 2} and NaBH{sub 4} at 400 rpm under argon gas for 2 h. And Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl)+MgH{sub 2} sample was prepared by milling MgH{sub 2} in a planetary ball mill and mixing with the Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl) synthesized by milling for 4 h in a mortar with a pestle. Then the gas-release characteristics of the two samples were investrigated. Analyses of XRD patterns and FT-IR spectra, as well as TGA, DTA, and SEM observations, were also performed. After heating the samples to 400 ℃, the weight losses of Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl) and Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl)+MgH{sub 2} were 11.2 and 8.2 wt%, respectively, with respect to the sample weight. The DTA results for the two samples showed a decomposition peak for Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} at about 61 ℃. The DTA result of Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl) + MgH{sub 2} showed a decomposition peak for MgH{sub 2} at about 374 ℃. A sample of Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl)+MgH{sub 2} to which Ni, and Ti were added, with a composition of 90 wt% MgH{sub 2}-5 wt% Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl)-2.5 wt% Ni-2.5 wt% Ti, in which a large amount of MgH2 is contained in order to make a large quantity of hydrogen be absorbed and released reversibly, was also prepared. The experimental results showed that addition of Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl), Ni, or Ti increased the dehydriding rate of MgH{sub 2}, while decreased its initial hydriding rate.

  5. Nanostructure analysis of friction welded Pd-Ni-P/Pd-Cu-Ni-P metallic glass interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, T.; Shoji, S.; Kawamura, Y.; Hono, K.

    2005-01-01

    Friction welded Pd 40 Ni 40 P 20 /Pd 40 Cu 30 Ni 10 P 20 metallic glass interface has been characterized by energy filtering transmission electron microscopy. The interface is fully amorphous with a gradual compositional change of Cu and Ni in the range of 30 nm. By annealing above T g , the interdiffusion of Cu and Ni progressed in the supercooled liquid region, and the crystallization occurred from the Pd 40 Ni 40 P 20 glass

  6. Study of dipole interaction in micron-width NiFe/Cu/NiFe/NiO wire using exchange anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Itagaki, Yoshio; Wakaya, Fujio; Gamo, Kenji

    2001-01-01

    The dipole interaction between a NiFe layer pinned by a NiO and a free NiFe layer in a micron-wide NiFe/Cu/NiFe/NiO wire was studied by changing the direction of the exchange bias from the NiO layer. The effect of the dipole interaction when the exchange bias was perpendicular to the wire axis was larger than that when the exchange bias was parallel to the wire axis, and was consistently explained by the stray field caused by the magnetic charges of the pinned layer. It was demonstrated that this method, using exchange anisotropy, is useful for investigating the dipole interaction between ferromagnetic materials separated by a nonmagnetic material in small-scale magnetic multilayers. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  7. Effect of heat treatment, top coatings and conversion coatings on the corrosion properties of black electroless Ni-P films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y., E-mail: liu_yunli@hotmail.com [R and D Department, MacDermid plc, 198 Golden Hillock Road, Birmingham B11 2PN (United Kingdom); Beckett, D.; Hawthorne, D. [R and D Department, MacDermid plc, 198 Golden Hillock Road, Birmingham B11 2PN (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Electroless black nickel-phosphorus plating is an advanced electroless nickel plating process formulated to deposit a black finish when processed through an oxidizing acid solution. Heat treatment, five types of top organic coating techniques and one conversion coating technique with three different experimental conditions were investigated to stabilize the black film and increase the hardness and corrosion resistance. Morphology and compositions of electroless nickel-phosphorous films with or without heat treatment, with five types of top organic coatings, and with three conversion coatings were compared to examine nickel, phosphorus, oxygen, carbon, silicon and chrome contents on the corrosion resistance of black surfaces by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and scanning electron microscope. Corrosion resistance of black electroless nickel-phosphorus coatings with or without heat treatment, with five types of top organic coatings, and with three conversion coatings was investigated by the polarization measurements and the salt spray test in 5% NaCl solution, respectively. HydroLac as the top organic coating from MacDermid showed the excellent corrosion resistance and the black EN film did not lose the black color after 48 h salt spray test. Electrotarnil B process with 0.5 ASD for 1 min stabilized the black Ni-P film immediately and increased the hardness and corrosion performance of the black Ni-P film. The black Ni-P coating with Electroarnil B process passed the 5% NaCl salt spray test for 3000 h in the black color and had a minimal corrosion current 0.8547 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} by the polarization measurement.

  8. Study in aqueous solution of the praseodymium inclusion in β-cyclodextrin in 2 M of NaCl; Estudio en solucion acuosa de la inclusion del praseodimio en la β-ciclodextrina en 2 M de NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Cruz M, N.

    2013-07-01

    In the fission of uranium to produce electricity, generated between the fission products which are the lanthanides and actinides that at any given time may come into contact with aqueous media, because of this, praseodymium was including in the β-cyclodextrin in order to increase the solubility and stability of praseodymium by forming inclusion complexes Praseodymium-β-cyclodextrin (Pr-β-Cd). The inclusion study was conducted in a proportion of praseodymium and β-cyclodextrin. Infrared spectra, Raman and X-ray diffraction showed the presence of praseodymium and β-cyclodextrin in the inclusion complex, in both proportions. The analysis by scanning electron microscopy confirmed the inclusion of praseodymium in βcyclodextrin. In general, the results of characterization obtained by these techniques show the formation of the inclusion complex. Furthermore, the behaviour of praseodymium inclusion in the β-cyclodextrin was studied in 2 M NaCl at 303 K and free-CO{sub 2} conditions. For this reason, we used two methods: spectrophotometric and potentiometric titration direct of praseodymium-β-cyclodextrin, the data were treated graphically and with the program SUPERQUAD, respectively. The values obtained for praseodymium by spectrophotometric method was: log β{sub 1}= -8.75 calculated graphically and with the potentiometric method, using program SUPERQUAD were logβ{sub 1,OH}= -8.73 ± 0.01 logβ{sub 1,2OH}= -18.27 ± 0.16 and logβ{sub 1,3OH}= -26.44 ± 0.02 obtained simultaneously. (Author)

  9. Effects of Ni particle morphology on cell performance of Na/NiCl2 battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mangi; Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Jung, Keeyoung; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Cho, Nam-ung; Lee, Heesoo; Choi, Joon-Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Electrochemical reaction of Ni particle, one of active cathode materials in the Na/NiCl2 battery, occurs on the particle surface. The NiCl2 layer formed on the Ni particle surface during charging can disconnect the electron conduction path through Ni particles because the NiCl2 layer has very low conductivity. The morphology and size of Ni particles, therefore, need to be controlled to obtain high charge capacity and excellent cyclic retention. Effects of the Ni particle size on the cell performance were investigated using spherical Ni particles with diameters of 0.5 μm, 6 μm, and 50 μm. The charge capacities of the cells with spherical Ni particles increased when the Ni particle size becomes smaller because of their higher surface area but their charge capacities were significantly decreased with increasing cyclic tests owing to the disconnection of electron conduction path. The inferior cyclic retention of charge capacity was improved using reticular Ni particles which maintained the reliable connection for the electron conduction in the Na/NiCl2 battery. The charge capacity of the cell with the reticular Ni particles was higher than the cell with the small-sized spherical Ni particles approximately by 26% at 30th cycle.

  10. Effect of Different Welding Processes on Electrochemical and Corrosion Behavior of Pure Nickel in 1 M NaCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijing Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A plasma arc welding (PAW-tungsten inert gas (TIG hybrid welding process is proposed to weld pure nickel. In PAW-TIG welding, the arc of the PAW was first to be ignited, then TIG was ignited, while in PAW welding, only the PAW arc was launched. This paper investigated the effect of different welding processes on electrochemical and corrosion performance of between a pure nickel joint and a base metal in an aerated 1 M NaCl solution, respectively. The average grain size of the joint fabricated by PAW welding (denoted as JP joint is 463.57 μm, the joint fabricated by PAW-TIG welding(denoted as JP-T joint is 547.32 μm, and the base metal (BM is 47.32 μm. In this work, the passivity behaviors of samples were characterized for two welding processes by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, open circuit potential versus immersion time (OCP-t, and the potentiodynamic polarization plots. EIS spectra, attained with different immersion times, were analyzed and fitted by an equivalent electrical circuit. Photomicrographs of BM, JP, and JP-T were also taken with a scanning electron microscope (SEM to reveal the morphological structure of the pit surfaces. Electrochemical tests show that the sequence of the corrosion resistance is BM > JP > JP-T. The size and quantity of the hemispherical corrosion pits of all samples are different. The corrosion morphology observations found a consistency with the consequence of the electrochemical measurements. The results show that an increase of the grain dimensions due to different heat treatments decreased the pure nickel stability to pitting corrosion.

  11. Enhanced oxidative stress in the jasmonic acid-deficient tomato mutant def-1 exposed to NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelsaad, Ibrahim; Renault, Sylvie

    2018-04-21

    Jasmonic acid (JA) has been mostly studied in responses to biotic stresses, such as herbivore attack and pathogenic infection. More recently, the involvement of JA in abiotic stresses including salinity was highlighted; yet, its role in salt stress remained unclear. In the current study, we compared the physiological and biochemical responses of wild-type (WT) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv Castlemart and its JA-deficient mutant defenseless-1 (def-1) under salt stress to investigate the role of JA. Plant growth, photosynthetic pigment content, ion accumulation, oxidative stress-related parameters, proline accumulation and total phenolic compounds, in addition to both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities, were measured in both genotypes after 14 days of 100 mM NaCl treatment. Although we observed in both genotypes similar growth pattern and sodium, calcium and potassium levels in leaves under salt stress, def-1 plants exhibited a more pronounced decrease of nitrogen content in both leaves and roots and a slightly higher level of sodium in roots compared to WT plants. In addition, def-1 plants exposed to salt stress showed reactive oxygen species (ROS)-associated injury phenotypes. These oxidative stress symptoms in def-1 were associated with lower activity of both enzymatic antioxidants and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Furthermore, the levels of the non-enzymatic ROS scavengers proline and total phenolic compounds increased in both genotypes exposed to salt stress, with a higher amount of proline in the WT plants. Overall the results of this study suggest that endogenous JA mainly enhanced tomato salt tolerance by maintaining ROS homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Study in aqueous solution of the praseodymium inclusion in β-cyclodextrin in 2 M of NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Cruz M, N.

    2013-01-01

    In the fission of uranium to produce electricity, generated between the fission products which are the lanthanides and actinides that at any given time may come into contact with aqueous media, because of this, praseodymium was including in the β-cyclodextrin in order to increase the solubility and stability of praseodymium by forming inclusion complexes Praseodymium-β-cyclodextrin (Pr-β-Cd). The inclusion study was conducted in a proportion of praseodymium and β-cyclodextrin. Infrared spectra, Raman and X-ray diffraction showed the presence of praseodymium and β-cyclodextrin in the inclusion complex, in both proportions. The analysis by scanning electron microscopy confirmed the inclusion of praseodymium in βcyclodextrin. In general, the results of characterization obtained by these techniques show the formation of the inclusion complex. Furthermore, the behaviour of praseodymium inclusion in the β-cyclodextrin was studied in 2 M NaCl at 303 K and free-CO 2 conditions. For this reason, we used two methods: spectrophotometric and potentiometric titration direct of praseodymium-β-cyclodextrin, the data were treated graphically and with the program SUPERQUAD, respectively. The values obtained for praseodymium by spectrophotometric method was: log β 1 = -8.75 calculated graphically and with the potentiometric method, using program SUPERQUAD were logβ 1,OH = -8.73 ± 0.01 logβ 1,2OH = -18.27 ± 0.16 and logβ 1,3OH = -26.44 ± 0.02 obtained simultaneously. (Author)

  13. Influence of 8-aminoquinoline on the corrosion behaviour of copper in 0.1 M NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubillos, M.; Sancy, M.; Pavez, J.; Vargas, E.; Urzua, R.; Henriquez-Roman, J.; Tribollet, B.; Zagal, J.H.; Paez, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of copper in aerated 0.1 M NaCl solution in presence of 8-aminoquinoline (8-AQ), using open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM), was studied. The measurements revealed that the effect of 8-AQ is dependent on its concentration. For concentrations up to 10 -3 M, the organic compound displaces the corrosion potential following no trend and also reduces the anodic current. In contrast, for concentrations higher than 10 -3 , 8-AQ reduces markedly both, the anodic and cathodic currents and consequently, the corrosion current density of copper. After 9 days of exposure in chloride solution, containing the organic compound, potentiodynamic polarization analyses showed a significant reduction in the anodic response and a less significant reduction in the cathodic response, which is associated with a film formed at the copper surface of about 10 μm in thickness and visually observed by a colour change of the copper surface. In order to elucidate the most likely interaction between the 8-AQ molecule and the different molecular structures probably present on copper surfaces in chloride solutions, some results obtained from theoretical calculations are presented. The following molecular structures were considered: CuCl molecule, CuCl 2 - complex, and little copper clusters defect representation built as five atoms on C 4v symmetry. Thus, based on the geometric, energetic, frontier orbital, and Total Electronic Density analysis done for the optimized states found for the systems investigated, we suggest that the most probable interaction of 8-AQ proceeds above CuCl units and free copper sites.

  14. One dimensional motion of interstitial clusters and void growth in Ni and Ni alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiie, T.; Ishizaki, T.; Xu, Q.; Satoh, Y.; Kiritani, M.

    2002-12-01

    One dimensional (1-D) motion of interstitial clusters is important for the microstructural evolution in metals. In this paper, the effect of 2 at.% alloying with elements Si (volume size factor to Ni: -5.81%), Cu (7.18%), Ge (14.76%) and Sn (74.08%) in Ni on 1-D motion of interstitial clusters and void growth was studied. In neutron irradiated pure Ni, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge, well developed dislocation networks and voids in the matrix, and no defects near grain boundaries were observed at 573 K to a dose of 0.4 dpa by transmission electron microscopy. No voids were formed and only interstitial type dislocation loops were observed near grain boundaries in Ni-Si and Ni-Sn. The reaction kinetics analysis which included the point defect flow into planar sink revealed the existence of 1-D motion of interstitial clusters in Ni, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge, and lack of such motion in Ni-Si and Ni-Sn. In Ni-Sn and Ni-Si, the alloying elements will trap interstitial clusters and thereby reduce the cluster mobility, which lead to the reduction in void growth.

  15. First-principles calculations for the elastic properties of Ni-base model superalloys: Ni/Ni3Al multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun-Jiang, Wang; Chong-Yu, Wang

    2009-01-01

    A model system consisting of Ni[001](100)/Ni 3 Al[001](100) multi-layers are studied using the density functional theory in order to explore the elastic properties of single crystal Ni-based superalloys. Simulation results are consistent with the experimental observation that rafted Ni-base superalloys virtually possess a cubic symmetry. The convergence of the elastic properties with respect to the thickness of the multilayers are tested by a series of multilayers from 2γ'+2γ to 10γ'+10γ atomic layers. The elastic properties are found to vary little with the increase of the multilayer's thickness. A Ni/Ni 3 Al multilayer with 10γ'+10γ atomic layers (3.54 nm) can be used to simulate the mechanical properties of Ni-base model superalloys. Our calculated elastic constants, bulk modulus, orientation-dependent shear modulus and Young's modulus, as well as the Zener anisotropy factor are all compatible with the measured results of Ni-base model superalloys R1 and the advanced commercial superalloys TMS-26, CMSX-4 at a low temperature. The mechanical properties as a function of the γ' phase volume fraction are calculated by varying the proportion of the γ and γ' phase in the multilayers. Besides, the mechanical properties of two-phase Ni/Ni 3 Al multilayer can be well predicted by the Voigt–Reuss–Hill rule of mixtures. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  16. In-situ electrochemical-AFM study of localized corrosion of AlxCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloys in chloride solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunzhu; Collins, Liam; Balke, Nina; Liaw, Peter K.; Yang, Bin

    2018-05-01

    In-situ electrochemical (EC)-AFM is employed to investigate the localized corrosion of the AlxCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloys (HEAs). Surface topography changes on the micro/sub-micro scale are monitored at different applied anodizing potentials in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. The microstructural evolutions with the increased Al content in the alloys are characterized by SEM, TEM, EDS and EBSD. The results show that by increasing the Al content, the microstructure changes from single solid-solution to multi-phases, leading to the segregations of elements. Due to the microstructural variations in the AlxCoCrFeNi HEAs, localized corrosion processes in different ways after the breakdown of the passive film, which changes from pitting to phase boundary corrosion. The XPS results indicate that an increased Al content in the alloys/phases corresponds to a decreased corrosion resistance of the surface passive film.

  17. The effect of TiO2 coating on biological NiTi alloys after micro-arc oxidation treatment for corrosion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukuroglu, Ebru Emine; Sukuroglu, Suleyman; Akar, Kubra; Totik, Yasar; Efeoglu, Ihsan; Arslan, Ersin

    2017-08-01

    NiTi alloys exhibit good properties, such as shape memory behavior, high corrosion resistant, having the closest elasticity modulus of a human bone and superior biocompatibility properties. However, the surface problems that arise during the use of this alloy limit the usage in the industry and health sector. In recent years, micro-arc oxidation method is used to improve the surface properties and increase the usage of these alloys. In this study, the TiO 2 coatings were deposited on the NiTi substrates. The surface topography, morphology, crystallographic structure, and thickness of the coatings were determined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion properties were investigated using potentiostat test unit in two different media such as NaCl solution and simulated body fluid. The results show that the coated samples have higher corrosion resistance than uncoated samples in the two different media.

  18. Influence of in situ synthesized TiC on thermal stability and corrosion behavior of Zr60Cu10Al15Ni15 amorphous composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Jiwei; Teng, Xinying; Zhou, Guorong; Leng, Jinfeng; Zhao, Degang

    2014-01-01

    In situ synthesized TiC particles were prepared by a thermal explosion method. Adding “in situ synthesized” TiC into Zr 60 Cu 10 Al 15 Ni 15 glass matrix to obtain amorphous matrix composites was achieved. The corrosion behavior of Zr 60 Cu 10 Al 15 Ni 15 amorphous composites was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization measurements in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution at room temperature. The results show that the microhardness and thermal stability are improved apparently, while the TiC (≤0.6 wt%) does not significantly affect the supercooled liquid behavior. Moreover, the corrosion resistance is improved apparently because the nanocrystals accelerate the diffusion of passive elements for faster formation of the protective passive film at nanocrystals/amorphous interfaces. However, when the TiC content is more than 0.6 wt%, both glass forming ability and corrosion resistance are reduced significantly

  19. Corrosion resistance and durability of superhydrophobic surface formed on magnesium alloy coated with nanostructured cerium oxide film and fluoroalkylsilane molecules in corrosive NaCl aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Takahiro; Masuda, Yoshitake; Sakamoto, Michiru

    2011-04-19

    The corrosion resistant performance and durability of the superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy coated with nanostructured cerium oxide film and fluoroalkylsilane molecules in corrosive NaCl aqueous solution were investigated using electrochemical and contact angle measurements. The durability of the superhydrophobic surface in corrosive 5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution was elucidated. The corrosion resistant performance of the superhydrophobic surface formed on magnesium alloy was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The EIS measurements and appropriate equivalent circuit models revealed that the superhydrophobic surface considerably improved the corrosion resistant performance of magnesium alloy AZ31. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D 3359-02 cross cut tape test was performed to investigate the adhesion of the superhydrophobic film to the magnesium alloy surface. The corrosion formation mechanism of the superhydrophobic surface formed on the magnesium alloy was also proposed. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. The effect of perfusion and irrigation flow rate variations on NaCl efflux from the isolated, perfused head of the marine teleost, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, J.B.; Evans, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    In vivo branchial blood pressure and unidirectional efflux values for NaCl were determined in the marine teleost, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus. Utilizing an isolated, perfused head preparation, perfused at in vivo pressure levels, NaCl efflux was measured and compared to in vivo values. The effect of variations in perfusion or irrigation rates on the ion efflux across the gills of the isolated head was also studied. The efflux of 22 Na from the isolated, perfused head was found to be similar to in vivo values and dependent on perfusion flow and pressure. In vitro 36 Cl efflux was lower than the efflux from intact animals and was determined to be flow/pressure independent. Irrigation rate changes at all rates tested did not affect the unidirectional efflux of either ion. (Auth.)

  1. Effect of perfusion and irrigation flow rate variations on NaCl efflux from the isolated, perfused head of the marine teleost, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claiborne, J.B. (Miami Univ., Coral Gables, FL (USA)); Evans, D.H. (Mt. Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Salsbury Cove, ME, USA)

    1981-06-01

    In vivo branchial blood pressure and unidirectional efflux values for NaCl were determined in the marine teleost, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus. Utilizing an isolated, perfused head preparation, perfused at in vivo pressure levels, NaCl efflux was measured and compared to in vivo values. The effect of variations in perfusion or irrigation rates on the ion efflux across the gills of the isolated head was also studied. The efflux of /sup 22/Na from the isolated, perfused head was found to be similar to in vivo values and dependent on perfusion flow and pressure. In vitro /sup 36/Cl efflux was lower than the efflux from intact animals and was determined to be flow/pressure independent. Irrigation rate changes at all rates tested did not affect the unidirectional efflux of either ion.

  2. Sub micrometric fibrillar structures of codoped poly aniline obtained by co-oxidation using the NaCl O/ammonium peroxydisulfate system: synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio F, J. E.; Gomez Y, C.; Hernandez P, M. A.; Corea T, M. L., E-mail: josorio@ipn.mx [IPN, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas, U. P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    A mixture of ammonium peroxydisulfate and sodium hypochlorite (NaCl O) (co-oxi dating system) were used to obtain poly aniline (PANi) doped with HCl and camphorsulfonic acid (CsA) (co-doping). The effect of HCl/CsA ratio added during polymerization structure, morphology and electrical conductivity of the conducting polymer was investigated. When NaCl O is used, the polymerization rate is substantially increased and the morphology changes from micrometric granular to nano metric fibrillar. CsA was used as complementary dopant but also to improve the solubility of PANi in common solvents. However, results suggest that quinone-like heterocycles containing carbonyl radicals as well as phenazine-type aromatic rings might be impeding an efficient doping in detriment of the conductivity. For the characterization X-Ray diffraction analysis, UV visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used. (Author)

  3. Evolution of nitrate and nitrite during the processing of dry-cured ham with partial replacement of NaCl by other chloride salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteros, Mónica; Aristoy, María-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2012-07-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are commonly added to dry-cured ham to provide protection against pathogen microorganisms, especially Clostridium botulinum. Both nitrate and nitrite were monitored with ion chromatography in dry-cured hams salted with different NaCl formulations (NaCl partially replaced by KCl and/or CaCl(2), and MgCl(2)). Nitrate, that is more stable than nitrite, diffuses into the ham and acts as a reservoir for nitrite generation. A correct nitrate and nitrite penetration was detected from the surface to the inner zones of the hams throughout its processing, independently of the salt formulation. Nitrate and nitrite achieved similar concentrations, around 37 and 2.2 ppm, respectively in the inner zones of the ham for the three assayed salt formulations at the end of the process, which are in compliance with European regulations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using petrographic techniques to evaluate the induced effects of NaCl, extreme climatic conditions, and traffic load on Spanish road surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Pérez-Fortes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The asphalt surface layer is the most exposed to weather and traffic conditions on roads, especially those subjected to winter maintenance. Therefore, a deep knowledge of the mechanisms which can damage this layer is necessary to improve its design, construction and long-term use. With this purpose, two types of asphalt mixtures used on roads from NW Spain were subjected to durability tests (freezing-thaw and thermal-stress with a saturated NaCl solution. After the durability tests, a wheel tracking test was performed on the samples, and the resultant material was analyzed by optical polarized light and fluorescence microscopy. This analysis showed that the binder-aggregate low adhesion was the main responsible of the asphalt mixture damage. This damage was concentrated in the aggregates because the binder acted as an impermeable wall. Consequently, the NaCl solution penetrated and degraded the aggregates quickly and strongly.

  5. Using petrographic techniques to evaluate the induced effects of NaCl, extreme climatic conditions, and traffic load on Spanish road surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Fortes, A.F.; Varas-Muriel, M.J.; Castiñeiras, P.

    2017-01-01

    The asphalt surface layer is the most exposed to weather and traffic conditions on roads, especially those subjected to winter maintenance. Therefore, a deep knowledge of the mechanisms which can damage this layer is necessary to improve its design, construction and long-term use. With this purpose, two types of asphalt mixtures used on roads from NW Spain were subjected to durability tests (freezing-thaw and thermal-stress) with a saturated NaCl solution. After the durability tests, a wheel tracking test was performed on the samples, and the resultant material was analyzed by optical polarized light and fluorescence microscopy. This analysis showed that the binder-aggregate low adhesion was the main responsible of the asphalt mixture damage. This damage was concentrated in the aggregates because the binder acted as an impermeable wall. Consequently, the NaCl solution penetrated and degraded the aggregates quickly and strongly. [es

  6. Sub micrometric fibrillar structures of codoped poly aniline obtained by co-oxidation using the NaCl O/ammonium peroxydisulfate system: synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio F, J. E.; Gomez Y, C.; Hernandez P, M. A.; Corea T, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    A mixture of ammonium peroxydisulfate and sodium hypochlorite (NaCl O) (co-oxi dating system) were used to obtain poly aniline (PANi) doped with HCl and camphorsulfonic acid (CsA) (co-doping). The effect of HCl/CsA ratio added during polymerization structure, morphology and electrical conductivity of the conducting polymer was investigated. When NaCl O is used, the polymerization rate is substantially increased and the morphology changes from micrometric granular to nano metric fibrillar. CsA was used as complementary dopant but also to improve the solubility of PANi in common solvents. However, results suggest that quinone-like heterocycles containing carbonyl radicals as well as phenazine-type aromatic rings might be impeding an efficient doping in detriment of the conductivity. For the characterization X-Ray diffraction analysis, UV visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used. (Author)

  7. Furfural Production from d-Xylose and Xylan by Using Stable Nafion NR50 and NaCl in a Microwave-Assisted Biphasic Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Le Guenic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pentose dehydration and direct transformation of xylan into furfural were performed in a water-cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME biphasic system under microwave irradiation. Heated up between 170 and 190 °C in the presence of Nafion NR50 and NaCl, d-xylose, l-arabinose and xylan gave furfural with maximum yields of 80%, 42% and 55%, respectively. The influence of temperature and reaction time on the reaction kinetics was discussed. This study was also completed by the survey of different reactant ratios, such as organic layer-water or catalyst-inorganic salt ratios. The exchange between proton and cation induced by an excess of NaCl was monitored, and a synergetic effect between the remaining protons and the released HCl was also discovered.

  8. Furfural Production from d-Xylose and Xylan by Using Stable Nafion NR50 and NaCl in a Microwave-Assisted Biphasic Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guenic, Sarah; Gergela, David; Ceballos, Claire; Delbecq, Frederic; Len, Christophe

    2016-08-22

    Pentose dehydration and direct transformation of xylan into furfural were performed in a water-cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME) biphasic system under microwave irradiation. Heated up between 170 and 190 °C in the presence of Nafion NR50 and NaCl, d-xylose, l-arabinose and xylan gave furfural with maximum yields of 80%, 42% and 55%, respectively. The influence of temperature and reaction time on the reaction kinetics was discussed. This study was also completed by the survey of different reactant ratios, such as organic layer-water or catalyst-inorganic salt ratios. The exchange between proton and cation induced by an excess of NaCl was monitored, and a synergetic effect between the remaining protons and the released HCl was also discovered.

  9. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Influence of Ca and Pb impurities on the bulk optical strength of ultrapure NaCl and KCl crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, An V.; Voszka, R.; Kovalev, Valerii I.; Faĭzullov, F. S.; Janszky, J.

    1987-06-01

    A significant increase (by a factor of about 3) of the bulk damage threshold in the case of interaction of CO2 laser radiation pulses with ultrapure NaCl and KCl crystals grown in a reactive atmosphere was observed on introduction of divalent metal ions Ca and Pb in concentrations of 10-5-10-6 mol/mol. Impurities were introduced in concentrations of 10-8-10-3 and 2×10-7-10-4 mol/mol into the melts of KCl and NaCl, respectively. The concentration of other impurities (including OH) did not exceed ~10-6 mol/mol. A physical model was developed to account for the observed dependence on the basis of an analogy between a system of colloidal particles and F centers in a crystal and a liquid-vapor system.

  10. Ultrasonic measurements at elevated pressures (9 GPa) to determine Poisson's ratio and other elastic moduli of NaCl and NaF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.E.; Jamieson, J.C.; Yarger, F.L.

    1976-01-01

    Transit times of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves were measured simultaneously in NaCl and NaF as a function of ''quasihydrostatic'' pressure to 9 GPa. The dimensionless ratio of these transit times yields directly the ratio of the longitudinal to shear velocity. This velocity ratio is independent of sample length. Using third-order elasticity theory a correction for a probable superimposed uniaxial stress component may be made. When done, this allows the direct determination of Poisson's ratio for each pressure. Shock-wave data are used to obtain other elastic moduli and velocities of shear and longitudinal waves. Apparatus for making these measurements is described and data for NaCl and NaF are presented

  11. Flowsheet for 63Ni production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.; Knauer, J.B.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Wiggins, J.T.; Porter, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The production of large quantities of high specific activity 63 Ni (>10Ci/g) requires both a highly enriched 62 Ni target and a long irradiation period at high neutron flux. Trace impurities in the nickel and associated target materials are also activated and account for a significant fraction of the discharged activity and essentially all of the gamma activity. While most of these undesirable activation products (mainly transition metals) can be easily removed as chloride complexes during anion exchange, chromium, present as 51 Cr, and manganese, present as 54 Mn, are exceptions and require solvent extraction of the in-cell product to achieve the desired purity. In addition to summarizing the current development and production experience, optimized flowsheets are discussed

  12. Microstructural investigations of Ni and Ni2Al3 coatings exposed in biomass power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, D. L.; Dahl, K. V.; Christiansen, T. L.

    2018-01-01

    The present work investigates the corrosion resistance of Ni and Ni2Al3 coated austenitic stainless steel (TP347H) tubes, which were exposed in a biomass-fired boiler with an outlet steam temperature of 540 °C for 6757 h. The Ni2Al3 coating was produced by electroplating Ni followed by low...... temperature pack cementation. After exposure, microstructural investigations were performed by light optical and electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). Electroplated Ni coatings were not protective in straw firing power plants and exhibited similar corrosion morphology as uncoated tubes. For Ni2Al3 coatings...

  13. Influence of ni thickness on oscillation coupling in Cu/Ni multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagorowska, B; Dus-Sitek, M [Institute of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2007-08-15

    The results of investigation of magnetic properties of [Cu/Ni]x100 were presented. Samples were deposited by face-to-face sputtering method onto the silicon substrate, the thickness of Cu layer was constant (d{sub Cu} = 2 nm) and the thickness of Ni layer - variable (1 nm {<=} d{sub Ni} {<=} 6 nm). In Cu/Ni multilayers, for the thickness of Ni layer bigger than 2 nm antiferromagnetic coupling (A-F) were observed, for the thickness of Ni smaller than 2 nm A-F coupling is absent.

  14. Influence of ni thickness on oscillation coupling in Cu/Ni multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagorowska, B; Dus-Sitek, M

    2007-01-01

    The results of investigation of magnetic properties of [Cu/Ni]x100 were presented. Samples were deposited by face-to-face sputtering method onto the silicon substrate, the thickness of Cu layer was constant (d Cu = 2 nm) and the thickness of Ni layer - variable (1 nm ≤ d Ni ≤ 6 nm). In Cu/Ni multilayers, for the thickness of Ni layer bigger than 2 nm antiferromagnetic coupling (A-F) were observed, for the thickness of Ni smaller than 2 nm A-F coupling is absent

  15. Plasma glucose level in elective surgical patients administered with 5% dextrose in 0.45% NaCl in comparison with those receiving lactated Ringer's solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saringcarinkul, Ananchanok; Kotrawera, Kriengsak

    2009-09-01

    To determine the effect of dextrose containing solution (5% dextrose in 0.45% NaCl) compared to non-dextrose containing solution (lactated Ringer's solution) on plasma glucose level in elective surgical patients. A prospective randomized double-blind control trial was conducted on 60 patients aged 18-60, with ASA physical status I to II, who were scheduled for elective surgery at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Thailand between October; 2007 and September; 2008. The patients received either lactated Ringer's solution (Group L), or 5% dextrose in 0.45% NaCl (Group D) in the morning of the operation day. Blood glucose levels were determined before intravenous fluid administration (T0), at the beginning (T1), after the 1st hr (T2), and at the end of surgery (T3). Mean duration of preoperative fast was almost 11 hrs in both groups; however, none of the patients had preoperative hypoglycemia. The blood sugar levels were significantly higher in the patients receiving 5% dextrose solution compared to the patients receiving lactated Ringer's solution at the beginning, after the 1st hr and at the end of surgery (p-value = 0.06, 0.018 and 0.036 respectively). There were some patients having hyperglycemia after receiving 5% dextrose in 0.45% NaCl during surgery. However, none of the average plasma glucose values in either group was considered as hyperglycemia. Though they fasted many hours before surgery, no patients were found to have hypoglycemia. The large volume of lactate Ringer's solution had minimal effect on the blood sugar levels compared to the levels in 5% dextrose in 0.45% NaCl group. Therefore, lactate Ringer's solution is probably the alternative choice of intravenous fluid for perioperative maintenance and can be used as replacement in healthy patients undergoing elective surgery.

  16. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT K2HP04 AND NaCl LEVELS ON THE WATER-HOLDING CAPACITY AND COOKING LOSS OF GOAT MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Karakaya

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted on the laboratory conditions. Different levels of K2HP04 (0.00%, 0.25%, 0.30% and NaCl (2.5%, 3.0% were applied on the goat meat and the pH, water holding capacity and cooking loss were observed. According to the results the effects of 0.25% K2HP04 addition was found statistically insignificant (p

  17. 23Na and 35/37Cl as NMR probes of growth and shape of sodium taurodeoxycholate micellar aggregates in the presence of NaCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaro, Fioretta; Feruglio, Luigi; Galantini, Luciano; Nardelli, Alessia

    2013-02-15

    The growth of the aggregates of the dihydroxylated bile salt sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC) upon NaCl addition and the involvement of the counterion were investigated by NMR spectroscopy of monoatomic ionic species. (23)Na T(1) values from 0.015, 0.100, and 0.200 mol kg(-1) NaTDC solutions in D(2)O, at variable NaCl content, proved to be sensitive to the transition from primary to secondary aggregates, which occurs in the former sample, and to intermicellar interaction. Some (79)Br NMR measurements were performed on a 0.100 mol kg(-1) NaTDC sample added by NaBr in place of NaCl for comparison purposes. The (23)Na, (35)Cl, and (37)Cl double quantum filtered (DQF) patterns, from the 0.100 mol kg(-1) NaTDC sample, and (23)Na ones also from the 0.200 mol kg(-1) NaTDC one, in the presence of 0.750 mol kg(-1) NaCl, are a clear manifestation of motional anisotropy. Moreover, the DQF spectra of (23)Na and (37)Cl, which possess close quadrupole moments, display a striking similarity. The DQF lineshapes were simulated exploiting the Scilab environment to obtain an estimate of the residual quadrupole splitting magnitude. These results support the description of NaTDC micelles as cylindrical aggregates, strongly interacting at high ionic strengths, and capable of association with added electrolytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of salts (NaCl and Na2CO3) on callus and suspension culture of Stevia rebaudiana for Steviol glycoside production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratibha; Sharma, Satyawati; Saxena, Sanjay

    2014-03-01

    Steviol glycosides are natural non-caloric sweeteners which are extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana plant. Present study deals the effect of salts (NaCl and Na2CO3) on callus and suspension culture of Stevia plant for steviol glycoside (SGs) production. Yellow-green and compact calli obtained from in vitro raised Stevia leaves sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l(-1) NAA and different concentrations of NaCl (0.05-0.20%) and Na2CO3 (0.0125-0.10%) for 2 weeks, and incubated at 24 ± 1 °C and 22.4 μmol m(-2) s(-1) light intensity provided by white fluorescent tubes for 16 h. Callus and suspension biomass cultured on salts showed less growth as well as browning of medium when compared with control. Quantification of SGs content in callus culture (collected on 15th day) and suspension cultures (collected at 10th and 15th days) treated with and without salts were analyzed by HPLC. It was found that abiotic stress induced by the salts increased the concentration of SGs significantly. In callus, the quantity of SGs got increased from 0.27 (control) to 1.43 and 1.57% with 0.10% NaCl, and 0.025% Na2CO3, respectively. However, in case of suspension culture, the same concentrations of NaCl and Na2CO3 enhanced the SGs content from 1.36 (control) to 2.61 and 5.14%, respectively, on the 10th day.

  19. Etude de l'effet du stress salin (NaCl) chez deux variétés de tomate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La germination, les paramètres de croissance ainsi que les paramètres biochimiques, sont comparés chez deux variétés de tomate (Campbell 33 et Mongal) soumises à des concentrations croissantes de NaCl. (0,17, 50, 85 et 130 mM). Le pourcentage de germination des graines diminue avec l'augmentation de la salinité ...

  20. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting promotes photosynthesis by regulating the stomata and non-stomata performances in leaves of watermelon seedlings under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Yu, Li; Wang, Liping; Guo, Shirong

    2015-08-15

    Previously, we found that the amelioration of photosynthetic capacity by bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) rootstock in watermelon seedlings (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) with salt treatment might be closely related to the enzymes in Calvin cycle such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Yang et al., 2012). We confirmed this and showed more details in this study that improved photosynthesis of watermelon plants by bottle gourd rootstock was associated with the decreased stomata resistance and the increased photochemical activity and photosynthetic metabolism with or without 100mM NaCl stress for 3 days. The analysis of gas exchange parameters showed that self-grafted plants suffered serious non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under salt stress while rootstock-grafted plants were mainly affected by stomata limitation in stress conditions. Further, results showed that NaCl stress markedly reduced the chlorophyll content, damaged the structure of photosynthetic apparatus, and inhibited photochemical activity and CO2 assimilation in self-grafted plants. In contrast, rootstock-grafting increased the chlorophyll content, especially chlorophyll b, and minimized the harmful effects on photosystem II (PSII) reaction center and the thylakoids structure induced by NaCl stress. Furthermore, rootstock-grafting enhanced the content and activity of Rubisco and thus elevated carbon fixation in the leaves of watermelon scions under salt stress. The gene expressions of enzymes related to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration were also up-regulated by rootstock and this probably guaranteed the sufficient supply of RuBP for the operation of Calvin cycle in watermelon scions under salt stress. Thus, bottle gourd rootstock promoted photosynthesis by the activation of stomatal and non-stomatal abilities, especially the regulation of a variety of photosynthetic enzymes, including Rubisco in grafted watermelon plants under NaCl stress

  1. Exclusive study of Ni+Ni and Ni+Au central collisions: phase coexistence and spinodal decomposition; Etude exclusive des collisions centrales Ni+Ni et Ni+Au: coexistence de phase et decomposition spinodale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiot, B

    2002-12-01

    The INDRA multidetector allowed us to study the Ni+Ni collisions at 32A MeV and the Ni+Au collisions at 52,4 MeV. Central collisions leading to 'quasi-fused' systems were isolated using multidimensional analysis techniques: the Discriminant Analysis and the Principal Component Analysis. Comparison with a statistical model shows that the selected events are compatible with thermodynamical equilibrium. The average thermal excitation energy is 5A MeV for both systems. Calculations of heat capacities show that the deexcitation of the hot sources are akin to a liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter. Indeed heat capacities exhibit a negative branch as expected for a phase transition of a finite system. The dynamics of this phase transition has been investigated by applying the charge correlation method. An enhanced production of events with equal-sized fragments has been evidenced for Ni+Au at 52A MeV. No signal was found for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. Finally this method was improved by taking into account the total charge conservation. The signal is seen more clearly for Ni+Au at 52A MeV, but is ambiguous for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. The path followed in the state diagram, or the involved time scales, seem to be different for these systems. (authors)

  2. niños preescolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rosario Portilla Ramírez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio explora la relación entre la escritura y la comprensión de la referencia a través de una tarea de sinonimia en niños entre 5 y 6 años de edad, de origen latinoamericano, escolarizados en Barcelona (España. Las variables relacionadas con la tarea de sinonimia fueron (a la comprensión de la entidad lingüística nombre y (b el nivel de conceptualización de la escritura de los niños y la presencia de etiquetas escritas durante la tarea. Para la tarea de sinonimia se utilizaron pares de sinónimos dialectales del español (de Latinoamérica y de la Península Ibérica. Los resultados mostraron una diferenciación en el razonamiento de los niños, la cual dependía de la comparación entre lenguaje oral y lenguaje escrito en el desarrollo de la tarea, evidenciando una mayor aceptación de la sinonimia en la modalidad de lenguaje oral que en la modalidad de lenguaje escrito.

  3. Reinvestigation of 56Ni decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, B.; Norman, E.B.; Lesko, K.T.; Browne, E.; Larimer, R.

    1990-01-01

    In a series of experiments, we have reinvestigated the decay of the doubly magic nucleus 56 Ni, which is believed to be copiously produced in supernovae. We have confirmed its previously known decay scheme and half-life, and have searched for several rare decay modes. We establish an upper limit of 5.8x10 -7 for the branching ratio of the second forbidden unique β + decay to the 158-keV level in 56 Co, leading to a lower limit of 2.9x10 4 yr for the half-life of fully ionized 56 Ni nuclei in cosmic rays. We also establish an upper limit of 5.0x10 -3 for the branching ratio of the isospin forbidden Fermi electron capture transition to the 1451-keV level in 56 Co, which in turn leads to an upper limit of 124 keV for the isospin mixing Coulomb matrix element of the 56 Ni ground state

  4. Mechanical Degradation of Porous NiTi Alloys Under Static and Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyyed Alireza

    2017-12-01

    Pore characteristics and morphology have significant effect on mechanical behavior of porous NiTi specimens. In this research, porous NiTi with different pore sizes, shapes and morphology were produced by powder metallurgy methods using space-holder materials. The effect of the pore characteristics on the mechanical properties was investigated by static and cyclic compression tests at body temperature. The results show that specimens with low porosity and isolated pores exhibit more mechanical strength and recoverable strain. The specimen with 36% porosity produced without space holder could preserve its properties up to 10% strain and its strain recovery was complete after cyclic compression tests. On the other hand, the specimens produced by a urea space holder with more than 60% interconnected porosity show rapid degradation of their scaffolds. The highly porous specimens degraded even below 5% strain due to crack formation and propagation in the thin pore walls. For highly porous specimens produced by a NaCl space holder, the pores are partially interconnected with a cubic shape; nevertheless, their mechanical behavior is close to low-porosity specimens.

  5. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of gas atomized Al–Ni alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osório, Wislei R.; Spinelli, José E.; Afonso, Conrado R.M.; Peixoto, Leandro C.; Garcia, Amauri

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spray-formed Al–Ni alloy powders have cellular microstructures. ► Porosity has no deleterious effect on the electrochemical corrosion behavior. ► Better pitting corrosion resistance is related to a fine powder microstructure. ► A coarse microstructure can be related to better general corrosion resistance. - Abstract: This is a study describing the effects of microstructure features of spray-formed Al–Ni alloy powders on the electrochemical corrosion resistance. Two different spray-formed powders were produced using nitrogen (N 2 ) gas flow (4 and 8 bar were used). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic anodic polarization techniques and an equivalent circuit analysis were used to evaluate the electrochemical behavior in a dilute 0.05 M NaCl solution at room temperature. It was found that a N 2 gas pressure of 8 bar resulted in a microstructure characterized by a high fraction of small powders and fine cell spacings, having improved pitting potential but higher corrosion current density when compared with the corresponding results of a coarser microstructure array obtained under a lower pressure. A favorable effect in terms of current density and oxide protective film formation was shown to be associated with the coarser microstructure, however, its pitting potential was found to be lower than that of the finer microstructure.

  6. Multilayered Zn-Ni alloy coatings for better corrosion protection of mild steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadananda Rashmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple aqueous electrolyte for the deposition of anti-corrosive Zn-Ni alloy coatings was optimized using conventional Hull cell method. The corrosion protection value of the electrodeposited coatings at a current density (c.d. range of 2.0–5.0 A dm−2 has been testified in 5 wt% NaCl solution, as representative corrosion medium. The electrochemical behavior of the coatings towards corrosion was related to its surface topography, elemental composition and phase structure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses, respectively. Among the monolithic coatings developed at different c.d.’s, the coating obtained at 3.0 A dm−2 was found to be the best with least corrosion current (icorr value. Further, the corrosion protection efficacy of the monolayer coatings were improved to many folds through multilayer coating approach, by modulating the cyclic cathode current densities (CCCD’s. The composition modulated multilayer (CMM Zn-Ni alloy coating with 60 layers, developed from the combination of CCCD’s 3.0 and 5.0 A dm−2 was found to be the best with 3 fold enhancement in corrosion protection efficiency. The formation of multilayer coatings was confirmed using cross-sectional SEM, and the experimental results are discussed with tables and figures.

  7. Interactions of Ni and Ca at the calcite-solution interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, T.; Aalto, H.

    1996-10-01

    The performance assessment of repositories for spent nuclear fuel need, among other things, data describing the solubilities of radionuclides in the near field and far field. The solubility limits are often used in order to estimate the maximum concentrations of radionuclides during their possible transport to the biosphere. The solubilities used are mostly the individual solubilities for pure solids of the actual radionuclides. This way of using solubility limits represents a conservative performance assessment where the estimated nuclide concentrations are unrealistically high. This is acceptable from a performance assessment point of view but very unsatisfactory for an optimal design of the repository. In order to make the assessment more realistic, coprecipitation and solid solution formation should be taken into account. Only solids which are, in geological terms, formed in fast reactions need to be considered, which in practice restricts the number of radionuclide scavengers to calcite and iron(III)oxihydroxide. This work focuses on the Ni coprecipitation with calcite. The systems were studied under anoxic conditions and consisted of calcite-saturated 0.05 M NaCl solutions in equilibrium with synthetic calcite. The solutions were initially spiked with 63 Ni and 45 Ca and the concentrations of these elements were determined using liquid scintillation counting. (18 refs.)

  8. On the nature of Ni···Ni interaction in a model dimeric Ni complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Radosław; Herbaczyńska, Beata; Srebro, Monika; Pietrzykowski, Antoni; Michalak, Artur; Jerzykiewicz, Lucjan B; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2011-06-07

    A new dinuclear complex (NiC(5)H(4)SiMe(2)CHCH(2))(2) (2) was prepared by reacting nickelocene derivative [(C(5)H(4)SiMe(2)CH=CH(2))(2)Ni] (1) with methyllithium (MeLi). Good quality crystals were subjected to a high-resolution X-ray measurement. Subsequent multipole refinement yielded accurate description of electron density distribution. Detailed inspection of experimental electron density in Ni···Ni contact revealed that the nickel atoms are bonded and significant deformation of the metal valence shell is related to different populations of the d-orbitals. The existence of the Ni···Ni bond path explains the lack of unpaired electrons in the complex due to a possible exchange channel.

  9. Effects of NaCl Replacement with Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the Quality Characteristics and Sensorial Properties of Model Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of γ-aminobutylic acid (GABA) on the quality and sensorial properties of both the GABA/NaCl complex and model meat products. GABA/NaCl complex was prepared by spray-drying, and the surface dimensions, morphology, rheology, and saltiness were characterized. For model meat products, pork patties were prepared by replacing NaCl with GABA. For characteristics of the complex, increasing GABA concentration increased the surface dimensions of the complex. However, GABA did not affect the rheological properties of solutions containing the complex. The addition of 2% GABA exhibited significantly higher saltiness than the control (no GABA treatment). In the case of pork patties, sensory testing indicated that the addition of GABA decreased the saltiness intensity. Both the intensity of juiciness and tenderness of patties containing GABA also scored lower than the control, based on the NaCl reduction. These results were consistent with the quality characteristics (cooking loss and texture profile analysis). Nevertheless, overall acceptability of the pork patties showed that up to 1.5%, patties containing GABA did not significantly differ from the control. Consequently, the results indicated that GABA has a potential application in meat products, but also manifested a deterioration of quality by the NaCl reduction, which warrants further exploration. PMID:26761294

  10. The structure of PbCl2 on the {100} surface of NaCl and its consequences for crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Eleanor R.; Brugman, Sander J. T.; Blijlevens, Melian A. R.; Smets, Mireille M. H.; de Poel, Wester; van Enckevort, Willem J. P.; Meijer, Jan A. M.; Vlieg, Elias

    2018-04-01

    The role that additives play in the growth of sodium chloride is a topic which has been widely researched but not always fully understood at an atomic level. Lead chloride (PbCl2) is one such additive which has been reported to have growth inhibition effects on NaCl {100} and {111}; however, no definitive evidence has been reported which details the mechanism of this interaction. In this investigation, we used the technique of surface x-ray diffraction to determine the interaction between PbCl2 and NaCl {100} and the structure at the surface. We find that Pb2+ replaces a surface Na+ ion, while a Cl- ion is located on top of the Pb2+. This leads to a charge mismatch in the bulk crystal, which, as energetically unfavourable, leads to a growth blocking effect. While this is a similar mechanism as in the anticaking agent ferrocyanide, the effect of PbCl2 is much weaker, most likely due to the fact that the Pb2+ ion can more easily desorb. Moreover, PbCl2 has an even stronger effect on NaCl {111}.

  11. Effect of NaCl Solution Spraying on Fatigue Lives of Smooth and Slit Specimens of 0.37% Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makabe, Chobin; Ferdous, Md. Shafiul; Shimabukuro, Akimichi; Murdani, Anggit

    2017-07-01

    The fatigue crack initiation life and growth rate are affected by experimental conditions. A corrosive environment can be created in a laboratory by means of dropping salt water onto the specimen surface, spraying chloride mist into the experimental chamber, etc. In the case of smooth specimens of some metals, fatigue life is shortened and the fatigue limit disappears under such corrosive experimental conditions. In this study, the effects of intermittent spraying of 3% NaCl solution-mist on corrosion fatigue behavior were investigated. The material used was 0.37% carbon steel. This is called JIS S35C in Japan. Spraying of 3% NaCl solution-mist attacked the surface layer of the specimen. It is well known that the pitting, oxidation-reduction reaction, etc. affect the fatigue strength of metals in a corrosive environment. We carried out corrosion fatigue tests with smooth specimens, holed specimens and slit specimens. Then the effects of such specimen geometry on the fatigue strength were investigated when the NaCl solution-mist was sprayed onto the specimen surface. In the case of lower stress amplitude application in slit specimens, the fatigue life in a corrosive atmosphere was longer than that in the open air. It is discussed that the behavior is related to the crack closure which happens when the oxide builds up and clogs the crack or slit.

  12. Characterization of CuCl quantum dots grown in NaCl single crystals via optical measurements, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Kensuke; Akatsu, Tatsuro; Itoh, Ken

    2018-05-01

    We evaluated the crystal size, shape, and alignment of the lattice planes of CuCl quantum dots (QDs) embedded in NaCl single crystals by optical measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We obtained, for the first time, an XRD pattern and TEM images for CuCl QDs in NaCl crystals. The XRD pattern showed that the lattice planes of the CuCl QDs were parallel to those of the NaCl crystals. In addition, the size of the QDs was estimated from the diffraction width. It was apparent from the TEM images that almost all CuCl QDs were polygonal, although some cubic QDs were present. The mean size and size distribution of the QDs were also obtained. The dot size obtained from optical measurements, XRD, and TEM image were almost consistent. Our new findings can help to reveal the growth mechanism of semiconductor QDs embedded in a crystallite matrix. In addition, this work will play an important role in progressing the study of optical phenomena originating from assembled semiconductor QDs.

  13. Effect of Water Content, Temperature and NaCl on CO2 Corrosion of Carbon Steel (A106B in Iraqi Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Ahmed Jafar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to determine the corrosion rate of carbon steel (A 106 GradeB as flow line in crude oil production with CO2 content employing three Iraqi crude oil (Kirkuk crude oil, Halfaya crude oil, and Rumalia crude oil with identical produced water (brine [1%NaCl,2%NaCl, and 3%NaCl]. Experiments were performed in an autoclave test apparatus, crude oilproduced water mixtures, water cuts were (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 100%, and temperature (20, 40, 60°C. For all experiments, CO2 partial pressure was maintained at 4bar and rotational speed 500 rpm. The corrosion rates were determined by the weight loss method. The results revealed that the corrosion rate of carbon steel increased by increasing water cut and temperature, but decreased with increasing salt concentration for all types of crude oil. Rumaila crude oil exhibited the highest corrosion rate and Kirkuk crude oil exhibits the lowest corrosion rate while Halfaya crude oil exhibits a moderate corrosion rate.

  14. Corrosion behaviour of sintered Ti–Ni–Cu–Nb in 0.9% NaCl environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moipone Linda Lethabane

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The uniform and localized corrosion behaviour of sintered Ti–Ni containing niobium and copper additions were studied using potentiodynamic and cyclic polarization measurements in 0.9% sodium chloride. Results indicated that copper and niobium addition did not have significant effects on the uniform corrosion characteristics, but significantly improved the pitting corrosion resistance. Both copper and niobium additions significantly increased the re-passivation potentials, while copper was observed to reduce the pitting hysteresis loop area. Alloys containing 15% copper and 2% niobium additions depicted the most improved pitting corrosion resistance, and increased the re-passivation value from −315.60 mV to a high re-passivation potential of 840.68 mV.

  15. Synthesis of Ni core NiO shell nanostructure and magnetic investigation for shell thickness determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, H.; Bruck, E.; Tichelaar, F.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Nickel oxide has received a considerable amount of attention in recent years for its catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties. Ni nanoparticles with an average size of 8 nm were prepared by dc - arc discharge in argon atmosphere. A current of 130 A and 300 milli bar pressure of argon have been applied. The produced Ni nanoparticles were annealed for oxidizing in air at 350 for six hours to produce antiferromagnetic NiO particles. The structure of Ni and NiO nanoparticles and size estimation of them studied by means of X-ray diffraction. The size and morphology of the particles were also characterized by high resolution transmission microscopy (TEM). The Ni core NiO shell structure, resulting from the oxidation process, were studied by magnetic properties measurements. A quantum design squid magnetometer, model MPMS5S was used for measuring saturation magnetization of both nanoparticles of Ni with and without NiO layer. By knowing the density of Ni and NiO, we were able to deduce the thickness of the Ni core and NiO outer layer. They are around 3 and 5 nanometers respectively. (authors)

  16. Exclusive study of Ni+Ni and Ni+Au central collisions: phase coexistence and spinodal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiot, B.

    2002-12-01

    The INDRA multidetector allowed us to study the Ni+Ni collisions at 32A MeV and the Ni+Au collisions at 52,4 MeV. Central collisions leading to 'quasi-fused' systems were isolated using multidimensional analysis techniques: the Discriminant Analysis and the Principal Component Analysis. Comparison with a statistical model shows that the selected events are compatible with thermodynamical equilibrium. The average thermal excitation energy is 5A MeV for both systems. Calculations of heat capacities show that the deexcitation of the hot sources are akin to a liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter. Indeed heat capacities exhibit a negative branch as expected for a phase transition of a finite system. The dynamics of this phase transition has been investigated by applying the charge correlation method. An enhanced production of events with equal-sized fragments has been evidenced for Ni+Au at 52A MeV. No signal was found for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. Finally this method was improved by taking into account the total charge conservation. The signal is seen more clearly for Ni+Au at 52A MeV, but is ambiguous for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. The path followed in the state diagram, or the involved time scales, seem to be different for these systems. (authors)

  17. Atomistic calculations of hydrogen interactions with Ni3Al grain boundaries and Ni/Ni3Al interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskes, M.I.; Angelo, J.E.; Moody, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potentials have been developed for the Ni/Al/H system. The potentials have been fit to numerous properties of this system. For example, these potentials represent the structural and elastic properties of bulk Ni, Al, Ni 3 Al, and NiAl quite well. In addition the potentials describe the solution and migration behavior of hydrogen in both nickel and aluminum. A number of calculations using these potentials have been performed. It is found that hydrogen strongly prefers sites in Ni 3 Al that are surrounded by 6 Ni atoms. Calculations of the trapping of hydrogen to a number of grain boundaries in Ni 3 Al have been performed as a function of hydrogen chemical potential at room temperature. The failure of these bicrystals under tensile stress has been examined and will be compared to the failure of pure Ni 3 Al boundaries. Boundaries containing a preponderance of nickel are severely weakened by hydrogen. In order to investigate the potential embrittlement of γ/γ' alloys, trapping of hydrogen to a spherical Ni 3 Al precipate in nickel as a function of chemical potential at room temperature has been calculated. It appears that the boundary is not a strong trap for hydrogen, hence embrittlement in these alloys is not primarily due to interactions of hydrogen with the γ/γ interface

  18. Structural, magnetic, electrical and electrochemical properties of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} synthesized by the molten salt technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthilkumar, Baskaran [Solid State Ionics and Energy Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Kalai Selvan, Ramakrishnan, E-mail: selvankram@buc.edu.in [Solid State Ionics and Energy Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Vinothbabu, Palanisamy [Department of Physics, Gobi Arts and Science College, Gobichettipalayam 638 453 (India); Perelshtein, Ilana [Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Gedanken, Aharon, E-mail: gedanken@mail.biu.ac.il [Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} The article describes the comprehensive study of molten salt synthesised NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. {yields} The optimized NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were further studied for their application as electrodes in redox supercapacitors and hydrogen evolving reaction (HER) using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) techniques, respectively. {yields} The electrochemical characterization of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed pseudocapacitive property and exhibited specific capacitance of 18.5 F g{sup -1}. {yields} It also confirmed through LSV, the prepared NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has good electrocatalytic behavior compared with its individual constituents like NiO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well as the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared by solid state reaction. - Abstract: Submicron-sized NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles were synthesized by the molten salt method at 900 deg. C using binary melts of a NaCl and KCl mixture that acts as a flux. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the single phase, high crystalline and cubic structure of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with a Fd3m space group. The FT-IR spectra reveal the stretching vibration of octahedral complexes of Fe{sup 3+}-O{sup 2-} through the observed band around 552.3 cm{sup -1}. The SEM and TEM image had indicated the formation of submicron-sized NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles. The ferrimagnetic behavior and high saturation magnetization of 44 emu g{sup -1} was elucidated by VSM. The maximum electrical conductivity of 1.42 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} was observed at 873 K. The NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed a pseudocapacitive property in 1 M of a LiClO{sub 4} electrolyte and exhibited a specific capacitance of 18.5 F g{sup -1} at 10 mV s{sup -1}. The hydrogen evolution reaction was also studied for NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} in 1 M of a H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution.

  19. Protective Strategies Against Dysphonia in Teachers: Preliminary Results Comparing Voice Amplification and 0.9% NaCl Nebulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Maria Lúcia Vaz; de Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of two protective strategies, voice amplification (VA) and 0.9% NaCl nebulization (NEB), on teachers' voice in the work setting. An interventional evaluator-blind study was conducted, assigning 53 teachers from two public high schools to one of the two protective strategy groups (VA or NEB). Vocal function was assessed in a sound-treated booth before and after a 4-week period. Assessment included the severity of voice impairment (Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice [CAPE-V]), acoustic analysis of fundamental frequency (f0), sound pressure level (SPL), jitter, shimmer, glottal-to-noise excitation ratio (GNE), noise (VoxMetria), and the self-rated Screening Index for Voice Disorder (SIVD). Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS Statistics (version 22) with a significance level of P ≤ 0.05. Effect size was calculated using Cohen's d coefficient. There were no statistical differences between groups at baseline in terms of age, sex, time of teaching, teaching workload, and voice outcomes, except for SPL. During postintervention between groups, NEB displayed lower SIVD scores (VA = 3; NEB = 0; P = 0.018) and VA had lower acoustic irregularity (VA = 3.19; NEB = 3.69; P = 0.027), with moderate to large effect size. Postintervention within-groups decreased CAPE-V for VA (pretest = 31.97; posttest = 28.24; P = 0.021) and SIVD for NEB (pretest = 3; posttest = 0; P = 0.001). SPL decreased in both groups, NEB decreased in men only, and VA decreased in both men and women. NEB increased f0 for female participants (P ≤ 0.001). Both VA and NEB may help mitigate dysphonia in different pathways, being potential interventions for protecting teachers' voices in the work setting. An ongoing study with a control group will further support these preliminary results. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Corrosion resistance of a laser spot-welded joint of NiTi wire in simulated human body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Da-Zhi

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate corrosion resistance of a laser spot-welded joint of NiTi alloy wires using potentiodynamic tests in Hank's solution at different PH values and the PH 7.4 NaCl solution for different Cl- concentrations. Scanning electron microscope observations were carried out before and after potentiodynamic tests. The composition of a laser spot-welded joint and base metal were characterized by using an electron probe microanalyzer. The results of potentiodynamic tests showed that corrosion resistance of a laser spot-welded joint of NiTi alloy wire was better than that of base metal, which exhibited a little higher breakdown potential and passive range, and a little lower passive current density. Corrosion resistances of a laser spot-welded joint and base metal decreased with increasing of the Cl- concentration and PH value. The improvement of corrosion resistance of the laser spot-welded joint was due to the decrease of the surface defects and the increase of the Ti/Ni ratio. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Role of sodium ion transporters and osmotic adjustments in stress alleviation of Cynodon dactylon under NaCl treatment: a parallel investigation with rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Swarnendu; Chakraborty, Usha

    2018-01-01

    Comparative analyses of the responses to NaCl in Cynodon dactylon and a sensitive crop species like rice could effectively unravel the salt tolerance mechanism in the former. C. dactylon, a wild perennial chloridoid grass having a wide range of ecological distribution is generally adaptable to varying degrees of salinity stress. The role of salt exclusion mechanism present exclusively in the wild grass was one of the major factors contributing to its tolerance. Salt exclusion was found to be induced at 4 days when the plants were treated with a minimum conc. of 200 mM NaCl. The structural peculiarities of the salt exuding glands were elucidated by the SEM and TEM studies, which clearly revealed the presence of a bicellular salt gland actively functioning under NaCl stress to remove the excess amount of Na + ion from the mesophyll tissues. Moreover, the intracellular effect of NaCl on the photosynthetic apparatus was found to be lower in C. dactylon in comparison to rice; at the same time, the vacuolization process increased in the former. Accumulation of osmolytes like proline and glycine betaine also increased significantly in C. dactylon with a concurrent check on the H 2 O 2 levels, electrolyte leakage and membrane lipid peroxidation. This accounted for the proper functioning of the Na + ion transporters in the salt glands and also in the vacuoles for the exudation and loading of excess salts, respectively, to maintain the osmotic balance of the protoplasm. In real-time PCR analyses, CdSOS1 expression was found to increase by 2.5- and 5-fold, respectively, and CdNHX expression increased by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively, in plants subjected to 100 and 200 mM NaCl treatment for 72 h. Thus, the comparative analyses of the expression pattern of the plasma membrane and tonoplast Na + ion transporters, SOS1 and NHX in both the plants revealed the significant role of these two ion transporters in conferring salinity tolerance in Cynodon.

  2. Structural features in Ni-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abylkalykova, R.B.; Kveglis, L.I.; Rakhimova, U.A.; Nasokhova, Sh.B.; Tazhibaeva, G.B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of the work is study of structural transformations under diverse memory effect in Ni-Al alloys. Examination were conducted in following composition samples: Ni -75 at.% and Al - 25 at.%. The work is devoted to clarification reasons both formation atom-ordered structures in inter-grain boundaries of bulk samples under temperature action and static load. Revealed inter-grain inter-boundary layers in Ni-Al alloy both bulk and surface state have complicated structure

  3. Solubility and hydrolysis of Np(V) in dilute to concentrated alkaline NaCl solutions. Formation of Na-Np(V)-OH solid phases at 22 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Vladimir G. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Fellhauer, David; Gaona, Xavier; Dardenne, Kathy; Rothe, Joerg; Altmaier, Marcus [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal; Kalmykov, Stepan N. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-01

    The solubility of Np(V) was investigated at T=22±2 C in alkaline NaCl solutions of different ionic strength (0.1-5.0 M). The solid phases controlling the solubility at different -log{sub 10} m{sub H{sup +}}(pH{sub m}) and NaCl concentration were characterized by XRD, quantitative chemical analysis, SEM-EDS and XAFS (both XANES and EXAFS). Aqueous phases in equilibrium with Np(V) solids were investigated for selected samples within 8.9≤pH{sub m}≤10.3 by UV-vis/NIR absorption spectroscopy. In 0.1 M NaCl, the experimental solubility of the initial greenish NpO{sub 2}OH(am) solid phase is in good agreement with previous results obtained in NaClO{sub 4} solutions, and is consistent with model calculations for fresh NpO{sub 2}OH(am) using the thermodynamic data selection in NEA-TDB. Below pH{sub m}∝11.5 and for all NaCl concentrations studied, Np concentration in equilibrium with the solid phase remained constant during the timeframe of this study (∝2 years). This observation is in contrast to the aging of the initial NpO{sub 2}OH(am) into a more crystalline modification with the same stoichiometry, NpO{sub 2}OH(am, aged), as reported in previous studies for concentrated NaClO{sub 4} and NaCl. Instead, the greenish NpO{sub 2}OH(am) transforms into a white solid phase in those systems with [NaCl]≥1.0 M and pH{sub m}≥11.5, and into two different pinkish phases above pH{sub m}∝13.2. The solid phase transformation is accompanied by a drop in Np solubility of 0.5-2 log{sub 10}-units (depending upon NaCl concentration). XANES analyses of green, white and pink phases confirm the predominance of Np(V) in all cases. Quantitative chemical analysis shows the incorporation of Na{sup +} in the original NpO{sub 2}OH(am) material, with Na:Np ≤ 0.3 for the greenish solids and 0.8 ≤ Na:Np ≤ 1.6 for the white and pinkish phases. XRD data confirms the amorphous character of the greenish phase, whereas white and pink solids show well-defined but discrepant XRD patterns

  4. Compositional and structural characterisation of Ni-phyllosilicates in hydrous silicate type Ni-laterite deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Villanova de Benavent, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Ni-bearing Mg-phyllosilicates (commonly known as garnierites) are significant ore minerals in many Ni-laterite deposits worldwide. However, the characterisation of these mineral phases is complex, as well as their classification and nomenclature, due to their fine-grained nature, low crystallinity and frequent occurrence as mixtures. The aim of this study is to shed some light to the nature of the Ni-bearing Mg-phyllosilicates occurring at the Falcondo Ni-laterite. In this deposit, these ...

  5. Thermal capture cross section for 58Ni (n,γ)59 Ni reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonari, A.W.; Pecequilo, B.R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The 58 Ni total thermal capture cross section was determined by suming the partial cross sections calculated for the primary transitions of the reaction 58 Ni (n,γ) 59 Ni. The primary transitions energies and intensities were determined from the 58 Ni thermal neutrons prompt gamma capture gamma rays spectrum in the 3.7 to 9.3 MeV region. The obtained value for the total cross section was 4.52 + 0.10b. (author) [pt

  6. Formation enthalpy of NiBe and Ni5Be21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.I.; Karpova, T.F.; Dalago, N.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    The method of dissolution calorimetry is used to determine standard enthalpies of NiBe and Ni 5 Be 21 formation, which are 84.8+-2.2 and (-669+-37)kJ/mol. The enthalpy values of NiBe and Ni 5 Be 21 at 331 K are shown to coincide (within the limits of errors of these values) with the values at the standard temperature of 298.15 K [ru

  7. Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the third-order elastic constants and mechanical properties of NiAl

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaohua; Wu, Xiaozhi; Wang, Rui; Liu, Qing; Gan, Liyong

    2014-01-01

    Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite in Al sublattice, Cr in Al sublattice, Pt in Ni sublattice on the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of the B2 NiAl have been investigated using the first-principles methods. Lattice constant and the SOECs of NiAl are in good agreement with the previous results. The brittle/ductile transition map based on Pugh ratio G/B and Cauchy pressure Pc shows that Ni antisite, Cr, Pt and pressure can improve the ductility of NiAl, respectively. Ni vacancy and lower pressure can enhance the Vickers hardness Hv of NiAl. The density of states (DOS) and the charge density difference are also used to analysis the effects of vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the mechanical properties of NiAl, and the results are in consistent with the transition map. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the third-order elastic constants and mechanical properties of NiAl

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaohua

    2014-12-01

    Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite in Al sublattice, Cr in Al sublattice, Pt in Ni sublattice on the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of the B2 NiAl have been investigated using the first-principles methods. Lattice constant and the SOECs of NiAl are in good agreement with the previous results. The brittle/ductile transition map based on Pugh ratio G/B and Cauchy pressure Pc shows that Ni antisite, Cr, Pt and pressure can improve the ductility of NiAl, respectively. Ni vacancy and lower pressure can enhance the Vickers hardness Hv of NiAl. The density of states (DOS) and the charge density difference are also used to analysis the effects of vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the mechanical properties of NiAl, and the results are in consistent with the transition map. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Creep and shrinkage of Mo(Ni)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaysser, W.A.; Hofmann-Amtenbrink, M.; Petzow, G.

    1984-01-01

    To avoid some of the errors inherent in a quantitative interpretation of shrinkage of powder compacts as Mo-Ni, other experiments were looked for, where the influence of Ni on the material transport properties of Mo could be measured semi-quantitatively during heating up to temperature and subsequent isothermal annealing. The bending of thin Mo foils under small loads was found to be an experimental arrangement, where variations in stress, in Ni-concentration and in intrinsic material properties could be realized. The results of these creep experiments will be compared in a qualitative sense with sintering experiments in Mo-Ni done under similar conditions as the creep experiments

  10. On the corrosion testing of weldments of high alloyed CrNiMo-stainless steels and NiCrMo-alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, G.; Voigt, C.; Werner, H.

    1997-01-01

    Weldments of high-alloyed CrNiMo stainless steels and NiCrMo alloys can be more susceptible to localized corrosion than the solution annealed basic material owing to segregations and precipitations in the heat affected zone, the high temperature zone and/or in the weld. To investigate these differences the FeCl 3 -test (10% FeCl 3 . 6aq), the test ''green death'' (11.5% H 2 SO 4 , 1.2% HCl, 1% CuCl 2 , 1% FeCl 3 ) as well as chronopotentiostatic tests in artificial sea water or in 3% NaCl-solution are used. In particular for testing the highest alloyed materials a CaCl 2 -test was developed (4.5 M CaCl 2 , chronopotentiostatic test in duration of 8 to 10 hours at + 200 mV (SCE)), which can be carried out to a temperature of 115 C at atmospheric pressure. The aggressivity increases in the range FeCl 3 -test, ''green death''-test, CaCl 2 -test. Matching and graduated over-alloyed weldments (TIG, heat input of 7 and 15.5 kJ/cm) of materials 1.4529, 1.4562, 2.4856, 2.4819 (german materials No.) are comparingly examined in various tests, of materials 1.4406, 1.4539, 1.4439 and 1.4563 (german materials No.) only matching weldments in the FeCl 3 -test. In strongly oxidizing media only a highly over-alloyed performed weldment (filler material 2.4607, german material No.) produces the best corrosion behaviour, measured as the critical temperatures of localized corrosion. Measurements of critical current densities of passivation can be used for investigations of corrosion behaviour of weldments, too. Critical current densities of passivation are showing a tendency to inverse proportion to the critical temperatures of localized corrosion. Suitable electrolytes are among others 0.2 M H 2 SO 4 + 1 M NaCl + 10 -3 % KSCN, N 2 -bubbled, 25 to 60 C and xM H 2 SO 4 + 4 M NaCl + 10 -3 % KSCN (x = 0.05 to 1), 25 C, in contact with air. An influence of heat input at the welding is indicated in the test of localized corrosion, but it is only small. It is sometimes more clearly shown at

  11. Structure-activity relations for Ni-containing zeolites during NO reduction. II. Role of the chemical state of Ni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosqueda Jimenez, B.I.; Jentys, A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the metal in Ni-containing zeolites used as catalysts for the reduction of NO with propane and propene was studied. In the fresh catalysts, Ni is located in ion exchange positions for Ni/MOR, Ni/ZSM-5, and Ni/MCM-22. The formation of carbonaceous deposits, the removal of Al from

  12. Ni-P/Zn-Ni compositionally modulated multilayer coatings - Part 2: Corrosion and protection mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadormanesh, Behrouz; Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    The Ni-P/Zn-Ni compositionally modulated multilayer coatings CMMCs were electrodeposited from a single bath by switching the deposition current density. The corrosion resistance of the deposits was studied and compared with that of monolayers of Ni-P and Zn-Ni alloys via Tafel polarization, EIS and salt spray tests. Characterization of corrosion products by means of EDS and XRD revealed more details from the corrosion mechanism of the monolayers and multilayers. The corrosion current density of Ni-P/Zn-Ni CMMCs were around one tenth of Zn-Ni monolayer. The CMMC with incomplete layers performed lower polarization resistance and higher corrosion current density compared to the CMMC with complete layers. The electrical circuit that was proposed for modeling the corrosion process based on the EIS spectrum, proved that layering reduces the porosity and consequently improves the barrier properties. Although, layering of Zn-Ni layers with Ni-P deposits increased the time to red rust in salt spray test, the time for white rust formation decreased. The corrosion mechanism of both Zn-Ni and Ni-P (containing small amount of Zn) was preferential dissolution of Zn and the corrosion products were comprised of mainly Zn hydroxychloride and Zn hydroxycarbonate. Also, Ni and P did not take part in the corrosion products. Based on the electrochemical character of the layers and the morphology of the corroded surface, the corrosion mechanism of multilayers was discussed.

  13. Joining of Ni-TiC FGM and Ni-Al Intermetallics by Centrifugal Combustion Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, Tatsuya; Matsuura, Kiyotaka; Iguchi, Manabu; Mizuma, Kiminori

    2008-01-01

    A centrifugal combustion synthesis (CCS) process has been investigated to join a Ni-Al intermetallic compound and a Ni-TiC cermet. The cermet, a tubular graphite mold, and a green compact of reactants consisting of Al, Ni and NiO were set in a centrifugal caster. When the combustion synthesis reaction was induced in the centrifugal force field, a synthesized molten Ni-Al alloy flowed into the graphite mold and joined to the cermet. The soundness of the joint interface depended on the volume percentage of TiC phase in the cermet. A lot of defects were formed near the interface between the Ni-TiC cermet and the cast Ni-Al alloy when the volume percentage of TiC was 50% or higher. For this kind of cermet system, using a functionally graded cermet such as Ni-10 vol.%TiC/Ni-25 vol.%TiC/Ni-50 vol.%TiC overcame this difficulty. The four-point bending strength of the joined specimen consisting of the three-layered FGM cermet and cast Ni-29 mol%Al alloy was 1010 MPa which is close to the result for a Ni-29 mol%Al alloy specimen

  14. Dynamic recovery in nanocrystalline Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.; Van Petegem, S.; Cervellino, A.; Durst, K.; Blum, W.; Van Swygenhoven, H.

    2015-01-01

    The constant flow stress reached during uniaxial deformation of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni reflects a quasi-stationary balance between dislocation slip and grain boundary (GB) accommodation mechanisms. Stress reduction tests allow to suppress dislocation slip and bring recovery mechanisms into the foreground. When combined with in situ X-ray diffraction it can be shown that grain boundary recovery mechanisms play an important role in producing plastic strain while hardening the microstructure. This result has a significant consequence for the parameters of thermally activated glide of dislocations, such as athermal stress and activation volume, which are traditionally derived from stress/strain rate change tests

  15. Morphological control of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles and production of hollow NiO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Nitin; Claypoole, Leslie; Bachas, Leonidas G.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical synthesis coupled with a microwave irradiation process allowed for the control of size (6-40 nm), shape, and shell thickness of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles. In this unique synthetic route, the size of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) was strongly influenced by the nickel salt-to-stabilizer ratio and the amount of the stabilizer. Interestingly, it was observed that the shape of the nanoparticles was altered by varying the reaction time, where longer reaction times resulted in annealing effects and rupture of the stabilizer micelle leading to distinct shapes of Ni/NiO core/shell nanostructures. Product cooling rate was another important parameter identified in this study that not only affected the shape, but also the crystal structure of the core/shell nanoparticles. In addition, a simple and cost-effective method of microwave irradiation of NiNPs led to the formation of distinctly shaped hollow NiO nanoparticles. These high surface area core/shell nanoparticles with well-controlled morphologies are important and can lead to significant advancement in the design of improved fuel cells, electrochromic display devices, and catalysis systems.

  16. Morphological control of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles and production of hollow NiO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Nitin [University of Alabama, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Center for Materials for Information Technology (MINT) (United States); Claypoole, Leslie [Fairmont State University (United States); Bachas, Leonidas G., E-mail: bachas@uky.ed [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Chemical synthesis coupled with a microwave irradiation process allowed for the control of size (6-40 nm), shape, and shell thickness of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles. In this unique synthetic route, the size of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) was strongly influenced by the nickel salt-to-stabilizer ratio and the amount of the stabilizer. Interestingly, it was observed that the shape of the nanoparticles was altered by varying the reaction time, where longer reaction times resulted in annealing effects and rupture of the stabilizer micelle leading to distinct shapes of Ni/NiO core/shell nanostructures. Product cooling rate was another important parameter identified in this study that not only affected the shape, but also the crystal structure of the core/shell nanoparticles. In addition, a simple and cost-effective method of microwave irradiation of NiNPs led to the formation of distinctly shaped hollow NiO nanoparticles. These high surface area core/shell nanoparticles with well-controlled morphologies are important and can lead to significant advancement in the design of improved fuel cells, electrochromic display devices, and catalysis systems.

  17. Corrosion Behavior and Microhardness of Ni-P-SiO2-Al2O3 Nano-composite Coatings on Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadreddini, S.; Rahemi Ardakani, S.; Rassaee, H.

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, nano-composites of Ni-P-SiO2-Al2O3 were coated on AZ91HP magnesium alloy. The surface morphology of the nano-composite coating was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The amount of SiO2 in the coating was determined by energy-dispersive analysis of x-ray (EDX), and the crystalline structure of the coating was examined by x-ray diffractometer (XRD). All the experiments concerning the corrosion behavior of the coating carried out in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution and evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization technique. The results showed that an incorporation of SiO2 and Al2O3 in Ni-P coating at the SiO2 concentration of 10 g/Land 14 g/LAl2O3 led to the lowest corrosion rate ( i corr = 1.3 µA/cm2), the most positive E corr and maximum microhardness (496 VH). Furthermore, Ni-P-SiO2-Al2O3 nano-composite coating possesses less porosity than that in Ni-P coating, resulting in improving corrosion resistance.

  18. A Case Study of Landfill Leachate Using Coal Bottom Ash for the Removal of Cd2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ayala

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The removal of Cd2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ by coal bottom ash has been investigated. In single metal system, metal uptake was studied in batch adsorption experiments as a function of pH (2–3, contact time (5–180 min, initial metal concentration (50–400 mg/L, adsorbent concentration (5–40 g/L, particle size, and ionic strength (0–1 M NaCl. Removal percentages of metals ions increased with increasing pH and dosage. Removal efficiency at lower concentrations was greater than at higher values. The maximum amount of metal ion adsorbed in milligrams per gram was 35.4, 35.1 and 34.6 mg/g for Zn2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+, respectively, starting out from an initial solution at pH 3. Simultaneous removal of Zn2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ ions from ternary systems was also investigated and compared with that from single systems. Cd2+ uptake was significantly affected by the presence of competing ions at pH 2. The results obtained in the tests with landfill leachate showed that bottom ash is effective in simultaneously removing several heavy metals such as Ni, Zn, Cd, As, Mn, Cu, Co, Se, Hg, Ag, and Pb.

  19. Continuum mechanics simulations of NiO/Ni-YSZ composites during reduction and re-oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Kaiser, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    for the dimensional change arises from the volumetric change related to the phase change NiO ↔ Ni. The measurable change in bulk length is given by the ceramic YSZ backbone as a response to the stress created by the chemical strain. The different subprocesses described in the model for YSZ were elastic and anelastic...... expansion, diffusional creep, grain boundary sliding (GBS) and microcracking due to excessive stress. In the Ni/NiO phase, nonelastic strains in terms of diffusional and power law creep were implemented, and additionally for NiO deformation due to microcracking and/or pseudoplasticity. Semi...

  20. Niños y niñas como cuidadores familiares

    OpenAIRE

    María Rosa Estupiñán Aponte

    2015-01-01

    En el contexto familiar, el cuidado de otra persona por parte de niños y niñas constituye un terreno inexplorado tanto en su significado como en las implicaciones que podrían darse en el proceso. Aunque históricamente se ha asignado el cuidado familiar a las mujeres generando condiciones de inequidad, incrementada con los cambios sociales de los últimos tiempos, es necesario reconocer que en muchos hogares niños y niñas se han visto obligados a desempeñar esta labor sin la preparación ni las ...

  1. .';.:NI~

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    al wat ons werd was. Na middagete op 29 Junie, is ek per kar suid om die grand te gaan besigtig en om te sien hoe my stellings, van die vyandelike oogpunt, daaruit .... van Gatt se optrede moes die. Nieu-Seelanders, in 'n briljante nagaanval, met gevelde bajonette, 'n weg baan deur die vyand am daardie nag te ontvlug.

  2. Conveyor Cultivation of the Halophytic Plant Salicornia europaea for the Recycling of NaCl from Human Liquid Waste in a Biological Life Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    One problem in designing bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) is developing technolo-gies to include human liquid and solid waste in intrasystem recycling. A specific task is recycling of NaCl excreted in urine by humans. We showed recently that this could be achieved through inclusion of the salt accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea in the autotrophic compart-ment of the BLSS (Balnokin et al., ASR, 2010, in press). A model of NaCl circulation in BLSS with inclusion of S. europaea was based on the NaCl turnover in the human -urine -nutrient solution -S. europaea -human cycle. Mineralized urine was used as a basis for preparation of a nutrient solution for the halophyte cultivation. The shoots of the halophyte cultivated in the mineralized urine and containing NaCl could to be used by the BLSS inhabitants in their diets. In this report we describe cultivation of S. europaea which allows turnover of NaCl and produces daily shoot biomass containing Na+ and Cl- in quantities approximately equal to those excreted in daily human urine. The plants were grown in water culture in a climatic chamber under controlled conditions. A solution simulating mineralized urine (SSMU) was used as a basis for preparation of a nutri-ent solution for S. europaea cultivation. For continuous biomass production, seedlings of S. europaea, germinated preliminary in moist sand, were being transferred to the nutrient solu-tion at regular intervals (every two days). Duration of the conveyor operation was 112 days. During the first 56 days, the seedlings were being planted in SSMU diluted by a factor of 1.5 (2/3 SSMU). The same solution was introduced into the growth vessels as volumes of growth medium decreased due to plant transpiration. Starting from the 56th day as conveyor operation was initiated, the plants were being harvested every two days; the solutions from the discharged vessels were mixed with the fresh SSMU and the mixture was introduced into all other growth vessels of

  3. Water dissociation on Ni(100) and Ni(111): Effect of surface temperature on reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seenivasan, H.; Tiwari, Ashwani K.

    2013-01-01

    Water adsorption and dissociation on Ni(100) and Ni(111) surfaces are studied using density functional theory calculations. Water adsorbs on top site on both the surfaces, while H and OH adsorb on four fold hollow and three fold hollow (fcc) sites on Ni(100) and Ni(111), respectively. Transition states (TS) on both surfaces are identified using climbing image-nudged elastic band method. It is found that the barrier to dissociation on Ni(100) surface is slightly lower than that on Ni(111) surface. Dissociation on both the surfaces is exothermic, while the exothermicity on Ni(100) is large. To study the effect of lattice motion on the energy barrier, TS calculations are performed for various values of Q (lattice atom coordinate along the surface normal) and the change in the barrier height and position is determined. Calculations show that the energy barrier to reaction decreases with increasing Q and increases with decreasing Q on both the surfaces. Dissociation probability values at different surface temperatures are computed using semi-classical approximation. Results show that the influence of surface temperature on dissociation probability on the Ni(100) is significantly larger compared to that of Ni(111). Moreover, on Ni(100), a dramatic shift in energy barrier to lower incident energy values is observed with increasing surface temperature, while the shift is smaller in the case of Ni(111)

  4. Creatividad en niños superdotados

    OpenAIRE

    González Román, María del Pilar

    1992-01-01

    Se ha realizado un estudio sobre la creatividad en los niños superdotados. Analizándose los diferentes modelos de creatividad y superdotacion avalados por un estudio empírico, en el cual se han valorado las diferencial que existen entre los niños superdotados y contraste a nivel verbal y grafico-espacial.

  5. Preparation of one-step NiO/Ni-CGO composites using factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.J.M. de; Sousa, A R.O. de; Camposa, L.F.A.; Macedo, D.A.; Loureiro, F. J.A.; Fagg, D.P.

    2016-01-01

    This work deals with the synthesis, processing and characterization of NiO/Ni- CGO composite materials as potential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes. The particulate materials were obtained by a one-step synthesis method and characterized by thermal analysis (prior to calcination) and X-ray diffraction (calcined powder). The ceramic processing of samples containing from 30 to 70 wt.% NiO was carried out by factorial design. Besides the NiO content controlled during the chemical synthesis, the impacts of the pore-former content (citric acid, used in proportions of 0, 7.5 and 15 wt.%) and the sintering temperature (1300, 1350 and 1400 °C) were also investigated. The open porosity of NiO-CGO composites and reduced Ni-CGO cermets was modeled as a function of factors (NiO content, citric acid content and sintering temperature) and interaction of factors. (author)

  6. Nanoscale structural heterogeneity in Ni-rich half-Heusler TiNiSn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Jason E.; Pollock, Tresa M.; Chater, Philip A.; Brown, Craig M.; Seshadri, Ram

    2014-01-01

    The structural implications of excess Ni in the TiNiSn half-Heusler compound are examined through a combination of synchrotron x-ray and neutron scattering studies, in conjunction with first principles density functional theory calculations on supercells. Despite the phase diagram suggesting that TiNiSn is a line compound with no solid solution, for small x in TiNi 1+x Sn there is indeed an appearance—from careful analysis of the scattering—of some solubility, with the excess Ni occupying the interstitial tetrahedral site in the half-Heusler structure. The analysis performed here would point to the excess Ni not being statistically distributed, but rather occurring as coherent nanoclusters. First principles calculations of energetics, carried out using supercells, support a scenario of Ni interstitials clustering, rather than a statistical distribution.

  7. Germinação e crescimento inicial de meloeiro submetido ao osmocondicionamento da semente com NACl e níveis de salinidade da água

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auderlan de Macena Pereira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A salinização dos solos tem contribuído para afetar o rendimento das plantas em termos de produtividade das culturas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a germinação e o crescimento de mudas de meloeiro submetidas ao osmocondicionamento da semente com solução de NaCl e de níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação. O experimento foi realizado no delineamento de blocos casualizados em parcelas subdivididas do tipo 5 x 2, com quatro repetições. Na parcela constou de cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (1,0; 2,0; 3,0; 4,0 e 5,0 dS m-1 e na sub-parcela de sementes tratadas (com e sem pré-embebição em solução salina de NaCl. O aumento da salinidade da água de 1,0 para 5,0 dS m-1 proporcionou resposta linear decrescente na porcentagem de germinação, altura de plantas, número de folhas por planta, área foliar e no acúmulo de massa seca nas plantas nos diferentes órgãos da planta (raiz e parte aérea e resposta linear crescente com a elevação no índice de velocidade de emergência; o tratamento pré germinativo da semente com solução de NaCl apresentou uma resposta linear crescente favorecendo uma maior porcentagem de germinação, altura de plantas, área foliar e o acúmulo de massa seca total da planta e um menor índice de velocidade de emergência.

  8. NaCl - Changes stem morphology, anatomy and phloem structure in Lucerne (Medicago sativa cv. Gabès): Comparison of upper and lower internodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nja, Riheb Ben; Merceron, Bruno; Faucher, Mireille; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Béré, Emile

    2018-02-01

    In M. sativa cv. Gabès plants treated with 150mM NaCl, the height of the stem is decreased and the internode number, length and diameter are reduced. This depressive effect on growth, but also on photosynthetic activity and water balance, is accompanied by structural changes. In the upper internodes, NaCl treatment increases cambium development, so that the vascular ring is initiated earlier than in controls. In the lower internodes, the number of lignified phloem fibers is increased by NaCl, and their wall thickness is augmented, compared to controls; in the phloem complex, the nacreous layer is enlarged, the number of internal wall ingrowths is increased, but companion cells are damaged. In the treated lower internodes, few vessels occur in the secondary xylem, which is by contrast rich in lignified fibers and in wide vessels grouped in the metaxylem area; protoxylem parenchyma and adjacent pith are also lignified. In addition, in treated lower internodes, starch grains are less abundant than in controls, and this variation might be related to the decrease of photosynthesis. When taken together, qualitative and quantitative results indicate that the saline stress has a marked morpho-anatomical impact on the M. sativa Gabès stem. In particular, variations of secondary derivative distribution, increased wall thickening, lignification of phloem and xylem fibers and damage in the phloem complex are NaCl-induced responses, and are more expressed in the lower than in the upper internodes. The reinforcement of the stem lignified vasculature is thus a positive response to stress, but it has a negative impact on the quality of the forage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Five ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for hydrated NaCl and NaF. I. Two-body interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M.; Kamarchik, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    We report full-dimensional, ab initio-based potentials and dipole moment surfaces for NaCl, NaF, Na + H 2 O, F − H 2 O, and Cl − H 2 O. The NaCl and NaF potentials are diabatic ones that dissociate to ions. These are obtained using spline fits to CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z energies. In addition, non-linear least square fits using the Born-Mayer-Huggins potential are presented, providing accurate parameters based strictly on the current ab initio energies. The long-range behavior of the NaCl and NaF potentials is shown to go, as expected, accurately to the point-charge Coulomb interaction. The three ion-H 2 O potentials are permutationally invariant fits to roughly 20 000 coupled cluster CCSD(T) energies (awCVTZ basis for Na + and aVTZ basis for Cl − and F − ), over a large range of distances and H 2 O intramolecular configurations. These potentials are switched accurately in the long range to the analytical ion-dipole interactions, to improve computational efficiency. Dipole moment surfaces are fits to MP2 data; for the ion-ion cases, these are well described in the intermediate- and long-range by the simple point-charge expression. The performance of these new fits is examined by direct comparison to additional ab initio energies and dipole moments along various cuts. Equilibrium structures, harmonic frequencies, and electronic dissociation energies are also reported and compared to direct ab initio results. These indicate the high fidelity of the new PESs.

  10. Five ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for hydrated NaCl and NaF. I. Two-body interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yimin, E-mail: yimin.wang@emory.edu; Bowman, Joel M., E-mail: jmbowma@emory.edu [Department of Chemistry, Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Kamarchik, Eugene, E-mail: eugene.kamarchik@gmail.com [Quantum Pomegranate, LLC, 2604 Kings Lake Court NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30345 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    We report full-dimensional, ab initio-based potentials and dipole moment surfaces for NaCl, NaF, Na{sup +}H{sub 2}O, F{sup −}H{sub 2}O, and Cl{sup −}H{sub 2}O. The NaCl and NaF potentials are diabatic ones that dissociate to ions. These are obtained using spline fits to CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z energies. In addition, non-linear least square fits using the Born-Mayer-Huggins potential are presented, providing accurate parameters based strictly on the current ab initio energies. The long-range behavior of the NaCl and NaF potentials is shown to go, as expected, accurately to the point-charge Coulomb interaction. The three ion-H{sub 2}O potentials are permutationally invariant fits to roughly 20 000 coupled cluster CCSD(T) energies (awCVTZ basis for Na{sup +} and aVTZ basis for Cl{sup −} and F{sup −}), over a large range of distances and H{sub 2}O intramolecular configurations. These potentials are switched accurately in the long range to the analytical ion-dipole interactions, to improve computational efficiency. Dipole moment surfaces are fits to MP2 data; for the ion-ion cases, these are well described in the intermediate- and long-range by the simple point-charge expression. The performance of these new fits is examined by direct comparison to additional ab initio energies and dipole moments along various cuts. Equilibrium structures, harmonic frequencies, and electronic dissociation energies are also reported and compared to direct ab initio results. These indicate the high fidelity of the new PESs.

  11. Putrescine production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 is reduced by NaCl via a decrease in bacterial growth and the repression of the genes involved in putrescine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Ladero, Victor; Fernandez, Maria; Martin, Maria Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-09-02

    The reduction of NaCl in food is a public health priority; high NaCl intakes have been associated with serious health problems. However, it is reported that reducing the NaCl content of cheeses may lead to an increase in the content of biogenic amines (BAs). The present work examines the effect of NaCl on the accumulation of putrescine (one of the BAs often detected at high concentration in cheese) in experimental Cabrales-like cheeses containing Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666, a dairy strain that catabolises agmatine to putrescine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. The genes responsible for this pathway are grouped in the AGDI cluster. This comprises a regulatory gene (aguR) (transcribed independently), followed by the catabolic genes that together form an operon (aguBDAC). Reducing the NaCl concentration of the cheese led to increased putrescine accumulation. In contrast, increasing the NaCl concentration of both pH-uncontrolled and pH-controlled (pH 6) cultures of L. lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 significantly inhibited its growth and the production of putrescine. Such production appeared to be inhibited via a reduction in the transcription of the aguBDAC operon; no effect on the transcription of aguR was recorded. The present results suggest that low-sodium cheeses are at risk of accumulating higher concentrations of putrescine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Corrosion behavior of TiO{sub 2}-NiO nanocomposite thin films on AISI 316L stainless steel prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghi, H., E-mail: hoch2020@yahoo.com [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), P.O. Box: 16765163, Narrmak Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahmiri, M., E-mail: mshahmiri@iust.ac.ir [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), P.O. Box: 16765163, Narrmak Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghian, Z. [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box: 14857-3311, West Blvd. Azadi Sport Complex, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-01

    TiO{sub 2}-NiO nanocomposite thin films were deposited on the 316L stainless steel using sol-gel method by a dip coating technique. Different techniques such as differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy were carried out in order to characterize the structure of the coatings. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by using Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests of uncoated and coated specimens in a 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature. It was found that to obtain desirable structure in coatings, the coatings should be calcined at 600 Degree-Sign C for one and half hour. NiTiO{sub 3}, anatase and rutile were the phases obtained in different calcination conditions in air atmosphere. The results of corrosion tests indicated that with increasing the dipping times from 2 to 4, the corrosion current density first decreases but when increasing the dipping times to 6, it increases. Also the corrosion current density decreased from 186.7 nA.cm{sup -2} (uncoated steel) to 34.21 nA.cm{sup -2} (80%TiO{sub 2}-20%NiO) and corrosion potential increased from - 150.2 mV (uncoated steel) to - 107.3 mV (67%TiO{sub 2}-33%NiO). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2}-NiO thin films were deposited on the 316L stainless steel using sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different compositions, annealing times and temperatures resulted in various phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films having different compositions showed various surface morphologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films having a composition of 80%TiO{sub 2}-20%NiO showed a good corrosion protection.

  13. Mitigación de NaCl por efecto de un bioestimulante en la germinación de Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daulemys Batista Sánchez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Los bioestimulantes vegetales activan el proceso de germinación de las semillas; accionan funciones fisiológicas en las plantas, contienen sustancias propias del metabolismo vegetal, que mejoran el uso de nutrientes y son una opción para mitigar estrés por salinidad. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto de un bioestimulante de origen natural (FitoMas-E®, como atenuante de la salinidad en la germinación de las variedades de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. Emily, Napoletano y Nufar. Las semillas se sometieron a concentraciones de NaCl (0, 50, 100 y 150 mM y dosis de FitoMas-E® (0, 0.5, 1 y 1.5 mL L-1, en un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial con cuatro repeticiones, en condiciones controladas. Se evaluó porcentaje y tasa de germinación, altura de la plántula, longitud de radícula, biomasa fresca y seca de la radícula, biomasa fresca y seca de la parte aérea. Los resultados mostraron que la altura de la planta, longitud de la radícula, biomasa fresca de parte aérea y biomasa seca de la radícula con 150 mM de NaCl fueron las más dañadas. Napoletano y Nufar mostraron longitud de radícula mayor en 0 mM y conforme la concentración de NaCl incrementó, la longitud de radícula disminuyó significativamente para las tres variedades. Las plántulas de semillas tratadas con FitoMas-E®, incrementaron longitud de radícula, destacando Napoletano en 1 mL L‑1 y Nufar con 0.5 mL L 1. Napoletano mostró biomasa fresca de parte aérea mayor en 0 mM con 0.5 mL L-1 de FitoMas-E®. Las plántulas de Napoletano de semillas tratadas con 0.5 mL L‑1 de FitoMas-E® incrementaron la biomasa seca de radícula en 0 y 50 mM de NaCl. Se concluye que el FitoMas-E® con dosis de 0.5 y 1 mL L-1 mitiga el efecto del estrés salino de moderado a severo en semillas de albahaca.

  14. Efectos del pH, NaCl, CaCl2 y la temperatura sobre la fuerza de cuajo de tres coagulantes/cuajos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Thomas Morillo Piña

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El cuajo y los coagulantes juegan un papel fundamental en el proceso de elaboración de queso y su actividad se ve afectada por diversos parámetros tecnológicos. En este sentido se determinó el efecto del pH, concentración de NaCl, CaCl2 y de la temperatura sobre la fuerza de cuajo de un coagulante microbiano experimental (BIOMI-13, una quimosina recombinante comercial (Maxiren® y un cuajo comercial de origen animal (BIOVEN, preparados a concentraciones de 0,05 g/mL; 0,0004 g/mL y 0,0008 g/mL, respectivamente. El efecto del pH fue evaluado en un intervalo de 5,0 a 7,5 y la concentración de NaCl y CaCl2 en la leche entre 0,02 y 0,16 M. El efecto de los iones de Na y Ca en las soluciones enzimáticas fue evaluado entre 0,04 y 0,80 M y la temperatura de incubación entre 20 y 70 ºC. Se determinó que los cambios de pH tienen un efecto inversamente proporcional sobre la actividad coagulante de la leche y la máxima actividad fue a pH 5 para los tres coagulantes evaluados. La concentración de NaCl en la leche tuvo un efecto adverso sobre la actividad coagulante, mientras que el incremento de la [CaCl2] aumentó la actividad alcanzando valores máximos a 0,04 M. La presencia iones de Na en las soluciones enzimáticas tuvo el mismo efecto observado en las pruebas de concentración de NaCl en la leche y se observó un aumento de la actividad relativa conforme se incrementó la concentración de iones de Ca en la solución. Los tres coagulantes/cuajos evaluados exhibieron la máxima fuerza de cuajo a 45 ºC y tuvieron una acción catalítica muy específica sobre la leche con una marcada dependencia a los parámetros evaluados, presentando algunas diferencias entre ellos debido posiblemente a la fuente y forma de obtención.

  15. Efectos del pH, NaCl, CaCl2 y la temperatura sobre la fuerza de cuajo de tres coagulantes/cuajos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Thomas Morillo Piña

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El cuajo y los coagulantes juegan un papel fundamental en el proceso de elaboración de queso y su actividad se ve afectada por diversos parámetros tecnológicos. En este sentido se determinó el efecto del pH, concentración de NaCl, CaCl2 y de la temperatura sobre la fuerza de cuajo de un coagulante microbiano experimental (BIOMI-13, una quimosina recombinante comercial (Maxiren® y un cuajo comercial de origen animal (BIOVEN, preparados a concentraciones de 0,05 g/mL; 0,0004 g/mL y 0,0008 g/mL, respectivamente. El efecto del pH fue evaluado en un intervalo de 5,0 a 7,5 y la concentración de NaCl y CaCl2 en la leche entre 0,02 y 0,16 M. El efecto de los iones de Na y Ca en las soluciones enzimáticas fue evaluado entre 0,04 y 0,80 M y la temperatura de incubación entre 20 y 70 ºC. Se determinó que los cambios de pH tienen un efecto inversamente proporcional sobre la actividad coagulante de la leche y la máxima actividad fue a pH 5 para los tres coagulantes evaluados. La concentración de NaCl en la leche tuvo un efecto adverso sobre la actividad coagulante, mientras que el incremento de la [CaCl2] aumentó la actividad alcanzando valores máximos a 0,04 M. La presencia iones de Na en las soluciones enzimáticas tuvo el mismo efecto observado en las pruebas de concentración de NaCl en la leche y se observó un aumento de la actividad relativa conforme se incrementó la concentración de iones de Ca en la solución. Los tres coagulantes/cuajos evaluados exhibieron la máxima fuerza de cuajo a 45 ºC y tuvieron una acción catalítica muy específica sobre la leche con una marcada dependencia a los parámetros evaluados, presentando algunas diferencias entre ellos debido posiblemente a la fuente y forma de obtención.

  16. Synergic effects in the extraction of paracetamol from aqueous NaCl solution by the binary mixtures of diethyl ether and low molecular weight primary alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, G. M.; Živković, J. V.; Atanasković, D. S.; Nikolić, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of paracetamol from aqueous NaCl solutions was performed with diethyl ether, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 1-pentanol, and binary mixtures diethyl ether/1-propanol, diethyl ether/1-butanol, and diethyl ether/isobutanol. Among the pure solvents investigated in this study best extraction efficacy was obtained with 1-butanol. Synergic effects in the extraction with binary mixtures was investigated and compared with some other systems used for the extraction of poorly extractable compounds. Results obtained in this study may be of both fundamental and practical importance.

  17. Determination of hydrolysis constants for gadolinium in ion strength media 2M of NaCl, NaClO4 and KCl at 303 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serna M, S.; Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.

    1999-01-01

    This work was made with the purpose to extend information about the hydrolysis constants of gadolinium (III) in ion strength media 2M of NaCl, NaClO 4 , KCl at 303 K using the potentiometric method for this determination, and analysing starting from those data, the influence of anions and cations. It is concluded that the media which were determined the hydrolysis constants are very important and it is recommended the sodium perchlorate as the more adequate salt for those determinations. Also it was obtained the distribution diagrams of chemical species in each one of the media studied. (Author)

  18. Synchrotron radiation studies on luminescence of Eu2+-doped LaCl3 microcrystals embedded in a NaCl matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchyn, P.V.; Vistovskyy, V.V.; Pushak, A.S.; Voloshinovskii, A.S.; Gektin, A.V.; Pankratov, V.; Popov, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    LaCl 3 :Eu 2+ microcrystals dispersed in the NaCl matrix have been obtained in the NaCl–LaCl 3 (1 mol.%)–EuCl 3 (0.1 mol.%) crystalline system. The low-temperature luminescent properties of these microcrystals have been studied upon the VUV and UV excitation by the synchrotron radiation. The spectroscopic parameters as well as decay time constants of Eu 2+ -doped LaCl 3 host have been established. The excitation mechanism of divalent europium centers through energy transfer and reabsorption is discussed.

  19. Solubility of La, Pr, Eu, Er and Lu in a media of 1M ionic force of NaCl by 303 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez G, J.J.; Solache R, M.J.; Jimenez R, M.; Rojas H, A.

    2002-01-01

    The solubility and the solubility product of La, Pr, Eu, Er and Lu in media of 1M ionic force of NaCl by 303 K was determined, by means of a radiochemical method and the pLn - pCH diagrams in free conditions of CO 2 were constructed. Moreover, the non saturation and the saturated zones and with them the pCH precipitation bound were determined. Finally a comparison among the obtained data in this work and those reported in the literature in several media was realized. (Author)

  20. Corrosion Resistance Behavior of Single-Layer Cathodic Arc PVD Nitride-Base Coatings in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, Akeem Yusuf; Gasem, Zuhair M.; Madhan Kumar, Arumugam

    2017-04-01

    The electrochemical behavior of single-layer TiN, CrN, CrAlN, and TiAlN coatings on 304 stainless steel substrate, deposited using state-of-the-art and industrial size cathodic arc PVD machine, were evaluated in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl solutions. The corrosion behavior of the blank and coated substrates was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance, and potentiodynamic polarization. Bond-coat layers of pure-Ti, pure-Cr, alloyed-CrAl, and alloyed-TiAl for TiN, CrN, CrAlN, and TiAlN coatings were, respectively, first deposited for improved coating adhesion before the actual coating. The average coating thickness was about 1.80 µm. Results showed that the corrosion potentials ( E corr) of the coated substrates were shifted to more noble values which indicated improvement of the coated substrate resistance to corrosion susceptibility. The corrosion current densities were lower for all coated substrates as compared to the blank substrate. Similarly, EIS parameters showed that these coatings possessed improved resistance to defects and pores in similar solution compared to the same nitride coatings developed by magnetron sputtering. The charge transfer resistance ( R ct) can be ranked in the following order: TiAlN > CrN > TiN > CrAlN in both media except in NaCl solution where R ct of TiN is lowest. While the pore resistance ( R po) followed the order: CrAlN > CrN > TiAlN > TiN in HCl solution and TiAlN > CrN > CrAlN > TiN in NaCl solution. It is found that TiAlN coating has the highest protective efficiencies of 79 and 99 pct in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl, respectively. SEM analysis of the corroded substrates in both media was also presented.