Villamil Velásquez Javier Fernando
Full Text Available Con el siguiente documento, se intenta mostrar que Colombia no es ajena a la dinámica mundial de la economía, ni de la expansión o repliegue corporativo transnacional, pasando respectivamente por los diferentes ciclos impuestos por el liberalismo, el proteccionismo y el neoliberalismo económico. Son unas fases que han determinado la participación del Estado en la apropiación de los recursos nacionales en relación con las empresas internacionales. También se quiere evidenciar la inclinación de la balanza a favor del inversionista extranjero y la liberalización del recurso minero energético durante los últimos, todo, a pesar de la inminente crisis energética nacional que se avecina y de la importancia de estos recursos para la propia economía del país. Para ejemplificar la acción de algunas de las más importantes transnacionales en el país, se indica como varias regiones ya son epicentro de grandes megaproyectos mineros y petroleros, como el caso de Arauca, Casanare, Cesar, Córdoba o la Guajira, mientras que otras zonas se proyectan en un futuro cercano hacia el capital extranjero, como el Sur de Bolívar y el noroccidente antioqueño, lo que determina la dinámica de cada uno de estos territorios, en relación con cada una de las fases de apropiación extractiva.
J. A. Torres Pérez
Full Text Available El Sistema de Cuentas Nacionales (SCN vigente, medido a través del Producto Interno Bruto (PIB soslaya todos los activos ambientales, así como su deterioro y depreciación de los recursos naturales por lo que refleja tasas que sobreestiman el crecimiento económico En el presente documento se discute sobre el SCN, sus limitaciones para cuantificar el deterioro del capital natural e impacto ambiental. Se presentan las experiencias desarrolladas en otros países y se promueve la posibilidad de desarrollar un sistema de cuentas nacionales en México que incluya los recursos naturales.
Full Text Available La presente investigación se enmarca en el turismo accesible, considerando las barreras que puede presentar la oferta gastronómica a personas con requerimientos especiales de alimentación. Partiendo de este concepto, se toman como objeto de estudio desde la perspectiva del turismo accesible, afecciones como la diabetes mellitus, la celiaquía y la hipertensión arterial, y se integra a los vegetarianos, tomando en cuenta que pueden encontrar barreras en el disfrute de los servicios gastronómicos. Para tal fin, se realizó un trabajo de campo en la ciudad de Viedma, que permitió conocer la oferta gastronómica existente y su situación con respecto a la posibilidad de recibir comensales con requerimientos especiales en su dieta, como los segmentos objetos de estudio.
Compositional variations revealed by ASTER image analysis of the Viedma Volcano, southern Andes Volcanic Zone Variaciones composicionales reveladas mediante análisis de imágenes ASTER del volcán Viedma, Zona Volcánica Andina Austral
Full Text Available We conducted a lithological mapping of the Viedma volcano, one of five volcanoes in the Andean Austral Volcanic Zone (AVZ, using remote sensing techniques. We used data of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER sensor which is highly effective in geological research, to understand build-up processes and to deduce compositional variation of the Viedma volcano emerging from the South Patagonian ice field. The volcanic edifice was divided into bright parts that mainly compose the eastern flank of the volcano and dark parts at the central crater area based on the observation in visible and near infrared ranges. The SiO2 concentration was cal-culated using the bands in the visible and thermal infrared regions. The dark part and the bright part have approximately 51 wt% and 63 wt% average SiO2 content respectively, indicating that the exposures of the Viedma volcano have a wide variation in SiO2 concentration. Although, according to other authors, ejecta from the Viedma volcano have 64-66 wt% SiO2 and other AV Z volcanoes are essentially monolithologic dacite/andesite volcanoes, the edifice of the Viedma volcano appears to be composed mostly of basalts or older rocks/basement with low silica contents.Mediante el uso de técnica de sensoría remota se ha desarrollado un mapeo litológico del volcán Viedma, uno de los cinco volcanes de la Zona Volcánica Andina Austral (ZVA. Para este efecto, se ha utilizado el radiómetro ‘Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection’ (ASTER que es muy efectivo en investigación geológica, para entender los procesos que han controlado la estructura y deducir las variaciones composi-cionales del volcán Viedma, que sobresale levemente de la superficie del campo de hielo Patagónico Sur. Sobre la base de la observación en el intervalo del espectro visible e infrarrojo cercano, en el edificio se distinguen partes brillantes que corresponden al flanco oriental del volcán y
La finalidad del presente artículo es establecer la fuerte vinculación que existe entre el conocimiento y los activos intangibles, siendo que estos son los grandes desconocidos en la valoración de las empresas y en el cálculo de las cuentas nacionales, en especial el PIB y la productividad. Fue el investigador Robert Solow, en 1956, uno de los primeros en señalar la importancia del conocimiento en el crecimiento económico, expresando que este es una función de capital, trabajo y conocimiento. Desde la década de 1990 viene creciendo la inquietud sobre la necesidad de analizar y medir los diferentes tipos de activos intangibles para incluirlos, con su justo valor, tanto en las cuentas nacionales como en los estados financieros de las empresas. Pero dichos activos tienen unas características muy especiales, las cuales hacen de su valoración monetaria una difícil tarea. Es impostergable profundizar su análisis y estudio para que no sigan siendo ignorados o minimizados en las prácticas cotidianas de las empresas y los mercados.
Leonidas Torres Citraro
Full Text Available La finalidad del presente artículo es establecer la fuerte vinculación que existe entre el conocimiento y los activos intangibles, siendo que estos son los grandes desconocidos en la valoración de las empresas y en el cálculo de las cuentas nacionales, en especial el PIB y la productividad. Fue el investigador Robert Solow, en 1956, uno de los primeros en señalar la importancia del conocimiento en el crecimiento económico, expresando que este es una función de capital, trabajo y conocimiento. Desde la década de 1990 viene creciendo la inquietud sobre la necesidad de analizar y medir los diferentes tipos de activos intangibles para incluirlos, con su justo valor, tanto en las cuentas nacionales como en los estados financieros de las empresas. Pero dichos activos tienen unas características muy especiales, las cuales hacen de su valoración monetaria una difícil tarea. Es impostergable profundizar su análisis y estudio para que no sigan siendo ignorados o minimizados en las prácticas cotidianas de las empresas y los mercados.
Jorge Moisés Kroll do Prado
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1518-2924.2014v19n39p133 Las redes sociales nacen del entorno web 2.0 y forman parte de nuestro día a día. Todas las áreas profesionales, en especial aquellas relacionadas con la información y la comunicación (Periodismo, Publicidad, Comunicación Audiovisual, Biblioteconomía y Documentación… diseñan estrategias encaminadas a formar parte de este conglomerado en el que convergen emisores, receptores y mensajes. La siguiente investigación expone los resultados de un estudio en el que se ha analizado la presencia de las bibliotecas nacionales iberoamericanas, integrantes de ABINIA, en la web 2.0. Se trata de conocer cómo dichas bibliotecas están utilizando las redes sociales más relevantes, a nivel de usuarios y penetración en los países iberoamericanos. El estudio analiza los perfiles que las bibliotecas nacionales tienen en Facebook, Twitter, Flickr y Youtube; así como, los contenidos que difunden a través de ellas y la participación que fomentan entre sus usuarios.
Full Text Available La enorme influencia que tiene la Iglesia Católica en Argentina se pone de manifiesto de manera dramática cada vez que se intentan cambios legislativos que avancen en favor de los derechos humanos en general y de las mujeres en particular. Su tenaz oposición a la Ley Nacional de Salud Reproductiva, asi como a la Unión Civil o la Educación Sexual en las escuelas (estas últimas en el ámbito acotado de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, son algunos de los ejemplos más recientes. En tal situación, los Encuentros Nacionales de Mujeres se están transformando en el escenario de virulentas confrontaciones entre las mujeres enviadas por las paroquias con instrucciones precisas de imponer una visión fundamentalista en determinados temas y la inmensa mayoría de las participantes que, católicas o no, intentan debatir las prioridades del movimiento amplio de mujeres de Argentina.The power that Catholic Church has in Argentina is dramatically demostrated when some laws about Human Rights, especially Women Rights, such as Ley Nacional de Salud Reproductiva, Educacion Sexual and others, are in the process of being approved. . In this context, the Women's Meetings (Encuentros Nacionales de Mujeres are being converted into violent confrontations between Catholic women who are sent by their churches and a fundamentalist point of view against the majority of women (Catholic or otherwise who try to debate the more important issues of the Women's Movement.
Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek
This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…
Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Christensen, Karina Skovvang
Intellectual capital (IC) consists of human capital, organizational capital, and relational capital, and their relationships. It has been said to be important to explain the difference between market value and book value of a firm, but measurement of IC is more likely to be important because...
En este trabajo se lleva a cabo una reflexión teórica acerca del arte comunitario y el capital social. El eje orientador gira en torno a si las experiencias organizativas de arte comunitario son eficaces para el fortalecimiento del capital social. Se revisa el concepto de arte comunitario en base a autores tanto nacionales como internacionales. Se concluye que lo distintivo del arte comunitario es su naturaleza grupal, la participación activa de sus miembros en un proceso creativo y su desarr...
Gladys Fabiola Morales Ramírez
Full Text Available El presente artículo está dedicado al análisis de la experiencia de México en el cumplimiento de sentencias emitidas por la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos, específicamente los esfuerzos de las autoridades nacionales en el diseño de instrumentos especializados para la implementación de estas decisiones.
W. Erwin Diewert
The paper revisits Harper, Berndt and Wood (1989) and calculates Canadian reproducible capital services aggregates under alternative assumptions about the form of depreciation, the opportunity cost of capital and the treatment of capital gains. Five different models of depreciation are considered: (1) one hoss shay; (2) straight line depreciation; (3) declining balance or geometric depreciation; (4) linearly declining efficiency profiles and (5) linearly increasing maintenance profiles. The l...
This article examines African and Middle East oil and natural gas project financing. Capital markets financing, Ras Laffan's project bonds, capital market issues in Saudi Arabia, the movement toward gas and away from oil, and Islamic opportunities are discussed, African and Middle East oil and gas projects are listed. (UK)
du Gay, Paul; Morgan, Glenn
This chapter places The New Spirit of Capitalism in the context of the development of capitalism over the last twenty years, up to and including the 200-7-8 financial crisis and the ongoing economic crisis which has developed out of this and is now focused on the relationship between state expend...
Full Text Available Venture capital significantly changes the capital structure of the portfolio company at the time of the investment. Venture capitalists contribute to the company’s success through their active involvement in the management and their added value appears in the increase of the value of the equity. At the same time with taking active role in the management, agency problem occurs, that complicates the cooperation and the success of exit. In this article we search the answer for the question whether the preferred equity, that are commonly used in the US for bridging the agency problem, are used and able to help Hungarian venture capitalists to manage agency problems. On the other hand we examined how the venture capital affect capital structure, how the venture capitalists value added appear in the capital structure. During the evaluation of the three case studies, we came to the conclusion, that the venture capital investments have positive effect on the liabilities of the enterprises, as the capital structure indexes show. However, the investors need the ownership, which help them to step up resolutely, when things change for the worse, and companies need the expertise, which the investors bring with their personal assistance. The investor’s new attitude also has positive effect on a mature company, which has an experienced leader, because he can show another aspect, as a person who come from outside. During the examination of the capital structure, we cannot disregard the events of the company’s environment, which have effects on the firm. The investor’s decisions also appear different ways. Because of this, every venture capital investment is different, just as the capital structure of the firms, in which they invest.
Bungacho Lamar, Fredy, Dr.
La Ley Orgánica de Administración Financiera y Control responsabiliza a cada institución del Estado la implementación y aplicación del Sistema de Control Interno con la finalidad de precautelar los recursos públicos. Este trabajo investigativo sirve como guía para unificar los procedimientos, en la ejecución de las Auditoría de los profesionales que integren la Unidad de auditoría Interna del Instituto de altos Estudios Nacionales. Este Manual de Auditoría Interna, se compone de 6 capí...
Lister, M. J; Andreassen, A; Bales, Shanda; Biddle, J. G; Chang, M. M; McCormick, R; Packard, W. J; Sun, T
Leveraging venture capital to the advantage of the Naval Services should be viewed as part of the larger project of reforming the acquisition system to permit rapid introduction of new technologies...
... to face one of the season’s biggest problems: tree pollen . Common symptoms of springtime allergies include: Runny nose Itchy eyes Sneezing Congestion “Our Spring Allergy Capitals report is a valuable tool to help identify cities where seasonal allergy symptoms can create challenges,” ...
Bryan, Dick; Rafferty, Michael; Wigan, Duncan
on measuring (by accountants), managing (by corporations) and monitoring (by International Political Economy scholars and regulators), this article explores the longer term implications of accumulation of internationalised capital in intangible and abstract forms, and the prominent role of finance and offshore...
Full Text Available Los procesos de privatizaciones de empresas públicas en la Argentina permiten rastrear los contornos que ofrece el rediseño de una sociedad inspirada en la doctrina de gobierno neoliberal. El tránsito del liberalismo clásico al neoliberalismo encuentra en la amplia cesión de la esfera pública al capital privado una grilla de inteligibilidad a las prácticas sociales con las que se intentará formalizar un orden neoliberal. La participación de France Télécom en la privatización de la Empresa Nacional de Telecomunicaciones (ENTel en Argentina, y la gestión que dicha empresa llevará a cabo en Francia con algunos años de diferencia entre una y otra experiencia, refleja que la profundidad de los cambios a los que nos acercamos dista de ser el curioso escenario que ofrece un lejano país de la periferia sudamericana. En este artículo, procuraremos establecer un debate con la tradición francesa encarnada en los trabajos de Philippe d’Iribarne, quien le asigna a las "particularidades nacionales" un rol preponderante para comprender diversos modelos de gestión de la fuerza de trabajo. Aspecto que, a la luz de nuestras investigaciones, consideramos que se ve largamente refutado. En sus dos orillas.
Laura Inés Rovelli
Full Text Available En las últimas décadas, la producción de conocimiento científico y tecnológico se considera estratégica para los fines del desarrollo y un instrumento clave para redefinir las relaciones sociales en términos de crecimiento económico e inclusión social. En la Argentina, el sector científico y tecnológico alcanza actualmente un inusitado estímulo y una creciente expansión. En el plano universitario, los cambios repercuten –entre otras dimensiones– sobre los lineamientos y orientación de la investigación. En este escenario, el objetivo general del escrito procura analizar el surgimiento reciente de distintos instrumentos de orientación de la investigación con incidencia en el ámbito de las universidades nacionales y paralelamente, indagar y comparar las lógicas de orientación de la investigación en las instituciones seleccionadas a través de instrumentos propios de financiamiento. Una de las hipótesis que guía el trabajo afirma que, en un escenario de corrientes múltiples de políticas de fijación de áreas prioritarias en los últimos años, algunas universidades nacionales promueven la orientación de la investigación, a través de lógicas diversas y en un marco dinámico, situacional y pragmático.
Kevin A. Yelvington
Full Text Available [First paragraph] Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach. DANIEL MILLER. Oxford: Berg, 1997. x + 357 pp. (Cloth £39.00, Paper £17.99 Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A History. RHODA E. REDDOCK. London: Zed, 1994. vi + 346 pp. (Cloth £39.95, Paper £15.95 Despite the underdeveloped state of the scholarship on its admittedly short sugar plantation slavery period, we now have a corpus of studies on various aspects of capitalism in Trinidad - from its historical advent (Sebastien 1978 to its twentieth-century manifestation in the petroleum sector (Seers 1964; Sandoval 1983, and from the ethnic structure of labor markets (Camejo 1971; Harewood 1971 and the role of capitalism in racial/ethnic inequality (Henry 1993; Coppin & Olsen 1998 to the way ethnicity affects business, big (Button 1981; Parris 1985; Centre for Ethnic Studies 1993 and small (Ryan & Barclay 1992; Griffith 1997, and the way ethnicity and gender are used in class recruitment (Yelvington 1995. There are also a number of fine working-class histories (e.g., Rennie 1973; Ramdin 1982; Basdeo 1983 and important works on the labor riots and strikes and the nature of the colonial state during the crises of the 1930s (e.g., Thomas 1987; Singh 1994. The two books under review here complement the works mentioned above, and they complement each other as well: Reddock's deals with the way capitalism up to the mid-century was buttressed by colonial politics, and explores how this formation engendered certain kinds of political responses, while Miller approaches capitalism through the assumption that fundamental changes in the post-Oil Boom period (ca. 1973-80 brought about considerable autonomy between production and consumption that can and should now be read through an analysis of the cultural circulation of images and commodities in the society. These books are both noteworthy because they engage in explicit theorizing on what capitalism was and is, and what it did and
Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.
Ana María Tribín Uribe
Arnold Harberger en 1969 estimó la tasa de rendimiento de capital para Colombia. En su investigación desarrolló una metodología para calcular las variables relevantes que se necesitan para estimarla. Este trabajo replica la metodología de Harberger con datos recientes y encuentra el costo de oportunidad del capital para tres escenarios diferentes. En el primer escenario se toman los datos de las Cuentas Nacionales y de las Naciones Unidas y se desarrolla la metodología de Harberger, los resul...
A world away, in the Cape Winelands, architects of Stellenbosch struggle for the identity of the city, the capital of the unique cultural landscape. Here the traditional African culture is mixed with three century-long tradition of winegrowing and winemaking. This wonderful mixture was placed on the UNESCO Tentative List of World Heritage Sites. The authors of the project use cultural heritage protection laws to protect their city from chaotic development.
Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase
of capital means a coherent stock of capital, including social, cultural and physical capital, which belongs to a local community. The case of civic organization in rural Denmark 1800-1900 shows how the three capitals successively acted as driving forces: physical capital about year 1800, social capital...... about year 1880, and cultural capital about year 1900. In each case, one form of capital changed the two others in a chain reaction process, which ultimately led to a major reorganization of the triads of capital in the local rural communities....
Full Text Available En el año 1934 en la región cordillerana de Norpatagonia, se conformó el "Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi", lo cual traería importantes consecuencias para "chilenos" e "indígenas", ya que produciría la migración y expulsión de las áreas rurales de estos pobladores. Desde el imaginario promovido por la elite conservadora de los años '30, se consolidaría la impronta de esta zona -y sus centros urbanos de referencia, San Carlos de Bariloche y Villa la Angostura- como un área pretendidamente "natural", "virgen", con reminiscencias "alpinas", construcción simbólica que cimentó el proceso de despojo. A partir del año 2003, diversos grupos familiares mapuche han iniciado un proceso de reafirmación identitaria y territorial en sus ámbitos ancestrales en el área de Parques Nacionales. Nos proponemos como objetivo analizar las dinámicas que han dado origen a estos procesos asignando centralidad a las diversas políticas estatales.The "Nahuel Huapi National Park" was created in 1934, in the mountain range of North Patagonia. This brought important consequences for the "Chileans" and "Indigenous" because it gave rise to migration and eviction of the rural areas of these populations. The collective imaginary of the conservative elite of the 30's, consolidated the imprint of this area and its urban centres of reference, such as: "San Carlos de Bariloche" and "Villa la Angostura" as a supposedly "natural", "virgin" area, with "alpine" reminiscence. This symbolic construction strengthened the eviction process. Since 2006, several groups of Mapuche families have begun a process of identity and territorial reaffirmation in their ancestral ranges in the National Parks area. It is our goal to analyze the dynamics that have given rise to these processes by assigning centrality to the various state policies.
Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.
Investment in Capital Markets creates a strategic vision on the financial capital investment in the capital markets with the aim to get an increased return premium in the short and long time periods. The book is written with a main goal to explain the pros and cons of the financial capital investment in the capital markets, discussing the sophisticated investment concepts and techniques in the simple understandable readable general format language. We would like to highlight the three interes...
R. D. Valdez
Full Text Available Las series históricas de los precios mensuales de los productos agrícolas, índices nacionales de precios para el consumidor y el productor, y las tasas de cambio entre pesos mexicanos y dólares estadounidenses pueden ser caracterizados por la dimensión fractal estadística D, estimada mediante la pendiente de los variogramas geoestadísticos a escala log-log, suponiendo que las relaciones entre las varianzas promedio y los incrementos de tiempo son descritas por una ley potencial. Este supuesto corresponde al concepto de autoafinidad. La D es un indicador de la predecibilidad: valores de 1 a 1.5 indican que es factible hacer predicciones de valores de la serie en estudio, mientras que valores >1.5 hasta 2 indican un comportamiento sumamente errático y que los valores son impredecibles. Las series de precios mensuales de ajo blanco, cebolla bola, col media, durazno amarillo y frijol flor de mayo tienen varianza finita, mientras que el resto de variables tienen varianza infinita a priori. La serie del precio mensual de ajo es descrita por una D = 1.46 ± 0.179, lo cual significa que su comportamiento es muy parecido al de la función fractal de movimiento Browniano. Valores de D > 1.5 se asocian a las series de precios de chile ancho seco y guayaba (D = 1.542 ± 0.069, D = 1.692 ± 0.157, respectivamente, así que esas distribuciones son caóticas porque en ellas un incremento positivo es seguido por uno negativo y viceversa, a grado tal que la variación de corto plazo es la dominante. Las series de precios mensuales de otros productos, índices nacionales de precios mensuales para el consumidor y el productor, y tasas de cambio (pesos mexicanos por dólar estadounidense a fin de mes y promedio mensual son descritas por Ds < 1.5; por lo tanto, las variaciones de largo plazo o tendencias son las persistentes. Especialmente, los valores de D para los índices nacionales de precios no son diferentes de los valores de dimensión topológica de
De Maeseneer, Rita
El propósito consiste en averiguar hasta qué punto el inglés ha influido en las literaturas (trans)nacionales del Caribe hispano en el marco de las discusiones sobre la globalización. Mientras que las instancias literarias cubana y puertorriqueña siguen adhiriendo esencialmente al monolingüismo, las autoridades dominicanas parecen más abiertas a acoger a escritores como Junot Díaz o Josefina Báez que combinan de un modo particular las variantes del inglés y del español. Sus textos presentan a...
Collazo Herrera, Manuel; Ramos Picos, Diana; Yáñez Vega, Raúl; Cruz Pérez, Beatriz de la
El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo la realización de una revisión bibliográfica para exponer la importancia que tiene el control en los precios de los medicamentos por parte de las Autoridades Reguladoras Nacionales (ARN), como una necesidad que tiene la regulación del mercado farmacéutico interno de los países para poder asegurar el acceso económico de los medicamentos esenciales a la población y, dentro de este entorno, el papel que juegan la incorporación de los medicamentos gené...
El presente artículo muestra las tendencias de las principales dimensiones de la religiosidad delos jóvenes chilenos que han sido difundidas en las Encuestas Nacionales de Juventudrealizadas por el Instituto Nacional de la Juventud. Dichas tendencias de cambio son parte delas transformaciones culturales que la sociedad chilena en su conjunto ha experimentado en eltiempo reciente. Los cambios que nuestra sociedad ha vivido también impactan en el campo religioso y susrelaciones con el dinám...
C. Spechler, Martin; Ahrens, Joachim; Hoen, Herman W.
The book specifies the type of economic system that has arisen in Central Asian. It presents three types of state-capitalism established in the former Soviet Union states in Eurasia - crony, dual sector, and predatory capitalism.
Prakash Loungani; Paolo Mauro
This paper documents the scale of capital flight from Russia, compares it with that observed in other countries, and reviews policy options. The evidence from other countries suggests that capital flight can be reversed once reforms take hold. The paper argues that capital flight from Russia can only be curbed through a medium-term reform strategy aimed at improving governance and macroeconomic performance, and strengthening the banking system. Capital controls result in costly distortions an...
Batterham, Robert L.; Fraser, K.I.
This paper reviews the literature on the optimal replacement of capital equipment, especially farm machinery. It also considers the influence of taxation and capital rationing on replacement decisions. It concludes that special taxation provisions such as accelerated depreciation and investment allowances are unlikely to greatly influence farmers' capital equipment replacement decisions in Australia.
Néstor P. Sagüés
Full Text Available El autor analiza la relación entre los tribunales nacionales e internacionales o supranacionales con competencia jurisdiccional vinculante en materia de derechos humanos, considerando la existencia de tres posiciones en la materia: la posición conflictual de la declaración de inejecutabilidad, la posición del seguimiento nacional y la del margen de apreciación.The author analyzes the relationship between national and international or supranational courts with binding jurisdiction over matters of human rights, reviewing three positions in this subject: the conflict perspective of declaration of non-executability, the position of national follow-up, and the doctrine of margin of appreciation.
HANNES OTTÓSSON; KIM KLYVER
Using data collected from 714 entrepreneurs in a random sample of 10,000 Danes, this study provides an investigation of the effect of human capital on social capital among entrepreneurs. Previous entrepreneurship research has extensively investigated the separated effect of human capital and social capital on different entrepreneurial outputs. The study takes a step back and investigates how these two capital concepts are related — specifically how human capital influences social capital. In ...
Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier
This paper analyzes the extent to which the effect of cultural capital on academic achievement varies across high- and low-achieving schooling environments. We distinguish three competing theoretical models: Cultural reproduction (cultural capital yields higher returns in high-achieving schooling...... to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones. These results support the cultural mobility explanation and are in line with previous research suggesting that children from low-SES families benefit more from cultural capital than children from high-SES families....... environments than in low-achieving ones), cultural mobility (cultural capital yields higher returns in low-achieving environments), and cultural resources (cultural capital yields the same returns in different environments). We analyze PISA data from six countries and find that returns to cultural capital tend...
The Handbook of Social Capital balances the ‘troika' of sociology, political science and economics by offering important contributions to the study of bonding and bridging social capital networks. This inter-disciplinary Handbook intends to serve as a bridge for students and scholars within all...... the social sciences. The contributors explore the different scientific approaches that are all needed if international research is to embrace both the bright and the more shadowy aspects of social capital....
Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...
Full Text Available Setting up business capital is made from different sources and their use coordinates its policy aims, issues that affect the overall efficiency and thus differentiate companies with the same profile of activity and a similar level of capital advanced in the economic cycle. Thus financial structure, the average cost of capital used in the mechanism how the financial management of the company, of particular importance for this.
Department of Transportation — National Automated Capitalization Authorization Form used by ATO Engineering Services, Logistics, Accounting for the purpose of identifying and capturing FAA project...
Piketty’s Capital in Twenty-First Century has posed a totally new platform for the discussion of the economy and capitalism. Piketty has reinvented the classical political economy founded by Adam Smith in his 1776 Wealth of Nations. Piketty has shown via massive historical research how growth...... and inequality have developed since 1793. Piketty’s conclusion is that the French Revolution did not change the existing inequality either in the medium or in the long term. Piketty’s prediction is that a new form of global capitalism will arise, patrimonial capitalism, in which inequality will develop further...
Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
This report has two purposes: The first purpose is to present our 4-page questionnaire, which measures social capital. It is close to the main definitions of social capital and contains the most successful measures from the literature. Also it is easy to apply as discussed. The second purpose...... is to present the social capital database we have collected for 21 countries using the questionnaire. We do this by comparing the level of social capital in the countries covered. That is, the report compares the marginals from the 21 surveys....
McCarthy, Ellen E
...: To provide an agile, adaptive, integrated, and innovative defense intelligence workforce through a deliberate process identifying, implementing, and directing human capital organizational, doctrinal...
Daigneau, William A.
Addresses four questions regarding implementation of a long-term capital plan to manage a college's facilities portfolio: When should the projects be implemented? How should the capital improvements be implemented? What will it actually cost in terms of project costs as well as operating costs? Who will implement the plan? (EV)
Sen, Rijurekha; Quercia, Daniele
In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales) and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion). Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where). They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK). We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.
Schertler, A.G.; Tykvova, T.
Cross-border investments represent a substantial share of venture capital activities. We use a comprehensive dataset on investments worldwide to analyze the internationalization of venture capital financing. We postulate that cross-border activity is shaped by macroeconomic factors in the venture
Carbonell Boria, María José
Estado de la cuestión de los trabajos sobre la Capital Cursiva. Análisis de la misma y muestras de su existencia y uso en la cultura occidental, incluida España. The matter of the study of Italic Capital letters. Its analysis, samples, and use in Western cultur, including Spain.
Prieur, Annick; Skjøtt-Larsen, Jakob; Rosenlund, Lennart
Based on Danish survey data subjected to correspondence analysis, this article aims at carrying out a critical assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social differentiation in advanced societies as a multi-dimensional phenomenon. As his theory goes, capital volume (economic + cultural capital......) and capital composition (the relative weight of the two) are the main dimensions of social differentiation, which structure the space of social positions as well as the space of lifestyles. The central discussion of the article concerns the character of cultural capital, and the role it plays in the formation......, as those adhering to the preferences that are most typical for the cultural elite tend to simultaneously avoid or mark distance to popular expressions of taste. Fourth, are there traces of new forms of cultural capital? The study uncovers a cleavage between a global orientation or a form of cosmopolitanism...
Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Bjørnskov, Christian
How to construct a robust measure of social capital? This paper contains two contributions. The first is an attempt to establish a broad social capital measure based on four indicators, the Freedom House Index, an index of perceived corruption from Transparency International, and scores on civic...... participation and generalized trust. This measure is then applied by comparing the level of social capital in 25 countries from Western and Eastern Europe. Our nine cluster analysis shows that Switzerland has the highest score, followed by the Netherlands and Scandinavia. At the other end of the continuum we...... find post-communist countries and Southern Italy. The findings for this specific sample suggest that institutions matter for social capital and the relationship between decentralization and social capital emerges as a promising line of inquiry. Thus, the highest scoring countries in the sample may...
Li, Peter Ping; Redding, Gordon
This article provides an overview of social capital in Asia. Social capital is trust and appears in two main forms: relational, based on societal norms, and systemic, based on societal institutions. The relational encourages personalistic transactions; and systemic trust, supports more formal......, and usually larger, transactions backed by law. For economic development, the systemic form becomes crucial but needs to be compatible with relational norms. The dimensions of social capital are often dual in nature. This article employs a theory that accepts this and analyses the phenomena as yin......–yang balancing, seeing trust as a culturally determined enabler of social cooperation. The evolutions of trustworthiness in Japan, China, and the Philippines are analysed. This article contributes to the literature on varieties of capitalism and business systems as well as that on social capital. It raises...
María Helena Maia
Full Text Available Este artículo trata de la construcción de la noción de Patrimonio Arquitectónico en Portugal entre 1825 y 1880, período elegido por corresponder con aquél donde se define y consolida el proyecto de preservación romántico. De este modo, a partir del problema generado por la integración en los Bienes de la Nación de la voluminosa masa de bienes muebles e inmuebles, los «bienes nacionales», que hasta entonces habían estado mayoritariamente en poder de las Ordenes Religiosas y que incluían un elevado porcentaje de aquello que hoy se considera el patrimonio nacional. Se procura no solo comprender la evolución del cuadro patrimonial, sino también la de los discursos sobre el tema, la legislación promulgada y las prácticas efectivas de definición y salvaguardia de ese conjunto de edificios que, en este período, con el desarrollo de la consciencia patrimonial, se transforman en Monumentos Nacionales.This paper deals with the construction of the notion of Architectural Heritage in Portugal between 1825 and 1880, when the romantic «preservation project» was defined and consolidated. Having as a starting point the problem generated by the integration in the property of the Nation of a voluminous mass of properties, the so-called «national properties», that had until then been in the ownership of Religious Orders and include a high percentage of what is today considered our national heritage, we try not only to understand the evolution of the constitution of our architectural heritage, but also the several speeches on the subject, the promulgated legislation and the existing practices of definition and safeguard of this set of buildings that, at this time and due to the development of the consciousness of our heritage, were turned into National Monuments.
Claessens, Stijn; Naude, David
Researchers and policymakers have in recent years paid considerable attention to the phenomenon of capital flight. Researchers have focused on four questions: What concept should be used to measure capital flight? What figure for capital flight will emerge, using this measure? Can the occurrence and magnitude of capital flight be explained by certain (economic) variables? What policy changes can be useful to reverse capital flight? The authors focus strictly on presenting estimates of capital...
Full Text Available La autora muestra las diversas complicidades que se tejen entre el género literario novelístico, el nacionalismo y los procesos de construcción nacional en los países de América Latina. ¿Por qué las novelas nacionales y promovidas por el Estado para nacionalizar sus heterogéneas poblaciones suelen versar sobre el amor romántico? A través de un análisis innovador, basado en la obra de Foucault, la teoría feminista, el psicoanálisis y la nueva narratología, este artículo muestra el nacimiento de una suerte de erótica de la política nacional en América Latina. Sommer muestra la utilidad de su marco teórico para estudiar no solo a los clásicos del siglo XIX de la literatura latinoamericana, sino asimismo a los más recientes autores del boom
Ana María Correa Leal
Desde esta perspectiva, se aborda el interés en el desarrollo de un tipo específico de planeación, utilizando información secundaria, para que de manera inductiva se pueda establecer un proceso analítico amplio donde se integren los elementos necesarios que conduzcan a un protocolo planeador y gerencial, aplicable en la administración de los parques nacionales naturales.
This paper aims to offer a framework of interpreting the “evolution” of capitalism that is reaching every corner of the world and has achieved greater legitimacy than at any time in human history. It covers an interdisciplinary discussion on the development of market capitalism that has been...... characterized by a dual process: unanticipated origin (cultural and historical) and anticipated progress (political economy). The point of departure of this paper is that although the advancement of market capitalism is a process of societal development involving historical, cultural and religious causes...... (historical, divine, spiritual, miraculous), the establishment of capitalism is less the result of a force for cultural and economic dynamism than the realization of a political project. In other words, from being an enterprise within defined geographical boundaries to becoming a global project is first...
problems, but serve to further highlight the difficulties of changing capitalism towards sustainability. In a profit-oriented economy, capital accumulation is a prime driving force, and non-growth for the economy at large tends to result in serious economic and social crises. On the other hand, a de...... according to which the powers and mechanisms of the natural world are considered totally controllable by humans as if they were mere epiphenomena of the human world. On the other hand, the assumptions of certain ecological economists about the possibility of steady-state capitalism disregard the relation...... between capital and surplus value, which constitutes a strong mechanism driving the capitalist economy toward limitless growth....
Public works capital projects in the U,S, naval forces are not prioritized and funded in a way that best uses limited operations resources and maintenance dollars, This thesis develops a linear model...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to confront certain propositions presented in Lesław Niemczyk’s publication Rachunkowość finansowa aktywów kompetencyjnych i kapitału intelektualnego. Nowy dział rachunkowości(Accounting for Competence Assets and Intellectual Capital. A New Area in Accounting with ideas published in other studies. The authors discuss issues concerning firm value, selected definitions of intellectual capital, as well as certain methods of intellectual capital measurement and valuation. Other problems analysed include accounting for and reporting of intellectual capital and similarities and differences between the way those issues are presented in Polish and in international studies as well as in existing legal regulations and standards.
General Services Administration — Capital Projects application (CPA) provides users with the ability to maintain project related financial data for Budget Activity (BA) 51, 55, 64, 01, 02, 03, 04....
NAVFAC Southwest Dan Waid Program & Business Mgmt NAVFAC SW Capital Improvements Business Line NAVFAC SW 8 August 2012 1 Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Capital Improvements Business Line 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 2012 Navy Gold Coast Small Business
Full Text Available In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion. Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where. They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK. We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.
Lorz, Jens Oliver
This paper analyzes the impact of international capital mobility on redistributive capital taxation and on lobbying activities by interest groups. It employs a model where different capital endowments lead to a conflict between households concerning their most preferred capital tax rate. Three main results are derived: First, redistributive source based capital taxes or subsidies decline as international tax competition intensifies. Second, lobbying activities of certain interest groups may e...
Bongaerts, D.; Charlier, E.
Regulatory Capital requirements for European banks have been put forward in the Basel II Capital Framework and subsequently in the Capital Requirements Directive (CRD) of the EU. We provide a detailed discussion of the capital requirements for private equity investments under the simple risk weight
... capital and reserve requirements to be issued by order or regulation with respect to a product or activity... minimum capital requirements. Section 1362(a) establishes a minimum capital level for the Enterprises... entities required under this section.\\6\\ \\3\\ The Bank Act's current minimum capital requirements apply to...
Shayegheh Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas
Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that entrepreneurs’ human capital in form of education and social capital in form of networking are mutually beneficial and also that both human and social capital benefit their performance. Here, the hypothesis is that human and social capital, in combination......, provide added value and jointly add a further boost to performance, specifically if the form of exporting. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides data on 52,946 entrepreneurs, who reported on exporting and networking for advice. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that human capital promotes social...... capital, that human capital and social capital (specifically networking in the international environment, work-place, professions and market, but not in the private sphere) both benefit export directly and that human capital amplifies the benefit of social capital, especially through international...
Murthy, Vijaya; Mouritsen, Jan
Purpose – This paper aims to analyse the relationship between intellectual capital and financial capital using a case study. This makes it possible to discuss how intellectual capital is related to value creation with a degree of nuance that is absent from most statistical studies of relationships...... between human, organisational, relational and financial capital. Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses a case study of a firm that invests in intellectual capital in order to develop financial capital. It traces the relationship between intellectual capital elements and financial capital via...... interviews. This allows the development of a nuanced account of the performance of intellectual capital. This account questions the universality of the linear model typically found in statistical studies. The model makes it possible to show how items of intellectual capital not only interact but also compete...
Beja, Edsel Jr.
Capital flight aggravates resource constraints and contributes to undermine long-term economic growth. Counterfactual calculations on the Philippines suggest that capital flight contributed to lower the quality of long-term economic growth. Sustained capital flight over three decades means that capital flight had a role for the Philippines to lose the opportunities to achieve economic takeoff. Unless decisive policy actions are taken up to address enduring capital flight and manage the macroe...
... Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule, and Market Risk Capital..., 2013, a document adopting a final rule that revises its risk-based and leverage capital requirements... risk-based and leverage capital requirements for banking organizations. An allowance for additional...
Yarossi, M.E. (IPA Institute, The Hague (Netherlands))
The technical difficulty of incorporating new technology in capital intensive projects has been underestimated. Bio-refineries projects are no exemption. These projects in many occasions have assigned inadequate project resources, such as lean project teams and overly optimistic contingencies. Furthermore, project developers have set unrealistic expectations; for example: aggressive schedule duration, low cost targets and optimistic operability targets. These project drivers set before project's authorization compromise the project's outcome. In many cases, this translates into lower return on investment, higher costs, and lower operability. In order to counteract these outcomes, it is critical for capital intensive projects, like bio-refineries, to have a well define project which will enable to increase its chance of success. IPA's research has shown that bio-refineries projects have poor project performance due to poor project practices, lack of owner project controls and inadequate change management. An adequate risk analysis during definition is a critical component of a project's success, especially when there is new technology, like biomass conversion. It is of outmost importance to asses this technology and set realistic expectations. parallel to this, there is a need to have a well established execution strategy, which should be maintained throughout the execution of the project. In conclusion, IPA's research has indicated that bio-refineries, as any other capital intensive project, need to assign adequate resources at an early state of project development, by making sure there is and adequate team in place, reasonable schedule, technical difficulties evaluation, and keeping control during execution. Although these elements might be seen as common practices that should be taken into account when developing a project, many projects being their execution without having a proper foundation, and thus affecting the project
Petrini, Giancarlo; Fonseca, Ricardo; Porreca, Wladimir
O presente estudo investiga a pobreza partindo de uma análise dos recursos que os pobres dispõem em sua realidade, analisando os temas do capital humano, social e familiar, procurando estabelecer conexões e elucidar fatores da realidade pouco considerados em estudos e projetos de combate à pobreza e à exclusão social. O presente artigo, em seu conjunto, procura compreender porque, em condições semelhantes de pobreza, algumas pessoas conseguem elaborar um projeto de vida enquanto outras se es...
Full Text Available Pese a contar con unas de las mejores estadísticas de los países en desarrollo, existen lagunas en las series económicas de Chile, las cuales se han corregido a lo largo de los años. El trabajo conjunto de los autores ha permitido conocer las similitudes y diferencias entre una evaluación basada en las estadísticas chilenas y otra elaborada con las estadísticas del comercio exterior del G-3 (Alemania, Estados Unidos y Gran Bretaña. El objetivo del artículo es contrastar las series de inversión en maquinaria para Chile desde 1856 hasta 1930 y servir de base para otros estudios que quieran aportar nuevas series que permitan entender el desarrollo de Chile en el largo plazo.Despite having the best statistics in developing countries, there are a number of gaps in Chile's economic series, which have been being corrected over the years. Our joint work has allowed knowing the similarities and differences between series made from the Chilean statistical yearbooks and official trade statistics of G-3 (Germany, USA and Great Britain. The article aims to contrast both machinery investment series for Chile from 1856 to 1930 and provide a basis for other studies that want to make new series for understanding the development of Chile in the long term.
The radiology business manager in today's environment must become proficient in contract evaluations and negotiations. Health care is focusing on preventive medicine. Third-party payers are offering plans and programs to provide ''well-patient'' care. For prepaid (HMO-IPA-PTO) plans to succeed, demands for reduced fees and other entrepreneurial contractual arrangements are developed. This presentation will focus on specific items contained in most contracts. The issues of withhold, billing procedures, prompt-payment rewards, medical liability, capitation determinations, and modified capitation plans will be discussed. It is the intent of this presentation to share with the audience methods of evaluating contracts, the importance of negotiating specific terms, and an approach to determination of capitation amounts
All managed care stakeholders--health plan members, employers, providers, community organizations, and government entitites--share a common interest in reducing healthcare costs while improving the quality of care health plan members receive. Although capitation is a usually thought of primarily as a payment mechanism, it can be a powerful tool providers and health plans can use to accomplish these strategic objectives and others, such as restoring and maintaining the health of plan members or improving a community's health status. For capitation to work effectively as a strategic tool, its use must be tied to a corporate agenda of partnering with stakeholders to achieve broader strategic goals. Health plans and providers must develop a partnership strategy in which each stakeholder has well-defined roles and responsibilities. The capitation structure must reinforce interdependence, shift focus from meeting organizational needs to meeting customer needs, and develop risk-driven care strategies.
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs
Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...... the sum of the risks of the individual sub-units. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the company among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose a set...... of new axioms related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies these new axioms in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set....
Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike
This paper considers how the analysis of cultural engagement can be elaborated through a reworking of the concept of cultural capital, as originally derived from Bourdieu’s (1984) Distinction. Drawing on detailed studies of the UK and Aalborg, Denmark, we show that despite the weakening of ‘‘high......This paper considers how the analysis of cultural engagement can be elaborated through a reworking of the concept of cultural capital, as originally derived from Bourdieu’s (1984) Distinction. Drawing on detailed studies of the UK and Aalborg, Denmark, we show that despite the weakening...
Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira
Full Text Available Besides analyzing capitalist societies historically and thinking of them in terms of phases or stages, we may compare different models or varieties of capitalism. In this paper I survey the literature on this subject, and distinguish the classification that has a production or business approach from those that use a mainly political criterion. I identify five forms of capitalism: among the rich countries, the liberal democratic or Anglo-Saxon model, the social or European model, and the endogenous social integration or Japanese model; among developing countries, I distinguish the Asian developmental model from the liberal-dependent model that characterizes most other developing countries, including Brazil.
Dietrich, J. Kimball; Wihlborg, Clas
We investigate the effect of changes in capital regulation on the strictness(leniency) of loan terms using a simple model of bank capital requirements andasset quality examinations. Banks offer different levels of `leniency' in the senseof willingness to offer automatic extensions of loans...... rates. As capital requirements increase thedifference between initial capital levels and between interest rates of strict andlenient banks decrease. Thus, higher capital requirements in recessions tend toreduce the interest rate premium paid for leniency. If a recession is interpreted asan increase...... in the required return, the interest rate premium paid for leniency isincreased in recession at a given level of required capital....
Alejandro Martínez Fraga
Full Text Available No existe estudio que evalúe el estado de la oxigenoterapia en vuelo (OV en nuestro país. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los requisitos, dificultades, sistemas y costos de la OV de las companías aéreas nacionales (N e internacionales (I que operan desde Buenos Aires. Se utilizó la misma encuesta telefónica y metodología que el estudio de Stoller y col.12. Los autores se comunicaron telefónicamente con 25 aerolíneas que operaban en los dos aeropuertos de Buenos Aires en julio de 2007, y se interrogó sobre los requisitos necesarios para viajar, sistemas y costos. Se usaron técnicas estadísticas convencionales siendo significativa pThere are no data about supplemental oxygen in flight in our country. The objective of our study was to evaluate arranging in-flight-oxygen required by a simulated traveler, system of administration and costs, and to compare the results between Argentine-based (A and international (I airlines. The questionnaire used was similar to that of Stoller et al12. Data collection consisted of telephone calls placed by one of the authors to all commercial air carriers listed in our two Buenos Aires City airports during July 2007. A structured interview with questions was addressed on issues that an oxygen-using air traveler would need to arrange in-flight oxygen. Of the 25 airlines, 6 were discarded because of lack of information (24%, three A -60%-and one I-16%-. All A allowed in-flightoxygen vs. 80% of I (p<0.05, 100% of A and 94% of I required a medical certificate (p=NS; 71% of A and 100% of I required previous notification (p<0.05; 50% of A and 87% of I provided patient interphases of oxygen administration (p=NS. Free of charge oxygen could be provided by 100% of A and 50% of I, with airline charge between 70 to 300 dollars. In conclusion, we observed different policies, rules, availability, and a pronounced lack of standardization of airline information. The cost of oxygen was very different between
Juan Manuel FERNÁNDEZ SORIA
Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se estudian las influencias de los macromodelos nacionales europeos en la política educativa española. Francia y su especial influjo en aspectos políticos y administrativos proporciona los principios que atraen a muchos protagonistas de la educación española durante el primer tercio del XX; Alemania, junto a la sistematización de su pensamiento ofrece una pedagogía propiciadora de un socialismo humanista y una ética nueva; el modelo de formación de minorías que caracteriza la pedagogía inglesa fascina a liberales y conservadores. La influencia de la Rusia soviética es visible sobre todo durante la República en guerra, un momento éste en el que, y hasta mediados del siglo, la educación del régimen de Franco conoce también el peso de la pedagogía nazi sobre todo en la organización de la juventud y en experiencias de asistencia social, y de la pedagogía del fascismo italiano en la política educativa del primer franquismo. A partir de entonces la influencia en la política educativa española corresponde a los organismos internacionales.ABSTRACT: The influence European macro models have upon Spanish educational policy, is studied in this article. France and its special influence in political and administrative aspects, provides the principles which attract many protagonists of the Spanish education during the first third of the 20th century. Germany, with the systematisation of its thoughts, offers a pedagogy that propitiates a humanist socialism and a new ethic. The model of education of minorities, characteristic of English pedagogy, fascinates both liberals and conservatives. The influence of the Soviet Russia is visible above all during the Republic in times of the Civil War, moment in which, and until about the middle of the 20th century, Franco’s regime education also knows the weight of nazi pedagogy, specially in youth organisations and in social work experiences, and the Italian’s fascism
Figallo, Beatriz J.
Full Text Available From the end of the nineteenth century until the middle of the twentieth, the Gran Chaco was a zone of conflict. Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay exercised varied and competing influences in the region, reflecting the intentions of each nation to incorporate the Chaco forcibly as part of larger projects of industrialisation and colonisation. This study examines the implementation of these projects, as well as the resistance they generated in the face of the violence visited upon the inhabitants of the region, whether indigenous peoples, mestizos, or whites. From an anthropological perspective, the work also reassesses conflicts in the Chaco region as a problem in the history of inter-American relations, where non-governmental actors determine links between people and government. The article goes on to consider the national and regional contexts to conflict, in which frontiers and boundaries are further concepts and realities to be assessed.
Desde fines del siglo XIX y hasta mediados del XX, el Gran Chaco constituyó, en procesos asimétricos ejercidos por los estados que terminaron dividiéndose su jurisdicción, la Argentina, Bolivia y Paraguay, una región de disputas, que incluyó guerras, militarización de límites, forzada incorporación en los desarrollos industrializadores y colonizadores. Este trabajo busca conocer la ejecución de aquellas políticas y las resistencias generadas, en espacios que fueron tanto de concertaciones, como de conflictos frente al poder y a la violencia ejercida sobre sus pobladores, indios, mestizos y blancos. El objetivo es también contribuir a enriquecer la historia de las relaciones interamericanas, a través de una perspectiva antropológica, en donde actores no estatales configuran vínculos entre pueblos y gobiernos, y asimismo de una mirada que se dirija simultáneamente hacia la consideración de los contextos nacionales y regionales, en donde fronteras y límites son nociones y realidades a
Vladimir Cvijanovic; Denis Redzepagic
The paper analyses the typology of capitalism in Croatia. The Croatian form of capitalism is specific, in form and origin, with links between the pre-independence and post-independence periods, implying that capitalism has gradually evolved – from the political during the eighties towards current clientelistic capitalism. The manufacturing focus aims to facilitate the analysis of institutional, political and economic changes over the past forty years, emphasising the implications of instituti...
Runkle, Q.; Haines, T.; Piper, K.; Leach, S.
To assess and evaluate the impact of the Green Capital: Student Capital project, the partnership (the University of the West of England, the University of Bristol, the Students’ Union at UWE, and Bristol Students’ Union) worked with NUS to train a team of students from both universities to lead an evaluation process. There were two key aims for the evaluation: \\ud \\ud • To verify the quantitative outputs of the Green Capital: Student Capital project; \\ud • And to make a qualitative assessment...
Oscar Acera Manero
Full Text Available Social capital consists of the contributions of members and associates, both mandatory and voluntary. From an accounting point of view, it is a liability figure that expresses the value of a portion of the equity of the cooperative. Its inclusion in the liability is not the fact that it is a debt but by its nature unenforceable.
This paper contributes to current debates on the relationship between globalisation and higher education. The main argument of the paper is that we are currently witnessing transnationalisation of academic capitalism. This argument is illustrated by examining the collaboration between transnational corporations and research universities, and how…
Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland
We show that the standard trust question routinely used in social capital research is importantly related to cooperation behavior and we provide a microfoundation for this relation. We run a large-scale public goods experiment over the internet in Denmark and find that the trust question is a proxy...
Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Wengström, Erik Roland
Research on social capital routinely relies on survey measures of trust which can be collected in large and heterogeneous samples at low cost. We validate such survey measures in an incentivized public good experiment and show that they are importantly related to cooperation behavior in a large...
in helping elites avoid taxes and other forms of regulation. The study documents how the means through which they achieve this objective - shifting billions in private capital wealth between Asia, Africa, India and Europe - and how this affects the balance of regional economic power. Drawing from...
Meer-Kooistra, Jeltje van der; Zijlstra, Siebren M.
In today’s knowledge-based economy intellectual capital (IC) is becoming a major part of companies’ value. Being able to manage and control IC requires that companies can identify, measure and report internally on IC. As financial accounting rules ban full disclosure of IC in the annual report the
Full Text Available This paper looks at the difficulties of managing modem capital projects and endeavors to reduce the complexities to simpler and more understandable terms. It examines the project environment, defines project management and discusses points of difference from traditional management. In the second part of the paper are presented fundamentals for project success for different types of projects.
The paper presents the social capital as the essential element of success of the Reggio Emilia preschools known for their unique approach to the early childhood education. The collaborative effort is introduced through examples of the currently ongoing "Reggio Narrates" project of Reggio preschools, the "Dialogue with the…
van Schaik, A.B.T.M.
In the 'sixties, the reproduction model was often the subject of analysis and discussion in economic literat ure. Discussion was by criticism of the neo-classical concept of capital as well as by a renewed interest in the labour theory of value. Criticism of the use of a homogeneous concept of
To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…
Gaay Fortman, B. de
In the two ages of its existence capitalism has given proof of its reformability. It was, however, anti-capitalist blueprints and ideas that constituted a continuous spiritual driving force towards reform. Today, after the collapse of real existing socialism there is an urgent need for new
In my belief the effectiveness of organizations has more to do with managing people in a more ethical, sustainable and effective way than what is common these days. For example employees values like trust, respect and commitment are rarely considered as values that can contribute to social capital
Payne, Christopher T
When planning capital expenditures, hospitals and health systems should understand the following financing considerations: Traditional fixed-rate tax-exempt bonds; Variable-rate financing alternatives; Basel III Accord requirements; Direct tax-exempt bank loans; Total return swaps Taxable financings; Interest-rate swaps and collateral requirements
Flor, Christian Riis
This paper analyzes a firm's capital structure choice when assets have outside value. Valuable assets implicitly provide a collateral and increase tax shield exploitation. The key feature in this paper is asset value uncertainty, implying that it is unknown ex ante whether the equity holders ex p...
This paper merges economic geography and relational capital perspective in order to analyze the proximity-based antecedents of relational assets in brokerage. It investigates empirically the role and interplay of geographical and cognitive proximity between a broker and her buyers in a quantitative...... for buyers characteristics. Lastly, I make use the under-researched empirical field of brokers....
Waldstrøm, Christian; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase
a dual focus on social capital as both immediately and potentially productive resources, i.e. assets that can be immediately capitalized by individuals as well as ‘cultivated' for future use. We argue that to further operationalize this concept we must distinguish between actual/potential social capital...
Blouin, J.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.
Abstract: This paper examines the impact of thin capitalization rules that limit the tax deductibility of interest on the capital structure of the foreign affiliates of US multinationals. We construct a new data set on thin capitalization rules in 54 countries for the period 1982-2004. Using
B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)
textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge- nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also capital
Salazar G, Alberto; Santa María, Arturo; Solano R, Isabel; Lázaro V, Catherine; Arrollo S, Silvana; Araujo T, Virginia; Luna R, Denisse; Echazu I., Carlos
Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, en diez Instituciones Educativas Nacionales del distrito de El Agustino– Lima, aplicándose un cuestionario a adolescentes hombres y mujeres (n=1109), indagando acerca de conocimientos de planificación familiar, métodos anticonceptivos y usos; infecciones de transmisión sexual, inicio de relaciones sexuales y comunicación familiar con los padres acerca de sexualidad. Se reveló conocimientos sobre sexualidad calificados como malo en un 50% (n=632)...
Blanco Andray, Alfredo; Rubio Sánchez, Agustín
Los inventarios Forestales Nacionales se perfilan cada vez más como inventarios de sistemas foestales. La información cualitativa y cuantitativa, referida hasta el presente a las especies forestales, contendrá o debería contener unos supraniveles de información referidos a los llamados sistemas forestales, sin prescindir del nivel específico tradicional. Estos sistemas forestales constituirán un reflejo mucho más ajustado de nuestra "realidad forestal" y, por tanto, facilitarán la política de...
Matthias Reeh Michael; Molina Roa Nelson Andrés
Al ser un país miembro de la Unión Europea (UE), la nación austriaca ha venido incorporando paulatinamente las International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera (NIIF) en español, a sus procesos contables y de revelación de información financiera en remplazo de las normas nacionales locales conocidas como Unternehmensgesetzbuch (UGB). Durante este proceso de convergencia, el principio prudencia ha entrado en crisis dentro del marco conceptual...
Veloz B., Carolina; Sanchez R., Juan; Corral S., Carlos; Cabanilla G., Galo
Este trabajo representa la Planificación Estratégica de la compañía Líneas Aéreas Nacionales del Ecuador para los años 97 y 98. Fue realizado tomando como base los estados financieros y presupuestos de años anteriores, la definición de la empresa, su misión y visión actuales y sus perspectivas para el futuro. La investigación incluye el planteamiento de estrategias actuales y futuras, y dentro de las futuras se segregan las deseables y las realizables considerando factores tales com...
Ana María Correa Leal; Gustavo Correa Assmus
Colombia es un país reconocido mundial-mente por su riqueza ecológica, la cual se trata de preservar mediante muestras representativas, contenidas en diversas áreas de los parques nacionales naturales; sin embargo, su gestión amerita la incorporación de elementos modernos, para que el proceso administración-conservación haga eco en la sostenibilidad deseada. Para ello, se propone retomar la historia y realidad de las áreas en unión con la definición de Nueva Delhi, otros elementos concomit...
Lidia E. Santana Vega
Full Text Available Los jóvenes en situación de riesgo de exclusión presentan trayectorias atípicas en las que tienen que hacer frente a la exclusión y la marginación; de ahí la necesidad de que adquieran competencias para la empleabilidad. La adquisición de tales competencias facilitará a estos jóvenes la obtención y mantenimiento de un empleo y les abrirá las puertas al aprendizaje permanente. Los objetivos del trabajo son: a analizar las competencias de empleabilidad de los jóvenes nacionales e inmigrantes que salen del sistema público de protección y b comparar sus trayectorias laborales. Se realizó un estudio de casos múltiples en el que participaron cuatro jóvenes nacionales y cuatro jóvenes inmigrantes subsaharianos no acompañados en riesgo de exclusión, los tutores de sus centros y los empresarios que tutorizaron sus prácticas profesionales. La selección de los casos tuvo en cuenta tres criterios: 1 haber estado acogido al sistema de protección, 2 haber estado un mínimo de 6 meses en un programa de inserción laboral y 3 tener entre16-25 años. Los datos del estudio fueron obtenidos mediante técnicas e instrumentos cualitativos y cuantitativos. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que los jóvenes inmigrantes: a elaboran proyectos de vida más claros y reales que los jóvenes nacionales; b finalizan su programa de inserción sociolaboral con un mayor nivel de competencias de empleabilidad; c afrontan su transición a la vida adulta con una mejor formación. Según los datos de la investigación, los jóvenes inmigrantes afrontan de forma más exitosa la transición a la vida adulta que los jóvenes nacionales. En el artículo se discute la necesidad de trabajar sobre los objetivos del proyecto de vida de los jóvenes en riesgo de exclusión, sus redes de apoyo y sus competencias de empleabilidad para ir consolidando sus trayectorias laborales.
Antonio Romualdo Márquez González; Sara Rubí Tovar Hernández; Verónica Alejandra Mondragón Jaimes
El objetivo de este trabajo es saber si los turistas nacionales conocen la calidad bacteriológica del agua de mar de los sitios que visitaban en los municipios de San Blas, Compostela y Bahía de Banderas del estado de Nayarit. El estar oportunamente informados de los comunicados que emiten las autoridades ambientales y de salud, sobre la calidad del agua de mar de los principales destinos de playa y que podría representar una herramienta de suma importancia para planear el desplazamiento para...
Márquez González, Antonio Romualdo; Tovar Hernández, Sara Rubí; Mondragón Jaimes, Verónica Alejandra
Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo es saber si los turistas nacionales conocen la calidad bacteriológica del agua de mar de los sitios que visitaban en los municipios de San Blas, Compostela y Bahía de Banderas del estado de Nayarit. El estar oportunamente informados de los comunicados que emiten las autoridades ambientales y de salud, sobre la calidad del agua de mar de los principales destinos de playa y que podría representar una herramienta de suma importancia para planear el desplazamie...
The popular mythology surrounding the U.S. venture-capital industry derives from a previous era. Venture capitalists who nurtured the computer industry in its infancy were legendary both for their risk taking and for their hands-on operating experience. But today things are different, and separating the myths from the realities is crucial to understanding this important piece of the U.S. economy. Today's venture capitalists are more like conservative bankers than the risk takers of days past. They have carved out a specialized niche in the capital markets, filling a void that other institutions cannot serve. They are the linch-pins in an efficient system for meeting the needs of institutional investors looking for high returns, of entrepreneurs seeking funding, and of investment bankers looking for companies to sell. Venture capitalists must earn a consistently superior return on investments in inherently risky businesses. The myth is that they do so by investing in good ideas and good plans. In reality, they invest in good industries--that is, industries that are more competitively forgiving than the market as a whole. And they structure their deals in a way that minimizes their risk and maximizes their returns. Although many entrepreneurs expect venture capitalists to provide them with sage guidance as well as capital, that expectation is unrealistic. Given a typical portfolio of ten companies and a 2,000-hour work year, a venture capital partner spends on average less than two hours per week on any given company. In addition to analyzing the current venture-capital system, the author offers practical advice to entrepreneurs thinking about venture funding.
There are some myths about American capitalism. Some of them are (1) Capitalism made America the richest nation, (2) Capitalism is based on self interest, and (3) America has democracy. We show that the survival of capitalism is based on several powerful conspiracy theories. We briefly describe these conspiracies. Our analysis is based on the following principles: (a) Laws of conservation, (b) System theoretic concepts, and (c) The global space time (GST) environment. Using these princip...
Isil Erel; Brandon Julio; Woojin Kim; Michael S. Weisbach
Do macroeconomic conditions affect firms' abilities to raise capital? If so, how do they affect the manner in which the capital is raised? We address these questions using a large sample of publicly-traded debt issues, seasoned equity offers, bank loans and private placements of equity and debt. Our results suggest that a borrower's credit quality significantly affects its ability to raise capital during macroeconomic downturns. For noninvestment-grade borrowers, capital raising tends to be p...
This paper analyzes the trade-off between financial stability and credit rationing that arises when increasing capital requirements. It extends the Stiglitz-Weiss model of credit rationing to allow for bank default. Bank capital structure then matters for lending incentives. With default and rationing endogenous, optimal capital requirements can be analyzed. Introducing bank financiers, the paper also shows that uninsured funding raises the sensitivity of rationing to capital requirements. In...
Samuel Kortum; Josh Lerner
While policymakers often assume venture capital has a profound impact on innovation, that premise has not been evaluated systematically. We address this omission by examining the influence of venture capital on patented inventions in the United States across twenty industries over three decades. We address concerns about causality in several ways, including exploiting a 1979 policy shift that spurred venture capital fundraising. We find that the amount of venture capital activity in an indust...
Madsen, Susan R.
Suggests that one of the most important keys for improving individual and organizational performance is in developing and strengthening intellectual capital (IC) and explores the similarities and differences between the concepts of intellectual capital, human capital, and knowledge management. Presents four IC characteristics and addresses the…
De Jonghe, O.G.; Öztekin, Ö.
We examine the dynamic behavior of bank capital using a global sample of 64 countries during the 1994-2010 period. Banks achieve deleveraging through active capital management (equity growth) rather than asset liquidation. In contrast, they achieve leveraging through passive capital management
Lassen Hanan, Anne
This paper outlines the major schools within social capital theory. Contemporary authors such as Coleman, Putnam and Bourdieu are elaborated on. The paper also presents a non-exhaustive review on studies of social capital. Furthermore, a criticial discussion on social capital is reviewed, before...
We use data from an online game economy and econometric matching methods to test whether social capital of players has an impact on game success. Membership in a 'clan', a voluntary organization of players, positively impacts game success. Hence, social capital has a positive effect on outcomes. Yet, top performers do not gain from access to this social capital.
Ohashi, Yuki; Taguchi, Atsuko; Omori, Junko; Ozaki, Akiko
Harnessing community assets may help public health nurses address health inequalities. Cultural factor is one such asset, which is assumed to be capital in a community. Cultural capital is a key concept for understanding the causes of public health issues. This paper provided an in-depth analysis of "cultural capital" as a concept. Rodgers' evolutionary methodology was used for concept analysis. Forty-two studies published in English between 1998 and 2015 were retrieved from MEDLINE by searching for "cultural capital" in the title field. Antecedents of cultural capital included "educational environment," "belongingness in one's social group," "existing health/social inequalities," and "daily behavior." Cultural capital's identified attributes were "social cultivation," "reproductive rubric," "practical knowledge," and "autogenic ability." Cultural capital's consequences were "improving productivity," "reducing health/social inequality," and "enhancing well-being." Cultural capital is defined as capital characterized by cultivation, rubric, knowledge, and ability. These aspects of cultural capital are typically autogenic, and accumulate and reproduce through lifelong community membership. Cultural capital reduces inequality and ultimately enhances the well-being of individuals and the community through bonding, bridging, and linking economic and social capital. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Da Rin, Marco; Penas, Maria
Venture capital investors are specialized financial intermediaries that provides funding for technological innovation with the goal of realizing a capital gain within a few years. We are the first to examine the association of venture capital funding with a company’s choice of innovation strategies.
Da Rin, Marco; Penas, Fabiana
Venture capital investors are specialized financial intermediaries that provide funding for technological innovation with the goal of realizing a capital gain within a few years. We are the first to examine the association of venture capital funding with a company's choice of innovation strategies.
Perotti, E.; Ratnovski, L.; Vlahu, R.
The paper studies risk mitigation associated with capital regulation, in a context when banks may choose tail risk assets. We show that this undermines the traditional result that higher capital reduces excess risk-taking driven by limited liability. When capital raising is costly, poorly
Perotti, E.; Ratnovski, L.; Vlahu, R.
The paper studies risk mitigation associated with capital regulation, in a context where banks may choose tail risk assets. We show that this undermines the traditional result that higher capital reduces excess risk taking driven by limited liability. Moreover, higher capital may have an unintended
... countercyclical capital buffer was designed to take into account the macro-financial environment in which large... ability to raise capital to meet the increased minimum requirements in the current environment and upon...
Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Edwards, Kasper
Performance systems and social capital are considered mutually exclusive. Contemporary studies show that social capital is essential in generating performance improvement. This raises an important question: “How do performance systems and social capital correspond?” This study draws on findings...... from a study on implementation of a performance system in Danish construction. The results show causalities between implementing the performance system and the emergence of social capital in construction projects. Results indicate that performance systems and social capital is not mutually exclusive...
Full Text Available Organisational culture discourse mandates a linear approach of diagnosis, measurement and gap analysis as standard practice in relation to most culture change initiatives. Therefore, a problem solving framework geared toward “fixing�? and/or realigning an organisation’s culture is usually prescribed. The traditional problem solving model seeks to identify gaps between current and desired organisational cultural states, inhibiting the discovery of an organisation’s unique values and strengths, namely its cultural capital. In pursuit of discovering and leveraging organisational cultural capital, a descriptive case study is used to show how an Appreciative Inquiry process can rejuvenate the spirit of an organisation as a system-wide inquiry mobilises a workforce toward a shared vision.
Cong, Ronggang; Termansen, Mette; Brady, Mark
Farmers are exposed to substantial weather and market related risks. Rational farmers seek to avoid large losses. Future climate change and energy price fluctuations therefore make adaptating to increased risks particularly important for them. Managing soil natural capital—the capacity of the soil...... to generate ecosystem services of benefit to farmers—has been proven to generate the double dividend: increasing farm profit and reducing associated risk. In this paper we explore whether managing soil natural capital has a third dividend: reducing the downside risk (increasing the positive skewness of profit......). This we refer to as the prudence effect which can be viewed as an adaptation strategy for dealing with future uncertainties through more prudent management of soil natural capital. We do this by developing a dynamic stochastic portfolio model to optimize the stock of soil natural capital—as indicated...
..., Standardized Approach for Risk-Weighted Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule, and Market Risk Capital Rule AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance... Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule, and...
Emilio José Chaves Márquez
Full Text Available La metodología que procesa los datos primarios usados para elaborar las Cuentas Nacionales se aborda desde tres lados: 1 La fórmula del PIB de Kuznets y las Tablas Insumo-Producto de Leontief; 2 El documento SNA- 93 de las Naciones Unidas (System of National Accounts, versión 1993 y 3 Una propuesta alterna de manejo. El análisis es proyectado a las cifras empíricas oficiales de Colombia en 1990. Se cuestionan los conceptos que subyacen el modelo implícito en el SNA-93. La propuesta alternativa de Cuentas Nacionales de Insumo-Producto incluye entre otros elementos: 1 el retorno al concepto de Valor-Agregado clásico, 2 la eliminación del PIB y el Output en el análisis, 3 disminución del número de precios, variables, ajustes y cuadros empleados, 4 manejo homogéneo contable para todos los sectores, basado en flujos de ingresos y pagos a precios reales de mercado.
Andy Cosh; Douglas Cumming; Alan Hughes
This paper investigates the internal versus external financing decisions among 1900 early stage privately held UK firms in 1996-1997. We study the factors that affect rejection rates in applications for outside finance among the different types of investors, taking into account the non-randomness in a firm’s decision to seek outside finance. The data support the traditional pecking order theory; firms with greater capital expenditures / profits are more likely to seek finance and apply for mo...
Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna
This article deals with the selection of intellectual capital management strategy. The attention is paid to the structure of intellectual capital, which consists of human capital, customer capital, process capital, intellectual property, intangible assets. The algorithm of selection of intellectual capital management strategy was created by author.
Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna
Full Text Available This article deals with the selection of intellectual capital management strategy. The attention is paid to the structure of intellectual capital, which consists of human capital, customer capital, process capital, intellectual property, intangible assets. The algorithm of selection of intellectual capital management strategy was created by author.
Olga Sergeevna Miroshnichenko
Full Text Available Searching of sources to increase the capitalization of Russian banks is an important economic problem for both the national and regional economy. Moreover, a strong capital base allows to credit institutions to meet the demands of economic agents for banking service. The research focuses on the choice of sources of regulatory capital for the banks of Tyumen region in the context of changing supervisory requirements in the period of 2005–2016, in different phases of the business cycle. We apply econometric methods of statistical information using IBM SPSS Statistics software. We have calculated the individual correlations of regional banks’ capital with gross domestic product (GDP (excluding gross regional product (GRP and GRP (with the exception of the effect of GDP. These calculations have shown that the capital of regional banks is related only to GDP. The increase in the capital of regional banks is accompanied by a change in its structure: the share of authorized capital has halved, and the share of subordinated debt has grown. All sources of capital, other than the reserve fund, are related to GDP. Authorized capital is associated with the profit of profitable lending institutions; retained earnings in the capital of regional banks — with the aggregated amount of risks of the banking system of the Russian Federation. Subordinated debt, like capital as a whole, is negatively affected by the profitability of the banking sector. The change in the capital of regional banks is determined by the change in retained earnings, subordinated debt and reserve fund. Modelling of these relations has allowed to obtain a system of equations. This system synthesizes linear regression models of changing the capital of regional banks in the context of their sourcing. The results of this study are significant for theoretical justification and practical development of a balanced financial policy of regional banks. Our research will contribute to
There is a continuing debate regarding urban community gardening’s benefits to local communities, and a particularly interesting branch of this debate has focused on community gardens capacity to encourage and facilitate social interaction, which may generate social capital. Social capital...... is an increasingly important concept in international research and measures of social capital have been associated with various measures of health. In a meta-analysis of literature published between 2000 and 2016 regarding community gardens’ social advantages, through the lens of the concept of social capital......, it is demonstrated that several studies substantiate that urban community gardens create social capital, both bonding and bridging, and exhibit indications of linking. It is moreover identified how there is much to be learned from future research, illuminating how urban community gardens can foster social capital...
Thomas I. Palley
Full Text Available This paper reexamines the issue of international financial capital mobility, which is today's economic orthodoxy. Discussion is often framed in terms of the impossible trinity. That framing distorts discussion by representing capital mobility as having equal significance with sovereign monetary policy and control over exchange rates. It also distorts discussion by ignoring possibilities for coordinated monetary policy and exchange rates, and for managed capital flows. The case for capital mobility rests on neo-classical economic efficiency arguments and neo-liberal political arguments. The case against capital mobility is based on Keynesian macroeconomic inefficiency arguments, neo-Walrasian market failure arguments, and neo-Marxian arguments regarding distortion of the social structure of accumulation. Close examination shows the case for capital mobility to be extremely flimsy, pointing to the ideological dimension behind today's policy orthodoxy.
Jackson, Matthew O.
I provide a typology of social capital, breaking it down into seven more fundamental forms of capital: information capital, brokerage capital, coordination and leadership capital, bridging capital, favor capital, reputation capital, and community capital. I discuss how most of these forms of social capital can be identified using different network-based measures.
Cárcamo Sánchez, Luis Alberto; Cárcamo Sánchez, Luis Alberto
El Informe de Competencia Profesional presentado es el desarrollo de una parte de las actividades que se realizan en el Laboratorio Químico de Reactivos Nacionales S.A. Entre las principales actividades contempladas en el informe están el control de calidad de los siguientes reactivos de flotación: xantatos, ditiofosfatos y espumantes (frothers). En coordinación con el Laboratorio Metalúrgico de Reactivos Nacionales S.A. se desarrollan y formulan productos alternativos como el espumante f...
Ignacio Perrotini Hernández
Full Text Available En este artículo contrastamos el modelo de Thirlwall (1979 y el de Clavijo y Ros (2015 que ofrecen explicaciones dicotómicas del crecimiento económico de largo plazo. Proponemos, además, un modelo en el que la acumulación de capital y la tasa de crecimiento de la productividad del capital determinan la tasa de crecimiento económico de largo plazo consistente con una posición constante de la balanza de pagos como porcentaje del PIB. Aplicamos este modelo para explicar las causas del lento crecimiento de la economía Mexicana durante el periodo 1982-2014. Nuestro análisis empírico nos conduce a la conclusión de que la drástica disminución de la demanda interna de bienes nacionales y de las tasas de acumulación neta de capital y de la productividad del capital es significativa para explicar el estancamiento de la economía Mexicana. Asimismo, las elasticidades ingreso de la demanda de exportaciones y de importaciones también explican, aunque en menor medida, ese estancamiento.
Austin, Robert D.; Meister, Darren
It took 19 years to build Knight Capital Americas LLC into the largest market maker on the New York Stock Exchange, but on August 1, 2012, it took only 45 minutes for the firm to be wiped out by an information technology (IT) problem: a change in the company's software caused it to lose more than...... $450 million dollars in less than an hour. Although it was ultimately saved from bankruptcy when it was acquired two days later, the terms of acquisition were very unfavourable to the company's shareholders. How did this happen? Could it have been prevented? What should the staff, the chief executive...
I examine the causal relation between social capiatl and corruption. A simple model illustrates potential mechanisms and yields testable implications, which I estimate in a sample of European countries. The estimated effect of social capital on corruption is found to be robust to the inclusion...... of a number of other variables and supplementing the sample with slightly older data from non-European countries. The evidence of the reverse causal direction is weak. I suggest that it is possible to build social capiatl through investing in education, interest in society and some level of income...
Oscar Alejandro Goyes Viteri
Este documento busca dar a conocer el tema de la inversión en capital humano a través de la celebración de contratos atípicos y utilizando la fiducia mercantil y la titularización como vehículos financieros. Por medio de estos contratos un estudiante obtiene los recursos que requiere para financiar su educación superior, a cambio de entregar un porcentaje de sus ingresos después de su graduación a quien financió la operación.
María Isabel Pueyo Roy
Full Text Available El artículo presenta un resumen de la teoría existente sobre capital humano, considerando dos proposiciones que se complementan: la Teoría Neoclásica -educación como formación laboral o señalización al mercado de trabajo- y la Teoría Institucional o de mercados internos de trabajo. Se presenta el desarrollo de ambas teorías, los problemas que presentan y la complementariedad entre las mismas.
McCue, M J; Ozcan, Y A
This study analyzes the determinants of hospital capital structure in a new market setting that are created by the financial pressures of prospective payment and the intense price competition among hospitals. Using California data, the study found hospital system affiliation, bed size, growth rate in revenues, operating risk, and asset structure affected both short- and long-term debt borrowings. In addition, percentage of uncompensated care, profitability, and payer mix influenced short-term borrowings while market conditions and ownership affected long-term borrowings. Most significant of all is the finding that smaller hospitals tend to borrow more, possibly because they cannot generate funds internally.
Full Text Available La gestión de las áreas protegidas en el actual contexto de cambio global requiere de aproximaciones que permitan caracterizar y seguir el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas. La teledetección ofrece herramientas para ello, ya que proporciona índices que informan reiteradamente y para grandes porciones de territorio, de los intercambios de materia y energía que tienen lugar entre la biota y la superficie terrestre. Considerando este principio, y la cada vez mayor disponibilidad de información satelital de calidad y facilidad de uso, desarrollamos junto con el Organismo Autónomo de Parques Nacionales de España (OAPN, un sistema de seguimiento que complementa a otras iniciativas desarrolladas por este organismo para informar del estado de conservación de los parques nacionales. El sistema, denominado REMOTE, se basa en el empleo de los índices de vegetación espectrales (IVs de uso más extendido (EVI -índice de vegetación mejorado- y NDVI -índice de vegetación normalizado-, derivados de la serie temporal de imágenes satelitales del sensor MODIS-Terra. El sistema permite avanzar en la identificación de las condiciones de referencia para la comprensión y predicción de las respuestas de los ecosistemas frente a perturbaciones e intervenciones, y de los cambios direccionales que éstos están experimentando (tendencias. Así mismo ayuda a la detección de anomalías recientes que alertan de cambios bruscos en el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas. REMOTE se caracteriza porque usa como indicadores tres atributos relacionados con las ganancias de carbono anuales (productividad primaria neta por parte del dosel vegetal, su estacionalidad y fenología. Además, está diseñado y programado con software libre y gratuito, lo que permitirá modificar o implementar mejoras en él fácilmente. Su implementación tiene como objetivo informar a los tomadores de decisiones y gestores de la Red de Parques Nacionales de España de la salud y estado
Svendsen, G.L.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
What are the roots of social capital and how can it be measured and built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society...... and allows more transactions to take place without third-party enforcement. Theory and lessons from empirical evidence lead to the general recommendation that any loss in social capital must be deducted from the economic gain following market forces. For example, the voluntary organization of small......-sized groups in the Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement was eliminated due to economies of scale. It may be so that an alternative way of production, taking social capital into account, could have increased economic growth further....
Horváth, Roman; Seidler, Jakub; Weill, Laurent
This paper examines the relation between banks’ capital and liquidity creation. This issue is of interest to determine the potential impact of higher capital requirements for banks on their liquidity creation, which may have particular importance with new Basel III reform demanding from banks higher capital. We perform Granger-causality tests in a dynamic GMM panel estimator framework on an exhaustive dataset of Czech banks from 2000 to 2010.
This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...
Stephen Bond; Jing Xing
We present new empirical evidence that aggregate capital accumulation is strongly influenced by the user cost of capital and, in particular, by corporate tax incentives summarised in the tax-adjusted user cost. We use sectoral panel data for the USA, Japan, Australia and ten EU countries over the period 1982-2007. Our panel combines data on capital stocks, value-added and relative prices from the EU KLEMS database with measures of effective corporate tax rates from the Oxford University Centr...
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Patulny, Roger
The purpose of this paper is to show that numerous studies have advanced social capital research over the past decade. Most studies have accepted the theoretical distinction between bonding and bridging social capital networks. Many, however, tend to agglomerate empirical research under the one...... catch-all social capital concept, rather than classifying it according to the bonding/bridging distinction. Furthermore, most studies make little distinction on the basis of methodology, between qualitative and quantitative approaches to investigating social capital. These omissions need to be addressed....
Marc LE CALVEZ
Full Text Available RESUMEN: El tercer choque petrolero (1999 favoreció las aspiraciones nacionalistas de varios gobiernos de la región amazónica andina en el sector petrolero. El objetivo de este estudio consiste en explicar los contrastes en los procesos de rediseño de los sistemas de gobernanza petrolera entre Ecuador y Venezuela, a partir del análisis de las políticas nacionales de cada uno de estos países. ABSTRACT: The third oil boom (1999 supported the nationalist aspirations of some governments in the Amazon-Andean Region. The main purpose of this article is to explain the differences in the process of redesign of the oil governance systems between Ecuador and Venezuela, from the perspective of the national policies of each country.
Full Text Available Resumen En el presente trabajo buscaremos retomar el dialogo entre el fútbol y los nacionalismos desde una estrategia metodológica un tanto disímil en relación a nuestros antecedentes bibliográficos: pretendemos desplazarnos de la óptica naciocentrica. Para ello pondremos nuestro foco en los intercambios simbólicos dialogantes entre las narrativas nacionales construidas por los hinchas argentinos y los torcedores brasileros durante la Copa del Mundo Brasil 2014. El trabajo cuenta con dos apartados: en el primero intentaremos sistematizar algunas reflexiones pertinentes para pensar el fútbol y el mundial como terrenos simbólicos privilegiados donde leer la tensión local-global. En el segundo apartado nos adentramos al análisis de los cánticos desplegados entre los hinchas argentinos y los torcedores brasileros durante la Copa del Mundo Brasil 2014.
Full Text Available El texto tiene por objeto discutir los Institutos Nacionales de Ciencia y Tecnología brasileños (INCTs en el contexto de la sociedad funcionalmente diferenciada Latinoamericana. El texto describe el estado del arte de la innovación, en ese contexto, caracterizará los INCTs en el ámbito del pensamiento sistémico ap licado a la innovación, señalando las consecuencias que resultan de estas caracterizaciones para la Política Pública aplicada a la ciencia, tecnología e innovación (Políticas Públicas aplicado a CTI. El texto concluye con la necesidad de rediscutir y prof undizar la operacionalidad de los INCTs.
Jefferson Marçal Rocha
Full Text Available Nas VIII Jornadas Nacionales e II Simposio Internacional De Investigacion Accion En Turismo, realizado na aprazível cidade de Posadas, província de Misiones - Argentina, nos dias 7, 8 e 9 de julho de 2007, teve como tema Las políticas en Turismo en los nuevos escenarios del MERCOSUR. O ponto de partida das discussões foi a complexidade que envolve o fenômeno turismo, especialmente nos países do Mercosul, que apesar de terem especificidades das mais diversas, têm problemas muito próximos em relação às políticas para o setor.
Full Text Available Venture capital (VC is an important fund source for small and medium enterprises (SMEs and start up, particularly to deliver its main product of equity participation. Therefore, capital structure and factors that affect it are very crucial. This study aims to analyze the capital structure of VC firms in Indonesia using econometric model of panel data regression. This study utilizes secondary data of six years period (2009-2014 monthly financial statements of 27 samples out of 58 VC firms to form 1,944 observations. The study reveals that capital structure of VC firms in Indonesia is dominated by debt/loan rather than capital with DER on average is 136.95%. In addition, the research confirms that VC firms’ capital structure is affected simultaneously by financial aspects which are asset size, profitability, liquidity, asset/investment quality, and earning asset structure. The attentions to financial aspects that affect the VC firms’ capital structure as well as other initiatives related to capital increases are necessary so that the VC firms could carry out its role effectively.
Full Text Available Nuestra investigación se propone desestabilizar el relato oficial que la historiografía de la educación reprodujo y consolidó del bachillerato argentino (y con él el de la enseñanza secundaria a través de los “lugares comunes”, prejuicios analíticos, lecturas “a priori” y miradas “desde arriba” que caracterizaron a los relatos sobre los colegios nacionales. Todo ello a partir del análisis de caso de un colegio nacional: el de Mar del Plata. Específicamente en este artículo pretendemos identificar a los estudiantes de los colegios nacionales en la primera mitad del siglo XX. Para ello en la primera parte recuperamos los estudios realizados al respecto e indagamos las interpretaciones historiográficas que los respaldan; y en la segunda parte nos concentramos en un estudio empírico de los alumnos de este colegio. Nuestro argumento es que si bien los colegios se caracterizaron por representar una enseñanza “tradicional”, “selectiva” y “elitista”, en la práctica actuaron como espacios abiertos y permeables al cual accedieron estudiantes de diferentes lugares en la escala social (o al menos de sectores sociales más amplios que los reconocidos por los discursos de la época y por los relatos al respecto. De este modo remarcamos que el bachillerato marplantense fue conformado por actores poco considerados por la historiografía de la educación: las mujeres (que representaron un tercio del alumnado y los gringos e hijos de inmigrantes (cuya cifra superó las dos terceras partes de los jóvenes.
Julieta Andrea Claverie
Full Text Available El artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación sobre las condiciones del trabajo docente en las universidades públicas de la Argentina, con énfasis en el problema de la movilidad ascendente en sus carreras profesionales. Se realizó un estudio de caso en la Universidad de Buenos Aires integrando el análisis de datos estadísticos, más la información proveniente de entrevistas en profundidad realizadas a docentes y gestores. Existe un gran número de docentes trabajando en condiciones contractuales un problema de movilidad ascendente en sus trayectorias laborales, dando cuenta de una estructura académica segmentada y con una alta concentración de cargos en la base. Además, los datos primarios revelaron que en la operatoria de la organización coexisten factores estructurales, políticos y culturales que afectan la implementación del mecanismo formal de concurso abierto de antecedentes y oposición. En este escenario, la mayoría de los docentes manifestó bajas expectativas de carrera e incertidumbre respecto de su crecimiento profesional, considerando que las oportunidades se relacionan –en gran medida– con la posesión de un capital social y con el uso de las reglas y de las estrategias informales puestas en juego por cada sujeto, en el marco de las interacciones.
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital structure. 65.304 Section 65.304... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.304 Capital structure. The proportion of each cost of capital component in the capital structure is equal to: Proportion in the capital...
Ileana Contreras Montes de Oca
Full Text Available En el artículo se analizan las perspectivas de los grupos responsables de la conducción de la educación de las matemáticas del país, en el nivel secundario, respecto al papel que han tenido las pruebas nacionales en su problemática actual. La identificación de tales perspectivas se obtuvo como producto de un trabajo de investigación cuyo objetivo inicial no incluyó a las pruebas nacionales como categoría de estudio, pero en el que el papel de éstas aparece como un factor relacionado con la problemática analizada. Se describe brevemente el trabajo de investigación que generó los resultados objeto de examen. El análisis se realiza utilizando como referente los estudios y posiciones emitidas en otros contextos, respecto a la utilización de pruebas nacionales y al empleo de modelos de evaluación similares al nuestro. Se señalan algunas fortalezas y debilidades del uso de las pruebas nacionales y se anotan algunas recomendaciones que se derivan del trabajo
essays, Slavko Kacunko discusses the process art by crossing the disciplines of art history and comparative media-, visual- and -cultural studies. As a first approximation, several historiographical remarks on closed-circuit video installations underline their importance as a core category of process art......A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and....... In the second part, the problems of process art, seen as a threshold of art history, are further examined in another retroanalytical step, in which concepts and objects related to `mirror', `frame' and `immediacy' are analyzed as the triple delimitation of visual culture studies. In the third part, previously...
Resumo: Este estudo consiste numa análise das estratégias ideológicas e discursivas em reportagens das revistas Veja e Carta Capital, publicadas em maio de 2009, sobre a revelação do câncer da então ministra-chefe da Casa Civil do Brasil, Dilma Rousseff. O objetivo é investigar como a comunicação, por meio das estratégias discursivas e ideológicas utilizadas em ambos os veículos informativos, emite determinadas descrições da conjuntura política e eleitoral da época. Para isto, são realizados ...
A summary of the operating economics of the Winter Cummings Sand Pool, a horizontal well development project with a sustained rate of development, was presented. A total of 58 horizontal wells have been drilled over a time span of seven years. The production performance of the first pilot wells indicated that development of the pool by horizontal wells could be economically viable. Since its inception the Winter field development was considered to have become a capital treadmill with an incremental rate of return on the incremental investment of 240 percent (a 24 million dollar net operating cash flow for a 10 million dollar investment). Current development status and production forecasts were also discussed. 21 figs
A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and...... essays, Slavko Kacunko discusses the process art by crossing the disciplines of art history and comparative media-, visual- and -cultural studies. As a first approximation, several historiographical remarks on closed-circuit video installations underline their importance as a core category of process art....... In the second part, the problems of process art, seen as a threshold of art history, are further examined in another retroanalytical step, in which concepts and objects related to `mirror', `frame' and `immediacy' are analyzed as the triple delimitation of visual culture studies. In the third part, previously...
'Full text:' The emerging fuel cell industry is characterized by global cooperation and partnerships in commercial, technical, and financial aspects. In this talk, we would like to provide observations about international venture capital focused on fuel cells globally. The talk will refer to experiences Conduit Ventures has had with its portfolio companies and other investors in various countries. We discuss our approach to working with portfolio companies who are geographically remote from our main office in London. We also discuss the process of making investment decisions on possible investments in various countries. The talk will conclude with insights and 'lessons learned' which may be of interest to fellow members of Fuel Cells Canada. (author)
D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R.J. Powell (Robert); A.K. Singh (Abhay)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper, we develop a new capital adequacy buffer model (CABM) which is sensitive to dynamic economic circumstances. The model, which measures additional bank capital required to compensate for fluctuating credit risk, is a novel combination of the Merton
Allan, Julie; Catts, Ralph
This paper reports on the significance of social capital in relation to education, exploring its relevance to teachers and other professionals as well as among young people. It draws on aspects of five case studies undertaken by the Schools and Social Capital Network, within the Applied Educational Research Scheme in Scotland. These case studies…
Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Khai, Luu Duc
In this paper, we analyze household savings in rural Vietnam paying particular attention to the factors that determine the proportion of savings held as formal deposits. Our aim is to explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in promoting formal savings behavior. Social capital...
Edelweiss, Danila Lorens
Através de uma pesquisa realizada com empresas rio setor de varejo, é realizada uma análise do conjunto de indicadores de capital intelectual com o objetivo de buscar evidências que empresas que apresentam melhores indicadores de capital intelectual, também apresentam melhores resultados financeiros.
Da Rin, M.; Penas, M.F.
Venture capital is a specialized form of financial intermediation that often provides funding for costly technological innovation. Venture capital firms need to exit portfolio companies within about five years from the investment to generate returns for institutional investors. This paper is the
Reports that some universities are starting their own venture-capital funds to develop campus companies, or are investing endowment funds with established venture-capital firms inclined to finance potential spinoffs from campus research. Examples cited are from the University of Alabama, Vanderbilt University (Tennessee), University of…
Lensink, R; Hermes, N; Murinde, [No Value
This paper provides the first serious attempt to examine the relationship between political risk and capital flight for a large set of developing countries. The outcomes of the analysis show that in most cases political risk variables do have a statistically robust relationship to capital flight
Bekele, Wosen; Escobedo, Eva; Allen, Robert
Avascular necrosis of the capitate is a rare entity. The most common reported etiology is trauma. We report a case of avascular necrosis of the capitate in a patient with chronic wrist pain that began after a single episode of remote trauma.
Bekele, Wosen; Escobedo, Eva; Allen, Robert
Avascular necrosis of the capitate is a rare entity. The most common reported etiology is trauma. We report a case of avascular necrosis of the capitate in a patient with chronic wrist pain that began after a single episode of remote trauma. PMID:22470799
Full Text Available O artigo aborda a questão da metodologia que Marx utilizou em O Capital. A hipótese é que Marx utiliza a Fenomenologia do Espírito de Hegel como paradigma, em vez da Ciência da Lógica, como se acredita. O argumento discerne a fenomenologia do século 19 a partir da compreensão atual, moldada por Husserl. Além disso, eu remeto a ideia de uma fenomenologia em economia de volta ao círculo dos jovens hegelianos em torno de Proudhon. No entanto, o argumento é conclusivo apenas por um olhar mais atento ao uso que Hegel e Marx fazem dos níveis distintos de abstração dentro de suas respectivas exposições. O artigo demonstra especialmente os paralelos no início de ambos os livros e a forma como os seus autores avançam de um nível para o outro. Em contraste com as abordagens atuais que empregam a Ciência da Lógica como paradigma, eu saliento a especificidade que os objetos de investigação exibem em seus níveis particulares de abstração. Exemplos são a diferença de valores e preços de mercado e a discriminação entre capitais em geral e capital como um de muitos capitais em competição.
This conceptual paper analyses why social capital is important for learning and economic development, how it is created and its geography. It argues that with the rise of globalisation and learning-based competition, social capital is becoming valuable because it organises markets, lowering...... business firms' costs of co-ordinating and allowing them flexibly to connect and reconnect. The paper defines social capital as a matrix of various social relations, combined with particular normative and cognitive social institutions that facilitate co-operation and reciprocity, and suggests that social...... capital is formed at spatial scales lower than the national or international, because the density of matrices of social relations increases with proximity. The paper also offers a discussion of how national and regional policies may be suited for promoting social capital....
Carrillo Álvarez, Elena; Riera Romaní, Jordi
Social capital is defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. However, multiple definitions, distinct dimensions and subtypes of social capital have been used to investigate and theorise about its relationship to health on different scales, creating a confusing picture. This heterogeneity makes it necessary to systematise social capital measures in order to build a stronger foundation in terms of how these associations between the different aspects of social capital and each specific health indicator develop. We aim to provide an overview of the measurement approaches used to measure social capital in its different dimensions and scales, as well as the mechanisms through which it is presumed to influence health. Understanding the mechanisms through which these relationships develop may help to refine the existing measures or to identify new, more appropriate ones. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ejlskov, Linda; Mortensen, Rikke N; Overgaard, Charlotte
BACKGROUND: The concept of social capital has received increasing attention as a determinant of population survival, but its significance is uncertain. We examined the importance of social capital on survival in a population study while focusing on gender differences. METHODS: We used data from...... a Danish regional health survey with a five-year follow-up period, 2007-2012 (n = 9288, 53.5% men, 46.5% women). We investigated the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, performing separate analyses on a composite measure as well as four specific dimensions of social capital while...... controlling for covariates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models by which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health...
Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao
capital formally through schooling for career success, as well as the gender gap in career success rates. Second, broadening the scope of human capital by experiencing various occupations (becoming a generalist) is found to be advantageous for career success. Third, initial human capital earned through......Denmark’s registry data provide accurate and complete career history data along with detailed personal characteristics (e.g., education, gender, work experience, tenure and others) for the population of Danish workers longitudinally. By using such data from 1992 to 2002, we provide rigorous...... formal schooling and subsequent human capital obtained informally on the job are found to be complements in the production of career success. Fourth, though there is a large body of the literature on the relationship between firm-specific human capital and wages, the relative value of firm-specific human...
Large organizations, including the US Army Medical Department and the Army Nurse Corps, are people-based organizations. Consequently, effective and efficient management of the human capital within these organizations is a strategic goal for the leadership. Over time, the Department of Defense has used many different systems and strategies to manage people throughout their service life-cycle. The current system in use is called Human Capital Management. In the near future, the Army's human capital will be managed based on skills, knowledge, and behaviors through various measurement tools. This article elaborates the human capital management strategy within the Army Nurse Corps, which identifies, develops, and implements key talent management strategies under the umbrella of the Corps' human capital goals. The talent management strategy solutions are aligned under the Nurse Corps business strategy captured by the 2008 Army Nurse Corps Campaign Plan, and are implemented within the context of the culture and core values of the organization.
Bersem, Mario; Perotti, Enrico; von Thadden, Ernst-Ludwig
We present a positive theory of capital market frictions that raise the cost of capital for new firms and lower the cost of capital for incumbent firms. Capital market frictions arise from a political conflict across voters who differ in two dimensions: (i) a fraction of voters owns capital......, the rest receives only lab or income; and (ii) voters have different vintages of human capital. We identify young workers as the decisive voter group, with preferences in between capitalists who favor a free capital market, and old workers, who favor restricted capital mobility. We show that capital market...... frictions do not naturally arise in a static framework, or even in a dynamic framework if capital market frictions are reversible. But if capital market frictions can be made to p ersist over time, we show that young workers favor capital market frictions as a way to smo oth income, especially if wealth...
... unlevel playing field between banking organizations and other financial services providers. For example, a... for banking organizations. The final rule consolidates three separate notices of proposed rulemaking... minimum capital requirement, a higher minimum tier 1 capital requirement, and, for banking organizations...
National Capital Planning Commission — Transcripts of the monthly (with the exception of August) National Capital Planning Commission meeting transcripts are provided for research to confirm actions taken...
Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successful immigrant entrepreneurs with the key findings from the literature to define and develop a model of immigrant capital. Findings: Based on our grounded theory development process we show that the concept of immigrant capital as a distillate of human, cultural, economic and social capital that goes beyond expected opportunity recognition (OR drivers like prior knowledge and prior experience to differentiate and enhance the immigrant entrepreneur’s ability to recognize business opportunities compared to host country entrepreneurs. We found immigrant capital to be a consequence of being boundary spanners in host and home country networks. Implications & Recommendations: Understanding a unique resource like immigrant capital, will help immigrant as well as host country entrepreneurs further develop their opportunity recognition ability by bridging gaps and fulfilling the needs for both, immigrant and host country consumers. Contribution & Value Added: The main contribution is the theoretical development, identification and definition of the immigrant capital model and propositions that will articulate the factors that lead to the conceptualization and operationalization of immigrant capital. Furthermore, the immigrant capital model can serve host country entrepreneurs to develop cross-cultural networks and jump-start entrepreneurial activities in their home countries as well as learn how to expand their operations into global markets.
Adrián Osvaldo Ravier
Full Text Available The essay examines Schumpeter’s understanding of the capitalist process and develops a critical analysis of his explanation of why capitalism cannot survive. Part I deals with how Schumpeter understood capitalism. Part II studies why –- from his point of view — capitalism couldn’t survive. Part III analysis why it is actually socialism, as a socio-political alternative, that is impractical and must collapse from contradictions inherent in it. Part IV presents some final reflections, presenting the public choice and the thought of James M. Buchanan, as an alternative to the pessimist Schumpeterian view.
A theoretical argument is presented to suggest that engineering curriculum be designed to develop social capital. Additionally, the value of social capital in the retention of students in the College of Engineering, and the development, role, and value of social capital in an electrical engineering laboratory is evaluated. Data collected includes participant observations, informal and formal student interviews, and a researcher-designed survey. Social capital consists of interaction among individuals (networks), social rules that encourage interactions such as trust and reciprocity (norms), and the value of these networks and norms to the individual and the group. A large body of evidence suggests that social capital is valuable in terms of retention and multiple measures of academic achievement. The importance of social capital in retention was verified by students that have left engineering and those that remain, in terms of interactions with peers, teaching assistants, and engineering faculty; and a lack of sense of community in freshman engineering courses. Students that have left engineering differed in their perceptions of social capital from those that remain in their frustrations with teaching methods that encourage little discussion or opportunities to ask questions about assumptions or approaches. The open-ended nature of laboratory assignments, extensive required troubleshooting, and lack of specific directions from the teaching assistants were found to encourage the development of social capital in the laboratory setting. Degree centrality, a network measure of social capital as the number of ties an individual has within a social network, was found to be positively correlated with laboratory grade. Student perceptions of the importance of interactions with other students on success in the laboratory setting has a negative model effect on academic achievement in the laboratory. In contrast, student perceptions of the quality of interactions with
Full Text Available The paper analyses the typology of capitalism in Croatia. The Croatian form of capitalism is specific, in form and origin, with links between the pre-independence and post-independence periods, implying that capitalism has gradually evolved – from the political during the eighties towards current clientelistic capitalism. The manufacturing focus aims to facilitate the analysis of institutional, political and economic changes over the past forty years, emphasising the implications of institutional changes which have to a great extent, apart from the war of course, influenced the evolution of capitalism. The paper finds that the transition generated a number of costs, mainly generated by the state (fall in employment, manufacturing and social capital. The claim that the manufacturing industry has inherited low competitiveness neglects the necessary discussion on the role of the state in the formation of industrial policy and market actions. It is also an ex post argument for the claim that restructuring should have been implemented prior to privatisation as this would reduce negative impacts. Institutional changes led to a drastic reduction of the role of the manufacturing sector in the economy. The main finding in this paper is that the change in the interaction between the financial and the real sectors of the economy, the educational system and industrial relations system exposed the vulnerability of the current institutional environment. Despite similarities, institutional advantages of political capitalism are lost in the new type of Croatian capitalism, due to the complexity of the double transition process and the institutional or socio-economic particularities.
Full Text Available In 2013 the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded to the American economists, Eugene Fama, Lars Peter Hansen and Robert Shiller. The monetarists, Fama and Hansen, from the University of Chicago, and the Neo- Keynesian, Shiller, from the Yale University, according to the Swedish Royal Academy, won this prestigious prize for their research providing mathematical and economic models to determine (irregularities in the stock value trends at the stock exchanges. With his colleagues, in the 1960s Fama established that, in the short term, it is extremely difficult to forecast stock prices, given that new information gets embedded in the prices rather quickly. Shiller, however, determined that, although it is almost impossible to predict the stock prices for a period of few days, this is not true for a period of several years. He discovered that the stock prices fluctuate much more substantially than corporation dividents, and that the relationship between prices and dividends tends to decline when high, and to grow when low. This pattern does not apply only to stocks, but also to bonds and other forms of capital.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of intellectual capital and its components, represented by physical capital (capital employed, human capital, and structural capital,on financial performance of mining and manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (Bursa Efek Indonesia – BEI period of 2010 – 2012. Total population observed during this research shows 169 mining and manufacturing companies.The sample was determined by purposive sampling method and found a total of 70 samples as the research subjects. The analytical technique for the quantitaive data uses a statistical tool, i.e. multiple regression. Intellectual capital and its components were measured by Pulic Model, while financial performance uses Return on Equty (ROE ratio. The results show that intellectual capital and human capital have negative influence, yet insignificant, impacton companies financial performance. While physical capital (capital employed and structural capital do have positive influence but not significanton companies financial performance.
Melo Alves, Fernanda Maria
Full Text Available TICs facilitate the compilation, preservation and diffusion of the information in digital format. The national library, as other patrimonial institutions, have made the necessary adaptations to integrate the digital world in order to do this mission. So, the national library website must perseve the digital national information must respect some formal, informative and ergonomic conditions in order to its Web access. In this paper we aim to investigate the use of web sites phenomenon. The work comprises an approach to the website of National Libraries of Brazil and Portugal in order to analyse and evaluate them with some established indicators. The results obtained show strengths and weaknesses related to the quality of the webs in discussion, and pretend to be applicable to National Libraries Website and serve as a reference for present experiences and future developments.
Las TIC han facilitado recopilar, almacenar, tratar, preservar y difundir el patrimonio cultural, científico y la información en general en formato digital. La biblioteca nacional como institución patrimonial, se ha ido adaptando al entorno digital para poder cumplir con la misión que le corresponde. En esta línea, el sitio web de la biblioteca nacional, encargado de alojar y difundir la información digital y digitalizada de la nación, debe cumplir con una serie de condiciones, cometido y objetivos de naturaleza formal, informativa y ergonómica para hacer que su Web sea accesible y garantizar el acceso a la información. Como parte de un trabajo sobre las necesidades de la utilización de las TIC en las bibliotecas nacionales lusófonas, se realiza un estudio de las páginas principales de los sitios web de las bibliotecas nacionales de Brasil y Portugal, identificándose las fortalezas y debilidades existentes en cuanto a la calidad de los mismos, cuyos resultados pueden ser útiles para la mejora o la creación de sitios web.
Full Text Available Ante la necesidad de monitorizar los cambios en los usos del suelo (referido a menudo por sus siglas en inglés LUCC ocurridos en los parques nacionales (PPNN españoles, como medida para prever tendencias de cambio no deseadas que comprometan la protección del entorno, se presenta un análisis detallado de los LUCC en los parques que conforman la red de parques nacionales, según la metodología descrita en Pontious et al. (2004. Para realizarlo, la conocida base de datos cartográfica Corine Land Cover (CLC resulta imprescindible al tratarse de la única base de datos de usos del suelo con cobertura en toda España, y con versión multi-temporal contando con la misma clasificación temática en sus tres fechas (1990, 2000 y 2006. Como resultado del análisis de cambio, se investigaron las dinámicas en todos los parques y se determinó una serie de indicadores de dinamismo de cambios de los usos del suelo en la que se captaron las tendencias de cambio que suponen un peligro para los valores naturales, los servicios de los ecosistemas o los hábitats de los parques. Se entiende que los parques en sí mismos, definidos por un límite, dentro del cual se aplican restricciones severas a las actividades que pueden tener lugar, no puede conservarse si en sus inmediaciones se permite la degradación del medio. Por ello, se ha estudio no sólo cada uno de los parques que componen la red sino también sus zonas colindantes. El análisis permitió determinar las dinámicas de cambio que afectan a los parques y a sus zonas limítrofes sobre dos periodos distintos (1990-2000 y 2000-2006, poniendo de manifiesto los riesgos existente a la vez que su evolución temporal.
Porteous, Bruce; Tapadar, Pradip
The impact that capital structure and capital asset allocation have on financial services firm economic capital and risk adjusted performance is considered. A stochastic modelling approach is used in conjunction with banking and insurance examples. It is demonstrated that gearing up Tier 1 capital with Tier 2 capital can be in the interests of bank Tier 1 capital providers, but may not always be so for insurance Tier 1 capital providers. It is also shown that, by allocating a bank or insuranc...
Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike
assessment of the arguments made, including those made in the studies we have been involved in ourselves (the study of cultural capital and social exclusion in the UK, and the study of the Danish city Aalborg). Secondly, the paper looks into the different claims that are made in empirical studies after...... - the claims that there are forms of emotional, subcultural or national cultural capital at work - The claim about cosmopolitanism or an international orientation as a distinctive feature of the culturally privileged classes The paper responds to the first theme announced in the call for this conference......This paper reviews recent European studies to assess whether cultural capital now has the same characteristics – or may be rather the same functions - as when Distinction was written. The paper will examine empirical applications of the concept of cultural capital in leading European studies...
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between corporate governance and Intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2004-2009 using a regression based model. The study investigates the impacts of three some independent variables of the corporate governance (i.e. the number of board members, the relative extent of nonexecutive to executive directors, the auditing committee. The results suggest that corporate governance had no special effect on intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies. Furthermore among corporate governance's variables, the first one (i.e. board size had negative impact on firms' intellectual capital and the second and the third variables had no effects on intellectual capital.
Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin
Full Text Available In the article, the main theoretical questions of the organizational capital of the enterprise are considered. The concept of «organizational capital of the enterprise» as a system consisting of three subsystems (organization of production, labour organization and management is introduced. It is shown that the organizational capital forms the labour relations system at the enterprise consisting of the cooperation, technological, economic, moral labour relations and the relations of workers’ responsibility. The model of cyclic evolution of crisis at the enterprise caused by shortcomings of the organizational capital is revealed. It is shown that the organizational capital is a basis for the realization of the human capital, which creates value added. A considerable attention is paid to the experience of the creation and functioning of the organizational capital at the enterprises of the Japanese corporation «Toyota». The Russian economic literature on crisis management quite often considers only the financial aspects of diagnostics, proposing the optimization of cash flows, elimination of excess stocks, transition to the medium-term budgeting and others. However, the deep reasons of crisis need to be found not only in financial streams, but also in the system of the work relationships. The shortcomings in the development of technological, cooperation, economic, moral labour relations and the relations of responsibility directly reflects the shortcomings in the development of the elements of the organizational capital as they «are adjusted» by these elements. In turn, organizational problems affect the product quality leading to the customer attrition and decrease in the enterprise’s financial performance. The lack of financial resources cause the need to save costs (first of all, on personnel, that was brightly shown by the economic crisis of 2009 that even more weakens the enterprise and system of labour relations. Finally, the
Full Text Available Created in the United States of America, Venture Capital is an asset class which attracted recently the attention of the policy makers all over the world. But the concept is still not clearly defined and understood. This paper attempts at introducing in the concept, its characteristics, and reviewing some of the benefits Venture Capital investments can bring at both the macroeconomic level, by looking at the correlation with the economic growth, and at the microeconomic level, for the portfolio companies.
This paper reviews capital taxation issues in Italy based on a comprehensive definition encompassing taxes on income, transactions, and ownership. It discusses options to enhance the neutrality of the capital income tax system, followed by a detailed analysis of the property tax, the inheritance tax, and various transaction taxes. The paper also examines the case for replacing the set of existing taxes on financial and real assets with a single net wealth tax.
Kirill G. Skripkin
Full Text Available The paper describes a new approach to the description of organizational capital in enterprise architecture. This approach is focused on internal consistency of organizational mechanisms and their fit to the requirements of technologies in use and key employees. The description rests on Henry Mintzberg organizational design theory. The value of this description is demonstrated for the case of influence of Ministry of Education and Science policy on the organizational capital of the Russian university.
Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.
The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs
Pihl, Patricia; Albertsen, Karen; Hogh, Annie; Andersen, Lars Peter Sønderbo
Workplace bullying is a serious stressor with devastating short- and long-term consequences. The concept of organizational social capital may provide insights into the interactional and communicative dynamics of the bullying process and opportunities for prevention. This study aimed to explore the association between organizational social capital and being a target or observer of workplace bullying. Based on self-reported cross-sectional data from a large representative sample of the Danish working population (n = 10.037), logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore at the individual level the associations between vertical and horizontal organizational social capital with being a target or observer of workplace bullying. In the fully adjusted models, low organizational social capital (vertical and horizontal) was associated with significantly increased odds ratios of both self-labelled (vertical: OR = 3.25; CI = 2.34-4.51; horizontal: OR = 3.17; CI = 2.41-4.18) and observed workplace bullying (vertical: OR = 2.09; CI = 1.70-2.56; horizontal: OR = 1.60; CI = 1.35-1.89), when compared with high organizational social capital. This study supports that characteristics of the psychosocial work environment are of importance in the development of workplace bullying, and provides focus on the importance of self-reported organizational social capital.
There has been a recent surge of interest in social economics and social capital. Articles on social capital that are published in the last five years constitute more than 60 percent of all articles on social capital. Research on social capital is now massive and spans sociology, economics, management, political science and health sciences. Despite this interest there is still not a consensus on the definition and the measurement of social capital. This paper argues that this is due to lack o...
The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for the evolution offinancial reporting on capital market. Due to the worlwide changes, the role of financial reportingin capital market is constantly growing. Financial reporting analyzed through market perspective isstrongly correlated with issues like: capital allocation, financial statements, internationalaccounting standards and informational valences. Capital market research emphasizes the need forqualitative and transparent...
... requirement, the leverage ratio requirement, the tangible capital requirement, or individual minimum capital... capital directive, it may become effective immediately. A capital directive shall remain in effect and... plan shall continue in full force and effect. (b) Relation to other administrative actions. The Office...
This contribution introduces the notion of social capital and discusses integration into the studies on internationalization of smaller firms and entrepreneurs. Integrating social capital into the resource based perspective, we categorize social capital at three levels: firstly, social capital can...... be attributed to individuals, affecting their relationship with the external environment. Secondly, social capital is an inherent property of networks, into which smaller firms and entrepreneurs are embedded. Thirdly, social capital exists at the macro level, where its characteristics and availability varies...... between environments and nations. This contribution attemps to fascilitate the operationalization of social capital for an improved understanding of processes of internationalization of smaller firms and entrepreneurs....
Michael Matthias Reeh
Full Text Available Al ser un país miembro de la Unión Europea (UE, la nación austriaca ha venido incorporando paulatinamente las International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS, Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera (NIIF en español, a sus procesos contables y de revelación de información financiera en remplazo de las normas nacionales locales conocidas como Unternehmensgesetzbuch (UGB. Durante este proceso de convergencia, el principio prudencia ha entrado en crisis dentro del marco conceptual de las IFRS a cambio del principio valor justo o razonable. Es por ello que este trabajo presenta los principios básicos del sistema austriaco nacional, UGB, en comparación con los de las IFRS con el fin de analizar, por un lado, las razones por las cuales el concepto prudencia entro en crisis y, por otro, si el principio valor justo o razonable es el indicado para remplazar al primero.
María Victoria Sordini
Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo reflexionar en torno a laspolíticas alimentarias nacionales aplicadas en comedoresescolares y comunitarios desde los años ochenta.Se describió la problemática alimentaria, la trayectoria de loscomedores escolares, el surgimiento de los comedorescomunitarios y las políticas aplicadas a su financiamiento.La metodología utilizada fue la revisión bibliográfica sobre laspolíticas alimentarias de alcance nacional en Argentina desde1983. La lectura cronológica permitió identificar continuidadesy rupturas en la gestión de los programas.Entre los resultados se destacó que los programasalimentarios fueron formulados para contener situaciones deemergencia, sin embargo, los comedores continúan brindandoasistencia alimentaria. También se reflexionó en torno a lamalnutrición y a las prestaciones alimentarias precarias queofrecen los comedores, repitiendo las pautas de las comidas“rendidoras”, que utilizan como estrategia de consumo loshogares de bajos ingresos.
Full Text Available El Consejo Europeo de Investigación, en su reunión del 16 de junio de 2000, invitó a la Comisión Europea a crear el llamado «Espacio Europeo de Investigación», en colaboración con los Estados Miembros. Sus objetivos en política de I+D serán tenidos en cuenta en el desarrollo del VI Programa Marco de I+D, para el periodo 2002-2006, que es el principal instrumento financiero con que cuenta la Unión Europea para fomentar la colaboración entre los diversos países en investigación precompetitiva.
Esta iniciativa obliga a establecer una comparación entre las actuales políticas nacionales de investigación en cada país de la UE, para lo que es preciso desarrollar un método que proporcione una evaluación comparativa (benchmarking, entre los países. Dicha comparación se centrará en cuatro temas claves, que se han considerado relevantes para establecer la excelencia científica ...
Full Text Available El trabajo analiza los usos de la militancia juvenil en la agrupación La Cámpora en medios de comunicación nacionales durante la campaña electoral 2013. A partir del análisis de material periodístico, se intentara reconstruir los usos del concepto de militancia juvenil político-partidaria, en la cual la principal y prácticamente única protagonista será la agrupación juvenil oficialista La Cámpora. A partir de la sociología de la desviación, y los estudios que analizan las formas de nombrar a los jóvenes, se intentará analizar en qué medida estos usos de la militancia remiten a disputas en torno al deber ser de la juventud en la Argentina actual, así como a una estrategia llevada a cabo por actores opuestos al oficialismo de turno, planteada en el marco de una campaña negativa característica de las campañas electorales que buscó atacar de forma directa a uno de los elementos centrales de la construcción del kirchnerismo: la apelación a la juventud, tanto discursiva como en el ámbito de las políticas públicas.
Full Text Available En la mayoría de los escritos de la élite letrada argentina del XIX, se identificó a la civilización como una manifestación de la identidad nacional, supuesto que las llevó a legitimar su función civilizadora y a impulsar el proceso de consolidación del Estado que requería la ocupación total del territorio, aún en manos de los indígenas a los que se responsabilizaba, junto con los caudillos, del fracaso de la unificación nacional. Desde las estructuras del poder estatal, se definió a los nuevos territorios como espacios vírgenes con infinitas posibilidades y ventajas económicas para explotar. Este argumento político atrajo pobladores -nacionales y extranjeros- que ocuparon y encaminaron la organización productiva de las futuras provincias. En este trabajo se realiza una aproximación al proceso de incorporación y posterior organización institucional de las tierras fronterizas incorporadas con la "Conquista al Desierto". En particular, se analiza la estructura político-administrativa del Territorio Nacional de la Pampa Central, constituido como tal en 1884, con el establecimiento de las primeras autoridades militares destinadas a fundar poblaciones y administrarlas políticamente.
Full Text Available The concept of social capital has a long intellectual history in the fie ld of social sciences. In recent years, interest of scholars from sociology, po litical science, economics and public administration is rapidly increasing. The reason for this increasing interest is that it has been aware of the importance of social capital in communities’ administrative, social, economic and political development. In this sense, the concept of social ca pital is an issue to be discussed with solution of current problems of public administration, subjects of governance, civil society, and participation. Social capital has a lot of definitions which are completely different from each other. Common point of these different definitions is that social capital is a resource at both individual and community level. We will use Robert Putnam’s defi nition about social cap ital in this paper. Putnam (1993 defines social capital as “features of social organization, such as trust, norms, and networks that can improve the efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated action”. In his book; Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of the American Community, Putnam describes declining social capital in America. He analyzes relationship between social capital and civic participation and assumes that there is a positive relationship between social capital and civic participation. The paper aims to reveal how there is a relationshi p between social capital and civic participation in Central Florida. We will use “The Central Florida Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey that is made by The Survey Research Labora tory in the Ins titute for Social and Behavior Sciences at the University of Central Florida among central Florida residents. We use notion of civic participation not only as voting but also as concern of politics, volunteering, attending a political meeting, participating in any demonstrations, protests or boycotts, cooperating to solve problems and
Full Text Available This article entitled Statistical Models of Representing Intellectual Capital approaches and analyses the concept of intellectual capital, as well as the main models which can support enterprisers/managers in evaluating and quantifying the advantages of intellectual capital. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. Among the group of static models for evaluating organisational intellectual capital the canonical model stands out. This model enables the structuring of organisational intellectual capital in: human capital, structural capital and relational capital. Although the model is widely spread, it is a static one and can thus create a series of errors in the process of evaluation, because all the three entities mentioned above are not independent from the viewpoint of their contents, as any logic of structuring complex entities requires.
... capitalized Banks. 1229.5 Section 1229.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS CAPITAL CLASSIFICATIONS AND PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Federal Home Loan Banks § 1229.5 Capital... classification of adequately capitalized. A Bank may not make a capital distribution if such distribution would...
Ewing, Samuel D., Jr.; Maloney, Clifton H. W.
This minority capital resource handbook consists of a guide to raising capital for minority entrepreneurs and a listing of sources that provide such capital. The first section deals with the process of raising capital. The realities of raising capital, intermediaries and financial advisors, and assessing needs are outlined. Factors considered in…
Danthine, Jean-Pierre; Jin, Xiangrong
Recent studies have found unmeasured intangible capital to be large and important. In this paper we observe that by nature intangible capital is also very different from physical capital. We find it plausible to argue that the accumulation process for intangible capital differs significantly from the process by which physical capital accumulates. We study the implications of this hypothesis for rational firm valuation and asset pricing using a two-sector general equilibrium model. Our main fi...
This paper studies income-redistribution effects from labor migration in a small open economy under alternative assumptions on the international mobility of capital. Our principal result is that induced international capital flows dampen or may even reverse redistribution effects. However, as long as the location of capital is unaffected by migration redistribntion effects may be greater if some of the capital is foreign owned, depending on whether labor and capital are friends or enemies. On...
Full Text Available What type of capitalism do we live in today? My answer to this question draws upon two interrelated lines of argument. Firstly, I will argue that we inhabit an epoch of global capitalism. The precursors of this kind of capitalism originated from the late nineteenth century when the development of telegraph networks, modern transport systems and world time zones provided a global template for industrialisation and Western imperialism. From about 1980 a confluence of global events and processes bought a fully-fledged global capitalism into being. These included the collapse of Fordist Keynesianism, national Keynesianism and Soviet Communism along with First, Second and Third World demarcations; the international proliferation of neo-liberal policy regimes; the growth of transnational corporations in all economic sectors; the predominance of financialisation and the reconstitution of global workforces. Secondly, I will argue that the shift from organic surface energy to underground fossil energy intertwined the time of the earth with the time of human history as nature was being instrumentalised as a resource for humanity. Understanding the capitalist relations of power involved here requires that we rethink the emergence of industrial capitalism in the historical context of a world system built upon unequal socio-ecological exchange between core and periphery. Today, global capitalism has intensified the anthropogenic feedback loops associated with CO2 emissions and climate change and universalised the organisational frameworks of profit extraction and socio-ecological destruction. I refer here to the transnational systems of fossil fuel capitalism along with their interlinkages with financialisation and advertising/commodity fetishism. From the preceding lines of argument I will briefly outline the intra-capitalist and planetary-ecological crises out of which transnational coalitions of opposition might emerge.
Robinson, J C
Medical groups need financial resources yet most retain no earnings and have no reserves. Physician practice management (PPM) companies have recognized the need for investment and the scarcity of indigenous capital in the physician sector and are rushing to fill the void. Resources are being contributed by venture capitalists, bond underwriters, private investors, pharmaceutical manufacturers, health plans, hospital systems, and public equity markets. The potential contribution of PPM firms is to nurture the intellectual capital of leading physician organizations and diffuse it throughout the health care system. The risk is that short-term financial imperatives will impede necessary long-term investments.
Jonathan Berk; Johan Walden
The non-tradability of human capital is often cited for the failure of traditional asset pricing theory to explain agents' portfolio holdings. In this paper we argue that the opposite might be true --- traditional models might not be able to explain agent portfolio holdings because they do not explicitly account for the fact that human capital does trade (in the form of labor contracts). We derive wages endogenously as part of a dynamic equilibrium in a production economy. Risk is shared in l...
Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of intellectual capital; its management, features and processes by which intellectual capital of a company can be evaluated. The main elements of intellectual capital (human, structural and relationship capital are presented and used in research. After surveying bibliography, intellectual capital evaluation model, which applies to Lithuanian and Latvian companies operating in the transport sector, is created. The research is based on the value-added intellectual capital factor model, the relationship between indicators, multi-asset return correlation and regression analysis and generation of alternatives to intellectual capital performance-enhancing. Following an assessment of intellectual capital of Lithuanian and Latvian transport sectors, on the basis of the results, it was found that the intellectual capital is a key factor in corporation management to increase revenue. Article in Lithuanian
Full Text Available The current crisis seems to shake the foundations of contemporary society as a whole and generated increasingly more opinions that show the capitalist society has begun and continues to lose ground. This is because capitalism has changed something inside so deeply that eternal truths of capitalism – economic growth, full employment, financial stability – seem to have crashed like the New York twin towers. Beyond all the shortcomings, quite a lot in numbers, known and recognized, the world and those who analyze it agree that , at least so far, has not been invented a better mechanism to obstruct and retain tyranny and so it is possible to consider the evolution of capitalism only in and through democracy.
Villalonga-Olives, Ester; Kawachi, Ichiro
Social capital has been defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. The definition is consistent with either an individualistic approach, i.e. resources (such as information or instrumental assistance) that are accessed by individuals through their network connections; or a collective approach, e.g. the benefits accruing to members of a group - such as the ability of a community to engage in collective action - as a consequence of the existence of cohesive relationships. While research often restricts itself to a single level of analysis, the benefits (and downsides) of social capital accrue to both the individual as well as to the network to which he belongs. In the Dictionary of Epidemiology both the individual and collective levels of analysis were recognized in the definition of social capital. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Murillo, David; Vallentin, Steen
capital are interrelated, turning social capital into a powerful instrument to better explain what academic literature has called silent CSR practices. The analysis that follows questions some of the basic tenets that underpin the branch of business ethics that deals with the nature of SMEs' approach...... this type of action d) Any study of this kind of practice requires a dual approach: a) normative when using tools developed by CSR; and b) descriptive and instrumental using the notion of social capital....... in the automotive sector, took the distinctive approach of trying to understand the nature of CSR-like activities developed not by best-in-class CSR-driven companies but by purely competitiveness-driven firms. The case studies provide explicit evidence that the CSR activities of SMEs and the notion of social...
Full Text Available The Europe of Knowledge means shifting to a new stage of identifying, redefining and satisfying the exigencies related to human capital. Among the basic competencies, the language ones shall play a more important role for all age groups, and all categories of jobs and professions in the economic, social and cultural fields due to the emergence of the virtual society and economy. Market internationalisation, as well as the strong outspread of English in all fields led to the emergence of the “working language” making it “strict requirement” from the perspective of the qualitative attributes of human capital. At the same time, from the viewpoint of the human capital, “English is not enough” for sustainable development at regional and international level.
Oszustowicz, R J; Dreachslin, J L
In the era of prospective payment, arranging financing for hospital capital projects is expected to become even more complicated than under cost-based reimbursement systems. This article outlines the information needed for a bond issue in the prospective payment environment, defines the roles and duties of several external persons and organizations involved with planning a major capital financing, and provides an overview of the entire process. This article assumes for illustrative purposes that a tax-exempt bond issue is going to be used to finance a facility expansion. This method was chosen since over 70% of all major capital financing for hospitals use the tax-exempt bond as the principal vehicle for attracting the necessary debt to finance a major construction project. The tax-exempt bond issue also requires the most detail in documentation and legal provisions.
Full Text Available Social capital has been defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. The definition is consistent with either an individualistic approach, i.e. resources (such as information or instrumental assistance that are accessed by individuals through their network connections; or a collective approach, e.g. the benefits accruing to members of a group – such as the ability of a community to engage in collective action – as a consequence of the existence of cohesive relationships. While research often restricts itself to a single level of analysis, the benefits (and downsides of social capital accrue to both the individual as well as to the network to which he belongs. In the Dictionary of Epidemiology both the individual and collective levels of analysis were recognized in the definition of social capital.
D. Munk, Martin
This paper analyses the acquisition of informational capital, e.g. academic capital, measured as student mobility, and understood as transnational investments in prestigious foreign educational institutions. In the 1990s, educational “zones of prestige” have especially been the United States......) are more likely than students from other social classes to pursue transnational investments, even though students from the middle and working classes have now entered the competition. This result is also recently found in an analysis of Danish academic emigrants. All in all, the studies confirm...... the hypothesis that students from upper classes are more likely than others to invest in specific informational capital in the field of education, in national environments but also in international settings....
To raise the quality of regulatory capital, Basel III capital rules recognize unrealized gains and losses on all available-for-sale (AFS) securities in Common Equity Tier 1 Capital (CET1). However, by examining the correlations between U.S. GDP growth rate, interest rates and regulatory capital ratios computed using Basel III regulatory capital definition for six U.S. global systemically important banks (G-SIBs) since 2007, this chapter finds that Basel III regulatory capital will enhance the...
Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane
The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual capital. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual capital involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction.
Oluduro, Francis Oladele; Duru, Longinus; Al Jaafar, Mofid
Date: 2008-06-05 Level: Bachelor Thesis in Business Administration EF0703, 15 ECTS Credits. Authors: Longinus Duru (Stockholm), Francis O.Oluduro (Västerås) and Mofid Al Jaafar (Västerås) Title: Capital Investment Procedures for FEMYSO Problem Area: Undertaking an investment by FEMYSO involves weighing up the risk against the returns but still capital investment decision are still one of the most undertaken decisions by organization managers because it involves commitment of huge amount of mo...
Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo
In this paper we set up a model of start-up finance under double moral hazard.Entrepreneurs lack own resources and business experience to develop their ideas.Venture capitalists can provide start-up finance and commercial support. The effortput forth by either agent contributes to the firm......-set may paradoxically contribute to higher quality of venturecapital finance and welfare. Subsidies to physical investment in VC-backed startupsare detrimental in our framework.Keywords: Venture capital, capital gains taxation, double moral hazard.JEL-Classification: D82, G24, H24, H25...
Silvio Salej Higgins
Full Text Available A partir de O Capital S ocia! está na moda: aná!isepara sua reconstruido teórica (Salej: 2003, ofrecemos una sinopsis sobre la arquitectura teórica de uno de los conceptos más utilizados en las ciencias sociales durante la última década. En el nivel de la discusión sobre las transformaciones de las democracias del primer mundo (putnam: 2001, cuestionamos la tesis básica de que la merma del asociativismo cívico es el resultado de la modernización tecnológica y su concomitante cultura individualista. Por el contrario y en la misma linea de Rothstein (2001, construimos la hipótesis de que la disminución del capital social, denunciada por Putnam (1995, es correlativa al desmantelamiento de las políticas de asistencia social, con la consecuente caída en los indicadores de equidad. De modo prospectivo se presentan las preguntas- clave y las hipótesis para un programa de investigación alternativo y plausible sobre el capital social. Palabras clave: capital social, asociativismo cívico, integración social, equidad.
M. Sobrido Prieto
Full Text Available Introducción. El incremento en la producción bibliográfica y la creciente necesidad de conocer la documentación existente hacen de las bases de datos una de las herramientas más útiles para la recuperación selectiva de la información bibliográfica.Objetivos. Analizar la presencia de revistas científicas de Enfermería españolas en bases de datos nacionales específicas, tales como Cuiden, Cuidatge, BDIE, Enfispo y la base de datos de Ciencias de la Salud IME, así como las bases de datos internacionales de CINAHL y Medline.Metodología. Para la elaboración de este trabajo se ha realizado un listado de todas las revistas indizadas en cada una de las bases de datos seleccionadas y analizado la presencia de cada una de ellas en las 7 bases mencionadas.Resultados. Se han localizado un total de 116 revistas coincidentes. El reparto de éstas en las bases de datos es el siguiente: (1 Entre las nacionales Cuiden es la que contiene un mayor número de revistas con un total del 102 seguida de Cuidatge con 56. Enfispo contiene 26, IME con 8 y BDIE 7. Entre las bases de datos internacionales CINAHL, tan sólo tiene 6 y Medline 3 revistas de enfermería. (2 En lo que respecta a las revistas presentes en las bases de datos, sólo el 61,5 % se encuentra presente en una base de datos. En ninguno de los casos hemos localizado ninguna revista presente en todas las bases de datos y tan sólo en 3 casos hemos localizado revistas presentes en 5 de las 7 bases de datos analizadas.Discusión y conclusiones. La escasa visibilidad de publicaciones de enfermería española es debido en parte a la pequeña presencia de éstas en bases de datos, por lo que en consecuencia acaban recibiendo un insuficiente reconocimiento por parte de la comunidad científica.Background. The fast growing of health bibliographic production and the increasing need of knowing the bibliography makes databases one of the most useful tool for the information selective retrieval
Sloan, F A; Valvona, J; Hassan, M; Morrisey, M A
This paper provides estimates of the cost of equity and debt capital to for-profit and non-profit hospitals in the U.S. for the years 1972-83. The cost of equity is estimated using, alternatively, the Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory. We find that the cost of equity capital, using either model, substantially exceeded anticipated inflation. The cost of debt capital was much lower. Accounting for the corporate tax shield on debt and capital paybacks by cost-based insurers lowered the net cost of capital to hospitals.
Claudia Elina Herrera
Full Text Available Un clima de diálogo y negociaciones permanentes permitió al poder central afianzarse en las áreas periféricas; y a las élites locales, obtener beneficios para sus provincias. Está claro que estos favores se obtenían no solo en función de la capacidad negociadora de los intermediarios, sino también de la influencia de la provincia en las decisiones del gobierno nacional. La década de 1870 en Tucumán se caracterizó, en materia económica, por el éxito de la modernización azucarera, que se definió en torno a las vinculaciones con el poder central, pero también por el impacto de una severa crisis financiera internacional con repercusión en la economía nacional. En este artículo se reconstruyó la estructura del gasto público del estado tucumano, con especial atención al reparto de subsidios y subvenciones del gobierno nacional a las provincias en una coyuntura de crisis. Se analizó la existencia de una política preferencial hacia algunos Estados en perjuicio de otros a causa del manejo arbitrario de las rentas nacionales. Se examinaron las vías no ortodoxas por medio de las cuales se gestionaban subsidios y/o auxilios pecuniarios que el Estado provincial continuó percibiendo cuando la crisis obligó al gobierno nacional a suprimirlos.
Antonio Romualdo Márquez González
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es saber si los turistas nacionales conocen la calidad bacteriológica del agua de mar de los sitios que visitaban en los municipios de San Blas, Compostela y Bahía de Banderas del estado de Nayarit. El estar oportunamente informados de los comunicados que emiten las autoridades ambientales y de salud, sobre la calidad del agua de mar de los principales destinos de playa y que podría representar una herramienta de suma importancia para planear el desplazamiento para el disfrute de los destinos de sol y arena, para entrar en contacto con aguas para la recreación y esparcimiento. Se conoce, que su mala calidad podría representar en daños potenciales a la salud de quienes entran en contacto con aguas contaminadas, principalmente con enterococos fecales. En 2013, se aplicó un cuestionario a 283 turistas en las playas más visitadas de dichos municipios y, en donde se lleva a cabo el programa nacional de monitoreo sobre la calidad del agua de mar, además de ser consideradas como playas limpias. El análisis estadístico de correlación mostró aspectos importantes que podrían ser tomados en cuenta por las tres órdenes de gobierno y de los promotores turísticos de la región. Finalmente, el turista al estar informado podría evitar algún tipo de enfermedad, en donde la promoción de playas limpias representaría una mayor afluencia de visitantes y beneficios económicos a la región.
Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike
This paper takes stock of recent research on patterns of cultural engagement in various European nations, with specific reference to British and Danish research. It argues that Bourdieu's original theorisation of cultural capital in ‘Distinction’ needs to be significantly updated to register...
Ziegler, Magnus Møller
In this working paper, I provide an alternative to William Clare Roberts's argument (in "Marx's Inferno", 2017) that Marx structured "Capital" based on Dante's "Inferno". In stead I argue that the "socialist infernalism" which Roberts identifies in Marx has its roots in Moses Hess's Feuerbachian ...
Full Text Available This paper discusses the main characteristics of the proposed Capital Markets Union in Europe, as they are introduced by the European Commission and various authors, and emphasises some important advantages and disadvantages of this project for the developing and frontier markets in UE, especially for Romania.
The process of capital budgeting varies among different health-care institutions. Understanding the concept of present value of money, incremental cash flow statements, and the basic budgeting techniques will enable the laboratory manager to make the rational and logical decisions that are needed in today's competitive health-care environment.
Gaag, Martin Pieter Johannes van der
The last twenty years have seen the idea of social capital blossoming as a popular and promising new look at phenomena in the social sciences. Essentially a theory that explains how and why relational networks are important for the production of outcomes at the individual and collective level,
Bruff, Ian; Horn, Laura
In this introduction to the special issue, we provide a brief overview of the two distinct but connected meanings of the phrase ‘varieties of capitalism in crisis’: (1) the crisis of empirical political economies under conditions of capitalist diversity; and (2) the crisis of the institutionalist...
Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen
We explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in imparting information about the returns to saving where potential knowledge gaps and mistrust exists. Using data from Vietnam we find strong evidence to support the hypothesis that information transmitted via reputable social...
Paccagnella, Marco; Sestito, Paolo
In this paper we investigate the relationship between social capital and cheating behaviour in standardized tests. Given the low-stakes nature of these tests, we interpret the widespread presence of cheating as a signal of low trust towards central education authorities and as lack of respect for the rule of law. We find that cheating is…
Large capital investments are planned throughout Qatar's energy industry over the next five years totalling $25 billion. This article describes the successful commissioning of Qatar's first liquefied natural gas (LNG) project on time and within budget. The second LNG plant is well underway and plans for a third are under negotiation. (UK)
Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista
We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on curren...
The debate over the death penalty in the United States has implications beyond our borders. Because of the lack of universal standards governing its use, only those countries which have abolished capital punishment may, with any moral authority, denounce its exploitation as an instrument of political expediency. (IS)
Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe
When practicing business model (BM) innovation releasing intellectual capital (IC) strategically from SME´s BMs through the innovation process can be extremely difficult and complex to carry out especially to small and medium size enterprises (SME). There are so many opportunities and resources...
Suzana Braga Rodrigues
Full Text Available Social capital may be defined as social relationships that confer actual or potential benefits. It can therefore beunderstood as a particular type of resource. Recent research has drawn attention to how connections andrelationships (networking both at home and abroad can be crucially important for small and medium-sizedenterprises (SMEs seeking to export or invest abroad. However, relatively little is known about how SMEsinitiate, develop and maintain network relationships. This paper reports a study of 32 British SMEs exporting, orattempting to export, to Brazil and of domestic institutional agencies whose role was to facilitate businessconducted between British and Brazilian SMEs. The study explored both the functions of social capital for theSMEs and the process whereby it was developed. Its findings confirm the value of social capital in internationalentrepreneurship. It can provide information, interpretation, market opportunities, and some degree of protectionagainst the risks associated with foreignness, newness and smallness. The study also confirms the vitalimportance of personal trust in sustaining social capital between small firms.
This paper analyzes the relations between social capital, institutions and trust.These concepts are full of ambiguity and confusion.This paper attempts to dissolve some of the confusion, by distinguishing trust and control, and analyzing institutional and relational conditions of trust.It presents a
Full Text Available The paper offers a critical analysis of the central concept around which the popular construct of social capital is organised, i.e. trust. To this end the views of Fukuyama, the leading exponent of the said concept are considered. As a result, the concept in question is found to be ideologically charged and substantively weak in many respects.
The paper offers a critical analysis of the central concept around which the popular construct of social capital is organised, i.e. trust. To this end the views of Fukuyama, the leading exponent of the said concept are considered. As a result, the concept in question is found to be ideologically charged and substantively weak in many respects.
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Waldstrøm, Christian
, as well as the derived benefits, or losses. Next, the chapter presents an empirical case apt to illustrate the theoretical findings in part one, namely the nineteenth-century Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement (Svendsen and Svendsen 2004). It is demonstrated how social capital among Danish peasants...
Grover, Stuart R.
Twenty five years ago, few community or technical colleges considered launching capital campaigns. They lacked community standing, professional fundraising staff, and the related institutional foundation structure to manage charitable efforts. Gradually, as public funding eroded, bond issues became harder to pass, and colleges recognized the need…
Chen, Wen; Inklaar, Robert
Investments in organization capital increase productivity of not just the investing firm but could also spillover to other firms-similar to investments in research and development. Recent evidence at the industry and economy level suggests such spillovers could be important. In this paper, we fail
... Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C). This calculation will be effective as of the due... to rely on tentative fourth quarter financial statements in developing its capital plan and suggested... rule applies only to bank holding companies with $50 billion or more of total consolidated assets...
Coffé, Hilde R.
Abstract Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the
Castiglionesi, F.; Feriozzi, F.; Lóránth, G.; Pelizzon, L.
Banks can deal with their liquidity risk by holding liquid assets (self-insurance), by participating in interbank markets (coinsurance), or by using flexible financing instruments, such as bank capital (risk sharing). We use a simple model to show that undiversifiable liquidity risk, that is, the
Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao
and Waldman and Lazear. Our analysis allows for both internal promotion and external recruitment as means to achieve top management appointments, and yields additional findings: the breath of human capital is more important in mature firms, as predicted by the theory; and the concept of firm-specific human...
Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.
National Capital Planning Commission — The National Capital Planning Commission library catalog is a compilation of titles, authors, years of publication and topics of books, reports and NCPC publications.
M. Hekimoğlu (Mustafa)
textabstractSpare parts are critical for operations of capital products such as aircraft, refineries, trucks, etc/, which require maintenance regularly. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) bear the responsibility of undisrupted maintenance service and spare parts flow for their capital products.
economy” but also “Knowledge economy” via human capital development. She has not been serious with her ... economy, Human capital, Strategy. Introduction. The world is now controlled by the revolution of Information and Communication.
Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term Ã¦social common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.
The report shows the venture capital decision making in staged financing from a real option perspective. The report also describes entrepreneur-venture capital relationship from a prisoner's dilemma approach.
Murphy, James Peter
Employee capital need not be a reoccurring nightmare for bar owners if they create a system for managing their employee capital which deals with recruitment, placement, training and development for all hospitality staff members.
Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal. PMID:28617202
Full Text Available La importancia de la imagen del destino ha sido reconocida debido a su efecto significativo en las intenciones de comportamiento de los turistas. Como tal, los esfuerzos dirigidos a crear o mejorar la imagen del destino son críticos para el éxito del desarrollo del destino turístico. Una condición importante para la mejora eficaz de la imagen y la promoción a largo plazo es el conocimento de las percepciones de los turistas y los atributos de la imagen del destino. Este artículo exploratorio, pretende obtener perspectivas sobre este punto y provocar discusiones, contrastando la imagen proyectada de Linz como destino turístico promovida por sus responsables de política turística, y la imagen de Linz percibida por los turistas potenciales, según el contexto de la iniciativa Europea "Capital Europea de la Cultura" 2009. Este artículo yuxtapone las conclusiones de una encuesta de control de la imagen de Linz dirigida por los responsables de política turística, con los resultados obtenidos a través de un estudio exploratorio llevado a cabo para este estudio. Este ultimo ha sido diseñado para capturar los componentes de la imagen de Linz a través de una muestra de conveniencia de turistas potenciales de Linz, tanto nacionales como internacionales.
Miglo, Anton; Liang, Shuting; Lee, Zhenting
We analyze the financing decisions and capital structure of internet companies and relate observed findings to the common capital structure theories. Large internet companies usually have low debt and small internet companies have high debt. We find that the trade-off theory of capital structure, pecking order theory, market timing theory and other theories cannot individually explain a firm’s capital structure. However, they can compliment each other in describing some patterns of observed b...
... phase-in would unfairly penalize banking organizations given their already established businesses..., will aid banking organizations with capital planning as they implement FAS 166 and FAS 167 and adjust... assets a banking organization consolidates as a result of changes to U.S. generally accepted accounting...
Bassi, Laurie J.
Describes intellectual capital--employees' brainpower, know-how, knowledge, and processes--and knowledge management--the processes by which a company creates and leverages intellectual capital--as the primary sources of competitive advantage in many industries. Offers ways to measure intellectual capital, a glossary, and additional resources. (JOW)
Mitchell, Deborah; Castles, Francis
This paper is developed in response to Gosta Esping-Andersen's study, The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (1990), in which he categorizes welfare capitalism as Liberal, Conservative, and Social Democratic. The authors argue that there also exists radical welfare capitalism which describes Australia's welfare state.
This article argues that school social capital is crucial for school effectiveness, but it has been disregarded in the traditional school administrative theory. Therefore, this article tries to illustrate the significance of school social capital to school effectiveness. School social capital is defined as the social resources embedded in internal…
Peters, Michael A., Ed.; Bulut, Ergin, Ed.
Cognitive capitalism--sometimes referred to as "third capitalism," after mercantilism and industrial capitalism--is an increasingly significant theory, given its focus on the socio-economic changes caused by Internet and Web 2.0 technologies that have transformed the mode of production and the nature of labor. The theory of cognitive…
Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan
Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…
Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index. The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark,…
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to provide some support to the thesis that insurance may reduce the cost of capital in a company by influencing both the cost of capital components and the need for rising capital. The problem is here perceived from two perspectives – the classical concept related to the weighted average cost of capital (WACC and a novel concept related to the risk-based capital structure model with the total average cost of capital (TACC. The paper explains the idea of insurance as a retrospective (post-loss risk financing tool and the risk transfer mechanism upon it. As the risk financing tool insurance reduces the need for the balance-sheet capital in a company and thus the financial distress costs. Also, insurance may reduce the level of operating risk and thus influences the required returns of the capital providers. These observations allow emphasising the impact of insurance on the WACC. However, according to the novel concept of the risk-based capital structure, insurance (as a risk financing tool represents an off-balance sheet capital component. As a consequence, it extends the volume of total capital. The presented conceptual model, based on the TACC concept, indicates that large volume of insurance (the insurance sum and its relatively low cost (the insurance premium gives the possibility to the significant reduction of the cost of capital on average. The concluding remarks discuss some dilemmas over the utility of the TACC concept.
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided...
Madsen, Erik Strøjer
Human capital is an important growth factor for developing and developed countries and measuring the return to education is essential in evaluating the growth impact from human capital. Most studies use the length of education measured by the years of schooling as an indicator of human capital...
Yoo, Soonhwa; Loadman, William E.
In 1994 the Ohio State Legislature established Venture Capital to support school restructuring. The Venture Capital school initiative is a concept borrowed from the business community in which the corporate entity provides risk capital to parts of the organization to stimulate creative ideas and to provide opportunities for local entities to try…
Human capital wordt door diverse auteurs gezien als een ‘value driver’. Er is echter weinig bekend over de wijze waarop ondernemingen human capital meten en sturen en hoe beleggers op de kapitaalmarkt reageren op human capital informatie die door ondernemingen wordt verstrekt. In dit artikel wordt
Joosen, B.P.M.; Haentjens, M.; Wessels, B.
With the introduction of the Capital Requirements Regulation (CRR) in the European Union, the qualitative requirements for bank regulatory capital have changed. These changes aim at implementing in Europe the Basel III principles for better bank capital that is able to absorb losses of banks,
... Administration 49 CFR Part 611 Major Capital Investment Projects; Notice of Availability of Proposed New Starts... Capital Investment Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... capital investments seeking funding under the discretionary ``New Starts'' and ``Small Starts'' programs...
...-0009] RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects AGENCIES: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... current approach to evaluating and rating major capital investment projects (``New Starts'' and ``Small...'' to address identified transportation needs in the corridor without a major capital investment in new...
Navarra, M.Q.; Niehof, A.; Vaart, van der W.
Social capital is often seen as a substitute for lack of other types of capital among poor people. Because of the recognized applicability of the social capital concept and its correlation with the different dimensions of poverty, it has been used in evaluating the adaptation and integration of
approach in Scientific Research Centers within knowledge based ... Relational Capital (customer capital): represents all the .... measure the economy's human capital by the rates of enrolment in .... skill or ability, a personal characteristic, or a cluster of two or more ..... satisfied with the moral motivation (not financial) of the.
Full Text Available Este artículo sugiere que la metamorfosis de las deudas en derivados y títulos financieros, y de estos en deudas, genera redes de activos y obligaciones, que inducen la emergencia de distintos tiempos del capital, articulados en un sistema complejo, cuya dinámica hace posible sincronizarlos en forma de crisis de carácter global. La crisis se trata como un cambio de estado en un sistema complejo, precipitada por la conectividad generada por el apalancamiento creciente. Es un desarrollo de las teorías de la crisis y de la socialización de la deuda planteadas por Marx en El Capital.
Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter
This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…
Berdasarkan hasil pengolahan data diketemukan bahwa 1 human capital mampu memberikan kontribusi yang berarti terhadap customer capital. 2 Customer capital mampu memberikan kontribusi yang berarti terhadap kinerja café dan resto di Surabaya, 3 human capital mampu memberikan kontribusi yang berarti terhadap kinerja café dan resto di Surabaya.
Christensen, Poul Rind; Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard; Klyver, Kim
This study investigates the influence of human capital, social capital, and cognition on nascent entrepreneurs' export intentions. The results indicate that while human capital and social capital influence the level of intended export, cognitive characteristics, such as self-efficacy and risk...
-, č. 429 (2010), s. 1-36 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/1595; GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:MŠk(CZ) SVV-2010-261801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : capital structure * financing decisions * credit constraints * Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp429.pdf
Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda
Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725
Diana Paola Ovies-Bernal
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar los criterios comunes utilizados en la implementación de sistemas nacionales de información de salud (SNIS interoperables en el mundo y proveer información científica validada sobre las dimensiones de la interoperabilidad. MÉTODOS: Revisión sistemática de artículos primarios publicados en inglés, portugués o español en revistas científicas entre 1990 y 2011 sobre la implementación de SNIS interoperables. La búsqueda se realizó en ocho bases de datos bibliográficas que abarcaran revistas electrónicas en ciencias de la salud e informática: Medline (Pubmed, Proquest, Ovid, EBSCO, MD Consult, Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, Metapress y SciELO. Se revisaron los textos completos de los artículos y se excluyeron los que se enfocaban solo en lo informático-técnico o en el componente normativo, y los que no cumplían con los criterios de calidad para revisiones sistemáticas de intervenciones. RESULTADOS: De 291 estudios encontrados y revisados, solo 5 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión y exponían el proceso de implementación de SNIS interoperables en Brasil, China, Estados Unidos, Turquía y la región semiautónoma de Zanzíbar. Se identificaron cinco criterios básicos comunes para la implementación del SNIS: las normas que respaldan el proceso, la capacitación del talento humano, las limitaciones financieras y estructurales, la definición de los estándares y la seguridad de la información. Se definieron cuatro dimensiones de interoperabilidad: técnica, semántica, legal y organizacional. CONCLUSIONES: Los criterios expuestos se deben ajustar a la situación real de cada país y se debe adoptar un enfoque proactivo en la implementación estratégica, sencilla y fiable de SNIS interoperables.
Victor Manuel Cuesta López
Full Text Available Resumen: En los últimos meses hemos asistido a la proliferación de referéndums en los Estados miembros de la Unión Europea que vienen a cuestionar importantes avances en la integración o, incluso, la propia pertenencia a la Unión. En este contexto, el presente artículo se propone delimitar el concepto de referéndum europeo para, a continuación, presentar la evolución de sus convocatorias a lo largo de las distintas fases del proceso de integración. También propondremos la sistematización de las consultas celebradas en función de su naturaleza jurídico-constitucional (referéndum obligatorio o facultativo y las presentaremos atendiendo al objeto de las mismas: referéndums de pertenencia (adhesión, ampliación de terceros o permanencia, referéndums de ratificación de los tratados constitutivos y sus sucesivas reformas y referéndums sobre políticas europeas específicas. A pesar de que cada referéndum europeo responde a contextos jurídicos y políticos nacionales muy particulares, trataremos de determinar si existe alguna relación entre el tipo de consulta convocada y su resultado favorable o contrario a una mayor integración. Palabras clave: referéndum, Unión Europea, soberanía, democracia directa. Abstract: The referendums held during the last months in several Member States of the European Union have openly questioned essential aspects of the integration process or even the membership. In this context, this article aims to define the concept of European referendum, to present its evolution throughout the integration process, and to propose its categorization according to their legal nature (compulsory or facultative referendum and their subject matter (enlargement, ratification of the Treaties or specific European policies. Although each European referendum responds to very specific legal and political contexts, this article tries to determine whether there is any relationship between the type of consultation and
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of anemia in Mexican women and analyze its trends with information from the last two national nutrition surveys. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The prevalence of anemia in women was analyzed. Anemia was adjusted by socioeconomic profile and by potentially explanatory variables. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anemia for pregnant women was 20.2% (95% CI 15.9, 26.2% and 15.5% for non-pregnant women (95% CI 14.7, 16.4%. The prevalence of anemia in women decreased from 1999 to 2006 in all socioeconomic profiles. Adolescent women living in the northern and in the southern regions had a greater risk of anemia than those in Mexico City (p= 0.05. Significant risk was found among low socioeconomic level (pOBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de anemia en mujeres y analizar su tendencia a través de las dos últimas encuestas nacionales de nutrición. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó la prevalencia de anemia en mujeres. La prevalencia de anemia se ajustó por perfil socioeconómico y por posibles variables que la expliquen. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia global de anemia fue de 20.2% (IC95% 15.9, 26.2% para mujeres embarazadas y de 15.5% (IC95% 14.7, 16.4% para mujeres no embarazadas. La prevalencia de anemia en mujeres disminuyó de 1999 a 2006 en todos los niveles socioeconómicos. Las mujeres adolescentes que viven en las regiones norte y sur tuvieron mayor riesgo de anemia que las que viven en la Ciudad de México (p= 0.05. Se encontró un riesgo significativo asociado con el nivel socioeconómico bajo (p< 0.06. La mayor paridad resultó ser un factor de riesgo significativo (p< 0.05. CONCLUSIONES: Aun cuando la presencia de anemia en mujeres en edad reproductiva en México ha disminuido, continúa siendo un problema de salud pública.
Eduardo Alfredo Leiva
Full Text Available El uso de las Tecnologías de Información y de Comunicación se ha incorporado de forma general a la vida cotidiana de una nación. Este nuevo escenario facilita un desarrollo sin precedentes en el intercambio de información y comunicaciones, pero al mismo tiempo conlleva serios riesgos y amenazas que pueden afectar a la Seguridad Nacional. Varios son los factores que contribuyen a la proliferación de acciones delictivas en el ciberespacio, la rentabilidad que ofrece su explotación en términos económicos, políticos o de otro tipo, la facilidad y el bajo costo de las herramientas utilizadas para la consecución de ataques y la facilidad de ocultación del atacante, hacen posible que estas actividades se lleven a cabo de forma anónima, desde cualquier lugar del mundo y con impunidad. Esto tiene un impacto considerado sobre las distintas organizaciones tanto en los sectores públicos como privados, y los propios ciudadanos. Los distintos perfiles de atacantes explotan las vulnerabilidades tecnológicas con el objeto de recabar información de valor para cometer ilícitos, como así también para amenazar los servicios básicos que pueden afectar al normal funcionamiento de un país. La importancia estratégica de disponer de un ciberespacio seguro, conlleva la creación de un sistema de Ciberseguridad Nacional basado en una Estrategia Nacional de Ciberseguridad (ENCS, es decir, un conjunto de órganos, organismos y procedimientos que permitan la dirección, control y gestión de la seguridad en el ciberespacio. Planteando la necesidad de una (ENCS, se puede observar que existen naciones que no poseen una Estrategia Nacional de Ciberseguridad y otras que están en el proceso de elaboración de la misma. Advirtiendo la importancia de la situación, este trabajo tiene el propósito de realizar un estudio comparativo de algunas Estrategias y Políticas Nacionales de Ciberseguridad seleccionadas y además brindar una visión general de la
Full Text Available
Acuerdos adoptados en sesión del Consejo Directivo del 23 de octubre de 1981, celebrada en Santiago de Chile.
Las grandes redes de comunicación social entregan al mundo de hoy con inusitada rapidez, informaciones, opiniones y otras materias capaces de contener un mensaje educativo. Sin embargo, frecuentes distorsiones de los verdaderos principios, objetivos y métodos, se suman hasta constituir graves problemas culturales, sociales y de salud pública.
Uno de estos problemas es la incomunicación que afecta a las personas, las familias y las naciones, porque contribuye a la génesis de una serie de fenómenos como la violencia, el deterioro moral y la indiferencia ante el sufrimiento ajeno. Paradójicamente, los medios de comunicación de masas, tales como la prensa escrita, la radio, el cine, y en especial la televisión, juegan un papel decisivo, sea para provocar o para agravar dicho aislamiento.
En algunos paises no se han definido aún las políticas adecuadas que regulen los principios
éticos y educativos de esos medios, lo que es indispensable para ayudar a la elevación espiritual de los pueblos y al enriquecimiento de las expresiones culturales nacionales.
Aun en aquellos paises con políticas definidas, no se han adoptado las acciones o medidas adecuadas, ni por organismos oficiales ni por otras instituciones, para enmendar los aspectos negativos de la actual situación, o ellas no han sido eficientes en su aplicación.
La libertad de pensamiento y de palabra es uno de los principios fundamentales de la civilización y debe ser ejercida teniendo en cuenta normas éticas. No obstante, debe evitarse que al amparo de este hecho y con una interpretación equivocada del mismo,
se incurra en situaciones negativas como las señaladas al comienzo.
Dichos aspectos negativos adquieren especial fuerza y vigencia en el cine y en la televisión por su naturaleza (medios
The emergence of Capitalism is said to always lead to extreme changes in the structure of a society. This view implies that Capitalism is a universal and unique concept that needs an explicit institutional framework and should not discriminate between a German or US Capitalism. In contrast, this work argues that the ‘ideal type’ of Capitalism in a Weberian sense does not exist. It will be demonstrated that Capitalism is not a concept that shapes a uniform institutional framework within every ...
The research paper intends to interpret how the three forms of family capital viz. family's financial capital, family's man power capital and family's human capital influences the career choice intention of students of HEI's of Uttarakhand, India. Additionally the study also evaluates the impact of student's individual social capital on his career intent. This is a quantitative study conducted at Uttarakhand state of India on a large sample of students studying in various professional courses...
Full Text Available International working capital management is important to firms frequently operating in the international market. This article investigates the international working capital practices of top Ghanaian firms involved in international trade. The objective of the study is to ascertain the extent to which Ghanaian firms use international working capital management vehicles. The article focuses on two main areas of international working capital management; international cash management and international sales and accounts receivables management. The results of this study reveal low level of use of international working capital vehicles among Ghanaian firms. Recommendations are made in this regard.
Vaughan, J; Wise, J
Physician group practices and networks must have ready access to capital to finance their working capital needs, capital equipment acquisitions, and real estate purchases, as well as to fund the acquisition of additional practices. At least three options for capitalization are available to group practices and networks: debt financing, equity financing, or a combination of the two. The best option for physician group practices and networks depends on the costs of capital and the impact the strategy will have on decision making and governance.
Ioana Julieta Josan
Full Text Available The new organizational changes caused by social, economic and politic reforms led to a shift in the strategic management of the companies. The growing need for professionals, who know how to generate profits, is growing and increase confidence of partners and clients, find new ideas and adapt to a dynamic market. Therefore, internally, we need an efficient management of human resources to find and retain the most suitable and efficient people which will increase productivity and face the increased acting globally competition. Currently, companies that succeed are the ones that integrate in their business strategy, an important component of development and valuation human capital. The paper aims to analyze and highlight the importance of human capital in the new organizational strategies, focused on achieving a high level of competitiveness, innovation and excellence.
José Manuel Saíz Álvarez
Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg Resultado del proceso de globalización económica actual, unido al inicio de la denominada «Primera Crisis Global (PCG, cada vez es mayor la importancia del capital intelectual en las organizaciones, tanto por las ventajas competitivas que genera para la organización, como por permitir que la empresa pueda lograr posiciones de liderazgo sostenible en el tiempo. Dicho capital intelectual se inserta dentro de las organizaciones siguiendo una doble perspectiva basada en la ética y en la gestión del conocimiento. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar cuáles son las bases que, desde una gestión del conocimiento basado en la ética aplicada a la empresa, permiten construir organizaciones líderes en el mercado global.
Bryson, Alex; Clark, Andrew E; Freeman, Richard B; Green, Colin P
We show that worker wellbeing is determined not only by the amount of compensation workers receive but also by how compensation is determined. While previous theoretical and empirical work has often been preoccupied with individual performance-related pay, we find that the receipt of a range of group-performance schemes (profit shares, group bonuses and share ownership) is associated with higher job satisfaction. This holds conditional on wage levels, so that pay methods are associated with greater job satisfaction in addition to that coming from higher wages. We use a variety of methods to control for unobserved individual and job-specific characteristics. We suggest that half of the share-capitalism effect is accounted for by employees reciprocating for the "gift"; we also show that share capitalism helps dampen the negative wellbeing effects of what we typically think of as "bad" aspects of job quality.
The author develops an approach to urban dynamics with endogenous capital and population growth, synthesizing the Alonso location model, the two-sector neoclassical growth model, and endogenous population theory. A dynamic model for an isolated island economy with endogenous capital, population, and residential structure is developed on the basis of Alonso's residential model and the two-sector neoclassical growth model. The model describes the interdependence between residential structure, economic growth, population growth, and economic structure over time and space. It has a unique long-run equilibrium, which may be either stable or unstable, depending upon the population dynamics. Applying the Hopf theorem, the author also shows that when the system is unstable, the economic geography exhibits permanent endogenous oscillations.
Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the main tendencies influencing European capitalmarkets development. In order to point out their implications, we structured our study onfour chapters. The first one illustrates the consolidation of stock exchanges at the Europeanlevel; the seconds presents some considerations about the deregulation/re-regulation of EUcapital markets; the third section highlights the globalization implications on their evolutionand the fourth one indicates the effects of financial innovation. The progressive integrationof European capital markets over the past decade contributed to the lowering of capital costas a result of increased risk diversification opportunities and reduced transaction costs dueto the specialization of financial system provisions. Moreover, the expansion of thesemarkets improved firms financing decisions, leading to an increased share of non-bankfunding sources.
On June 7, 2010, as part of the Atomexpo 2010 exhibition, a round-table discussion took place on the topic Human capital in the nuclear industry: challenges and solutions. The article summarizes reports made during the meeting. Tatiana Kozhevnikova, deputy director general of the Rosatom Corporation, made a report about the strategy and best human resource management practices in member companies of the Corporation. She briefly described the state of the human capital in the Russian nuclear industry and outlined the key provisions of the human resource management strategy. Attendees to the round-table discussion elaborated further on the key statements of the report. The discussion has given an evidence that the Russian nuclear industry is giving an enormous importance to human resource management and is firmly intended on successfully tacking the issues associated with the provision of sufficient staff for the industry's safe and efficient development [ru
Hansen, Per H.
In this article I interpret 150 years of financial history with a focus on shifts in the role of finance in society. I argue that over time the role of finance has shifted twice from that of servant to that of master of society, and that this process has been driven by sense making through...... narratives that legitimized and shaped these changes. When finance became a master rent seeking, cultural capture and out-of control financial innovation resulted in financial and social instability. Finance as a master was the characteristic of finance capitalism from around 1900......–1931 and of financialization from around 1980 to today. Finance capitalism and financialization were enabled by a dominant narrative that legitimized the power of finance. The shifts in the role of finance happened when crises undermined the meaning of the existing narrative and created for a new narrative able to make sense...
Vaquero Ortiz, E. M.; González Pineda, L. M.; Cascante Díaz, E.
The resources in any organization for its activity development can be divided into two main groups: tangible assets and intangible assets. In recent decades there has been a recognition of the importance of the intangible assets as value generators for the development and growth of organizations. And the so called Relational Capital is among them Relational Capital arises from the relationship processes that an organization maintains with external agents. Thus, in the case of a public research institution, such as CIEMAT, it includes the relations with projects financing organizations, with partners and with customers (both public and private entities which are serviced), as well as the institutional presence understood as the participation in discussion and coordination forums (foundations, associations, committees…). This report presents a study of CIEMAT institutional presence in the year 2015.
Pablo de Andrés
Full Text Available This paper seeks to shed further light on the capital budgeting techniques used by Spanish companies. Our paper posits that the gap between theory and practice might be related to the nature of sources of value and to the efficiency of mechanisms aligning managerial and shareholder incentives, rather than to resource restrictions or model misinterpretation. We analyze data from a survey conducted in 2011, the final sample comprising 140 non-financial Spanish firms. Our findings show a behaviour pattern similar to that reported in prior research for firms in other countries. Particularly noteworthy is that payback appears to be the most widely used tool, while real options are used relatively little. Our results confirm that size and industry are related to the frequency of use of certain capital budgeting techniques. Further, we find that the relevance of growth opportunities and flexibility is an important factor explaining the use of real options.
The merits of the “Capital Markets Union” project lie with its political importance, rather than its legal coherence or significance. Despite a number of substantial flaws, the initiation of this project comes at the right time. The Commission first and foremost sends a political message to the UK...... and other non-Euro Member States, as well as a commitment to the Single Market....
This dissertation studies capital structure decisions of levered and unlevered firms using the modeling framework of Leland (1994). The first chapter, Cash Holdings and Financial Constraints, focuses on optimal management of cash holdings by equity holders of a levered, financially constrained firm. I add financial constraints as a market friction to the traditional model. A financially constrained firm is not able to issue new equity to subsidize net operating losses and is subject to pre...
Malavika Sundararajan; Binod Sundararajan
Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successf...
U.S. corporations do not issue and repurchase debt and equity to counteract the mechanistic effects of stock returns on their debt-equity ratios. Thus over one- to five-year horizons, stock returns can explain about 40 percent of debt ratio dynamics. Although corporate net issuing activity is lively and although it can explain 60 percent of debt ratio dynamics (long-term debt issuing activity being most capital structurerelevant), corporate issuing motives remain largely a mystery. When stock...
María Eugenia Rodríguez Guerrero
Full Text Available In the slang language of Lojanos, it is said that Loja is the musical capital of Ecuador. thesis or clich´e, which has led to write the present article to ﬁnd the theoretical empirical support and practices that support it, constituting it in research object and recommend to the future the innovations that need to be introduced in order to sustain and strengthen this place of Loja. This ﬁrst approach has as a problem What does Loja provides, that distinguish from the rest of the provinces of Ecuador in the musical ﬁeld, to be considered its capital? This ﬁrst delivery aims to build a framework of computer concepts that open up posterity to a ﬁeld of research on music and that translate into policies, plans and programs that empower it. They develop three concepts derived from the thesis: the power to construct music that refers to the generic and speciﬁc competences in different instruments and genres, the amount of music that is produced and the human talent in musical formation that is developed in Loja. Empirical evidence is collected to corroborate or reject the hypothesis: Loja is the musical capital of Ecuador. Data are collected on musical skills and compared at the global level, as well as music production and music training scenarios. At the end the hypothesis is checked. The task of the Lojanos is to innovate the capital. Keywords: Music, musical competitions, musical talent in training, amount of music, musicalperformance, musical instrument, songs.
Full Text Available The article analyzes the most relevant versions of spiritual capital, the aspects they share, and the way in which some of them are linked to religion while others are not. It describes the multidimensional nature of the notion, which leads to a theory of profound motivation that is strongly rooted in the person. This intrinsic dimensión of motivation proves to be decisive for ethical theories of virtue inspired in Aristotle, which emphasize the internal aspect of behavior.
... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a NMVC... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC Companies...
Ayman Chit PhD
Full Text Available The opportunity cost of the capital invested in pharmaceutical research and development (R&D to bring a new drug to market makes up as much as half the total cost. However, the literature on the cost of pharmaceutical R&D is mixed on how, exactly, one should calculate this “hidden” cost. Some authors attempt to adopt models from the field of finance, whereas other prominent authors dismiss this practice as biased, arguing that it artificially inflates the R&D cost to justify higher prices for pharmaceuticals. In this article, we examine the arguments made by both sides of the debate and then explain the cost of capital concept and describe in detail how this value is calculated. Given the significant contribution of the cost of capital to the overall cost of new drug R&D, a clear understanding of the concept is critical for policy makers, investors, and those involved directly in the R&D.
The rise in the specific capital costs of nuclear power plants has caused concern in all industrialized countries in the past few years. Although the amount of this rise differed and at least did not jeopardize the cost edge of nuclear power in Europe, it did result in cost advantages of coal over nuclear power in a number of Federal States in the USA. The cost development in nuclear power plant construction up to the present level of capital costs was due chiefly to intolerable extensions of construction periods as a consequence of dragging licensing procedures, most of them entailing additional conditions which were partly a matter of dispute. There is broad agreement on the need to not detract from the nuclear safety level now attained, but also on the inability to increase it further by any significant margin. It has become evident in the past that, from a certain level onward, additional measures may in fact reduce the level of safety. In this contribution an attempt is made to delineate the framework of reasonable capital expenditure. From this point of departure, realistic considerations of safety and environmental protection can be made for future orientation. (orig.)
Chit, Ayman; Chit, Ahmad; Papadimitropoulos, Manny; Krahn, Murray; Parker, Jayson; Grootendorst, Paul
The opportunity cost of the capital invested in pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) to bring a new drug to market makes up as much as half the total cost. However, the literature on the cost of pharmaceutical R&D is mixed on how, exactly, one should calculate this “hidden” cost. Some authors attempt to adopt models from the field of finance, whereas other prominent authors dismiss this practice as biased, arguing that it artificially inflates the R&D cost to justify higher prices for pharmaceuticals. In this article, we examine the arguments made by both sides of the debate and then explain the cost of capital concept and describe in detail how this value is calculated. Given the significant contribution of the cost of capital to the overall cost of new drug R&D, a clear understanding of the concept is critical for policy makers, investors, and those involved directly in the R&D. PMID:25933615
Santana Hernández, Carolina
El presente proyecto investiga la relación entre las organizaciones con el medio y marketing, para lo cual se debe mencionar el conflicto de intereses de la comunidad y de la organización, y como se intenta percibir a la organización como un buen vecino dentro de la comunidad. A su vez éste estudio cuenta con objetivos basados en la identificación de redes de distribución de petróleo y gas natural, tanto nacionales como internacionales, para así abarcar un sector estratégico más preciso, y mo...
Gutiérrez Sanabria, Diego R.
Evalua el riesgo de las carreteras nacionales para la fauna silvestre y el uso de ciencia ciudadana como herramienta para el monitoreo de fauna silvestre atropellada en Costa Rica. A partir de ahí se desarrolló y evaluó el uso de una aplicación informática en una plataforma web ya existente, para ser usado por cualquier smartphone, lo cual, representa una propuesta innovadora y por último, se usaron datos provenientes de esta aplicación, con una de las especies que más registros de atropellos...
Jones, Gareth A
This paper is inspired by Thomas Piketty's book Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Piketty does a wonderful job of tracing income and wealth over time, and relating changes to trends of economic and population growth, and drawing out the implications for inequality, inheritance and even democracy. But, he says relatively little about where capital is located, how capital accumulation in one place relies on activities elsewhere, how capital is urbanized with advanced capitalism and what life is like in spaces without capital. This paper asks 'where is the geography in Capital' or 'where is the geography of capital in Capital'? Following Piketty's lead, the paper develops its analysis through a number of important novels. It examines, first, the debate that Jane Austen ignored colonialism and slavery in her treatment of nineteenth century Britain, second, how Balzac and then Zola provide insight to the urban political economy of capital later in the century, and third, how Katherine Boo attends to inequality as the everyday suffering of the poor. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.
Scheffler, Richard M; Brown, Timothy T
In introducing this Special Issue on Social Capital and Health, this article tracks the popularization of the term and sheds light on the controversy surrounding the term and its definitions. It sets out four mechanisms that link social capital with health: making information available to community members, impacting social norms, enhancing the health care services and their accessibility in a community, and offering psychosocial support networks. Approaches to the measurement of social capital include the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey (SCCBS) developed by Robert Putnam, and the Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), which looks at community voluntary organizations using public data available for the entire United States. The article defines community social capital (CSC) as the extent and density of trust, cooperation, and associational links and activity within a given population. Four articles on CSC are introduced in two categories: those that address behaviors -- particularly utilization of health services and use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs; and those that look at links between social capital and physical or mental health. Policy implications include: funding and/or tax subsidies that would support the creation of social capital; laws and regulations; and generation of enthusiasm among communities and leaders to develop social capital. The next steps in the research programme are to continue testing the mechanisms; to look for natural experiments; and to find better public policies to foster social capital.
Maria Thereza Pompa Antunes
Full Text Available Muito se tem comentado que os relatórios fornecidos pela Contabilidade Financeira não retratam certas realidades das empresas atualmente, tendo em vista o fato de o valor contábil das ações estar muitas vezes abaixo do seu valor de mercado. Esse contraste entre os dois valores vem sendo identificado como Capital Intelectual e apresentado como um novo conceito de administração de empresas que conduz à necessidade de aplicação de novas estratégias, de nova filosofia de gestão e novas formas de avaliação do valor da empresa. Este trabalho evidencia a verdadeira relação existente entre a Contabilidade e o Capital Intelectual. Desmistifica-se a novidade do conceito, pois comprova-se que o capital Intelectual é parte integrante do Goodwill, conceito secularmente conhecido e estudado pela Contabilidade. Os elementos intangíveis sempre foram abordados pela Contabilidade e, da mesma forma, como nunca se desprezou a sua importância, nunca se subestimou a sua complexidade. Portanto, a Contabilidade não é falha na divulgação das informações por ela registradas. Deve-se entender a finalidade de cada uma das Demonstrações Contábeis, bem como os Princípios subjacentes a elas. A falta de conhecimento, por vezes, conduz a conclusões precipitadas e errôneas. Por outro lado, qualquer que seja o rótulo atribuído aos elementos intangíveis, que sempre fizeram parte das organizações, entende-se e aceita-se que hoje, cada vez mais, o conhecimento e o gerenciamento desses elementos são relevantes para a gestão das empresas, pois o momento atual é caracterizado pela ampla aplicação do recurso do conhecimento pelo homem, que se materializa em novas tecnologias, sistemas e serviços (entendidos como ativos intangíveis que agregam valor às organizações.It has been said many times that the statements provided by Financial Accounting do not give a picture of certain realities of companies nowadays, considering the fact that, often
Full Text Available A new form of digital economic circulation has emerged, wherein ideas, knowledge, labour and use rights for otherwise idle assets move between geographically distributed but connected and interactive online communities. Such circulation is apparent across a number of digital economic ecologies, including social media, online marketplaces, crowdsourcing, crowdfunding and other manifestations of the so-called ‘sharing economy’. Prevailing accounts deploy concepts such as ‘co-production’, ‘prosumption’ and ‘peer-to-peer’ to explain digital economic circulation as networked exchange relations characterised by their disintermediated, collaborative and democratising qualities. Building from the neologism of platform capitalism, we place ‘the platform’ – understood as a distinct mode of socio-technical intermediary and business arrangement that is incorporated into wider processes of capitalisation – at the centre of the critical analysis of digital economic circulation. To create multi-sided markets and coordinate network effects, platforms enrol users through a participatory economic culture and mobilise code and data analytics to compose immanent infrastructures. Platform intermediation is also nested in the ex-post construction of a replicable business model. Prioritising rapid up-scaling and extracting revenues from circulations and associated data trails, the model performs the structure of venture capital investment which capitalises on the potential of platforms to realise monopoly rents.
Victor S. Martyanov
Full Text Available By inertia, which derives from Adam Smith, modern capitalism is described as a free-market competition. This historical model has worked while the market expands and the availability of resources increases. It provided the opportunity to maintain the political order of the welfare state as a form of non-economic egalitarian distribution of resources, which mitigates inequality and class antagonisms generated by market. However, once capitalism has engulfed the whole world, it is more prone to crises: competition intensifies, markets of demand and market outlets do not expand, technological progress creates a growing structural unemployment, economic growth due to the completion of the global village-city transition stagnates, the resources of all the peripheries are almost exhausted. As a result, nationalism and protectionism arise, the polarization between the global center and the periphery increases, and there comes the image of undemocratic and non-egalitarian labor less society on the horizon of the future, with the precariat and the unemployed growing in numbers and demanding large amounts of rent to maintain their livelihoods. Due to this, the market model of capitalism is gradually transforming into a rental one, where the pursuit of profit, the main motivational factor intrinsic to the market, is removed by the pursuit of rent and the redistribution of markets by non-economic ways. In this context, the state becomes the key economic actor, which distributes resources by extra-market means within the hierarchy of rental groups that form the framework of a new structure of the political community.
Piketty's Capital (2014) primarily describes and analyses changes in the distribution of wealth and annual incomes. This paper focuses on his policy proposals that make up Part Four of the book. Piketty defends the 'social state' but he discusses it largely in terms of distribution and redistribution between tax units. This neglects the important role of social policy in promoting recognition and redistribution of income and opportunities that is related to gender, race, disability and sexual orientation. Nor does Piketty consider inequalities in health which effect life-time incomes, nor the impact of housing policies on house prices and the distribution of wealth. It is argued that Piketty's approach to social security is simplistic and plays down the complexity of competing policy goals. On taxation, Piketty defends progressive taxation and proposes a global capital levy. The latter proposal runs into formidable problems in seeking global taxation in a world of nation states. Rather than seeking a policy that is, for the foreseeable future, wholly politically impractical, a case is made for less idealistic but more practical and urgent tax coordination between nations to address the widespread avoidance of taxation that large corporations and the very wealthy are now permitted - taxation on which the future of the social state depends. The importance of human and social capital, which are largely set aside by Piketty, are discussed. Finally,it is argued that his approach to policy is to describe trends and propose amelioration of growing inequality rather than to identify causes of the trends and propose policies that might address the causes. Nevertheless, the importance of his work in bringing issues of inequality to the fore, especially among economists, is recognized and applauded. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.
El término “capital”, originalmente utilizado en el campo de la economía y las finanzas, constituye un vocablo ampliamente difundido para representar diversos dominios. En este sentido, por ejemplo, la expresión “capital psicológico” es utilizada por los psicólogos organizacionales para designar los recursos psíquicos individuales que representan la valoración positiva de las circunstancias y la probabilidad de éxito basada en el esfuerzo y la perseverancia. En el marco de la psicología organ...
Grauman, Daniel M; Neff, Gerald; Johnson, Molly Martha
When assessing the financial implications of a physician alignment and clinical integration initiative, a hospital should measure the initiative's potential ROI, perhaps best using a combination of net present value and payback period. The hospital should compare its own historical and projected performance with rating agency median benchmarks for key financial indicators of profitability, debt service, capital and cash flow, and liquidity. The hospital should also consider potential indirect benefits, such as retained outpatient/ancillary revenue, increased inpatient revenue, improved cost control, and improved quality and reporting transparency.
Hirukawa, Masayuki; Ueda, Masako
For the sample period of 1965-1992, Kortum and Lerner (2000) find that venture capital (VC) investments have a positive impact on patent count at industry level, and this impact is larger than that of R&D expenditures. We confirm that this positive impact continued to be present and became even stronger in late 90s during which VC industry experienced an unprecedented growth. We then proceed to study if this positive impact of VC is also present on productivity growth, which is a measure of i...
Colonel Don Benito Machado. A National Guards commandant on the southern frontier of Buenos Aires [1852-1880] El coronel Don Benito Machado. Un comandante de Guardias Nacionales en la frontera sur bonaerense [1852-1880
Full Text Available In this work, we will analyze the National Guard regiments and the role played by their commandants during the process of national organization on the southern frontier of Buenos Aires, from the case study of coronel don José Benito Machado. First of all, our objective will be describe the specific characteristics that adopted the National Guards in the societies of the southern frontier of the province of Buenos Aires. And then, to analyze the mechanisms developed by Benito Machado to build the power bases in the region that enabled the consolidation of its leadershipEn el presente trabajo, analizamos los regimientos de Guardias Nacionales y las funciones que desempeñaron sus comandantes durante el proceso de organización nacional en la frontera sur bonaerense, desde el estudio de caso del coronel don José Benito Machado. En primer lugar, repasamos las características específicas que adoptaron las Guardias Nacionales en las sociedades de la frontera sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires; mientras que, en segundo lugar, analizamos los diversos mecanismos desarrollados por Benito Machado para construir las bases de poder en la región que posibilitaron el afianzamiento de su liderazgo
Balázs István Tóth
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze territorial capital as a new paradigm to make best use of endogenous assets. The study is dealing with the preconditions, meaning and possible theoretical taxonomies of territorial capital. In this study I emphasize that the cumulative effects of regional potentials are more important than economies of scale and location factors. I present different approaches and interpretations of territorial capital, then make an attempt to create an own model. I try to find answers for questions, such as why territorial capital shows a new perspective of urban and regional development; how cognitive elements of territorial capital provide increasing return; how territorial capital influences competitiveness and what kind of relation it has with cohesion.
Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index....... The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark, and the study further investigates whether the organisational affiliation, project financing, and LAG co-financing can explain the degree of social capital accumulation. Furthermore, the author has tested if there are connections between motivation...... for pursuing development projects similar to those implemented previously and the degree of social capital. The paper concludes that there are indications that projects hosted by municipalities tend to show the most social capital, there is no connection between the amount of project financing and social...
Yang, Hsieh-Hua; Huang, Fen Fen; Lai, Yi-Horng; Yang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Jui-Chen
The burgeoning interest in social capital within the technology community represents a welcome move towards a concern for the social elements of technological adaptation and capacity. Since technology plays an ever larger role in our daily life, it is necessary to articulate social capital and its relationship to technological literacy. A nationwide data was collected by area sampling, and position generator was used to measure social capital. Regression model was constructed for technological literacy. Age, gender, education, income, web access, and social capital were included as independent variables. The results show that age, gender, education, web access, and social capital were good predictors of technological literacy. It is concluded that social capital is helpful in coping with rapid technological change. Theoretical and empirical implications and future research are discussed.
Peter J. Graham
Full Text Available We examine how national culture impacts organisational selection of capital budgeting systems to develop our understanding of what influence a holistic formulation of national culture has on capital budgeting systems. Such an understanding is important as it would not only provide a clearer link between national culture and capital budgeting systems and advance extant literature but would also help multinational firms that have business relationships with Indonesian firms in suitably designing strategies. We conducted semi-structured interviews of selected finance managers of listed firms in Indonesia and Australia. Consistent with the contingency theory, we found that economic, political, legal and social uncertainty impact on the use of capital budgeting systems. The levels of uncertainty were higher in Indonesia than Australia and need to be reckoned in the selection of capital budgeting systems used by firms. We also found that firms are influenced by project size and complexity, when selecting capital budgeting systems.
Full Text Available The financial crisis that began in 2008 in the USA turned into a global economic crisis in a short time. As such, it had a big impact on the financial stability of Croatia, primarily on capital market. Capital market includes securities trading, primarily stocks and bonds, whose market value is influenced by the market capitalization of capital market and vice versa. Macro economically, market capitalization had an influence on the fall in the value of the entire capital market, and micro economically, it had an influence on the fall of the prices of stocks, bonds and other financial instruments of companies. The volume of trade decreased, but there was an increase in the number of transactions. In other words, people traded more and in smaller quantities. Therefore, the risk increased, and investors became more cautious.
Full Text Available More than two decades after the beginning of the financial revolution globalization of capital flows still attracts considerable attention, from both practitioners and academics. The aim of this paper is to contribute to understanding of some aspects of the global capital scene, as well as to emphasize certain developments which might illustrate its changing profile. Several fundamental perspectives profile the global capital market. A quantitative review provides a sense of sheer volumes, trends, origins and destinations of capital flows; an assessment of the global capital market’s degree of integration follows. The emergence of new (types of actors is another important aspect of the global processes, while illustrations of new market products and emerging segments may add new perspectives on the profile of the global capital market. Finally, the paper concludes with a brief overview of digitalization of the financial supply chain.
Full Text Available In this paper I discuss two long disputed notions: that capitalism without crises is a fallacy respectively that capitalism bashing, however severe, will not endanger the system itself. Yet proving both is not an easy task since the capitalism issue has always been a cupellation of theory, ideology and political precepts, which are controversial and hard to disentangle. That capitalism detractors are numberless is a truism. Yet criticism against capitalism, however fierce, has always been clearly delineated. Not any more: globalization has rendered the picture dangerously fuzzy. It is now hard to ascertain whether someone who will harangue about the ostensible evils of globalization is also a declared anti-capitalist. The blend of capitalism and globalization seems to be pure dynamite.
The reasons of why Tom Skype paid more attention to Venture Capital management have received more and more attentions from academic researchers in many current business studies. Based upon one case study in the Skype, this research has analyzed the significant of the Venture Capital. This research listed some differences of the situations in for the Skype and how it set up the Venture Capital strategic in China, then gave the author's own opinions to the research question.
Peter J. Graham; Milind Sathye
We examine how national culture impacts organisational selection of capital budgeting systems to develop our understanding of what influence a holistic formulation of national culture has on capital budgeting systems. Such an understanding is important as it would not only provide a clearer link between national culture and capital budgeting systems and advance extant literature but would also help multinational firms that have business relationships with Indonesian firms in suita...
Yang, Hsieh-Hua; Huang, Fen Fen; Lai, Yi-Horng; Yang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Jui-Chen
The burgeoning interest in social capital within the technology community represents a welcome move towards a concern for the social elements of technological adaptation and capacity. Since technology plays an ever larger role in our daily life, it is necessary to articulate social capital and its relationship to technological literacy. A nationwide data was collected by area sampling, and position generator was used to measure social capital. Regression model was constructed for technologica...
Buss, Adrian; Dumas, Bernard J
In some situations, investment capital seems to move slowly towards profitable trades. We develop a model of a financial market in which capital moves slowly simply because there is a proportional cost to moving capital. We incorporate trading fees in an infinite-horizon dynamic general-equilibrium model in which investors optimally and endogenously decide when and how much to trade. We determine the steady-state equilibrium no-trade zone, study the dynamics of equilibrium trades and prices a...
Luo, Yong; Zhu, Bo; Tang, Yong
We investigate the problem of dynamic optimal capital growth of a portfolio. A general framework that one strives to maximize the expected logarithm utility of long term growth rate was developed. Exact optimization algorithms run into difficulties in this framework and this motivates the investigation of applying simulated annealing optimized algorithm to optimize the capital growth of a given portfolio. Empirical results with real financial data indicate that the approach is inspiring for capital growth portfolio.
This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alterna...
Lu, Wenjie; Yu, Qun
Much research has been done to examine the relation between investors' human capital and their financial asset allocation. While some showed that the value of human capital should be taken into consideration to make financial asset allocation decisions on the composition of investing portfolios, most argued not. In this paper, we selected the monthly return of 9 industrial ETFs from June of 2007 to July 2011, used the present value of total future income as estimate of human capital, and reli...
Alin Marius Andrieş
Full Text Available All participants in capital markets are asking how to finance investments or to invest money available. The answer to these questions depends on the situation you have: deficit or surplus capital. This article addresses issues concerning the place and role of capital market within the financial markets and in financing investments, trying to highlight the growing importance of this subsystem, shown both to economic agents and to all categories of investors.
Fine, Allan; Bacchetti, J Alex
With operating margins showing some improvement in 2003, Y2K being a distant memory, and many critical capital investment decisions delayed as long as possible, hospitals have been on a relative spending spree, building new facilities, renovating operating rooms and inpatient units, and investing in new medical and information technologies. However, with pressure on both cost and revenue expected to continue, if not increase, this spending spree may be short-lived, and hospitals must improve their capital planning efforts; align them with their mission, vision, and strategies; and ensure that capital is available when unplanned or even expected needs arise. This article explores some of the challenges that hospitals face in their capital planning efforts and, more importantly, suggests the necessity for hospitals to integrate capital and strategic planning. Capital planning must be driven by an organization's strategies; however, we also argue that an organization's ability to execute its strategies is highly dependent on the existence of a cohesive capital prioritization and planning process. In this article, we explore a number of issues critical to developing a comprehensive capital plan, including estimating capital costs, evaluating and designing strategies to contend with risk, saving for the proverbial "rainy day," and recognizing the role and value of philanthropy, while challenging some conventional thinking of hospital executives with respect to investment, growth, and planning.
Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne
Based on a relational perspective this paper analyses the case of the “Mechatronics Cluster” in Southern Jutland, Denmark. We found that cluster managers are not aware of the importance of social and symbolic capital. Cluster managers could have access to both but they are not aware...... of this resource and they don´t have any knowledge how to manage social and symbolic capital. Just to integrate social-capital-supporting initiatives in the day to day business would help to develop and to foster social and symbolic capital on a low cost level. And in our example just to integrate successful sub...
Full Text Available Formal education, personal abilities and the health state play an important role in this paper. Those are all essential constituent elements of the human capital. In the present paper we intend to present briefly the fundamental concepts of the human capital, with an emphasis on education and abilities. We also mark out the importance of the human capital development in the purpose of maintaining the development and the motivation of the human resources, which are the main premises organizations need to capitalize. The higher education has a determinant role in the attainment of this desideratum.
Full Text Available The novelty and use of current technology in stock exchange trading operations are just a few reasons for which the capital market domain is a controversial one, and the number of crimes already committed in the financial market raises the issue of securing the supply-demand relationship of capital and capital investment protection. If in the Community law there is no incrimination of market abuse, Romanian legislature sanctioned the capital market manipulation as criminal acts committed intentionally in order to discourage such practices and also to increase the confidence of investors in the financial market
Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo
In recent years, venture capital has increasingly become a factor in thefinancing of new firms. We examine how the value of mature firms determinesthe incentives of entrepreneurs to start up new firms and of venture capitaliststo finance and advise them. We examine how capital gains taxes as well...... assubsidies to start-up costs of new firms affect venture capital-backedentrepreneurship. We also argue that dividend and capital gains taxes onmature firms have important consequences for start-up firms as well.JEL Classification: D82, G24, H24 and H25Keywords: double moral hazard, entrepreneurship, taxes...
Authentic Leadership and Spiritual Capital Development: Agenda for Building ... indicate that many business companies and government organizations which ... for the successful building of quality management and effective organizations.
Grøn, Sisse; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase
(Progoulaki & Roe 2011). This challenges social capital on board, i.e. the resources inherent in network cooperation associated with norms of reciprocity and trust (Putnam 2000: 19). Fragmentizing ‘blue’ social capital should however be restored, because work performance depends on the quality of cooperation...... findings suggest that a balance between three types of social capital – bonding, bridging and linking – is needed to achieve a high-performance work system (Gittell et al. 2010). Hence, main actors within the shipping sector should take ‘blue’ social capital into account in order to increase work...... efficiency and economic performance....
Jæger, Mads Meier
do not possess cultural capital. This paper uses extremely rich longitudinal data that provides a better basis than previous studies for holding ‘everything else’ constant. In addition to children and parents’ cultural capital, I control for children’s actual academic ability, physical appearance......, health impairments, social behaviour, antenatal influences, and many family background characteristics. My analysis shows, first, that both children and parents’ cultural capital have independent effects on teacher ability ratings. Second, for oral ability I find that parents’ cultural capital ‘protects...
... total capital-to-asset ratio (both of which shall be based on the same financial data used for the... the liquidity, capital, earnings or continuing operations of the Bank, including those affecting...
This paper discusses Corporate Social Capital and Public Relations. This paper overviewed the Social Capital studies, especially early studies in sociology field, proposed the framework to evaluate Social Capital in a capital. Social Capital has the merit to reduce transaction costs, and should be clearly positioned as a component of capital of corporation. Using the concept of the Corporate Social Capital, to rethink the definition of Public Relations, this paper proposed the following defin...
Couto, Eduardo; Bilau, José
The aim of this study is to analyse whether the human capital of the nascent entrepreneur influences the initial capital structure of Portuguese innovative firms. The research model used includes a dependent binary variable devised to check the initial capital structure, two groups of independent variables referring to the human capital and a group of control variables. The results obtained through logistic regression show that "heterogeneity of professional experience" positively influences ...
Lucyna Gornicka; Sweder van Wijnbergen
We investigate actual capital chosen by banks in presence of capital minimum requirements and ex-post penalties for violating them. The model yields excess capital that is always positive and increases during times of distress in the economy, which is in line with empirical evidence. Next, we show that in presence of ex-post violation penalties the introduction of the conservation buffer under Basel III will not contribute to lowering the pro-cyclicality of capital regulations. The countercyc...
Shahidul, S. M.; Karim, A. H. M. Zehadul; Mustari, S.
Resources from multiple social contexts influence students' educational aspiration. In the field of social capital a neglected issue is how students obtain social capital from varying contexts and which contexts benefit them more to shape their future educational plan which consequently affects their level of aspiration. In this study, we aim to…
... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Prompt Corrective Action § 325.103 Capital measures and... agreement, order, capital directive, or prompt corrective action directive issued by the FDIC pursuant to... CFR 28.15(b), or to comply with asset maintenance requirements pursuant to 12 CFR 28.20; or (B) The...
Horne, John; Lingard, Bob; Weiner, Gaby; Forbes, Joan
This paper draws on a research study into the existence and use of different forms of capital--including social, cultural and physical capital--in three independent schools in Scotland. We were interested in understanding how these forms of capital work to produce and reproduce "advantage" and "privilege". Analysis is framed by…
The measurement of capital inputs is still a contentious issue: many choices have to be made that have potentially large effects on the resulting capital input series. This paper compares a large number of methodological choices and their impact on U.S. capital services at the industry and aggregate
Hinton, Kip Austin
Social science research on communities of color has long been shaped by theories of social and cultural capital. This article is a hermeneutic reading of metaphorical capital frameworks, including community cultural wealth and funds of knowledge. Financial capital, the basis of these frameworks, is premised on unequal exchange. Money only becomes…
Han, J.; Han, J; Brass, D.
We highlight the social aspects of team creativity by proposing that team creativity is influenced by two types of team social capital: bridging and bonding social capital. Going beyond the structural perspective, we posit that team-level human capital diversity is one of the potential antecedents
Full Text Available Jason Moore. 2015. Capitalism in the Web of Life. Ecology and Accumulation of Capital [Capitalismo en la red de la vida. Ecología y acumulación de capital]. London New York: Verso Books. 336 pp. ISBN 978-1781689028.
Alfred, Mary V.
This chapter describes social capital theory as a framework for exploring women's networking and social capital resources. It presents the foundational assumptions of the theory, the benefits and risks of social capital engagement, a feminist critique of social capital, and the role of social capital in adult learning.
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit risk capital requirement. 932.4 Section... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.4 Credit risk capital requirement. (a) General requirement. Each Bank's credit risk capital requirement shall be equal to the sum of the Bank's...
Full Text Available The more competitive of competition in business world has made the company having competitive advantage continuously through the management of human resource. Competitive advantage can be created with intellectual capital, by human capital, structural capital, customer capital, commitment, and competence. The article discuss intellectual capital record model in facing the changes of new accounting paradigm.
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum regulatory capital requirement. 567.2... Regulatory Capital Requirements § 567.2 Minimum regulatory capital requirement. (a) To meet its regulatory capital requirement a savings association must satisfy each of the following capital standards: (1) Risk...
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction to capital costs. 412.302 Section 412... Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs General Provisions § 412.302 Introduction to capital costs. (a) New capital... revision of the debt instrument. (iii) If short-term financing was used to acquire old capital assets and...
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of capital stock. 931.6 Section 931.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.6 Transfer of capital stock. A Bank in its capital plan...
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank, both...
Lueg, Klarissa; Nielsen, Camilla
in Germany and LinkedIn in Denmark. We summarize those differences and relate them to different cultural contexts and impression management practices. Our sample consists of Danish Higher Executives (HEs)/managers (e.g., CEOs) and companies that have profiles on both SNS, thus reaching out to both the German......Social Network Sites (SNS) play an increasingly important role in the European business world, especially with respect to cross-cultural impression management. Departing from the Bourdieusian concept of “capital,” this paper analyzes the differences in the use of two popular business SNS: XING...... and the Danish markets. It is apparent that even business experts operating in both markets could better adapt to the standards and possibilities offered by the German SNS with respect to impression management. We introduce a set of recommendations to foster SNS-related and culture-sensitive impression...
The city that once proclaimed itself The Uranium Capital of America is in the process of divorcing itself from the radioactive element - literally as well as symbolically. The last vestiges of uranium are being shoveled from the community. The removal is part of the federal Department of Energy's (DOE) Remedial Action program. It was established in 1972 to clean up areas of the country in which radiation exposure in excess of normal background levels could be attributed to wastes from DOE-operated uranium processing plants. Grand Junction was the first area to qualify. A good portion of the city is built on radioactive tailings - by-products of a uranium-processing industry. The DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency established guidelines for action levels of radiation. The standards were extrapolated from data from studies of lung cancer incidence in uranium miners in Europe and the US
Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.
This paper reflects on Elinor Ostrom’s classic book, Governing the Commons, and much work in sociology, political science and organization studies that has appeared since its publication. We do so in order to expand our understanding of the conditions under which cooperation occurs resulting...... in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate...... or undermine cooperative behavior. In both cases we focus on the important mechanisms by which each one contributes to the development of cooperative behavior and collective goods. We conclude by extending our arguments to a brief analysis of one of the world’s newest and largest collective goods...
This report develops estimates of the social-opportunity cost of public capital. The private and social costs of capital are found to diverge primarily because of the effects of corporate and personal income taxes. Following Harberger, the social-opportunity cost of capital is approximated by a weighted average of the returns to different classes of savers and investors where the weights are the flows of savings or investments in each class multiplied by the relevant elasticity. Estimates of these parameters are obtained and the social-opportunity cost of capital is determined to be in the range of 6.2 to 10.8%, depending upon the parameter values used. Uncertainty is found to affect the social-opportunity cost of capital in two ways. First, some allowance must be made for the chance of failure or at least of not realizing claims of a project's proponents. Second, a particular government project will change the expected variability of the returns to the government's entire portfolio of projects. In the absence of specific information about each project, the use of the economy-wide average default and risk adjustments is suggested. These are included in the empirical estimates reported. International capital markets make available private capital, the price of which is not distorted by the U.S. tax system. The inclusion of foreign sources slightly reduces the social-opportunity cost of capital. 21 references.
T.T. Nguyen (Thuy Thu)
textabstractThis thesis consists of four studies on the interactions of capital structure and product market competition, and on several aspects of governance, firm financing and growth. The first study investigates how competitive behavior and market uncertainty affect the capital structure of a
This paper augments the theory of optimal linear income taxation by taking into account human capital accumulation as a dimension of labor supply. The distribution of earning potentials is endogenous because agents differ in the ability to learn. Taxation affects utilization rates of human capital
Tsai, Chun-Li; Hung, Ming-Cheng; Harriott, Kevin
The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of various compositions of human capital on economic growth. We construct alternative measures of human capital composition using five fields of study. In each instance, the measure represents the number of graduates in the respective field as a percentage of all graduates. The measures are as…
Dr. Daan Andriessen
Today, Intellectual Capital plays a principal role in the delivery of corporate performance. This importance is reflected in the fact that companies, without the force of any regulations, start to produce intellectual capital statements to communicate their performance; accounting guidelines are
In Hungary the capital structure of enterprises changed significantly since 1990, but it is true, that their decisions about the capital can not fit with neither theoretical appeal totally. There is no universal theory of the debt-equity choice, and no reason to expect one.
Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja
This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…
Hansen, Per H.
Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...
Völlmecke, Dominik; Jindra, Björn; Marek, Philipp
within Central and East European countries (CEECs), where we find indications of a poverty trap. In contrast to FDI, regional human capital seems to be associated with higher income levels. However, we identify a positive interaction of FDI and human capital in their relation with income growth dynamics....
Vergílio Frederico Perius
Full Text Available The early history of the cooperative system never taxed much importance to capital formation in cooperatives. The first German consumer cooperative had no equity in their accounting records. We want to analyze, even though the capital was not essential, what is its function actually.
Describes a capital funding model that helps assess facility renewal needs in a way that minimizes resources while maximizing results. The article explains the sub-components of a continuous improvement capital funding model, including budgeting processes for finish renewal, building performance renewal, and critical outcome. (GR)
This "issue report" contains three articles centered around the concept of "social capital", and the role of the schools in community revitalization. "Social captial" consists of organizational networks of communication and shared values that provide collective support for adults and youth in a community. In "Social Capital and the Rebuilding of…
As one of the most expansive storyworlds in sf, Star Trek appears to offer an imaginary representation of a post-capitalist utopia. But in the context of global capitalism the franchise’s superficial post-capitalism translates all too easily into a neoliberal fantasy of post-industrial labour and
Based on previous empirical studies, in this work the author presents an analysis of the role of context in academic capitalism. In particular, she argues that the literature on academic capitalism fails to properly acknowledge disciplinary and institutional differences, which results in an oversimplification of the effects of industry-academia…
Hofman, Peter S.; Moon, Jeremy; Wu, Bin
This article introduces the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the seemingly oxymoronic context of Chinese “authoritarian capitalism.” Following an introduction to the emergence of authoritarian capitalism, the article considers the emergence of CSR in China using Matten and Moon...
Kauppinen, Ilkka; Kaidesoja, Tuukka
Academic capitalism is currently a widely studied topic amongst higher education scholars, especially in the United States. This paper demonstrates that the theory of academic capitalism also provides a fruitful perspective for analysing the restructuring of Finnish higher education since the 1990s, although with reservations. It will be argued…
Zhengfei, G.; Kumbhakar, S.C.; Myers, R.J.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.
We introduce the concept "excess capital capacity" and employ a stochastic input requirement frontier to measure excess capital capacity in agricultural production. We also propose a two-step estimation method that allows endogenous regressors in stochastic frontier models. The first step uses
Ripley, Joan; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Richman, John A.
This instrumental case study explored how five newly appointed superintendents identified key stakeholders and built trust and social capital with stakeholders in their districts. Stakeholder, trust, and social capital theory were the lenses that guided this study. We utilized a pragmatic research design and thematic data analysis to interpret our…
Enfield, Richard P.; Nathaniel, Keith C.
This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in the…
...-0030] RIN 2132-AA92 Capital Project Management AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT... extending the comment period on its proposed rule for Capital Project Management to December 2, 2011, to...) proposing to transform the current FTA rule for project management oversight into a discrete set of...
...-0030] RIN 2132-AA92 Capital Project Management AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT... current FTA rule for project management oversight into a discrete set of managerial principles for sponsors of major capital projects; enable FTA to more clearly identify the necessary management capacity...
Full Text Available The article brings a detailed formal analysis of the Roman capitals from Sirmium, in the light of the stone analysis conducted on the material at the Museum of Srem and elsewhere in Sremska Mitrovica. The capitals dot the historical development of the town from the first half of the 2nd century until the 4th century. First made of regional limestone, they were later joined by those of limestone and marbles of distant source, whereby different stones in capitals coexisted almost throughout the town’s development. This was certainly the situation during the flourishing times of the late 3rd and the 4th century, when Sirmium, as one of the four capitals of the Roman Empire, stood within several formal circles of capitals. The plain-leaved capitals tie it to the rest of Pannonia, the Corinthianizing capitals to the provinces to the east and south, while part of the Asiatic capitals, the largest group, tie it to the wider area of the Mediterranean.
Kay, Tess; Bradbury, Steven
This paper analyses the capacity of youth sport volunteering to contribute to the development of social capital. Following a review of the emergence of social capital as a key theme in UK sport policy, the paper focuses on the ability of a structured sports volunteering programme to equip young people with skills for effective volunteering, and…
Jæger, Mads Meier; Møllegaard, Stine
. Second, cultural capital leads teachers to form upwardly biased perceptions of children's academic ability, but only when their exposure to children's cultural capital is brief (as in oral and written exams) rather than long (as in grades awarded at the end of the school year). Third, we find...
Full Text Available Implementation of e-health is a very difficult and complex process in terms of health policy that requires both organizational ability to meet market requirements and well-managed internal communication, which is carried out through organizational capital and high organizational culture and philosophy. This process requires a change in the organizational processes of health care institutions, ensuring the management and use of health information in order to improve the functioning of health care institutions. Scientists emphasize that health care institutions, with a high organizational capital can effectively promote the development of e-health, by consistently improving the quality of health care services and increasing the confidence and sense of security by enhancing the individual‘s ability to become more involved in the health care system. Nevertheless, in Lithuania, the progress of health care institutions in the field of e-health varies significantly, therefore, different tendencies of e-health care indicators tend to be related to organizational capital. Organizational capital covering the various dimensions of social context analysis, and organizational capital theory is a paradigm that attempts to explain the e-health inequalities at the level of organizations. This paper has evaluated the organizational capital theory expression of the e-health level, to identify and analyze organizational capital assessment indices in the field of e-health and modeled organizational capital assessment scheme.
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the interdependence between labour productivity and the occupational structure of human capital in a spatial cross-section. Research indicates (see Fischer 2009 the possibility to assess the impact of the quality of human capital (measured by means of the level of education on labour productivity in a spatial cross-section.
Belcher, John R.; Peckuonis, Edward V.; Deforge, Bruce R.
Social capital has been extensively discussed in the literature as building blocks that individuals and communities utilize to leverage system resources. Similarly, some families also create capital, which can enable members of the family, such as children, to successfully negotiate the outside world. Families in poverty confront serious…
Mohnen, S.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Völker, B.G.M.; Flap, H.D.
Neighborhood social capital is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of an individual’s health. Using data from the Netherlands we investigate the influence of neighborhood social capital on an individual’s self-reported health, while accounting for other conditions of health on
Mohnen, S.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Völker, B.; Flap, H.
Neighborhood social capital is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of an individual's health. Using data from the Netherlands we investigate the influence of neighborhood social capital on an individual's self-reported health, while accounting for other conditions of health on
Delaney, Jennifer A.; Doyle, William R.
This paper explores the role that state spending on higher education capital outlays plays in state budgets by considering the functional form of the relationship between state spending on higher education capital outlays and four types of state expenditures. Three possible functional forms are tested: a linear model, a quadratic model, and the…
Hellmann, T.; Puri, M.L.; Da Rin, M.; Constantinides, G.; Harris, M.; Stulz, R.
This survey reviews the growing body of academic work on venture capital. It lays out the major data sources used. It examines the work on venture capital investments in companies, looking at issues of selection, contracting, post-investment services and exits. The survey considers recent work on
Da Rin, M.; Hellmann, T.; Puri, M.L.
This survey reviews the growing body of academic work on venture capital. It lays out the major data sources used. It examines the work on venture capital investments in companies, looking at issues of selection, contracting, post-investment services and exits. The survey considers recent work on
Potter, Mary Jo; Wesslund, Rick
As health systems continue to embrace disruptive innovation, they are increasingly likely to consider making a move into venture capital. Working in venture capital can benefit a health system in several ways, including: Allowing it to operate outside of bureaucracy and align projects with its core values. Encouraging innovation within the organization. Enabling it to respond quickly to changes in the market.
Zolotor, Adam J; Runyan, Desmond K
Social capital includes collective efficacy, psychological sense of community, neighborhood cohesion, and parental investment in the child. It has been shown to be associated with a variety of health and welfare outcomes and may be useful in understanding and preventing parenting behaviors on the continuum of child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this research was to evaluate low social capital as a risk factor for harsh physical punishment, neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence. This study is an analysis of cross-sectional telephone survey data of mothers in North and South Carolina (n = 1435). We constructed a 4-point social capital index reflecting survey responses to items ascertaining neighborhood characteristics, willingness to take personal action, the presence of 2 adults in the household, and regular religious service participation. We assessed the relationship of social capital to inventories of self-reported parenting behaviors and in-home violence. In adjusted analysis, we found that each 1 point increase in a 4-point social capital index was associated with a 30% reduction in the odds of neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence. There was no relationship between social capital and harsh physical punishment. This study demonstrates that increasing social capital decreases the odds of neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence but not harsh physical punishment. This supports further investigation into developing social capital as a resource for families.
Le Grange, L.
In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…
Shaffer, Leigh S.; Zalewski, Jacqueline M.
We began this series by addressing the challenges of career advising in a volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous environment. In this article, we define human capital and suggest that advisors encourage students to utilize the principle of maximizing human capital when making decisions. We describe the personal traits and attitudes needed to…
Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera
Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…
Smith, A.C.; Harrison, P.A.; Pérez Soba, M.; Archaux, F.; Blicharska, M.; Egoh, B.N.; Erős, T.; Fabrega Domenech, N.; György, I.; Haines-Young, R.; Li, S.; Lommelen, E.; Meiresonne, L.; Miguel Ayala, L.; Mononen, L.; Simpson, G.; Stange, E.; Turkelboom, F.; Uiterwijk, M.; Veerkamp, C.J.; Wyllie de Echeverria, V.
There is no unified evidence base to help decision-makers understand how the multiple components of natural capital interact to deliver ecosystem services. We systematically reviewed 780 papers, recording how natural capital attributes (29 biotic attributes and 11 abiotic factors) affect the
... Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) General Membership and Branching Requirements § 208.4 Capital adequacy. (a) Adequacy. A member bank's capital, as defined in appendix A to this...
... of financial institutions to provide capital, credit and financial services in underserved markets... Part IV Department of the Treasury Community Development Financial Institutions Fund 12 CFR Part... TREASURY Community Development Financial Institutions Fund 12 CFR Part 1807 RIN 1559-AA00 Capital Magnet...
Emmanuel Farhi; Christopher Sleet; Iván Werning; Sevin Yeltekin
We study efficient non-linear taxation of labour and capital in a dynamic Mirrleesian model incorporating political economy constraints. Policies are chosen sequentially over time, without commitment. Our main result is that the marginal tax on capital income is progressive, in the sense that richer agents face higher marginal tax rates. Copyright , Oxford University Press.
Full Text Available The tax policies which states follow with regard to developing technology and capital investments with raising mobility due to globalism are need to be discussed in its legal basis. The principle of tax neutrality has the aim of being legal foundation for these policies. According to this, the neutrality principle in taxation of international capital investments is provided with two measures, namely; not effecting the investment decision and not discriminate between investments. In this paper, initially focused on the conceptual framework and the foundations of the tax neutrality principle and later capital export neutrality and capital import neutrality are considered and explained with regard to international capital movements. Moreover, conformity and diversion to the principle of the current situation and regulations in OECD, EU and Turkey are examined.
Lotze, C.D.; Riordan, B.J.
The capital costs of coal-fired and nuclear power plants are found to be comparable when costs for pollution control are included. Trends in capital costs reveal a similar rate gain that retains the same economic balance. Graphs of selected cost indices are used to show that the rapid increase in direct construction costs is not unique to nuclear plants, those of hydroelectric plants as well as coal-fired having the same pattern. Comparisons of indirect capital costs, based on analyses of direct capital and total capital costs, show estimated average growth rates of total costs to be 14% for coal and 13.6% for nuclear, while direct cost growth rates are 10.2% and 10.4%. The economics of market competition can be expected to push alternative energy source projects into balance
Full Text Available The paper proposes a panel model to the determinants of capital flow volatility to a group of 18 emerging market economies (EME in the period of 2000 to 2011. It studies the robustness of the model regarding different volatility measures; analyses several types of gross capital inflow; focusing the role of government institutional quality and the development of domestic financial system (banks, insurance companies, and capital markets – stocks, bonds and derivatives. The EME analyzed represented roughly 95% of the Emerging Markets Bond Index Global – EMBIG in January 2013, being the biggest destination to international capital flow to EME according to the report of the Bank for International Settlements - BIS (2009. The main conclusion suggests that a reduction of capital flow volatility can be achieved by the adoption of policies that improve government institutional quality and promote development, stability and efficiency of the domestic financial system.
Bjørnskov, Christian; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar
This paper explores whether the concept of social capital as popularized by Robert Putnam is a good social science concept. Taking Gerring’s work on concept evaluation as the starting point, the paper first presents a set of criteria for conceptual ‘goodness’ and discusses how social capital...... performs on these criteria. It is argued that social capital eventually may be a good concept if it can be shown empirically to be a unidimensional concept. An empirical section therefore explores the validity of the unidimensionality assumption and rejects it in four separate tests at both the individual...... and aggregate level. We conclude that even if social capital has been a remarkably productive idea, it is not a good concept as most popular conceptualizations define social capital as several distinct phenomena or as phenomena that already have been conceptualized under other labels....
Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
‘A welcome contribution to scholarly economic and public policy debates, The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital is written for advanced students yet offers insights critical to better understanding micro and macro economics alike.' - Willis M. Buhle, The Midwest Book Review ‘The Svendsens...... in to crafting this study.' - From the foreword by Elinor Ostrom Is social capital the ‘missing link' in economics? In this vital new book, the authors argue that the ‘forgotten' production factor of social capital is as crucial in economic decision-making as the other more traditional factors of production...... such as physical, financial and human capital. They attempt to bridge the gap between theory and reality by examining the main factors that determine entrepreneurship, co-operative movements and the creation and destruction of social capital....
Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala; Rheinlaender, Thilde; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika
Background: Dimensions of social capital relevant to health in pregnancy are sparsely described in the literature.This study explores dimensions of social capital and the mechanisms in which they could affect the health of ruralSri Lankan pregnant women.Methods: An exploratory qualitative study......-diary interviews.Sixteen key informant interviews were conducted with public health midwives and senior community dwellers.We identified ten cognitive and five structural constructs of social capital relevant to health in pregnancy. Domesticand neighborhood cohesion were the most commonly expressed constructs....... Social support was limited to supportfrom close family, friends and public health midwives. A high density of structural social capital was observed in themicro-communities. Membership in local community groups was not common. Four different pathways by whichsocial capital could influence health...
Full Text Available This paper studies dynamic interdependence among physical capital, resource and human capital. We integrate the Solow one-sector growth, Uzawa-Lucas two-sector and some neoclassical growth models with renewable resource models. The economic system consists of the households, production sector, resource sector and education sector. We take account of three ways of improving human capital: Arrow’s learning by producing (Arrow, 1962, Uzawa’s learning by education (Uzawa, 1965, and Zhang’s learning by consuming (Zhang, 2007. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among wealth accumulation, human capital accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. We simulate the model to demonstrate existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. We also examine effects of changes in the productivity of the resource sector, the utilization efficiency of human capital, the propensity to receive education, and the propensity to save upon dynamic paths of the system.
Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
transactions to take place without third-party enforcement. Theory and lessons from empirical evidence lead to three general recommendations for building social capital in the future: First, the state must withdraw and minimize its role in the economy so to leave room for voluntary organization and free......Summary: What does social capital mean and how can it be built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and allows more......-trade. Second, state withdrawal should be combined with efforts to increase economic growth and gain popular support for the implementation of reforms. Third, voluntary groups, beneficial to the economy, should not be institutionalized to prevent them from turning into harmful rent-seeking groups....
Aristides Isidoro Ferreira
Full Text Available This study focuses on the influence intellectual capital has on employees’ perceptions as related to both company investments and productivity levels. The data was obtained from 440 employees at 13 Portuguese companies. Both ANOVA and Regression Analysis were conducted in order to understand the impact three Intellectual Capital Scale components have on perceptions of investment and organizational productivity. Results show that companies with higher scores of Structural Capital have a lower perception of investment in human resources and research, as well as a higher perception of investment in marketing and sales. Moreover, employees of companies with higher Structural Capital scores also have higher perceptions of productivity. On the other hand, organizations with higher investment in Customer Capital tend to be associated with a lower perception of organizational productivity.
Christo Johannes Cronje
Full Text Available In the past few decades, the economy has moved from an industrial to a knowledge economy. Consequently, basic factors of production now no longer comprise only natural resources, capital and labour, but also intellectual capital. Despite the shift from an industrial to a knowledge economy, the accounting framework and financial reporting have not changed sufficiently to include intellectual capital. The research problem attempts to explore whether the theory of accounting should be modified for a standardised and comparable approach when accounting and reporting on intellectual capital. To solve the research problem, a literature review and content analysis on corporate annual reports were used. The results of this study indicate that the theory of accounting should be modified to ensure a standardised and comparable approach when accounting and reporting on intellectual capital in corporate annual reports.
Full Text Available Knowledge, qualifications of workforce and human capital became key factors for progress. Human capital flight transfers not only people but work, knowledge, tangible and intangible capital and development potential. In this article, trying to answer whether Romania is a source country for emigration of highly skilled or well-educated individuals (ie human capital flight I flew over those two dimensions that have traditionally characterized human capital flight namely: shrinking work resource and lossing high educated peoples. Therefore, Romania was faced with decreasing the number of resident population due to the evolution of demographic phenomena with negative projections and declining number of working age population and young educated and highly skilled workers and professionals. This will generate complex problems for economy, labour market, difficulty in finding highly skilled workers, talent shortages etc so it’s critical to monitor the labour migration or brain drain phenomenon.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is known to be related to social behaviors, including trust. However, few studies have investigated the association between oxytocin levels and social capital. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that endogenous oxytocin levels are positively associated with social capital. We also considered whether the association differed across gender because previous studies have shown differential effects of OT on social behaviors depending on gender. METHODS: We recruited a convenience sample of 50 women and 31 men in Japan via community sampling from whom we obtained urine sample with which to measure oxytocin levels. Individual-level cognitive social capital (social trust and mutual aid and structural social capital (community participation were assessed using a questionnaire. We used multivariate regression, adjusted for covariates (age, number of children, self-rated health, and education, and stratified by gender to consider associations between oxytocin and social capital. RESULTS: Among women, oxytocin was inversely associated with social trust and mutual aid (p<0.05. However, women participating in only 1 organization in the community showed higher oxytocin than women who participated in either no organizations (p<0.05 or 2 or more organization (i.e. inverse-U shape association. Among men, no association was observed between oxytocin and either form of cognitive and structural social capital. CONCLUSION: Women who perceived low cognitive social capital showed higher oxytocin levels, while structural social capital showed inverse-U shape association with oxytocin. No association between oxytocin and social capital was found among men. Further study is needed to elucidate why oxytocin was inversely associated with cognitive social capital only among women.
Full Text Available The aims of this study are to analyze the effect of intellectual capital performance on intellectualcapital disclosure in annual report of manufacturing company listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange(IDX period 2004-2006 and to analyze the level of intellectual capital disclosure in annualreport period 2004-2006. 50 companies was taken as samples in the research.This paper usescontent analysis to compile a measure of disclosure on each annual report of manufacturingcompany and statistical analysis to test whether intellectual capital performance has a positiveeffect to intellectual capital disclosure. Based on statistical analysis, it is concluded that theintellectual capital performance and firm size have a positive effect to intellectual capitaldisclosure. Leverage has no effect to intellectual capital disclosure. The result of content analysisshows that the intellectual capital disclosure in annual report of manufacturing company period2004-2006 are less than 50%.
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Este artículo sugiere que esta época es la mejor y peor para la labor académica. La mejor en cuanto hay más publicaciones académicas que nunca. Y la peor porque sobra mucho de estas publicaciones. Trabajando en las condiciones competitivas del capitalismo académico, los académicos se sienten en la necesidad de continuar publicando, independientemente de que tengan algo que decir. Las presiones de publicar continuamente y promover la propia perspectiva se reflejan en la manera en la que los científicos sociales están escribiendo. Y es que los académicos utilizan un lenguaje técnico basado en sustantivos, con una precisión menor a la del lenguaje ordinario. Los estudiantes de postgrado han sido educados en esta manera de escribir como una condición previa a iniciarse en las ciencias sociales. Así, la naturaleza misma del capitalismo académico no sólo determina las condiciones en las que los académicos trabajan, sino que también afecta su manera de escribir.
This paper suggests that it is the best and worst of times for academic work. It is the best of times because there are more academics publishing than ever before. It is the worst of times because there is much unnecessary publication. Working in the competitive conditions of academic capitalism, academics feel impelled to keep publishing, whether or not they have anything to say. The pressures to publish continually and to promote one’s own approach are reflected in the way that social scientists are writing. Academics use a noun-based technical language, which is less precise than ordinary language. Postgraduates are taught this way of writing as a precondition for entering the social sciences. In this way, the nature of academic capitalism not only determines the conditions under which academics are working but it affects the way that they are writing.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to measure the effects of intellectual capital components; namely, human capital, structural capital and relational capital on company performance in Iranian auto industry. The study uses a questionnaire consists of 100 questions to cover intellectual capital and company performance in Likert scale and it is distributed among 180 experts in one of Iranian auto industry. Cronbach alphas for intellectual capital components, i.e. human capital, relational capital and structural capital are 0.82, 0.80 and 0.80, respectively. In addition, Cronbach alpha for company performance is 0.82. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between intellectual capital and company performance. The study has also determined a positive and meaningful relationship between human capital and structural capital. Among components of performance, efficiency maintained the highest effect while innovation represents the minimum effect.
Institutional effectiveness of energy efficiency national programs: Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay cases; Eficacia institucional de los programas nacionales de eficiencia energetica: los casos del Brasil, Chile, Mexico y el Uruguay
Ruchansky, Beno [Division de Recursos Naturales e Infraestructura de la CEPAL (Chile); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Energia, Tecnologia y Educacion, S.C., ENTE, S.C. (Mexico); Januzzi, Gilberto; Romero, Andres
recently begun to seriously and systematically address the issues concerning EE. In fact, as a result of their nomination to join the OCDE in 2005, it was decided to create the PPEE in response to an OCDE demand related to that nomination. The PPEE is a public-private program with special emphasis on the participatory nature of its actions. Its institutionalization was structured according to the actions of an Advisory Committee (consultant on EE policies) and an Operations Committee responsible for conducting follow-up on EE projects in the areas of housing, construction, transportation, industry and mining, among others. During its four years of operations, the PPEE has achieved implementation of an institutional arrangement in the terms of a project, organization and resources, able to successfully address cultural and information barriers and advance the creation of EE as a source of energy contributing to Chile's sustainable energy development. The removal of technical, institutional and financial barriers, which continue to exist, will require additional efforts to invest in human capital and strengthen the services and technologies markets. The decision to move from a transitory institutional arrangement such as a program to a permanent one such as an agency will contribute to providing to the long-term sustainability of EE. Mexico is one of the countries in Latin America with a longer tradition and greater impact from actions and programs for the efficient use of energy, particularly in the electric sector. During more than 25 years, it has been establishing institutions and programs whose adequate design, designation of resources, permanence and long periods of continuity in the management of institutions made it possible to achieve significant successes in the field. The legal framework in which EE is developed is primarily based on 3 laws: LFMN, taking effect in 1992 as part of the process to open Mexico's commercial market, with very significant
Institutional effectiveness of energy efficiency national programs: Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay cases; Eficacia institucional de los programas nacionales de eficiencia energetica: los casos del Brasil, Chile, Mexico y el Uruguay
Ruchansky, Beno [Division de Recursos Naturales e Infraestructura de la CEPAL (Chile); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Energia, Tecnologia y Educacion, S.C., ENTE, S.C. (Mexico); Januzzi, Gilberto; Romero, Andres
recently begun to seriously and systematically address the issues concerning EE. In fact, as a result of their nomination to join the OCDE in 2005, it was decided to create the PPEE in response to an OCDE demand related to that nomination. The PPEE is a public-private program with special emphasis on the participatory nature of its actions. Its institutionalization was structured according to the actions of an Advisory Committee (consultant on EE policies) and an Operations Committee responsible for conducting follow-up on EE projects in the areas of housing, construction, transportation, industry and mining, among others. During its four years of operations, the PPEE has achieved implementation of an institutional arrangement in the terms of a project, organization and resources, able to successfully address cultural and information barriers and advance the creation of EE as a source of energy contributing to Chile's sustainable energy development. The removal of technical, institutional and financial barriers, which continue to exist, will require additional efforts to invest in human capital and strengthen the services and technologies markets. The decision to move from a transitory institutional arrangement such as a program to a permanent one such as an agency will contribute to providing to the long-term sustainability of EE. Mexico is one of the countries in Latin America with a longer tradition and greater impact from actions and programs for the efficient use of energy, particularly in the electric sector. During more than 25 years, it has been establishing institutions and programs whose adequate design, designation of resources, permanence and long periods of continuity in the management of institutions made it possible to achieve significant successes in the field. The legal framework in which EE is developed is primarily based on 3 laws: LFMN, taking effect in 1992 as part of the process to open Mexico's commercial market, with very significant impacts on
Lola Caparrós Masegosa
Full Text Available Se analiza la interpretación que hace el semanario satírico Gedeón (1897-1912 de un pilar fundamental de la cultura artística española contemporánea: las Exposiciones Nacionales de Bellas Artes. Textos o viñetas de caricaturistas como Sileno, Sancha o Xaudaró, frivolizan o ironizan sobre obras, artistas, jurados o premios; caracterizando primordialmente su enfoque la utilización paródica de los cuadros más notables como marcos iconográficos de la sátira política. Como fuente crítica resulta limitada y ocasional, pero no deja de ser un complemento sugerente y efectivo para el estudio del arte y la historia española contemporáneos.
Full Text Available Optou-se por apresentar conjuntamente as duas páginas pela sua estreita articulação temática e institucional. Criada em 1989, a FEANTSA – Fédération Européenne des Associations Nacionales Travaillant avec les Sans-Abri – é uma organização não-governamental (ONG dedicada a eliminar a pobreza e exclusão social de indivíduos sem-abrigo ou em risco de conhecer esta situação, que congrega mais de 100 ONGs locais e nacionais de vários Estados-membros da União Europeia, sendo financiada pela Comiss...
Full Text Available El artículo explora el surgimiento de la figura del extranjero indeseable en las legislaciones nacionales latinoamericanas, desde la Independencia hasta finales de la década de 1930, aproximadamente, de forma paralela a la política de inmigración en los Estados Unidos. Las restricciones sobre la entrada libre de extranjeros que establecieron las repúblicas, durante las primeras décadas de la Independencia, estaban relacionadas con el modelo del ciudadano idealizado. El análisis de los impedimentos para la entrada de extranjeros muestra cómo, durante el siglo XIX, el extranjero “deseado” fue definido cada vez más en contraste con los rasgos negativos de los “indeseables”, bajo el supuesto objetivo de “defender la nación”.
G. S. Merzlikina
Full Text Available The article presents the basic problems of fixed capital reproduction. There are considered a significant depreciation of fixed assets of Russian enterprises. There are presented arguments in favor of urgency of the problem of reproduction of fixed assets of the Russian Federation. The paper presents theoretical evidence base basic types of fixed capital reproduction. There are identified all possible sources of simple and expanded reproduction of capital. There are considered the role of value and feasibility of depreciation in the formation of Reserve reproduction. Suggested the formation of accounting and analytical management provision fixed capital, as well as an innovative system of fixed capital reproduction, which implies the creation of depreciation , capital, revaluation, liquidation reserves. The algorithm of business valuation based on an innovative system of capital reproduction. The algorithm and the possibility of formation of reserves are considered on a concrete example of one of the industrial enterprises of the city Volgograd. On the basis of the algorithm presented calculations of business valuation of the enterprise. Calculations have shown an increase in value of the business condition of the formation of special reserves, which underlines the necessary and urgency of their formation in accounting policy and economy organizations and enterprises of Russia as a whole.
Full Text Available Theories of human capital are becoming an increasingly common reference in both newer pedagogical theories as well as political documents, outlining the plans for reforms of science and education. As a part of broader ideology of knowledge society, human capital theories represent ideological legitimation of neoliberal trends in science and education policies. Increased investment in human capital on both social and individual level is supposed to increase the competitiveness of the economy as a whole as well as employability and welfare of individuals. In the first part of the article, we sketch the intellectual history and the socio-political context of the development of theories of human capital. Second part is dedicated to a critique of characteristically neoliberal equalization of labor with capital and of a theory, according to which investment in human capital brings profits to individual workers. In the third part, we outline a general socio-historical dynamics of the development of high-tech capitalism and show that “investments in human capital” and economic innovations do not bring about increased social welfare. In the fourth, final part, we analyze in detail how current educational reforms impact the learning process and working conditions at public universities.
吴程涛; 段铸; 张景宇; 张曙光
Pressured by a slowdown in exports, cost increases and dwindling returns to manufacturing investments, China’s manufacturing capital has begun to shift to the real-estate and stock markets. As a matter of fact, the stock market had already felt a shock a couple of years ago when top domestic manufacturers like Midea, Gree, TCL and LMZ started to invest their idle capital in the real-estate and stock markets. Investments of manufacturing capital in both the real estate and stock markets have increased fluid capital and pushed up the value of both markets. Booms in both markets have in turn guaranteed investment returns of manufacturing capital, which further increased the stock market valuations of manufacturing capital. Such a cycle has created interest chains between listed manufacturers, the stock market and the real-estate market. Along with the ups and downs of the stock and real-estate markets, manufacturing capital now faces a dilemma: to escape or to persist? Where should it escape? When can the markets be profitable again? Just like the classic Shakespearean question: to be or not to be, that is the question.
Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.
Hansen, Teis; Winther, Lars; Hansen, Ronnie Fibæk
An essential feature associated with the rise of the knowledge economy has been the increasing focus on the importance of human capital as a precondition for economic growth. Human capital has been found to have a positive impact on the economic growth of high-tech industries, however, the influe......An essential feature associated with the rise of the knowledge economy has been the increasing focus on the importance of human capital as a precondition for economic growth. Human capital has been found to have a positive impact on the economic growth of high-tech industries, however......, the influence of human capital on the development of low-tech industries is yet to be analysed. This paper provides such an examination of low-tech industries based on an analysis of employment data within manufacturing industries in Denmark in the period 1993–2006. The findings highlight, first, that human...... capital appears to be equally important for economic development in low-tech industries and, second, that the divide between the large urban regions, especially Copenhagen, and the rest of the country plays the primary role in explaining the geography of human capital. These findings stress the relevance...
Although one may ask four financial experts their opinion on the future of the hospital capital market and receive five answers, the blatant need for financial strategic planning is evident. Clearly, the hospital or system with sound financial management will be better positioned to gain and/or maintain an edge in the competitive environment of the health care sector. The trends of the future include hospitals attempting to: Maximize the efficiency of invested capital. Use the expertise of Board members. Use alternative capital sources. Maximize rate of return on investments. Increase productivity. Adjust to changes in reimbursements. Restructure to use optimal financing for capital needs, i.e., using short-term to build up debt capacity if long-term financing is needed in the future. Take advantage of arbitrage (obtain capital and reinvest it until the funds are needed). Delay actual underwriting until funds are to be used. Better management of accounts receivable and accounts payable to avoid short-term financing for cash flow shortfalls. Use for-profit subsidiaries to obtain venture capital by issuing stock. Use product line management. Use leasing to obtain balance sheet advantages. These trends indicate a need for hospital executives to possess a thorough understanding of the capital formation process. In essence, the bottom line is that the short-term viability and long-term survival of a health care organization will greatly depend on the financial expertise of its decision-makers.
Full Text Available Since 2003, New European Union Member States have made large capital inflows, which led to a credit crunch and recession. Whether they are foreign direct investment, or banking flows, capital inflows ultimately affect GDP, depending on how they are invested. In the specialty literature, analysis of capital flows was done especially in terms of their structure, with a lack of analysis in terms of final destination of capital inflows. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of capital inflows on GDP in the New Member States of the European Union (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia over the last economic cycle. Based on experiences of the new Member States during the recent boom and crisis, the paper studies the impact of capital inflows on GDP growth, inflows channeled to economic sectors, such as real estate and corporate investment sector. The results of this research tries to highlight the extent to which the final destination of capital flows is important for the evolution of GDP.
Jhonny Antonio Pabón Cadavid
Full Text Available La propiedad literaria surge en Colombia a finales del siglo XIX de forma simultánea a la construcción de la identidad colombiana y latinoamericana. La vida de José María Torres Caicedo y su papel en la Asociación Literaria y Artística Internacional (ALAI muestran que el discurso sobre la propiedad intelectual reforzó la idea de la existencia de una literatura nacional y la nacionalidad, tanto a nivel de América Latina como de Colombia. En este artículo, el interés poscolonial en el mercado editorial y en la propiedad intelectual será estudiado como parte del imperialismo pacífico o imperialismo cultural, en relación con el surgimiento del hispanismo y la identidad latinoamericana. Este enfoque resalta el carácter simbólico y ritual de los acuerdos internacionales y de la legislación nacional sobre derechos de autor y las ganancias para el capital político y cultural de los promotores de la propiedad intelectual. En Colombia la propiedad literaria le permitió a la élite letrada conservadora la aceptación de España y el establecimiento de su hegemonía cultural en Colombia.
Full Text Available JEREMIE (Joint European Resources for Micro to Medium Enterprises program was implemented as a part of the EU cohesion policy in the framework of 2007-2013 programming period. The primary objective of the program was to enhance the financing prospects of SME’s through structural funds that provide financial engineering instruments like loan, guarantee and venture capital. This paper focuses on the effects of JEREMIE on Hungary’s venture capital market. Since 2010, 28 JEREMIE backed venture capital funds were founded in four rounds and 130 billion HUF capital was allocated into these funds with the contribution of Hungarian government. A well-established venture capital market can boost entrepreneurship and innovation, therefore economic growth which is the foundation of government involvement. On the other hand, there is an extensive literature highlighting the limits and possible drawbacks of the active role of public sector in the venture capital market. There is a consensus in the literature that in the long run the extensive role of government in venture capital industry is counterproductive. Substituting market participants by government agencies will hardly result in a competitive and efficient market. However, temporarily as a catalyst public sector can contribute to the development of venture capital market. Direct government intervention supportable temporarily only in the infancy of the industry. The primary objective of every program must be to develop the market to the level where it becomes self-sustaining. This way the success of these programs must not be measured only by the amount of invested capital, financial performance of venture capital funds and venture capital backed companies. Raising private sector awareness and the progress of necessary institutions are also the criteria of a successful program. During the design and implementation of venture capital agendas these aspects must be taken into consideration. This
Full Text Available The financial shifts encountered in the last decade, increase the importance of capital markets in emerging countries, which is also Romania’s case. The banking system was for a long period of time the main source of liquidity for the economy. Meanwhile, the situation is changing due to the importance that capital market has in financing the economy. Through this paper we analyze the transactions’ evolution made by financial intermediaries on Romanian capital market, by highlighting the Societies for Financial Services and Investments (SSIF. Based on this evolution, we identified the main significant differences and similarities between the SSIFs existing on the market.
Sussman, A J; Fairchild, D G; Colling, M C; Brennan, T A
By anticipating the arbitrage potential of cash flow under budgeted capitation, healthcare organizations can make the best use of cash flow as a revenue-generating resource. Factors that determine the magnitude of the benefits for providers and insurers include settlement interval, withhold amount, which party controls the withhold, and incurred-but-not-reported expenses. In choosing how to structure these factors in their contract negotiations, providers and insurers should carefully assess whether capitation surpluses or deficits can be expected from the provider. In both instances, the recipient and magnitude of capitation arbitrage benefits are dictated largely by the performance of the provider.
Mihaela Tania SANDU
Full Text Available Recognizing the importance of infl uence exerted by human capital oneconomic growth of a country, to base decisions regarding the need to invest in such type of capital there are conducted studies and used different models for analysis related to a series of macroeconomic and demographic indicators.We present the main indicators and dynamics of human capital, placedin the economic context of Romania, with reference, in bringing out statistics data, to an average period of time (between 1994-2008 characterized at macroeconomic level, both by recession and economic growth periods. There were also highlighted indicators and dynamics, both at national and individual level.
. Through an analysis of existing analytical practices, the article concludes that linking social capital is often subordinated to the two related social capital concepts of bonding and bridging, and that linking social capital is often exclusively defined and operationalized based on expressions...... of organizational trust and participation. The article proposes a recalibration to encompass the political dynamics, and political survival theory is recommended as a way to address the hitherto underexplored governance dimension. Rather than using trust as the analytical pivot, this analytical entry point may...
Voge, B.; Penzer, M.
In December 1996, Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas Company Ltd (Ras Gas) closed a multi-source financing that included an offering of US$1.2bn of bonds. The sponsors of the Ras Gas project overcame a number of obstacles on the road to closing the capital markets offering. This article provides a general overview of capital markets offerings in international project financings and discusses how Ras Gas was able to successfully integrate a capital markets offering into a financing plan which included a commercial bank facility and several export-credit agency facilities. (Author)
Full Text Available This paper is about the reconciliation of cultural analysis with political economy in Marxist-inspired research on communications. It traces how these two traditions became separated with the development of a one-dimensional and consumerist cultural studies, on the one-hand, and a more classically Marxist political economy of communications, on the other hand, that was accused of holding a simplistic and erroneous concept of ideology. The paper defends a conception of ideology as distorted communication motivated by unequal power relations and sketches a multidimensional mode of cultural analysis that takes account of the moments of production, consumption and textual meaning in the circulation of communications and culture. In accordance with this framework of analysis, the cool-capitalism thesis is outlined and illustrated with reference to Apple, the ‘cool’ corporation. And, the all-purpose mobile communication device is selected as a key and urgent focus of attention for research on commodity fetishism and labour exploitation on a global scale today.
A dynamic model of the social relations between workers and capitalists is introduced. The model self-organises into a dynamic equilibrium with statistical properties that are in close qualitative and in many cases quantitative agreement with a broad range of known empirical distributions of developed capitalism, including the power-law firm size distribution, the Laplace firm and GDP growth distribution, the lognormal firm demises distribution, the exponential recession duration distribution, the lognormal-Pareto income distribution, and the gamma-like firm rate-of-profit distribution. Normally these distributions are studied in isolation, but this model unifies and connects them within a single causal framework. The model also generates business cycle phenomena, including fluctuating wage and profit shares in national income about values consistent with empirical studies. The generation of an approximately lognormal-Pareto income distribution and an exponential-Pareto wealth distribution demonstrates that the power-law regime of the income distribution can be explained by an additive process on a power-law network that models the social relation between employers and employees organised in firms, rather than a multiplicative process that models returns to investment in financial markets. A testable consequence of the model is the conjecture that the rate-of-profit distribution is consistent with a parameter-mix of a ratio of normal variates with means and variances that depend on a firm size parameter that is distributed according to a power-law.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show the influence of knowledge dynamics processes upon the intellectual capital in organizations. In the literature, the authors focus on knowledge dynamics and knowledge management or intellectual capital but very few papers discuss the influence of knowledge dynamics upon the structure and functionality of intellectual capital in organizations. We use a conceptual approach based on the theory of multifield organizational knowledge and the theory of organizational integrators to demonstrate that intellectual capital structure results from the organizational knowledge dynamics. The well-known model of intellectual capital based on human capital, structural capital and relational capital appears as a meta-model that can be decomposed into rational capital, emotional capital and spiritual capital in organizations.
Full Text Available Fair value generated intense debate during the last years, as the financial turmoil influenced many economies and capital markets, including the Romanian ones, too. Some researchers and professionals consider fair value in charge with the financial crisis and they ask for historical cost accounting basis for financial reporting. Fair value has its supporters, too. They consider that fair value reflects the effects of changes in market conditions when they take place, and accounting information is more reliable in this framework. Following recent regulations, Romanian entities activating on capital market as investors in capital market instruments, or whose shares are traded on a regulated market, must prepare their individual financial statements in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards. The study provides some conclusions that could enlarge the utility of fair value related to entities that activate on Romanian capital market.
Iversen, Martin Jes; Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard
marked by large-scale redistribution and a very active public sector. The purpose of this book project is to analyze development of Danish capitalism in the 20th century. The first of our hypothesis state that the phases of Danish capitalism and the general corporate strategies reflected each other...... how the corporate strategies shaped and was shaped by the changing nature of Danish capitalism. Such a work as this is important as it bears testimony to the changing nature of market institutions. A descriptive and analytic exercise such as proposed here have only to a limited extent been carried out...... in the Danish language, and never in a compiled, comprehensive, and connected work. The English language situation for understanding Danish capitalism is even more dire, which leads to increasing, and likely reinforcing, stereotypes and myths about “the fairytale country”....
Reindorp, M.J.; Fu, M.C.
We consider the timing of replacement of obsolete subsystems within an extensive, complex infrastructure. Such replacement action, known as capital renewal, must balance uncertainty about future profitability against uncertainty about future renewal costs. Treating renewal investments as real
Full Text Available Various scientists in the modern age of management have launched different models for evaluating intellectual capital, and some of these models are analysed critically in this study, too. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. In a spectral dynamic analysis, organisational intellectual capital is structured in: organisational knowledge, organisational intelligence, organisational values, and their value is built on certain mechanisms entitled integrators, whose chief constitutive elements are: individual knowledge, individual intelligence and individual cultural values. The organizations, as employers, must especially reconsider those employees’ work who value knowledge because they are free to choose how, and especially where they are inclined to invest their own energy, skills and time, and they can be treated as freelancers or as some little entrepreneurs .
Full Text Available The volatility of the global economy, changing business practices, and academic developments have created a need to re-examine Indian corporate capital budgeting practices. Our research is based on a sample of 77 Indian companies listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange. Results reveal that corporate practitioners largely follow the capital budgeting practices proposed by academic theory. Discounted cash flow techniques of net present value and internal rate of return and risk adjusted sensitivity analysis are most popular. Weighted average cost of capital as cost of capital is most favoured. Nevertheless, the theory-practice gap remains in adoption of specialised techniques of real options, modified internal rate of return (MIRR, and simulation. Non-financial criteria are also given due consideration in project selection.
Nielsen, Christian; Farooq, Omar
The purpose of this article is to document the relationship between intellectual capital disclosure and dividend policies of biotechnology firms listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange during the period between 2001 and 2010. The firms’ intellectual capital disclosures were computed from the annual...... financial reports, while data on dividend policies was retrieved from Worldscope. This paper defines dividend policies by three variables: (1) Dividend payout ratio, (2) Decision to pay dividend, and (3) Increase in dividend payout. The results show that firms with higher intellectual capital disclosures...... not only have high payout ratios, but also have a greater likelihood of increasing and paying dividends. Our findings are consistent with our hypothesis that lower information asymmetries of firms with high intellectual capital disclosure lead to more favourable dividend policies. In opposition...
Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes pertinent information relating to a capital project’s status administered by the Department of Transportation and the Department of General...
Relationship between bank ownership concentration on capital adequacy, liquidity, ... In this study we explore the effects of ownership concentration on the ... are material factors in explaining banks' behavior and their market performance.
Economic and social resources are known to contribute to the unequal distribution of health outcomes. Culture-related factors such as normative beliefs, knowledge and behaviours have also been shown to be associated with health status. The role and function of cultural resources in the unequal distribution of health is addressed. Drawing on the work of French Sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, the concept of cultural capital for its contribution to the current understanding of social inequalities in health is explored. It is suggested that class related cultural resources interact with economic and social capital in the social structuring of people's health chances and choices. It is concluded that cultural capital is a key element in the behavioural transformation of social inequality into health inequality. New directions for empirical research on the interplay between economic, social and cultural capital are outlined.
Mendonça, Joana; Grimpe, Christoph
Entrepreneurship capital has frequently been characterized as an important determinant of regional economic growth. Yet, we have limited knowledge about what explains why certain regions are more successful in creating entrepreneurship capital in general and in particular in technology......- and knowledge-intensive sectors. In this paper, we shed light on the skill base of a region in terms of its endowment with human capital and the composition, i.e. specialization or diversity, of skills. Moreover, we look at the context in which entrepreneurship capital formation takes place by focusing...... on differences in the institutional infrastructures for entrepreneurship in two European countries: Germany and Portugal. Based on harmonized datasets, our results indicate important differences between the countries. Specifically, our results suggest that both specialization and diversity theories hold...
Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars
human capital in understanding regional growth. We examine to what extent different labour competences and capabilities relate to municipal employment growth using nine stratified, educational categories as proxies for different levels of human capital. Dividing municipalities into four spatial...... categories ranging from the urban to the peripheral, we conclude that there is a strong spatial distinction of educational structures with an urban bias, and that educational categories other than academic human capital can make an important contribution to our understanding of what drives employment growth......Contemporary studies in urban and regional development stress the importance of large city-regions as key places in modern capitalism taking the form of agglomerations of economic activities by industries, firms and highly skilled people. In this article, we challenge the strong focus on academic...
Reiter, K L; Smith, D G; Wheeler, J R; Rivenson, H L
Capital investment decisions are among the most important decisions made by firms. They determine the firm's capacity for providing services and commit the firm's cash for an extended period of time. Interviews with chief financial officers of leading health care systems reveal capital investment strategies that generally follow the recommendations of modern finance theory. Still, there is substantial variation in capital budgeting techniques, methods of risk adjustment, and the importance of qualitative considerations in investment decision making. There is also variation in delegation of investment decision making to operating units and methods of performance evaluation. Health care systems face the same challenges as other organizations in developing and implementing capital investment strategies that use consistent methods for evaluation of projects that have inconsistent aims and outcomes.
Full Text Available Introduction Avascular necrosis (AVN of the capitate is relatively rare. Although there are many factors as etiology; however, there are idiopathic ones. Case Presentation A 15-year-old female presented with wrist pain without the history of previous major trauma and no relief with conservative management; radiographic evaluation revealed capitates osteonecrosis with collapse and sclerosis. She underwent surgery (curettage of necrotic bone and iliac crest bone grafting. Two years fallow-up showed full recovery clinically and radiographically. Conclusions Capitate AVN should be included in the differential diagnosis of wrist pain in pediatric patients. Despite the controversial multiple surgical options to treat capitate osteonecrosis, autogenous iliac crest bone grafting can have a good result, even in the pediatric patient.
Bowen, Jr., Stuart W; Nash, William L
...) Human Capital Management, (2) Contracting, and (3) Program and Project Management. In each subject area, SIGIR gathers information through research and interviews, collating and distilling the results into a white paper...
Marcos Fernandes Gonçalves da Silva
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to define social capital as social infrastructure and to try to include this variable in an economic growth model. Considering social capital in such a way could have an impact on the productivity of production factors. Firstly, I will discuss how institutional variables can affect growth. Secondly, after analyzing several definitions of social capital, I will point out the benefits and problems of each one and will define social capital as social infrastructure, aiming to introduce this variable into an economic growth model. Finally, I will try to open the way for subsequent empirical studies, both in the area of measuring the stock of social infrastructure as well as those comparing economies, with the idea of showing the impact of social infrastructure on economic growth.
This study consists of two models. Model one is conducted to check if there is a target adjustment toward optimal capital structure, in the context of Turkish firm listed on the stock market, over the period 2003-2014. Model 2 captures the interaction between firm size, profitability, market value and capital structure using the moderation mediation model. The results of model 1 have shown that there is a partial adjustment of the capital structure to reach target levels. The results of...
Mathieu Goudard; Michel Lubrano
The theory of human capital is one way to explain individual decisions to produce scientific research. However, this theory, even if it reckons the importance of time in science, is too short for explaining the existing diversity of scientific output. The present paper introduces the social capital of Bourdieu (1980), Coleman (1988) and Putnam (1995) as a necessary complement to explain the creation of scientific human capital. This paper connects these two concepts by means of a hierarchical...
Patricia Martínez García de Leaniz; Ignacio Rodríguez del Bosque
Purpose: Intellectual capital offers a potential source of sustainable competitive advantage and is believed to be the source from which economic growth may sprout. However, not many papers analyze the effect of sustainability in the elements involving intellectual capital. This paper seeks to highlight the key role played by corporate sustainability on corporate reputation as one of the key components of relational capital based on the knowledge-based theory.Design/methodology/approach: Auth...
Saltari, Enrico; Giuseppe, Travaglini
In this paper we show that financing constraints affect the optimal level of capital stock even when the financing constraint is ineffective. This happens when the firm rationally anticipates that access to external financing resources may be rationed in the future. We will show that with these expectations, the optimal investment policy is to invest less in any given period, thereby lowering the desired optimal capital stock in the long run.
Leo Kaas; Leopold von Thadden
We incorporate a wage bargaining structure in a dynamic general equilibrium model and show how this feature changes short and long-run properties of equilibria compared with a perfectly competitive setting. We discuss how employment, capital, and income shares respond to wage setting shocks and show that adjustment dynamics depend decisively on the magnitude of the elasticity of substitution between labour and capital. Values of the elasticity below unity add persistence, tend to preserve sta...
Aguero, Jorge; Balcazar, Carlos Felipe; Maldonado, Stanislao; Ñopo, Hugo
How do resource booms affect human capital accumulation? We exploit time and spatial variation generated by the commodity boom across local governments in Peru to measure the effect of natural resources on human capital formation. We explore the effect of both mining production and tax revenues on test scores, finding a substantial and statistically significant effect for the latter. Transfers to local governments from mining tax revenues are linked to an increase in math test scores of aroun...
Rađenović, Tamara; Krstić, Bojan
The importance of intellectual capital for creating and sustaining competitive advantage of firms has been well established and confirmed in theory and practice. Intellectual resources proved to be the most valuable resources in the process of value creation for various stakeholders. Starting from 1980s onwards, both researchers and practitioners have focused on finding the best solution for measuring intellectual capital in order to enable efficient management and reporting on intellectual c...
This study comparatively examines the determinants of working capital management for listed vs. unlisted firms, and assesses the impact of this policy on profitability by focusing on the cash conversion cycle, a commonly used measure of working capital management. By using a large UK public and private firm sample, it is found that private firms have significantly lower cash conversion cycles than their public counterparts, and that traditional determinants of the cycle significantly differ b...
Lasse Steiner; Bruno S. Frey; Simone Hotz
This paper analyzes whether hosting the most prestigious European cultural event, the European Capital of Culture, has an impact on regional economic development or the life satisfaction of the local population. Concerning the economic impact, we show that European Capitals are hosted in regions with above average GDP per capita, but do not causally affect the economic development in a significant way. Even a positive impact on GDP per capita would not imply a positive impact on individual ut...
South Korea%u2019s experience is unparalleled in its combination of sustained prosperity, capital controls, and financial crisis. Over several decades, South Korea experienced rapid sustained growth in the presence of capital controls. These controls and the de-linking of domestic and international financial markets were an essential component of the country's state-led development strategy. As the country developed, opportunities for easy technological catch-up eroded, requiring more sophist...
Woojin Kim; Michael Weisbach
This paper considers the question of whether raising capital is an important reason why firms go public. Using a sample of 16,958 initial public offerings from 38 countries between 1990 and 2003, we consider differences between firms that sell new, primary shares to the public, and existing secondary shares that previously belonged to insiders. Our results suggest that the sale of primary shares is correlated with a number of factors associated with the firm's demand for capital. In particula...
Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.
Proponents of the varieties of capitalism literature maintain that capitalist countries whose institutions best fit either the liberal market economy or coordinated market economy types will perform the best. Countries whose institutions are more mixed will perform less well. This paper challenges....... The dynamic interaction of elements found in both liberal and coordinated types of capitalism have contributed to its success. This is demonstrated by analyses of the institutions that coordinate Danish labor markets, vocational training, and industrial policy....
Mulvad, Andreas Christian Møller
This article investigates the variegated model of capitalism emerging in China through a comparative analysis of two contrasting local government approaches developed in Chongqing and Guangdong. From 2007 to 2012, elite politicians and intellectuals articulated the Chongqing and Guangdong models...... of his Guangdong counterpart Wang Yang. Future studies should expand upon the key theoretical insight of the paper: that the emergent variegated capitalism approach to political–economic analysis needs a stronger ideational component....
Merková, Martina; Rajnoha, Rastislav; Dobrovič, Ján
This paper analyzes business performance based on the return on equity indicator, and reveals certain common aspects for companies with better business performance. The results of statistical testing proved positive dependences between turnover, performance and foreign ownership as well as the importance of foreign capital origin for companies. Certain signs typical for companies with participation of foreign capital against local firms are identified. © Martina Merkova, Rastislav Rajnoha, Ja...
Gulie Alexandra Emanuela
The human factor created by physical work and/or intellectual property of all existing material, is unequivocally active value of any work, ie human capital translates into different activities, specialized or not, it creates these individuals. History of the term human capital has experienced over time a series of ups and downs, as agreed or rejected by academia and the political class. Although known affirmation and its conceptual structure only after the seventh decade of the twentieth cen...
Marcel Fafchamps; Bart Minten
Using data on agricultural traders in Madagascar, this paper shows that social network capital has a large effect on firm productivity. Better connected traders have significantly larger sales and value added than less connected traders after controlling for physical and human inputs as well as for entrepreneur characteristics. The analysis indicates that three dimensions of social network capital should be distinguished: relationships with other traders, which among other things help firms e...
Risto Herrala; Rima Turk-Ariss
We investigate the complex interactions between credit constraints, political instability, and capital accumulation using a novel approach based on Kiyotaki and Moore’s (1997) theoretical framework. Drawing on a unique firm-level data set from Middle-East and North Africa (MENA), empirical findings point to a large and significant effect of credit conditions on capital accumulation and suggest that continued political unrest worsens credit constraints. The results support the view that financ...
Grauman, Daniel M; Harris, John M; Martin, Christine
Recent economic challenges have left many independent hospitals and their boards concerned about long-term viability of their organizations as stand-alone facilities. The CFO's role should be to facilitate a candid, objective assessment of the organization's ability to continue to go it alone. Key indicators that should be considered in such an assessment include patient volume, degree of physician alignment, profitability, current debt burden, cash, available capital versus capital requirements, and credit rating changes.
Sureth, Caren; Langeleh, Dirk
This paper investigates the influence of different systems of current income and capital gains taxation on investor's decision to either carry out an investment in corporate shares or to invest funds alternatively on the capital market. Three basic tax systems are analyzed, a classical corporate tax system with double taxation of profits on corporate and personal level, a shareholder relief system, that reduces double taxation completely. It can be shown that general analytical solutions for ...
Sergio Ezequiel Quijano Quijano
Full Text Available This article shows contributions from leading researchers in the fi eld of social capital as support of corporate sustainability and the contribution generated by a descriptive case study based on a representative sample from entrepreneurs from the Fundación Parque de Desarrollo Tecnológico (Parquesoft in Colombia, to contrast the theoretical approaches. The findings show a slight presence of social capital in the performance of incubated entrepreneurs.
.... The leadership provided by this subcommittee and the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs has been especially important in focusing attention on the federal government s human capital challenges.
Subhash C. Sharma; Yijian He
It is the flow of capital services, instead of the capital stock, along with the flows of other inputs which is related to the flows of outputs in economic theory of cost and production. In applied research, quite often to capture the dynamic phenomena which occurs within a year, there is a need to use quarterly data which may not be captured by annual data. However, quarterly data on capital input and the cost of capital are not readily available. Thus, in this paper the quarterly real and n...
Kolomiiets Viktoriia М.
Full Text Available The formation of the modern conception of human capital is connected with the development of post-industrial information society, knowledge economy and digital economy. The main role in analyzing of the content and role of human capital can play a new institutional economic theory. It is determined that the methodology of research of paradigm change in economic science remains the subject of discussion. The conception of institutional paradigm of human capital development can be attributed to the new economy, the development of which is carried out on the condition that the employee is not always alienated from the relationships of ownership: he himself becomes the owner of the «new» economic resources. The factors of education along with the factors of health care which are determining in the development of human capital are researched. Special attention is paid to education, as it acts as an intellectual capital of the new economy, where knowledge and skills become the «intellectual 5D printer», producing the modern human capital. The transition to a new, post-industrial economy is characterized by a major long-term tendency: the progress of knowledge and the increasing complexity of the socio-economic life; created by powerful factors of information and computer technologies and leading to expansion of global economic space.
Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya
To test the selected propositions of the middle-range theory of nursing intellectual capital. The nursing intellectual capital theory conceptualizes nursing knowledge's influence on patient and organizational outcomes. The theory proposes nursing human capital, nurses' knowledge, skills and experience, is related to the quality of patient care and nurse recruitment and retention of an inpatient care unit. Two factors in the work environment, nurse staffing and employer support for nurse continuing professional development, are proposed to influence nursing human capital's association with patient and organizational outcomes. A cross-sectional survey design. The study took place in 2008 in six Canadian acute care hospitals. Financial, human resource and risk data were collected from hospital departments and unit managers. Clearly specified empirical indicators quantified the study variables. The propositions of the theory were tested with data from 91 inpatient care units using structural equation modelling. The propositions associated with the nursing human capital concept were supported. The propositions associated with the employer support for nurse continuing professional development concept were not. The proposition that nurse staffing's influences on patient outcomes was mediated by the nursing human capital of an inpatient unit, was partially supported. Some of the theory's propositions were empirically validated. Additional theoretical work is needed to refine the operationalization and measurement of some of the theory's concepts. Further research with larger samples of data from different geographical settings and types of hospitals is required to determine if the theory can withstand empirical scrutiny. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available The Romanian Capital Market Law (Law no 297/2004 lays down rules regarding public offers (to buy or sell of securities admitted to trading on a regulated market. Such offers are not unknown in the general framework of companies’ regulations, i.e. Company Law no 31/1990. Actually a public limited liability company (joint stock company can use a public subscriptions (offering shares for sale to raise the registered capital for incorporation of the company or to increase the company’s share capital already established. But all such operations are voluntary decisions. The founders or the shareholders of the company are those who decide to launch a public subscriptions. Capital Market Law comes with something new and at least peculiar at first sight: mandatory takeover bid, meaning a mandatory public offer made by an offeror to the holders of the securities of a company (offeree to acquire all or some of those securities. Can someone be forced to buy securities on the regulated market? The Capital Market Law responds affirmatively, but only if such takeover bid follows or has as its objective the acquisition of control of the offeree company in accordance with national law. The takeover bid remains under supervision and authorization of the national authority of the Capital Market (FSA – Financial Supervisory Authority.
Østergaard, Annemarie; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova
Since Adam Smith (1776) took consideration to human capital as an asset of economic value, academic interest has focused on the economic effects of human capital. In 1931, Schumpeter called for a focus on the individual entrepreneur or the creative destructor with his/her motives, wishes, aspirat......Since Adam Smith (1776) took consideration to human capital as an asset of economic value, academic interest has focused on the economic effects of human capital. In 1931, Schumpeter called for a focus on the individual entrepreneur or the creative destructor with his/her motives, wishes......, aspirations and activities when dealing with entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs. Along these lines, this paper focuses on an in-depth investigation of the domain of human capital in Isenbergs Entrepreneurship Ecosystem. It captures the entrepreneurial mindset of the highly complex individual as a requisite...... for entrepreneurial success and ultimately, for business growth and development. The increasing literature debating human capital confirms the relevance of locating and refining the factors for entrepreneurial success. Consequently, this paper improves the roadmap of Entrepreneurship Ecosystems by adding the innate...
Full Text Available The current economic crisis emerged from a particular financial crisis that started in the United States and being rapidly propagated all over the world. It did not affect a limited region or a limited economic sector. This crisis induced significant changes in all management areas, including financial management. This study is focused on financing strategies adopted by shipping companies during the crisis, analyzing relevant factors for a specific issue - the capital structure. The research methodology proposed for this analysis on relevant factors that could explain the capital structure of shipping is OLS regression applied on selected variables derived from the financial statements of the major shipping companies. The dependent variables reflecting capital structure are book value to total liabilities ratio and book value to total debt ratio. The explanatory variables are derived from the theory of capital structure. This study empirically illustrates the relevance of the capital structure theory for the studied economic sector and is a useful tool for the shipping companies, providing relevant information about the optimal capital structure adopted by shipping companies and about factors that influence this decision during a crisis period.
Full Text Available Social capital is often seen as a substitute for lack of other types of capital amongpoor people. Because of the recognized applicability of the social capital conceptand its correlation with the different dimensions of poverty, it has been used inevaluating the adaptation and integration of involuntarily displaced individualsinto their new environment. This paper presents insights based on a review of thefindings of studies that looked into the role of social capital in conflict- anddevelopment-induced displacement contexts. Althoughboth types of displace-ments are involuntary or forced in nature, they differ in terms of the role of socialcapital regarding its main sources, the formation pattern and its determinants.Social capital studies in forced resettlement appear to be relatively small innumber and are heavily concentrated on first worldcountries and conflict- anddevelopment-induced displacements. The conduct of similar studies in developingcountries and in a disaster-induced resettlement context, the third type ofinvoluntary displacement, should generate new and relevant findings regardingthe role of social capital in resettlement communities.
King, Heather; Nomikou, Effrosyni; Archer, Louise; Regan, Elaine
Across the globe, governments, industry and educationalists are in agreement that more needs to be done to increase and broaden participation in post-16 science. Schools, as well as teachers, are seen as key in this effort. Previous research has found that engagement with science, inclination to study science and understanding of the value of science strongly relates to a student's science capital. This paper reports on findings from the pilot year of a one-year professional development (PD) programme designed to work with secondary-school teachers to build students' science capital. The PD programme introduced teachers to the nature and importance of science capital and thereafter supported them to develop ways of implementing science capital-building pedagogy in their practice. The data comprise interviews with the participating teachers (n = 10), observations of classroom practices and analyses of the teachers' accounts of their practice. Our findings suggest that teachers found the concept of science capital to be compelling and to resonate with their own intuitive understandings and experiences. However, the ways in which the concept was operationalised in terms of the implementation of pedagogical practices varied. The difficulties inherent in the operationalisation are examined and recommendations for future work with teachers around the concept of science capital are developed.
... estimates the market value of the Bank's assets and liabilities, off-balance sheet items, and derivative... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market risk capital requirement. 932.5 Section... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.5 Market risk capital requirement. (a...
Svendsen, G.L.H.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
What are the roots of social capital and how can it be measured and built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and ...
Gordon, Deborah C
Healthcare providers need to understand traditional and nontraditional financing options and other potential strategies for accessing capital. Common financing options include bonds, commercial lending, acquisition financing, and financing through the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Section 232 program. Alternative strategies for accessing capital include joint ventures, equity, sale of assets, fund-raising, capital leases, internal capital, public grants, and grants from foundations.