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Sample records for nabir assessment element

  1. NABIR Assessment Element, Expanded Rapid, Comprehensive, Lipid Biomarker Analysis for Subsurface, Community Composition and Nutritional/Physiological Status as Monitors of Remediation and Detoxification Effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David C. White

    2005-01-01

    NABIR funding at the University of Tennessee Center for Biomarker Analysis (CBA) has led to several key contributions to the investigation of bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. This lab has played an integral part in assessing microbial communities at the field scale at the ORNL FRC (Istok et al., 2004) and two UMTRA sites (Anderson et al., 2003, Chang et al., 2001). Our work over the period of the grant has resulted in 42-peer reviewed publications, 62 presentations (14 of which were international), and one patent pending. Currently CBA has 2 papers in press. The main objectives relating to the field portion of this program were to provide comprehensive biomarker analysis for NABIR collaborators to enhance the understanding of microbial geo-bioprocesses involved in the effective immobilization of metals (We have worked with and published or currently are publishing with 10 groups of NAIBR investigators). The laboratory portion of our research centered on methods development and has led to three major innovations that could result in a systematic way of evaluating sites for potential bioremediation. The first of these is the development of an in situ sampling device (Peacock et al., 2004, Anderson et al., 2003, Istok et al., 2004) for the collection and concentration of microbial biomass. The second is the development of expanded lipid analysis based on the significantly greater sensitivity and selectivity of the LC/MS/MS that allows the analysis of respiratory quinones, diglycerides, sterols, intact phospholipids, poly-hydroxyalkonates, and potentially archaeol, and caldarchaeols from archea. These new analyses are accomplished more rapidly and with increased sensitivities and resolution than in the past (Lytle et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, Geyer et al., 2004). The third advance is the coupling of lipid analysis with 13C enrichment experiments (Lytle et al., 2001b, Geyer et al. 2005). With this technique it is now possible to follow the active portion of

  2. DOE-NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2003-01-28

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in situ to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program consists of four interrelated Science Elements (Biotransformation, Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, and Biogeochemistry). The program also has a cross-cutting Assessment Element that supports development of innovative approaches and technologies to support the science elements. An element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) addresses potential societal issues of implementing NABIR scientific findings. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2003 by the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division in DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) in the Office of Science. Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  3. DOE NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes (Editor), Dan

    2002-01-09

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in place to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program is implemented through four interrelated scientific research elements (Biogeochemistry, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, Biotransformation, and Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology); and through an element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC), which addresses societal issues and potential concerns of stakeholders. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2002 by DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER). Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  4. DOE NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, Dan

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in place to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program is implemented through four interrelated scientific research elements (Biogeochemistry, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, Biotransformation, and Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology); and through an element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC), which addresses societal issues and potential concerns of stakeholders. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2002 by DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER). Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book

  5. DOE-NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts January 31-February 2, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Mary (ed.)

    2000-01-01

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the scientific understanding needed to use natural processes and to develop new methods to accelerate those processes for the bioremediation of contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The program is implemented through seven interrelated scientific research elements (Assessment, Bacterial Transport, Biogeochemical Dynamics, Bimolecular Science and Engineering, Biotransformation and Biodegradation, Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology and System Engineering, Integration, Prediction and Optimization); and through an element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC), which addresses societal issues and concerns of stakeholders through communication and collaboration among all relevant groups, including community leaders and representatives, engineers, scientists, lawyers, etc. The initial emphasis of NABIR program research is on the bioremediation of metals and radionuclides in the subsurface below the root zone, including both thick vadose and saturated zones. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on research funded in FY 1998-2000 by DOE's Office of Science through its Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Sixty-eight projects have been funded in the scientific program elements, and two have been funded in the BASIC program. Abstracts of these programs are summarized in this booklet, along with abstracts of other DOE programs related to research in the NABIR program.

  6. ARSITEKTUR VERNAKULAR NABIRE DAN KONDISI NABIRE PASCA GEMPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sri Gayatri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural disaster in Nabire in February 2004 and November 2004 has left a noumerous effects on buildings. Many buildings have destroyed because of the terrifying effect of natural disaster which caused a big loss both for material and for the human safety. However, the misapplication of construction and inappropriate choice of material almost cause the terrible damage. After the natural disaster passed, the only left is mostly on the long time needed to build the buildings for people who suffer from the disaster. Because of this problem above, many people usually stay in uncomfortable places such a tend, and this condition creates social and health problems. Concerning the problem above, it is needed to create the "quick built house" which is hopefully can be accepted by the community to cope with the terrifying effect of the natural disaster.In the first year of this research, the data concerning traditional architecture and vernacular architecture in Nabire will be collected. This step will be done in order to understand more detail about all the problem faced and identified all the potential aspects which can be developed to build house for people. The deepest study of vernacular architecture is expected not only to make the house close to the uniqueness of the local activities and culture, but also to make it understandable and built easily by the people/community, because its construction and architecture have become part of their life. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pada saat bencana alam di Nabire yang terjadi Februari 2004 dan November 2004, banyak bangunan roboh dan rusak. Kerugian sangat besar dan mengakibatkan kerugian baik material maupun keselamatan manusia. Kerusakan yang parah sering diakibatkan oleh salahnya penerapan konstruksi dan salah dalam pemilihan bahan bangunan. Sementara itu pasca bencana, menyisakan kesulitan berupa lamanya membangun bangunan penampungan korban bencana, sehingga seringkali korban bencana hanya

  7. Environmental Assessment for Selection and Operation of the Proposed Field Research Centers for the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), within the Office of Science (SC), proposes to add a Field Research Center (FRC) component to the existing Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. The NABIR Program is a ten-year fundamental research program designed to increase the understanding of fundamental biogeochemical processes that would allow the use of bioremediation approaches for cleaning up DOE's contaminated legacy waste sites. An FRC would be integrated with the existing and future laboratory and field research and would provide a means of examining the fundamental biogeochemical processes that influence bioremediation under controlled small-scale field conditions. The NABIR Program would continue to perform fundamental research that might lead to promising bioremediation technologies that could be demonstrated by other means in the future. For over 50 years, DOE and its predecessor agencies have been responsible for the research, design, and production of nuclear weapons, as well as other energy-related research and development efforts. DOE's weapons production and research activities generated hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste products. Past disposal practices have led to the contamination of soils, sediments, and groundwater with complex and exotic mixtures of compounds. This contamination and its associated costs and risks represents a major concern to DOE and the public. The high costs, long duration, and technical challenges associated with remediating the subsurface contamination at DOE sites present a significant need for fundamental research in the biological, chemical, and physical sciences that will contribute to new and cost-effective solutions. One possible low-cost approach for remediating the subsurface contamination of DOE sites is through the use of a technology known as bioremediation. Bioremediation has been defined as the use of microorganisms to biodegrade or

  8. Environmental Assessment for Selection and Operation of the Proposed Field Research Centers for the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-04-18

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), within the Office of Science (SC), proposes to add a Field Research Center (FRC) component to the existing Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. The NABIR Program is a ten-year fundamental research program designed to increase the understanding of fundamental biogeochemical processes that would allow the use of bioremediation approaches for cleaning up DOE's contaminated legacy waste sites. An FRC would be integrated with the existing and future laboratory and field research and would provide a means of examining the fundamental biogeochemical processes that influence bioremediation under controlled small-scale field conditions. The NABIR Program would continue to perform fundamental research that might lead to promising bioremediation technologies that could be demonstrated by other means in the future. For over 50 years, DOE and its predecessor agencies have been responsible for the research, design, and production of nuclear weapons, as well as other energy-related research and development efforts. DOE's weapons production and research activities generated hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste products. Past disposal practices have led to the contamination of soils, sediments, and groundwater with complex and exotic mixtures of compounds. This contamination and its associated costs and risks represents a major concern to DOE and the public. The high costs, long duration, and technical challenges associated with remediating the subsurface contamination at DOE sites present a significant need for fundamental research in the biological, chemical, and physical sciences that will contribute to new and cost-effective solutions. One possible low-cost approach for remediating the subsurface contamination of DOE sites is through the use of a technology known as bioremediation. Bioremediation has been defined as the use of microorganisms to

  9. Reaction-Based Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Gour-Tsyh

    2006-01-01

    This research project (started Fall 2004) was funded by a grant to The Pennsylvania State University, University of Central Florida, and The University of Alabama in the Integrative Studies Element of the NABIR Program (DE-FG04-ER63914/63915/63196). Dr. Eric Roden, formerly at The University of Alabama, is now at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. Our project focuses on the development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. This work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and is directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. NABIR FRC Field Project at Area 2

  10. Guidelines A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, James R.; Word, Charlotte J.; Bilyard, Gordon R.

    2002-03-15

    The purpose of this report is to help scientists communicate with stakeholders and the public (primarily nonscientists) about fundamental science research. The primary audience for this report is scientists involved in the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program of the U.S. Department of Energy. However, the information and insights in the report that are not program-specific should be helpful to scientists in other fundamental science research programs. The report first discusses why scientists should talk to stakeholders and the public, and the challenges associated with discussing the NABIR program. It is observed that communication initiatives can be characterized by three factors: relationships in the social environment, views of what constitutes communication, and accepted forms of communication practices and products. With a focus on informal science communication, recent efforts to gauge public understanding of science and the factors that affect public trust of science institutions are discussed. The social bases for scientist-nonscientist interactions are then examined, including possible sources of distrust and difficulties in transferring discussions of fundamental science from classrooms (where most of the public first learns about science) to public forums. Finally, the report contains specific suggestions for preparing, meeting, and following up on public interactions with stakeholders and the public, including themes common to public discussions of NABIR science and features of scientist-nonscientist interactions observed in interpersonal, small group, and large group interactions between NABIR scientists and stakeholders. A Quick Preparation Guide for Meeting NABIR Stakeholders is provided immediately following the Summary. It condenses some of the information and advice found in the text of the report.

  11. Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilyard, G.R.; Word, C.J.; Weber, J.R.; Harding, A.K.

    2000-09-27

    This primer is a tool to help prepare scientists for meetings with stakeholders. It was prepared for staff involved with the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. It discusses why some efforts in science communication may succeed while others fail, provides methods of approaching group interactions about science that may better orient expert participants, and summarizes experience drawn from observations of groups interacting about topics in bioremediation or the NABIR program. The primer also provides brief, useful models for interacting with either expert or non-expert groups. Finally, it identifies topical areas that may help scientists prepare for public meetings, based on the developers' ongoing research in science communication in public forums.

  12. Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Harding; B Metting; C Word; G Bilyard; G Hund; J Amaya; J Weber; S Gajewski; S Underriner; T Peterson

    1998-12-10

    This primer is a tool to help prepare scientists for meetings with stakeholders. It was prepared for staff involved with the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. It discusses why some efforts in science communication may succeed while others fail, provides methods of approaching group interactions about science that may better orient expert participants, and summarizes experience drawn from observations of @oups interacting about topics in bioremediation or the NABIR program. The primer also provides briez usefid models for interacting with either expert or non-expert groups. Finally, it identifies topical areas that may help scientists prepare for public meetings, based on the developers' ongoing research in science communication in public forums.

  13. Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilyard, G.R.; Word, C.J.; Weber, J.R.; Harding, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    This primer is a tool to help prepare scientists for meetings with stakeholders. It was prepared for staff involved with the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. It discusses why some efforts in science communication may succeed while others fail, provides methods of approaching group interactions about science that may better orient expert participants, and summarizes experience drawn from observations of groups interacting about topics in bioremediation or the NABIR program. The primer also provides brief, useful models for interacting with either expert or non-expert groups. Finally, it identifies topical areas that may help scientists prepare for public meetings, based on the developers' ongoing research in science communication in public forums

  14. Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC) Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.B.

    2002-02-28

    The Environmental Sciences Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has established a Field Research Center (FRC) to support the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee for the DOE Headquarters Office of Biological and Environmental Research within the Office of Science.

  15. Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, W.D.

    2009-09-02

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled “Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center”, which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2.

  16. Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center, Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roden, Eric E.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled 'Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center', which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2.

  17. Elements of Network-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David

    2007-01-01

    Elements of network-based assessment systems are envisioned based on recent advances in knowledge and practice in learning theory, assessment design and delivery, and semantic web interoperability. The architecture takes advantage of the meditating role of technology as well as recent models of assessment systems. This overview of the elements…

  18. Safety assessment for Dragon fuel element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1963-11-01

    This report shall be the Safety Assessment covering the manufacture of the First Charge of Fuel and Fuel Elements for the Dragon Reactor Experiment. It is issued in two parts, of which Part I is descriptive and Part II gives the Hazards Analysis, the Operating Limitations, the Standing Orders and the Emergency Drill. (author)

  19. Population dynamics of cuscus in tourist island of Ahe, District of Nabire, Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTON SILAS SINERY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sinery AS, Boer C, Farida WR. 2013. Population dynamics of cuscus in tourist island of Ahe, District of Nabire, Papua. Biodiversitas 14: 95-100. Cuscus is a pouched mammal of the family Phalangeridae that are arboreal, nocturnal, and herbivores. The animals are protected by law because in addition to having a low reproduction and distribution of a limited area, also faces a very high level of hunting. Hunting in the wild by people not only in production forest areas but also in areas such as recreational forest of Table Mountain, Arfak Mountains Nature Reserve, and other places. Directly or indirectly, it affects the quality of the ecosystem in these areas, especially the cuscus population. Required better management efforts in these areas to ensure the survival of many components in it, especially the cuscus. This study aims to determine the cuscus population in Ahe Island, and the method applied is descriptive method using direct observation. The study was conducted during one month. The results demonstrate that cuscus is in Ahe Island consists of common spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus and eastern cuscus (Phalanger orientalis. Number of individual S. maculatus is 24, which consists of 14 females and 10 males. Whereas P. orientalis there are 2 individuals and both are male. Number of adult cuscus was 16 individuals, while adolescents and children, respectively 8 and 2 individuals. At least 10 plant species identified as a source of feed for cuscus in Ahe Island recreation area. Plant parts consumed by cuscus are fruit and young leaves, but based on level of need, most of the cuscus consume fresh fruit because of its sweet taste and high water content that helps the digestive process.

  20. Assessment of trace element stabilization in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kumpiene, Jurate

    2005-01-01

    The thesis deals with the remediation of trace element contaminated soil by the chemical stabilization technique. The objective is to complement the knowledge about possibilities of applying the stabilization either (1) as an alternate soil remediation method to excavation and landfilling or (2) for a pre-treatment of contaminated soil before landfilling. The work is based on two case studies of the stabilization of 1) Cr, Cu, As, and Zn contaminated soil using metallic iron and 2) Pb and Cu ...

  1. Assessment of importance of elements for systems that condition depends on the sequence of elements failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povyakalo, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes new general formulas for calculation of indices of elements importance for systems whose condition depends on sequence of elements failures. These systems have been called as systems with memory of failures (M-systems). Techniques existing for assessment of importance of elements are based on the Bool's models of system reliability, for which it is significant to suggest, that in every period of time system state depends only on a combination of states of elements at that very moment of time. These systems have been called as combinational systems (C-systems). Reliability of M-systems at any moment of operating time is a functional having distributions of elements time before failure as its arguments. Bool's models and methods of assessment of element importance, based on these models, are not appropriate for these systems. Pereguda and Povyakalo proposed the new techniques for assessment of elements importance for PO-SS systems that includes Protection Object (PO) and Safety System (PO). PO-SS system is an example of M-system. That technique is used at this paper as a basis for more general consideration. It has been shown that technique proposed for assessment of elements importance for M-systems has well-known Birnbaum's method as its particular case. Also the system with double protection is considered as an example

  2. The assessment of essential elements in moringa oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyamfi, E.T.

    2010-01-01

    Moringa is known to contain elements that are essential to life. Major roles played by elements include enzyme activation, nerve impulse conduction, oxygen transport, immune functions. The two major groups of elements are major and minor elements (trace elements). Major elements such as Na, Ca, K, Mg and trace elements such as Fe, V, Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd, Co, Mn, Pb, Al, Br were determined using both NAA and AAS. The results revealed the presence of the following elements and anions: Al, Br, Ca, Cu, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, V, Zn, PO 4 3- , NO 3 - . The elements Cd, Pb and Co were below the detection limits of the analytical technique. Risk assessment was performed to determine the risk of exposure to people who consume Moringa. Hazard Quotient (HQ) and Hazard Index (HI) were calculated to assess the risks associated with Moringa consumption. Since all the HQ and Hi values were less than one, it was concluded that no chronic risks was likely to occur from Moringa consumption. A significant test was performed to give a good interpretation of data. Further research is required to carry out the effectiveness of Moringa preparations in reducing the risks associated with diseases such as diabetes, hypertension. Air drying could be the preferred method for drying Moringa because it is hygienic, cheaper and has less effect on the elemental concentrations. (au)

  3. Examining the Construct Validity of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Gentile, Brittany; Lynam, Donald R.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Lynam and colleagues recently developed a new self-report inventory for the assessment of psychopathy, the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA). Using a sample of undergraduates (N = 227), the authors examined the construct validity of the EPA by examining its correlations with self and stranger ratings on the Five-Factor Model, as well as…

  4. Feedback after continuous assessment: An essential element of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feedback after continuous assessment: An essential element of students' learning in medical education. Sir,. Regarding the philosophy and goals at all levels of education in Nigeria, section 1, paragraph 9(g) of the. National Policy on Education (revised 2004) stated that,. “educational assessment and evaluation shall be ...

  5. Assessing performance and validating finite element simulations using probabilistic knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolin, Ronald M.; Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.)

    2002-01-01

    Two probabilistic approaches for assessing performance are presented. The first approach assesses probability of failure by simultaneously modeling all likely events. The probability each event causes failure along with the event's likelihood of occurrence contribute to the overall probability of failure. The second assessment method is based on stochastic sampling using an influence diagram. Latin-hypercube sampling is used to stochastically assess events. The overall probability of failure is taken as the maximum probability of failure of all the events. The Likelihood of Occurrence simulation suggests failure does not occur while the Stochastic Sampling approach predicts failure. The Likelihood of Occurrence results are used to validate finite element predictions.

  6. Assessment of pesticide residues and trace element contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl10

    It was based on the chemical analyses of soil, water and vegetable samples. ... of the fine fraction (under 2 mm) were conserved away from light for ... To assess the migration and accumulation of trace elements ..... metals from sewage sludge in an agricultural soil. ... Pesticides and heavy metals in drinking water, soils.

  7. Assessment of the Essential and Toxic Elements in Complementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the commonly used complementary foods (Unga wa Lishe) for children 0-5 years in Tanzania were analyze for essential and toxic elements in order to assess their nutritional levels. 60 samples were purchased from shops in Dar es Salaam, Moshi and Arusha regions and analyzed using Energy Dispersive ...

  8. Assessment of elements in coal related to environmental concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diah Dwiana Lestiani; Muhayatun Santoso; Natalia Adventini

    2010-01-01

    National energy consumption increases rapidly in line with the economic growth and population. Indonesian government plans to develop electrical power plant 10 000 MW program to anticipate this matter, first step of which is focused on coal power plant. In this study, coal combustion was assessed on its environmental impact. Determination of trace and toxic elements was applied by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Samples were irradiated in Rabbit System at GA Siwabessy, Serpong, in reactor with neutron flux ~10 13 n.cm -2 .s -1 , then counted using HPGe detector. The method was validated by analysis of standard reference material NIST SRM 1633b coal fly ash. The results showed that Al and Cr concentrations were 2.1 0±0.80 and 7.63±1.45 mg/kg, respectively, and other elements such as Al, Co, Cs, Ce, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm, Ti, and V were still in the range of those in other world coals. Comparison the elements in coal with the elements in fly ash and bottom ash for relative enrichment index, mass balance calculation and mass flow estimation using assumption was also carried out to estimate the total emission estimation related the environmental concerned elements. The total emission of As, Co and Cr were in the range of 0.84-2.28 kg/day or equivalent to 0.49-1.23 % of total elemental mass content in coal. This also indicated that these elements were captured 98-99 % before released to the environment. (author)

  9. Assessing women's lacrosse head impacts using finite element modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J Michio; Hoshizaki, T Blaine; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2018-04-01

    Recently studies have assessed the ability of helmets to reduce peak linear and rotational acceleration for women's lacrosse head impacts. However, such measures have had low correlation with injury. Maximum principal strain interprets loading curves which provide better injury prediction than peak linear and rotational acceleration, especially in compliant situations which create low magnitude accelerations but long impact durations. The purpose of this study was to assess head and helmet impacts in women's lacrosse using finite element modelling. Linear and rotational acceleration loading curves from women's lacrosse impacts to a helmeted and an unhelmeted Hybrid III headform were input into the University College Dublin Brain Trauma Model. The finite element model was used to calculate maximum principal strain in the cerebrum. The results demonstrated for unhelmeted impacts, falls and ball impacts produce higher maximum principal strain values than stick and shoulder collisions. The strain values for falls and ball impacts were found to be within the range of concussion and traumatic brain injury. The results also showed that men's lacrosse helmets reduced maximum principal strain for follow-through slashing, falls and ball impacts. These findings are novel and demonstrate that for high risk events, maximum principal strain can be reduced by implementing the use of helmets if the rules of the sport do not effectively manage such situations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear criticality assessment of LEU and HEU fuel element storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pond, R.B.; Matos, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Criticality aspects of storing LEU (20%) and HEU (93%) fuel elements have been evaluated as a function of 235 U loading, element geometry, and fuel type. Silicide, oxide, and aluminide fuel types have been evaluated ranging in 235 U loading from 180 to 620 g per element and from 16 to 23 plates per element. Storage geometry considerations have been evaluated for fuel element separations ranging from closely packed formations to spacings of several centimeters between elements. Data are presented in a form in which interpolations may be made to estimate the eigenvalue of any fuel element storage configuration that is within the range of the data. (author)

  11. Exposure assessment of a cyclist to particles and chemical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, C A; Silva, J R; Faria, T; Wolterbeek, T H; Almeida, S M

    2017-05-01

    Cycle paths can be used as a route for active transportation or simply to cycle for physical activity and leisure. However, exposure to air pollutants can be boosted while cycling, in urban environments, due to the proximity to vehicular emissions and elevated breathing rates. The objective of this work was to assess the exposure of a cyclist to particles and to chemical elements by combining real-time aerosol mass concentration reading equipment and biomonitoring techniques. PM 10 and PM 2.5 were measured on three cycle paths located in Lisbon, during weekdays and weekends and during rush hours and off-peak hours resulting in a total of 60 campaigns. Lichens were exposed along cycle paths for 3 months, and their element contents were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis using the k 0 methodology (k 0 -INAA). Using a bicycle commute route of lower traffic intensity and avoiding rush hours or other times with elevated vehicular congestion facilitate a reduction in exposure to pollutants. The implementation of cycle paths in cities is important to stimulate physical activity and active transportation; however, it is essential to consider ambient air and pollutant sources to create safer infrastructures.

  12. Research of flaw assessment methods for beryllium reflector elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Akira; Ito, Masayasu; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Tanimoto, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Ohara, Hiroshi; Kodama, Mitsuhiro

    2012-02-01

    Reflector elements made from metal beryllium is widely used as neutron reflectors to increase neutron flux in test reactors. When beryllium reflector elements are irradiated by neutron, bending of reflector elements caused by swelling occurs, and beryllium reflector elements must be replaced in several years. In this report, literature search and investigation for non-destructive inspection of Beryllium and experiments for Preliminary inspection to establish post irradiation examination method for research of characteristics of metal beryllium under neutron irradiation were reported. (author)

  13. Assessment of elemental contamination in road dust using EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saradhi, I.V.; Sandeep, P.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Road dust samples were collected in different locations of heavy traffic, medium traffic, express way and industrial areas of Mumbai. The concentrations of various elements (Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) in road dust samples were analyzed using EDXRF. The average elemental profile of road dust in Mumbai was comparable with studies carried out in other countries with slight variations. The estimated geo accumulation indices and enrichment factors indicated moderate elemental contamination and enrichment of anthropogenic elements in road dust samples. Factor analysis of elemental data resolved four sources namely crustal, tyre wear, vehicular/industrial emissions and break wear. (author)

  14. Nuclear criticality assessment of Oak Ridge research fuel element storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.T.

    1978-06-01

    Spent and partially spent Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) fuel elements are retained in the storage section of the ORR pool facility. Determination of a maximum expected neutron multiplication factor for the storage area is accomplished by a validated calculational method. The KENO Monte Carlo code and the Hansen-Roach 16-group neutron cross section sets were validated by calculations of critical experiments performed with early ORR fuel elements and with SPERT-D fuel elements. Calculations of various fuel element arrangements are presented which confirm the subcriticality previously inferred from critical experiments and indicate the k/sub eff/ would not exceed 0.85, were the storage area to be filled to capacity with storage racks containing elements with the fissionable material loading increased to 350 g of 235 U

  15. Uranium density reduction on fuel element side plates assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Ilka A.; Andrade, Delvonei A.; Domingos, Douglas B.; Umbehaun, Pedro E.

    2011-01-01

    During operation of IEA-R1 research reactor, located at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP, an abnormal oxidation on some fuel elements was noted. It was also verified, among the possible causes of the problem, that the most likely one was insufficient cooling of the elements in the core. One of the propositions to solve or minimize the problem is to reduce uranium density on fuel elements side plates. In this paper, the influence of this change on neutronic and thermal hydraulic parameters for IEA-R1 reactor is verified by simulations with the codes HAMMER and CITATION. Results are presented and discussed. (author)

  16. Uranium density reduction on fuel element side plates assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Ilka A. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, Delvonei A.; Domingos, Douglas B.; Umbehaun, Pedro E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    During operation of IEA-R1 research reactor, located at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP, an abnormal oxidation on some fuel elements was noted. It was also verified, among the possible causes of the problem, that the most likely one was insufficient cooling of the elements in the core. One of the propositions to solve or minimize the problem is to reduce uranium density on fuel elements side plates. In this paper, the influence of this change on neutronic and thermal hydraulic parameters for IEA-R1 reactor is verified by simulations with the codes HAMMER and CITATION. Results are presented and discussed. (author)

  17. Principal elements of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project performance assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, R.G.; Wilde, R.T.

    1983-12-01

    In this paper, three of the principal elements of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) performance assessment studies are focused on: (1) development of a methodology for probabilistic risk assessment, (2) performance analyses of repository subsystems, and (3) selection and ranking of disruptive event scenarios. Other elements of the BWIP performance assessment studies are briefly outlined. 12 references, 5 figures

  18. assessment of toxic elements in selected nigeria broiler feeds using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... toxic elements Mn, Cr, Zn, Fe, Co, Sr, La, Sm, Th and Se in some selected ... However, the results shows the Fe concentration in sample B ..... activation analysis” Applied Radiation and ... Neutron Activation Analysis of Soil.

  19. Field-Scale Evaluation of Biostimulation for Remediation of Uranium-Contaminated Groundwater at a Proposed NABIR Field Research Center in Oak Ridge, TN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criddle, Craig S.

    2003-01-01

    A hydrologic, geochemical and microbial characterization of the Area 3 field site has been completed. The formation is fairly impermeable, but there is a region of adequate flow approximately 50 feet bgs. The experiment will be undertaken within that depth interval. Groundwater from that depth is highly acidic (pH 3.2), and has high levels of nitrate, aluminum, uranium, and other heavy metals, as well as volatile chlorinated solvents (VOCs). Accordingly, an aboveground treatment train has been designed to remove these contaminants. The train consists of a vacuum stripper to remove VOCs, two chemical precipitation steps to adjust pH and remove metals, and a fluidized bed bioreactor to remove nitrate. The aboveground system will be coupled to a belowground recirculation system. The belowground system will contain an outer recirculation cell and a nested inner recirculation cell: the outer cells will be continuously flushed with nitrate-free treated groundwater. The inner cell will receive periodic inputs of uranium, tracer, and electron donor. Removal of uranium will be determined by comparing loss rates of conservative tracer and uranium within the inner recirculation cell. Over the past year, a detailed workplan was developed and submitted for regulatory approval. The workplan was presented to the Field Research Advisory Panel (FRAP), and after some extensive revision, the FRAP authorized implementation. Detailed design drawings and numerical simulations of proposed experiments have been prepared. System components are being prefabricated as skid-mounted units in Michigan and will be shipped to Oak Ridge for assembly. One manuscript has been submitted to a peer reviewed journal. This paper describes a novel technique for inferring subsurface hydraulic conductivity values. Two posters on this project were presented at the March 2002 NABIR PI meeting. One poster was presented at the Annual conference of the American Society for Microbiology in Salt Lake City, UT in

  20. Trace element assessment in water of river kassa system, jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) is approximately 2; for Zn and Pb which indicates, moderate contamination. Areas of the river system with anomalous value of trace element concentrations are those where mine tailings have been deposited close to the river channel or places where run off from adjoining ...

  1. Assessment of friction between a rolling cylindrical element and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cost-effective friction coefficient measuring technique was developed and tested. The technique involved the mounting of two sensing elements on the surface of rolls, in a manner that sought to measure simultaneously the normal and the tangential stresses during rolling. The instrumented roll termed “SGRoll” was ...

  2. Trace element measurement for assessment of dog food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, P.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Elias, Camila; Bacchi, Marcio

    2017-01-01

    The quality of dog diets depends on adequate ingredients capable of providing optimal nutrition and free of contaminants, for promoting long-term health. Trace elements in 95 samples of dry food for dog puppies (n = 32) and adults (n = 63) of various brands were measured using instrumental neutron

  3. Assessment of elemental composition and distribution of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Physics ... The MOP fertilizer has the highest mean concentration levels for both As and Pb, followed by SSP fertilizer, which recorded As and Pb concentration level s of 161±50 ppm and 231±68 ppm, respectively. ... Keywords: chemical elements, fertilizers, concentration levels, PBTs, chemical toxicity ...

  4. Trace element measurement for assessment of dog food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A; Elias, Camila; Bacchi, Márcio Arruda; Bode, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The quality of dog diets depends on adequate ingredients capable of providing optimal nutrition and free of contaminants, for promoting long-term health. Trace elements in 95 samples of dry food for dog puppies (n = 32) and adults (n = 63) of various brands were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mass fractions of most elements were within the permissible limits for dogs. Aluminum, antimony, and uranium presented fairly high levels in some samples, which may imply health risks. Aluminum mass fractions ranged from brand, super-premium dog food. Antimony mass fractions ranged up to 5.14 mg/kg, with the highest values measured in six samples of dog food from the same producer. The mass fractions of uranium was found up to 4 mg/kg in commercial brands from five different producers.

  5. Reactor physics assessment of modified 37-element CANDU fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pristavu, R.; Rizoiu, A.

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the central element diameter in order to improve the total flow area of CANDU fuel bundle and redistribute the power density of all remaining elements was studied in Canada and Korea when considering the effect of aging pressure tube diametral creep. The aim of this paper is to study the modified bundle behavior using the transport codes WIMS and DRAGON. In calculations, a WIMS nuclear data library on 172 energy groups was used. 2-D transport calculations were performed with WIMS and DRAGON, leading to similar results in estimated cell parameters. Additionally, 3-D DRAGON calculations were carried on in order to evaluate the local flux distribution shift, as well as the incremental cross sections for supercells containing modified CANDU bundles and reactivity devices. The overall effect of using modified fuel bundles was meaningless for both cell and supercell parameters, thus ensuring this possibility of fuel improvement for thermal-hydraulic purposes only. (authors)

  6. Amazon estuary - assessment of trace elements in seabed sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, L.B.L.S.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Oliveira, H.; Bacchi, M.A.; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1997-01-01

    The interactive processes operating on the continental shelf to the river mouth control the amount and the characteristics of the Amazon discharge reaching the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, the distribution of trace elemental concentrations, with emphasis to the rare-earth elements, in sediment cores collected at several stations from the Amazon continental shelf during the falling water period was investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Cores from the terrigenous and blue water zones have relatively uniform REE concentrations throughout the profile. Cerium anomalies for samples of the upper section of the eight stations are consistently positive and of high values (normally > 2). Similar variation in the elemental concentration ratios between the seabed sediments and Amazon River suspended sediments was seen for stations located in the biogenic and blue water zones, with an enrichment for Ce, Sm, Fe, Th, and Sc and a depletion for the La, Eu, Tb, Yb, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Ta, and Zn. The shale-normalized REE patterns from shelf sediments are enriched in LREE relative to HREE, with enrichment factors varying from 1.5 for stations near the river mouth (terrigenous zone) to 1.9 for station located far in the blue water zone. Published data for the Amazon River suspended sediment agree remarkably well with this observation of LREE-enrichment. (author)

  7. Assessing rare earth elements in quartz rich geological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, A; Thoss, V; Ribeiro Guevara, S; Urgast, D; Raab, A; Mastrolitti, S; Feldmann, J

    2016-01-01

    Sodium peroxide (Na2O2) fusion coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) measurements was used to rapidly screen quartz-rich geological samples for rare earth element (REE) content. The method accuracy was checked with a geological reference material and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) measurements. The used mass-mode combinations presented accurate results (only exception being (157)Gd in He gas mode) with recovery of the geological reference material QLO-1 between 80% and 98% (lower values for Lu, Nd and Sm) and in general comparable to INAA measurements. Low limits of detection for all elements were achieved, generally below 10 pg g(-1), as well as measurement repeatability below 15%. Overall, the Na2O2/ICP-MS/MS method proved to be a suitable lab-based method to quickly and accurately screen rock samples originating from quartz-rich geological areas for rare earth element content; particularly useful if checking commercial viability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Final Scientific/Technical Report - DE-FG02-06ER64172 - Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center - Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roden, Eric E.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled 'Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center', which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2. Area 2 is a shallow pathway for migration of contaminated groundwater to seeps in the upper reach of Bear Creek at ORNL, mainly through a ca. 1 m thick layer of gravel located 4-5 m below the ground surface. The gravel layer is sandwiched between an overlying layer of disturbed fill material, and 2-3 m of undisturbed shale saprolite derived from the underlying Nolichucky Shale bedrock. The fill was put in place when contaminated soils were excavated and replaced by native saprolite from an uncontaminated area within Bear Creek Valley; the gravel layer was presumably installed prior to addition of the fill in order to provide a stable surface for the operation of heavy machinery. The undisturbed saprolite is highly weathered bedrock that has unconsolidated character but retains much of the bedding and fracture structure of the parent rock (shale with interbedded limestone). Hydrological tracer studies conducted during the Scheibe et al. field

  9. Assessing rare earth elements in quartz rich geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, A.; Thoss, V.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Urgast, D.; Raab, A.; Mastrolitti, S.; Feldmann, J.

    2016-01-01

    Sodium peroxide (Na_2O_2) fusion coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) measurements was used to rapidly screen quartz-rich geological samples for rare earth element (REE) content. The method accuracy was checked with a geological reference material and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) measurements. The used mass-mode combinations presented accurate results (only exception being "1"5"7Gd in He gas mode) with recovery of the geological reference material QLO-1 between 80% and 98% (lower values for Lu, Nd and Sm) and in general comparable to INAA measurements. Low limits of detection for all elements were achieved, generally below 10 pg g"−"1, as well as measurement repeatability below 15%. Overall, the Na_2O_2/ICP-MS/MS method proved to be a suitable lab-based method to quickly and accurately screen rock samples originating from quartz-rich geological areas for rare earth element content; particularly useful if checking commercial viability. - Highlights: • Na_2O_2 fusion coupled to ICP-MS/MS was used to determine REE in quartz-rich samples. • The method accuracy was checked with a geological reference material and INAA. • Results were within 80–98% recovery of QLO-1 reference material, comparable to INAA. • Detection limits were generally below 10 pg g"−"1, and repeatability was below 15%. • Na_2O_2/ICP-MS/MS proved to be a suitable method for REE in quartz-rich samples.

  10. MicroCT parameters for multimaterial elements assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Olga M. O.; Silva Bastos, Jaqueline; Machado, Alessandra S.; dos Santos, Thaís M. P.; Ferreira, Cintia G.; Rosifini Alves Claro, Ana Paula; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2018-03-01

    Microtomography is a non-destructive testing technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis. The investigation of multimaterial elements with great difference of density can result in artifacts that degrade image quality depending on combination of additional filter. The aim of this study is the selection of parameters most appropriate for analysis of bone tissue with metallic implant. The results show the simulation with MCNPX code for the distribution of energy without additional filter, with use of aluminum, copper and brass filters and their respective reconstructed images showing the importance of the choice of these parameters in image acquisition process on computed microtomography.

  11. MicroCT parameters for multi material elements assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araújo, Olga M.O. de; Machado, Alessandra S.; Santos, Thaís M.P. dos; Ferreira, Cintia G.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: olgaufrjlin@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Bastos, Jaqueline Silva [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Microtomography is a non-destructive testing technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis. The investigation of multi material elements with great difference of density can result in artifacts that degrade image quality depending on combination of additional filter. The aim of this study is the selection of parameters most appropriate for analysis of bone tissue with metallic implant. The results show the simulation with MCNPX code for the distribution of energy without additional filter, with use of aluminum, copper and brass filters and their respective reconstructed images showing the importance of the choice of these parameters in image acquisition process on computed microtomography. (author)

  12. Work-based assessment: A critical element of specialist medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and decision-making under compulsory supervision in real life. In some of our training ... serious concerns about the utility of WBA for high-stakes summative assessment purposes .... blocks for theory development. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet ...

  13. Study of element uptake in plants from the soil to assess environmental contamination by toxic elements

    CERN Document Server

    En, Z; Tsipin, V V; Tillaev, T; Jumaniyazova, G I

    2003-01-01

    Uptake of various elements by plants through the root system from the soil was studied. Vegetation experiments with cotton and white beet were carried out in the control and test fields. The test fields were enriched with phyto-bacterial strains capable of dissolving insoluble phosphate compounds. Analytical work involved analysis of blank, control and test soil samples and analysis of plants sampled in different growing periods: periods of first sprouts, florescence and ripening of the plants. Multielement analyses of soil and plant samples were carried out by instrumental neutron activation techniques using our WWR-SM research reactor. Results of the measurements have shown that macro- and microelement composition of the analyzed soil samples were consistent to clark contents except for copper. Our experiments have resulted that the concentration levels of copper in the soils were within 300-450 mg/kg, and its average concentration in cotton leaves was about similar to 35 mg/kg while in beet leaves it reach...

  14. Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices (RAPID): Registry assessment of peripheral interventional devices core data elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W Schuyler; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Morales, Pablo; Wilgus, Rebecca W; Heath, Anne H; Williams, Mary F; Tcheng, James E; Marinac-Dabic, J Danica; Malone, Misti L; Reed, Terrie L; Fukaya, Rie; Lookstein, Robert A; Handa, Nobuhiro; Aronow, Herbert D; Bertges, Daniel J; Jaff, Michael R; Tsai, Thomas T; Smale, Joshua A; Zaugg, Margo J; Thatcher, Robert J; Cronenwett, Jack L

    2018-02-01

    The current state of evaluating patients with peripheral artery disease and more specifically of evaluating medical devices used for peripheral vascular intervention (PVI) remains challenging because of the heterogeneity of the disease process, the multiple physician specialties that perform PVI, the multitude of devices available to treat peripheral artery disease, and the lack of consensus about the best treatment approaches. Because PVI core data elements are not standardized across clinical care, clinical trials, and registries, aggregation of data across different data sources and physician specialties is currently not feasible. Under the auspices of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Medical Device Epidemiology Network initiative-and its PASSION (Predictable and Sustainable Implementation of the National Registries) program, in conjunction with other efforts to align clinical data standards-the Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices (RAPID) workgroup was convened. RAPID is a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to develop a consensus lexicon and to promote interoperability across clinical care, clinical trials, and national and international registries of PVI. The current manuscript presents the initial work from RAPID to standardize clinical data elements and definitions, to establish a framework within electronic health records and health information technology procedural reporting systems, and to implement an informatics-based approach to promote the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials and registry efforts in PVI. Ultimately, we hope this work will facilitate and improve device evaluation and surveillance for patients, clinicians, health outcomes researchers, industry, policymakers, and regulators. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. All rights reserved.

  15. Physicochemical, heavy metal and mineral elements assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Benin-Agbor road is a major road linking Edo State and the Eastern states of Nigeria, characterized by daily vehicular movements. The inhabitants of the area depend on the river waters mainly for their domestic purposes. It was against the above background that this research was conducted in order to assess the ...

  16. Assessment of pesticide residues and trace element contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All intensive agriculture, like periurban agriculture, uses massive inputs such as agrochemicals. This study aims to assess the environmental impacts of agrochemical use in periurban agriculture in Togo. It was based on the chemical analyses of soil, water and vegetable samples. These analyses were carried out by gas ...

  17. Assessing elemental mercury vapor exposure from cultural and religious practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D M; Newby, C A; Leal-Almeraz, T O; Thomas, V M

    2001-08-01

    Use of elemental mercury in certain cultural and religious practices can cause high exposures to mercury vapor. Uses include sprinkling mercury on the floor of a home or car, burning it in a candle, and mixing it with perfume. Some uses can produce indoor air mercury concentrations one or two orders of magnitude above occupational exposure limits. Exposures resulting from other uses, such as infrequent use of a small bead of mercury, could be well below currently recognized risk levels. Metallic mercury is available at almost all of the 15 botanicas visited in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, but botanica personnel often deny having mercury for sale when approached by outsiders to these religious and cultural traditions. Actions by public health authorities have driven the mercury trade underground in some locations. Interviews indicate that mercury users are aware that mercury is hazardous, but are not aware of the inhalation exposure risk. We argue against a crackdown by health authorities because it could drive the practices further underground, because high-risk practices may be rare, and because uninformed government intervention could have unfortunate political and civic side effects for some Caribbean and Latin American immigrant groups. We recommend an outreach and education program involving religious and community leaders, botanica personnel, and other mercury users.

  18. Microstructural evolution during nitriding, finite element simulation and experimental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassani-Gangaraj, S.M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Meccanica, Via La Masa, 1, 20156 Milano (Italy); Guagliano, M., E-mail: mario.guagliano@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Meccanica, Via La Masa, 1, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    A finite element simulation of nitriding is proposed in this paper, using the analogy between diffusion and heat conduction, to overcome the shortcomings of the classical internal oxidation model in predicting the kinetics of layer growth and nitrogen distribution during nitriding. To verify the model, a typical gas nitriding has been carried out on an axisymmetric specimen. Treated specimen has been characterized using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-hardness and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. It was found that the so-called diffusion zone can be divided into two parts with different influence on the mechanical characteristics including residual stress and hardening. First layer which is a two phase region of ferritic matrix and γ′ (Fe{sub 4}N) makes further improvement with respect to the second layer which is a solid solution of nitrogen in ferrite. The formation of that two phase region, which is not predicted by classical model, can be efficiently recognized by the proposed model. It is also proved that the model has the ability to consider the geometry dependency of layer growth and formation in nitriding.

  19. Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 μg/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 μg/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 μg/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 μg/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 μg/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 μg/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 μg/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 μg/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 μg/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 μg/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 μg/g for zinc, 2.91-155 μg/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption

  20. An assessment of the lifetime of Faraday shield elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caughman, J.B.O. II; Ruzic, D.N.; Hoffman, D.J.; Langley, R.A.; Lewis, M.B.; Ryan, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    The interaction of plasma with rf fields from an ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) antenna has been studied to estimate the amount of Faraday shield erosion expected in normal ICRF heating (ICRH) operation. Plasma parameters and ion energies have been measured in the near field of an antenna and used in a model to estimate the erosion rate of the Faraday shield surface. Experiments were conducted on the RF Test Facility (RFTF), a magnetic mirror device at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), using a single-strap resonant loop antenna with a two-tier Faraday shield. The outer tier, facing the plasma, was layered with graphite tiles. The antenna was operated at currents and voltages (∼500 A, ∼20 kV at 25 kW) within 50% of those expected in tokamaks. The time varying floating potential was measured with a capacitively coupled probe, and the time-averaged floating potential, electron temperature, and electron density were measured with a Langmuir probe. Both probes were scanned in front of the antenna. Ion energies were measured with a gridded energy analyzer located below the antenna, and samples of silicon were placed on the Faraday shield surface to estimate the incident ion energy. The capacitive probe measurements show that the rf floating potential follows the magnetic field pattern of the antenna, indicating that the electromagnetic fields are responsible for the potential formation. Plasma parameters and ion energies have been correlated with the antenna current and used in s computational model of the plasma sheath to predict the amount of erosion expected from the Faraday shield elements exposed to plasma. Predictions of light ion sputtering of candidate Faraday shield materials are presented. 19 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. An assessment of the lifetime of Faraday shield elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caughman, J.B.O. II; Ruzic, D.N.; Hoffman, D.J.; Langley, R.A.; Lewis, M.B.; Ryan, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction of plasma with rf fields from an ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) antenna has been studied to estimate the amount of Faraday shield erosion expected in normal ICRF heating operation. Plasma parameters and ion energies have been measured in the near field of an antenna and used in a model to estimate the erosion rate of the Faraday shield surface. Experiments were conducted on the RF Test Facility, a magnetic mirror device at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, using a single-strap resonant loop antenna with a two-tier Faraday shield. The outer tier, facing the plasma, was layered with graphite tiles. The antenna was operated at currents and voltages within 50% of those expected in tokamaks. The time-varying floating potential was measured with a capacitively coupled probe, and the time-averaged floating potential, electron temperature, and electron density were measured with a Langmuir probe. Ion energies were measured with a gridded energy analyser located below the antenna, and samples of silicon were placed on the Faraday shield surface to estimate the incident ion energy. The capacitive probe measurements show that the rf floating potential follows the magnetic field pattern of the antenna, indicating that the electromagnetic fields are responsible for the potential formation. Plasma parameters and ion energies have been correlated with the antenna current and used in a computational model of the plasma sheath to predict the amount of erosion expected from the Faraday shield elements exposed to plasma. Predictions of light ion sputtering of candidate Faraday shield materials are presented

  2. Construction and assessment of hierarchical edge elements for three-dimensional computations of eddy currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midtgaard, Ole-Morten

    1997-12-31

    This thesis considers the feasibility of doing calculations to optimize electrical machines without the need to build expensive prototypes. It deals with the construction and assessment of new, hierarchical, hexahedral edge elements for three-dimensional computations of eddy currents with the electric vector potential formulation. The new elements, five in all, gave up to second-order approximations for both the magnetic field and the current density. Theoretical arguments showed these elements to be more economical for a given polynomial order of the approximated fields than the serendipity family of nodal elements. Further it was pointed out how the support of a source field computed by using edge elements could be made very small provided that a proper spanning tree was used in the edge element mesh. This was exploited for the voltage forcing technique, where source fields were used as basis functions, with unknown total currents in voltage forced conductors as degrees of freedom. The practical assessment of the edge elements proved the accuracy to improve with increasing polynomial order, both for local and global quantities. The most economical element was, however, one giving only complete first-order approximations for both fields. Further, the edge elements turned out to be better than the nodal elements also in practice. For the voltage forcing technique, source field basis functions which had small support, resulted in large reduction of the CPU-time for solving the main equation system, compared to source fields which had large support. The new elements can be used in a p-type adaptive scheme, and they should also be applicable for other tangentially continuous field problems. 67 refs., 34 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. SAFETY CRITERION IN ASSESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF AN ELEMENT IN THE COMPLEX TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEM RELIABILITY STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek CHYBOWSKI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the need to develop a description of the importance of the technological systems reliability structure elements in terms of security of the system. Basic issues related to the exploration of weak links and important elements in the system as well as a proposal to develop the current approach to assessing the importance of the system components have been presented. Moreover, the differences between the unreliability of suitability and unreliability of safety have been pointed out.

  4. Assessment of Human Organism's Intake of Trace Elements from Staple Foodstuffs in Central Region of Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Okina, O I; Frontasyeva, M A; Gundorina, S F

    2004-01-01

    The trace element content of raw materials and foodstuffs produced from them, typical for basket of goods of residents of Central Russia, was examined. An excess of permissible levels of some trace elements was observed. This phenomenon is explained in terms of different factors such as pollution of the environment, industrial technologies, biological peculiarities of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin. An assessment of human organism's trace element intake of different food allowances is given. This study was undertaken in the framework of IAEA CRP (Contract No. 11927/R2).

  5. High-Resolution Mineralogical Characterization and Biogeochemical Modeling of Uranium Reduction Pathways at the NABIR Field-Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David R. Veblen; Chen Zhu; Lee Krumholz; Claudine Stirling; Emma-Kate Potter; Alex N. Halliday

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness and feasibility of bioremediation at the field scale cannot be fully assessed until the mechanisms of immobilization and U speciation in the solid matrix are resolved. However, characterization of the immobilized U and its valence states is extremely difficult, because microbially mediated mineral precipitates are generally nanometer (nm)-sized, poorly crystalline, or amorphous. We are developing combined field emission gun--scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM, at Indiana University) and FEG transmission electron microscopy (TEM, at Hopkins) to detect and isolate uranium containing phases; (1) method developments for TEM sample preparations and parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) determination of uranium valence; and (2) to determine the speciation, fate, reactivity, valence states of immobilized uranium, using the state-of-the-art 300-kV, FEG-TEM. We have obtained preliminary results on contaminated sediments from Area 3 at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (FRC). TEM results show that the sediments contain numerous minerals, including quartz, mica/clay (muscovite and/or illite), rutile, ilmenite, zircon, and an Al-Sr-Ce-Ca phosphate mineral, none of which contain uranium above the EDS detection limit. Substantial U (up to ∼2 wt.%) is, however, clearly associated with two materials: (1) the Fe oxyhydroxide and (2) clots of a chemically complex material that is likely a mixture of several nm-scale phases. The Fe oxyhydroxide was identified as goethite from its polycrystalline SAED pattern and EDS analysis showing it to be very Fe-rich; the aggregate also displays one of several morphologies that are common for goethite. U is strongly sorbed to goethite in the FRC sediment, and the ubiquitous association with phosphorous suggests that complexes containing both U and P may play an important role in that sorption. Results from bulk analysis and SEM had previously demonstrated the association of U with Fe and thus suggested that U

  6. Assessment of factors influencing trace element content of mushrooms from European part of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, A.V.; Lyapunov, S.M.; Okina, O.I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    The results on trace element content in 12 species of basidial mushrooms from the European part of Russia are presented. Difference in the elemental content of wild and cultivated mushrooms is demonstrated. Assessment of technogenic contamination impact on trace element content of champignons is given. It was revealed that in the described conditions the accumulation of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in Boletus edulis is not observed. High content of the mentioned elements in these mushrooms is caused by high content of their mobile forms in soil. It was shown that the high concentration of mobile forms of metals in soil establishes in the process of natural many years' accumulation of organic matter followed by its decomposition

  7. Assessment of Trace Element Daily Intake Based on Consumption Rate of Foodstuffs in Bandung City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damastuti, E.; Syahfitri, W.Y.N.; Santoso, M.; Lestiani, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Trace elements are required by human body and have a variety role in biochemical functions mostly as catalyst for enzymatic activity in human body. Some trace elements are essential since they are inadequately or not synthesized by human body. The deficiency or excess of those essential trace element may cause disease and be deleterious to health. Since food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements either, the levels of trace elements in consumed food products must be determined. The determination of trace elements content in foodstuffs widely consumed in Bandung city were conducted to assess their daily intake and contribution to the recommended dietary allowance (RADA) values. Food samples were collected from traditional markets spread across five regions of the Bandung city and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1567a Wheat Flour and 1568a Rice Flour and gave good results with % recovery, 93.2 - 104.8%; and %CV, 3.8-11.6%. A large variability of essential trace elements concentration in all types of foods analyzed were observed. The daily intake of Cr, Co, Mn, Se and Zn were supplied enough by the diet, except for Fe which found that almost all the foods analyzed were not give a satisfying contribution to the RDA value of Fe. These result were expected could provide information of nutritional status of the society and can be a reference for government and related institution to effectively making policies and solution for public health improvement (author)

  8. Assessment of Trace Element Daily Intake Based on Consumption Rate of Foodstuffs in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damastuti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are required by human body and have a variety role in biochemical functions mostly as catalyst for enzymatic activity in human body. Some trace elements are essential since they are inadequately or not synthesized by human body. The deficiency or excess of those essential trace element may cause disease and be deleterious to health. Since food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements either, the levels of trace elements in consumed food products must be determined. The determination of trace elements content in foodstuffs widely consumed in Bandung city were conducted to assess their daily intake and contribution to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA values. Food samples were collected from traditional markets spread across five regions of the Bandung city and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA. Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1567a Wheat Flour and 1568a Rice Flour and gave good results with % recovery, 93.2 – 104.8%; and %CV, 3.8-11.6%. A large variability of essential trace elements concentration in all types of foods analyzed were observed. The daily intake of Cr, Co, Mn, Se and Zn were supplied enough by the diet, except for Fe which found that almost all the foods analyzed were not give a satisfying contribution to the RDA value of Fe. These result were expected could provide information of nutritional status of the society and can be a reference for government and related institution to effectively making policies and solution for public health improvement

  9. Risk assessment model for nuclear accident emergency protection countermeasure based on fuzzy matter-element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Jing; Tang Huaqing; Zhang Yinghua; Zhang Limin

    2009-01-01

    A risk assessment model of nuclear accident emergency protection countermeasure based on fuzzy matter-element analysis and Euclid approach degree is proposed in the paper. The weight of assessed index is determined by information entropy and the scoring by experts, which could not only make full use of the inherent information of the indexes adequately, but reduce subjective assumption in the course of assessment effectively. The applied result shows that it is reasonable that the model is adopted to make risk assessment for nuclear accident emergency protective countermeasure,and it could be a kind of effective analytical method and decision making basis to choose the optimum protection countermeasure. (authors)

  10. Origin assessment of uranium ore concentrates based on their rare-earth elemental impurity pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Z.; Wallenius, M.; Mayer, K. [Commission of the European Communities, Karlsruhe (Germany). European Inst. for Transuranium Elements

    2010-07-01

    The rare-earth element pattern was used as an additional tool for the identification and origin assessment of uranium ore concentrates (yellow cakes) for nuclear forensic purposes. By this means, the source of an unknown material can be straightforwardly verified by comparing the pattern with that of a known or declared sample. In contrast to other indicators used for nuclear forensic studies, the provenance of the material can also be assessed in several cases even if no comparison sample is available due to the characteristic pattern. The milling process was found not to change the pattern and no significant elemental fractionation occurs between the rare-earth elements, thus the pattern in the yellow cakes corresponds to that found in the uranium ore. (orig.)

  11. Speed of sound reflects Young's modulus as assessed by microstructural finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, van den J.P.W.; Lenthe, van G.H.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Smals, A.G.H.; Huiskes, H.W.J.

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed the ability of the quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameter, speed of sound (SOS), and bone mineral density (BMD), as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to predict Young's modulus, as assessed by microstructural finite element analysis (muFEA) from microcomputed

  12. Spatial Distribution and Fuzzy Health Risk Assessment of Trace Elements in Surface Water from Honghu Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Qiu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Chaoyang; Cai, Ying; Xiao, Minsi

    2017-09-04

    Previous studies revealed that Honghu Lake was polluted by trace elements due to anthropogenic activities. This study investigated the spatial distribution of trace elements in Honghu Lake, and identified the major pollutants and control areas based on the fuzzy health risk assessment at screening level. The mean total content of trace elements in surface water decreased in the order of Zn (18.04 μg/L) > Pb (3.42 μg/L) > Cu (3.09 μg/L) > Cr (1.63 μg/L) > As (0.99 μg/L) > Cd (0.14 μg/L), within limits of Drinking Water Guidelines. The results of fuzzy health risk assessment indicated that there was no obvious non-carcinogenic risk to human health, while carcinogenic risk was observed in descending order of As > Cr > Cd > Pb. As was regarded to have the highest carcinogenic risk among selected trace elements because it generally accounted for 64% of integrated carcinogenic risk. Potential carcinogenic risk of trace elements in each sampling site was approximately at medium risk level (10 -5 to 10 -4 ). The areas in the south (S4, S13, and S16) and northeast (S8, S18, and S19) of Honghu Lake were regarded as the risk priority control areas. However, the corresponding maximum memberships of integrated carcinogenic risk in S1, S3, S10-S13, S15, and S18 were of relatively low credibility (50-60%), and may mislead the decision-makers in identifying the risk priority areas. Results of fuzzy assessment presented the subordinate grade and corresponding reliability of risk, and provided more full-scale results for decision-makers, which made up for the deficiency of certainty assessment to a certain extent.

  13. Assessing the Basic Traits Associated with Psychopathy: Development and Validation of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Miller, Joshua D.; Miller, Drew J.; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    A new self-report assessment of the basic traits of psychopathy was developed with a general trait model of personality (five-factor model [FFM]) as a framework. Scales were written to assess maladaptive variants of the 18 FFM traits that are robustly related to psychopathy across a variety of perspectives including empirical correlations, expert…

  14. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Sudaryanto, Agus; Monirith, In; Kan-Atireklap, Supawat; Iwata, Hisato; Ismail, Ahmad; Sanguansin, Joompol; Muchtar, Muswerry; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-02-01

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people.

  15. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Sudaryanto, Agus; Monirith, In; Kan-Atireklap, Supawat; Iwata, Hisato; Ismail, Ahmad; Sanguansin, Joompol; Muchtar, Muswerry; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. -- Intake of mercury through consumption of some marine fish species might be hazardous to the people in Southeast Asia

  16. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Monirith, In [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kan-Atireklap, Supawat [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Ismail, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sanguansin, Joompol [Eastern Marine Fisheries Development Center, Ban Phe, Muang, Rayong 21160 (Thailand); Muchtar, Muswerry [Research and Development Center for Oceanology Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Jl. Pasir Putih 1, Ancol Timur, Jakarta 11048 (Indonesia); Tana, Touch Seang [Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES), Office of the Council of Ministers, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-02-15

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. -- Intake of mercury through consumption of some marine fish species might be hazardous to the people in Southeast Asia.

  17. Characteristics of plant concentration ratios assessed in a 64-site field survey of 23 elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the statistical characteristics of plant concentration ratios (CRs) and translocation factors (TFs) have not been critically assessed, especially in field surveys. The statistical characteristics, particularly the measures of variation, are important for stochastic modelling of plant uptake. The CR and TF values for 23 naturally occurring elements throughout the geographic range of one plant species, blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium), in Canada were surveyed. Although the ratios imply linear relationships, the numerator concentrations were not closely correlated with the denominator concentrations. The variation in the ratios was not clearly related to the means or to characteristics of the elements. The overall geometric standard deviation for CRs was 2.5 and for TFs was 1.6. The values of CR were intercorrelated for certain groups of elements and these groups reflected the periodic classification of elements. Thus, correlation between elements in stochastic models, which may reduce overall variability, is valid. Site variables such as soil pH, soil bulk density, soil fertility and plant growth condition were only slightly useful in statistically explaining some of the variation in CR values. (author)

  18. Identifying and Assessing Life-Cycle-Related Critical Technology Elements (CTEs) for Technology Readiness Assessments (TRAs)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mandelbaum, Jay

    2006-01-01

    .... Because these technologies are not emphasized in the current Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) process this document is intended to improve the focus on life-cycle-related technologies in TRAs...

  19. ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF RESPIRABLE TIRE PARTICLES AND ASSESSMENT OF CARDIO-PULMONARY TOXICITY IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemental Analysis of Respirable Tire Particles and Assessment of Cardio-pulmonary Toxicity in RatsR.R. Gottipolu, PhD1, E. Landa, PhD2, J.K. McGee, MS1, M.C. Schladweiler, BS1, J.G. Wallenborn, MS3, A.D. Ledbetter, BS1, J.E. Richards, MS1 and U.P. Kodavanti, PhD1. 1NHEER...

  20. A thermodynamic assessment of the behavior of cesium and rubidium in reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, R.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive thermodynamic model is developed to assess the reaction and transport behavior of fission products in LWR fuel elements. The emphasis is on the chemistry of cesium and rubidium and their reactions with the fuel, other fission products, and the zircaloy cladding. Equilibrium thermodynamic calculations have been performed on the most plausible reactions to predict the chemical state of the fission products. The relevance of the predictions to pellet-clad interaction failures is discussed in detail. (orig.)

  1. Bioaccumulation of Trace Elements in Ruditapes philippinarum from China: Public Health Risk Assessment Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwu Yan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important commercial bivalve species consumed in China. Evaluated metal burden in bivalve molluscs can pose potential risks to public health as a result of their frequent consumption. In this study, concentrations of 10 trace elements (Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg and As were determined in samples of the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum, collected from nine mariculture zones along the coast of China between November and December in 2010, in order to evaluate the status of elemental metal pollution in these areas. Also, a public health risk assessment was untaken to assess the potential risks associated with the consumption of clams. The ranges of concentrations found for Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg and As in R. philippinarum were 12.1–38.0, 49.5–168.3, 42.0–68.0, 4.19–8.71, 4.76–14.32, 0.41–1.11, 0.94–4.74, 0.32–2.59, 0.03–0.23 and 0.46–11.95 mg·kg−1 dry weight, respectively. Clear spatial variations were found for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Hg and As, whereas Mn, Se, Ni, and Cd did not show significant spatial variation. Hotspots of trace element contamination in R. philippinarum can be found along the coast of China, from the north to the south, especially in the Bohai and Yellow Seas. Based on a 58.1 kg individual consuming 29 g of bivalve molluscs per day, the values of the estimated daily intake (EDI of trace elements analyzed were significantly lower than the values of the accepted daily intake (ADI established by Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JFAO/WHO and the guidelines of the reference does (RfD established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA. Additionally, the risk of trace elements to humans through R. philippinarum consumption was also assessed. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ of all trace elements were less than 1. Consequently, there was no obvious

  2. Assessment of non-linear analysis finite element program (NONSAP) for inelastic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.Y.; Prachuktam, S.; Reich, M.

    1976-11-01

    An assessment on a nonlinear structural analysis finite element program called NONSAP is given with respect to its inelastic analysis capability for pressure vessels and components. The assessment was made from the review of its theoretical basis and bench mark problem runs. It was found that NONSAP has only limited capability for inelastic analysis. However, the program was written flexible enough that it can be easily extended or modified to suit the user's need. Moreover, some of the numerical difficulties in using NONSAP are pointed out

  3. Usage of digital image correlation in assessment of behavior of block element pavement structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygierek, M.; Grzesik, B.; Rokitowski, P.; Rusin, T.

    2018-05-01

    In diagnostics of existing road pavement structures deflection measurements have fundamental meaning, because of ability to assess present stiffness (bearing capacity) of whole layered construction. During test loading the reaction of pavement structure to applied load is measured in central point or in a few points located along a straight on a 1.5 ÷ 1.8 m distance (i.e. Falling Weight Deflectometer) in similar spacing equal to 20 ÷ 30 cm. Typical measuring techniques are productive and precise enough for most common pavement structures such as flexible, semi-rigid and rigid. It should be noted that in experimental research as well as in pavements in complex stress state, measurement techniques allowing observation of pavement deformation in 3D would have been very helpful. A great example of that type of pavements is a block element pavement structure consisting of i.e. paving blocks or stone slabs. Due to high stiffness and confined ability of cooperation of surrounding block elements, in that type of pavements fatigue life is strongly connected with displacement distribution. Unfortunately, typical deflection measurement methods forefend displacement observations and rotation of single block elements like paving blocks or slabs. Another difficult problem is to carry out unmistakable analysis of cooperation between neighboring elements. For more precise observations of displacements state of block element pavements under a wheel load a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was used. Application of this method for assessment of behavior of stone slabs pavement under a traffic load enabled the monitoring of deformations distribution and encouraged to formulate conclusions about the initiation mechanism and development of damages in this type of pavement structures. Results shown in this article were obtained in field tests executed on an exploited pavement structure with a surface course made of granite slabs with dimensions 0.5x1.0x0.14 m.

  4. Assessment of dietary intake of trace elements through Pakistani integrated diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Mannan, A.; Waheed, S.; Rehman, S.; Ahmad, S.

    1994-01-01

    A research study related to the determination and assessment of essential and potentially toxic trace elements in Pakistani integrated diets was undertaken at PINSTECH from 1986-90 under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP). During this period eight different integrated human diets of the residents of the Islamabad and Gujranwala were prepared by taking into consideration their respective food habits in summer and winter seasons. Instrumental as well as radiochemical neutron activation analyses in combination with the atomic absorption spectrometry were utilized for the precise and accurate determination of up to 23 elements in the diet samples. This work has helped us obtain the base line values for studying trace elements nutrition, inadequacy, imbalances and toxicity. Further, this would help, in future, to monitor the degree of contamination from foreign chemicals. The weekly dietary intake values were calculated which showed that our foods contain fairly adequate quantity of essential trace elements. The diet samples analyzed showed no contamination level to an extent to cause an adverse impact on human health. (author). 23 refs, 5 figs, 21 tabs

  5. Emissions of particulate-bound elements from stationary diesel engine: Characterization and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2011-09-01

    There has been an increasing concern about the emissions of airborne particulate matter (PM) from diesel engines because of their close association with adverse health and environmental impacts. Among the alternative fuels being considered, biodiesel made by the transesterification of waste cooking oil has received wide attention in recent years because of its low cost and the added advantage of reducing waste oil disposal. This study was conducted to make a comparative evaluation of the particulate-bound elements emitted from ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel (B100) and a blend of both the fuels (B50). It was observed that the PM mass concentrations were reduced by about 36% when B100 was used. Crustal elements such as Mg, K and Al were found to be in higher concentrations compared to other elements emitted from both B100 and ULSD. Zn, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mg, Ba, K were found to be higher in the biodiesel exhaust while Co, Pb, Mn, Cd, Sr, and As were found to be higher in the ULSD exhaust. To evaluate the potential health risk due to inhalation of PM emitted from diesel engines running on ULSD and B100, health risk estimates based on exposure and dose-response assessments of particulate-bound elements were calculated assuming exposure for 24 h. The findings indicate that the exposure to PM of the B100 exhaust is relatively more hazardous and may pose adverse health effects compared to ULSD.

  6. Assessing element-specific patterns of bioaccumulation across New England lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Darren M.; Mayes, Brandon; Sturup, Stefan; Folt, Carol L.; Chen, Celia Y., E-mail: celia.chen@dartmouth.edu

    2012-04-01

    improve our capacity to identify consistent patterns of bioaccumulation and drivers of elevated trace element concentrations under naturally high levels of variability. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed bioaccumulation of MeHg and 5 trace elements across trophic levels Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Patterns were compared across multiple sample dates in 7 New England lakes Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each element had a unique pattern of bioaccumulation, consistent across lakes Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterizing such patterns requires spatial and temporal replication in sampling.

  7. Elemental assessment of vegetation via portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGladdery, Candice; Weindorf, David C; Chakraborty, Somsubhra; Li, Bin; Paulette, Laura; Podar, Dorina; Pearson, Delaina; Kusi, Nana Yaw O; Duda, Bogdan

    2018-03-15

    Elemental concentrations in vegetation are of critical importance, whether establishing plant essential element concentrations (toxicity vs. deficiency) or investigating deleterious elements (e.g., heavy metals) differentially extracted from the soil by plants. Traditionally, elemental analysis of vegetation has been facilitated by acid digestion followed by quantification via inductively coupled plasma (ICP) or atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy. Previous studies have utilized portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectroscopy to quantify elements in soils, but few have evaluated the vegetation. In this study, a PXRF spectrometer was employed to scan 228 organic material samples (thatch, deciduous leaves, grasses, tree bark, and herbaceous plants) from smelter-impacted areas of Romania, as well as National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) certified reference materials, to demonstrate the application of PXRF for elemental determination in vegetation. Samples were scanned in three conditions: as received from the field (moist), oven dry (70 °C), and dried and powdered to pass a 2 mm sieve. Performance metrics of PXRF models relative to ICP atomic emission spectroscopy were developed to asses optimal scanning conditions. Thatch and bark samples showed the highest mean PXRF and ICP concentrations (e.g., Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe), with the exceptions of K and Cl. Validation statistics indicate that the stable validation predictive capacity of PXRF increased in the following order: oven dry intact coefficient of determination, R 2 val 0.86; residual prediction deviation, RPD 2.72) and Cu (R 2 val 0.77; RPD 2.12), while dried and powdered samples allowed for stable validation prediction of Pb (R 2 val 0.90; RPD 3.29), Fe (R 2 val 0.80; RPD 2.29), Cd (R 2 val 0.75; RPD 2.07) and Cu (R 2 val 0.98; RPD of 8.53). Summarily, PXRF was shown to be a useful approach for quickly assessing the elemental concentration in vegetation. Future PXRF/vegetation research should

  8. Assessing element-specific patterns of bioaccumulation across New England lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Darren M.; Mayes, Brandon; Sturup, Stefan; Folt, Carol L.; Chen, Celia Y.

    2012-01-01

    improve our capacity to identify consistent patterns of bioaccumulation and drivers of elevated trace element concentrations under naturally high levels of variability. - Highlights: ► We assessed bioaccumulation of MeHg and 5 trace elements across trophic levels ► Patterns were compared across multiple sample dates in 7 New England lakes ► Each element had a unique pattern of bioaccumulation, consistent across lakes ► Characterizing such patterns requires spatial and temporal replication in sampling

  9. Fatigue assessment for selected connections of structural steel bridge components using the finite elements method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śledziewski, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Material fatigue it is one of the most frequent causes of steel bridge failures, particularly the bridges already existing. Thus, the procedure of fatigue life assessment is one of the most relevant procedures in a comprehensive assessment of load-carrying capacity and service life of the structure. A reliable assessment of the fatigue life is predominantly decisive for estimation of the remaining service life. Hitherto, calculation methods of welded joints took into account only stresses occurring in cross sections of whole elements and did not take into account stress concentration occurring in the vicinity of the weld, caused by geometrical aspects of the detail. At present, use of the Finite Element Analysis, makes possible looking for more accurate approach to the fatigue design of steel structures. The method of geometrical stresses is just such approach which is based on definition of stresses which take into account geometry of the detail. The study presents fatigue assessment of a representative type of welded joint in welded bridge structures. The testing covered longitudinal attachments. The main analyses were carried out on the basis of FEM and the method of local stresses, so-called "hot-spot" stresses. The obtained values of stresses were compared with the values obtained in accordance with the method of nominal stress.

  10. Assessing the elements mobility through the regolith and their potential as tracers for hydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moragues-Quiroga, Cristina; Hissler, Christophe; Chabaux, François; Legout, Arnaud; Stille, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Regoliths encompass different materials from the fresh bedrock to the top of the organic horizons. The regolith is a major component of the critical zone where fluxes of water, energy, solutes and matter occur. Therefore, its bio-physico-chemical properties drastically impact the water that percolates and/or stores in its different parts (organic and mineral soil horizons, and weathered and fractured bedrock). In order to better understand the critical zone functioning, we propose to assess the interaction between chemical elements from the regolith matrix and water during drainage infiltration. For this, we focus firstly on the potential mobility of different groups of major and trace elements according to a leaching experiment made on 10 different layers of a 7.5 m depth slate regolith, which covers a large part of the Rhenish Massif. Secondly, we carried out Sr-Nd-Pb-U-Th isotope analyses for 5 of these samples in both the untreated and leached samples. Given the specific chemical and mineralogical composition of each sampled material, our approach enables to trace the origin of major and trace elements and eventually assess their mobility. The results deliver valuable information on exchange processes at the water-mineral interface in the different zones of the regolith, which could improve the selection of tracers for the study of hydrological processes.

  11. What are the elements required to improve exposure estimates in life cycle assessments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Margni, Manuele

    2016-01-01

    human toxicity and ecosystem toxicity of chemicals posed by different product life cycle stages are characterized in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase. Exposure and effect quantification as part of LCIA toxicity characterization faces numerous challenges related to inventory analysis (e.......g. number and quantity of chemicals emitted), substance-specific modelling (e.g. organics, inorganics, nano-materials) in various environments and time horizons, human and ecosystem exposure quantification (e.g. exposed organisms and exposure pathways), and toxicity end-points (e.g. carcinogenicity...... chemical exposure and harmful effects. Thereby, we structure this study of key elements identified as areas of elevated public, industrial, regulatory, and scientific concerns. We found the majority of missing elements are directly related to the definition of exposed populations (both ecosystems...

  12. Review of element-specific data for biosphere assessment BSA-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helin, J.; Ikonen, A. T. K.; Hjerpe, T.

    2010-06-01

    A literature review on distribution coefficients (Kd) to soil, sediment and suspended matter and on concentration ratios to forest, aquatic and crop plants and to edibles was performed and is documented in this report. The literature data were combined, in some cases involving also site-specific data, using the methods of Bayesian updating. Their application is also explained in the report. Based on the derived data, aggregated concentration ratios (production-weighted average concentration ratio to edibles specific to an ecosystem type) were calculated. Finally, the quality of the established data basis is evaluated. The work provides the 2009 biosphere assessment of spent nuclear fuel disposal the in Olkiluoto site, BSA-2009, with the abovementioned parameter values and distributions, but most importantly demonstrates the methodology adopted to combine various data sources and derive such assessment data. It is acknowledged that for many parameters and/or elements the data basis needs improvement by the forthcoming 2012 assessment. (orig.)

  13. Refractive error assessment: influence of different optical elements and current limits of biometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Filomena; Castanheira-Dinis, Antonio; Dias, Joao Mendanha

    2013-03-01

    To identify and quantify sources of error on refractive assessment using exact ray tracing. The Liou-Brennan eye model was used as a starting point and its parameters were varied individually within a physiological range. The contribution of each parameter to refractive error was assessed using linear regression curve fits and Gaussian error propagation analysis. A MonteCarlo analysis quantified the limits of refractive assessment given by current biometric measurements. Vitreous and aqueous refractive indices are the elements that influence refractive error the most, with a 1% change of each parameter contributing to a refractive error variation of +1.60 and -1.30 diopters (D), respectively. In the phakic eye, axial length measurements taken by ultrasound (vitreous chamber depth, lens thickness, and anterior chamber depth [ACD]) were the most sensitive to biometric errors, with a contribution to the refractive error of 62.7%, 14.2%, and 10.7%, respectively. In the pseudophakic eye, vitreous chamber depth showed the highest contribution at 53.7%, followed by postoperative ACD at 35.7%. When optic measurements were considered, postoperative ACD was the most important contributor, followed by anterior corneal surface and its asphericity. A MonteCarlo simulation showed that current limits of refractive assessment are 0.26 and 0.28 D for the phakic and pseudophakic eye, respectively. The most relevant optical elements either do not have available measurement instruments or the existing instruments still need to improve their accuracy. Ray tracing can be used as an optical assessment technique, and may be the correct path for future personalized refractive assessment. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Critical elements for human health risk assessment of less than lifetime exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraets, Liesbeth; Nijkamp, Monique M; Ter Burg, Wouter

    2016-11-01

    Less than lifetime exposure has confronted risk assessors as to how to interpret the risks for human health in case a chronic health-based limit is exceeded. Intermittent, fluctuating and peak exposures do not match with the basis of the chronic limit values possibly leading to conservative outcomes. This paper presents guidance on how to deal with human risk assessment of less than lifetime exposure. Important steps to be considered are characterization of the human exposure situation, evaluation whether the human less than lifetime exposure scenario corresponds to a non-chronic internal exposure: toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic considerations, and, finally, re-evaluation of the risk assessment. Critical elements for these steps are the mode of action, Haber's rule, and toxicokinetics (ADME) amongst others. Previous work for the endpoints non-genotoxic carcinogenicity and developmental toxicity is included in the guidance. The guidance provides a way to consider the critical elements, without setting default factors to correct for the less than lifetime exposure in risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Systematic risk assessment methodology for critical infrastructure elements - Oil and Gas subsectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, A.-D.; Ozunu, A.

    2012-04-01

    The concern for the protection of critical infrastructure has been rapidly growing in the last few years in Europe. The level of knowledge and preparedness in this field is beginning to develop in a lawfully organized manner, for the identification and designation of critical infrastructure elements of national and European interest. Oil and gas production, refining, treatment, storage and transmission by pipelines facilities, are considered European critical infrastructure sectors, as per Annex I of the Council Directive 2008/114/EC of 8 December 2008 on the identification and designation of European critical infrastructures and the assessment of the need to improve their protection. Besides identifying European and national critical infrastructure elements, member states also need to perform a risk analysis for these infrastructure items, as stated in Annex II of the above mentioned Directive. In the field of risk assessment, there are a series of acknowledged and successfully used methods in the world, but not all hazard identification and assessment methods and techniques are suitable for a given site, situation, or type of hazard. As Theoharidou, M. et al. noted (Theoharidou, M., P. Kotzanikolaou, and D. Gritzalis 2009. Risk-Based Criticality Analysis. In Critical Infrastructure Protection III. Proceedings. Third Annual IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection. Hanover, New Hampshire, USA, March 23-25, 2009: revised selected papers, edited by C. Palmer and S. Shenoi, 35-49. Berlin: Springer.), despite the wealth of knowledge already created, there is a need for simple, feasible, and standardized criticality analyses. The proposed systematic risk assessment methodology includes three basic steps: the first step (preliminary analysis) includes the identification of hazards (including possible natural hazards) for each installation/section within a given site, followed by a criterial analysis and then a detailed analysis step

  16. Stability Assessment as a Criterion of Stabilization of the Movement Trajectory of Mobile Crane Working Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacalak, W.; Budniak, Z.; Majewski, M.

    2018-02-01

    The article presents a stability assessment method of the mobile crane handling system based on the safety indicator values that were accepted as the trajectory optimization criterion. With the use of the mathematical model built and the model built in the integrated CAD/CAE environment, analyses were conducted of the displacements of the mass centre of the crane system, reactions of the outrigger system, stabilizing and overturning torques that act on the crane as well as the safety indicator values for the given movement trajectories of the crane working elements.

  17. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Breuer, Jörn; Vergne, Philippe; Sanz, María José; Rasmussen, Stine; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Ribas Artola, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep; He, Shang; Garrec, Jean Pierre; Calatayud, Vicent

    Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for consecutive periods of four weeks each to ambient air at up to 100 sites in 11 cities during 2000-2002. Results of the 2001 exposure experiments revealed a clear differentiation of trace element pollution within and among local monitoring networks. Pollution was influenced particularly by traffic emissions. Especially Sb, Pb, Cr, Fe, and Cu exhibited a very uneven distribution within the municipal areas with strong accumulation in plants from traffic-exposed sites in the city centres and close to major roads, and moderate to low levels in plants exposed at suburban or rural sites. Accumulation of Ni and V was influenced by other emission sources. The biomonitoring sites located in Spanish city centres featured a much higher pollution load by trace elements than those in other cities of the network, confirming previously reported findings obtained by chemical analyses of dust deposition and aerosols. At some heavily-trafficked sites, legal thresholds for Cu, Pb, and V contents in foodstuff and animal feed were reached or even surpassed. The study confirmed that the standardised grass exposure is a useful and reliable tool to monitor and to assess environmental levels of potentially toxic compounds of particulate matter.

  18. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Furlan, Marcos R.

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  19. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiosussa@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furlan, Marcos R., E-mail: furlanagro@gmail.com [Universidade de Taubate, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias

    2013-07-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  20. Risk assessment and driving factors for artificial topography on element heterogeneity: Case study at Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hualong; Dai, Minyue; Lu, Haoliang; Liu, Jingchun; Zhang, Jie; Yan, Chongling

    2018-02-01

    The rapid expansion of construction related to coastal development evokes great concern about environmental risks. Recent attention has been focused mainly on factors related to the effects of waterlogging, but there is urgent need to address the potential hazard caused by artificial topography: derived changes in the elemental composition of the sediments. To reveal possible mechanisms and to assess the environmental risks of artificial topography on transition of elemental composition in the sediment at adjoining zones, a nest-random effects-combined investigation was carried out around a semi-open seawall. The results implied great changes induced by artificial topography. Not only did artificial topography alter the sediment elemental composition at sites under the effect of artificial topography, but also caused a coupling pattern transition of elements S and Cd. The biogeochemical processes associated with S were also important, as suggested by cluster analysis. The geo-accumulation index shows that artificial topography triggered the accumulation of C, N, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, As and Cd, and increased the pollution risk of C, N, S, Cu, As and Cd. Enrichment factors reveal that artificial topography is a new type of human-activity-derived Cu contamination. The heavy metal Cu was notably promoted on both the geo-accumulation index and the enrichment factor under the influence of artificial topography. Further analysis showed that the Cu content in the sediment could be fitted using equations for Al and organic carbon, which represented clay mineral sedimentation and organic matter accumulation, respectively. Copper could be a reliable indicator of environmental degradation caused by artificial topography. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A First Assessment of the Elemental Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols in the Canadian Oil Sands Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabek-Zlotorzynska E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Canadian Oil Sands, which comprise 97% of Canada’s 176 billion barrels of proven oil reserves, are located beneath 140,200 km2 of boreal forests, prairies and wetlands, and are the second largest known deposit of crude oil in the world. As such, this region has experienced rapid industrial development, which resulted also in increasing industrial air emissions, primarily from bitumen upgrading and mine vehicle fleet operations. This rapid development has led to concerns regarding health risk to humans, and other terrestrial and aquatic wildlife associated with exposure to toxic contaminants, especially metals and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs particularly along the Athabasca River and its watershed. Canada’s Minister of the Environment announced that Environment Canada (EC will jointly lead, in collaboration with Government of Alberta and relevant stakeholders, the development and implementation of an enhanced monitoring system in the Oil Sands region to provide information on the state of the air, water, land andbiodiversity. This work presents preliminary data on the first assessment of elemental composition of fine particulate matter (particles<2.5 mm in diameter; PM2.5 at 3 air quality sites in close proximity to Oil Sands processing activities. Since December 2010, integrated 24 hour air samples were collected every sixth day on a 47-mm Teflon filters using Thermo Fisher Partisol 2000-FRM samplers operated by the National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS network that involves EC and the Canadian provinces and territories. All samples including laboratory, travel and field blanks were subjected to gravimetric determination of PM2.5 mass and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF analysis for 46 elements. Since ED-XRF is a non-destructive technique, PM2.5 samples were subsequently analyzed for 37 trace elements including rare earth elements using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS combined with microwave

  2. Application of Grounded Theory in Determining Required Elements for IPv6 Risk Assessment Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosli Athirah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6 has raised security concerns among the network administrators. Thus, in strengthening the network security, administrator requires an appropriate method to assess the possible risks that occur in their networks. Aware of the needs to calculate risk in IPv6 network, it is essential to an organization to have an equation that is flexible and consider the requirements of the network. However, the existing risk assessment equations do not consider the requirement of the network. Therefore, this paper presents the adaptation of grounded theory to search for elements that are needed to develop IPv6 risk assessment (IRA6 equation. The attack scenarios’ experiments; UDP Flooding, TCP Flooding and Multicast attacks were carried out in different network environment to show how the IPv6 risk assessment equation being used. The result shows that the IRA6 equation is more flexible to be used regardless the network sizes and easier to calculate the risk value compared to the existing risk assessment equations. Hence, network administrators can have a proper decision making and strategic planning for a robust network security.

  3. An assessment of the DORT method on simple scatterers using boundary element modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélat, P; Ter Haar, G; Saffari, N

    2015-05-07

    The ability to focus through ribs overcomes an important limitation of a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) system for the treatment of liver tumours. Whilst it is important to generate high enough acoustic pressures at the treatment location for tissue lesioning, it is also paramount to ensure that the resulting ultrasonic dose on the ribs remains below a specified threshold, since ribs both strongly absorb and reflect ultrasound. The DORT (décomposition de l'opérateur de retournement temporel) method has the ability to focus on and through scatterers immersed in an acoustic medium selectively without requiring prior knowledge of their location or geometry. The method requires a multi-element transducer and is implemented via a singular value decomposition of the measured matrix of inter-element transfer functions. The efficacy of a method of focusing through scatterers is often assessed by comparing the specific absorption rate (SAR) at the surface of the scatterer, and at the focal region. The SAR can be obtained from a knowledge of the acoustic pressure magnitude and the acoustic properties of the medium and scatterer. It is well known that measuring acoustic pressures with a calibrated hydrophone at or near a hard surface presents experimental challenges, potentially resulting in increased measurement uncertainties. Hence, the DORT method is usually assessed experimentally by measuring the SAR at locations on the surface of the scatterer after the latter has been removed from the acoustic medium. This is also likely to generate uncertainties in the acoustic pressure measurement. There is therefore a strong case for assessing the efficacy of the DORT method through a validated theoretical model. The boundary element method (BEM) applied to exterior acoustic scattering problems is well-suited for such an assessment. In this study, BEM was used to implement the DORT method theoretically on locally reacting spherical scatterers, and to assess its focusing

  4. Safety assessment of a shallow foundation using the random finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaskórski, Łukasz; Puła, Wojciech

    2015-04-01

    A complex structure of soil and its random character are reasons why soil modeling is a cumbersome task. Heterogeneity of soil has to be considered even within a homogenous layer of soil. Therefore an estimation of shear strength parameters of soil for the purposes of a geotechnical analysis causes many problems. In applicable standards (Eurocode 7) there is not presented any explicit method of an evaluation of characteristic values of soil parameters. Only general guidelines can be found how these values should be estimated. Hence many approaches of an assessment of characteristic values of soil parameters are presented in literature and can be applied in practice. In this paper, the reliability assessment of a shallow strip footing was conducted using a reliability index β. Therefore some approaches of an estimation of characteristic values of soil properties were compared by evaluating values of reliability index β which can be achieved by applying each of them. Method of Orr and Breysse, Duncan's method, Schneider's method, Schneider's method concerning influence of fluctuation scales and method included in Eurocode 7 were examined. Design values of the bearing capacity based on these approaches were referred to the stochastic bearing capacity estimated by the random finite element method (RFEM). Design values of the bearing capacity were conducted for various widths and depths of a foundation in conjunction with design approaches DA defined in Eurocode. RFEM was presented by Griffiths and Fenton (1993). It combines deterministic finite element method, random field theory and Monte Carlo simulations. Random field theory allows to consider a random character of soil parameters within a homogenous layer of soil. For this purpose a soil property is considered as a separate random variable in every element of a mesh in the finite element method with proper correlation structure between points of given area. RFEM was applied to estimate which theoretical

  5. Using experimental modal analysis to assess the behaviour of timber elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouroussis, Georges; Fekih, Lassaad Ben; Descamps, Thierry

    2018-03-01

    Timber frameworks are one of the most important and widespread types of structures. Their configurations and joints are usually complex and require a high level of craftsmanship to assemble. In the field of restoration, a good understanding of the structural behaviour is necessary and is often based on assessment techniques dedicated to wood characterisation. This paper presents the use of experimental modal analysis for finite element updating. To do this, several timber beams in a free supported condition were analysed in order to extract their bending natural characteristics (frequency, damping and mode shapes). Corresponding ABAQUS finite element models were derived which included the effects of local defects (holes, cracks and wood nodes), moisture and structural decay. To achieve the modal updating, additional simulations were performed in order to study the sensitivity of the mechanical parameters. With the intent to estimate their mechanical properties, a procedure of modal updating was carried out in MatLab with a Python script. This was created to extract the modal information from the ABAQUS modal analysis results to be compared with the experimental results. The updating was based on a minimum of unconstrained multivariable function using a derivative-free method. The objective function was selected from the conventional comparison tools (absolute or relative frequency difference, and/or modal assurance criterion). This testing technique was used to determine the dynamic mechanical properties of timber beams, such as the anisotropic Young's Moduli and damping ratio. To verify the modulus, a series of static 4-point bending tests and STS04 classifications were conducted. The results also revealed that local defects have a negligible influence on natural frequencies. The results demonstrate that this assessment tool offers an effective method to obtain the mechanical properties of timber elements, especially when on-site and non-destructive techniques are

  6. Risk assessment of particle dispersion and trace element contamination from mine-waste dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Antonio; González, Isabel; Martín, José María; Vázquez, María Auxiliadora; Ortiz, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a model to delimit risk zones influenced by atmospheric particle dispersion from mine-waste dumps is developed to assess their influence on the soil and the population according to the concentration of trace elements in the waste. The model is applied to the Riotinto Mine (in SW Spain), which has a long history of mining and heavy land contamination. The waste materials are separated into three clusters according to the mapping, mineralogy, and geochemical classification using cluster analysis. Two of the clusters are composed of slag, fresh pyrite, and roasted pyrite ashes, which may contain high concentrations of trace elements (e.g., >1 % As or >4 % Pb). The average pollution load index (PLI) calculated for As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Tl, and Zn versus the baseline of the regional soil is 19. The other cluster is primarily composed of sterile rocks and ochreous tailings, and the average PLI is 3. The combination of particle dispersion calculated by a Gaussian model, the PLI, the surface area of each waste and the wind direction is used to develop a risk-assessment model with Geographic Information System GIS software. The zone of high risk can affect the agricultural soil and the population in the study area, particularly if mining activity is restarted in the near future. This model can be applied to spatial planning and environmental protection if the information is complemented with atmospheric particulate matter studies.

  7. Elements at risk as a framework for assessing the vulnerability of communities to landslides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Papathoma-Köhle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the vulnerability of communities prone to landslide related disasters is a topic that is growing in importance. Few studies discuss this issue and limited research has been carried out on the relationship between types of landslide and their potential impact on buildings and infrastructure. We outline a framework to undertake an assessment of the vulnerability of buildings to landslide utilising a similar framework used for assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami damage. The framework is based on the development of an "elements at risk database" that takes into consideration the characteristics and use of the buildings, their importance for the local economy and the characteristics of the inhabitants (population density, age and so forth. The attributes that affect vulnerability are imported and examined within a GIS database which is used to visualise the physical, human and economic vulnerability. The results may have important implications for disaster management and emergency planning, and the database can be used by various end-users and stakeholders such as insurance companies, local authorities and the emergency services. The approach presented here can be integrated in to a wider more detailed "Framework for Landslide Risk and Vulnerability Assessment for Communities". We illustrate the potential of this framework and present preliminary results from Lichtenstein, Baden Württemberg, Germany.

  8. Trace elements in starter infant formula: dietary intake and safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargellini, Annalisa; Venturelli, Francesco; Casali, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Angela; Marchesi, Isabella; Borella, Paola

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of five essential (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Se) and four non-essential/toxic elements (Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb) in 35 different starter infant formulas (0-6 months) sold in Italy. In addition, a safety assessment of these trace elements was carried out, by comparing the estimated daily intake (EDI) with the adequate intake (AI) and the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI), with a view to provide information on the metal distribution patterns and health risk to infants arising from the consumption of these products. The concentrations were determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave digestion. The concentrations expressed in geometric mean ± geometric standard deviation of Fe (6.17 ± 1.61 mg/L), Zn (6.21 ± 1.31 mg/L), Cu (416.4 ± 1.21 μg/L), Mn (121.5 ± 1.85 μg/L) and Se (13.27 ± 1.67 μg/L) were within legal limits. In spite of this, the mean EDIs of Fe (4.81 mg/day) and Mn (94.75 μg/day) were many times higher than the recommended AI, especially for Mn. Chromium, Ni, Cd and Pb concentrations were not detectable in 11, 37, 57 and 66% of the samples, respectively. Considering the overall sample, the GM ± GSD of these elements were 4.80 ± 5.35 μg/L for Cr, 1.02 ± 11.65 μg/L for Ni, 0.21 ± 14.83 μg/L for Cd and 0.14 ± 17.13 μg/L for Pb. The mean EDIs were far below the respective PTDI. When the safety assessment was based on the 75° percentile level of each elements, all EDIs remained well below the PTDI, with the exception of Cd, whose EDI approached (74.7%), albeit remaining below the PTDI. In conclusion, our results and the increased awareness on the potential risks of excessive Mn and Fe for infants support that an urgent scientific-based definition of the appropriated levels of fortification in formulas is required. Moreover, regular monitoring of all the stages of production of infant formulas is essential in order to

  9. Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices (RAPID) - Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices Core Data Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W Schuyler; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Morales, Pablo; Wilgus, Rebecca W; Heath, Anne H; Williams, Mary F; Tcheng, James E; Marinac-Dabic, J Danica; Malone, Misti L; Reed, Terrie L; Fukaya, Rie; Lookstein, Robert; Handa, Nobuhiro; Aronow, Herbert D; Bertges, Daniel J; Jaff, Michael R; Tsai, Thomas T; Smale, Joshua A; Zaugg, Margo J; Thatcher, Robert J; Cronenwett, Jack L; Nc, Durham; Md, Silver Spring; Japan, Tokyo; Ny, New York; Ri, Providence; Vt, Burlington; Mass, Newton; Colo, Denver; Ariz, Tempe; Calif, Santa Clara; Minn, Minneapolis; Nh, Lebanon

    2018-01-25

    The current state of evaluating patients with peripheral artery disease and more specifically of evaluating medical devices used for peripheral vascular intervention (PVI) remains challenging because of the heterogeneity of the disease process, the multiple physician specialties that perform PVI, the multitude of devices available to treat peripheral artery disease, and the lack of consensus about the best treatment approaches. Because PVI core data elements are not standardized across clinical care, clinical trials, and registries, aggregation of data across different data sources and physician specialties is currently not feasible.Methods and Results:Under the auspices of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Medical Device Epidemiology Network initiative-and its PASSION (Predictable and Sustainable Implementation of the National Registries) program, in conjunction with other efforts to align clinical data standards-the Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices (RAPID) workgroup was convened. RAPID is a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to develop a consensus lexicon and to promote interoperability across clinical care, clinical trials, and national and international registries of PVI. The current manuscript presents the initial work from RAPID to standardize clinical data elements and definitions, to establish a framework within electronic health records and health information technology procedural reporting systems, and to implement an informatics-based approach to promote the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials and registry efforts in PVI. Ultimately, we hope this work will facilitate and improve device evaluation and surveillance for patients, clinicians, health outcomes researchers, industry, policymakers, and regulators.

  10. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Edina; Braun, Mihály; Vidic, Andreas; Bogyó, Dávid; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2011-05-01

    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Major and trace elements assessment in sediment from Ituparanga reservoir, by activation analysis and ICP OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sharlleny A., E-mail: sharllenya@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Inorganica; Bevilacqua, Jose Eduardo [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Tecnologia, Qualidade e Avaliacao Ambiental; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2011-07-01

    The Ituparanga reservoir was built to generate electric power by the LIGHT Company and started its operation in 1912. It is fed by the Una, Sorocamirim and Sorocabucu rivers. This reservoir supplies water to a population of 600.000. This water system is affected by irregular soil occupation and urban development which has caught CETESB's (Environmental Company of Sao Paulo State) attention. In this study four geo-referenced sampling points were used and bottom sediment samples were collected. The sediment samples were dried at 400 deg C, ground in an agate mortar, sieved (200 mesh) and again homogenized. The instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the sediment samples in order to determine some major elements (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. By using ICP OES metals determination for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni was undertaken after digestion procedure according to the 3051 method from US EPA. The methodology validation for precision and accuracy was carried out by reference material analyses. For metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni the concentration values were compared to the oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL). The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated for sediment contamination assessment. (author)

  12. Major and trace elements assessment in sediment from Ituparanga reservoir, by activation analysis and ICP OES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Sharlleny A.; Bevilacqua, Jose Eduardo; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2011-01-01

    The Ituparanga reservoir was built to generate electric power by the LIGHT Company and started its operation in 1912. It is fed by the Una, Sorocamirim and Sorocabucu rivers. This reservoir supplies water to a population of 600.000. This water system is affected by irregular soil occupation and urban development which has caught CETESB's (Environmental Company of Sao Paulo State) attention. In this study four geo-referenced sampling points were used and bottom sediment samples were collected. The sediment samples were dried at 400 deg C, ground in an agate mortar, sieved (200 mesh) and again homogenized. The instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the sediment samples in order to determine some major elements (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. By using ICP OES metals determination for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni was undertaken after digestion procedure according to the 3051 method from US EPA. The methodology validation for precision and accuracy was carried out by reference material analyses. For metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni the concentration values were compared to the oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL). The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated for sediment contamination assessment. (author)

  13. Assessment of risks for employees of France Telecom regarding overvoltage arresters containing radio-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassin, A.; Metz, C.; Rannou, A.

    2010-01-01

    As a great number of overvoltage arresters used by France Telecom to protect its telecommunication network against disturbing voltages (notably lightning) contain radio-elements, this report aims at assessing dose levels and associated risks for employees exposed to radioactive overvoltage arrester when setting them up, exploiting installations containing such arresters, or when removing them. After a presentation of these devices, a modelling of activities and geometries is proposed, as well as computation tools. Different scenarios and exposure situations are considered. As far as risks are concerned, after a recall on cancers and ionizing radiation, and on the exposure of France Telecom employees, the report comments the knowledge on radio-induced cancers; notably breast cancer, skin cancer, and mouth and pharynx cancers

  14. Structural assessment of aerospace components using image processing algorithms and Finite Element models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatelos, Dimtrios; Kappatos, Vassilios

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – This paper presents the development of an advanced structural assessment approach for aerospace components (metallic and composites). This work focuses on developing an automatic image processing methodology based on Non Destructive Testing (NDT) data and numerical models, for predicting...... the residual strength of these components. Design/methodology/approach – An image processing algorithm, based on the threshold method, has been developed to process and quantify the geometric characteristics of damages. Then, a parametric Finite Element (FE) model of the damaged component is developed based...... on the inputs acquired from the image processing algorithm. The analysis of the metallic structures is employing the Extended FE Method (XFEM), while for the composite structures the Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) technique with Progressive Damage Modelling (PDM) is used. Findings – The numerical analyses...

  15. Stable crack growth behaviors in welded CT specimens -- finite element analyses and simplified assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagawa, Genki; Yoshimura, Shinobu; Aoki, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Masanori; Arai, Yoshio; Kashima, Koichi; Watanabe, Takayuki; Shimakawa, Takashi

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes stable crack growth behaviors in welded CT specimens made of nuclear pressure vessel A533B class 1 steel, in which initial cracks are placed to be normal to fusion line. At first, using the relations between the load-line displacement (δ) and the crack extension amount (Δa) measured in experiments, the generation phase finite element crack growth analyses are performed, calculating the applied load (P) and various kinds of J-integrals. Next, the simplified crack growth analyses based on the GE/EPRI method and the reference stress method are performed using the same experimental results. Some modification procedures of the two simplified assessment schemes are discussed to make them applicable to inhomogeneous materials. Finally, a neural network approach is proposed to optimize the above modification procedures. 20 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  16. Life cycle assessment of the production of rare earth elements for energy applications: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio eNavarro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth elements (REEs are a group of seventeen elements with similar chemical properties, including fifteen in the lanthanide group, yttrium, and scandium. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties REEs gain increasing importance in many new energy technologies and systems that contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel depletion (e.g., wind turbine, electric vehicles, high efficiency lighting, batteries, and hydrogen storage. However, it is well known that production of REEs is far from environmentally sustainable as it requires significant material and energy consumption while generating large amounts of air/water emissions and solid waste. Although life cycle assessment (LCA has been accepted as the most comprehensive approach to quantify the environmental sustainability of a product or process, to date, there have been only very limited LCA studies on the production of REEs. With the continual growth of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, global production of REEs will increase. Therefore reducing environmental footprints of REE production becomes critical and identifying environmental hotspots based on a holistic and comprehensive assessment on environmental impacts serves as an important starting point. After providing an overview of LCA methodology and a high-level description of the major REE production routes used from 1990s to today, this paper reviews the published LCA studies on the production of REEs. To date, almost all the LCA studies are based on process information collected from the operation of Mountain Pass facility in U.S. in 1990s and the operation of facilities in Bayan Obo, China. Knowledge gaps are identified and future research efforts are suggested to advance understanding on environmental impacts of REE production from the life cycle perspective.

  17. Assessment of the ecological impacts of macroroughness elements in stream flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niayifar, Amin; Oldroyd, Holly J.; Perona, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The environmental suitability of flow release rules is often assessed for different fish species by modeling (e.g., CASiMir and PHABSIM) Weighted Usable Area (WUA) curves. However, these models are not able to resolve the hydrodynamic at small scales, e.g. that induced by the presence of macroroughness (e.g., single stones), which yet determine relatively large wakes that may contribute significantly in terms of habitat suitability. The presence of stones generates sheltered zones (i.e., the wake), which are typically temporary stationary points for many fish species. By resting in these low velocity regions, fishes minimize energy expenditure, and can quickly move to nearby fast water to feed (Hayes and Jowett, 1994). Following the analytical model proposed by Negretti et al., (2006), we developed an analytical solution for the wake area behind the macroroughness elements. The total wake area in the river reach being monitored is a function of the streamflow, Q, and it is an actual Usable Area for fishes that can be used to correct the one computed by classic software such as PHABSIM or CASIMIR at each flow rate. By quantifying these wake areas we can therefore assess how the physical properties and number of such zones change in response to the changing hydrologic regime. In order to validate the concept, we selected a 400 meter reach from the Aare river in the center of Switzerland. The statistical distribution of macroroughness elements is obtained by taking orthorectified aerial photographs by drone surveys during low flow conditions. Then, the distribution of the wakes is obtained analytically as a derived distribution. This methodology allows to save computational costs and the time for detailed field surveys.

  18. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Edina; Braun, Mihaly; Vidic, Andreas; Bogyo, David; Fabian, Istvan; Tothmeresz, Bela

    2011-01-01

    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Highlights: → We studied the elements in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient, Austria. → We analysed 19 elements: Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Pb, S, Sr and Zn. → Elemental concentrations were higher in urban area than in the rural area. → Studied areas were separated by CDA based on the elemental concentrations. → Dust and leaves can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Studying the elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Sr, Zn) in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient in Wien, Austria we found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for Al, Ba, Fe, Pb, P and Se, and concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for Mn and Sr.

  19. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Edina, E-mail: edina.simon@gmail.com [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Braun, Mihaly [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Vidic, Andreas [Department fuer Naturschutzbiologie, Vegetations- und Landschaftsoekologie, Universitat Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria); Bogyo, David [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Fabian, Istvan [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Tothmeresz, Bela [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary)

    2011-05-15

    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Highlights: > We studied the elements in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient, Austria. > We analysed 19 elements: Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Pb, S, Sr and Zn. > Elemental concentrations were higher in urban area than in the rural area. > Studied areas were separated by CDA based on the elemental concentrations. > Dust and leaves can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Studying the elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Sr, Zn) in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient in Wien, Austria we found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for Al, Ba, Fe, Pb, P and Se, and concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for Mn and Sr.

  20. Occurrence and risk assessment of potentially toxic elements and typical organic pollutants in contaminated rural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongfeng; Dai, Shixiang; Meng, Ke; Wang, Yuting; Ren, Wenjie; Zhao, Ling; Christie, Peter; Teng, Ying

    2018-07-15

    The residual levels and risk assessment of several potentially toxic elements (PTEs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rural soils near different types of pollution sources in Tianjin, China, were studied. The soils were found to be polluted to different extents with PTEs, PAEs and PAHs from different pollution sources. The soil concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), acenaphthylene (Any) and acenaphthene (Ane) were higher than their corresponding regulatory reference limits. The health risk assessment model used to calculate human exposure indicates that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from selected pollutants were generally acceptable or close to acceptable. Different types of pollution sources and soil physicochemical properties substantially affected the soil residual concentrations of and risks from these pollutants. PTEs in soils collected from agricultural lands around industrial and residential areas and organic pollutants (PAEs and PAHs) in soils collected from agricultural areas around livestock breeding were higher than those from other types of pollution sources and merit long-term monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Making communities safer from crime: An undervalued element in impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasson, John; Cozens, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Crime and safety are significant issues for individuals, communities and businesses but they have tended to be undervalued elements in the consideration of social impacts in impact assessment theory and practice. It has been argued that crime is a form of pollution and an externality of development. In principle, the precautionary impact assessment family of approaches should be very useful here. The paper explores first the coverage of crime and safety issues in both the longer history of EIA, followed by the much shorter history of SEA and Sustainability Appraisal (SA). It then considers several key issues for advancing better practice. These include: the recognition of the lifecycles of projects and plans and the relevant dimensions of the local safety and crime baseline; the need to employ meaningful data, including 'fear of crime' considerations; and the consideration of innovative approaches to the use of indicators. Evidence and theories from the field of environmental criminology are presented as crucial to understanding crime and its association with land-use. The paper concludes with an exploration of appropriate mitigation measures for anticipating and designing out crime. Examples draw in particular on evolving practice in the UK and Australia.

  2. A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY AIR/WATER EXCHANGE PARTNERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although evasion of elemental mercury from aquatic systems can significantly deplete net mercury accumulation resulting from atmospheric deposition, the current ability to model elemental mercury air/water exchange is limited by uncertainties in our understanding of all gaseous a...

  3. A new discrete-element approach for the assessment of the seismic resistance of composite reinforced concrete-masonry buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calio, I.; Cannizzaro, F.; Marletta, M.; Panto, B.; D'Amore, E.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study a new discrete-element approach for the evaluation of the seismic resistance of composite reinforced concrete-masonry structures is presented. In the proposed model, unreinforced masonry panels are modelled by means of two-dimensional discrete-elements, conceived by the authors for modelling masonry structures, whereas the reinforced concrete elements are modelled by lumped plasticity elements interacting with the masonry panels through nonlinear interface elements. The proposed procedure was adopted for the assessment of the seismic response of a case study confined-masonry building which was conceived to be a typical representative of a wide class of residential buildings designed to the requirements of the 1909 issue of the Italian seismic code and widely adopted in the aftermath of the 1908 earthquake for the reconstruction of the cities of Messina and Reggio Calabria

  4. Concentrations and health risk assessment of rare earth elements in vegetables from mining area in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Maoqiang; Zhao, Jinshan; Li, Suyun; Liu, Danru; Wang, Kebo; Xiao, Peirui; Yu, Lianlong; Jiang, Ying; Song, Jian; Zhou, Jingyang; Wang, Liansen; Chu, Zunhua

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the concentrations of rare earth elements in vegetables and assess human health risk through vegetable consumption, a total of 301 vegetable samples were collected from mining area and control area in Shandong, China. The contents of 14 rare earth elements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The total rare earth elements in vegetables from mining and control areas were 94.08 μg kg -1 and 38.67 μg kg -1 , respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p vegetable had the highest rare earth elements concentration (984.24 μg kg -1 and 81.24 μg kg -1 for mining and control areas, respectively) and gourd vegetable had the lowest rare earth elements concentration (37.34 μg kg -1 and 24.63 μg kg -1 for mining and control areas, respectively). For both areas, the rare earth elements concentration in vegetables declined in the order of leaf vegetable > taproot vegetable > alliaceous vegetable > gourd vegetable. The rare earth elements distribution patterns for both areas were characterized by enrichment of light rare earth elements. The health risk assessment demonstrated that the estimated daily intakes (0.69 μg kg -1 d -1 and 0.28 μg kg -1 d -1 for mining and control areas, respectively) of rare earth elements through vegetable consumption were significantly lower than the acceptable daily intake (70 μg kg -1 d -1 ). The damage to adults can be neglected, but more attention should be paid to the effects of continuous exposure to low levels of rare earth elements on children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of trace element accumulation by earthworms in an orchard soil remediation study using soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofantia, Tiziana; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; McConnell, Laura L.; Davis, A. P.; Jackson, Dana

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed potential bioaccumulation of various trace elements in grasses and earthworms as a consequence of soil incorporation of organic amendments for in situ remediation of an orchard field soil contaminated with organochlorine and Pb pesticide residues. In this experiment, four organic amendments of differing total organic carbon content and quality (two types of composted manure, composted biosolids, and biochar) were added to a contaminated orchard field soil, planted with two types of grasses, and tested for their ability to reduce bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metals in earthworms. The experiment was carried out in 4-L soil microcosms in a controlled environment for 90 days. After 45 days of orchardgrass or perennial ryegrass growth, Lumbricus terrestris L. were introduced to the microcosms and exposed to the experimental soils for 45 days before the experiment was ended. Total trace element concentrations in the added organic amendments were below recommended safe levels and their phytoavailablity and earthworm availability remained low during a 90-day bioremediation study. At the end of the experiment, total tissue concentrations of Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn in earthworms and grasses were below recommended safe levels. Total concentrations of Pb in test soil were similar to maximum background levels of Pb recorded in soils in the Eastern USA (100 mg kg−1 d.w.) because of previous application of orchard pesticides. Addition of aged dairy manure compost and presence of grasses was effective in reducing the accumulation of soil-derived Pb in earthworms, thus reducing the risk of soil Pb entry into wildlife food chains.

  6. use of nuclear spectroscopic techniques for assessment of polluting elements in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Reefy, H.I.

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of elements and radioisotopes in sediment, soil, water and wild plant samples collected from Burullus Lake, Egypt, has been studied in order to understand current contamination due to agricultural and industrial wastewaters. A multiple approaches were applied to assess properly sediment contamination in the Burullus Lake. The distributions of the Al, Fe and Mn in the lake's sediments are relatively homogenous with the exception of three locations with significantly high levels of Al and Fe in close approximation in the southeastern part. Sediments collected from the lake can be categorized as unpolluted with the exception of three locations which were very low polluted with Sr based on the geo-accumulation indices. High enrichment factors were obtained for Mn, Co, Cr, Cu and Zn. The MPIs indicate that one of the drain may have a major role in mobilizing major and trace metals in the lake environment while cluster analysis indicates possible pollution from only three of the drainage channels. Comparisons with consensus-based sediment quality guidelines revealed that 100%, ∼69%, ∼92% and ∼∼15% of the samples exceeded the threshold effect concentration for Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn, respectively, with over 15% for Cr and Ni of the sample concentrations falling above the probable effect concentration. On the other hand, no samples exceed both levels for Pb. The concentration of 40 K is uniform and that of 137 Cs is generally higher in eastern part of the lake. The result indicate that 226 Ra is less soluble in the lake environment than 232 Th. Elemental concentrations in water have uniform distributions and the Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Cu and Ni are more likely to exist in soluble phase in the lake environment.

  7. Multicriteria-based decision aiding technique for assessing energy policy elements-demonstration to a case in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Md. Mizanur; Paatero, Jukka V.; Lahdelma, Risto; Wahid, Mazlan A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A multicriteria technique for assessing energy policy elements has been proposed. • Energy policy elements have been examined based on assigned criteria. • This assessment gives results which are representative of all stakeholders. • Policy elements which are chosen by this method promote sustainability. - Abstract: The adverse environmental consequences and diminishing trend of fossil fuel reserves indicate a serious need for vibrant and judicious energy policy. Energy policy involves a number of stakeholders, and needs to incorporate the interests and requirements of all the key stakeholder groups. This paper presents a methodological technique to assist with formulating, evaluating, and promoting the energy policy of a country in a transparent and representative way with clear scientific justifications and balanced assessments. The multicriteria decision analysis approach has been a widely used technique for evaluating different alternatives based on the interests of a multitude of stakeholders, and goals. This paper utilizes the SMAA (Stochastic Multicriteria Acceptability Analysis) tool, which can evaluate different alternatives by incorporating multiple criteria, in order to examine the preferences of different policy elements. We further extend this technique by incorporating the LEAP model (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system) to assess the emission impacts of different policy elements. We demonstrate the application of this evaluation technique by an analysis of four hypothetical policy elements namely Business-as usual (BAU), Renewables (REN), Renewable-biomass only (REN-b), and Energy conservation and efficient technologies (ECET). These are applied to the case of sharing fuel sources for power generation for the Bangladesh power sector. We found that the REN-b and REN policy elements were the best and second best alternatives with 41% and 32% acceptability respectively. This technique gives transparent information for

  8. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-01-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  9. Elements of a regulatory strategy for the consideration of future human actions in safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Wickham, S.M.; Galson, D.A.

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this report is to discuss issues that should be considered in the development of a regulatory strategy for assessing future human actions in any forthcoming license application for a deep repository for spent fuel in Sweden and for sites of other repositories. The report comprises an outline of key issues concerning the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, reviews of regulatory developments, recent safety assessments and supporting studies, and international initiatives on the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, and the principal elements of a regulatory strategy. Performance assessments (PAs) are generally accepted as providing illustrations of system performance under given sets of assumptions. The results of PAs are clearer and easier to understand if certain large uncertainties are accounted for by determining performance under several different sets of assumptions or scenarios, each of which defines a possible evolution of the disposal system. A number of assumptions can be made that would restrict the scope of an assessment without reducing the credibility of the corresponding safety case. Reducing speculation about technological development, by assuming that the techniques used in future human activities are similar to those currently in use in the region or at similar sites, will simplify the assessment. A distinction is generally made between inadvertent and intentional intrusion, with intentional activities excluded because society cannot protect future populations from their own actions if they understand the potential consequences. A division of human activities into 'recent and ongoing' and 'future' activities considers not only the timing of the activities but also the degree of control or influence that can be imposed on them. Recent and ongoing human activities are those that affect an area beyond the immediate vicinity of the disposal facility and which neither the proponent nor the regulator

  10. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Biao, E-mail: bhuang@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Wenyou [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao [Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Niedermann, Silvana [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Agricultural Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  11. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  12. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira, Joaquim [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Nadal, Martí [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, José L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for <1-year-old children were assessed. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were below safe (HQ<1) and acceptable (<10{sup −6}) limits, respectively, according to international standards. However, for Sb, non-carcinogenic risk was above 10% of the safety limit (HQ>0.1) for dermal contact with clothes. - Highlights: • We determined in skin-contact clothes the concentrations of a number of metals. • Dermal contact exposure and health risks for adults and for 1-year-old children were assessed. • Carcinogenic risks were considered as acceptable (<10{sup −6}). • For non-carcinogenic risks, only Sb exceeded a 10% of the HQ for dermal contact with clothes.

  13. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L.

    2015-01-01

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for <1-year-old children were assessed. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were below safe (HQ<1) and acceptable (<10 −6 ) limits, respectively, according to international standards. However, for Sb, non-carcinogenic risk was above 10% of the safety limit (HQ>0.1) for dermal contact with clothes. - Highlights: • We determined in skin-contact clothes the concentrations of a number of metals. • Dermal contact exposure and health risks for adults and for 1-year-old children were assessed. • Carcinogenic risks were considered as acceptable (<10 −6 ). • For non-carcinogenic risks, only Sb exceeded a 10% of the HQ for dermal contact with clothes

  14. Conceptual Elements: A Detailed Framework to Support and Assess Student Learning of Biology Core Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Tawnya; Branchaw, Janet

    2017-01-01

    The Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: Call to Action report has inspired and supported a nationwide movement to restructure undergraduate biology curricula to address overarching disciplinary concepts and competencies. The report outlines the concepts and competencies generally but does not provide a detailed framework to guide the development of the learning outcomes, instructional materials, and assessment instruments needed to create a reformed biology curriculum. In this essay, we present a detailed Vision and Change core concept framework that articulates key components that transcend subdisciplines and scales for each overarching biological concept, the Conceptual Elements (CE) Framework. The CE Framework was developed using a grassroots approach of iterative revision and incorporates feedback from more than 60 biologists and undergraduate biology educators from across the United States. The final validation step resulted in strong national consensus, with greater than 92% of responders agreeing that each core concept list was ready for use by the biological sciences community, as determined by scientific accuracy and completeness. In addition, we describe in detail how educators and departments can use the CE Framework to guide and document reformation of individual courses as well as entire curricula. PMID:28450444

  15. Elements of a regulatory strategy for the consideration of future human actions in safety assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Wickham, S.M.; Galson, D.A. [Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this report is to discuss issues that should be considered in the development of a regulatory strategy for assessing future human actions in any forthcoming license application for a deep repository for spent fuel in Sweden and for sites of other repositories. The report comprises an outline of key issues concerning the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, reviews of regulatory developments, recent safety assessments and supporting studies, and international initiatives on the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, and the principal elements of a regulatory strategy. Performance assessments (PAs) are generally accepted as providing illustrations of system performance under given sets of assumptions. The results of PAs are clearer and easier tounderstand if certain large uncertainties are accounted for by determining performance under several different sets of assumptions or scenarios, each of which defines a possible evolution of the disposal system. A number of assumptions can be made that would restrict the scope of an assessment without reducing the credibility of the corresponding safety case. Reducing speculation about technological development, by assuming that the techniques used in future human activities are similar to those currently in use in the region or at similar sites, will simplify the assessment. A distinction is generally made between inadvertent and intentional intrusion, with intentional activities excluded because society cannot protect future populations from their own actions if they understand the potential consequences. A division of human activities into 'recent and ongoing' and 'future' activities considers not only the timing of the activities but also the degree of control or influence that can be imposed on them. Recent and ongoing human activities are those that affect an area beyond the immediate vicinity of the disposal facility and which neither the proponent

  16. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index applied to sediment samples from the Guarapiranga reservoir, Brazil, for metal and trace element assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme M.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I.; Franklin, Robson L.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to assess sediment contamination by metals and other trace elements in five sampling points of the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Two collection campaigns were undertaken and the samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in order to determine the following elements: major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb , Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu). Soil samples were collected in the Guarapiranga Park, located next to the reservoir. Composite top soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in lines across the park at every 30m and were also analyzed by INAA. EF values was calculated using Sc as the conservative element for normalization purposes and soil from Guarapiranga region was used as background levels for the elements analyzed. EF > 1.5 were obtained for the elements As, Sb and Zn, with highest values for Zn (1.6< EF<4.0), mainly at sampling points near the water supply catchment point from the Water Treatment Agency of Sao Paulo State, indicating anthropogenic contribution. As for the other elements, a 0.5< EF<1.0 was obtained, indicating that they mostly originate from crustal contribution. The Igeo Index was calculated using soil values as background or pristine values as well. For Zn, Igeo values (1.0< EF<2.0) were obtained, and, according to this criteria, these sediments can be classified as moderately contaminated. (author)

  17. Safety assessment for the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundles with respect to the 37-element fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, H. C.; Lim, H. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    The KAERI and AECL have jointly developed an advanced CANDU fuel, called CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle. CANFLEX 43-element bundle has some improved features of increased operating margin and enhanced safety compared to the existing 37-element bundle. Since CANFLEX fuel bundle is designed to be compatible with the CANDU-6 reactor design, the behaviour in the thermalhydraulic system will be nearly identical with 37-element bundle. But due to different element design and linear element power distribution between the two bundles, it is expected that CANFLEX fuel behaviour would be different from the behaviour of the 37-element fuel. Therefore, safety assessments on the design basis accidents which result if fuel failures are performed. For all accidents selected, it is observed that the loading of CANFLEX bundle in an existing CANDU-6 reactor would not worsen the reactor safety. It is also predicted that fission product release for CANFLEX fuel bundle generally is lower than that for 37-element bundle. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  18. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index applied to sediment samples from the Guarapiranga reservoir, Brazil, for metal and trace element assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme M.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.b [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (EAAI/CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Inorganica e Radioatividade

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to assess sediment contamination by metals and other trace elements in five sampling points of the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Two collection campaigns were undertaken and the samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in order to determine the following elements: major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb , Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu). Soil samples were collected in the Guarapiranga Park, located next to the reservoir. Composite top soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in lines across the park at every 30m and were also analyzed by INAA. EF values was calculated using Sc as the conservative element for normalization purposes and soil from Guarapiranga region was used as background levels for the elements analyzed. EF > 1.5 were obtained for the elements As, Sb and Zn, with highest values for Zn (1.6elements, a 0.5

  19. Contamination and ecological risk assessment of trace elements in sediments of the rivers of Sundarban mangrove forest, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Al-Mamun, A; Hossain, F; Quraishi, S B; Naher, K; Khan, R; Das, S; Tamim, U; Hossain, S M; Nahid, F

    2017-11-15

    In this study, total concentrations of 16 trace elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, Pb, Th and U) in sediments of the rivers of the Sundarban mangrove forest, after the catastrophic oil spill accident in the Sela river of Sundarban, were determined. The overall mean concentrations of V, Cr, Fe and Cd in surface sediments of the Sundarban are remarkably higher than available literature data of those elements. Trace element contamination assessment, using different environmental contamination indices, reveals that As, Sb, Th and U are low to moderately contaminated while Cd is moderately to severely contaminated in the sediments of this area. The multivariate statistical analyses were applied to reveal the origin and behavior of the elements during their transport in the mangrove ecosystem. High Cr, Ni, Cu and As concentrations suggest the risk of potentially adverse biological effects in the ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Elemental atmospheric pollution assessment via moss-based measurements in Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrios Gatziolis; Sarah Jovan; Geoffrey Donovan; Michael Amacher; Vicente Monleon

    2016-01-01

    Mosses accumulate pollutants from the atmosphere and can serve as an inexpensive screening tool for mapping air quality and guiding the placement of monitoring instruments. We measured 22 elements using 346 moss samples collected across Portland, Oregon, in December 2013. Our objectives were to develop citywide maps showing concentrations of each element in moss and...

  1. Assessment of Structural Behavior of Non-corroded and Corroded RCC Beams Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Parande

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A three dimensional finite element model is developed to examine the structural behaviour of corroded reinforced concrete beam and non corroded reinforced concrete beam. Non linear finite element analysis is performed using the ANSYS program. SOLID 65, LINK 8 element represent concrete and discrete reinforcing steel bars, based on each component actual characteristics, non linear material properties are defined for both elements. The effect of corrosion in reinforced concrete is studied by finite element analysis; an approach is developed to model the corrosion product expansion causing concrete cover cracking for this, beam has been modeled using ANSYS and using this data the beam has been casted with M20 concrete after 28 days the beam will be tested for flexural strength. The comparison between ANSYS prediction and field data are made in terms of deflection, stress, strain, bond strength and crack pattern of concrete beam.

  2. Leak-Before-Break assessment of a welded piping based on 3D finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Mingya; Yu, Weiwei; Chen, Zhilin; Qian, Guian; Lu, Feng; Xue, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of load reduction, strength match, welding width, load level, crack size and constraint are studied. • The results show that the LBB margin is dependent on the load level. • The results show that higher strength-match of WPJs will have higher crack-front constraints. • The results show that the engineering method has a high precision only if the width of weld is comparable to the crack depth. - Abstract: The paper studies the effects of the load reduction (discrepancy between designing and real loadings), strength match of the welded piping joint (WPJ), welding width, crack size and crack tip constraint on the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) assessment of a welded piping. The 3D finite element (FE) method is used in the study of a surge line of the steam generator in a nuclear power plant. It is demonstrated that the LBB margin is dependent on the loading level and the load reduction effect should be considered. When the loading is high enough, there is a quite large deviation between the J-integral calculated based on the real material property of WPJ and that calculated based on the engineering method, e.g. Zahoor handbook of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The engineering method assumes that the whole piping is made of the unique welding material in the calculation. As the influence of the strength matching and welding width is ignored in the engineering method for J-integral calculation, the engineering method has a sufficient precision only if the width of welding is comparable to the crack depth. Narrower welding width leads to higher constraint of the plastic deformation in the welding and larger high stress areas in the base for the low strength-match WPJ. Higher strength matching of WPJs has higher crack-front constraints.

  3. Detailed assessment of gene activation levels by multiple hypoxia-responsive elements under various hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yasuto; Inubushi, Masayuki; Jin, Yong-Nan; Murai, Chika; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Hata, Hironobu; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2014-12-01

    HIF-1/HRE pathway is a promising target for the imaging and the treatment of intractable malignancy (HIF-1; hypoxia-inducible factor 1, HRE; hypoxia-responsive element). The purposes of our study are: (1) to assess the gene activation levels resulting from various numbers of HREs under various hypoxic conditions, (2) to evaluate the bidirectional activity of multiple HREs, and (3) to confirm whether multiple HREs can induce gene expression in vivo. Human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells were transiently transfected by the constructs containing a firefly luciferase reporter gene and various numbers (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of HREs (nHRE+, nHRE-). The relative luciferase activities were measured under various durations of hypoxia (6, 12, 18, and 24 h), O2 concentrations (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 %), and various concentrations of deferoxamine mesylate (20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 µg/mL growth medium). The bidirectional gene activation levels by HREs were examined in the constructs (dual-luc-nHREs) containing firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes at each side of nHREs. Finally, to test whether the construct containing 12HRE and the NIS reporter gene (12HRE-NIS) can induce gene expression in vivo, SPECT imaging was performed in a mouse xenograft model. (1) gene activation levels by HREs tended to increase with increasing HRE copy number, but a saturation effect was observed in constructs with more than 6 or 8 copies of an HRE, (2) gene activation levels by HREs increased remarkably during 6-12 h of hypoxia, but not beyond 12 h, (3) gene activation levels by HREs decreased with increasing O2 concentrations, but could be detected even under mild hypoxia at 16 % O2, (4) the bidirectionally proportional activity of the HRE was confirmed regardless of the hypoxic severity, and (5) NIS expression driven by 12 tandem copies of an HRE in response to hypoxia could be visualized on in vivo SPECT imaging. The results of this study will help in the understanding and assessment of

  4. Assessment of soil pollution through trace element contamination in a coal mine environment of Jharia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Shrivastava, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Coal mining environment is associated with liberation of several trace elements. Soils in such regions particularly have been polluted with these trace elements from a wide range of sources. Trace elements such as lead, copper, iron, zinc, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, etc. have caused major human health problems in several parts of the world. Concern over such incidents has prompted numerous investigations into the metabolism and toxic effects of these elements. The trace element contamination of soils (e.g. roadside, overburden dump, residential area etc.) in a part of the Jharia coal field running through a large industrial zone was studied. Representative soil samples from several highly polluted spots of the mining areas were collected and analysed. Results of the investigation revealed that the soils are polluted with trace elements to an appreciable level. Pollution index for soil was developed on the basis of observed concentration levels of trace elements of the study area which may help in better understanding of pollution analysis in coal mining areas. (author)

  5. Nuclear criticality safety assessment of ORR, NBS, and HFBR fuel element shipping package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.T.

    1979-01-01

    A fuel element shipping package employing a borated-phenolic foam as a thermal insulating material is designed to transport as many as seven fuel elements for use in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor, the Brookhaven Fast Beam Reactor, or the National Bureau of Standards Reactor. This report presents the criticality safety evaluation and demonstrates that the requirements for a Fissile Class I package are satisfied by the design

  6. In situ assessment of structural timber elements of a historic building by infrared thermography and ultrasonic velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandemir-Yucel, A.; Tavukcuoglu, A.; Caner-Saltik, E. N.

    2007-01-01

    The infrared thermography (IRT) and the ultrasonic velocity measurements (UVM) promise to be particularly important to assess the state of deterioration and the adequacy of the boundary and microclimatic conditions for timber elements. These non-destructive methods supported by laboratory analyses of timber samples were conducted on a 13th century monument, Aslanhane Mosque in Ankara, Turkey. The combined interpretation of the results was done to assess the condition of structural timber elements in terms of their state of preservation, the dampness problems and the recent incompatible repairs affecting them. Results indicated that moist areas in the structure were associated with roof drainage problems and the repairs undertaken with cement-based mortars and plasters and oil-based paints. Juxtaposition of the IRT and UVM together with laboratory analyses was found to be useful to assess the soundness of timber, enhanced the accuracy and effectiveness of the survey and facilitated to build up the urgent and long-term conservation programs.

  7. On the use of hair analysis to assess the influence of exposure to some toxic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vis, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    The micro PIXE technique is an analytical method capable to measure trace element concentration distribution at ppm concentration level and at μm scale. This method opens the possibility to measure radial and longitudinal element distribution across and along hair samples. The incorporation of Cd and Pb in rat hair has been studied using two different analytical techniques, namely micro PIXE to measure the radial distribution of these elements across the hair root and in a section cut at 3 mm distance from the root, and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) to measure the distribution of these elements over different protein fractions prepared by other CRP participant. Hair samples from 12 persons were also analyzed with micro PIXE. Inter element effects were observed in this case, especially the negative correlation between Cu and Zn. Also the data indicate correlations between Zn concentration in hair and bone (positive) and hair and liver (negative). Cu shows the same behaviour. A large number of hair and whole blood samples from a group of school children was also analyzed. In this data set, it was observed that Pb concentration affects other elements. It turned out that Ca and Zn concentrations in hair were lower, while Cu values were higher in the samples with high Pb values. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  8. Quality Assessment of the Physico-Mechanical and Elemental Composition of Three Pencil Grades and Eraser Types Produced in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Omoniyi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality assessment of the physical (pH, electrical conductivity, density, writeability, eraseability, mechanical (compression test and break strength and elemental composition of the pencil grades HB, 2B and 3B and eraser types of brand names Ben 10, Tiky 20 and the commonest White eraser in Nigerian primary school (Gummes Co. China was carried out. The diameter of the graphite part increased in the order HB Cr > Cd. Though, the levels of the trace metals and essential elements detected in the school items are below the recommended limits, regulatory measures should be directed towards maintaining the standards of school items.

  9. Trace element assessment of low-alloy and stainless steels with reference to gamma activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, A.J.H.; Macmahon, T.D.; Gamberini, D.; Taylor, J.M.; Duggan, F.

    1984-01-01

    In order to predict the long-lived gamma activities leading to radiation exposure during dismantling operations it is necessary to know the likely trace element content of the reactor vessel and internals. This work has been concerned with measuring the elements Ni, Nb, Mo, Co, Ag, Eu, Sm and Ho in steels, with particular reference to light-water reactors. Various steel samples have been provided by organizations in Europe. Analyses have been carried out principally by neutron activation analysis, but also by atomic absorption (AA), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and secondary ion microprobe spectrometry (SIMS). Analyses for Ni, Mo and Co were straightforward and results agreed with analyses carried out elsewhere. A variety of techniques were employed for Nb; ICP was the most successful and results were confirmed using SIMS. In the case of Ag only flameless AA yielded results for all samples. The low concentration of rare earth elements required the development of a preliminary ion exchange technique. Low-alloy steels examined had Nb concentrations less than 10 ppm. Ag levels in the vicinity of 1 ppm were found in all steel samples, indicating that Ag may be the most significant element at long cooling times. Rare earth concentrations from this and other work indicate that these elements are unlikely to give gamma activities exceeding those of 60 Co, 59 Ni, sup(108m)Ag and 94 Nb activities. Illustrative gamma activity decay calculations using the Origen code are presented

  10. Assessment of metal element concentrations in mussel (M. Galloprovincialis) in Eastern Black Sea, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cevik, U. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)], E-mail: berrenazli@yahoo.com; Damla, N.; Kobya, A.I. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Bulut, V.N. [Giresun University, Department of Chemistry, 28049 Giresun (Turkey); Duran, C. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Chemistry, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Dalgic, G. [Rize University, Faculty of Fisheries, 53100 Rize (Turkey); Bozaci, R. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-12-30

    The main goal of this work is to determine the effects of pollution of copper, lead and zinc mines on the Eastern Black Sea. Metal and heavy metal concentrations in the Eastern Black Sea mussels were measured using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS). The analytical results showed that the tissue of mussel in Eastern Black Sea contains K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Sr elements, and the shell of mussel contains Ca, Cu, Sr, and Ba elements. Due to the detection limit of EDXRF, the mussels were analyzed with FAAS for Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd and Pb elements. An ANOVA and Pearson correlation analyses were performed. The results showed although that the mean concentrations of Cu and Zn for the tissue of the mussels were markedly above the permissible levels of the Turkish regulations, Zn concentration is in the limits of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

  11. Applicability of thermodynamic database of radioactive elements developed for the Japanese performance assessment of HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yui, Mikazu; Shibata, Masahiro; Rai, Dhanpat; Ochs, Michael

    2003-01-01

    In 1999 Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) published a second progress report (also known as H12 report) on high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal in Japan (JNC 1999). This report helped to develop confidence in the selected HLW disposal system and to establish the implementation body in 2000 for the disposal of HLW. JNC developed an in-house thermodynamic database for radioactive elements for performance analysis of the engineered barrier system (EBS) and the geosphere for H12 report. This paper briefly presents the status of the JNC's thermodynamic database and its applicability to perform realistic analyses of the solubilities of radioactive elements, evolution of solubility-limiting solid phases, predictions of the redox state of Pu in the neutral pH range under reducing conditions, and to estimate solubilities of radioactive elements in cementitious conditions. (author)

  12. Assessment and modifications of digestion procedures to determine trace elements in urine of hypertensive and diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Abdalla Momen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is accumulating evidence that the metabolism of several trace elements like Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, Co, Mn and Zn might have specific roles in the pathogenesis and progress of many diseases like hypertension (HTN and diabetes mellitus (DM. Objectives: To provide a fast, efficient, sensitive, and reliable analytical procedure for trace element determination in urine samples of HTN and DM patients using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Setting and Design: The ICP-OES operating conditions were optimised and carefully selected in order to maximise the sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Factors affecting analytical and biological variability of the concentrations under study were discussed and carefully optimised. Materials and Methods: Different digestion procedures with acids and oxidising reagents were tested. The suitable procedure ICP-OES was selected, carefully modified and applied. The validity and accuracy of the different elements were determined by spiking of samples with known amounts of multi-element standard solution. Statistical Analysis: Student t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA test were used for analysis. Microsoft Excel was used to assess the significance of the difference between variables. The concentrations obtained were expressed as mean value ± standard deviation (P = 0.05. Results: The results of this study showed that the mean concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr and Mn in urine from both HTN (study group A and DM (study group B patients were higher than the corresponding values observed in the control group. However, while the mean value of Co was low as compared to the control group, the differences found were not significant (P = 0.05. Conclusion: The method used had excellent sensitivity, multi-element data could be obtained with very short acquisition time. The elements Cr, Cd, Pb and Zn might have specific roles in the pathogenesis and progress of HTN and DM. Further

  13. Elemental analysis of dust trapped in air conditioner filters for the assessment of Lahore city's air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, N.

    2011-01-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Lahore by the elemental analysis of air conditioner (AC) filter dust samples collected from 15 different commercial sites. Samples were prepared using the Leeds Public Analyst Method and were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for up to 31 elements. The elements Al, As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc, Sm, Sn, Ta, Th, Yb and Zn were detected in all 15 samples whereas the remaining elements have been detected in fewer samples; i.e. Mg, Sb and Tb were detected in 14 samples, Br and V in ten samples, U in nine samples and Ca and Ti in eight samples only. Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na were determined in all samples at percentage levels. The concentrations of most elements were found to lie around the mean values for the 15 samples studied and were not orders of magnitude different. However the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Sn and Zn were found to be more variable and were found to be dependant on activities such as construction, fruit and vegetable handling, tin plating and transport, respectively. (author)

  14. Assessing mixed trace elements in groundwater and their health risk of residents living in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Kongkea; Phan, Samrach; Huoy, Laingshun; Suy, Bunseang; Wong, Ming Hung; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the potential contamination of trace elements in shallow Cambodian groundwater. Groundwater and hair samples were collected from three provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia and analyzed by ICP-MS. Groundwater from Kandal (n = 46) and Kraite (n = 12) were enriched in As, Mn, Ba and Fe whereas none of tube wells in Kampong Cham (n = 18) had trace elements higher than Cambodian permissible limits. Risk computations indicated that 98.7% and 12.4% of residents in the study areas of Kandal (n = 297) and Kratie (n = 89) were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects from exposure to multiple elements, yet none were at risk in Kampong Cham (n = 184). Arsenic contributed 99.5%, 60.3% and 84.2% of the aggregate risk in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. Sustainable and appropriate treatment technologies must therefore be implemented in order for Cambodian groundwater to be used as potable water. -- Highlights: •We investigated the potential contamination of trace elements in Cambodian groundwater. •Residents of Kandal (98.7%) and Kratie (12.4%) were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects. •Significant positive correlation between As, Mn and Ba in groundwater and hair were found. -- Risk assessment indicated that 98.7% of residents in Kandal and 12.4% of Kratie study areas were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects of multiple elements in groundwater

  15. Spatial variability of trace elements and sources for improved exposure assessment in Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Cirach, Marta; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Tsai, Ming; de Hoogh, Kees; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Kooter, Ingeborg M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Querol, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    Trace and major elements concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured at 20 sites spread in the Barcelona metropolitan area (1 rural background, 6 urban background, 13 road traffic sites) and at 1 reference site. Three 2-week samples per site and size fraction were collected during 2009 using low volume samplers, adding a total of 120 samples. Collected samples were analysed for elemental composition using Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF). EC, OC, and hopanes and steranes concentrations in PM2.5 were determined. Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) model was used for a source apportionment analysis. The work was performed as part of the ESCAPE project. Elements were found in concentrations within the usual range in Spanish urban areas. Mineral elements were measured in higher concentrations during the warm season, due to enhanced resuspension; concentrations of fueloil combustion elements were also higher in summer. Elements in higher concentration at the traffic sites were: Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sn, Zn and Zr. Spatial variations related to non-traffic sources were observed for concentrations of Br, Cl, K, and Na (sea salt origin) and Ni, V and S (shipping emissions), which were higher at the coastal sites, as well as for Zn and Pb, higher at sites closer to industrial facilities. Five common sources for PM10 and PM2.5 were identified by PMF: road traffic (with tracers Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo and Zn); fueloil combustion (Ni and V); secondary sulphate; industry (Pb and Zn); and mineral source (Al, Ca, Mg, Si, Sr and Ti). A marine aerosol source, a mixture of sea salt with aged anthropogenic aerosols, was found only in PM10. EC, hopanes and steranes concentrations correlate strongly with the PM10 road traffic source contributions, being hence all attributed to the same source. OC may arise from other sources in addition to road traffic and have a high contribution of secondary OC. Significant spatial and temporal variation in the PM2.5 and PM10 elemental

  16. Toxicological risk assessment of elemental gold following oral exposure to sheets and nanoparticles – A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Sharma, Anoop Kumar; Poulsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Elemental gold is used as a food coloring agent and in dental fillings. In addition, gold nanoparticles are gaining increasing attention due to their potential use as inert carriers for medical purposes. Although elemental gold is considered to be inert, there is evidence to suggest the release....... In addition, gold released from dental restorations has been reported to increase the risk of developing gold hypersensitivity. Regarding genotoxicity, in vitro studies indicate that gold nanoparticles induce DNA damage in mammalian cells. In vivo, gold nanoparticles induce genotoxic effects in Drosophila...

  17. Incorporating in vivo fall assessments in the simulation of femoral fractures with finite element models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijden, A.M. van der; Janssen, D.W.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Groen, B.E.; Nienhuis, B.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Tanck, E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Femoral fractures are a major health issue. Most experimental and finite element (FE) fracture studies use polymethylmethacrylate cups on the greater trochanter (GT) to simulate fall impact loads. However, in vivo fall studies showed that the femur is loaded distally from the GT. Our objective was

  18. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers and coal miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, ...

  19. Spatial variability of trace elements and sources for improved exposure assessment in Barcelona

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Minguillon, Maria; Cirach, Marta; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Tsai, Ming; de Hoogh, Kees; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Kooter, Ingeborg M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Querol, Xavier

    Trace and major elements concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured at 20 sites spread in the Barcelona metropolitan area (1 rural background, 6 urban background, 13 road traffic sites) and at 1 reference site. Three 2-week samples per site and size fraction were collected during 2009 using low

  20. Spatial variability of trace elements and sources for improved exposure assessment in Barcelona

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minguillón, M.C.; Cirach, M.; Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B.; Tsai, M.; Hoogh, K. de; Jedynska, A.; Kooter, I.M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Querol, X.

    2014-01-01

    Trace and major elements concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured at 20 sites spread in the Barcelona metropolitan area (1 rural background, 6 urban background, 13 road traffic sites) and at 1 reference site. Three 2-week samples per site and size fraction were collected during 2009 using low

  1. Self-Assessment of Finite Element Solutions Applied to Transient Phenomena in Solid Continuum Mechanics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Okrouhlík, Miloslav; Pták, Svatopluk; Valdek, U.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2009), s. 103-121 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400760509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : stress wave propagation * finite element method * validity of models Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  2. The Utility of the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale in Assessment for Substance Use Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Pam; Dunham, Mardis

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the use of the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) with a population of persons with a DSM-IV diagnosis of Substance Use Disorder who were court ordered for treatment. Two groups of adults (N = 40) were closely matched on age, gender, race, socioeconomic status and education level, and were administered the Person Picking…

  3. A multidimensional approach to assessing the elemental status of an organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, S.; Vedeneev, P.; Kiyaeva, E.; Laryushina, I.; Notova, S.; Pishchukhin, A.

    2017-10-01

    Multidimensional space is a convenient means of representing large amounts of information. This fully applies to information on the elemental status of population groups. The novelty of the approach of this study is based on the fact that the totality of the weight parts of all elements of the periodic table together makes up the weight of a person. In a multidimensional space, organisms with the same weight have the same sum of coordinates and are located on one hyperplane. Since for any norms it is important to have a ratio between the quantities that reflect the content of the chemical elements - a ray becomes the standard, for each point of which the ratio between the coordinates is observed. Large amounts of data will adequately represent the proximity an organism to one or another class, that is, increasing the accuracy of diagnosing the elemental status. The algorithm for diagnosing, therefore, should include finding the corresponding hyperplane, the point of intersection with the ray and determining the proximity to this point.

  4. Validation Assessment of a Glass-to-Metal Seal Finite-Element Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, Ryan Dale [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Buchheit, Thomas E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Emery, John M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Romero, Vicente J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newton, Clay S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, Arthur [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Sealing glasses are ubiquitous in high pressure and temperature engineering applications, such as hermetic feed-through electrical connectors. A common connector technology are glass-to-metal seals where a metal shell compresses a sealing glass to create a hermetic seal. Though finite-element analysis has been used to understand and design glass-to-metal seals for many years, there has been little validation of these models. An indentation technique was employed to measure the residual stress on the surface of a simple glass-to-metal seal. Recently developed rate- dependent material models of both Schott 8061 and 304L VAR stainless steel have been applied to a finite-element model of the simple glass-to-metal seal. Model predictions of residual stress based on the evolution of material models are shown. These model predictions are compared to measured data. Validity of the finite- element predictions is discussed. It will be shown that the finite-element model of the glass-to-metal seal accurately predicts the mean residual stress in the glass near the glass-to-metal interface and is valid for this quantity of interest.

  5. Assessment of ecotoxicological risks of element leaching from pulverized coal ashes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes the consequences of the disposal of the combustion residues of coal, especially the uptake of elements from such residues and their effects on various organisms. The effects on benthic organisms in fresh and in seawater are considered in the first two parts. The third

  6. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high Sand low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wtistite (lW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at I GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multianvil press, at temperatures up to 1850degC. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-Si02 buffer, which is approximately 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi206) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of

  7. Assessment of the essential element and heavy metal content of edible fish muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Santiago, S. [Centro de Fisica Atomica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Lisboa (Portugal); Nunes, M.L. [Instituto de Investigacao das Pescas e do Mar, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations of some essential and toxic elements in the muscle of ten species of commercial fish consumed in Portugal. We combined two different techniques for determination of the elements - energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to quantify K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb, and Sr and flame atomic-absorption spectrometry for analysis of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Hg, and Pb. The latter technique was used because of its higher sensitivity, because these elements were not detected by EDXRF. The results obtained show a similar pattern for the trace elements. K and Ca are present at the highest concentrations in all the samples studied, from 0.6-1.3% and from 0.04-0.08%, respectively, followed by Zn, Fe, Sr, Se, and Rb. Sr is present at higher concentrations than Rb in all the species studied except meagre. Concentrations of the elements in octopus do not follow this pattern - Fe is present at a higher concentration than Zn. Low concentrations of Cr (0.66-1.5 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Ni (0.11-0.24 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Cd (0.01-0.08 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Hg (0.49-2.74 {mu}g g{sup -1}), and Pb (0.02-0.06 {mu}g g{sup -1}) were observed in all the samples analysed. The concentration of Hg was highest in Helicolenus dactylopterus - 5.4 {mu}g g{sup -1} in one sample. (orig.)

  8. INAA application in the assessment of chemical element mass fractions in adult and geriatric prostate glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, Vladimir; Zaichick, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    The variation with age of the mass fraction of 37 chemical elements in intact nonhyperplastic prostate of 65 healthy 21–87 year old males was investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis with high resolution spectrometry of short- and long-lived radionuclides. Mean values (M±SΕΜ) for mass fractions (mg kg −1 , dry mass basis) of the chemical elements studied were: Ag—0.055±0.007, Br—33.2±3.3, Ca—2150±118, Cl—13014±703, Co—0.038±0.003, Cr—0.47±0.05, Fe—99.3±6.1, Hg—0.044±0.006, K—11896±356, Mg—1149±68, Mn—1.41±0.07, Na—10886±339, Rb—12.3±0.6, Sb—0.049±0.005, Sc—0.021±0.003, Se—0.65±0.03, and Zn—795±71. The mass fraction of other chemical elements measured in this study were lower than the corresponding detection limits (mg kg −1 , dry mass basis): As<0.1, Au<0.01, Ba<100, Cd<2, Ce<0.1, Cs<0.05, Eu<0.001, Gd<0.02, Hf<0.2, La<0.5, Lu<0.003, Nd<0.1, Sm<0.01, Sr<3, Ta<0.01, Tb<0.03, Th<0.05, U<0.07, Yb<0.03, and Zr<0.3. This work revealed that there is a significant trend for increase with age in mass fractions of Co (p<0.0085), Fe (p<0.037), Hg (p<0.035), Sc (p<0.015), and Zn (p<0.0014) and for a decrease in the mass fraction of Mn (p<0.018) in prostates, obtained from young adult up to about 60 years, with age. In the nonhyperplastic prostates of males in the sixth to ninth decades, the magnitude of mass fractions of all chemical element were maintained at near constant levels. Our finding of correlation between the prostatic chemical element mass fractions indicates that there is a great variation of chemical element relationships with age. - Highlights: • 37 trace elements were determined in prostate of 65 healthy 21–87 year old males by NAA. • Co, Fe, Hg, Sc, and Zn contents significantly increase with age. • Mn content significantly decreases with age. • All elemental contents in the sixth to ninth decades are near constant level. • There is a great disturbance of chemical element

  9. Modeling and assessment of the response of super-light elements to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Campeanu, B.M.; Giraudo, M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the significant weight of the elements, which raise the construction and transportation costs and the CO2 production, concrete buildings may not meet the requirements for sustainable constructions. Furthermore, concrete is quite vulnerable to fire, as it undergoes a permanent degradation...... of its mechanical properties at temperatures commonly reached by structural elements during a fire in a building. As a consequence, several multi-story concrete buildings have collapsed or suffered major structural damages because of fire, and caused injuries and casualties among the occupants. Even...... in those cases, where a safe evacuation of the building is ensured, the high costs associated with the downtime and reparation of the building can be very high and not acceptable in the view of a safe and sustainable design of structures. In this respect, the newly patented building technology...

  10. Automated finite element updating using strain data for the lifetime reliability assessment of bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okasha, Nader M.; Frangopol, Dan M.; Orcesi, André D.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of improving the understanding of the performance of structures over their lifetime under uncertainty with information obtained from structural health monitoring (SHM) has been widely recognized. However, frameworks that efficiently integrate monitoring data into the life-cycle management of structures are yet to be developed. The objective of this paper is to propose and illustrate an approach for updating the lifetime reliability of aging bridges using monitored strain data obtained from crawl tests. It is proposed to use automated finite element model updating techniques as a tool for updating the resistance parameters of the structure. In this paper, the results from crawl tests are used to update the finite element model and, in turn, update the lifetime reliability. The original and updated lifetime reliabilities are computed using advanced computational tools. The approach is illustrated on an existing bridge.

  11. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    for consecutive periods of four weeks each to ambient air at up to 100 sites in 11 cities during 2000-2002. Results of the 2001 exposure experiments revealed a clear differentiation of trace element pollution within and among local monitoring networks. Pollution was influenced particularly by traffic emissions...... was influenced by other emission sources. The biomonitoring sites located in Spanish city centres featured a much higher pollution load by trace elements than those in other cities of the network, confirming previously reported findings obtained by chemical analyses of dust deposition and aerosols. At some....... Especially Sb, Pb, Cr, Fe, and Cu exhibited a very uneven distribution within the municipal areas with strong accumulation in plants from traffic-exposed sites in the city centres and close to major roads, and moderate to low levels in plants exposed at suburban or rural sites. Accumulation of Ni and V...

  12. Preliminary Assessment of Health Risks of Potentially Toxic Elements in Settled Dust over Beijing Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Wan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine levels, health risks, sources, and spatial distributions of potentially toxic elements in settled dust over Beijing urban area, 62 samples were collected mostly from residential building outdoor surfaces, and their <63 μm fractions were measured for 12 potentially toxic elements. The results show that V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Ba in dust are from predominantly natural sources, whereas Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb mostly originate from anthropogenic sources. Exposure to these elements in dust has significant non-cancer risks to children but insignificant to adults. Cancer risks of Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Cd via inhalation and dermal contact are below the threshold of 10−6–10−4 but As via dust ingestion shows a tolerable risk. The non-cancer risks to children are contributed mainly (75% by As, Pb, and Sb, and dominantly (92% via dust ingestion, with relatively higher risks mainly occurring in the eastern and northeastern Beijing urban areas. Although Cd, Zn, and Cu in dust are heavily affected by anthropogenic sources, their health risks are insignificant. Source appointments suggest that coal burning emissions, the dominant source of As, are likely the largest contributors to the health risk, and traffic-related and industrial emissions are also important because they contribute most of the Pb and Sb in dust.

  13. Using trace element content and lead isotopic composition to assess sources of PM in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, D.; Castro, T.; Bernal, J. P.; Almanza-Veloz, V.; Zavala, M.; González-Castillo, E.; Saavedra, M. I.; Perez-Arvízu, O.; Díaz-Trujillo, G. C.; Molina, L. T.

    2016-05-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at two urban sites (Parque Morelos (PQM) and CECyTE (CEC)) in Tijuana during the Cal-Mex campaign from May 24 to June 5, 2010. Concentration of trace elements (Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, and Pb), and Pb isotopic composition were determined in order to study the sources of PM impacting each site. Other chemical analysis (gravimetric, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), were also performed. Finally, back-trajectories were calculated to facilitate the interpretation of the chemical data. Trace elements results show that CEC is a receptor site affected by mixed regional sources: sea salt, mineral, urban, and industrial. On the other hand, PQM seems to be impacted mainly by local sources. In particular, Pb at CEC is of anthropogenic, as well as crustal origin. This conclusion is supported by the lead isotopic composition, whose values are consistent with a combination of lead extracted from US mines, and lead from bedrocks in the Mexican Sierras. Some of the time variability observed can be explained using the back-trajectories.

  14. Micro-finite-element method to assess elastic properties of trabecular bone at micro- and macroscopic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, R; Auregan, J C; Hoc, T

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the mechanical behavior of trabecular bone based on microCT imaging and micro-finite-element analysis. In this way two methods are detailed: (i) direct determination of macroscopic elastic property of trabecular bone; (ii) inverse approach to assess mechanical properties of trabecular bone tissue. Thirty-five females and seven males (forty-two subjects) mean aged (±SD) 80±11.7 years from hospitals of Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) diagnosed with osteoporosis following a femoral neck fracture due to a fall from standing were included in this study. Fractured heads were collected during hip replacement surgery. Standardized bone cores were removed from the femoral head's equator by a trephine in a water bath. MicroCT images acquisition and analysis were performed with CTan ® software and bone volume fraction was then determined. Micro-finite-element simulations were per-formed using Abaqus 6.9-2 ® software in order to determine the macroscopic mechanical behaviour of the trabecular bone. After microCT acquisition, a longitudinal compression test was performed and the experimental macroscopic Young's Modulus was extracted. An inverse approach based on the whole trabecular bone's mechanical response and micro-finite-element analysis was performed to determine microscopic mechanical properties of trabecular bone. In the present study, elasticity of the tissue was shown to be similar to that of healthy tissue but with a lower yield stress. Classical histomorphometric analysis form microCT imaging associated with an inverse micro-finite-element method allowed to assess microscopic mechanical trabecular bone parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of the effects of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies and trace elements on cognitive performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghadir AH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad H Alghadir,1 Sami A Gabr,1,2 Einas Al-Eisa11Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, EgyptBackground: Homeostatic imbalance of trace elements such as iron (Fe, copper (Cu, and zinc (Zn demonstrated adverse effects on brain function among older adults.Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of trace elements and the presence of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADAs in human cognitive abilities among healthy older adults.Methods: A total of 100 healthy subjects (65 males, 35 females; age range; 64–96 years were recruited for this study. Based on Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA score, the participants were classified according to cognitive performance into normal (n=45, moderate (n=30, and severe (n=25. Cognitive functioning, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA, serum trace elements – Fe, Cu, Zn, Zn/Cu, and GADAs were assessed using LOTCA battery, pre-validated physical activity (PA questionnaire, atomic absorption, and immunoassay techniques, respectively.Results: Approximately 45% of the study population (n=45 had normal distribution of cognitive function and 55% of the study population (n=55 had abnormal cognitive function; they were classified into moderate (score 62–92 and severe (score 31–62. There was a significant reduction in the level of Zn and Zn/Cu ratio along with an increase in the level of Fe, Cu, and anti-GADAs in subjects of severe (P=0.01 and moderate (P=0.01 cognitive performance. LOTCA-cognitive scores correlated positively with sex, HbA1c, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Zn/Cu ratio, and negatively with age, PA, body mass index, and anti-GADAs. Significant inter-correlation was reported between serum trace element concentrations and anti-GADAs which suggest producing a cognitive decline via oxidative and neural

  16. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, R. L., II; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; McCubbin, F. M.; Danielson, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high S and low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wüstite (IW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at 1 GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multi-anvil press, at temperatures up to 1850°C. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-SiO2 buffer, which is 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi2O6) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of the fate of

  17. Trace elements assessment in agricultural and desert soils of Aswan area, south Egypt: Geochemical characteristics and environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Mohamed Abdallah Gad; Pöllmann, Hebert

    2015-12-01

    Determination of chemical elements, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Sc, Sr, Ti, Y, and Zn have been performed in agricultural and desert soils and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) at Aswan area. Consequently, the pollution indices, univariate and multivariate statistical methods have been applied, in order to assess the geochemical characteristics of these elements and their impact on soil environmental quality and plant, and to reach for their potential input sources. The investigation revealed that the mean and range values of all element concentrations in agricultural soil are higher than those in desert soil. Furthermore, the agricultural soil displayed various degrees of enrichment and pollution of Cd, Zn, Mo, Co, P, Ti, Pb. The geochemical pattern of integrated pollution indices gave a clear image of extreme and strong pollution in the agricultural soil stations, their poor quality with high risk to human health and considered as a tocsin for an alert. In contrast, the desert soil is the good environmental quality and safe for plant, animal and human health. Alfalfa is tolerant plant and considered as a biomarker for P and Mo in polluted agricultural soil. Four geochemical associations of analyzing elements in agricultural soil and three ones in desert soil have been generated, and their enhancements were essentially caused by various anthropogenic activities and geogenic sources. The investigation also revealed that the broad extended desert soil is fruitful and promising as cultivable lands for agricultural processes in the futures.

  18. Dietary Intakes of Minerals, Essential and Toxic Trace Elements for Adults from Eragrostis tef L.: A Nutritional Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Koubová

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the contents of thirty-six mineral and trace elements in teff (Eragrostis tef L. grains. What is more, dietary intakes were calculated. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS was used to assess mineral and trace element contents. Consequently, the appropriate Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA or adequate intake (AI, and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI or provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI values for adults were determined according to the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO and Institute of Medicine (IOM regulations. Teff is a significant contributor to RDAs and AIs for females in the following order: Mn > Cu > Zn ≥ Mg > Fe ≥ P and Ca. For males, teff contributes in the order, Mn > Cu > Fe > Zn ≥ P ≥ Mg > and Ca. The concentration of arsenic (65.9 µg/kg in brown teff originating in Bolivia exceeded the average acceptable value set by Reg. No. 1881 of 6–50 µg/kg in cereals consumed in the EU. The PTWIs or PTMIs for Al, Cd, Sn and Hg were all under 7%, which is below the limits of toxic element intake related to the body weight of 65 kg for adult females and 80 kg for males, set by the FAO/WHO. Teff grains can be recommended as a valuable and safe source of minerals and trace elements.

  19. Airborne trace elements near a petrochemical industrial complex in Thailand assessed by the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonpeng, Chaiwat; Polyiam, Wetchasart; Sriviboon, Chutima; Sangiamdee, Duangkamon; Watthana, Santi; Nimis, Pier Luigi; Boonpragob, Kansri

    2017-05-01

    Several trace elements discharged by the petrochemical industry are toxic to humans and the ecosystem. In this study, we assessed airborne trace elements in the vicinity of the Map Ta Phut petrochemical industrial complex in Thailand by transplanting the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum to eight industrial, two rural, and one clean air sites between October 2013 and June 2014. After 242 days, the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V, and Zn in lichens at most industrial sites were higher than those at the rural and the control sites; in particular, As, Cu, Mo, Sb, V, and Zn were significantly higher than at the control site (p industrial sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that most elements were associated with industry, with lesser contributions from traffic and agriculture. Based on the pollution load indexes (PLIs), two industrial sites were highly polluted, five were moderately polluted, and one had a low pollution level, whereas the pollution load at the rural sites was comparable to background levels. This study reinforces the utility of lichens as cost-effective biomonitors of airborne elements, suitable for use in developing countries, where adequate numbers of air monitoring instruments are unavailable due to financial, technical, and policy constraints.

  20. Finite element modelling to assess the effect of surface mounted piezoelectric patch size on vibration response of a hybrid beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, N.; Alam, M. N.

    2018-02-01

    Vibration response analysis of a hybrid beam with surface mounted patch piezoelectric layer is presented in this work. A one dimensional finite element (1D-FE) model based on efficient layerwise (zigzag) theory is used for the analysis. The beam element has eight mechanical and a variable number of electrical degrees of freedom. The beams are also modelled in 2D-FE (ABAQUS) using a plane stress piezoelectric quadrilateral element for piezo layers and a plane stress quadrilateral element for the elastic layers of hybrid beams. Results are presented to assess the effect of size of piezoelectric patch layer on the free and forced vibration responses of thin and moderately thick beams under clamped-free and clamped-clamped configurations. The beams are subjected to unit step loading and harmonic loading to obtain the forced vibration responses. The vibration control using in phase actuation potential on piezoelectric patches is also studied. The 1D-FE results are compared with the 2D-FE results.

  1. Assessment of fluid-to-fluid modelling of critical heat flux in horizontal 37-element bundle flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Fluid-to-fluid modelling laws of critical heat flux (CHF) available in the literature were reviewed. The applicability of the fluid-to-fluid modelling laws was assessed using available data ranging from low to high mass fluxes in horizontal 37-element bundles simulating a CANDU fuel string. Correlations consisting of dimensionless similarity groups were derived using modelling fluid data (Freon-12) to predict water CHF data in horizontal 37-element bundles with uniform and non-uniform axial-heat flux distribution (AFD). The results showed that at mass fluxes higher than ∼4,000 kg/m 2 s (water equivalent value), the vertical fluid-to-fluid modelling laws of Ahmad (1973) and Katto (1979) predict water CHF in horizontal 37-element bundles with non-uniform AFD with average errors of 1.4% and 3.0% and RMS errors of 5.9% and 6.1%, respectively. The Francois and Berthoud (2003) fluid-to-fluid modelling law predicts CHF in non-uniformly heated 37-element bundles in the horizontal orientation with an average error of 0.6% and an RMS error of 10.4% over the available range of 2,000 to 6,200 kg/m 2 s. (author)

  2. Geometry reconstruction method for patient-specific finite element models for the assessment of tibia fracture risk in osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caouette, Christiane; Ikin, Nicole; Villemure, Isabelle; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Rauch, Frank; Aubin, Carl-Éric

    2017-04-01

    Lower limb deformation in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) impairs ambulation and may lead to fracture. Corrective surgery is based on empirical assessment criteria. The objective was to develop a reconstruction method of the tibia for OI patients that could be used as input of a comprehensive finite element model to assess fracture risks. Data were obtained from three children with OI and tibia deformities. Four pQCT scans were registered to biplanar radiographs, and a template mesh was deformed to fit the bone outline. Cortical bone thickness was computed. Sensitivity of the model to missing slices of pQCT was assessed by calculating maximal von Mises stress for a vertical hopping load case. Sensitivity of the model to ±5 % of cortical thickness measurements was assessed by calculating loads at fracture. Difference between the mesh contour and bone outline on the radiographs was below 1 mm. Removal of one pQCT slice increased maximal von Mises stress by up to 10 %. Simulated ±5 % variation of cortical bone thickness leads to variations of up to 4.1 % on predicted fracture loads. Using clinically available tibia imaging from children with OI, the developed reconstruction method allowed the building of patient-specific finite element models.

  3. Ecological risk assessment of elemental pollution in sediment from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Md Suhaimi; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Ab; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah; Siong, Wee Boon; Sanuri, Ezwiza

    2014-02-01

    Eleven (11) surface sediment samples were collected from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques were applied for the determinations metal contents and their distributions in sediment samples. The results shown that Arsenic (As) concentrations are enriched at all sampling stations except for station TAR 09, with enrichment factor (EF) values ranged from 1.1 to 7.2. The elements such as Cd, Cr, Sb and U showed enrichment at a few stations and other elements (Cr, Cu, Pb, Th, Zn) shown as background levels in all stations. Degrees of contamination in this study were calculated base on concentrations of six elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). TAR 11 station can be categorized as very high degree of contamination with degree of contamination value of 43.2. TAR 07 station can be categorized as a considerable degree of contamination (contamination value of 16.9). Six stations (TAR 01, 03, 04, 05, 06, 08, 10) showed moderate degree of contamination, with contamination values ranging from 8.0 to 16.0. TAR 02 and TAR 09 stations showed low degree of contaminations (< 8.0). TAR 11 showed very high ecological risk index (RI) with RI value is 916. TAR 07 and TAR 10 showed moderate ecological risk index with RI value 263 and 213, respectively. Other stations showed low ecological risk with RI values ranging from 42.3 to 117 (< 150). Very high ecological risk index could give an adverse effect to the benthic organism. The data obtained from the enrichment factor, degree of contamination and ecological risk index provided vital information, which can be used for future comparison. Information from the present study will be useful to the relevant government agencies and authorities in preparing preventive action to control direct discharge of heavy metals from industries, agro-base activities and domestic waste to the rivers and the sea.

  4. Ecological risk assessment of elemental pollution in sediment from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, Md Suhaimi; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Ab; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah; Siong, Wee Boon; Sanuri, Ezwiza

    2014-01-01

    Eleven (11) surface sediment samples were collected from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques were applied for the determinations metal contents and their distributions in sediment samples. The results shown that Arsenic (As) concentrations are enriched at all sampling stations except for station TAR 09, with enrichment factor (EF) values ranged from 1.1 to 7.2. The elements such as Cd, Cr, Sb and U showed enrichment at a few stations and other elements (Cr, Cu, Pb, Th, Zn) shown as background levels in all stations. Degrees of contamination in this study were calculated base on concentrations of six elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). TAR 11 station can be categorized as very high degree of contamination with degree of contamination value of 43.2. TAR 07 station can be categorized as a considerable degree of contamination (contamination value of 16.9). Six stations (TAR 01, 03, 04, 05, 06, 08, 10) showed moderate degree of contamination, with contamination values ranging from 8.0 to 16.0. TAR 02 and TAR 09 stations showed low degree of contaminations ( I ) with RI value is 916. TAR 07 and TAR 10 showed moderate ecological risk index with R I value 263 and 213, respectively. Other stations showed low ecological risk with RI values ranging from 42.3 to 117 (< 150). Very high ecological risk index could give an adverse effect to the benthic organism. The data obtained from the enrichment factor, degree of contamination and ecological risk index provided vital information, which can be used for future comparison. Information from the present study will be useful to the relevant government agencies and authorities in preparing preventive action to control direct discharge of heavy metals from industries, agro-base activities and domestic waste to the rivers and the sea

  5. Ecological risk assessment of elemental pollution in sediment from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Suhaimi Elias; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Wee, B.S.; Ezwiza Sanuri

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Eleven (11) surface sediment samples were collected from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques were applied for the determinations metal contents and their distributions in sediment samples. The results shown that Arsenic (As) concentrations are enriched at all sampling stations except for station TAR 09, with enrichment factor (EF) values ranged from 1.1 to 7.2. The elements such as Cd, Cr, Sb and U showed enrichment at a few stations and other elements (Cr, Cu, Pb, Th, Zn) shown as background levels in all stations. Degrees of contamination in this study were calculated base on concentrations of six elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). TAR 11 station can be categorized as very high degree of contamination with degree of contamination value of 43.2. TAR 07 station can be categorized as a considerable degree of contamination (contamination value of 16.9). Six stations (TAR 01, 03, 04, 05, 06, 08, 10) showed moderate degree of contamination, with contamination values ranging from 8.0 to 16.0. TAR 02 and TAR 09 stations showed low degree of contaminations ( I ) with R I value is 916. TAR 07 and TAR 10 showed moderate ecological risk index with R I value 263 and 213, respectively. Other stations showed low ecological risk with R I values ranging from 42.3 to 117 (< 150). Very high ecological risk index could give an adverse effect to the benthic organism. The data obtained from the enrichment factor, degree of contamination and ecological risk index provided vital information, which can be used for future comparison. Information from the present study will be useful to the relevant government agencies and authorities in preparing preventive action to control direct discharge of heavy metals from industries, agro-base activities and domestic waste to the rivers and the sea. (author)

  6. Assessment of longitudinal modulus of elasticity in structural elements of Pinus Caribaea timber beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Christoforo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The current standard NBR 7190/1997 (Project of Timber Structures makes no reference to tests for determining the stiffness and strength in parts of structural lumber; restricting the analysis to bodies-of-tests with small dimensions and without defects. This paper presents an alternative method to determine the longitudinal modulus of elasticity in timber beams, based on the Finite Element Method, as well as the Inverse Analysis Method with an optimization technique. Results show that the methodology proposed by the Brazilian standard can also be applied to pieces of structural dimensions.

  7. A comprehensive analysis of the content of heavy rare-earth elements and platinum in snow samples to assess the ecological hazard of air pollution in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokurov, S. F.; Tarasova, N. P.; Trunova, A. N.; Sychkova, V. A.

    2017-07-01

    Snow samples from the territory of the Setun River Valley Wildlife Sanctuary are analyzed for the content of rare-earth elements, heavy metals, and other hazardous elements by the inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry method. The changes in the concentrations of rare-earth elements, Pt, Pd, and indicator ratios of elements in the solid fractions of snow are revealed. A trend toward a decrease in the content of several elements northeastward of the Moscow Ring Road (MRR) is established. The level of seasonal atmospheric contamination of the area under study is assessed, and a possible source is identified.

  8. An assessment of finite element synthesis model using 3D FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagannathan, V.; Rastogi, B.P

    1983-01-01

    For the solution of multigroup diffusion theory equations a code system called FEMSYN has been developed. The code FEMSYN incorporates a finite difference (FD) module, a finite element (FE) module and one module based on single channel flux synthesis (SCFS) method, which uses trial functions generated by either FD or FE method. The 3D problems can be tackled by all the three modules. The 3D FE solutions are cheaper in comparison with fine mesh FD computations and are quite accurate. The accuracy is improved by proper choice of rectangular and triangular right prismatic elements and polynomial order in case of 3D FE analyses. Synthesis method using FE trial functions provides the fastest means of solution for 3D problems. In this paper, the FE synthesis method has been compared with 3D FE technique for the case of IAEA PWR benchmark problem. It is concluded from the above comparison that FE synthesis method can give at negligible computational efforts, accurate eigenvalue estimates and satisfactory prediction of reactor core power profiles

  9. Application of INAA in the assessment of selected elements in cancellous bone of human iliac crest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of age and sex was investigated on the concentration of chemical elements in intact cancellous bone of iliac crest of 74 relatively healthy, 15-55 years old women (n = 29) and men (n = 45). Concentrations of Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, and Sr in bone samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis using short-lived radionuclides. Mean values (M±S.E.M.) of the mass fraction of the investigated elements (on dry weight basis) for female and male all together were: 127±4 g/kg, 1620±80 mg/kg, 1310±70 mg/kg, 1550±50 mg/kg, <0.32±0.02 mg/kg, 4240±110 mg/kg, 61.8±1.8 g/kg, and 235±18 mg/kg, respectively. The statistically significant (≤0.05) decrease of Ca, Mg, and P concentrations in the iliac cancellous bone with age was found only for women. Sex-related comparison has shown that the mean values of Mg mass fractions in male bone samples were less than in female ones. (author)

  10. Major and trace elements assessment in sediment samples from Rio Grande Reservoir, by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Bevilacqua, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The Rio Grande Reservoir, Southeast of the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) supplies water for four counties (Sao Bernardo do Campo, Sao Caetano do Sul, Santo Andre and Diadema). It has been seriously affected by urban expansion, due to chaotic urban occupation and improper use of the surrounding areas. In this study bottom sediment samples were collected, by using a Van Veen sampler, during the dry and rainy seasons. Four sampling points were defined by using GPS and are located at the mouth of the Rio Grande and Ribeirao Pires Rivers, in the middle of the reservoir and near the catchment point of the water supply. The sediment samples were submitted to instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and the following elements were determined: As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U e Zn and the rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb, Yb. Short irradiation was also performed for total Hg determination by NAA using 197 Hg radioisotope. This was possible due to the high Hg concentration levels in these sediments. The methodology validation was carried out by certified reference material analyses. The results obtained for multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values obtained for As and metals Cr, Hg and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values) and adopted by CETESB. (author)

  11. Contamination and ecological risk assessment of toxic trace elements in the Xi River, an urban river of Shenyang city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunye; He, Mengchang; Liu, Xitao; Guo, Wei; Liu, Shaoqing

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the enrichment, contamination, and ecological risk posed by toxic trace elements in the sediments of the Xi River in the industrialized city of Shenyang, China. Surface sediment and sediment core were collected; analyzed for toxic trace elements; and assessed with an index of geoaccumulation (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF) value, potential ecological risk factor (Er), ecological risk index (RI), and probable effect concentration quotient (PECQ). Elemental concentrations (milligram per kilogram) were 8.5-637.9 for As, 6.5-103.9 for Cd, 12.2-21.9 for Co, 90.6-516.0 for Cr, 258.1-1,791.5 for Cu, 2.6-19.0 for Hg, 70.5-174.5 for Ni, 126.9-1,405.8 for Pb, 3.7-260.0 for Sb, 38.4-100.4 for V, and 503-4,929 for Zn. The Igeo, EF, Er, and PECQ indices showed that the contamination of Cd and Hg was more serious than that of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn, whereas the presence of Co and V might be primarily from natural sources. The Igeo index for Cr and Ni might underestimate the degree of contamination, potentially as a result of high concentrations of these elements in the shale. The RI index was higher than 600, indicating a notably high ecological risk of sediment for the river. The average PECQ for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn ranged from 1.4 to 4.1 for surface sediment and from 5.2 to 9.6 in the sediment cores, indicating a high potential for an adverse biological effect. It was concluded that the sediment in the Xi River was severely contaminated and should be remediated as a hazardous material.

  12. Ecological risk assessment of elemental pollution in sediment from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Md Suhaimi; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Ab; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah; Siong, Wee Boon; Sanuri, Ezwiza [Analytical Chemistry Application Group, Waste and Environmental Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43000, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Eleven (11) surface sediment samples were collected from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques were applied for the determinations metal contents and their distributions in sediment samples. The results shown that Arsenic (As) concentrations are enriched at all sampling stations except for station TAR 09, with enrichment factor (EF) values ranged from 1.1 to 7.2. The elements such as Cd, Cr, Sb and U showed enrichment at a few stations and other elements (Cr, Cu, Pb, Th, Zn) shown as background levels in all stations. Degrees of contamination in this study were calculated base on concentrations of six elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). TAR 11 station can be categorized as very high degree of contamination with degree of contamination value of 43.2. TAR 07 station can be categorized as a considerable degree of contamination (contamination value of 16.9). Six stations (TAR 01, 03, 04, 05, 06, 08, 10) showed moderate degree of contamination, with contamination values ranging from 8.0 to 16.0. TAR 02 and TAR 09 stations showed low degree of contaminations (< 8.0). TAR 11 showed very high ecological risk index (R{sub I}) with RI value is 916. TAR 07 and TAR 10 showed moderate ecological risk index with R{sub I} value 263 and 213, respectively. Other stations showed low ecological risk with RI values ranging from 42.3 to 117 (< 150). Very high ecological risk index could give an adverse effect to the benthic organism. The data obtained from the enrichment factor, degree of contamination and ecological risk index provided vital information, which can be used for future comparison. Information from the present study will be useful to the relevant government agencies and authorities in preparing preventive action to control direct discharge of heavy metals from industries, agro-base activities and domestic waste to the rivers and the sea.

  13. A review of methods for assessment of trace element bioavailability in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.; Bilal, R.

    2001-01-01

    Deficiency of micronutrients is widespread among the low socio-economic strata of population. Different intervention strategies are used to eradicate these deficiencies. The most important step in the confirmation of the efficacy/success of an intervention is bioavailability. There are a number of methods for determining the bioavailability, involving both nuclear and non-nuclear techniques. Traditionally, bioavailability of different micronutrients was determined using the chemical balance method, that is, amount excreted subtracted from the amount ingested. Nowadays, methodologies have been developed for measuring the bioavailability of different trace elements incorporating the use of isotopes. The isotopic techniques are very accurate and highly specific. This paper summarizes the various methodologies available with special emphasis on nuclear methods. (author)

  14. Development of dynamic explicit crystallographic homogenization finite element analysis code to assess sheet metal formability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasunori; Tam, Nguyen Ngoc; Ohata, Tomiso; Morita, Kiminori; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2004-01-01

    The crystallographic texture evolution induced by plastic deformation in the sheet metal forming process has a great influence on its formability. In the present study, a dynamic explicit finite element (FE) analysis code is newly developed by introducing a crystallographic homogenization method to estimate the polycrystalline sheet metal formability, such as the extreme thinning and 'earing'. This code can predict the plastic deformation induced texture evolution at the micro scale and the plastic anisotropy at the macro scale, simultaneously. This multi-scale analysis can couple the microscopic crystal plasticity inhomogeneous deformation with the macroscopic continuum deformation. In this homogenization process, the stress at the macro scale is defined by the volume average of those of the corresponding microscopic crystal aggregations in satisfying the equation of motion and compatibility condition in the micro scale 'unit cell', where the periodicity of deformation is satisfied. This homogenization algorithm is implemented in the conventional dynamic explicit finite element code by employing the updated Lagrangian formulation and the rate type elastic/viscoplastic constitutive equation.At first, it has been confirmed through a texture evolution analyses in cases of typical deformation modes that Taylor's 'constant strain homogenization algorithm' yields extreme concentration toward the preferred crystal orientations compared with our homogenization one. Second, we study the plastic anisotropy effects on 'earing' in the hemispherical cup deep drawing process of pure ferrite phase sheet metal. By the comparison of analytical results with those of Taylor's assumption, conclusions are drawn that the present newly developed dynamic explicit crystallographic homogenization FEM shows more reasonable prediction of plastic deformation induced texture evolution and plastic anisotropy at the macro scale

  15. Physics of Failure as a Basis for Solder Elements Reliability Assessment in Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    description of the reliability. A physics of failure approach is applied. A SnAg solder component used in power electronics is used as an example. Crack propagation in the SnAg solder is modeled and a model to assess the accumulated plastic strain is proposed based on a physics of failure approach. Based...... on the proposed model it is described how to find the accumulated linear damage and reliability levels for a given temperature loading profile. Using structural reliability methods the reliability levels of the electrical components are assessed by introducing scale factors for stresses....

  16. RESIDUAL OPERATIONAL RESOURCE ASSESSMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ELEMENTS OF POWER ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Khoroshilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a specific assessment of heat resistant steel residual resource which  is  based  on  time determination of pore output on grain boundary with due account of an operational temperature, chemical composition and structure of the investigated steel.

  17. Potentially Toxic Elements and Health Risk Assessment in Farmland Systems around High-Concentrated Arsenic Coal Mining in Xingren, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-ju Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The health risk of potentially toxic elements (PTEs via contamination of the food chain has attracted widespread concern. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of PTEs in environment and human body (fingernail, hair, and blood of people living in agricultural soil near arsenic coal mining areas in Xingren County (Guizhou, southwest China. 89 crop samples which included vegetables, rice, maize, and coix seed and their corresponding soils and 17 local surface water and biological tissue samples (41 × 3 in near arsenic coal mining areas were collected, and the concentrations of potentially toxic elements (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, and Pb in all the samples were determined. The health risk assessment methods developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency were employed to explore the potential health hazards of PTEs in soils growing crops. Results showed that 4 toxic elements, Cd, Cu, As, and Cr, were found to have different degrees of contamination in soils in the studied area. The total concentration of toxic elements (As, Cr, Cu, and Pb in fingernail, hair, and blood samples were 90.50, 69.31, and 6.90 mg·kg−1, respectively. Fingernail samples from females were more likely to show exposure to trace metals compared to males. As the age of the subject increased, the concentration of As also increased in all three biological samples. The risk assessment for the mean hazard index value from the consumption of local food crops was 14.81, indicating that consumers may experience adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects. The estimated mean total cancer risk value of was 5.3 × 10−3, which was approximately 10 to 1000 times higher than the acceptable range of 10−6–10−4, indicating serious carcinogenic risks for local people consuming crops from the area. This study provides evidence that local residents in this study area may be at a high risk of disease caused from toxic element exposure.

  18. Assessment of Metabolome Annotation Quality: A Method for Evaluating the False Discovery Rate of Elemental Composition Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Fumio; Shinbo, Yoko; Oikawa, Akira; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Fiehn, Oliver; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Saito, Kazuki

    2009-01-01

    Background In metabolomics researches using mass spectrometry (MS), systematic searching of high-resolution mass data against compound databases is often the first step of metabolite annotation to determine elemental compositions possessing similar theoretical mass numbers. However, incorrect hits derived from errors in mass analyses will be included in the results of elemental composition searches. To assess the quality of peak annotation information, a novel methodology for false discovery rates (FDR) evaluation is presented in this study. Based on the FDR analyses, several aspects of an elemental composition search, including setting a threshold, estimating FDR, and the types of elemental composition databases most reliable for searching are discussed. Methodology/Principal Findings The FDR can be determined from one measured value (i.e., the hit rate for search queries) and four parameters determined by Monte Carlo simulation. The results indicate that relatively high FDR values (30–50%) were obtained when searching time-of-flight (TOF)/MS data using the KNApSAcK and KEGG databases. In addition, searches against large all-in-one databases (e.g., PubChem) always produced unacceptable results (FDR >70%). The estimated FDRs suggest that the quality of search results can be improved not only by performing more accurate mass analysis but also by modifying the properties of the compound database. A theoretical analysis indicates that FDR could be improved by using compound database with smaller but higher completeness entries. Conclusions/Significance High accuracy mass analysis, such as Fourier transform (FT)-MS, is needed for reliable annotation (FDR metabolome data. PMID:19847304

  19. Santos estuarine sediments, Brazil - metal and trace element assessment by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Eduardo P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Berbel, Glaucia; Braga, Elisabete S.

    2009-01-01

    The Santos estuary system is an intricate pattern of tidal channels and small rivers originating from the adjacent Pre-Cambrian slopes. These two major estuaries share a common area in the upper portion of the region which interacts with each other. The largest harbor in Latin America is located at the eastern outlet of the Santos estuary. This intricate and sensitive ecosystem is highly susceptible to human impact from industrial activities, urban sewage and polluted solid wastes disposal. Due to its high vulnerability CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State) sporadically monitors the contamination levels of water, sediment and marine organisms in this region. The present study reports results concerning the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements in the Santos estuarine marine sediments. Thirty two bottom sediment samples (SS0601 to SS0616 (summer) and SW0601 to SW0616 (winter) were collected in this estuary, including regions of Sao Vicente, Santos, Cubatao and Vicente de Carvalho, by a vanVeen sampler in the summer and winter of 2006. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The concentration values obtained for As and metals Cr and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values) and are adopted by CETESB. (author)

  20. Santos estuarine sediments, Brazil - metal and trace element assessment by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Eduardo P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: ducamorim@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Berbel, Glaucia; Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos nos Oceanos (LABNUT)

    2009-07-01

    The Santos estuary system is an intricate pattern of tidal channels and small rivers originating from the adjacent Pre-Cambrian slopes. These two major estuaries share a common area in the upper portion of the region which interacts with each other. The largest harbor in Latin America is located at the eastern outlet of the Santos estuary. This intricate and sensitive ecosystem is highly susceptible to human impact from industrial activities, urban sewage and polluted solid wastes disposal. Due to its high vulnerability CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State) sporadically monitors the contamination levels of water, sediment and marine organisms in this region. The present study reports results concerning the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements in the Santos estuarine marine sediments. Thirty two bottom sediment samples (SS0601 to SS0616 (summer) and SW0601 to SW0616 (winter) were collected in this estuary, including regions of Sao Vicente, Santos, Cubatao and Vicente de Carvalho, by a vanVeen sampler in the summer and winter of 2006. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The concentration values obtained for As and metals Cr and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values) and are adopted by CETESB. (author)

  1. Using DOProC method in reliability assessment of steel elements exposed to fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krejsa Martin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue crack damage depends on a number of stress range cycles. This is a time factor in the course of reliability for the entire designed service life. Three sizes are important for the characteristics of the propagation of fatigue cracks - initial size, detectable size and acceptable size. The theoretical model of fatigue crack progression can be based on a linear fracture mechanic. Depending on location of an initial crack, the crack may propagate in structural element e.g. from the edge or from the surface. When determining the required degree of reliability, it is possible to specify the time of the first inspection of the construction which will focus on the fatigue damage. Using a conditional probability and Bayesian approach, times for subsequent inspections can be determined. For probabilistic modelling of fatigue crack progression was used the original and new probabilistic method - the Direct Optimized Probabilistic Calculation (“DOProC”, which uses a purely numerical approach without any simulation techniques or approximation approach based on optimized numerical integration.

  2. Selected elements of rock burst state assessment in case studies from the Silesian hard coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozef Kabiesz; Janusz Makowka [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland)

    2009-09-15

    Exploitation of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is conducted in complex and difficult conditions. These difficulties are connected with the occurrence of many natural mining hazards and limitations resulting from the existing in this area surface infrastructure. One of the most important problems of Polish mining is the rock burst hazard and reliable evaluation of its condition. During long-years' mining practice in Poland a comprehensive system of evaluation and control of this hazard was developed. In the paper the main aspects of rock burst hazard state evaluation will be presented, comprising: 1) rock mass inclination for rock bursts, i.e., rock strength properties investigation, comprehensive parametric evaluation of rock mass inclination for rock bursts, prognosis of seismic events induced by mining operations, methods of computer-aided modelling of stress and rock mass deformation parameters distribution, strategic rock mass classification under rock burst degrees; 2) immediate seismic and rock burst hazard state evaluation, i.e., low diameter test drilling method, seismologic and seismoacoustic method, comprehensive method of rock burst hazard state evaluation, non-standard methods of evaluation; 3) legal aspects of rock burst hazard state evaluation. Selected elements of the hazard state evaluation system are illustrated with specific practical examples of their application. 11 refs., 14 figs.

  3. On the stress assessment and verification of 3D finite element models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, M.M.; Miranda, C.A.J.; Cruz, J.R.B.; Bezerra, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation of components using three dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) does not generally fall into the shell type verification. Consequently, the demonstration that the modes of failure are avoided sometimes is not straightforward. Elastic rules, developed by limit load theory, require the computation of the shell type through wall membrane and bending stresses. How to calculate these stresses from 3D FEA is not necessarily self-evident. One approach to be considered is to develop recommendations in a case-by-case basis for the most common pressure vessel geometries and loads based on comparison between the results of elastic and also plastic FEA. In this paper the case of a complex geometry -- lugs attached to a cylindrical pressure vessel wall -- is examined and discussed. This case is typically a three-dimensional (3D) configuration where it is not a simple task to check the requirements of the ASME code. From the comparison of the results of 3D elastic and elastic-plastic FEA some conclusions are addressed

  4. Nuclide documentation. Element specific parameter values used in the biospheric models of the safety assessments SR 97 and SAFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Sara; Bergstroem, Ulla

    2002-05-01

    In this report the element and nuclide specific parameter values used in the biospheric models of the safety assessments SR 97 and SAFE are presented. The references used are presented and where necessary the process of estimation of data is described. The parameters treated in this report are distribution coefficients in soil, organic soil and suspended matter in freshwater and brackish water, root uptake factors for pasturage, cereals, root crops and vegetables, bioaccumulation factors for freshwater fish, brackish water fish, freshwater invertebrates and marine water plants, transfer coefficients for transfer to milk and meat, translocation factors and dose coefficients for external exposure, ingestion (age-dependent values) and inhalation (age-dependent values). The radionuclides treated are those which could be of interest in the two safety assessments. Physical data such as half-lives and type of decay are also presented

  5. Nuclide documentation. Element specific parameter values used in the biospheric models of the safety assessments SR 97 and SAFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sara; Bergstroem, Ulla [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    In this report the element and nuclide specific parameter values used in the biospheric models of the safety assessments SR 97 and SAFE are presented. The references used are presented and where necessary the process of estimation of data is described. The parameters treated in this report are distribution coefficients in soil, organic soil and suspended matter in freshwater and brackish water, root uptake factors for pasturage, cereals, root crops and vegetables, bioaccumulation factors for freshwater fish, brackish water fish, freshwater invertebrates and marine water plants, transfer coefficients for transfer to milk and meat, translocation factors and dose coefficients for external exposure, ingestion (age-dependent values) and inhalation (age-dependent values). The radionuclides treated are those which could be of interest in the two safety assessments. Physical data such as half-lives and type of decay are also presented.

  6. An assessment of soil-to-plant concentration ratios for some natural analogues of the transuranic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsalata, P; Morse, R S; Ford, H; Eisenbud, M; Franca, E P; de Castro, M B; Lobao, N; Sachett, I; Carlos, M

    1989-01-01

    A field study was conducted in an area of enhanced, natural radioactivity to assess the soil to edible vegetable concentration ratios (CR = concentration in dry vegetable/concentration in dry soil) of 232Th, 230Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, and the light rare earth elements (REE's) La, Ce and Nd. Twenty-nine soil and 42 vegetable samples consisting of relatively equal numbers of seven varieties were obtained from 11 farms on the Pocos de Caldas Plateau in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This region is the site of a major natural analogue study to assess the mobilization and retardation processes affecting Th and the REE's at the Morro do Ferro ore body and U series radionuclides at a nearby open pit U mine. Thorium (IV) serves as a chemical analogue for quadrivalent Pu and the light REE's (III) as chemical analogues for trivalent Am and Cm. The geometric mean CR's (all times 10(-4] decreased as 228Ra (148) greater than 226Ra (76) greater than La (5.4) greater than Nd (3.0) = Ce (2.6) greater than 232Th (0.6), or simply as M (II) greater than M (III) greater than M (IV). These differences may reflect the relative availability of these metals for plant uptake. Significant differences were found in the CR's (for any given analyte) among many of the vegetables sampled. The CR's for the different analytes were also highly correlated. The reasons for the correlations in CR's seen among elements with such diverse chemistries as Ra-REE or Ra-Th are not clear but are apparently related to the essential mineral requirements or mineral status of the different vegetables sampled. This conclusion is based on the significant correlations obtained between the Ca content of the dried vegetables and the CR's for all of the elements studied.

  7. Distribution of stress on TMJ disc induced by use of chincup therapy: assessment by the finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calçada, Flávio Siqueira; Guimarães, Antônio Sérgio; Teixeira, Marcelo Lucchesi; Takamatsu, Flávio Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the distribution of stress produced on TMJ disc by chincup therapy, by means of the finite element method. Methods: a simplified three-dimensional TMJ disc model was developed by using Rhinoceros 3D software, and exported to ANSYS software. A 4.9N load was applied on the inferior surface of the model at inclinations of 30, 40, and 50 degrees to the mandibular plane (GoMe). ANSYS was used to analyze stress distribution on the TMJ disc for the different angulations, by means of finite element method. Results: The results showed that the tensile and compressive stresses concentrations were higher on the inferior surface of the model. More presence of tensile stress was found in the middle-anterior region of the model and its location was not altered in the three directions of load application. There was more presence of compressive stress in the middle and mid-posterior regions, but when a 50o inclined load was applied, concentration in the middle region was prevalent. Tensile and compressive stresses intensities progressively diminished as the load was more vertically applied. Conclusions: stress induced by the chincup therapy is mainly located on the inferior surface of the model. Loads at greater angles to the mandibular plane produced distribution of stresses with lower intensity and a concentration of compressive stresses in the middle region. The simplified three-dimensional model proved useful for assessing the distribution of stresses on the TMJ disc induced by the chincup therapy. PMID:29160348

  8. Assessment of the influence of anthropogenic factors on elements of the ecological network in Vojvodina (Serbia using the Leopold matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kicošev Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt steppes and marshes represent the most valuable ecosystems in the world, providing numerous ecosystem services that are extremely vulnerable to anthropogenic influences. These types of habitat in the territory of Serbia are most dominant in Banat and a significant portion of them is under protection or in the process of becoming protected. The section surrounding the protected areas of Slano Kopovo Special Nature Reserve, Rusanda Nature Park and Okanj Bara Special Nature Reserve with the non-building area of Novi Bečej, Kumane, Melenci, Elemir and Taraš cadastral municipalities, has been chosen for the analysis. The aim of this paper was to assess the influence of specific anthropogenic factors on the elements of an ecological network using the analytical method that can generate the required results in a manner suitable for presentation to various stakeholders. To achieve this aim, the Leopold matrix model, used for assessing anthropogenic influence on the environment, has been chosen. The specificity of this issue of protecting and preserving elements of an ecological network resulted in the need to isolate and evaluate the factors affecting the preservation of habitats and functionality of ecosystems, unlike the concept of Leopold matrix, which treats all factors as equally important in the process of evaluation. Evaluation results indicate significant effects of historical, perennial manner of using the area and other resources in the non-building area.

  9. Residual levels of rare earth elements in freshwater and marine fish and their health risk assessment from Shandong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Luping; Wang, Xining; Nie, Hongqian; Shao, Lijun; Wang, Guoling; Liu, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    The total concentrations of rare earth elements (ΣREE) were quantified in 251 samples from 10 common species of freshwater and marine fish in seventeen cities of Shandong, China. ΣREE obtained from the freshwater fish ranged from 34.0 to 37.9 ngg −1 (wet weight) and marine fish from 12.7 to 37.6 ngg −1 . The ratio of LREE to HREE was 13.7:1 and 10:1 for freshwater and marine fish, respectively. This suggests that freshwater fish exhibit greater REE concentrations than marine fish and the biological effects of LREE are higher than HREE. Results revealed a similar REE distribution pattern between those fish and coastal sediments, abiding the “abundance law”. The health risk assessment demonstrated the EDIs of REEs in fish were significantly lower than the ADI, indicating that the consumption of these fish presents little risk to human health. - Highlights: •Concentrations of rare earth elements in freshwater and marine fishes from the coastlines of Shandong, China are reported. •Statistical analysis and comparison indicates that freshwater fishes exhibit greater REE concentrations than marine fishes. •A similar REE distribution pattern was found between those of fish and coastal sediments, abiding the "abundance law". •Health risk assessment demonstrated that consuming fish is presently at little risk to human health.

  10. Assessment of suitability of tree species for the production of biomass on trace element contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelou, Michael W.H.; Deram, Annabelle; Gogos, Alexander; Studer, Björn; Schulin, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Birch: lowest metal concentrations in foliage, wood and bark. ► Bark proportion does not have to decline with increasing age of tree. ► Long harvest rotation (>25 y) reduces metal concentrations in stem. ► Birch: most suitable tree for BCL. - Abstract: To alleviate the demand on fertile agricultural land for production of bioenergy, we investigated the possibility of producing biomass for bioenergy on trace element (TE) contaminated land. Soil samples and plant tissues (leaves, wood and bark) of adult willow (Salix sp.), poplar (Populus sp.), and birch (Betula pendula) trees were collected from five contaminated sites in France and Germany and analysed for Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ca, and K. Cadmium concentration in tree leaves were correlated with tree species, whereas Zn concentration in leaves was site correlated. Birch revealed significantly lower leaf Cd concentrations (1.2–8.9 mg kg −1 ) than willow and poplar (5–80 mg kg −1 ), thus posing the lowest risk for TE contamination of surrounding areas. Birch displayed the lowest bark concentrations for Ca (2300–6200 mg kg −1 ) and K (320–1250 mg kg −1 ), indicating that it would be the most suitable tree species for fuel production, as high concentrations of K and Ca decrease the ash melting point which results in a reduced plant lifetime. Due to higher TE concentrations in bark compared to wood a small bark proportion in relation to the trunk is desirable. In general the bark proportion was reduced with the tree age. In summary, birch was amongst the investigated species the most suitable for biomass production on TE contaminated land.

  11. Synthesis and assessment of imprinted polymers for the separation of f elements. Application to liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneau, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    Within the frame of the CEA's SPIN programme which aims at separate lanthanides (Ln) and actinides (An) in order to decrease the volume and activity of nuclear wastes to be stored, and after a presentation of lanthanides and actinides, of the main methods of inter-group and intra-group separation, this research thesis presents the principles and applications of the molecular print and ionic print which are then used to perform the Ln/Ln and Ln/an separation. The author discusses the choice and synthesis of selective complexing monomers which are used for the synthesis of imprinted polymers. The next chapter reports the synthesis of imprinted polymers, the assessment of their properties (selectivity and extraction power) in Ln/Ln competitive extraction in a batch reactor, and the optimization of synthesis conditions. Then, the author reports the assessment of properties of imprinted material in terms of ability to perform an inter-group Am 241 / Eu 152 separation in a batch reactor. The last part addresses Ln/Ln separation by High Performance Liquid Chromatography by using synthesised imprinted polymers as steady phase [fr

  12. Assessment of ecotoxicological risks of element leaching from pulverized coal ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenner, H.A.

    1995-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effects on representative organisms, after exposure to pulverized fuel ashes (PFA) or leachates of PFA. The studies dealt primarily with toxic effects and focused on the impact of PFA on single species and groups of related species including their acute effects, bioconcentration and ultimate body burden. Emphasis was placed on reproductive effects in this study. Crawling behaviour of mussels was also studied to reflection to the physical differences of PFA from other substrates. A newly developed device was therefore used for valve movement monitoring. A phytomonitoring system with duckweed was developed for assessing effects on yield, using image processing. The results are presented in three parts according to the environmental compartments concerned i.e. marine, freshwater and terrestrial. In Part 1, marine studies with benthic invertebrates were carried out in model ecosystems with different compositions of PFA and Waddensea sediment. In Part 2, the freshwater studies were carried out in flow chambers using the painters mussel Unio pictorum. Besides behavioural studies with PFA specific research was carried out with selenium on body burden and effects on reproduction. Selenium is a prominent constituent of PFA. In Part 3 research is described on the monitoring of leachates of PFA with duckweed. A separate chapter deals with growth, mortality and accumulation in plants and worms exposed to coal gasification slag. figs., tabs., refs

  13. Testing contamination risk assessment methods for toxic elements from mine waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdaal, A.; Jordan, G.; Szilassi, P.; Kiss, J.; Detzky, G.

    2012-04-01

    Major incidents involving mine waste facilities and poor environmental management practices have left a legacy of thousands of contaminated sites like in the historic mining areas in the Carpathian Basin. Associated environmental risks have triggered the development of new EU environmental legislation to prevent and minimize the effects of such incidents. The Mine Waste Directive requires the risk-based inventory of all mine waste sites in Europe by May 2012. In order to address the mining problems a standard risk-based Pre-selection protocol has been developed by the EU Commission. This paper discusses the heavy metal contamination in acid mine drainage (AMD) for risk assessment (RA) along the Source-Pathway-Receptor chain using decision support methods which are intended to aid national and regional organizations in the inventory and assessment of potentially contaminated mine waste sites. Several recognized methods such as the European Environmental Agency (EEA) standard PRAMS model for soil contamination, US EPA-based AIMSS and Irish HMS-IRC models for RA of abandoned sites are reviewed, compared and tested for the mining waste environment. In total 145 ore mine waste sites have been selected for scientific testing using the EU Pre-selection protocol as a case study from Hungary. The proportion of uncertain to certain responses for a site and for the total number of sites may give an insight of specific and overall uncertainty in the data we use. The Pre-selection questions are efficiently linked to a GIS system as database inquiries using digital spatial data to directly generate answers. Key parameters such as distance to the nearest surface and ground water bodies, to settlements and protected areas are calculated and statistically evaluated using STATGRAPHICS® in order to calibrate the RA models. According to our scientific research results, of the 145 sites 11 sites are the most risky having foundation slope >20o, 57 sites are within distance 66 (class VI

  14. Preoperative Assessment of Neural Elements in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis by Upright Magnetic Resonance Imaging: An Implication for Routine Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Gernot; Vicari, Marco; Siller, Alexander; Kubosch, Eva J; Hennig, Juergen; Südkamp, Norbert P; Izadpanah, Kaywan; Kubosch, David

    2018-04-06

    Introduction Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a kinetic-dependent disease typically aggravating during spinal loading. To date, assessment of LSS is usually performed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, conventional supine MRI is associated with significant drawbacks as it does not truly reflect physiological loads, experienced by discoligamentous structures during erect posture. Consequently, supine MRI often fails to reveal the source of pain and/or disability caused by LSS. The present study sought to assess neural dimensions via MRI in supine, upright, and upright-hyperlordotic position in order to evaluate the impact of patient positioning on neural narrowing. Therefore, radiological measures such as neuroforaminal dimensions, central canal volume, sagittal listhesis, and lumbar lordosis at spinal level L4/5 were extracted and stratified according to patient posture. Materials and methods Overall, 10 subjects were enclosed in this experimental study. MRI was performed in three different positions: (1) 0° supine (SP), (2) 80° upright (UP), and (3) 80° upright + hyperlordotic (HY) posture. Upright MRI was conducted utilizing a 0.25T open-configuration scanner equipped with a rotatable examination bed allowing for true standing MRI. Radiographic outcome of upright MRI imaging was extracted and evaluated according to patient positioning. Results Upright MRI-based assessment of neural dimensions was successfully accomplished in all subjects. Overall, radiographic parameters revealed a significant decrease of neural dimensions from supine to upright position: Specifically, mean foraminal area decreased from SP to UP by 13.3% (P ≤ 0.05) as well as from SP to HY position by 21% (P ≤ 0.05). Supplementation of hyperlordosis did not result in additional narrowing of neural elements (P ≥ 0.05). Furthermore, central canal volume revealed a decrease of 7% at HY and 8% at UP compared to SP position (P ≥ 0.05). Assessment of lumbar lordosis yielded in a

  15. Elements for a comprehensive assessment of natural resources: bridging environmental economics with ecological economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Romero, Paulo Cesar; Cubillos Gonzalez, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The predominance of economic assessments regarding the value of natural resources has caused a sub-valuing of the real benefits which societies can obtain from nature. This is due to a lack of knowledge about the complexity of ecological functions, as well as a dismissal of the integrated relations of the sub-systems which make up the environment. It is therefore necessary to establish conceptual bridges between environmental sciences to fill in the gaps in economic valuation methods by recurring to diverse measuring scales, participation from the different actors involved, and a principle of precaution regarding the limits of nature. This paper explores the concepts of value and economic valuation methods from the perspectives of Environmental Economics and Ecological Economics. It then proposes an integration of valuing methodologies which take into account how complementary and complex natures value relations are. This proposal of valuing integrally ecosystem goods and services contributes to adjusting political decisions more accordingly to real environmental conditions.

  16. Trace element analytics and multivariate statistics for investigation and assessment of the pollution situation in rivers; Elementspurenanalytik und multivariate Statistik zur Untersuchung und Bewertung des Belastungszustandes von Fliessgewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulinger, A.M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2002-07-01

    In order to describe and assess the element distribution and the trend of the pollution in sediments, particulate suspended matter and dissolved matter of the river Elbe more than 60 elements were determined in several sampling campaigns along the entire river during the nineties. By analyzing the resulting data with two- and multi-way principal components analysis geogenic and anthropogenically influenced elements were distinguished and typical longitudinal profiles concerning geogenic or anthropogenic characteristics were summarized. Sampling locations having similiar element distribution patterns were aggregated to characteristic Elbe sections by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. The temporal trend of the pollution within the different sections was quantified by comparing the mean concentrations of the anthropogenically influenced elements. Two- and Three-way PLS regression models were applied to predict element concentrations in one certain river compartment from measured concentrations in one or two different compartments. (orig.)

  17. Nuclear and non-nuclear techniques for assessing the differential uptake of anthropogenic elements by atmospheric biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Adriano M.G.; Carmo Freitas, Maria do; Sarmento, Susana

    2007-01-01

    The present study brings into focus tree-bark and lichen-thalli data from Parmelia caperata (L.) Ach. (syn. Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale) and Platanus hybrida Brot. (syn. Platanus acerifolia (Ait.) Willd.), respectively, whose samples have been exposed at (transplanted into) a coastal location of south-western Portugal, impacted by urban-industrial emissions-Sines. Results for nickel (atomic absorption spectrophotometry; AAS) and vanadium (instrumental neutron activation analysis; INAA) are assessed and discussed here in terms of relative bioaccumulation, as well as in view of an influence of the precipitation regime on the corresponding elemental levels. Comparisons with similar experiments further afield suggest that enhanced levels of V in lichens could be due to an association of increased availability and alternate wet-dry periods. An overall reconciliation of [V] data from lichens seems therefore possible by assuming the former influence. Rainfall cycles did not appear to hinder or ease the Ni uptake though. Differential retention in lichens may thus be related to dissimilar mechanisms of accumulation, with Ni under some sort of homeostatic control and ionic forms of V competing for extracellular binding sites. Even if more conservative in absolute terms, bark indication closely follows lichens' in either case. Mechanism(s) of elemental uptake are arguably different in bark, an aspect that requires further elucidation. Nickel and vanadium are signature elements that fingerprint fossil-fuel combustion, and have shown a typical [Ni]/[V] ratio around 0.3 in the Portuguese native lichen P. sulcata Taylor. Such ratio is approached by the present organisms in an exposed condition, after going through changes that may be viewed to reflect the above differential behaviour. The ratio is remarkably consistent in bulk deposition, pointing to a coal-burning signal superimposed on a general profile of oil-related industries

  18. Nuclear and non-nuclear techniques for assessing the differential uptake of anthropogenic elements by atmospheric biomonitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Adriano M. G.; Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Sarmento, Susana

    2007-08-01

    The present study brings into focus tree-bark and lichen-thalli data from Parmelia caperata (L.) Ach. (syn. Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale) and Platanus hybrida Brot. (syn. Platanus acerifolia (Ait.) Willd.), respectively, whose samples have been exposed at (transplanted into) a coastal location of south-western Portugal, impacted by urban-industrial emissions—Sines. Results for nickel (atomic absorption spectrophotometry; AAS) and vanadium (instrumental neutron activation analysis; INAA) are assessed and discussed here in terms of relative bioaccumulation, as well as in view of an influence of the precipitation regime on the corresponding elemental levels. Comparisons with similar experiments further afield suggest that enhanced levels of V in lichens could be due to an association of increased availability and alternate wet-dry periods. An overall reconciliation of [V] data from lichens seems therefore possible by assuming the former influence. Rainfall cycles did not appear to hinder or ease the Ni uptake though. Differential retention in lichens may thus be related to dissimilar mechanisms of accumulation, with Ni under some sort of homeostatic control and ionic forms of V competing for extracellular binding sites. Even if more conservative in absolute terms, bark indication closely follows lichens' in either case. Mechanism(s) of elemental uptake are arguably different in bark, an aspect that requires further elucidation. Nickel and vanadium are signature elements that fingerprint fossil-fuel combustion, and have shown a typical [Ni]/[V] ratio around 0.3 in the Portuguese native lichen P. sulcata Taylor. Such ratio is approached by the present organisms in an exposed condition, after going through changes that may be viewed to reflect the above differential behaviour. The ratio is remarkably consistent in bulk deposition, pointing to a coal-burning signal superimposed on a general profile of oil-related industries.

  19. PSA Level 2 as element of an integral safety assessment before plant commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, H.; Mildenberger, O.; Sonnenkalb, M.; Steinroetter, T.

    2012-01-01

    In Argentina the Central Nuclear Atucha II is near to completion. This is a pressurized heavy water reactor. PSA (Probability Safety Assessment) level 1, level 2 and level 3 have to be performed in order to show compliance with the Argentinean dose limit. Such studies have been done first by the former KWU in the 1980's to get the construction license (FABIAN 1985). Nowadays the plant owner NA-SA performs PSA level 1 and provides information about the core damage states to GRS, who does the subsequent PSA level 2 part. GRS delivers source terms to the environment and the associated frequencies to the Argentinean research institute CNEA, which performs level 3 together with NA-SA. Since GRS is situated in the middle of the chain, interface definition with both ends has been a significant task of the GRS activities. Experience gained during this process will be highlighted in the presentation. The analysis of PSA level 2 proper follows a traditional approach: -) deterministic accident simulation with integral code MELCOR; -) analyses of specific issues which are not covered by MELCOR; and -) probabilistic accident progression analysis with EVNTRE event tree methodology. It appears that MELCOR and EVNTRE and PSA guidelines in general are flexible enough to analyse new or uncommon reactor designs. It also appears that the plant specific design features may require analyses beyond present code capabilities, calling for expert judgment and they can largely determine PSA results. The behaviour of iodine is not yet covered satisfactorily by state-of-the-art models in MELCOR

  20. Assessment of toxic and trace elements in the sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri in the Antartic marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Mauricio B.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2017-01-01

    Sea urchins are marine and benthic invertebrates, many of them sessile or with reduced mobility. The species Sterechinus neumayeri (Meissner, 1900) is the most abundant in shallow Antarctic seawater. Sea urchins have been frequently applied for ecotoxicological tests, but few studies have assessed these organisms as biomonitors. Comandante Ferraz Antartic Station (FS), part of the Brazilian Antarctic Base located on King George Island, in Admiralty Bay, was chosen for this study, and two sampling sites were chosen for this purpose: Botany as control site and near to the waste disposal of Ferraz Station which was almost destroyed by fire occurred in 2012, consuming about of 70% of the facilities. The micronutrients and some trace element concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Results obtained for Br, Co, Cr, Cs, K, Se and Zn presented a higher concentration in the Comandante Ferraz Station. Elements such As, Ba, Fe, Na, Rb and Sc showed no significant difference between sites. Exploratory PCA results showed that the two regions were separated by Br, Cr, Cs, K, Se and Zn. Results indicate the possibility of applying this organism for biomonitoring purposes for metals Cr, Zn and semi-metal Se. (author)

  1. Assessment of toxic and trace elements in the sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri in the Antartic marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Mauricio B.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: mbarlera@gmail.com, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisa; Emerenciano, Andrews K.; Silva, José R. M. C. da, E-mail: andrewskre@usp.br, E-mail: jrmcs@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas. Departamento de Histologia e Embriologia; Bordon, Isabella C., E-mail: Isabella.bordon@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), São Vicente, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Sea urchins are marine and benthic invertebrates, many of them sessile or with reduced mobility. The species Sterechinus neumayeri (Meissner, 1900) is the most abundant in shallow Antarctic seawater. Sea urchins have been frequently applied for ecotoxicological tests, but few studies have assessed these organisms as biomonitors. Comandante Ferraz Antartic Station (FS), part of the Brazilian Antarctic Base located on King George Island, in Admiralty Bay, was chosen for this study, and two sampling sites were chosen for this purpose: Botany as control site and near to the waste disposal of Ferraz Station which was almost destroyed by fire occurred in 2012, consuming about of 70% of the facilities. The micronutrients and some trace element concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Results obtained for Br, Co, Cr, Cs, K, Se and Zn presented a higher concentration in the Comandante Ferraz Station. Elements such As, Ba, Fe, Na, Rb and Sc showed no significant difference between sites. Exploratory PCA results showed that the two regions were separated by Br, Cr, Cs, K, Se and Zn. Results indicate the possibility of applying this organism for biomonitoring purposes for metals Cr, Zn and semi-metal Se. (author)

  2. Determination of elemental and physico-chemical quality of well waters and assessment of their impacts on public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriamanivo, L.V.; Rasolofonirina, M.; Rakotondramanana, H.T.; Rasoazanany, E.O.; Razafy Andrianarivo, R.

    2001-01-01

    Water is one the most important constituents of the human environment. The relevance of determining pollutants in drinking water is obvious because it is among the pathways of contaminants to enter the organism. The aim of this work is to determine water quality and thus to assess the effects on humans. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis method (TXRF) has been applied for the measurements of trace elements in drinking water. The analyses were performed without any pre-concentration of samples. Colorimetric method was used for the analysis of major components of water. The samples were collected in the regions towards southern Antananarivo. Well waters were sampled because they are the type of drinking water consumed by the population in these regions. Analytical results showed that the determined concentrations of toxic elements such as chromium and lead are largely lower than the maximum allowed values, except two sites were lead concentration exceeds it. For Fe, five sites showed water samples having iron concentrations higher than Recommended Value (50 μg.L -1 ) fixed by the European Union. The mean values for barium and manganese were above the maximum allowed value established by law in some sites. This is mainly due to the geology of the terrain. Concerning nitrate, three sites showed higher concentration than the maximum allowed value.

  3. Toxic trace elements in solid airborne particles and ecological risk assessment in the vicinity of local boiler house plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talovskaya, Anna V.; Osipova, Nina A.; Yazikov, Egor G.; Shakhova, Tatyana S.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with assessment of anthropogenic pollution in vicinity of local boilers using the data on microelement composition of solid airborne particles deposited in snow. The anthropogenic feature of elevated accumulation levels of solid airborne particles deposited in snow in the vicinity of coal-fired boiler house is revealed in elevated concentrations (3-25 higher than background) of Cd, Sb, Mo, Pb, Sr, Ba, Ni, Mo, Zn and Co. In the vicinity oil-fired boiler house the specific elements as parts of solid airborne particles deposited in snow are V, Ni and Sb, as their content exceeds the background from 3 to 8 times. It is determined that the maximum shares in non-carcinogenic human health risk from chronic inhalation of trace elements to the human body in the vicinity of coal-fired boiler house belong to Al, Mn, Cu, Ba, Co, Pb, whereas in the vicinity of oil-fired boiler house - Al, Mn, Cu, Ni, V.

  4. Suggestions on performance of finite element limit analysis for eliminating the necessity of stress classifications in design and defect assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In structural design of a nuclear power component, stress classification from elastic stress analysis resultants is often used. Alternatively, to improve accuracy, finite element limit analysis may be performed. This paper examines some issues relating to the use of limit analysis; specifically, the treatment of multiple applied loads and the definition of the limit load from analysis using hardening plasticity laws. These are addressed both by detailed analysis for a simple geometry and by using the reference stress approach to estimate the inelastic displacement. The proposals are also applicable to a defect assessment of a cracked component, and treatment of distributed loads. It is shown that multiple or distributed loads should be treated as if they were applied proportionally irrespective of the actual nature of loads, and that the limit load from analysis with general plasticity laws may be estimated using a newly suggested reduced elastic slope method. (author)

  5. Suggestions on performance of finite element limit analysis for eliminating the necessity of stress classifications in design and defect assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, T.

    2001-01-01

    In structural design of a nuclear power component, stress classification from elastic stress analysis resultants is often used. Alternatively, to improve accuracy, finite element limit analysis may be performed. This paper examines some issues relating to the use of limit analysis; specifically, the treatment of multiple applied loads and the definition of the limit load from analysis using hardening plasticity laws. These are addressed both by detailed analysis for a simple geometry and by using the reference stress approach to estimate the inelastic displacement. The proposals are also applicable to a defect assessment of a cracked component, and treatment of distributed loads. It is shown that multiple or distributed loads should be treated as if they were applied proportionally irrespective of the actual nature of loads, and that the limit load from analysis with general plasticity laws may be estimated using a newly suggested reduced elastic slope method. (author)

  6. Comparative risk assessment: an element for a more rational and ethical approach to radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    Peaceful nuclear technologies are still perceived by a large fraction of the general public, the media as well as by some decision makers, as more risky than many other 'conventional' technologies. One of the approaches that can help bringing more rationality and ethics into the picture is to present the risk associated with radiation and nuclear technologies in the frame of correctly conducted comparative risk assessments. However, comparing different risks is not so straightforward because quantifying different risks on a comparable scale requires overcoming both conceptual and practical difficulties. Risk (R) can be expressed as the product of the probability (P) that a given undesired event, the risk, will occur, times the consequences of this event (C), i.e. R = P x C. Although in principle risks could be compared by simply ranking them according to the different values of R, this simplistic approach is not always possible because to correctly compare risks all factors, circumstances and assumptions should be mutually equivalent and quantified and the (often large) uncertainties taken into proper account. In the case of radiation risk, ICRP has assumed as valid the LNT model, (probability coefficient of 5 % per Sievert for attributable death from cancer) and selected the present equivalent dose limit of 1 mSv per year for public exposure. This dose corresponds to 50 lethal cancers by 1 million people exposed and is approximately equivalent (in terms of probability of death) to the risk of bicycling for 600 km, driving for 3200 km, crossing a busy road twice a day for 1 year, smoking 2.5 packets of cigarettes or being X-rayed once for kidney metabolism. However, according to many scientists on the basis of both epidemiological and biological results and considerations, the actual risk is far lower than that predicted by the LNT model. Nevertheless, the policies and myths that were created about half a century ago are still persisting and have lead the general

  7. Life-Cycle Assessment of the Production of Rare-Earth Elements for Energy Applications: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Julio [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Zhao, Fu, E-mail: fzhao@purdue.edu [Division of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2014-11-06

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are a group of 17 elements with similar chemical properties, including 15 in the lanthanide group, yttrium, and scandium. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties, REEs gain increasing importance in many new energy technologies and systems that contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel depletion (e.g., wind turbine, electric vehicles, high efficiency lighting, batteries, and hydrogen storage). However, it is well known that production of REEs is far from environmentally sustainable as it requires significant material and energy consumption while generating large amounts of air/water emissions and solid waste. Although life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been accepted as the most comprehensive approach to quantify the environmental sustainability of a product or process, to date, there have been only very limited LCA studies on the production of REEs. With the continual growth of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, global production of REEs will increase. Therefore, reducing environmental footprints of REE production becomes critical and identifying environmental hotspots based on a holistic and comprehensive assessment on environmental impacts serves as an important starting point. After providing an overview of LCA methodology and a high-level description of the major REE production routes used from 1990s to today, this paper reviews the published LCA studies on the production of REEs. To date, almost all the LCA studies are based on process information collected from the operation of Mountain Pass facility in U.S. in 1990s and the operation of facilities in Bayan Obo, China. Knowledge gaps are identified and future research efforts are suggested to advance understanding on environmental impacts of REE production from the life-cycle perspective.

  8. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Ribeira do Iguape river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Francisco J.V. de; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: franciscovc@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: gilsonn@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELTA - Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: franciscoj@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELAI - Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2011-07-01

    The watershed region of the Ribeira do Iguape River and the estuarine complex of the Paranagua-Iguape- Cananeia and the various river basins located between this region and the Atlantic Ocean, is known as the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira do Iguape River runs a total length of approximately 470 km, being the main source of fresh water in the Estuarine Complex of the Iguape-Cananeia-Paranagua (Lagamar). The Ribeira do Iguape River is the last major river in the State of Sao Paulo that has not been altered by dams. During virtually the entire 20th century, the region of the Ribeira Valley was the scene of constant environmental degradation resulting from the intense exploration and refining of lead, zinc and silver ores that were processed in the mines of the region, in a rudimentary way and without any control over environmental impacts. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aims to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals and semi-metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the sediment and water of aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The determination of these elements was carried out by GF AAS technique for water samples and ICP OES for the sediment samples. This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, according to precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb were compared to the Canadian Environmental oriented values (TEL and PEL). The results obtained for multielemental analyses in the sediment samples were compared to UCC values (Upper Continental Crust). (author)

  9. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Ribeira do Iguape river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Francisco J.V. de; Quinaglia, Gilson A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    The watershed region of the Ribeira do Iguape River and the estuarine complex of the Paranagua-Iguape- Cananeia and the various river basins located between this region and the Atlantic Ocean, is known as the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira do Iguape River runs a total length of approximately 470 km, being the main source of fresh water in the Estuarine Complex of the Iguape-Cananeia-Paranagua (Lagamar). The Ribeira do Iguape River is the last major river in the State of Sao Paulo that has not been altered by dams. During virtually the entire 20th century, the region of the Ribeira Valley was the scene of constant environmental degradation resulting from the intense exploration and refining of lead, zinc and silver ores that were processed in the mines of the region, in a rudimentary way and without any control over environmental impacts. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aims to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals and semi-metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the sediment and water of aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The determination of these elements was carried out by GF AAS technique for water samples and ICP OES for the sediment samples. This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, according to precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb were compared to the Canadian Environmental oriented values (TEL and PEL). The results obtained for multielemental analyses in the sediment samples were compared to UCC values (Upper Continental Crust). (author)

  10. Life-Cycle Assessment of the Production of Rare-Earth Elements for Energy Applications: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Julio; Zhao, Fu

    2014-01-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are a group of 17 elements with similar chemical properties, including 15 in the lanthanide group, yttrium, and scandium. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties, REEs gain increasing importance in many new energy technologies and systems that contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel depletion (e.g., wind turbine, electric vehicles, high efficiency lighting, batteries, and hydrogen storage). However, it is well known that production of REEs is far from environmentally sustainable as it requires significant material and energy consumption while generating large amounts of air/water emissions and solid waste. Although life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been accepted as the most comprehensive approach to quantify the environmental sustainability of a product or process, to date, there have been only very limited LCA studies on the production of REEs. With the continual growth of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, global production of REEs will increase. Therefore, reducing environmental footprints of REE production becomes critical and identifying environmental hotspots based on a holistic and comprehensive assessment on environmental impacts serves as an important starting point. After providing an overview of LCA methodology and a high-level description of the major REE production routes used from 1990s to today, this paper reviews the published LCA studies on the production of REEs. To date, almost all the LCA studies are based on process information collected from the operation of Mountain Pass facility in U.S. in 1990s and the operation of facilities in Bayan Obo, China. Knowledge gaps are identified and future research efforts are suggested to advance understanding on environmental impacts of REE production from the life-cycle perspective.

  11. Critical assessment of finite element analysis applied to metal–oxide interface roughness in oxidising zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, P., E-mail: Philip.Platt@manchester.ac.uk [University of Manchester, School of Materials, Materials Performance Centre, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Frankel, P. [University of Manchester, School of Materials, Materials Performance Centre, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gass, M. [AMEC, Walton House, Faraday Street, Birchwood Park, Risley, Warrington WA3 6GA (United Kingdom); Preuss, M. [University of Manchester, School of Materials, Materials Performance Centre, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    As a nuclear fuel cladding material, zirconium alloys act as a barrier between the fuel and pressurised steam or lithiated water environment. Controlling degradation mechanisms such as oxidation is essential to extending the in-service lifetime of the fuel. At temperatures of ∼360 °C zirconium alloys are known to exhibit cyclical, approximately cubic corrosion kinetics. With acceleration in the oxidation kinetics occurring every ∼2 μm of oxide growth, and being associated with the formation of a network of lateral cracks. Finite element analysis has been used previously to explain the lateral crack formation by the development of localised out-of-plane tensile stresses at the metal–oxide interface. This work uses the Abaqus finite element code to assess critically current approaches to representing the oxidation of zirconium alloys, with relation to undulations at the metal–oxide interface and localised stress generation. This includes comparison of axisymmetric and 3D quartered modelling approaches, and investigates the effect of interface geometry and plasticity in the metal substrate. Particular focus is placed on the application of the anisotropic strain tensor used to represent the oxidation mechanism, which is typically applied with a fixed coordinate system. Assessment of the impact of the tensor showed that 99% of the localised tensile stresses originated from the out-of-plane component of the strain tensor, rather than the in-plane expansion as was previously thought. Discussion is given to the difficulties associated with this modelling approach and the requirements for future simulations of the oxidation of zirconium alloys.

  12. Integrated non-destructive assessment of relevant structural elements of an Italian heritage site: the Carthusian monastery of Trisulti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainieri, C; Marra, A; Gargaro, D; Fabbrocino, G; Rainieri, G M; Pepe, M

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of historical structures in need of preservation and restoration interventions is a very complex task due to the large uncertainties in the characterization of structural properties and detailing in view of the structural response. Moreover, the predictive performance of numerical analyses and simulations depend on the availability of information about the constructional properties of the architectural complex, crack patterns and active degradation phenomena. In particular, local changes in material properties or damage due to past events (such as earthquakes) can affect individual structural elements. They can be hardly detected as a result of the maintenance interventions carried out over the centuries and the possibility to carry out limited or even no destructive investigations due to the historical relevance of the structure. Thus, non-destructive investigations play a fundamental role in the assessment of historical structures minimizing, at the same time, the invasiveness of interventions. The present paper deals with an explanatory case study concerning the structural investigations carried out in view of the seismic assessment of an Italian historical monument, the Carthusian monastery of Trisulti in Collepardo, erected in 1204 under Pope Innocenzo HI. The relevance of the case study is due to the application, in combination, of different NDT methods, such as sonic tests, and active and passive infrared thermography, in order to characterize relevant masonry elements. Moreover, an advanced system for the in-situ nondestructive vibration-based estimation of the tensile loads in ancient tie-rods is described and the main results obtained from its application for the characterization of the tie-rods of the cloister are presented. (paper)

  13. Assessment of total soil and plant trace elements in rice-based production systems in NE Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Kato, Yoichi; Vianello, Gilmo; Vittori, Livia; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Macro- and micronutrients concentrations, and PTEs contents in soils and plants (rice) from the rice district in the Venetian territory (NE Italy) have been determined by ICP-MS spectrometry, with the following aims: - to determine the background levels of macro- and microelements in the study area; - to assess possible contamination of soils and plants; - to calculate the Translocation Factor (TF) of metals from soil to plant, and the possible hazard for human health. Four rice plots with different rotation systems were investigated from seedling time to harvesting; sampling of soils (0-30cm) and plants was carried out 4 times during growing season (three replicates). Rice plants were separated into roots, stems, leaves and grains, and then oven-dried. Chemical and physical analyses were carried out at the Soil Science Lab of the University of Bologna and Venice, respectively. The results obtained point to a land with moderate soil contamination by trace elements (namely Li, Sn, Tl, Sr, Ti, Fe). Heavy metal (Sb, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, V, Zn ) concentrations in soils are below the threshold indicated by the Italian legislation (DM 152/2006). Cd, Sn, and Ti contents in soils are positively correlated with soil pH, while As, Fe, Li, Ti, Tl and Zn are negatively correlated with organic matter content. With the exception of Strontium, soil metal contents are always correlated between variable couples. HMs in plants vary according to the sampling season, texture and moisture, and soil pH. Most non-essential trace elements are accumulated in rice roots and, only in cases of essential micronutrients, in leaves. Therefore, rice can be assumed as an accumulator plant of As, Pb, Cr, Ba, and Ti, whereas it is as an indicator plant for Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn and Zn. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that soil pH has a larger effect on Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti and Zn concentrations in grain than other soil parameters. The average translocation of

  14. Assessment of chemical element migration in soil-plant complex of Urov endemic localities of East Transbaikalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadim V., Ermakov; Valentina, Danilova; Sabsbakhor, Khushvakhtova; Aklexander, Degtyarev; Sergey, Tyutikov; Victor, Berezkin; Elena, Karpova

    2014-05-01

    The comparative evaluation of the levels of biologically active chemical elements and their migration in the soil-plant complex of two Urov endemic locations in East Transbaikalia (Zolinsky and Uryumkansky) and background areas (Western Baikal region and the western area of the Trans-Baikal region) was conducted. The predominant soil-forming rocks in East Transbaikalia are weathering products of Proterozoic carbonated granitoids PR2. The surface rocks consist from granite, granodiorite, diorite quartz diorite, gabbro, norite, gabbro-norite and other. Soils - mountain and cryogenic meadow forests, mountain permafrost taiga podzolised, meadow alluvial, peaty meadow [2]. The paludification of narrow valleys and thermokarst phenomena are typical in Urov endemic localities. It reflects on the spotted of soil and differentiation of chemical composition of soils and plants. Most of the chemical elements in soils were determined by means of X-ray fluorescence, and trace elements in soils and plants - by atomic absorption spectrometry. The selenium content was measured by spectrofluorimetric method [3]. The research processed by methods of variation statistics. It was found that the soils of two locations of the Urov subregion of the biosphere were more enriched with iron, barium, calcium, uranium, thorium, phosphorus, and to a lesser extent strontium compared to background soils. The ratio of Ca: P was significantly higher in the soil of background areas, and Ca: Sr, on the contrary, in endemic soils. In assessing the migration of trace elements in soil-plant complex by means of the total content of trace elements and biological absorption coefficient found a marked accumulation by plants manganese, chromium, arsenic and weak plants accumulation of cobalt and nickel. Soil landscape is not much different in content of selenium, but its migration in plants was reduced in places of spread of Urov disease [1]. The concentrators of cadmium (leaves of different species of willow

  15. Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; Barbier, F; Ayouni, L; Gil, F

    2013-09-01

    Although fish intake has potential health benefits, the presence of metal contamination in seafood has raised public health concerns. In this study, levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products and compared with the maximum levels currently in force. In a further step, potential human health risks for the consumers were assessed. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for their toxic elements content. High mercury concentrations were found in some predatory species (blue shark, cat shark, swordfish and tuna), although they were below the regulatory maximum levels. In the case of cadmium, bivalve mollusks such as canned clams and mussels presented higher concentrations than fish, but almost none of the samples analyzed exceeded the maximum levels. Lead concentrations were almost negligible with the exception of frozen common sole, which showed median levels above the legal limit. Tin levels in canned products were far below the maximum regulatory limit, indicating that no significant tin was transferred from the can. Arsenic concentrations were higher in crustaceans such as fresh and frozen shrimps. The risk assessment performed indicated that fish and shellfish products were safe for the average consumer, although a potential risk cannot be dismissed for regular or excessive consumers of particular fish species, such as tuna, swordfish, blue shark and cat shark (for mercury) and common sole (for lead). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of Urban Ecosystem Health Based on Matter Element Analysis: A Case Study of 13 Cities in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xuefeng; Pu, Lijie

    2017-08-21

    Urban public health is an important global issue and receives public concern. The urban ecosystem health (UEH) indicator system was constructed with 27 assessment indicators selected from vigor, organization, resilience, service function, and population health, then the matter element analysis (MEA) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) weighting method were used to assess the UEH of each city in Jiangsu Province during the period of 2000-2014. The results show that the overall ecosystem health status of each city shows continuous improvement. The UEH status of each city gradually transferred from poor, general, and medium condition to good and excellent condition. From the perspective of spatial distribution, the city's UEH showing a steady status after increasing for 10 years, and their spatial variations have gradually reduced. The UEH status in Southern Jiangsu and Central Jiangsu was better than that of Northern Jiangsu Province. From each component point of view, the vigor, resilience, and population health of each city in Jiangsu Province showed a trend of continuous improvement, while the organization and service function first increased and then decreased. The common limiting factors of UEH in Jiangsu Province were Engel's coefficient of urban households, number of beds of hospitals, health centers per 10,000 people, and total investment in the treatment of environmental pollution as percent GDP. These results help decision makers to make suitable decisions to maintain the UEH of each city in Jiangsu Province.

  17. Rolling Element Bearing Performance Degradation Assessment Using Variational Mode Decomposition and Gath-Geva Clustering Time Series Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaolong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By focusing on the issue of rolling element bearing (REB performance degradation assessment (PDA, a solution based on variational mode decomposition (VMD and Gath-Geva clustering time series segmentation (GGCTSS has been proposed. VMD is a new decomposition method. Since it is different from the recursive decomposition method, for example, empirical mode decomposition (EMD, local mean decomposition (LMD, and local characteristic-scale decomposition (LCD, VMD needs a priori parameters. In this paper, we will propose a method to optimize the parameters in VMD, namely, the number of decomposition modes and moderate bandwidth constraint, based on genetic algorithm. Executing VMD with the acquired parameters, the BLIMFs are obtained. By taking the envelope of the BLIMFs, the sensitive BLIMFs are selected. And then we take the amplitude of the defect frequency (ADF as a degradative feature. To get the performance degradation assessment, we are going to use the method called Gath-Geva clustering time series segmentation. Afterwards, the method is carried out by two pieces of run-to-failure data. The results indicate that the extracted feature could depict the process of degradation precisely.

  18. Assessment of the integrity of degraded steam generator tube by the use of heterogeneous finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, X.; Kozluk, M.; Pagan, S.; Mills, B.

    2006-01-01

    Steam generator tubes at Ontario Power Generation (OPG) have been experiencing a variety of degradations such as pitting, fretting wear, erosion-corrosion, thinning and denting. To assist with steam generator life cycle management, OPG has developed Fitness-For-Service Guidelines (FFSG) for steam generator tubes. The FFSG are intended to provide standard acceptance criteria and evaluation procedures for assessing the condition of steam generator tubes for structural integrity, operational leak rate, and consequential leakage during an upset or abnormal event. Based on inspection results in conjunction with representative, postulated distributions of flaws in the un-inspected tubes, the FFSG provide an acceptable method of satisfying the intent of CSA-N285.4 and justifying the continued operation of degraded steam generator tubes. Some non-mandatory empirical axial and circumferential flaw models are also provided in the FFSG for structural integrity assessments. The test data from the OPG Steam Generator Tube Test Program (SGTTP) showed that the FFSG axial flaw model is conservative for a wide range of defect morphologies. A defect-specific axial flaw model was proposed for lattice-bar fret defects in I800 tubes by utilizing the SGTTP database of extensive test results. A defect-specific flaw model for outer diameter (OD) pitting and inner diameter (ID) intergranular attack in Monel 400 tubes was also developed using the SGTTP test data. More tests have been scheduled to support the development of defect specific models for axial flaws (OD cracks or ID laps) in Monel 400 and to supplement the database for Monel 400 pits. This paper explores the use of simulated testing for use in developing defect specific flaw models to reduce the amount of expensive tests. The Heterogeneous Finite Element Model (HFEM) has been developed and successfully applied to predict the failure behaviour of ductile metals under various deformation modes, i.e. plane stress, plane strain and

  19. Toxic element mobility assessment and modeling for regional geo-scientific survey to support Risk Assessment in a European Union context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdaal, Ahmed; Jordan, Gyozo; Bartha, Andras; Fugedi, Ubul

    2013-04-01

    The Mine Waste Directive 2006/21/EC requires the risk-based inventory of all mine waste sites in Europe. The geochemical documentation concerning inert classification and ranking of the mine wastes requires detailed field study and laboratory testing and analyses of waste material to assess the Acid Mine Drainage potential and toxic element mobility. The procedure applied in this study used a multi-level decision support scheme including: 1) expert judgment, 2) data review, 3) representative field sampling and laboratory analysis of formations listed in the Inert Mining Waste List, and 4) requesting available laboratory analysis data from selected operating mines. Based on expert judgment, the listed formations were classified into three categories. A: inert B: probably inert, but has to be checked, C: probably not inert, has to be examined. This paper discusses the heavy metal contamination risk assessment (RA) in leached quarry-mine waste sites in Hungary. In total 34 mine waste sites (including tailing lagoons and heaps of both abandoned mines and active quarries) have been selected for scientific testing using the EU Pre-selection Protocol. Over 93 field samples have been collected from the mine sites including Ore (Andesite and Ryolite), Coal (Lignite, black and brown coals), Peat, Alginite, Bauxite, Clay and Limestone. Laboratory analyses of the total toxic element content (aqua regia extraction), the mobile toxic element content (deionized water leaching) and the analysis of different forms of sulfur (sulfuric acid potential) ) on the base of Hungarian GKM Decree No. 14/2008. (IV. 3) concerning mining waste management. A detailed geochemical study together with spatial analysis and GIS has been performed to derive a geochemically sound contamination RA of the mine waste sites. Key parameters such as heavy metal and sulphur content, in addition to the distance to the nearest surface and ground water bodies, or to sensitive receptors such as settlements and

  20. Bioaccessibility and risk assessment of essential and non-essential elements in vegetables commonly consumed in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnisi, Robert Londi; Ndibewu, Peter P; Mafu, Lihle D; Bwembya, Gabriel C

    2017-10-01

    The green leafy vegetables (Mormodica involucrate, Bidens pilosa and Amaranthus spinosus) are economic; seasonal; locally grown and easily available; easy to propagate and store; highly nutritious food substances that form an important component of diets. This study applies a physiology based extraction technique (PBET) to mimic digestion of these vegetables to determine the fraction of essential (Fe and Zn) and non-essential elements (Cd, Cr and Pb) that are made available for absorption after ingestion. Prior to the application of the PBET, the vegetables were cooked adopting indigenous Swazi cooking methods. Cooking mobilized most of the metals out of the vegetable mass, and the final substrate concentrations are: raw > cooked > supernatant for all the metals, and the order of average metal leaching was: Pb (82.2%) >Cr (70.6%) >Zn (67.5%) >Fe (60.2%) >Cd (53.6%). This meant that the bioavailable concentrations are significantly lower than in the original vegetable mass, if only the solid mass is consumed. Bioaccessibility was higher in the gastric tract than in the intestinal phases of the PBET for all the metals in all the vegetables. Risk assessment protocols employed on the non-essential elements (Cr, Cd and Pb) showed that the associated risks of ingesting metal contaminated vegetables are higher for children, than they are for adults, based on the target hazard quotient (THQ) index. However, the overall health risk associated with ingestion of these metals is low, for both children and adults, based on the HR index. Conclusively, this study expounds on the nutritional and risk benefits associated with ingesting naturally grown vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An Assessment of the SEA Multi-Element Sensor for Liquid Water Content Calibration of the NASA GRC Icing Research Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Laura E.; Ide, Robert F.; Van Zante, Judith F.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Icing Research tunnel has been using an Icing Blade technique to measure cloud liquid water content (LWC) since 1980. The IRT conducted tests with SEA Multi-Element sensors from 2009 to 2011 to assess their performance in measuring LWC. These tests revealed that the Multi-Element sensors showed some significant advantages over the Icing Blade, particularly at higher water contents, higher impingement rates, and large drop sizes. Results of these and other tests are presented here.

  2. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  3. Assessment of daily intake of major and trace elements by inhabitants of potential radiation protection of greater Cairo area, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Sr, I, Al, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni and Cr were determined in vegetables, common foodstuffs and some animal products consumed by adult inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area. Some of these elements have chemical and biological similarity to some of the radionuclides abundantly encountered during nuclear power production and therefore data on these elements could provide important information on their biokinetic behavior. A total of 120 samples were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Generally, highest contributions for the intake of micro nutrients (Cu, Mn and Ni) arise from broad bean, rice and wheat flour consumption. Meat, milk, eggs and some vegetables are the major sources of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Al, Cd and Pb. The medium daily intake for the adult inhabitants of greater Cairo area was found to be 1.98 g of K, 0.54 mg of Ca, 1.14 fig of U, 0.8 μg of Th, 5.2μg of Cs, 1.3 mg of Sr, 105 μg of 1, 3.2 mg of Mn, 0.9 mg of Cu, 5.7 mg of Al, 5, 2 x 10 -2 mg of Pb, 2.1x10 -3 mg of Cd, 7.7x10 -2 mg of Ni and 2.1 x 10 -2 mg of Cr. The lower daily intake of Ca, Th, Cs and I by adult inhabitants of greater Cairo area could be due to the significantly lower consumption of milk and milk products, which are rich in these elements. The significantly lower intake of calcium by adult inhabitants of greater Cairo area may lead to higher uptake of radiostrontium and could result in higher internal radiation dose. The use of highly sensitive and reliable analytical methods resulted in accurate assessment of the values recorded for thorium and uranium suggested that radiation dose from their ingestion at natural background levels, is likely to be lower than those included in ICRP data. Concerning micro nutrients, the recommended values of daily intake of Cu and Mn are conveniently supplied by the common diet; however for Cr is lower than the recommended daily allowance. Due to high metals concentrations

  4. Multi-Target Risk Assessment of Potentially Toxic Elements in Farmland Soil Based on the Environment-Ecological-Health Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongyang; Meng, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Bai, Jinheng; Ma, Yingxin; Liu, Mingda

    2018-05-28

    There are potential impacts of Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) (e.g., Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Zn, Hg, and Pb) in soil from the perspective of the ecological environment and human health, and assessing the pollution and risk level of soil will play an important role in formulating policies for soil pollution control. Lingyuan, in the west of Liaoning Province, China, is a typical low-relief terrain of a hilly area. The object of study in this research is the topsoil of farmland in this area, of which 71 soil samples are collected. In this study, research methods, such as the Nemerow Index, Potential Ecological Hazard Index, Ecological Risk Quotient, Environmental Exposure Hazard Analysis, Positive Matrix Factorization Model, and Land Statistical Analysis, are used for systematical assessment of the pollution scale, pollution level, and source of PTEs, as well as the ecological environmental risks and health risks in the study area. The main conclusions are: The average contents of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Zn, Ni, and Pb of the soil are 5.32 mg/kg, 0.31 mg/kg, 50.44 mg/kg, 47.05 mg/kg, 0.03 mg/kg, 79.36 mg/kg, 26.01 mg/kg, and 35.65 mg/kg, respectively. The contents of Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb exceed the background value of local soil; Cd content of some study plots exceeds the National Soil Environmental Quality Standard Value (0.6 mg/kg), and the exceeding standard rate of study plots is 5.63%; the comprehensive potential ecological hazard assessment in the study area indicates that the PTEs are at a slight ecological risk; probabilistic hazard quotient assessment indicates that the influence of PTEs on species caused by Cu is at a slight level ( p = 10.93%), and Zn, Pb, and Cd are at an acceptable level. For the ecological process, Zn is at a medium level ( p = 25.78%), Cu is at a slight level (19.77%), and the influence of Cd and Pb are acceptable; human health hazard assessment states that the Non-carcinogenic comprehensive health hazard index HI = 0.16 natural source are 13

  5. New elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flerov, G.

    1976-01-01

    The history is briefly described of the investigation of superheavy elements at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna. The significance of the investigation is assessed from the point of view of the nuclear structure study and major problems encountered in experimental efforts are indicated. Current experimental methods aiming at the discovery or the production of superheavy nuclei with Z approximately 114 are listed. (I.W.)

  6. Managing Identifiers for Elements of Provenance of the Third National Climate Assessment in the Global Change Information System (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, C.; Aulenbach, S.; Duggan, B.; Goldstein, J.

    2013-12-01

    A Federal Advisory Committee (The "National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee" or NCADAC) has overseen the development of a draft climate report that after extensive review will be considered by the Federal Government in the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA). This comprehensive report (1) Integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of the Program and discusses the scientific uncertainties associated with such findings; (2) Analyzes the effects of global change on the natural environment, agriculture, energy production and use, land and water resources, transportation, human health and welfare, human social systems, and biological diversity; and (3) Analyzes current trends in global change, both human-induced and natural, and projects major trends for the subsequent 25 to 100 years. The U.S. Global Change Program (USGCRP), composed of the 13 federal agencies most concerned with global change, is building a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will ultimately organize access to all of the research, data, and information about global change from across the system. A prototype of the system has been constructed that captures and presents all of the elements of provenance of the NCA through a coherent data model and friendly front end web site. This work will focus on the globally unique and persistent identifiers used to reference and organize those items. These include externally referenced items, such as DOIs used by scientific journal publishers for research articles or by agencies as dataset identifiers, as well as our own internal approach to identifiers, our overall data model and experiences managing persistent identifiers within the GCIS.

  7. Detection and assessment of flaws in friction stir welded joints using ultrasonic guided waves: experimental and finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Mohammad Ali; Mustapha, Samir; Tarraf, Jaafar; Ayoub, Georges; Hamade, Ramsey

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves (GWs), e.g. Lamb waves, have been proven effective in the detection of defects such as corrosion, cracking, delamination, and debonding in both composite and metallic structures. They are a significant tool employed in structural health monitoring. In this study, the ability of ultrasonic GWs to assess the quality of friction stir welding (FSW) was investigated. Four friction stir welded AZ31B magnesium plates processed with different welding parameters and a non-welded plate were used. The fundamental symmetric (S0) Lamb wave mode was excited using piezoelectric wafers (PZTs). Further, the S0 mode was separated using the "Improved complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (Improved CEEMDAN)" technique. A damage index (DI) was defined based on the variation in the amplitude of the captured wave signals in order to detect the presence and asses the severity of damage resulting from the welding process. As well, computed tomography (CT) scanning was used as a non-destructive testing (NDT) technique to assess the actual weld quality and validate predictions based on the GW approach. The findings were further confirmed using finite element analysis (FEA). To model the actual damage profile in the welds, "Mimics" software was used for the 3D reconstruction of the CT scans. The built 3D models were later used for evaluation of damage volume and for FEA. The damage volumes were correlated to the damage indices computed from both experimental and numerical data. The proposed approach showed high sensitivity of the S0 mode to internal flaws within the friction stir welded joints. This methodology has great potential as a future classification method of FSW quality.

  8. Subjective assessment of kinesitherapy as an element of comprehensive rehabilitation process of subjects with lower spine pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Łubkowska

    2016-02-01

      Abstract Background. Spinal pain has triggered interest in many fields of medicine, such as orthopedics, neurology, rheumatology, and rehabilitation. Despite ongoing development of surgery techniques, a major role is played by fitness improvement treatments, which need to be promoted. The aim of the research was a subjective assessment of kinesitherapy as an element of comprehensive rehabilitation process of subjects with lower spine pain. Material/Methods. This paper has an empirical character. The research was conducted amongst a randomly selected group of 60 patients of Independent Public Health Care Unit in Choszczno, Poland (rehabilitation at an outpatients’ clinic, aged 20-51. All of them were subjected to a series of 10 kinesitherapy treatments. The research used diagnostic polling method and the following techniques: survey and implicit interview. Results. The research proved that after completion of 10 treatments, the subjects noticed a significant improvement of their health. Kinesitherapy helped return to an active professional life for those who were forced to resign or suspend their work. Subjects reported that 10 kinesitherapy treatments were enough to notice their effectiveness in lumbar spine pain reduction. Kinesitherapy treatments resulted in a reduced usage of painkillers. Conclusions. There is evidence of positive impact of physical exercise on treatment results and beneficial effects in patients with spinal pain. Proper education aimed at changing bad habits and advising how to care for spine may be a powerful way to fight for health.   Keywords: spine, pain syndromes, lumbar spine, kinesitherapy, curative exercises, improving fitness.

  9. Assessment of chemicals released in the marine environment by dielectric elastomers useful as active elements in wave energy harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltariov, Mirela-Fernanda; Bele, Adrian; Vasiliu, Lavinia; Gradinaru, Luiza; Vornicu, Nicoleta; Racles, Carmen; Cazacu, Maria

    2018-01-05

    A series of elastomers, either natural or synthetic (some of them commercial, while others prepared in the laboratory), suitable for use as active elements in devices for wave energy harvesting, were evaluated concerning their behavior and effects on the marine environment. In this aim, the elastomer films, initially evaluated regarding their aspect, structure, surface wettability, and tolerance of microorganisms growth, were immersed in synthetic seawater (SSW) within six months for assessing compounds released. There were analyzed the changes occurred both in the elastomers and salt water in which they were immersed. For this, water samples taken at set time intervals were analyzed by using a sequence of sensitive spectral techniques: UV-vis, IR, and in relevant cases 1 H NMR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), able to detect and identify organic compounds, while after six months, they were also investigated from the point of view of aspect, presence of metal traces, pH, and biological activity. The changes in aspect, structure and morphology of the dielectric films at the end of the dipping period were also evaluated by visual inspection, IR spectroscopy by using spectral subtraction method, and SEM-EDX technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of different enrichment factors to assess the natural accumulation of trace elements in sediment cores from Nhecolandia Pantanal, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Levi F.; Damatto, Sandra R.; Barbiero, Laurent; Furian, Sonia M.; Rezende Filho, Ary T.

    2015-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected at different lakes of salty water, commonly known as 'Salinas', in the Nhecolandia Wetland. In the collected cores, Salina A, Salina 6, Salina M and Salina V, the elements As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Se, U, Zn and rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb concentrations were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. Aiming to verify the best criterion to evaluate the enrichment factor of minor and major elements in the sediment cores, three different calculations of the enrichment factor was employed. The first one, EF (Enrichment Factor), compares the normalized element concentrations with Upper Continental Crust normalized values, the second one, GNF (Geochemical Normalization Factor) compares the ratio between the element concentration and the normalizer with the depth in the sediment core; for these both factors the element Sc was used as a normalizer element. The third one factor, BEF (Base Enrichment Factor), compares the concentrations determined throughout the core with the results obtained in the base of it. With the results, it was possible to conclude that the best enrichment factor to evaluate the enhancement of elements in natural environments is the one that takes into account the core element concentration obtained in the base of it, BEF. (author)

  11. Comparison of different enrichment factors to assess the natural accumulation of trace elements in sediment cores from Nhecolandia Pantanal, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Levi F.; Damatto, Sandra R., E-mail: leyi@usp.br, E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barbiero, Laurent, E-mail: barbiero@ltmg.obs.mip.fr [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furian, Sonia M., E-mail: furian@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Geografia; Rezende Filho, Ary T., E-mail: ary.rezende@ufms.br [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), MS (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharias, Arquitetura e Urbanismo e Geografia

    2015-07-01

    Four sediment cores were collected at different lakes of salty water, commonly known as 'Salinas', in the Nhecolandia Wetland. In the collected cores, Salina A, Salina 6, Salina M and Salina V, the elements As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Se, U, Zn and rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb concentrations were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. Aiming to verify the best criterion to evaluate the enrichment factor of minor and major elements in the sediment cores, three different calculations of the enrichment factor was employed. The first one, EF (Enrichment Factor), compares the normalized element concentrations with Upper Continental Crust normalized values, the second one, GNF (Geochemical Normalization Factor) compares the ratio between the element concentration and the normalizer with the depth in the sediment core; for these both factors the element Sc was used as a normalizer element. The third one factor, BEF (Base Enrichment Factor), compares the concentrations determined throughout the core with the results obtained in the base of it. With the results, it was possible to conclude that the best enrichment factor to evaluate the enhancement of elements in natural environments is the one that takes into account the core element concentration obtained in the base of it, BEF. (author)

  12. ICP-AES determination of rare earth elements in coal fly ash samples of thermal power stations: assessment of possible recovery and environmental impact of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premadas, A.; Mary, Thomas Anitha; Chakrapani, G.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate determination of rare earth elements (REEs) in ashes of thermal power plants is important in the current scenario due to its economic value, and the pollution caused if they are released in to the environment. Their toxicity to living organisms now gaining importance in international community, and some investigation shows it causes retardation in plant growth. In coal based thermal stations huge quantity of coal used annually as a fuel and lakhs of tones of waste is generated in the form of ashes. Therefore studies were carried out on three aspects - fairly rapid and accurate ICP-AES determination REEs in coal fly ash samples using addition technique, a preliminary acid leaching studies on coal received from three different fired thermal power stations using hydrochloric acid at pH 1 and 2, and quantify the REEs leached, and economic recovery of REEs using di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid solvent extraction process or precipitation hydroxides using dilute ammonia solution. The standard addition method of REEs determination using rate and reproducible values, besides the analysis is fast compared to the ion exchange separation of REEs followed by the ICP-AES determination. (author)

  13. Trace elements in livers of great egret (Ardea alba) from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region: a preliminary assessment of temporal trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Moreira, Edson G.; Oliveira, Paulo T.M.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation of trace element concentrations present in great egret livers during six years, from 2006 to 2011. The data were obtained in twenty six livers of great egrets from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR). The elements Br, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cd and Hg by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Arithmetic means and standard deviations of element concentrations of the results obtained in each year were calculated for the samples collected in each year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA; α = 0.05) followed by Kruskal Wallis test was applied to examine if there are temporal differences in the element mean concentrations over time. In general, significant differences of element concentrations were not obtained. However, an increase in Cd and Mn concentrations in the recent years was observed which may indicate recent increase to these elements in environment. The preliminary data obtained suggests the continuation of this kind of study to better understand the temporal trends of trace elements in the aquatic environment of SPMR. (author)

  14. Trace elements in livers of great egret (Ardea alba) from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region: a preliminary assessment of temporal trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rcsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Paulo T.M.S., E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IME/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation of trace element concentrations present in great egret livers during six years, from 2006 to 2011. The data were obtained in twenty six livers of great egrets from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR). The elements Br, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cd and Hg by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Arithmetic means and standard deviations of element concentrations of the results obtained in each year were calculated for the samples collected in each year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA; α = 0.05) followed by Kruskal Wallis test was applied to examine if there are temporal differences in the element mean concentrations over time. In general, significant differences of element concentrations were not obtained. However, an increase in Cd and Mn concentrations in the recent years was observed which may indicate recent increase to these elements in environment. The preliminary data obtained suggests the continuation of this kind of study to better understand the temporal trends of trace elements in the aquatic environment of SPMR. (author)

  15. Assessment of the Internal Pressure Fragility of the Hanul NPP Units 3 and 4 Containment Building Using a Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyung Kui; Hahm, Dea Gi; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The sensitivity of the concrete strength is relatively higher compared to that of the steel strength. According to changes in the structure of the material, about 6-10% ultimate internal pressure differences occurred. Thirty sets of an FE model considering the material uncertainty of concrete and steel were composed for the internal pressure fragility assessment. From the internal pressure fragility assessment of the target containment building, the median capacity of liner leakage is estimated to be 116 psi. As can be seen from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the containment building is the final protecting shield to prevent radiation leakage. Thus, a structural soundness evaluation for the containment pressure loads owing to a severe accident is very important. Recently, a probabilistic safety assessment has been commonly used to take into account the possible factors of uncertainty in a structural system. An assessment of the internal pressure fragility of the CANDU type containment buildings considering the correlation of structural material variables, and an assessment of the internal pressure fragility of the CANDU type containment buildings using a nonlinear finite element analysis, were also performed. However, for PWR type containment buildings, a fragility assessment has not been performed yet using a nonlinear finite element model (FEM) analysis. In this study, for the Hanul NPP units 3 and 4 containment building, the internal pressure fragility assessment was established using an FEM analysis. To do this, a three-dimensional finite element model, material property values, and a sensitive analysis were developed. A nonlinear finite element analysis of the Hanul NPP units 3 and 4 containment building was performed for a material sensitivity analysis and internal pressure fragility assessment.

  16. Assessment of the Internal Pressure Fragility of the Hanul NPP Units 3 and 4 Containment Building Using a Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyung Kui; Hahm, Dea Gi; Choi, In Kil

    2013-01-01

    The sensitivity of the concrete strength is relatively higher compared to that of the steel strength. According to changes in the structure of the material, about 6-10% ultimate internal pressure differences occurred. Thirty sets of an FE model considering the material uncertainty of concrete and steel were composed for the internal pressure fragility assessment. From the internal pressure fragility assessment of the target containment building, the median capacity of liner leakage is estimated to be 116 psi. As can be seen from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the containment building is the final protecting shield to prevent radiation leakage. Thus, a structural soundness evaluation for the containment pressure loads owing to a severe accident is very important. Recently, a probabilistic safety assessment has been commonly used to take into account the possible factors of uncertainty in a structural system. An assessment of the internal pressure fragility of the CANDU type containment buildings considering the correlation of structural material variables, and an assessment of the internal pressure fragility of the CANDU type containment buildings using a nonlinear finite element analysis, were also performed. However, for PWR type containment buildings, a fragility assessment has not been performed yet using a nonlinear finite element model (FEM) analysis. In this study, for the Hanul NPP units 3 and 4 containment building, the internal pressure fragility assessment was established using an FEM analysis. To do this, a three-dimensional finite element model, material property values, and a sensitive analysis were developed. A nonlinear finite element analysis of the Hanul NPP units 3 and 4 containment building was performed for a material sensitivity analysis and internal pressure fragility assessment

  17. Metal, trace and rare earth element assessment in a sedimentary profile from Promissao reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L., E-mail: shasilva@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Quimica Inorganica; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DGRN/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Departamento de Geologia e Recursos Naturais; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.gov.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2015-07-01

    In the present study the preliminary results for the Promissao reservoir, situated in the Lower Tiete region covering a little more than 1% of the SP state population, is characterized by intense agropastoral activities. Its operations for generating electrical energy started in 1975. It is located at Tiete River and its hydrographic basin has a drainage area of 530 km{sup 2}. The total extension of the reservoir is 110 km along the Tiete River, with a medium depth of 20 m. A core sampler was used and a 33 cm sediment core was collected from the dam in January 2013, sliced at every 2.5 cm, totaling 13 samples. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the sediment samples in order to determine some major (Fe, K, and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, and Zn) and rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb, and Yb). The enrichment factor (EF) was applied to the results obtained by using North American Shale Composite, Upper Continental Crust and the concentration values of the last layer of this profile as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. When the results for As, Cr, and Zn were compared to threshold effect level (TEL) and probable effect level (PEL) oriented values, sediments from 0-10 cm exceeded the TEL values for As (5.9 mg kg{sup -1}), all samples exceeded the PEL values for Cr (90 mg kg{sup -1}), and all samples had much lower values than TEL values for Zn (123 mg kg{sup -1}). (author)

  18. Metal, trace and rare earth element assessment in a sedimentary profile from Promissao reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L.; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study the preliminary results for the Promissao reservoir, situated in the Lower Tiete region covering a little more than 1% of the SP state population, is characterized by intense agropastoral activities. Its operations for generating electrical energy started in 1975. It is located at Tiete River and its hydrographic basin has a drainage area of 530 km 2 . The total extension of the reservoir is 110 km along the Tiete River, with a medium depth of 20 m. A core sampler was used and a 33 cm sediment core was collected from the dam in January 2013, sliced at every 2.5 cm, totaling 13 samples. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the sediment samples in order to determine some major (Fe, K, and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, and Zn) and rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb, and Yb). The enrichment factor (EF) was applied to the results obtained by using North American Shale Composite, Upper Continental Crust and the concentration values of the last layer of this profile as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. When the results for As, Cr, and Zn were compared to threshold effect level (TEL) and probable effect level (PEL) oriented values, sediments from 0-10 cm exceeded the TEL values for As (5.9 mg kg -1 ), all samples exceeded the PEL values for Cr (90 mg kg -1 ), and all samples had much lower values than TEL values for Zn (123 mg kg -1 ). (author)

  19. Concentrations and geographical variations of selected toxic elements in meat from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) in mid- and northern Norway: evaluation of risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ammar Ali; Brustad, Magritt; Sandanger, Torkjel M

    2012-05-01

    Meat samples (n = 100) from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) were randomly collected from 10 grazing districts distributed over four Norwegian counties in 2008 and 2009. The main aim was to study concentrations and geographical variations in selected toxic elements; cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) in order to assess the risk associated with reindeer meat consumption. Sample solutions were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma high resolution mass spectrometer (ICP-HRMS), whereas analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analyses. Geographical variations in element concentrations were revealed, with As and Cd demonstrating the largest geographical differences. No clear geographical gradient was observed except for the east-west downward gradient for As. The As concentrations were highest in the vicinity of the Russian border, and only Cd was shown to increase with age (p < 0.05). Sex had no significant effect on the concentration of the studied elements. The concentrations of all the studied elements in reindeer meat were generally low and considerably below the maximum levels (ML) available for toxic elements set by the European Commission (EC). Thus, reindeer meat is not likely to be a significant contributor to the human body burden of toxic elements.

  20. Bioavailability of potentially toxic elements in soil-grapevine (leaf, skin, pulp and seed) system and environmental and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, Tijana; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Relić, Dubravka; Vuković, Gordana; Škrivanj, Sandra; Popović, Aleksandar

    2018-06-01

    Monitoring of potentially toxic elements in agricultural soil represents the first measure of caution regarding food safety, while research into element bioavailability should be a step forward in understanding the element transportation chain. This study was conducted in the grapevine growing area ("Oplenac Wine Route") for investigating element bioavailability in the soil-grapevine system accompanied by an assessment of the ecological implications and human health risk. Single extraction procedures (CH 3 COOH, Na 2 EDTA, CaCl 2 , NH 4 NO 3 and deionised H 2 O) and digestion were performed to estimate the bioavailability of 22 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, V and Zn) from the topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (30-60 cm) to the grapevine parts (leaf, skin, pulp and seed) and wine. The extractants were effective comparing to the pseudo-total concentrations in following order Na 2 EDTA ˃ CH 3 COOH ˃ NH 4 NO 3  ˃ CaCl 2 , H 2 O 2 h and 16 h. The most suitable extractants for assessing the bioavailability of the elements from the soil to the grapevine parts were CaCl 2 , NH 4 NO 3 and Na 2 EDTA, but deionised H 2 O could be suitable, as well. The results showed that Ba was the most bioavailable element in the soil-grapevine system. Contamination factor implied a moderate contamination (1  1), the influence of atmospheric deposition on the aerial grapevine parts (leaves and grape skin) was observed. Nevertheless, low adverse health risk effects (HI wine consumers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of finite element and smoothed particles hydrodynamics methods for modeling serrated chip formation in hardened steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Umer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to perform comparative analyses in modeling serrated chip morphologies using traditional finite element and smoothed particles hydrodynamics methods. Although finite element models are being employed in predicting machining performance variables for the last two decades, many drawbacks and limitations exist with the current finite element models. The problems like excessive mesh distortions, high numerical cost of adaptive meshing techniques, and need of geometric chip separation criteria hinder its practical implementation in metal cutting industries. In this study, a mesh free method, namely, smoothed particles hydrodynamics, is implemented for modeling serrated chip morphology while machining AISI H13 hardened tool steel. The smoothed particles hydrodynamics models are compared with the traditional finite element models, and it has been found that the smoothed particles hydrodynamics models have good capabilities in handling large distortions and do not need any geometric or mesh-based chip separation criterion.

  2. Assessment of N and P in organic fertilizer using the missing element technique and a microbial bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, E.; Ramirez, C.

    2002-01-01

    Assessment of N and P in organic fertilizers using the missing element technique and a microbial bioassay.Through a greenhouse bioassay, using sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) as a test plant, and a microbial assay the availability of N and P in 6 substrates was determined, namely: soil alone and in combination with several organic amendments 10% W/W of chicken manure (CM), compost (C), bocashi (B), vermicompost (V) and coffe hulls (Br). In the microbial assay a complete randomized design with 6 replicates was used; the microbial biomass (BM) was determined 2 days after the glucose amendment of each treatment. In both bioassays a 2 X 2 factorial (N and P fertilization) was establish and the following combinations resulted: +N, +P, +P+N and -P-N (control). For the greenhouse experiment, a complete randomized design with 4 replicates was used. Above-ground plant material of sorghum was harvested 34 days after showing to determine plant dry weight (PS) and content of N and P. Both assays showed a response to the soil amendment with N and P. Soil treatments with CM, C and B showed the highest values of PS and BM. Soil treatment with CM amended with N, P or both did not showed a response in PS or BM, in C and B there was a response to N addition but not to P. In treatments with V and Br, the lowest values for PS and BM were obtained, and there was a growth response to N and P. Both bioassays were able to pinpoint N and P defficiencies in the soil as well in some of the mixtures of soil with organic amendments. A high correlation was encountered between the greenhouse assay and the microbial bioassay (r= 0.86, P=0.0001). Therefore, the microbial bioassay can be a cheaper alternative to the plant bioassay not only to evaluate the nutritional quality of compost but also to identify nutrient deficiencies in soils as well as in substrates amended with organic fertilizers. (Author) [es

  3. Quantitative assessment of metal elements using moss species as biomonitors in downwind area of lead-zinc mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Biljana; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Andonovska, Katerina Bačeva

    2017-02-23

    Distributions of a total of 21 elements were monitored in significantly lead-zinc polluted area using moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme and Camptothecium lutescens) used interchangeably, covering a denser sampling network. Interspecies comparison was conducted using Box-Cox transformed values, due to their skewed distribution. The median concentrations of trace elements in the both mosses examined decreased in the following order: Fe>Mn>Zn>Pb>Cu>Ni∼Cr∼As>Co>Cd>Hg. For almost all analyzed elements, H. cupressiforme revealed higher bio-accumulative abilities. For arsenic contents was obtained ER-value in favor of C. lutescens. The ER for the element contents according to the distance from the pollution source in selected areas was significantly enriched for the anthropogenic introduced elements As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. After Box-Cox transformation of the content values, T B was significantly different for As (4.82), Cd (3.84), Cu (2.95), Pb (4.38), and Zn (4.23). Multivariate factor analysis singled out four elemental associations: F1 (Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Li-Ni-V), F2 (Cd-Pb-Zn), F3 (Ca-Mg-Na-P) and F4 (Cu) with a total variance of 89%. Spatial distribution visualized the hazardously higher contents of "hot spots" of Cd > 1.30 mg/kg, Cu > 22 mg/kg, Pb > 130 mg/kg and Zn > 160 mg/kg. Therefore, main approach in moss biomonitoring should be based on data management of the element distribution by reducing the effect of extreme values (considering Box-Cox data transformation); the interspecies variation in sampling media does not deviate in relation to H. cupressiforme vs. C. lutescens.

  4. Standard elements; Elements standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Following his own experience the author recalls the various advantages, especially in the laboratory, of having pre-fabricated vacuum-line components at his disposal. (author) [French] A la suite de sa propre experience, l'auteur veut rappeler les divers avantages que presente, tout particulierement en laboratoire, le fait d'avoir a sa disposition des elements pre-fabriques de canalisations a vide. (auteur)

  5. Platinum-group elements in southern Africa: mineral inventory and an assessment of undiscovered mineral resources: Chapter Q in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Causey, J. Douglas; Parks, Heather L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The platinum-group elements, platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium, possess unique physical and chemical characteristics that make them indispensable to modern technology and industry. However, mineral deposits that are the main sources of these elements occur only in three countries in the world, raising concerns about potential disruption in mineral supply. Using information in the public domain, mineral resource and reserve information has been compiled for mafic and ultramafic rocks in South Africa and Zimbabwe that host most of the world’s platinum-group element resources.

  6. Assessment of hypoxia and TNF-alpha response by a vector with HRE and NF-kappaB response elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhilin; Eadie, Ashley L; Hall, Sean R; Ballantyne, Laurel; Ademidun, David; Tse, M Yat; Pang, Stephen C; Melo, Luis G; Ward, Christopher A; Brunt, Keith R

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia and inflammatory cytokine activation (H&I) are common processes in many acute and chronic diseases. Thus, a single vector that responds to both hypoxia and inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, is useful for assesing the severity of such diseases. Adaptation to hypoxia is regulated primarily by hypoxia inducible transcription factor (HIF alpha) nuclear proteins that engage genes containing a hypoxia response element (HRE). Inflammation activates a multitude of cytokines, including TNF-alpha, that invariably modulate activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) transcription factor. We constructed a vector that encompassed both a hypoxia response element (HRE), and a NF-kappaB responsive element. We show that this vector was functionally responsive to both hypoxia and TNF-alpha, in vitro and in vivo . Thus, this vector might be suitable for the detection and assessment of hypoxia or TNF-alpha.

  7. Selenium and hazardous elements distribution in plant-soil-water system and human health risk assessment of Lower Cambrian, Southern Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yajun; Luo, Kunli; Ni, Runxiang; Hussain, Rahib

    2018-03-01

    The natural selenium poisoning due to toxic Se levels in food chain had been observed in humans and animals in Lower Cambrian outcrop areas in Southern Shaanxi, China. To find out the distribution pattern of selenium and other hazardous elements in the plant, soil and water of Lower Cambrian in Southern Shaanxi, China, and their possible potential health risk, a total of 30 elements were analyzed and the health risk assessment of 18 elements was calculated. Results showed that the soil, plant and natural water of Lower Cambrian all had relatively high Se levels. In Lower Cambrian, the soil was enriched with Se, As, Ba, Cu, Mo, Ni, Zn, Ga, Cd and Cr (1.68 food intake was the major pathway. For minimizing potential health risk, the local inhabitants should use the mix-imported food with local growing foods.

  8. Assessment of Bioavailable Concentrations of Germanium and Rare Earth Elements in the Rhizosphere of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Fischer, Ronny; Moschner, Christin; Székely, Balázs

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of Germanium (Ge) and Rare Earth Elements in soils are estimated at 1.5 mg kg -1 (Ge), 25 mg kg -1 (La) and 20 mg kg -1 (Nd), which are only roughly smaller than concentrations of Pb and Zn. Germanium and rare earth elements are thus not rare but widely dispersed in soils and therefore up to date, only a few minable deposits are available. An environmental friendly and cost-effective way for Ge and rare earth element production could be phytomining. However, the most challenging part of a phytomining of these elements is to increase bioavailable concentrations of the elements in soils. Recent studies show, that mixed cultures with white lupine or other species with a high potential to mobilize trace metals in their rhizosphere due to an acidification of the soil and release of organic acids in the root zone could be a promising tool for phytomining. Complexation of Ge and rare earth elements by organic acids might play a key role in controlling bioavailability to plants as re-adsorption on soil particles and precipitation is prevented and thus, concentrations in the root zone of white lupine increase. This may also allow the complexes to diffuse along a concentration gradient to the roots of mixed culture growing species leading to enhanced plant uptake. However, to optimize mixed cultures it would be interesting to know to which extend mobilization of trace metals is dependent from chemical speciation of elements in soil due to the interspecific interaction of roots. A method for the identification of complexes of germanium and rare earth elements with organic acids, predominantly citric acid in the rhizosphere of white lupine was developed and successfully tested. The method is based on coupling of liquid chromatography with ICP-MS using a zic-philic column (SeQuant). As a preliminary result, we were able to show that complexes of germanium with citric acid exist in the rhizosphere of white lupin, what may contribute to the bioavailability of this

  9. Bioavailability and risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in garden edible vegetables and soils around a highly contaminated former mining area in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Vasileios; Shaheen, Sabry M; Boersch, Judith; Frohne, Tina; Du Laing, Gijs; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-01-15

    Although soil contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in Europe has a history of many centuries, related problems are often considered as having been dealt with due to the enforcement of tight legislations. However, there are many unsolved issues. We aimed to assess PTE levels in highly contaminated soils and in garden edible vegetables using human health risk indices in order to evaluate the availability and mobilization of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). In four gardens in Germany, situated on, or in the vicinity of, a mine dump area, we planted beans (Phaseolus vulgaris ssp. nanus), carrots (Daucus sativus) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa ssp. capitata). We examined soil-to-plant mobilization of elements using transfer coefficient (TC), as well as soil contamination using contamination factor (CF), enrichment factor (EF), and bioaccumulation index (I geo ). In addition, we tested two human health risk assessment indices: Soil-induced hazard quotient (HQ S ) (representing the "direct soil ingestion" pathway), and vegetable-induced hazard quotient (HQ V ) (representing the "vegetable intake" pathway). The studied elements were highly elevated in the soils. The values in garden 2 were especially high (e.g., Pb: 13789.0 and Hg: 36.8 mg kg -1 ) and largely exceeded the reported regulation limits of 50 (for As), 40 (Cu), 400 (Pb), 150 (Zn), and 5 (Hg) mg kg -1 . Similarly, element concentrations were very high in the grown vegetables. The indices of CF, EF and I geo were enhanced even to levels that are rarely reported in the literature. Specifically, garden 2 indicated severe contamination due to multi-element deposition. The contribution of each PTE to the total of measured HQ S revealed that Pb was the single most important element causing health risk (contributing up to 77% to total HQ S ). Lead also posed the highest risk concerning vegetable consumption, contributing up to 77% to total HQ V . The

  10. Evaluated and estimated solubility of some elements for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste using updated version of thermodynamic database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Doi, Reisuke; Yoshida, Yasushi

    2011-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) established the thermodynamic database (JAEA-TDB) for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and TRU waste. Twenty-five elements which were important for the performance assessment of geological disposal were selected for the database. JAEA-TDB enhanced reliability of evaluation and estimation of their solubility through selecting the latest and the most reliable thermodynamic data at present. We evaluated and estimated solubility of the 25 elements in the simulated porewaters established in the 'Second Progress Report for Safety Assessment of Geological Disposal of HLW in Japan' using the JAEA-TDB and compared with those using the previous thermodynamic database (JNC-TDB). It was found that most of the evaluated and estimated solubility values were not changed drastically, but the solubility and speciation of dominant aqueous species for some elements using the JAEA-TDB were different from those using the JNC-TDB. We discussed about how to provide reliable solubility values for the performance assessment. (author)

  11. Assessment of elemental pollution in soil of Islamabad city using instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, M.; Wasim, M.; Khalid, N.; Zaidi, J.H.; Iqbal, J.

    2009-01-01

    The soil samples of nine different sites in Islamabad were studied for their elemental composition. Instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry were employed and 33 elements were determined. The acquired data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, pollution level index and enrichment factor. A perusal of results shows a distribution of elemental concentration in two major groups, one along the highway and the other in industrial area of Islamabad. The soil along the highway sites was found to be relatively less polluted than at the sites in the industrial area. The enrichment factor indicates the presence of As, Pb, Sb, Se and Sn at higher levels. The method validation was done by analyzing IAEA reference materials SL-1 (lake sediment) and S7 (soil). (orig.)

  12. Objective Assessment of an Ionic Foot bath (Ion Cleanse): Testing Its Ability to Remove Potentially Toxic Elements from the Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, D.A.; Cooley, K.; Seely, D.; Kennedy, D.A.; Cooley, K.; Einarson, Th.R.; Seely, D.

    2012-01-01

    Ionic foot baths are often used in holistic health centres and spas to aid in detoxification; however, claims that these machines eliminate toxins from the body have not been rigorously evaluated. In this proof-of-principle study, we sought to measure the release of potentially toxic elements from ionic foot baths into distilled and tap water with and without feet. Water samples were collected and analyzed following 30-minute ionic foot bath sessions without feet using both distilled (n=1) and tap water (n=6) and following four ionic foot baths using tap water (once/week for 4 weeks) in six healthy participants. Urine collection samples were analyzed at four points during the study. Hair samples were analyzed for element concentrations at baseline and study conclusion. Contrary to claims made for the machine, there does not appear to be any specific induction of toxic element release through the feet when running the machine according to specifications

  13. Objective Assessment of an Ionic Footbath (IonCleanse: Testing Its Ability to Remove Potentially Toxic Elements from the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic footbaths are often used in holistic health centres and spas to aid in detoxification; however, claims that these machines eliminate toxins from the body have not been rigorously evaluated. In this proof-of-principle study, we sought to measure the release of potentially toxic elements from ionic footbaths into distilled and tap water with and without feet. Water samples were collected and analyzed following 30-minute ionic footbath sessions without feet using both distilled (n=1 and tap water (n=6 and following four ionic footbaths using tap water (once/week for 4 weeks in six healthy participants. Urine collection samples were analyzed at four points during the study. Hair samples were analyzed for element concentrations at baseline and study conclusion. Contrary to claims made for the machine, there does not appear to be any specific induction of toxic element release through the feet when running the machine according to specifications.

  14. Using lead isotopes and trace element records from two contrasting Lake Tanganyika sediment cores to assess watershed – Lake exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odigie, Kingsley; Cohen, A.D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Flegal, R

    2014-01-01

    Lead isotopic and trace element records of two contrasting sediment cores were examined to reconstruct historic, industrial contaminant inputs to Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Observed fluxes of Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in age-dated sediments collected from the lake varied both spatially and temporally over the past two to four centuries. The fluxes of trace elements were lower (up to 10-fold) at a mid-lake site (MC1) than at a nearshore site (LT-98-58), which is directly downstream from the Kahama and Nyasanga River watersheds and adjacent to the relatively pristine Gombe Stream National Park. Trace element fluxes at that nearshore site did not measurably change over the last two centuries (1815–1998), while the distal, mid-lake site exhibited substantial changes in the fluxes of trace elements – likely caused by changes in land use – over that period. For example, the flux of Pb increased by ∼300% from 1871 to 1991. That apparent accelerated weathering and detrital mobilization of lithogenic trace elements was further evidenced by (i) positive correlations (r = 0.77–0.99, p factors (EF operations within the lake’s watershed over the past century. The data also indicate that the mid-lake site is a much more sensitive and useful recorder of environmental changes than the nearshore site. Furthermore, the lead isotopic compositions of sediment at the sites differed spatially, indicating that the Pb (and other trace elements by association) originated from different natural sources at the two locations.

  15. Analysis of a possible experimental assessment of a prototype fuel element containing burnable poison in the RA-3 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, Ana Maria; Madariaga, Marcelo

    2002-01-01

    The Argentine RA-3 research reactor (5 MW) is presently operated with LEU fuel by the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). It belongs to the group of nuclear installations controlled, from the radiological and nuclear safety point of view, by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN). A new type of fuel elements containing burnable absorbers, with similar enrichment as the standard fuel elements but greater fissile contents, has recently been proposed for a new Argentine reactor design (RRR). In this framework the ARN considers interesting, if technically possible, the performance of an experiment in the RA-3 reactor. The experiment might enable, for such fuel element containing burnable poison, the verification of its neutronic behaviour under irradiation as well as a validation of the calculation line by comparison to measured values. It should be desirable that such experiment could reproduce as much as possible those conditions estimated for the RRR reactor, still under design in Argentina, having Silicide fuel elements with burnable poison, in the shape of cadmium wires in their structure. We here analyse a possible experiment consisting in the loading of a prototype fuel element with burnable poison in a normally loaded RA-3 core configuration. It would essentially be a standard RA-3 fuel element, having cadmium wires in its frame. This experiment would enable the verification of the prototype behaviour under irradiation, its operation limits and conditions, and particularly, the reactivity safety margins established in Argentine Standards, both calculated and measured. The main part of the experiment would imply some 200 full power days of operation at 5 MW, which would be drastically reduced if the reactor power is increased to 10 MW, as foreseen. We also show that under the proposed conditions, the experiment would not represent a significant penalty to the reactor normal operation. (author)

  16. Assessment of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other elements in Belgrade using the moss biomonitoring technique and neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anicić, Mira; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Tomasević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed at assessing atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other elements using the moss genera Brachythecium sp. (B. rutabulum and B. salebrosum) and Eurhynchium sp. (E. hians and E. striatum) collected in autumn 2004 in the urban area of Belgrade. The concentrations of 36 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Dy, Hf, Ta, W, Hg, Th, U) were determined in moss and local topsoil samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentration of elements in moss positively correlated to those obtained for topsoil. High enrichment factors for As, Zn, Mo, Br, Sb, Se, Hg and Cl, calculated to continental crust composition, gave an evidence for anthropogenic impact on urban area, mainly due to intensive vehicular traffic and fossil fuel combustion. The concentration of elements in moss, characteristic for fossil fuel combustion, obtained in this study were substantially lower than in the previous investigation (2000) conducted in the area of Belgrade. The level of concentrations for V, Cr, Ni, and As in moss from this study correlated to those measured for neighboring countries, and were several times higher than the base-level data from low polluted areas. The level of accumulated elements in both investigated moss genera were similar and all studied species could be combined for biomonitoring purposes in urban areas.

  17. Assessment of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other elements in Belgrade using the moss biomonitoring technique and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anicic, M.; Tomasevic, M.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Popovic, A.

    2006-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other elements using the moss genera Brachythecium sp. (B. rutabulum and B. salebrosum) and Eurhynchium sp. (E. hians and E. striatum) collected in autumn 2004 in the urban area of Belgrade. The concentrations of 36 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Dy, Hf, Ta, W, Hg, Th, U) were determined in moss and local topsoil samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentration of elements in moss positively correlated to those obtained for topsoil. High enrichment factors for As, Zn, Mo, Br, Sb, Se, Hg, and Cl, calculated to continental crust composition, gave an evidence for anthropogenic impact on urban area, mainly due to intensive vehicular traffic and fossil fuel combustion. The concentrations of elements in moss, characteristic for fossil fuel combustion, obtained in this study, were substantially lower than in the previous investigation (2000) conducted in the area of Belgrade. The level of concentrations for V, Cr, Ni, and As in moss from this study correlated to those measured for neighboring countries, and were several times higher than the base-level data from low polluted areas. The level of accumulated elements in both investigated moss genera were similar and all studied species could be combined for biomonitoring purposes in urban areas

  18. Assessment of metal and trace element concentrations in the Cananeia estuary, Brazil, by neutron activation and atomic absorption techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, E.P.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Berbel, G.B.B.; Braga, E.S.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty six bottom sediment samples were collected from the Cananeia estuary in summer and winter of 2005. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Total mercury was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption. As, Cr, Hg and Zn concentrations were compared to the Canadian oriented values (TEL and PEL). Sample points 4 and 9 presented higher concentration for most elements and As and Cr exceeded the TEL values. Organic matter (>10%) associated with siltic and clay sediments was observed. Climatic conditions, hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes promote differences in seasonal concentrations of elements at some points, which contribute to special distributions. (author)

  19. Assessment of atmospheric pollution of chemical elements by epiphytic lichen analysis at the Campus of the Sao Paulo University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Rosiana Rocho

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has been a frequent topic of research, due to the effects that it can cause on the health of living organisms, environment and climate. In order to identify pollution sources and their effects, biomonitoring has been studied due to its low cost and possibility of sampling in wide geographic areas. In this study for passive biomonitoring of air pollution levels at the Cidade Universitaria Armando Salles de Oliveira (CUASO), University of Sao Paulo campus, epiphytic lichens of Canoparmelia texana species were used. The lichens collected from tree barks at different sampling sites in the CUASO were cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Lichen samples were analyzed by X - ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). For XRFS, cylindrical pellets of samples were prepared to determine As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Rb, S, Sr and Zn. For NAA, lichen sample aliquots along with synthetic elemental standards were irradiated both for short and long periods at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The induced activities were measured by a gamma ray spectrometer to determine As, Br, Ca Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, V and Zn. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analysis of certified reference materials (MRCs). Their results of relative errors and standard deviations were below 15% for most of the elements. The standardized difference or En score values were lower than |1| indicating satisfactory results. Replicate analyses of a lichen sample by XRFS and NAA, indicated good homogeneity of the sample for the elements determined. The lichen results showed that the mean concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se and U were higher in samples from CUASO than those from regions considered unpolluted. For Fe, K, La, S, V and Zn, they were of the same order of magnitude. The correlation study between the elements showed high correlation (r > 0.7) for elements

  20. Trace Metal Bioremediation: Assessment of Model Components from Laboratory and Field Studies to Identify Critical Variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Jaffe; Herschel Rabitz

    2003-01-01

    bioremediation of trace metals was highly sensitive to the formulation of the denitrification process. Simulations were performed to illustrate the effect of biostimulation on the transport and precipitation of uranium in the subsurface, at conditions equivalent to UMTRA sites. These simulations predicted that uranium would precipitate in bands that are located relatively close to the acetate injection well. The simulations also showed the importance of properly determining U(IV) oxidative dissolution rates, in order to assess the stability of precipitates once oxygenated water reenters the aquifer after bioremediation is discontinued. The objective of this project was to provide guidance to NABIR's Systems Integration Element, on the development of models to simulate the bioremediation of trace metals and radionuclides. Such models necessarily need to integrate hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological processes. In order to gain a better understanding of the key processes that such a model should contain, it was deemed desirable to convene a workshop with experts from these different fields. The goal was to obtain a preliminary consensus on the required level of detail for the formulations of these different chemical, physical, and microbiological processes. The workshop was held on December 18, 1998

  1. COMPUTING EXPERIMENT FOR ASSESSMENT OF AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SEPARATE ELEMENTS IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE FUSELAGE OF A HELICOPTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ivchin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present publication describes the calculation of helicopter fuselage aerodynamic characteristics and its separate elements, by computing experiment. On the basis of program commercial package CFX ANSYS the technique has been mastered and longitudinal and lateral characteristics of the helicopter fuselage on the various flight modes are calculated.

  2. Assessment of core characteristics during transition from 37-element fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel in CANDU 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Suk, Ho Chun

    2002-01-01

    A transition from 37-element natural uranium fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel has been modeled in a 1200-day time-dependent fuel management simulation for a CANDU 6 reactor. The simulation was divided into three parts. The pre-transition period extended from 0 to 300 FPD, in which the reactor was fuelled only with standard 37-element fuel bundles. In the transition period, refueling took place only with the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle. The transition stage lasted from 300 to 920 FPD, at which point all of the 37-element fuel in the core had been replaced by CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle. In the post-transition phase, refueling continued with CANFLEX-NU fuel until 1200 FPD, to arrive at estimate of the equilibrium core characteristics with CANFLEX-NU fuel. Simulation results show that the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle has a operational compatibility with the CANDU 6 reactor during the transition core, and also show that the transition core from 37-element natural uranium fuel to CANFLEX-NU can be operated without violating any license limit of the CANDU 6 reactor

  3. Concordance Between Life Satisfaction and Six Elements of Well-Being Among Respondents to a Health Assessment Survey, HealthPartners Employees, Minnesota, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Pronk, Nicolaas P.; Kottke, Thomas E.; Lowry, Marcia; Katz, Abigail S.; Gallagher, Jason M.; Knudson, Susan M.; Rauri, Sachin J.; Tillema, Juliana O.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We assessed and tracked perceptions of well-being among employees of member companies of HealthPartners, a nonprofit health care provider and health insurance company in Bloomington, Minnesota. The objective of our study was to determine the concordance between self-reported life satisfaction and a construct of subjective well-being that comprised 6 elements of well-being: emotional and mental health, social and interpersonal status, financial status, career status, physical hea...

  4. Galvanic element. Galvanisches Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprengel, D.; Haelbig, H.

    1980-01-03

    The invention concerns a gas-tight sealed accumulator with positive and negative electrode plates and an auxillary electrode electroconductively bound to the latter for suppressing oxygen pressure. The auxillary electrode is an intermediate film electrode. The film catalysing oxygen reduction is hydrophilic in character and the other film is hydrophobic. A double coated foil has proved to be advantageous, the hydrophilic film being formed from polymer-bound activated carbon and the hydrophrobic film from porous polytetrafluoroethylene. A metallic network of silver or nickel is rolled into the outer side of the activated carbon film. This auxillary electrode can be used to advantage in all galvanic elements. Even primary cells fall within the scope of application for auxillary electrodes because many of these contain a highly oxidized electrodic material which tends to give off oxygen.

  5. Suitability of elemental fingerprinting for assessing the geographic origin of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca) seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela; Meisel, Thomas; Maneiko, Marija

    2013-02-15

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the classification of the geographical origin of pumpkin seeds and oil from Austria, China and Russia. The distribution of element traces in pumpkin seed and pumpkin seed oils in relation to the geographical origin of soils of several agricultural farms in Austria was studied in detail. Samples from several geographic origins were taken from parts of the pumpkin, pumpkin flesh, seeds, the oil extracted from the seeds and the oil-extraction cake as well as the topsoil on which the plants were grown. Plants from different geographical origin show variations of the elemental patterns that are significantly large, reproducible over the years and ripeness period and show no significant influence of oil production procedure, to allow to a discrimination of geographical origin. A successful differentiation of oils from different regions in Austria, China and Russia classified with multivariate data analysis is demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in agricultural soils and maize tissues from selected districts in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwa, Ernest M.M.; Meharg, Andrew A.; Rice, Clive M.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was conducted to investigate the contamination of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) arsenic (As), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) in Tanzanian agricultural soils and to evaluate their uptake and translocation in maize as proxy to the safety of maize used for human and animal consumption. Soils and maize tissues were sampled from 40 farms in Tanzania and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in the United Kingdom. The results showed high levels of PTEs in both soils and maize tissues above the recommended limits. Nickel levels of up to 34.4 and 56.9 mg kg −1 respectively were found in some maize shoots and grains from several districts. Also, high Pb levels >0.2 mg kg −1 were found in some grains. The grains and shoots with high levels of Ni and Pb are unfit for human and animal consumption. Concentrations of individual elements in maize tissues and soils did not correlate and showed differences in uptake and translocation. However, Ni showed a more efficient transfer from soils to shoots than As, Pb and Cr. Transfer of Cr and Ni from shoots to grains was higher than other elements, implying that whatever amount is assimilated in maize shoots is efficiently mobilized and transferred to grains. Thus, the study recommended to the public to stop consuming and feeding their animals maize with high levels of PTEs for their safety. - Highlights: ► High Ni and Pb levels above the allowable limits were found in maize grains. ► Also maize shoots unfit for animal use were found with high Ni concentrations. ► Mining activities were among the sources of soil contamination. ► The public advised to stop consuming maize with potentially toxic elements.

  7. Methodological Aspects of In Vitro Assessment of Bio-accessible Risk Element Pool in Urban Particulate Matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sysalová, J.; Száková, J.; Tremlová, J.; Kašparovská, Kateřina; Kotlík, B.; Tlustoš, P.; Svoboda, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 2 (2014), s. 216-222 ISSN 0163-4984 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA521/09/1150; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/0682 Program:GA; GA Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : risk elements * urban particulate matter * in vitro tests * bio-accessibility Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.748, year: 2014

  8. Assessment of natural frequency of installed offshore wind turbines using nonlinear finite element model considering soil-monopile interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djillali Amar Bouzid

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear finite element model is developed to examine the lateral behaviors of monopiles, which support offshore wind turbines (OWTs chosen from five different offshore wind farms in Europe. The simulation is using this model to accurately estimate the natural frequency of these slender structures, as a function of the interaction of the foundations with the subsoil. After a brief introduction to the wind power energy as a reliable alternative in comparison to fossil fuel, the paper focuses on concept of natural frequency as a primary indicator in designing the foundations of OWTs. Then the range of natural frequencies is provided for a safe design purpose. Next, an analytical expression of an OWT natural frequency is presented as a function of soil-monopile interaction through monopile head springs characterized by lateral stiffness KL, rotational stiffness KR and cross-coupling stiffness KLR, of which the differences are discussed. The nonlinear pseudo three-dimensional finite element vertical slices model has been used to analyze the lateral behaviors of monopiles supporting the OWTs of different wind farm sites considered. Through the monopiles head movements (displacements and rotations, the values of KL, KR and KLR were obtained and substituted in the analytical expression of natural frequency for comparison. The comparison results between computed and measured natural frequencies showed an excellent agreement for most cases. This confirms the convenience of the finite element model used for the accurate estimation of the monopile head stiffness. Keywords: Nonlinear finite element analysis, Vertical slices model, Monopiles under horizontal loading, Natural frequency, Monopile head stiffness, Offshore wind turbines (OWTs

  9. Carbon footprint assessment of recycling technologies for rare earth elements: A case study of recycling yttrium and europium from phosphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Allen H; Kuo, Chien-Hung; Huang, Lance H; Su, Chao-Chin

    2017-02-01

    Rare earth elements are key raw materials in high-technology industries. Mining activities and manufacturing processes of such industries have caused considerable environmental impacts, such as soil erosion, vegetation destruction, and various forms of pollution. Sustaining the long-term supply of rare earth elements is difficult because of the global shortage of rare earth resources. The diminishing supply of rare earth elements has attracted considerable concern because many industrialized countries regarded such elements as important strategic resources for economic growth. This study aims to explore the carbon footprints of yttrium and europium recovery techniques from phosphor. Two extraction recovery methods, namely, acid extraction and solvent extraction, were selected for the analysis and comparison of carbon footprints. The two following functional units were used: (1) the same phosphor amounts for specific Y and Eu recovery concentrations, and (2) the same phosphor amounts for extraction. For acid extraction method, two acidic solutions (H 2 SO 4 and HCl) were used at two different temperatures (60 and 90°C). For solvent extraction method, acid leaching was performed followed by ionic liquid extraction. Carbon footprints from acid and solvent extraction methods were estimated to be 10.1 and 10.6kgCO 2 eq, respectively. Comparison of the carbon emissions of the two extraction methods shows that the solvent extraction method has significantly higher extraction efficiency, even though acid extraction method has a lower carbon footprint. These results may be used to develop strategies for life cycle management of rare earth resources to realize sustainable usage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of major and trace elements in soil and sediments from Osamu Utsumi Uranium mine by WDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilhen, Sabine N.; Oliveira, Fernando Mendes de; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Sakata, Solange K.; Scapin, Marcos A., E-mail: sksakata@ipen.br, E-mail: snguilhen@ipen.br, E-mail: mecotrim@ipen.br, E-mail: mascapin@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Filho, Walter S., E-mail: scassiotti@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios

    2015-07-01

    From 1982 to 1995, the Brazilian Nuclear Industries (INB) extracted and processed uranium from the Osamu Utsumi mine, located in Caldas (Minas Gerais/Brazil). After the operations were suspended in the mine, INB was convened to meet national regulatory requirements for decommissioning the mine. Several studies have since been initiated in order to support a safe and responsible closure of the mine. In this context, this work aims to establish and validate a non-destructive methodology for quantitative simultaneous determination of major and minor constituents in soil and sediments from Osamu Utsumi uranium mine by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF). The method was validated in accordance to the criteria established by INMETRO (Brazilian's National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology). The precision and accuracy achieved are statistically comparable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology's standard reference material, SRM 2709a. The results showed significantly higher amounts of rare-earth elements and uranium in sediment samples, most likely because of the leaching process occurring in the pit's surroundings. This process is promoted by the acid mine drainage (AMD) that solubilized the elements present in the tailings throughout the mine's area. The solubilized elements end up accumulating in the pit water and further depositing up in the sediment. (author)

  11. Reliability assessment of MVP-BURN and JENDL-4.0 related to nuclear transmutation of light platinum group elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terashima Atsunori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aprés ORIENT research program, as a concept of advanced nuclear fuel cycle, was initiated in FY2011 aiming at creating stable, highly-valuable elements by nuclear transmutation from ↓ssion products. In order to simulate creation of such elements by (n, γ reaction succeeded by β− decay in reactors, a continuous-energy Monte Carlo burnup calculation code MVP-BURN was employed. Then, it is one of the most important tasks to con↓rm the reliability of MVP-BURN code and evaluated neutron cross section library. In this study, both an experiment of neutron activation analysis in TRIGA Mark I reactor at University of California, Irvine and the corresponding burnup calculation using MVP-BURN code were performed for validation of the simulation on transmutation of light platinum group elements. Especially, some neutron capture reactions such as 102Ru(n, γ103Ru, 104Ru(n, γ105Ru, and 108Pd(n, γ109Pd were dealt with in this study. From a comparison between the calculation (C and the experiment (E about 102Ru(n, γ103Ru, the deviation (C/E-1 was signi↓cantly large. Then, it is strongly suspected that not MVP-BURN code but the neutron capture cross section of 102Ru belonging to JENDL-4.0 used in this simulation have made the big di↑erence as (C/E-1 >20%.

  12. Reliability assessment of MVP-BURN and JENDL-4.0 related to nuclear transmutation of light platinum group elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Atsunori; Nilsson, Mikael; Ozawa, Masaki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2017-09-01

    The Aprés ORIENT research program, as a concept of advanced nuclear fuel cycle, was initiated in FY2011 aiming at creating stable, highly-valuable elements by nuclear transmutation from ↓ssion products. In order to simulate creation of such elements by (n, γ) reaction succeeded by β- decay in reactors, a continuous-energy Monte Carlo burnup calculation code MVP-BURN was employed. Then, it is one of the most important tasks to con↓rm the reliability of MVP-BURN code and evaluated neutron cross section library. In this study, both an experiment of neutron activation analysis in TRIGA Mark I reactor at University of California, Irvine and the corresponding burnup calculation using MVP-BURN code were performed for validation of the simulation on transmutation of light platinum group elements. Especially, some neutron capture reactions such as 102Ru(n, γ)103Ru, 104Ru(n, γ)105Ru, and 108Pd(n, γ)109Pd were dealt with in this study. From a comparison between the calculation (C) and the experiment (E) about 102Ru(n, γ)103Ru, the deviation (C/E-1) was signi↓cantly large. Then, it is strongly suspected that not MVP-BURN code but the neutron capture cross section of 102Ru belonging to JENDL-4.0 used in this simulation have made the big di↑erence as (C/E-1) >20%.

  13. Assessment of major and trace elements in soil and sediments from Osamu Utsumi Uranium mine by WDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilhen, Sabine N.; Oliveira, Fernando Mendes de; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Sakata, Solange K.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Filho, Walter S.

    2015-01-01

    From 1982 to 1995, the Brazilian Nuclear Industries (INB) extracted and processed uranium from the Osamu Utsumi mine, located in Caldas (Minas Gerais/Brazil). After the operations were suspended in the mine, INB was convened to meet national regulatory requirements for decommissioning the mine. Several studies have since been initiated in order to support a safe and responsible closure of the mine. In this context, this work aims to establish and validate a non-destructive methodology for quantitative simultaneous determination of major and minor constituents in soil and sediments from Osamu Utsumi uranium mine by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF). The method was validated in accordance to the criteria established by INMETRO (Brazilian's National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology). The precision and accuracy achieved are statistically comparable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology's standard reference material, SRM 2709a. The results showed significantly higher amounts of rare-earth elements and uranium in sediment samples, most likely because of the leaching process occurring in the pit's surroundings. This process is promoted by the acid mine drainage (AMD) that solubilized the elements present in the tailings throughout the mine's area. The solubilized elements end up accumulating in the pit water and further depositing up in the sediment. (author)

  14. Ecological geochemical assessment and source identification of trace elements in atmospheric deposition of an emerging industrial area: Beibu Gulf economic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cong; Yang, Zhongfang; Jiang, Wei; Hu, Baoqing; Hou, Qingye; Yu, Tao; Li, Jie

    2016-12-15

    Industrialization and urbanization have led to a deterioration in air quality and provoked some serious environmental concerns. Fifty-four samples of atmospheric deposition were collected from an emerging industrial area and analyzed to determine the concentrations of 11 trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Se, S and Zn). Multivariate geostatistical analyses were conducted to determine the spatial distribution, possible sources and enrichment degrees of trace elements in atmospheric deposition. Results indicate that As, Fe and Mo mainly originated from soil, their natural parent materials, while the remaining trace elements were strongly influenced by anthropogenic or natural activities, such as coal combustion in coal-fired power plants (Pb, Se and S), manganese ore (Mn, Cd and Hg) and metal smelting (Cu and Zn). The results of ecological geochemical assessment indicate that Cd, Pb and Zn are the elements of priority concern, followed by Mn and Cu, and other heavy metals, which represent little threat to local environment. It was determine that the resuspension of soil particles impacted the behavior of heavy metals by 55.3%; the impact of the coal-fired power plants was 18.9%; and the contribution of the local manganese industry was 9.6%. The comparison of consequences from various statistical methods (principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), enrichment factor (EF) and absolute principle component score (APCS)-multiple linear regression (MLR)) confirmed the credibility of this research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Uncertainty assessment and comparison of different dose algorithms used to evaluate a two element LiF:Mg,Ti TL personal dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadtmann, H.; Hranitzky, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an uncertainty assessment and comparison study of different dose algorithms used for evaluating our routine two element TL whole body dosemeter. Due to the photon energy response of the two different filtered LiF:Mg,Ti detector elements the application of dose algorithms is necessary to assess the relevant photon doses over the rated energy range with an acceptable energy response. Three dose algorithms are designed to calculate the dose for the different dose equivalent quantities, i.e. personal dose equivalent H p (10) and H p (0.07) and photon dose equivalent H x used for personal monitoring before introducing personal dose equivalent. Based on experimental results both for free in air calibration as well as calibration on the ISO water slab phantom (type test data) a detailed uncertainty analysis war performed by means of Monte Carlo simulation techniques. The uncertainty contribution of the individual detector element signals was taken into special consideration. (author)

  16. Assessment of stress-strain data suitable for finite-element elastic--plastic analysis of shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rack, H.J.; Knorovsky, G.A.

    1978-09-01

    Stress-strain data which describes the influence of strain rate and temperature on the mechanical response of materials presently being used for light water reactor fuel shipping containers have been assembled. Selection of data has been limited to that which is suitable for use in finite-element elastic--plastic analysis of shipping containers (e.g., they must include complete material history profiles). Based on this information, recommendations have been made for further work which is required to complete the necessary data base

  17. Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement: An Assessment of Experience in Africa and Elements of Good Donor Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Tschirley, David L.; del Castillo, Anne Marie

    2008-01-01

    This Policy Synthesis is a summary of a longer report that discusses the procurement of food aid within the country or region where it is needed. Referred to as local and regional procurement – LRP – this practice has become a major element in multilateral food aid response over the past decade1. The paper examines the relevance and the rationale for using LRP, reviews the efficiency of World Food Program (WFP) LRP activities in Africa relative to inkind food aid and to prices in the markets ...

  18. Circular economy: To be or not to be in a closed product loop? A Life Cycle Assessment of aluminium cans with inclusion of alloying elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2016-01-01

    Packaging, representing the second largest source of aluminium scrap at global level, deserves a key role in the transition towards the circular economy. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of aluminium products has been typically based on one life cycle considering pure aluminium flows and neglecting...... the presence of alloying elements and impurities. However, this simplification undermines the potentials of using LCA to quantify the environmental performances of products in multiple loops, as required in the circular economy. This study aims to investigate the effects of including the actual alloy...... composition in the LCA of aluminium can production and recycling, in order to understand whether a can-to-can (i.e. closed product loop) recycling should be promoted or not. Mass balance of the main alloying elements (Mn, Si, Cu, Fe) was carried out at increasing levels of recycling rate, corresponding...

  19. Use of geochemical signatures, including rare earth elements, in mosses and lichens to assess spatial integration and the influence of forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandois, L.; Agnan, Y.; Leblond, S.; Séjalon-Delmas, N.; Le Roux, G.; Probst, A.

    2014-10-01

    In order to assess the influence of local environment and spatial integration of Trace Metals (TM) by biomonitors, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, V and Zn and some rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been measured in lichens and mosses collected in three French forest sites located in three distinct mountainous areas, as well as in the local soil and bedrock, and in both bulk deposition (BD) and throughfall (TF). Similar enrichment factors (EF) were calculated using lichens and mosses and local bedrock for most elements, except for Cs, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Cu which were significantly (KW, p leaching (Mn), direct uptake (Ni), or dry deposition dissolution (Pb, Cu, Cs).

  20. Elemental concentration and potential ecological risk assessment of reef associated surface sediments of Appa Island, Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, Southeast coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, P; Krishnakumar, S; Silva, Judith D; Pradhap, D; Vidyasakar, A; Radhakrishnan, K; Godson, Prince S; Arumugam, K; Magesh, N S

    2018-03-01

    Thirty three surface sediments were collected for the present study to assess the elemental concentration and its associated ecological risk in the reef associated surface sediments, Appa Island, Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, South east coast of India. The distribution of calcium carbonate in the reef sediments is controlled by coral debris and shell fragments whereas the Organic matter (OM) content are chiefly derived from mangroves and sea grasses. The circulation of trace elements and Fe, Mn are controlled by the fluvial process and re-suspended sediments. The concentration of Pb was primarily controlled by migration of pollutants through long shore sediment transport process. The main source of Pb in the study area is from coal incinerating power plants and coal handling operations from harbors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of soil and groundwater contamination by potentially toxic and trace elements in an impounded vehicle scrapyard: Case study: Ribeirão Pires, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Camila Neves

    2018-01-01

    Impounded vehicle scrapyard (IVS) overcrowding is currently a subject of concern in Brazilian scenario. The aim of this study was to assess the total levels of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and trace elements (TE) in soil and groundwater in an IVS located in the city of Ribeirão Pires. In order to achieve this objective, topsoil, three soil cores and groundwater of three monitoring wells were analyzed. It was verified that the area is mainly affected by three factors: (1) a landfill layer with construction waste; (2) an oily residue from past industrial activities in the area; (3) vehicles parked on topsoil. For the evaluation of the results, statistical techniques, such as multivariate analysis, calculation of pollution, ecological and human health risk index were used. Mass fractions of all PTEs, except Co, Cu, Mo and Zn, were higher than reference values. Hot spots were observed for most elements suggesting vehicular source. The Geoaccumulation Index showed minimal to moderate pollution in soil for most elements, except for As and Ba, which showed higher accumulation than other elements. The enrichment factor pointed to a significant enrichment of As and Pb. Arsenic content in soil may pose a moderate to high potential ecological risk. The results of PTEs and as statistical approaches indicated that As, Ce, Co, Cu, Mn, Nb, Ni, Pb and Zn are mainly from anthropogenic sources. The content of most PTEs in topsoil does not pose a potential human health risk, except Cr content. Groundwater levels for most PTEs were below the drinking water recommendation limits, except Mn and Fe content. (author)

  2. Metal and trace element assessment of estuary sediments from Santos, Brazil, by neutron activation and atomic absorption techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Eduardo P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Berbel, Glaucia B.B.; Braga, Elisabete S.

    2007-01-01

    In order to better understanding geochemical and environmental processes and their possible changes due to anthropogenic activities trace metal analyses and their distribution in marine sediments are commonly undertaken. The present study reports result concerning the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements in the Santos estuarine marine sediments. Thirteen bottom sediment samples (SV0501 to SV0513) were collected in this estuary, including regions of Sao Vicente, Santos, Cubatao, Vicente de Carvalho and Santos' Bay, in the summer of 2005. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). For total mercury determination cold vapor atomic absorption technique (CV AAS) was employed. In both cases methodology validation was performed by certified reference material analyses. The results obtained for multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared with NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values obtained for As and metals Cr, Hg and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values). In general, the samples located near the Cubatao region showed higher concentrations for all elements analyzed probably due to the high impact of industrial activities. (author)

  3. Metal and trace element assessment of estuary sediments from Santos, Brazil, by neutron activation and atomic absorption techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Eduardo P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: ducamorim@yahoo.com.br; defavaro@ipen.br; Berbel, Glaucia B.B.; Braga, Elisabete S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos nos Oceanos - LABNUT]. E-mail: edsbraga@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    In order to better understanding geochemical and environmental processes and their possible changes due to anthropogenic activities trace metal analyses and their distribution in marine sediments are commonly undertaken. The present study reports result concerning the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements in the Santos estuarine marine sediments. Thirteen bottom sediment samples (SV0501 to SV0513) were collected in this estuary, including regions of Sao Vicente, Santos, Cubatao, Vicente de Carvalho and Santos' Bay, in the summer of 2005. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). For total mercury determination cold vapor atomic absorption technique (CV AAS) was employed. In both cases methodology validation was performed by certified reference material analyses. The results obtained for multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared with NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values obtained for As and metals Cr, Hg and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values). In general, the samples located near the Cubatao region showed higher concentrations for all elements analyzed probably due to the high impact of industrial activities. (author)

  4. Assessment of sediments from Tiete River - toxicity and trace elements - from Salesopolis to Suzano counties, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegre, Gabriel F.; Borrely, Sueli; Nascimento, Thuany M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, sediment samples from the Tiete River were evaluated for toxicity and trace metals (5 sampling sites). The studied region includes Salesopolis to Suzano and surroundings, a highly industrialized area. The study involved toxicity evaluation (sediment, elutriate and pore-water) and the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements on sediments. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption technique (CV AAS). The concentration values obtained for the metals As, Cr, Hg and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL). Regarding toxicity, whole sediments and elutriate fractions were evaluated using chronic assays for Ceriodaphnia dubia, while the pore water was carried out for Vibrio fischeri toxicity assays. These assays followed Brazilian Standardized Methods (ABNT). Whole sediments and elutriate evidenced negative biological effects, even at Salesopolis county, the control site (less impacted area). The worst effects were obtained at Mogi das Cruzes and Suzano counties (sampling stations 3 and 4). The elutriate fractions collected at the same stations showed acute toxicity in two of three samples (C. dubia). When pore water was evaluated, a toxicity gradient which increased as the river flowed through Mogi das Cruzes county was obtained. Regarding toxic metal contents in the sediment samples points 3 and 4 exceeded the TEL oriented values for As, Cr, Hg and Zn and point 4 also exceeded the PEL values for all these elements. (author)

  5. Assessing phase stability and element distribution in Co-base superalloys at elevated temperatures by in situ TEM heating experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeler, Yolita; Mueller, Julian; Spiecker, Erdmann [Lehrstuhl fuer Mikro- und Nanostrukturforschung and Center for Nanoanalysis and Electron Microscopy (CENEM), Department Werkstoffwissenschaften, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Co-based alloys, of a composition of Co-12Al-9W, form a stable two phase γ/γ{sup '} microstructure at 900 C. γ{sup '} cubes, consisting of the L12 crystal structure are coherently embedded in a solid solution fcc (A1) γ matrix. To ensure precipitate hardening at temperatures, which are relevant to practical applications, 700-1100 C, as experienced in gas turbine applications, the stability of the γ/γ{sup '} phases is of fundamental importance. In this analysis in situ TEM studies with chip-based heating systems (by DENS solution) are applied on new Co-based superalloys. After in situ heating at apr. 900 C and controlled quenching with different quenching rates the elemental distribution at the γ/γ{sup '} interface is measured using ChemiSTEM EDX. Exploiting the driving force for interface movement resulting from temperature-dependent volume fraction of γ and γ{sup '} insight into the diffusion of individual alloying elements and the relationship between local chemistry and ordering can be gained from transient phenomena. The experimental results will be compared with theoretical calculations. This work has been carried out within the framework of the SFB-TR 103 ''Single Crystal Superalloys''.

  6. Rare earth element mineralogy, geochemistry, and preliminary resource assessment of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, Helmand Province, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Robert D.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Buttleman, Kim P.

    2011-01-01

    There is increased concern about the future availability of rare earth elements (REE) because of China's dominance as the supplier of more than 95 percent of world REE output, their decision to restrict exports of rare earth products, and the rapid increase in world-wide consumption of rare earth product. As a result, countries such as the United States, Japan, and member nations of the European Union face a future of tight supplies and high prices for rare earth products unless other sources of REE are found and developed (Long and others, 2010; U.S. Geological Survey, 2011, p. 128-129, 184-185). We report and describe a significant new deposit of light rare earth elements (LREE), estimated at 1 Mt, within the Khanneshin carbonatite complex of south Afghanistan. The potential resource is located in a remote and rugged part of the igneous complex in a region previously identified by Soviet geologists in the 1970s. This report reviews the geologic setting of LREE deposit, presents new geochemical data documenting the grade of LREE mineralization, briefly describes the mineralogy and mineralogical associations of the deposit, and presents a preliminary estimate of LREE resources based on our current understanding of the geology.

  7. Scientific investigation plan for NNWSI WBS element 1.2.2.5.L: NNWSI waste package performance assessment: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggert, K.G.; O'Connell, W.J.; Lappa, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Waste package performance assessment contains three broad categories of activities. These activities are: (1) development of a hydrothermal flow and transport model to test concepts to be used in establishing boundary conditions for performance calculations, and to interface EBS release calculations with total system performance calculations; (2) development of a waste package systems model to provide integrated deterministic assessments of performance and analyses of waste package designs; and (3) development of an uncertainty methodology for combination with the system model to perform probabilistic reliability and performance analysis waste package designs. The first category contains activities that aid in determining the scope of a separate, simplified set of hydrologic calculations needed to characterize the waste package environment for performance assessment calculations. The last two activity categories are directly concerned with waste package performance calculations. A rationale for each activity under these groups is presented. All of the activities of performance assessment are either code development or analyses of waste package problems

  8. Accuracy Assessment of Geometrical Elements for Setting-Out in Horizontal Plane of Conveying Chambers at the Bauxite Mine "KOSTURI" Srebrenica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Aleksandar; Ganić, Aleksandar; Tokalić, Rade

    2014-03-01

    Setting-out of objects on the exploitation field of the mine, both in surface mining and in the underground mines, is determined by the specified setting-out accuracy of reference points, which are best to define spatial position of the object projected. For the purpose of achieving of the specified accuracy, it is necessary to perform a priori accuracy assessment of parameters, which are to be used when performing setting-out. Based on the a priori accuracy assessment, verification of the quality of geometrical setting- -out elements specified in the layout; definition of the accuracy for setting-out of geometrical elements; selection of setting-out method; selection at the type and class of instruments and tools that need to be applied in order to achieve predefined accuracy. The paper displays the accuracy assessment of geometrical elements for setting-out of the main haul gallery, haul downcast and helical conveying downcasts in shape of an inclined helix in horizontal plane, using the example of the underground bauxite mine »Kosturi«, Srebrenica. Wytyczanie obiektów na polu wydobywczym w kopalniach, zarówno podziemnych jak i odkrywkowych, zależy w dużej mierze od określonej dokładności wytyczania punktów referencyjnych, przy pomocy których określane jest następnie położenie przestrzenne pozostałych obiektów. W celu uzyskania założonej dokładności, należy przeprowadzić wstępną analizę dokładności oszacowania parametrów które następnie wykorzystane będą w procesie wytyczania. W oparciu o wyniki wstępnej analizy dokładności dokonuje się weryfikacji jakości geometrycznego wytyczenia elementów zaznaczonych na szkicu, uwzględniając te wyniki dobrać należy odpowiednią metodę wytyczania i rodzaj oraz klasę wykorzystywanych narzędzi i instrumentów, tak by osiągnąć założony poziom dokładności. W pracy przedstawiono oszacowanie dokładności wytyczania elementów geometrycznych dla głównego chodnika transportowego

  9. Pollution Assessment of Toxic and Potentially Toxic Elements in Agricultural Soils of the City Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschale, Minbale; Sileshi, Yilma; Kelly-Quinn, Mary; Hailu, Dereje

    2017-02-01

    Due to the significantly fast urban expansion and increased industrial activities, the soils in the farms in Addis Ababa are contaminated by some toxic and potentially toxic elements (As, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, B, Ba, Sr, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd) in varying degrees. The mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, As and B in most of the soil farms were found to be higher than the maximum recommended limits. The mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni and Mn were found to be higher than the background soil concentrations given for uncontaminated soils. Multivariate analyses coupled with correlation analysis were used to identify possible sources. The geo-accumulation index values for Cr, Mn and Pb indicated that the farm soils were unpolluted to moderately polluted as a result of anthropogenic activities. A comprehensive environmental management strategy should be formulated by the government to measure further pollution of the farmland soil.

  10. Metadata elements preferred in searching and assessing relevance of archived television broadcast by scholars and students in media studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Brian

    for fulfilment of their work task at hand.  Subsequently to identification of appropriate access points, we consider indexing approaches for construction of the access point in surrogate records.  The primary focus is on exploitation of information in readily available external sources, namely television...... builds upon the fundamental conception that concurrent consideration of research in information seeking and IR is advantageous for Library and Information Science research.  Further, the framework contests that in order to create an effective broadcast retrieval system, it is important to gather......The present doctoral work concerns the investigation of three aspects of scholars’ and students’ information seeking behaviour in a television broadcast context, and the associated implications for design and construction of metadata elements in surrogate records in future broadcast retrieval...

  11. An Efficient Finite Element Framework to Assess Flexibility Performances of SMA Self-Expandable Carotid Artery Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Ferraro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Computer-based simulations are nowadays widely exploited for the prediction of the mechanical behavior of different biomedical devices. In this aspect, structural finite element analyses (FEA are currently the preferred computational tool to evaluate the stent response under bending. This work aims at developing a computational framework based on linear and higher order FEA to evaluate the flexibility of self-expandable carotid artery stents. In particular, numerical simulations involving large deformations and inelastic shape memory alloy constitutive modeling are performed, and the results suggest that the employment of higher order FEA allows accurately representing the computational domain and getting a better approximation of the solution with a widely-reduced number of degrees of freedom with respect to linear FEA. Moreover, when buckling phenomena occur, higher order FEA presents a superior capability of reproducing the nonlinear local effects related to buckling phenomena.

  12. Assessment of contamination for inorganic elements and phthalate esters in household dust from the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Valdirene de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Household dust has been identified as an important vector of exposure by inorganic and organic substances potentially toxic in children and adults. The dust composition has a strong influence of contaminants provided from internal and external environments. During the natural process of wearing or weather incidents of artifacts and materials variety, the chemical substances are released into the environment in the steam form or by leaching from final products. Once released, they can be accumulated and enriched in the dust; and by continuous exposure (inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact mechanisms), these substances are harmful to human health. In this work, a study to determine the inorganic constituents and phthalate esters concentrations in residential indoor environment dust samples, correlating them with the probable anthropogenic sources was proposed. Dust samples were collected from 69 residences in neighborhoods Pirituba, Freguesia do O, Jaragua and Perus of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, using a domestic vacuum cleaner, between 2006 and 2008. The samples were sieved in the fractions of 850, 850-300, 300-150, 150-75, 75-63 and <63 μm. The analysis by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed the presence of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb. The presence of phthalate esters (DEHP, DnBP, DEP, DEHA, DMP and BBP) was detected, by GCMS analyses. From the enrichment factor (EF), the elements P, S, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were classified as being significant and extremely enriched in the dust. The natural and anthropogenic contributions by statistical tools as factor analysis (AF) and cluster were identified. The elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were present significantly elevated concentrations in relation to the total exposure values (ingestion, inhalation and skin contact) and to risk. (author)

  13. Implementation of constitutive equations for creep damage mechanics into the ABAQUS finite element code - some practical cases in high temperature component design and life assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segle, P.; Samuelson, L.Aa.; Andersson, Peder; Moberg, F.

    1996-01-01

    Constitutive equations for creep damage mechanics are implemented into the finite element program ABAQUS using a user supplied subroutine, UMAT. A modified Kachanov-Rabotnov constitutive equation which accounts for inhomogeneity in creep damage is used. With a user defined material a number of bench mark tests are analyzed for verification. In the cases where analytical solutions exist, the numerical results agree very well. In other cases, the creep damage evolution response appear to be realistic in comparison with laboratory creep tests. The appropriateness of using the creep damage mechanics concept in design and life assessment of high temperature components is demonstrated. 18 refs

  14. Integrating the fish embryo toxicity test as triad element for sediment toxicity assessment based on the water framework directive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzke, Mariana [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Dept. Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Delov, Vera [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Ecotoxicology, Fraunhofer Inst. for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Aachen (Germany); Stahlschmidt-Allner, Petra; Allner, Bernhard [Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Oehlmann, Joerg [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to complement analyses according to the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) with a sediment toxicity analysis as part of an integrated river assessment. To this end, Hessian water courses were analyzed using the sediment quality triad concept according to Chapman with chemical analyses, in situ effect evaluations, and ecotoxicological assessments. For the ecotoxicological assessment (fish embryo toxicity test with Danio rerio), a new evaluation scheme was developed, the fish teratogenicity index (FTI), that allows for a classification of sediments into ecological quality classes compliant to the WFD. Materials and methods sediment and macrozoobenthos samples were taken from tributaries of the rivers Fulda and Lahn. Sediments were characterized regarding particle size, carbon, heavy metals, and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content. Macroinvertebrate samples were taken via multi-habitat sampling. The fish embryo toxicity test with D. rerio was conducted as a contact assay on the basis of DIN 38415-6. Results and discussion The integrated assessment indicated a significant influence of heavy metals and carbon content on macroinvertebrate communities. The bioaccessibility of sediment pollutants were clearly demonstrated by the FTI, which showed a wide range of adverse effects. A significant linear relationship between metals and the FTI was detected. However, there was no statistically significant evidence that macroinvertebrate communities were affected by the hydromorphological quality clements at the sampling sites. Conclusions The new scheme for the assessment of fish embryo toxicity test was successfully applied. The results suggest that sediment compounds impact macroinvertebrate communities and early development of fish. It demonstrates that the quality of sediments should be evaluated on a routine basis as part of an integrated river assessment. (orig.)

  15. Spatial distributions, fractionation characteristics, and ecological risk assessment of trace elements in sediments of Chaohu Lake, a large eutrophic freshwater lake in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Rongqiong; Xi, Shanshan; Da, Chunnian; Liu, Fei

    2018-01-01

    The concentrations, spatial distribution, fractionation characteristics, and potential ecological risks of trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Co) in the surface sediment samples collected from 32 sites in Chaohu Lake were investigated. The improved BCR sequential extraction procedure was applied to analyze the chemical forms of trace elements in sediments. The enrichment factor (EF), sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), potential ecological risk index (PERI), and risk assessment code (RAC) were employed to evaluate the pollution levels and the potential ecological risks. The results found that the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Co in the surface sediments were 78.59, 36.91, 161.84, 98.87, 38.92, and 10.09 mg kg -1 , respectively. The lower concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Ni were almost found in the middle part of the lake, while Co increased from the western toward the eastern parts of the lake. Cr, Ni, Co, and Zn predominantly existed in the residual fractions, with the average values of 76.35, 59.22, 45.60, and 44.30%, respectively. Cu and Pb were mainly combined with Fe/Mn oxides in reducible fraction, with the average values of 66.4 and 69.1%, respectively. The pollution levels were different among the selected elements. Cu had the highest potential ecological risk, while Cr had the lowest potential ecological risk.

  16. Updated study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element data collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project, October 2009-March 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater samples have been collected in California as part of statewide investigations of groundwater quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP is being conducted in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Quality-control samples (source-solution blanks, equipment blanks, and field blanks) were collected in order to ensure the quality of the groundwater sample results. Olsen and others (2010) previously determined study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element results based primarily on field blanks collected in California from May 2004 through January 2008. SRLs are raised reporting levels used to reduce the likelihood of reporting false detections attributable to contamination bias. The purpose of this report is to identify any changes in the frequency and concentrations of detections in field blanks since the last evaluation and update the SRLs for more recent data accordingly. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), strontium (Sr), thallium (Tl), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Data from 179 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from March 2006 through March 2013 by the GAMA-PBP indicated that for trace elements that had a change in detection frequency and concentration since the previous review, the shift occurred near October 2009, in conjunction with a change in the capsule filters used by the study. Results for 89 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from October 2009 through March 2013 were

  17. Risk assessment of potentially toxic element pollution in soils and rice (Oryza sativa) in a typical area of the Yangtze River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang Xiaoshuai; Wang Huoyan; Zhou Jianmin; Ma Chengling; Du Changwen; Chen Xiaoqin

    2009-01-01

    Soil pollution with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) resulting from rapid industrial development has caused major concerns. Selected PTEs and their accumulation and distribution in soils and rice (Oryza sativa) collected from Changshu, east China, were analyzed to evaluate the potential health risk to the local population. The soils were primarily contaminated with Hg, followed by Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn. The concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Cd of 46, 32, and 1 rice samples exceeded their national maximum allowable levels in foods, respectively. Spatial distributions of total Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd in soils shared similar geographical trends. The risk assessment of PTEs through rice consumption suggests that the concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Cd in some rice samples exceed their reference oral dose for adults and children. In general, there was no target hazard quotient value of any individual element that was greater than 1, but hazard index values for adults and children were 1.726 and 1.523, respectively. - Industrial development has led to increased risk from potentially toxic elements in soils and rice.

  18. Use of human milk in the assessment of toxic metal exposure and essential element status in breastfeeding women and their infants in coastal Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzunov Letinić, Judita; Matek Sarić, Marijana; Piasek, Martina; Jurasović, Jasna; Varnai, Veda Marija; Sulimanec Grgec, Antonija; Orct, Tatjana

    2016-12-01

    Pregnant and lactating women and infants are vulnerable population groups for adverse effects of toxic metals due to their high nutritional needs and the resultant increased gastrointestinal absorption of both, essential and toxic elements. Although breastfeeding is recommended for infants worldwide, as human milk is the best source of nutrients and other required bioactive factors, it is also a pathway of maternal excretion of toxic substances including toxic metals and thus a source of infant exposure. The aim of this research was to assess health risks in breastfeeding women in the coastal area of the Republic of Croatia and their infants (N=107) due to maternal exposure to Cd and Pb via cigarette smoking, and Hg via seafood and dental amalgam fillings, and their interaction with essential elements. Biological markers of exposure were the concentrations of main toxic metals Pb, Cd and Hg in maternal blood and three types of breast milk throughout lactation stages. Biological markers of effects were the levels of essential elements Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in maternal serum and breast milk. With regard to cigarette smoking as a source of exposure to Cd and Pb, there were effects of smoking on Cd concentration in blood and correlations between the smoking index and Cd concentrations in maternal blood (ρ=0.593; Pexposure in both breastfeeding women and their infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonlinear quasi-static finite element simulations predict in vitro strength of human proximal femora assessed in a dynamic sideways fall setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Peter; Schwiedrzik, Jakob; Zysset, Philippe K; Fliri-Hofmann, Ladina; Widmer, Daniel; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Blauth, Michael; Windolf, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Osteoporotic proximal femur fractures are caused by low energy trauma, typically when falling on the hip from standing height. Finite element simulations, widely used to predict the fracture load of femora in fall, usually include neither mass-related inertial effects, nor the viscous part of bone׳s material behavior. The aim of this study was to elucidate if quasi-static non-linear homogenized finite element analyses can predict in vitro mechanical properties of proximal femora assessed in dynamic drop tower experiments. The case-specific numerical models of 13 femora predicted the strength (R(2)=0.84, SEE=540N, 16.2%), stiffness (R(2)=0.82, SEE=233N/mm, 18.0%) and fracture energy (R(2)=0.72, SEE=3.85J, 39.6%); and provided fair qualitative matches with the fracture patterns. The influence of material anisotropy was negligible for all predictions. These results suggest that quasi-static homogenized finite element analysis may be used to predict mechanical properties of proximal femora in the dynamic sideways fall situation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Geospatial risk assessment and trace element concentration in reef associated sediments, northern part of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve, Southeast Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, S; Ramasamy, S; Simon Peter, T; Godson, Prince S; Chandrasekar, N; Magesh, N S

    2017-12-15

    Fifty two surface sediments were collected from the northern part of the Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve to assess the geospatial risk of sediments. We found that distribution of organic matter and CaCO 3 distributions were locally controlled by the mangrove litters and fragmented coral debris. In addition, Fe and Mn concentrations in the marine sediments were probably supplied through the riverine input and natural processes. The Geo-accumulation of elements fall under the uncontaminated category except Pb. Lead show a wide range of contamination from uncontaminated-moderately contaminated to extremely contaminated category. The sediment toxicity level of the elements revealed that the majority of the sediments fall under moderately to highly polluted sediments (23.07-28.84%). The grades of potential ecological risk suggest that predominant sediments fall under low to moderate risk category (55.7-32.7%). The accumulation level of trace elements clearly suggests that the coral reef ecosystem is under low to moderate risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-09-23

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element-induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10(-6)) and lower than priority risk levels (10(-4)) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10(-4), higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10(-4)).

  2. Analytical quality assessment and interpretation of the trace element data obtained in the frame of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeij, J.J.M. de; Blaauw, M.; Zegers, C.

    1993-01-01

    At the request of the IAEA, the authors have performed an assessment of the analytical quality and the interpretation of the trace element data obtained within the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on The Significance of Hair Mineral Analysis as a Means of Assessing Internal Body Burdens of Environmental Pollutants. In this CRP research groups from various countries participated, using different analytical procedures, based on NAA, XRF and AAS. Data have been collected for Zn, CU, Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Se in male human hair, liver, kidney, lung, brain, and bone. The samples analyzed originated from China, Hungary, Bulgaria, Japan, the former GDR, Sweden and Norway. The analytical quality of the data has been assessed on basis of the calculated limits of quantitation per trace element determined, per tissue analyzed and per participant, as well as from the trace element values found for reference materials and ''blind'' materials. The analytical quality of the data differs widely, from generally good to reasonable (Zn, Cu, and Se) to generally inadequate to strongly inadequate (Pb, Cd, As, and Hg). 15 refs, 29 tabs

  3. Biomonitoring of selected freshwater macrophytes to assess lake trace element contamination: a case study of Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita N. KUMAR

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A biomonitoring study was carried out at Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, a proposed Ramsar site, Gujarat State, India, to ascertain the degree of trace element contamination. The study focused on assessment of trace element contamination in certain aquatic macrophytes to be used as biomonitors, in comparison with the sediments (abiotic monitor for heavy metal pollution. Good information was provided by analyzing roots, stems and leaves of native aquatic plants (biomonitors represented by eight species: Bergia odorata, Hydrilla verticillata, Ipomoea aquatica, Najas graminea, Nelumbo nucifera, Phragmites karka, Typha angustata and Vellisnaria spiralis, alongwith surface sediments and water, were analyzed for Cd, Co, Cu, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination. The highest concentrations of the trace elements were measured in Ipomoea aquatica and the lowest in Bergia odorata. Based on the concentration and toxicity status observed in the lake's vegetation, the six metals are arranged in the following decreasing order: Zn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cd. Compared with the standard, normal and critical toxicity range in plants, the detected values of Cd and Pb falls within normal range, while that of Co, Ni and Cu were within the critical range. However, Zn showed the highest concentration and alarming toxicity levels, which is considered as one of the most hazardous pollutants in Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary. Certain aquatic macrophytes species are also proposed as biomonitors for the investigated heavy metal pollutants. Such result was significant in the plant species such as Ipomoea aquatica and Phragmites karka, which are the two most useful species in biomonitoring studies due to their ability to accumulate elements in high concentration in the roots and their availability throughout the year. The results showed the significant difference in accumulation rate of some metals like Zn, Cu and Ni in different plant organs, which showed more accumulation in root than

  4. Assessment of the radiation field from radioactive elements in a wood-ash-treated coniferous forest in southwest Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravila, A.; Holm, E.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of natural and antrophogenic radioactive elements in soil and wood was investigated in a 30-year-old forest stand of Norway spruce. Forest plots treated with a single dose of granulated wood ash in 1989 were compared with untreated control plots. It was observed that the retention of radiocesium and radiostrontium by the forest soil is rather strong in spite of the high annual precipitation (1100 mm a -1 ) and the relatively acidic conditions of the soil. Most of the deposited nuclear weapon fall-out of radiocesium and radiostrontium is still residing in the forest soil. Radiostrontium, but not radiocesium, was found in the intrasoil water collected with lysimeters at soil depths of 20 and 50 cm. Wood xylem radial distributions of radiostrontium indicated a decreased bioavailability with time after deposition of nuclear weapons fall-out, and no major differences could be observed on comparison of wood from ash-treated plots with wood from untreated plots. The activity concentration of radiocesium in tree rings formed prior to 1986 and grown at the ash-treated plot was about two to three times that found in wood from the untreated control plot. (author)

  5. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A., E-mail: walace@usp.br [Setor de Analises Toxicologicas. CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons

    2011-07-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  6. Assessment of the trace element distribution in soils in the parks of the city of Zagreb (Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roje, Vibor; Orešković, Marko; Rončević, Juraj; Bakšić, Darko; Pernar, Nikola; Perković, Ivan

    2018-02-07

    This paper presents the results of the preliminary testing of the selected trace elements in the soils of several parks in the city of Zagreb, Republic of Croatia. In each park, the samples were taken from several points-at various distances from the roads. The samples were taken at two different depths: 0-5 and 30-45 cm. Composite samples were done for each sampling point. Microwave-assisted wet digestion of the soil samples was performed and the determination by ICP-AES technique was done. Results obtained for Al, As, Ba, Mn, Ti, V, and K are in a good agreement with the results published in the scientific literature so far. The mass fraction values of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn are somewhat higher than the maximum values given in the Croatian Directive on agricultural land protection against pollution. Be, Mo, Sb, Se, and Tl in the samples were present in the concentrations that are lower than their method detection limit values.

  7. Non-linear finite element model to assess the effect of tendon forces on the foot-ankle complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Orcajo, Enrique; Souza, Thales R; Bayod, Javier; Barbosa de Las Casas, Estevam

    2017-11-01

    A three-dimensional foot finite element model with actual geometry and non-linear behavior of tendons is presented. The model is intended for analysis of the lower limb tendon forces effect in the inner foot structure. The geometry of the model was obtained from computational tomographies and magnetic resonance images. Tendon tissue was characterized with the first order Ogden material model based on experimental data from human foot tendons. Kinetic data was employed to set the load conditions. After model validation, a force sensitivity study of the five major foot extrinsic tendons was conducted to evaluate the function of each tendon. A synergic work of the inversion-eversion tendons was predicted. Pulling from a peroneus or tibialis tendon stressed the antagonist tendons while reducing the stress in the agonist. Similar paired action was predicted for the Achilles tendon with the tibialis anterior. This behavior explains the complex control motion performed by the foot. Furthermore, the stress state at the plantar fascia, the talocrural joint cartilage, the plantar soft tissue and the tendons were estimated in the early and late midstance phase of walking. These estimations will help in the understanding of the functional role of the extrinsic muscle-tendon-units in foot pronation-supination. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2011-01-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  9. Quality assessment of structure and language elements of written responses given by seven Scandinavian drug information centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reppe, Linda Amundstuen; Spigset, Olav; Kampmann, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify structure and language elements affecting the quality of responses from Scandinavian drug information centres (DICs). METHODS: Six different fictitious drug-related queries were sent to each of seven Scandinavian DICs. The centres were blinded for wh...... on drug-related queries with respect to language and text structure. Giving specific advice and precise conclusions and avoiding too compressed language and non-standard abbreviations may aid to reach this goal....... of responses was generally judged as satisfactory to good. Presenting specific advice and conclusions were considered to improve the quality of the responses. However, small nuances in language formulations could affect the individual judgments of the experts, e.g. on whether or not advice was given. Some...... and explaining pharmacological terms to ensure that enquirers understand the response as intended. In addition, more use of active voice and less compressed text structure would be desirable. CONCLUSIONS: This evaluation of responses to DIC queries may give some indications on how to improve written responses...

  10. Metal and trace element assessment of sediments from Guarapiranga reservoir, Sao Paulo State, by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J.; Bevilacqua, Jose E.

    2009-01-01

    Guarapiranga Reservoir is extremely important due to the fact that it is one of the main water reservoirs for South America's largest city, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Guarapiranga Basin is located within the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo - RMSP, and occupies an area of approximately 630 km 2 , and the reservoir itself is located in the northern part of the basin occupying approximately 26 km 2 . This reservoir is characterized by environmental impacts from urban invasion, industrial and sewage wastes, all of which seriously affect its water quality. Due to its vulnerability CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State) regularly monitors the contamination levels of waters and once a year sediment samples. In order to better understand geochemical and environmental processes and their possible changes due to anthropogenic activities trace metals analyses and their distribution in sediments are commonly undertaken. The present study reports results concerning the distribution of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements in sediments from the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cr and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values) and adopted by CETESB. (author)

  11. Intrusion detection system elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.; Mangan, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    This report highlights elements required for an intrusion detection system and discusses problems which can be encountered in attempting to make the elements effective. Topics discussed include: sensors, both for exterior detection and interior detection; alarm assessment systems, with the discussion focused on video assessment; and alarm reporting systems, including alarm communication systems and dislay/console considerations. Guidance on careful planning and design of a new or to-be-improved system is presented

  12. Assessing the damage caused by the oil spill from the tanker Erika; Erika: elements d'evaluation des dommages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delache, X.; Erhard-Cassegrain, A

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999, France was faced with a large-scale marine and ecological disaster following the accident involving the oil tanker Erika which split in two before sinking off the coast of Brittany (western France). This disaster had significant impacts on the coastal environment, affecting 400 km of shoreline. Very different aspects need to be considered in order to assess the damage caused, for which suitable methodologies must be used. Expenditure incurred on emergency and remedial measures to prepare for the 2000 summer season can easily be identified. The main effect of the disaster was ecological: a wide variety of habitats and species, and in particular many protected areas were affected. In addition, economic activities were seriously disrupted, especially tourism, fishing and shellfish production. However, it is harder to assess the economic losses incurred since a large number of short-term and long-term factors were affected. (author)

  13. Making Grasslands Sustainable in Mongolia: Assessment of Key Elements in Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions for Grassland and Livestock Management

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is a threat to Mongolia’s economic growth, sustainable development, and fragile environment. Well-designed actions to mitigate climate change can provide multiple benefits, including socioeconomic development and resilience to climate variability and change. Nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) can provide a framework for the identification and implementation of mitigation actions. This publication identifies and assesses technical, institutional, and policy elemen...

  14. Potentially toxic elements in soil of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province and Tribal areas, Pakistan: evaluation for human and ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddique, Umar; Muhammad, Said; Tariq, Mohsin; Zhang, Hua; Arif, Mohammad; Jadoon, Ishtiaq A K; Khattak, Nimat Ullah

    2018-03-22

    Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) contaminations in the soil ecosystem are considered as extremely hazardous due to toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulative nature. Therefore, this study was aimed to summarize the results of published PTEs in soil of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Tribal areas, Pakistan. Results were evaluated for the pollution quantification factors, including contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), ecological risk index (ERI) and human health risk assessment. The highest CF (797) and PLI (7.35) values were observed for Fe and ERI (857) values for Cd. Soil PTEs concentrations were used to calculate the human exposure for the risk assessment, including chronic or non-carcinogenic risks such as the hazard quotient (HQ) and carcinogenic or cancer risk (CR). The values of HQ were > 1 for the Cd, Co and Cr in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Tribal areas. Tribal areas showed higher values of ERI, HQ, and CR as compared to the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa that were attributed to the mining activities, weathering and erosion of mafic and ultramafic bedrocks hosting ophiolites. This study strongly recommends that best control measures need to be taken for soil PTEs with the intent to alleviate any continuing potential threat to the human health, property and environment, which otherwise could enter ecosystem and ultimately the living beings. Further studies are recommended to combat the soil PTEs concentrations and toxicity in the Tribal areas for a best picture of understanding the element effects on human, and environment can be achieved that will lead to a sustainable ecological harmony.

  15. Validating Multidimensional Outcome Assessment Using the TBI Common Data Elements: An Analysis of the TRACK-TBI Pilot Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lindsay D; Ranson, Jana; Ferguson, Adam R; Giacino, Joseph; Okonkwo, David O; Valadka, Alex; Manley, Geoffrey; McCrea, Michael

    2017-06-08

    The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) is often the primary outcome measure in clinical trials for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although the GOSE's capture of global function outcome has several strengths, concerns have been raised about its limited ability to identify mild disability and failure to capture the full scope of problems patients exhibit after TBI. This analysis examined the convergence of disability ratings across a multidimensional set of outcome domains in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury (TRACK-TBI) Pilot study. The study collected measures recommended by the TBI Common Data Elements (CDE) Workgroup. Patients presenting to 3 emergency departments with a TBI of any severity enrolled in TRACK-TBI prospectively after injury; outcome measures were collected at 3 and six months postinjury. Analyses examined frequency of impairment and overlap between impairment status across the CDE outcome domains of Global Level of Functioning (GOSE), Neuropsychological (cognitive) Impairment, Psychological Status, TBI Symptoms, and Quality of Life. GOSE score correlated in the expected direction with other outcomes (M Spearman's rho = .21 and .49 with neurocognitive and self-report outcomes, respectively). The subsample in the Upper Good Recovery (GOSE 8) category appeared quite healthy across most other outcomes, although 19.0% had impaired executive functioning (Trail Making Test Part B). A significant minority of participants in the Lower Good Recovery subgroup (GOSE 7) met criteria for impairment across numerous other outcome measures. The findings highlight the multidimensional nature of TBI recovery and the limitations of applying only a single outcome measure.

  16. Assessing the effects of the Prestige oil spill on the European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis): Trace elements and stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanpera, Carola; Valladares, Sonia; Moreno, Rocio; Ruiz, Xavier; Jover, Lluis

    2008-01-01

    The Prestige oil spill resulted in the mortality of several seabird species on the Atlantic NW coast of Spain. Shag casualties were particularly relevant, since populations are resident in the area the whole year round and because of several features which make them highly vulnerable to environmental hazards. Ecological catastrophes give us the opportunity of collecting samples which, otherwise, would be difficult to obtain. We examine the potential of shag corpses as bioindicators of inorganic pollution and the possible factors of variability, such as biological traits (sex, age) or nutrition status. We determined trace elements (Hg, Se, Cr, Pb, Zn and Cu) and isotopic signatures ( 15 N, 13 C) in soft tissues (muscle, liver) and in primary feathers formed at different times (before and after the Prestige) in individuals of known sex and age, collected at the time of the Prestige disaster. These were compared with data from another group of shags trapped accidentally in fishing gear in 2005. Our results did not seem to be affected by sex or age on any of the analysed variables. The higher nitrogen isotopic signatures in the soft tissues of the Prestige shags may be related to the nutrition stress caused by a poorer body condition, which is also reflected in increasing levels of some metals in the liver. This isotopic enrichment was also observed in newly forming feathers when compared to the old ones. On the other hand, the lower δ 15 N and Hg values in shag feathers from 2005 point to a shift in feeding resources to prey of lower trophic levels. We found that feather features (being an inert tissue and having a conservative composition), if combined with careful dating and chemical analysis, offer a very useful tool to evaluate temporal and spatial changes in seabird ecology in relation to pollution events

  17. Assessing the effects of the Prestige oil spill on the European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis): Trace elements and stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanpera, Carola [Dept. Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: csanpera@ub.edu; Valladares, Sonia; Moreno, Rocio; Ruiz, Xavier [Dept. Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jover, Lluis [Dept. Salut Publica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    The Prestige oil spill resulted in the mortality of several seabird species on the Atlantic NW coast of Spain. Shag casualties were particularly relevant, since populations are resident in the area the whole year round and because of several features which make them highly vulnerable to environmental hazards. Ecological catastrophes give us the opportunity of collecting samples which, otherwise, would be difficult to obtain. We examine the potential of shag corpses as bioindicators of inorganic pollution and the possible factors of variability, such as biological traits (sex, age) or nutrition status. We determined trace elements (Hg, Se, Cr, Pb, Zn and Cu) and isotopic signatures ({sup 15}N, {sup 13}C) in soft tissues (muscle, liver) and in primary feathers formed at different times (before and after the Prestige) in individuals of known sex and age, collected at the time of the Prestige disaster. These were compared with data from another group of shags trapped accidentally in fishing gear in 2005. Our results did not seem to be affected by sex or age on any of the analysed variables. The higher nitrogen isotopic signatures in the soft tissues of the Prestige shags may be related to the nutrition stress caused by a poorer body condition, which is also reflected in increasing levels of some metals in the liver. This isotopic enrichment was also observed in newly forming feathers when compared to the old ones. On the other hand, the lower {delta}{sup 15}N and Hg values in shag feathers from 2005 point to a shift in feeding resources to prey of lower trophic levels. We found that feather features (being an inert tissue and having a conservative composition), if combined with careful dating and chemical analysis, offer a very useful tool to evaluate temporal and spatial changes in seabird ecology in relation to pollution events.

  18. Assessing Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Lynn Arthur

    Assessment not only places value, it also identifies which elements to value. In this era of accountability, the constituents of educational assessment are not just students, faculty, and administrators, but also parents, legislators, journalists, and the public. For these broader audiences, simple numerical indicators of student performance take…

  19. Assessing internal exposure in the absence of an appropriate model: two cases involving an incidental inhalation of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchin, N.; Grappin, L.; Guillermin, A.M.; Lafon, P.; Miele, A.; Berard, P.; Blanchardon, E.; Fottorino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Two incidents involving internal exposure by inhalation of transuranic compounds are presented herein. The results of the measurements of urinary and faecal excretions of the two individuals involved do not concur with the values predicted by the ICRP models that should be applied by default, according to the circumstances of the incidents and the chemical form of the products involved: oxide in the first case and nitrate in the second. These cases are remarkable in the similarity of their biokinetic behaviour even though they occurred in different situations and involved different chemical compounds. Both situations provide an illustration of the management of internal contamination events. The precautions to be taken and the questions that the physician should ask himself in the estimation of the internal dose are listed as follows: What type of examinations should be prescribed and at what frequency? What analysis results should be used in assessing the dose? How can the effect of the Ca-DTPA treatment be assessed? How long is it necessary to perform radio toxicological exams before assessing the dose? What should be done if the ICRP model corresponding to the initial circumstances does not fit the measurement data? Finally, our selected hypotheses, used to explain specific biokinetic behaviour and to estimate its intake in both cases, are detailed. These incidental contaminations suggest that further studies should be carried out to develop a new model for inhalation of transuranic compounds that would follow neither the S nor the M absorption type of the respiratory tract model of ICRP publication 66. (authors)

  20. Assessing internal exposure in the absence of an appropriate model: two cases involving an incidental inhalation of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchin, Nicolas; Fottorino, Robert; Grappin, Louise; Guillermin, Anne-Marie; Lafon, Philippe; Miele, Alain; Berard, Philippe; Blanchardon, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Two incidents involving internal exposure by inhalation of transuranic compounds are presented herein. The results of the measurements of urinary and faecal excretions of the two individuals involved do not concur with the values predicted by the ICRP models that should be applied by default, according to the circumstances of the incidents and the chemical form of the products involved: oxide in the first case and nitrate in the second. These cases are remarkable in the similarity of their biokinetic behaviour even though they occurred in different situations and involved different chemical compounds. Both situations provide an illustration of the management of internal contamination events. The precautions to be taken and the questions that the physician should ask himself in the estimation of the internal dose are listed as follows: a) What type of examinations should be prescribed and at what frequency?; b) What analysis results should be used in assessing the dose?; c) How can the effect of the Ca-DTPA treatment be assessed?; d) How long is it necessary to perform radio toxicological exams before assessing the dose?; e) What should be done if the ICRP model corresponding to the initial circumstances does not fit the measurement data? Finally, our selected hypotheses, used to explain specific biokinetic behaviour and to estimate its intake in both cases, are detailed. These incidental contaminations suggest that further studies should be carried out to develop a new model for inhalation of transuranic compounds that would follow neither the S nor the M absorption type of the respiratory tract model of ICRP publication 66. (author)

  1. Review of Trace-Element Field-Blank Data Collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program, May 2004-January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element quality-control samples (for example, source-solution blanks, field blanks, and field replicates) were collected as part of a statewide investigation of groundwater quality in California, known as the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Trace-element field blanks were collected to evaluate potential bias in the corresponding environmental data. Bias in the environmental data could result from contamination in the field during sample collection, from the groundwater coming into contact with contaminants on equipment surfaces or from other sources, or from processing, shipping, or analyzing the samples. Bias affects the interpretation of environmental data, particularly if any constituents are present solely as a result of extrinsic contamination that would have otherwise been absent from the groundwater that was sampled. Field blanks were collected, analyzed, and reviewed to identify and quantify extrinsic contamination bias. Data derived from source-solution blanks and laboratory quality-control samples also were considered in evaluating potential contamination bias. Eighty-six field-blank samples collected from May 2004 to January 2008 were analyzed for the concentrations of 25 trace elements. Results from these field blanks were used to interpret the data for the 816 samples of untreated groundwater collected over the same period. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum

  2. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from two estuarine systems: Santos/Sao Vicente and Cananeia, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Eduardo Paulo de

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated some toxic metals such as Cd, Hg and Pb and some other major and trace elements in surface sediment samples, from two different systems under different degrees of anthropogenic actions: the estuarine system of Santos/Sao Vicente and the southern part of the Cananeia estuary, both on the Sao Paulo state coast. Sediment samples were collected in 16 stations in the Santos/Sao Vicente estuary and 13 stations in the Cananeia estuary, during summer and winter of 2005 and 2006, in both estuaries. Three analytical techniques were used: NAA, AAS and ICP OES. NAA was used for the quantification of major element concentration levels (Ca, Fe and Na), trace elements (As, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, and Zn and rare earths elements La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb). ICP OES was used for determination of the concentration levels of Al, Ba, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Cr, Sn, Sr, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Tl, Ti, V and Zn. AAS for Cd and Pb quantification through graphite furnace (GF AAS) and Hg through cold vapor generation (CV AAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference material analyses for the three analytical techniques used. Detection and quantification limits were calculated for each element evaluated. Seasonal variations (summer and winter), spatial and temporal (2005 e 2006) variations of metals and trace elements were also evaluated. In the Santos estuary, in general, metal and trace element concentrations , organic matter content and % of pelitic fraction found in the Santos channel (area 1) were higher than those of the Santos Bay (area 2) and Sao Vicente channel (area 3). Area 1 suffers high impact from industrial activities from the Cubatao region and Santos port. The sediments from station 14 (area 3, Sao Vicente channel), showed the same behavior of those from area 1, suffering influence from the industrial pole and located in a mangrove area. In comparison with TEL and PEL

  3. Tracey - a simulation model of trace element fluxes in soil-plant system for long-term assessment of a radioactive groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke; Eckersten, Henrik; Reinlert, Andre; Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik; Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Avila, Rodolfo; Greger, Maria

    2009-10-01

    We developed a general trace element model called Tracey to simulate dynamically the possible accumulation of radionuclides as a result of an long-term radioactive contamination of groundwater in terrestrial ecosystems. The overall objectives of the study are to: 1) Develop and evaluate a multi-compartmental model that dynamically simulates the transport and accumulation of a radionuclide in the soil-plant system at a time scale relevant for risk assessment of nuclear fuel waste; and 2) Asses the possible accumulation of radionuclide in terrestrial ecosystems due to an eventual long-term continuous radioactive groundwater contamination. Specific objectives were to assess: - The proportion of the contamination accumulated and where it is stored in the ecosystem. - The importance of the plant uptake approach for accumulation of radionuclides. - The most important radionuclide properties and ecosystem characteristics for accumulation and losses. - The proportion of the contamination lost and how is it lost. - The circumstances which stimulated export of radionuclides to other ecosystems. The model presented here, called Tracey, is a stand-alone version to allow for long simulation periods relevant for the time scale of risk assessment of nuclear waste (i.e. several thousand years) with time steps as short as one day. Tracey is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclide are described for different plant parts and for several soil layers. Each layer includes pools of slowly and quickly decomposing litter, humus, solved and absorbed trace element. The trace element fluxes are assumed to be proportional to either water or carbon fluxes, these fluxes are simulated using the dynamic model CoupModel for fluxes of water, carbon, nitrogen and carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Two different model approaches were used to describe plant uptake of radionuclides. The one called passive uptake approach is driven by water uptake and the one called active

  4. Assessment of End-Plug Welding of Fuel Elements; Evaluation des Soudures Terminales des Elements Combustibles; Otsenka kachestva privarki kontsevoj probki toplivnykh ehlementov; Inspeccion de la Soldadura del Tapon Terminal de los Elementos Combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Y.; Aoki, T. [Tokai Refinery, Atomic Fuel Corporation (Japan)

    1965-10-15

    It is very important to correlate the testing results with the performance in reactor service, as well as to develop non-destructive testing techniques themselves. However, it is rather difficult to obtain these correlations because of high expense and radioactivity. Several kinds of assessments in out-of-pile state were carried out simulating the in-reactor conditions. Some details of these assessments on JRR-3 fuel elements are described. The reactor is a heavy-water moderated and cooled research reactor of 10-MW capacity, with aluminium-clad metallic uranium fuel elements. As the elements have only mechanical bonding between cladding and core, there might be a tensile stress at the end plug as a result of irradiation growth of the uranium core. Thermal cycling will cause a similar stress in the welds. Preferential corrosion by hot water might occur in the vicinity of the welds because of the difference of micro-structure. It is essential to keep leak-tightness during and after the reactor service. Specially designed specimens were used for tensile testing, high-temperature creep testing, thermal cycling and corrosion testing. Many sorts of weld characters were examined non-destructively before the tests and leak-checked at intervals of the tests. Evaluations of these results may be used for the establishment of inspection standards such as X-ray radiography and visual inspection of the end-plug welding. Some other results on Magnox-clad and Zircaloy clad fuel elements will also be described. (author) [French] Il est tres important de mettre en correlation les resultats d'essais et les performances d'un reacteur en service, et d'ameliorer les methodes d'essais non destructifs. Toutefois, cette correlation est souvent difficile S obtenir du fait des depenses elevees necessaires et de difficultes tenant S la radioactivite. Plusieurs sortes d'evaluations ont ete faites hors pile en simulant les conditions en pile. Le memoire donne certains details des evaluations

  5. Comprehensive assessment of seldom monitored trace elements pollution in the riparian soils of the Miyun Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lanfang; Gao, Bo; Zhou, Yang; Xu, Dongyu; Gao, Li; Yu, Hui; Wang, Shiyan

    2016-10-01

    The South-to-North Water Diversion Project has aroused widespread concerns about the potential ecological risks posed by the project, especially for the Miyun Reservoir (MYR). The potential release risk of metals from the flooded riparian soils into MYR after water impoundment is one of key scientific problems. In this study, riparian soil samples were collected considering three vertical heights (130, 140, and 145 m) and four types of land uses in the MYR areas, namely, forestland, grassland, wasteland, and recreational land. We analyzed soils texture, the content and chemical fractionations of seldom monitored trace elements (SMTEs): Li, Be, B, V, Co, Ni, Ga, Sn, Sb, Tl, and Bi). Results showed that the four types of soils in MYR had the similar textures, while recreational land showed significantly higher contents of Ni and V. Additionally, there were no significant differences found for most SMTEs (except for V) at different vertical heights in each soil type, while the concentrations of V at 140 and 145 m in forestland and recreational land were significantly higher than those at 130 m. However, a comprehensive evaluation of potential ecological risk (contamination factor (CF), modified degree of contamination (mCd), and geoaccumulation factor (I geo )) consistently indicated the insignificant contaminations of all SMTEs in MYR soils before water impoundment. The Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction results showed that the chemical fractionations of SMTEs were independent of land use patterns and vertical heights. Co in reducible fractions and Ni were identified as the candidates which had potential to release into MYR when the lands were submerged. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) results suggested that a portion of V, Co, and Ni may originate from anthropogenic activities, and the coal combustion was possibly the main anthropogenic source. The findings of this work would provide valuable information on the

  6. Transplutonium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishnan, C. K.; Jadhav, A. V.; Reghuraman, K.; Mathew, K. A.; Nair, P. S.; Ramaniah, M. V.

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on studies of the transplutonium elements including recovery and purification of americium, preparation of /sup 238/Pu, extraction studies using diethylhexyl phosphate. (DHM)

  7. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  8. An Integrated Assessment of Geochemical and Community Structure Determinants of Metal Reduction Rates in Subsurface Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfiffner, Susan M.; Brandt, Craig C.; Kostka, Joel E.; Palumbo, Anthony V.

    2005-01-01

    Our current research represents a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Florida State University (FSU), and the University of Tennessee. ORNL will serve as the lead institution with Dr. A.V. Palumbo responsible for project coordination, integration, and deliverables. This project was initiated in November, 2004, in the Integrative Studies Element of the NABIR program. The overall goal of our project is to provide an improved understanding of the relationships between microbial community structure, geochemistry, and metal reduction rates. The research seeks to address the following questions: Is the metabolic diversity of the in situ microbial community sufficiently large and redundant that bioimmobilization of uranium will occur regardless of the type of electron donor added to the system? Are their donor specific effects that lead to enrichment of specific community members that then impose limits on the functional capabilities of the system? Will addition of humics change rates of uranium reduction without changing community structure? Can resource-ratio theory be used to understand changes in uranium reduction rates and community structure with respect to changing C:P ratios?

  9. Biomechanical assessment of composite versus metallic intramedullary nailing system in femoral shaft fractures: A finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiezadeh, Saeid; Tavakkoli Avval, Pouria; Fawaz, Zouheir; Bougherara, Habiba

    2014-08-01

    Intramedullary nails are the primary choice for treating long bone fractures. However, complications following nail surgery including non-union, delayed union, and fracture of the bone or the implant still exist. Reducing nail stiffness while still maintaining sufficient stability seems to be the ideal solution to overcome the abovementioned complications. In this study, a new hybrid concept for nails made of carbon fibers/flax/epoxy was developed in order to reduce stress shielding. The mechanical performance of this new implant in terms of fracture stability and load sharing was assessed using a comprehensive non-linear FE model. This model considers several mechanical factors in nine fracture configurations at immediately post-operative, and in the healed bone stages. Post-operative results showed that the hybrid composite nail increases the average normal force at the fracture site by 319.23N (P<0.05), and the mean stress in the vicinity of fracture by 2.11MPa (P<0.05) at 45% gait cycle, while only 0.33mm and 0.39mm (P<0.05) increases in the fracture opening and the fragments' shear movement were observed. The healed bone results revealed that implantation of the titanium nail caused 20.2% reduction in bone stiffness, while the composite nail lowered the stiffness by 11.8% as compared to an intact femur. Our results suggest that the composite nail can provide a preferred mechanical environment for healing, particularly in transverse shaft fractures. This may help bioengineers better understand the biomechanics of fracture healing, and aid in the design of effective implants. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyessar Turdi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively. The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y. Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element–induced health risk (including for DW adults was higher than acceptable (10−6 and lower than priority risk levels (10−4 (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B. For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10−4, higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10−4.

  11. Metal, trace and rare earth element assessment in a sedimentary profile from Itupararanga Reservoir, São Paulo State, Brazil, by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sharlleny A.; Henrique, Heloise A.R., E-mail: shasilva@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Química Inorgânica; Fávaro, Déborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In the present study the preliminary results for 2 sediment cores from the Itupararanga Reservoir are presented. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was also applied to the sediment samples to determine the total concentration of some metal, trace and rare earth elements. The results obtained were compared to the reference values NASC (North American Shale Composite). The enrichment factor (EF) was applied to the results obtained by using NASC (North American Shale Composite) and the concentration values of the last layer of this profile as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. The EF calculated with the NASC values presented enrichment for As, Ce, Fe, La, Th and U in the two profiles Nd, Sm Hf and Tb, only present enrichment in the 2{sup nd} campaign. However, with respect to the base of the profile there was no element with enrichment. For semi metal As and for metals Cr and Zn the concentration values were compared to the oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL). As and Cr presented values between TEL and PEL and Zn, values below TEL. The distribution pattern of light and heavy REEs was also verified in relation to the normatization of PAAS (Pos Archean Australian Shale). (author)

  12. Assessment of the Lake Gendabi salt for trace elements and toxic heavy metals by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugendo, I.; Mohammed, N.K.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study has analyzed samples of salts from Lake Gendabi, located in the northern part of Tanzania for metal contamination using the EDXRF spectrometry. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of the salt from Lake Gendabi for human consumption. Seventy-five samples of salt were collected from the Lake Gendabi floor and grouped into five grades (G1, G2, G3, G4 and G5) depending on the position of the salt from the lake shore. In addition to Na and Cl, concentrations of 17 more elements were determined in all five grades of salt. These included seven toxic metals which are Al, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb as well as Th and U which are both toxic and radioactive. The concentrations of all toxic elements found in the samples were higher than their Maximum tolerable limits set by international organizations. As this salt is used in many parts of Tanzania, it is proposed that the salt should be thoroughly purified before entering the market. Further research to include salt samples from other salt production areas in Tanzania is recommended. (author)

  13. Selecting chemical and ecotoxicological test batteries for risk assessment of trace element-contaminated soils (phyto)managed by gentle remediation options (GRO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Bert, Valérie; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Eriksson, Jan; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Galazka, Rafal; Herzig, Rolf; Janssen, Jolien; Kidd, Petra; Mench, Michel; Müller, Ingo; Neu, Silke; Oustriere, Nadège; Puschenreiter, Markus; Renella, Giancarlo; Roumier, Pierre-Hervé; Siebielec, Grzegorz; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Manier, Nicolas

    2014-10-15

    During the past decades a number of field trials with gentle remediation options (GRO) have been established on trace element (TE) contaminated sites throughout Europe. Each research group selects different methods to assess the remediation success making it difficult to compare efficacy between various sites and treatments. This study aimed at selecting a minimum risk assessment battery combining chemical and ecotoxicological assays for assessing and comparing the effectiveness of GRO implemented in seven European case studies. Two test batteries were pre-selected; a chemical one for quantifying TE exposure in untreated soils and GRO-managed soils and a biological one for characterizing soil functionality and ecotoxicity. Soil samples from field studies representing one of the main GROs (phytoextraction in Belgium, Sweden, Germany and Switzerland, aided phytoextraction in France, and aided phytostabilization or in situ stabilization/phytoexclusion in Poland, France and Austria) were collected and assessed using the selected test batteries. The best correlations were obtained between NH4NO3-extractable, followed by NaNO3-extractable TE and the ecotoxicological responses. Biometrical parameters and biomarkers of dwarf beans were the most responsive indicators for the soil treatments and changes in soil TE exposures. Plant growth was inhibited at the higher extractable TE concentrations, while plant stress enzyme activities increased with the higher TE extractability. Based on these results, a minimum risk assessment battery to compare/biomonitor the sites phytomanaged by GROs might consist of the NH4NO3 extraction and the bean Plantox test including the stress enzyme activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Defusing of victims of the terrorist attacks in Paris. Elements of assessment one-month post-event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, N; Cheucle, E; Faure, P; Digard, F; Dalphin, C; Pachiaudi, V; Simond, M; Darbon, R; Collinet, C; Habibi, R; Gueugniaud, P-Y

    2018-04-01

    The terrorist attacks (fusillades and suicide attacks) in Paris on 13 November 2015 have had a major psychic impact on all individuals directly or secondarily exposed to them. Medico-psychological unit (CUMP) of the Paris Île-de-France region's immediate care services were immediately mobilized and rapidly strengthened by all regional medico-psychological units (CUMP) throughout the country. Psychological assistance has been provided in several key points of Paris and specifically in the 11th district City Hall of Paris where Lyon's Medico-psychological unit was located. These specific immediate psychological assistances, referred to as a "defusing process" by the medico-psychological unit (CUMP), are mostly devoted to provide the victims with an entry point to a psychological healthcare relationship and give them a first sense of soothing and relief even though they do not prevent further psychological care follow up for the victims. Nonetheless, the potential therapeutic effect of this "defusing process" has not yet been sufficiently established nor demonstrated by any scientific study. A phoning survey was carried out one-month post-terrorist attacks and interviewed the 129 victims who benefited from the "defusing process" conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in order to collect data and assess its effects. These people, whether directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses, whose average age is 35, are mostly living in the Île-de-France region. Most of them present a high score on the IES-R scale, whether they were directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses. Almost all of them (96.5%) experienced at least one medical care contact within this one-month post-trauma period with psychotropic medication for 37% of them. Regarding the defusing conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in the 11th district City Hall of Paris, it appears that 93% of the victims who were looked after indicated that they were satisfied and 87.4% of

  15. Application of the HBV model for assessment of climate change impacts on the elements of hydrological cycle for the Struma River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanev, Krassimir

    2004-01-01

    The model used in this report is a version of the HBV model developed for the project Climate Change and Energy Production, a Nordic project aimed at evaluating the impacts of climate change on the water resources. It has a simple vegetation parametrization including interception, temperature based evapotranspiration. calculations, lake evaporation, lake routing, glacier mass balance simulation, special functions for climate change simulations etc. The HBV model, originally developed at the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute in the first half of the seventies (Bergstroem 1976) has gained widespread use for a large range of applications both in Scandinavia and beyond. It can be classified as a semi-distributed conceptual model. The version described in this report was developed for the Nordic project 'Climate change and Energy Production' (Saelthun 1996), as a synthesis of several versions used in the different Nordic countries. The main input variables are the average daily temperature, daily totals of the precipitation, the potential evapotranspiration and the daily discharges. The HBV model was applied for assessment of climate change impacts on the elements of hydrological cycle for the Struma river basin. The river Struma flows from North to South up to the Aegean Sea. Considerable part of the river basin is situated in northwest part of Bulgaria, heaving an area of more than 10 000 km 2 and average elevation about 900m asl (cross-section Marino pole). The period of 16 years (1973-1988), four precipitation and temperature stations were used for the model parameters evaluation. The achieved value of R 2 (Nash criterion) is 0.55. The climate change impact calculations (monthly values of temperatures change in o C and precipitation change in %) for two scenarios were used for the input data correction to the HBV model. The obtained results are promising and they show the potential possibility for the HBV model use to assess the climate change

  16. Level and Contamination Assessment of Environmentally Sensitive Elements in Smaller than 100 μm Street Dust Particles from Xining, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Zhao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of the environmentally sensitive elements (ESEs As, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in smaller than 100 μm street dust particles from Xining were measured using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and their contamination levels were assessed based on enrichment factor (EF, geoaccumulation index (Igeo and pollution load index (PLI. The concentrations of As, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in smaller than 100 μm street dust particles from Xining are 0.1–0.8, 2.7–10.9, 0.7–5.2, 0.3–1.1, 0.6–2.5, 1.2–11.1, 0.7–1.3 and 0.4–2.9 times the background values of Qinghai soil, respectively. The calculated EF and Igeo values reveal the order Co > Pb > Cu > Zn > V > Ni > Mn > As. The EF and Igeo values of Co, Cu, Pb and Zn are higher indicating that there is considerable pollution by these elements in smaller than 100 μm street dust particles, especially for Co. The EF and Igeo of Mn, Ni and V are lower and the assessment results indicate an absence of distinct Mn, Ni and V pollution in the studied samples. The mean value of PLIsite is 1.14, indicating a slightly pollution in the whole city of Xining. The order of PLIarea for the five tested districts is Center District (CD > East District (ED > West District (WD > North District (ND > South District (SD, showing that ESEs pollution in the South District is the lightest while it is the highest in the Central District.

  17. Concordance Between Life Satisfaction and Six Elements of Well-Being Among Respondents to a Health Assessment Survey, HealthPartners Employees, Minnesota, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Nicolaas P; Kottke, Thomas E; Lowry, Marcia; Katz, Abigail S; Gallagher, Jason M; Knudson, Susan M; Rauri, Sachin J; Tillema, Juliana O

    2016-12-22

    We assessed and tracked perceptions of well-being among employees of member companies of HealthPartners, a nonprofit health care provider and health insurance company in Bloomington, Minnesota. The objective of our study was to determine the concordance between self-reported life satisfaction and a construct of subjective well-being that comprised 6 elements of well-being: emotional and mental health, social and interpersonal status, financial status, career status, physical health, and community support. We analyzed responses of 23,268 employees (of 37,982 invitees) from 6 HealthPartners companies who completed a health assessment in 2011. We compared respondents' answers to the question, "How satisfied are you with your life?" with their indicators of well-being where "high life satisfaction" was defined as a rating of 9 or 10 on a scale of 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest) and "high level of well-being" was defined as a rating of 9 or 10 for 5 or 6 of the 6 indicators of well-being. We found a correlation between self-reported life satisfaction and the number of well-being elements scored as high (9 or 10) (r = 0.62, P life satisfaction, only 34.7% of those indicating high life satisfaction reported high overall well-being. The correlation between self-reported life satisfaction and our well-being measure was strong, and members who met our criterion of high overall well-being were likely to report high life satisfaction. However, many respondents who reported high life satisfaction did not meet our criterion for high overall well-being, which suggests that either they adapted to negative life circumstances or that our well-being measure did not identify their sources of life satisfaction.

  18. Development and validation of InnoQuant™, a sensitive human DNA quantitation and degradation assessment method for forensic samples using high copy number mobile elements Alu and SVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Gina M; Montgomery, Anne H; Thompson, Robyn; Indest, Brooke; Carroll, Marion; Sinha, Sudhir K

    2014-11-01

    There is a constant need in forensic casework laboratories for an improved way to increase the first-pass success rate of forensic samples. The recent advances in mini STR analysis, SNP, and Alu marker systems have now made it possible to analyze highly compromised samples, yet few tools are available that can simultaneously provide an assessment of quantity, inhibition, and degradation in a sample prior to genotyping. Currently there are several different approaches used for fluorescence-based quantification assays which provide a measure of quantity and inhibition. However, a system which can also assess the extent of degradation in a forensic sample will be a useful tool for DNA analysts. Possessing this information prior to genotyping will allow an analyst to more informatively make downstream decisions for the successful typing of a forensic sample without unnecessarily consuming DNA extract. Real-time PCR provides a reliable method for determining the amount and quality of amplifiable DNA in a biological sample. Alu are Short Interspersed Elements (SINE), approximately 300bp insertions which are distributed throughout the human genome in large copy number. The use of an internal primer to amplify a segment of an Alu element allows for human specificity as well as high sensitivity when compared to a single copy target. The advantage of an Alu system is the presence of a large number (>1000) of fixed insertions in every human genome, which minimizes the individual specific variation possible when using a multi-copy target quantification system. This study utilizes two independent retrotransposon genomic targets to obtain quantification of an 80bp "short" DNA fragment and a 207bp "long" DNA fragment in a degraded DNA sample in the multiplex system InnoQuant™. The ratio of the two quantitation values provides a "Degradation Index", or a qualitative measure of a sample's extent of degradation. The Degradation Index was found to be predictive of the observed loss

  19. Assessment of naturally occurring radioactive materials and trace elements in playgrounds of selected basic schools in the Ga-East municipal district, Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taapopi, E.E.

    2015-07-01

    The 235 U, 232 Th series and natural 40 K are the main source of natural radioactivity in soil and have long half-lives up to 10 10 years. Therefore their presence in soils and rocks is simply considered as permanent. Also due to rapid urbanization, most of Basic School playgrounds in Accra are built close to major roads or industrial areas for which they are subject to many potential pollution sources, including vehicle exhaust and industrial emissions. A study has been carried out on playgrounds of basic schools in the Ga East municipal district in order to determine the exposure of the school children to naturally occurring radioactive materials ( 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K) and trace elements [aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), potassium (K), lanthanum (La), manganese (Mn), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), zinc (Zn)]. The activity concentrations were determined using high‐purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The average activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K determined were 19.8 ± 8.7, 29.1 ± 16.3 and 119.4 ± 97.9 Bq.kg-1 respectively. The average annual effective dose was 0.039 ± 0.021 mSv and it is below the dose limit of 1 mSv/year recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for public exposure control. Radiological hazard assessments arising from the natural radionuclides were carried out. The average concentration of 222 Rn and exhalation rate were estimated to be 32.13 kBq.m -3 and 0.016 Bq.m -2 .s -1 respectively, which compared well with the world average values [78 kBq.m -3 and 0.033 Bq.m -2 .s -1 reported by (UNSCEAR, 2000)]. Soil samples were also analyzed for trace elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in order to assess the potential adverse health effects of the exposure of children to trace elements during their games at school. Doses incurred via ingestion and inhalation and

  20. Tracey - a simulation model of trace element fluxes in soil-plant system for long-term assessment of a radioactive groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke (Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Eckersten, Henrik (Dept. of Ecology and Crop Production, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Reinlert, Andre (Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)); Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik (Dept. Land and WaterResources, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Avila, Rodolfo (Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden)); Greger, Maria (Dept. of Botany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    We developed a general trace element model called Tracey to simulate dynamically the possible accumulation of radionuclides as a result of an long-term radioactive contamination of groundwater in terrestrial ecosystems. The overall objectives of the study are to: 1) Develop and evaluate a multi-compartmental model that dynamically simulates the transport and accumulation of a radionuclide in the soil-plant system at a time scale relevant for risk assessment of nuclear fuel waste; and 2) Asses the possible accumulation of radionuclide in terrestrial ecosystems due to an eventual long-term continuous radioactive groundwater contamination. Specific objectives were to assess: - The proportion of the contamination accumulated and where it is stored in the ecosystem. - The importance of the plant uptake approach for accumulation of radionuclides. - The most important radionuclide properties and ecosystem characteristics for accumulation and losses. - The proportion of the contamination lost and how is it lost. - The circumstances which stimulated export of radionuclides to other ecosystems. The model presented here, called Tracey, is a stand-alone version to allow for long simulation periods relevant for the time scale of risk assessment of nuclear waste (i.e. several thousand years) with time steps as short as one day. Tracey is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclide are described for different plant parts and for several soil layers. Each layer includes pools of slowly and quickly decomposing litter, humus, solved and absorbed trace element. The trace element fluxes are assumed to be proportional to either water or carbon fluxes, these fluxes are simulated using the dynamic model CoupModel for fluxes of water, carbon, nitrogen and carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Two different model approaches were used to describe plant uptake of radionuclides. The one called passive uptake approach is driven by water uptake and the one called active

  1. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element for nuclear reactors is proposed which has a higher corrosion resisting quality in reactor operations. The zirconium alloy coating around the fuel element (uranium or plutonium compound) has on its inside a protection layer of metal which is metallurgically bound to the substance of the coating. As materials are namned: Alluminium, copper, niobium, stainless steel, and iron. This protective metallic layer has another inner layer, also metallurgically bound to its surface, which consists usually of a zirconium alloy. (UWI) [de

  2. Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, James R.; Schell, Charlotte J.; Marino, T; Bilyard, Gordon R.

    2004-02-10

    This version of the communication primer comprises two interlocking parts: Pat 1, a practical section, intended to prepare you for public interactions, and Part 2, a theoretical section that provides social and technical bases for the practices recommended in Part 1. The mutual support of practice and theory is very familiar in science and clearly requires a willingness to observe and revise our prior assumptions--in this document, we invoke both. We hope that is offering will represent a step both towards improving practice and maturing the theory of practical science communication.

  3. Risk Assessment of Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs Pollution at a Rural Industrial Wasteland in an Abandoned Metallurgy Factory in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential toxic elements (PTEs pollution problems in many rural industrial wastelands have been observed to be conspicuous. Therefore, 40 top soil samples were collected from the wasteland of a typical rural metallurgy factory in Baoding, China. The total concentrations of six key PTEs were measured. The soil properties and speciation of the PTEs were also identified. Extremely high concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn were observed in the surface soils. Using the PTEs concentration in the top soils of the rural industrial wasteland, the following indices of pollution were calculated: the pollution load index (PLI, the geo-accumulation Index (Igeo, the risk assessment code (RAC, and the health risk assessment (HRA. The analysis of the PLI and Igeo indicated that site #1 was relatively clean, while sites #2 and #3 were heavily polluted. The results of the RAC showed that PTEs in top soils at sites #2 and #3 were significantly increased (p <  0.05 for Cd and Zn. The HRA indicated that both As and Pb presented non-carcinogenic risks to children and adults at sites #2 and #3. Our findings can be a reference for risk prevention of industrially abandoned land in rural China.

  4. Stope Stability Assessment and Effect of Horizontal to Vertical Stress Ratio on the Yielding and Relaxation Zones Around Underground Open Stopes Using Empirical and Finite Element Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Mohammadali; Apel, Derek; Liu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Predicting the stability of open stopes can be a challenging task for underground mine engineers. For decades, the stability graph method has been used as the first step of open stope design around the world. However, there are some shortcomings with this method. For instance, the stability graph method does not account for the relaxation zones around the stopes. Another limitation of the stability graph is that this method cannot to be used to evaluate the stability of the stopes with high walls made of backfill materials. However, there are several analytical and numerical methods that can be used to overcome these limitations. In this study, both empirical and numerical methods have been used to assess the stability of an open stope located between mine levels N9225 and N9250 at Diavik diamond underground mine. It was shown that the numerical methods can be used as complementary methods along with other analytical and empirical methods to assess the stability of open stopes. A three dimensional elastoplastic finite element model was constructed using Abaqus software. In this paper a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the impact of the stress ratio "k" on the extent of the yielding and relaxation zones around the hangingwall and footwall of the understudy stope.

  5. Risk Assessment of Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) Pollution at a Rural Industrial Wasteland in an Abandoned Metallurgy Factory in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zheng; Chen, Jiajun

    2018-01-06

    The potential toxic elements (PTEs) pollution problems in many rural industrial wastelands have been observed to be conspicuous. Therefore, 40 top soil samples were collected from the wasteland of a typical rural metallurgy factory in Baoding, China. The total concentrations of six key PTEs were measured. The soil properties and speciation of the PTEs were also identified. Extremely high concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn were observed in the surface soils. Using the PTEs concentration in the top soils of the rural industrial wasteland, the following indices of pollution were calculated: the pollution load index (PLI), the geo-accumulation Index (I geo ), the risk assessment code (RAC), and the health risk assessment (HRA). The analysis of the PLI and I geo indicated that site #1 was relatively clean, while sites #2 and #3 were heavily polluted. The results of the RAC showed that PTEs in top soils at sites #2 and #3 were significantly increased ( p <  0.05) for Cd and Zn. The HRA indicated that both As and Pb presented non-carcinogenic risks to children and adults at sites #2 and #3. Our findings can be a reference for risk prevention of industrially abandoned land in rural China.

  6. In-vivo assessment of femoral bone strength using Finite Element Analysis (FEA based on routine MDCT imaging: a preliminary study on patients with vertebral fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Liebl

    Full Text Available To experimentally validate a non-linear finite element analysis (FEA modeling approach assessing in-vitro fracture risk at the proximal femur and to transfer the method to standard in-vivo multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT data of the hip aiming to predict additional hip fracture risk in subjects with and without osteoporosis associated vertebral fractures using bone mineral density (BMD measurements as gold standard.One fresh-frozen human femur specimen was mechanically tested and fractured simulating stance and clinically relevant fall loading configurations to the hip. After experimental in-vitro validation, the FEA simulation protocol was transferred to standard contrast-enhanced in-vivo MDCT images to calculate individual hip fracture risk each for 4 subjects with and without a history of osteoporotic vertebral fractures matched by age and gender. In addition, FEA based risk factor calculations were compared to manual femoral BMD measurements of all subjects.In-vitro simulations showed good correlation with the experimentally measured strains both in stance (R2 = 0.963 and fall configuration (R2 = 0.976. The simulated maximum stress overestimated the experimental failure load (4743 N by 14.7% (5440 N while the simulated maximum strain overestimated by 4.7% (4968 N. The simulated failed elements coincided precisely with the experimentally determined fracture locations. BMD measurements in subjects with a history of osteoporotic vertebral fractures did not differ significantly from subjects without fragility fractures (femoral head: p = 0.989; femoral neck: p = 0.366, but showed higher FEA based risk factors for additional incident hip fractures (p = 0.028.FEA simulations were successfully validated by elastic and destructive in-vitro experiments. In the subsequent in-vivo analyses, MDCT based FEA based risk factor differences for additional hip fractures were not mirrored by according BMD measurements. Our data suggests, that MDCT

  7. Assessment of metal, trace and rare earth element concentrations in a sedimentary profile from Ponte Nova reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Flavio R.; Bordon, Isabella C.C.L.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: flavio@baquara.com, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: shasilva@sp.gov.br, E-mail: rfranklin@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2015-07-01

    Ponte Nova reservoir, located in the upper basin of the Tiete River in the southern region of Sao Paulo State, covers an area of 25.7 km{sup 2} and drains an area of 320 km{sup 2}. It was built in 1972 to control the rivers flow in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) and water supply. A 30 cm sediment core was collected in the dam in August 2014, sliced at every 2.5 cm. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the sediment samples to determine some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. The enrichment factor (EF) and Igeo were applied to the results by using NASC (North American Shale Composite) as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. An EF>1.5 was obtained for As, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U, and rare earths Ce, Eu, La, Nd and Sm when NASC values were used, but only for Br, when the last layer concentration values were used as reference values. Similar results were obtained for the Igeo index. For semi-metal As and metals Cr and Zn concentration values were compared to oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL) only Cr exceeded TEL value in some slices of the profile. These results may indicate that there is no anthropogenic contribution for the elements analyzed in this reservoir. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the results. (author)

  8. Transboundary geophysical mapping of geological elements and salinity distribution critical for the assessment of future sea water intrusion in response to sea level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jørgensen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical techniques are increasingly being used as tools for characterising the subsurface, and they are generally required to develop subsurface models that properly delineate the distribution of aquifers and aquitards, salt/freshwater interfaces, and geological structures that affect groundwater flow. In a study area covering 730 km2 across the border between Germany and Denmark, a combination of an airborne electromagnetic survey (performed with the SkyTEM system, a high-resolution seismic survey and borehole logging has been used in an integrated mapping of important geological, physical and chemical features of the subsurface. The spacing between flight lines is 200–250 m which gives a total of about 3200 line km. About 38 km of seismic lines have been collected. Faults bordering a graben structure, buried tunnel valleys, glaciotectonic thrust complexes, marine clay units, and sand aquifers are all examples of geological structures mapped by the geophysical data that control groundwater flow and to some extent hydrochemistry. Additionally, the data provide an excellent picture of the salinity distribution in the area and thus provide important information on the salt/freshwater boundary and the chemical status of groundwater. Although the westernmost part of the study area along the North Sea coast is saturated with saline water and the TEM data therefore are strongly influenced by the increased electrical conductivity there, buried valleys and other geological elements are still revealed. The mapped salinity distribution indicates preferential flow paths through and along specific geological structures within the area. The effects of a future sea level rise on the groundwater system and groundwater chemistry are discussed with special emphasis on the importance of knowing the existence, distribution and geometry of the mapped geological elements, and their control on the groundwater salinity distribution is assessed.

  9. Assessment of metal, trace and rare earth element concentrations in a sedimentary profile from Ponte Nova reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Flavio R.; Bordon, Isabella C.C.L.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Ponte Nova reservoir, located in the upper basin of the Tiete River in the southern region of Sao Paulo State, covers an area of 25.7 km 2 and drains an area of 320 km 2 . It was built in 1972 to control the rivers flow in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) and water supply. A 30 cm sediment core was collected in the dam in August 2014, sliced at every 2.5 cm. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the sediment samples to determine some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. The enrichment factor (EF) and Igeo were applied to the results by using NASC (North American Shale Composite) as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. An EF>1.5 was obtained for As, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U, and rare earths Ce, Eu, La, Nd and Sm when NASC values were used, but only for Br, when the last layer concentration values were used as reference values. Similar results were obtained for the Igeo index. For semi-metal As and metals Cr and Zn concentration values were compared to oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL) only Cr exceeded TEL value in some slices of the profile. These results may indicate that there is no anthropogenic contribution for the elements analyzed in this reservoir. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the results. (author)

  10. Assessment of metal and trace element contamination in water, sediment, plants, macroinvertebrates, and fish in Tavasci Marsh, Tuzigoot National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Miller, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    at depth for Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, In, Pb, Sb, Sn, Te, and Zn. Radioisotope dating indicates that the elevated metal and trace element concentrations are associated with sediments deposited before 1963. Arsenic concentration was greater in cattail roots compared with surrounding sediment at Tavasci Marsh. Concentrations of As, Ni, and Se from yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis) in Tavasci Marsh exceeded the 75th percentile of several other regional studies. Mercury concentration in dragonfly larvae and fish from Tavasci Marsh were similar to or greater than in Tavasci Marsh sediment. Future work includes a biologic risk assessment utilizing the data collected in this study to provide the monument management with additional information for their restoration plan.

  11. Source apportionment and health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in road dust from urban industrial areas of Ahvaz megacity, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmeddin, Ali; Keshavarzi, Behnam; Moore, Farid; Lahijanzadeh, Ahmadreza

    2017-10-28

    This study investigates the occurrence and spatial distribution of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) (Hg, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Al, Fe, Mn, V and Sb) in 67 road dust samples collected from urban industrial areas in Ahvaz megacity, southwest of Iran. Geochemical methods, multivariate statistics, geostatistics and health risk assessment model were adopted to study the spatial pollution pattern and to identify the priority pollutants, regions of concern and sources of the studied PTEs. Also, receptor positive matrix factorization model was employed to assess pollution sources. Compared to the local background, the median enrichment factor values revealed the following order: Sb > Pb > Hg > Zn > Cu > V > Fe > Mo > Cd > Mn > Cr ≈ Co ≈ Al ≈ Ni. Statistical results show that a significant difference exists between concentrations of Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Sb, V and Hg in different regions (univariate analysis, Kruskal-Wallis test p matrix factorization model revealed that traffic-related emissions (43.5%) and steel industries (26.4%) were first two sources of PTEs in road dust, followed by natural sources (22.6%) and pipe and oil processing companies (7.5%). The arithmetic mean of pollution load index (PLI) values for high traffic sector (1.92) is greater than industrial (1.80) and residential areas (1.25). Also, the results show that ecological risk values for Hg and Pb in 41.8 and 9% of total dust samples are higher than 80, indicating their considerable or higher potential ecological risk. The health risk assessment model showed that ingestion of dust particles contributed more than 83% of the overall non-carcinogenic risk. For both residential and industrial scenarios, Hg and Pb had the highest risk values, whereas Mo has the lowest value.

  12. An assessment study in the determination of chemical elements in sediments and fish in the Zarka River and King Talal Dam, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsabbagh, A.; Khalayleh, L.; Dbissi, M.; Landsberger, S.

    2017-01-01

    Concentrations of several trace elements were detected in the sediments at King Talal Dam and at different locations along the Zarka River, Jordan. Chemical elements were also detected in the edible part of common fish types existing at the dam. Elemental concentrations were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The results showed that the concentration of chemical elements in the sediments decreases as one moves away from the Khirbet Al Samra waste water treatment plant. The results also revealed that most of the elements had higher concentrations in Tilapia fish compared to the Catfish. (author)

  13. PELTIER ELEMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Tani, Laurits

    2015-01-01

    To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.

  14. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element wherein a stack of nuclear fuel is prevented from displacement within its sheath by a retainer comprising a tube member which is radially expanded into frictional contact with the sheath by means of a captive ball within a tapered bore. (author)

  15. Transactinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemingway, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The review is covered in sections, entitled: predicted nuclear properties - including closed shells, decay characteristics; predicted chemical properties - including electronic structure and calculated properties, X-radiation, extrapolated chemical properties, separation chemistry; methods of synthesis; the natural occurrence of superheavy elements. (U.K.)

  16. Multi-Directional Seismic Assessment of Historical Masonry Buildings by Means of Macro-Element Modelling: Application to a Building Damaged during the L’Aquila Earthquake (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cannizzaro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The experience of the recent earthquakes in Italy caused a shocking impact in terms of loss of human life and damage in buildings. In particular, when it comes to ancient constructions, their cultural and historical value overlaps with the economic and social one. Among the historical structures, churches have been the object of several studies which identified the main characteristics of the seismic response and the most probable collapse mechanisms. More rarely, academic studies have been devoted to ancient palaces, since they often exhibit irregular and complicated arrangement of the resisting elements, which makes their response very difficult to predict. In this paper, a palace located in L’Aquila, severely damaged by the seismic event of 2009 is the object of an accurate study. A historical reconstruction of the past strengthening interventions as well as a detailed geometric relief is performed to implement detailed numerical models of the structure. Both global and local models are considered and static nonlinear analyses are performed considering the influence of the input direction on the seismic vulnerability of the building. The damage pattern predicted by the numerical models is compared with that observed after the earthquake. The seismic vulnerability assessments are performed in terms of ultimate peak ground acceleration (PGA using capacity curves and the Italian code spectrum. The results are compared in terms of ultimate ductility demand evaluated performing nonlinear dynamic analyses considering the actual registered seismic input of L’Aquila earthquake.

  17. Comparison of Pulsed-Gel Electrophoresis and a Commercial Repetitive-Element PCR Method for Assessment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clustering in Different Health Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duster, Megan; Warrack, Simone; Maki, Dennis; Safdar, Nasia

    2014-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a common method used to type methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nosocomial investigations and epidemiological studies but is time-consuming and methodologically challenging. We compared typing results obtained using a commercial repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) system with PFGE in a sample of 86 unique MRSA isolates recovered from subjects in an academic referral hospital and two nursing homes in the same geographic region. Both methods reliably assigned isolates to the same Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) pulsotype. PFGE was significantly more discriminatory (Simpson's index of diversity, 0.92 at the 95% strain similarity threshold) than the commercial rep-PCR system (Simpson's index of diversity, 0.58). The global (adjusted Rand coefficient, 0.10) and directional congruence (adjusted Wallace coefficientrepPCR→PFGE = 0.06; adjusted Wallace coefficientPFGE→repPCR = 0.52) between the two methods was low. MRSA strains recovered from study nursing homes that were clonal when typed by the commercial rep-PCR method were frequently noted to be genetically distinct when typed using PFGE. These data suggest that the commercial rep-PCR has less utility than PFGE in small-scale epidemiological assessments of MRSA in health care settings. PMID:24671801

  18. A deposit model for carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits: Chapter J in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Seal, Robert R.; McCafferty, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. A wide variety of other commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks including niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other elements enriched in these deposits include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium. Carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits are presented together in this report because of the spatial, and potentially genetic, association between carbonatite and alkaline rocks. Although these rock types occur together at many locations, carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits are not generally found together.

  19. Assessment of the content of mercury, methylmercury and other elements of interest in fish, hair and diets of pre-school children of the Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Luciana Aparecida

    2006-01-01

    Studies show that some regions of the Amazon region suffer mercury (Hg) impacts as a direct result of both natural and anthropogenic processes. Jau National Park (PNJ) is the only National Park in Brazil that protects an entire black water basin (Jau River), flood land and tropical reserve. These conditions favor Hg methylation in the aquatic biota. This in turn, exposes living on the river populations to Hg contamination as well as the adjacent regions. Preliminary studies of pre-school children diets from PNJ communities have shown that these diets have a worrisome high Hg content. The present study assessed total Hg content, micro nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) and macro nutrients (proteins, lipids, ash, energy, carbohydrate) in pre-school diets in the PNJ and surrounding communities. Furthermore, total and Me Hg levels were also determined in hair samples of these children as well as those living in several neighborhoods of the city of Manaus. Included in this determination were the fish most consumed by these populations. From these results it was possible to evaluate the nutritional content of the diets and the exposure of the children to Hg and Se Hg. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry was used to quantify total and Me Hg. Micro nutrient determination was performed using neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) and Macro nutrient through AOAC methodologies (USA). All analytical methods were developed and validated for precision and accuracy by means of reference materials analyses with certified values for the determined elements. Furthermore, the uncertainty sources for Hg and Me Hg determination were assessed and the expanded uncertainties were calculated. Total Hg levels in diets and total and Me Hg levels for hair samples, were well above those values found in different localities of the Amazon region. This also holds true for those surrounding areas of the JNP. For many children Hg intake values passed the 5 mug Hg/body weigh/week (PTWI

  20. Samoocena, a wybrane elementy pozycji społecznej judoków = Self-assessment and selected elements of the social position of judokas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Janowska

    2016-09-01

    Janowska Patrycja1, Wojdat Marta1, Antkowiak Magdalena1, Stępniak Robert2, Adam Marek3   1Studenckie Koło Naukowe "WyKoNa", Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego, Bydgoszcz, Polska 2Instytut Kultury Fizycznej, Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego, Bydgoszcz, Polska 3Zakład Sportów Walki, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego i Sportu, Gdańsk, Polska   Corresponding author: Stępniak Robert Ph. D Instytut Kultury Fizycznej, Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego, ul. Sportowa 2, 85-091 Bydgoszcz Polska email:     Słowa kluczowe: samoocena, pozycja społeczna, zawodnicy judo Keywords: self-esteem social position, judo fighters     Samoocena, a wybrane elementy pozycji społecznej judoków Self-assessment and selected elements of the social position of judokas   Streszczenie   Cel: Określenie liczbowe poziomu samooceny populacji judoków, oraz znalezienie ewentualnych związków z czynnikami określającymi pozycje społeczną. Materiał i metody: Przebadano 53 osobowa grupę judoków i byłych -nadal trenujących judoków używając ankiety samooceny Rosenberga SES, w polskiej adaptacji. Wyniki: Podgrupa społeczna judoków wykazuje się wysoką samooceną, wysokim wykształceniem i ponadprzeciętnym wynagrodzeniem za prace zarobkową. Wnioski: Istnieją istotne związki pomiędzy wynikami samooceny SES, a czynnikami określającymi daną osobę w społeczeństwie.         Abstract   Aim: To determine the numerical level of self-esteem of the judokas population and to find possible links with the factors determining the social position. Material and Methods: 53 current and formerly judokas - still trained. Research conducted using the self-assessment surveys Rosenberg SES in Polish adaptation. Results: Subgroup social judokas showed high self-esteem, high education and above-average remuneration paid for the work. Conclusions: There are significant relationships between the results of self-assessment - SES, and the factors defining a person in society.

  1. The Distributed Lambda (?) Model (DLM): A 3-D, Finite-Element Muscle Model Based on Feldman's ? Model; Assessment of Orofacial Gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors aimed to design a distributed lambda model (DLM), which is well adapted to implement three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element descriptions of muscles. Method: A muscle element model was designed. Its stress-strain relationships included the active force-length characteristics of the ? model along the muscle fibers, together…

  2. Rare earth, major, and trace element composition of Monterey and DSDP chert and associated host sediment: Assessing the influence of chemical fractionation during diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R.W.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Gerlach, David C.; Russ III, G. Price; Jones, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Chert and associated host sediments from Monterey Formation and Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) sequences were analyzed in order to assess chemical behavior during diagenesis of biogenic sediments. The primary compositional contrast between chert and host sediment is a greater absolute SiO2 concentration in chert, often with final SiO2 ≥ 98 wt%. This contrast in SiO2 (and SiAl">SiAl) potentially reflects precursor sediment heterogeneity, diagenetic chemical fractionation, or both. SiO2 concentrations and SiAl">SiAl ratios in chert are far greater than in modern siliceous oozes, however and often exceed values in acid-cleaned diatom tests. Compositional contrasts between chert and host sediment are also orders-of-magnitude greater than between multiple samples of the host sediment. Calculations based on the initial composition of adjacent host, observed porosity reductions from host to chert and a postulated influx of pure SiO2, construct a chert composition which is essentially identical to observed SiO2 values in chert. Thus, precursor heterogeneity does not seem to be the dominant factor influencing the current chert composition for the key elements of interest. In order to assess the extent of chemical fractionation during diagenesis, we approximate the precursor composition by analyzing host sediments adjacent to the chert.The SiO2 concentration contrast seems caused by biogenic SiO2 dissolution and transport from the local adjacent host sediment and subsequent SiO2reprecipitation in the chert. Along with SiO2, other elements are often added (with respect to Al) to Monterey and DSDP chert during silicification, although absolute concentrations decrease. The two Monterey quartz chert nodules investigated, in contrast to the opal-CT and quartz chert lenses, formed primarily by extreme removal of carbonate and phosphate, thereby increasing relative SiO2 concentrations. DSDP chert formed by both carbonate/phosphate dissolution and SiO2 addition from

  3. Assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace elements in selected placer-mined creeks in the birch creek watershed near central, Alaska, 2001-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Langley, Dustin E.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, completed an assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace-element concentrations in streambed sediment of the upper Birch Creek watershed near Central, Alaska. The assessment covered one site on upper Birch Creek and paired sites, upstream and downstream from mined areas, on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek. Stream-discharge and suspended-sediment concentration data collected at other selected mined and unmined sites helped characterize conditions in the upper Birch Creek watershed. The purpose of the project was to provide the Bureau of Land Management with baseline information to evaluate watershed water quality and plan reclamation efforts. Data collection began in September 2001 and ended in September 2005. There were substantial geomorphic disturbances in the stream channel and flood plain along several miles of Harrison Creek. Placer mining has physically altered the natural stream channel morphology and removed streamside vegetation. There has been little or no effort to re-contour waste rock piles. During high-flow events, the abandoned placer-mine areas on Harrison Creek will likely contribute large quantities of sediment downstream unless the mined areas are reclaimed. During 2004 and 2005, no substantial changes in nutrient or major-ion concentrations were detected in water samples collected upstream from mined areas compared with water samples collected downstream from mined areas on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek that could not be attributed to natural variation. This also was true for dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance-a measure of total dissolved solids. Sample sites downstream from mined areas on Harrison Creek and Frying Pan Creek had higher median suspended-sediment concentrations, by a few milligrams per liter, than respective upstream sites. However, it is difficult to attach much importance to the small downstream increase

  4. Human exposure assessment in the near field of GSM base-station antennas using a hybrid finite element/method of moments technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Frans J C; Davidson, David B; Jakobus, Ulrich; Stuchly, Maria A

    2003-02-01

    A hybrid finite-element method (FEM)/method of moments (MoM) technique is employed for specific absorption rate (SAR) calculations in a human phantom in the near field of a typical group special mobile (GSM) base-station antenna. The MoM is used to model the metallic surfaces and wires of the base-station antenna, and the FEM is used to model the heterogeneous human phantom. The advantages of each of these frequency domain techniques are, thus, exploited, leading to a highly efficient and robust numerical method for addressing this type of bioelectromagnetic problem. The basic mathematical formulation of the hybrid technique is presented. This is followed by a discussion of important implementation details-in particular, the linear algebra routines for sparse, complex FEM matrices combined with dense MoM matrices. The implementation is validated by comparing results to MoM (surface equivalence principle implementation) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions of human exposure problems. A comparison of the computational efficiency of the different techniques is presented. The FEM/MoM implementation is then used for whole-body and critical-organ SAR calculations in a phantom at different positions in the near field of a base-station antenna. This problem cannot, in general, be solved using the MoM or FDTD due to computational limitations. This paper shows that the specific hybrid FEM/MoM implementation is an efficient numerical tool for accurate assessment of human exposure in the near field of base-station antennas.

  5. A human health risk assessment of rare earth elements in soil and vegetables from a mining area in Fujian Province, Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Chen, Zhibiao; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yonghe

    2013-10-01

    Contaminated food through dietary intake has become the main potential risk impacts on human health. This study investigated concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, vegetables, human hair and blood, and assessed human health risk through vegetables consumption in the vicinity of a large-scale mining area located in Hetian Town of Changting County, Fujian Province, Southeast China. The results of the study included the following mean concentrations for total and bio-available REEs of 242.92 ± 68.98 (135.85-327.56)μg g(-1) and 118.59 ± 38.49 (57.89-158.96)μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in agricultural soil, respectively, and total REEs of 3.58 ± 5.28 (0.07-64.42)μg g(-1) dw in vegetable samples. Concentrations of total REEs in blood and hair collected from the local residents ranged from 424.76 to 1274.80 μg L(-1) with an average of 689.74 ± 254.25 μg L(-1) and from 0.06 to 1.59 μg g(-1) with an average of 0.48 ± 0.59 μg g(-1) of the study, respectively. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between REEs in blood and corresponding soil samples (R(2)=0.6556, p0.05). Mean concentrations of REEs of 2.85 (0.59-10.24)μg L(-1) in well water from the local households was 53-fold than that in the drinking water of Fuzhou city (0.054 μg L(-1)). The health risk assessment indicated that vegetable consumption would not result in exceeding the safe values of estimate daily intake (EDI) REEs (100-110 μg kg(-1)d(-1)) for adults and children, but attention should be paid to monitoring human beings health in such rare earth mining areas due to long-term exposure to high dose REEs from food consumptions. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of exposures and potential risks to the US adult population from the leaching of elements from gold and ceramic dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, G Mark; James, Kyle Jordan; Peters, Rachel Elizabeth; Clemow, Scott Richard; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the 2001 to 2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) on the number and placement of tooth restorations in adults, we quantified daily doses due to leaching of elements from gold (Au) alloy and ceramic restorative materials. The elements with the greatest leaching rates from these materials are often the elements of lowest proportional composition. As a result, exposure due to wear will predominate for those elements of relatively high proportional composition, while exposure due leaching may predominate for elements of relatively low proportional composition. The exposure due to leaching of silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd) from Au alloys exceeded published reference exposure levels (RELs) for these elements when multiple full surface crowns were present. Six or more molar crowns would result in exceeding the REL for Ag, whereas three or more crowns would be necessary to exceed the REL for Pd. For platinum (Pt), the majority of tooth surfaces, beyond just molar crowns, would be necessary to exceed the REL for Pd. Exposures due to leaching of elements from ceramic dental materials were less than published RELs for all components examined here, including having all restorations composed of ceramic.

  7. Radiographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, T.I.; Jones, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiographic elements are disclosed comprised of first and second silver halide emulsion layers separated by an interposed support capable of transmitting radiation to which the second image portion is responsive. At least the first imaging portion contains a silver halide emulsion in which thin tubular silver halide grains of intermediate aspect ratios (from 5:1 to 8:1) are present. Spectral sensitizing dye is adsorbed to the surface of the tubular grains. Increased photographic speeds can be realized at comparable levels of crossover. (author)

  8. Superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, S

    1999-01-01

    The outstanding aim of experimental investigations of heavy nuclei is the exploration of spherical 'SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). On the basis of the nuclear shell model, the next double magic shell-closure beyond sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb is predicted at proton numbers between Z=114 and 126 and at neutron number N=184. All experimental efforts aiming at identifying SHEs (Z>=114) were negative so far. A highly sensitive search experiment was performed in November-December 1995 at SHIP. The isotope sup 2 sup 9 sup 0 116 produced by 'radiative capture' was searched for in the course of a 33 days irradiation of a sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb target with sup 8 sup 2 Se projectiles, however, only cross-section limits were measured. Positive results were obtained in experiments searching for elements from 110 to 112 using cold fusion and the 1n evaporation channel. The produced isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of alpha-alpha correlations. Not fission, but alpha emission is the dominant decay mode. The measurement ...

  9. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yasuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the plenum space in a fuel element used for a liquid metal cooled reactor. Constitution: A fuel pellet is secured at one end with an end plug and at the other with a coil spring in a tubular container. A mechanism for fixing the coil spring composed of a tubular unit is mounted by friction with the inner surface of the tubular container. Accordingly, the recoiling force of the coil spring can be retained by fixing mechanism with a small volume, and since a large amount of plenum space can be obtained, the internal pressure rise in the cladding tube can be suppressed even if large quantities of fission products are discharged. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Improving Hybrid III injury assessment in steering wheel rim to chest impacts using responses from finite element Hybrid III and human body model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, Kristian; Davidsson, Johan; Mendoza-Vazquez, Manuel; Rundberget, Peter; Svensson, Mats Y; Thorn, Stefan; Törnvall, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to improve the quality of injury risk assessments in steering wheel rim to chest impacts when using the Hybrid III crash test dummy in frontal heavy goods vehicle (HGV) collision tests. Correction factors for chest injury criteria were calculated as the model chest injury parameter ratios between finite element (FE) Hybrid III, evaluated in relevant load cases, and the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS). This is proposed to be used to compensate Hybrid III measurements in crash tests where steering wheel rim to chest impacts occur. The study was conducted in an FE environment using an FE-Hybrid III model and the THUMS. Two impactor shapes were used, a circular hub and a long, thin horizontal bar. Chest impacts at velocities ranging from 3.0 to 6.0 m/s were simulated at 3 impact height levels. A ratio between FE-Hybrid III and THUMS chest injury parameters, maximum chest compression C max, and maximum viscous criterion VC max, were calculated for the different chest impact conditions to form a set of correction factors. The definition of the correction factor is based on the assumption that the response from a circular hub impact to the middle of the chest is well characterized and that injury risk measures are independent of impact height. The current limits for these chest injury criteria were used as a basis to develop correction factors that compensate for the limitations in biofidelity of the Hybrid III in steering wheel rim to chest impacts. The hub and bar impactors produced considerably higher C max and VC max responses in the THUMS compared to the FE-Hybrid III. The correction factor for the responses of the FE-Hybrid III showed that the criteria responses for the bar impactor were consistently overestimated. Ratios based on Hybrid III and THUMS responses provided correction factors for the Hybrid III responses ranging from 0.84 to 0.93. These factors can be used to estimate C max and VC max values when the Hybrid III is

  11. Assessment of species-specific and temporal variations of major, trace and rare earth elements in vineyard ambient using moss bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, Tijana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Vuković, Gordana; Škrivanj, Sandra; Relić, Dubravka; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Popović, Aleksandar

    2017-10-01

    Since the methodological parameters of moss bag biomonitoring have rarely been investigated for the application in agricultural areas, two mosses, Sphagnum girgensohnii (a species of the most recommended biomonitoring genus) and Hypnum cupressiforme (commonly available), were verified in a vineyard ambient. The moss bags were exposed along transects in six vineyard parcels during the grapevine season (March‒September 2015). To select an appropriate period for the reliable 'signal' of the element enrichment in the mosses, the bags were simultaneously exposed during five periods (3 × 2 months, 1 × 4 months, and 1 × 6 months). Assuming that vineyard is susceptible to contamination originated from different agricultural treatments, a wide range of elements (41) were determined in the moss and topsoil samples. The mosses were significantly enriched by the elements during the 2-month bag exposure which gradually increasing up to 6 months, but Cu and Ni exhibited the noticeable fluctuations during the grapevine season. However, the 6-month exposure of moss bags could be recommended for comparative studies among different vineyards because it reflects the ambient pollution comprising unpredictable treatments of grapevine applied during the whole season. Although higher element concentrations were determined in S. girgensohnii than H. cupressiforme, both species reflected the spatio-temporal changes in the ambient element content. Moreover, the significant correlation of the element (Cr, Cu, Sb, and Ti) concentrations between the mosses, and the same pairs of the elements correlated within the species, imply the comparable use of S. girgensohnii and H. cupressiforme in the vineyard (agricultural) ambient. Finally, both the moss bags and the soil analyses suggest that vineyard represents a dominant diffuse pollution source of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Fe, and V. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Mobile Genetic Elements from Microbial Assemblages Obtained from the Field Research Center Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Sobecky; Cassie Hodges; Kerri Lafferty; Mike Humphreys; Melanie Raimondo; Kristin Tuttle; Tamar Barkay

    2004-03-17

    Considerable knowledge has been gained from the intensive study of a relatively limited group of bacterial plasmids. Recent efforts have begun to focus on the characterization of, at the molecular level, plasmid populations and associated mobile genetic elements (e.g., transposons, integrons) occurring in a wider range of aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Surprisingly, however, little information is available regarding the incidence and distribution of mobile genetic elements extant in contaminated subsurface environments. Such studies will provide greater knowledge on the ecology of plasmids and their contributions to the genetic plasticity (and adaptation) of naturally occurring subsurface microbial communities. We requested soil cores from the DOE NABIR Field Research Center (FRC) located on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The cores, received in February 2003, were sampled from four areas on the Oak Ridge Site: Area 1, Area 2, Area 3 (representing contaminated subsurface locales) and the background reference sites. The average core length (24 in) was subdivided into three profiles and soil pH and moisture content were determined. Uranium concentration was also determined in bulk samples. Replicate aliquots were fixed for total cell counts and for bacterial isolation. Four different isolation media were used to culture aerobic and facultative microbes from these four study areas. Colony forming units ranged from a minimum of 100 per gram soil to a maximum of 10,000 irrespective of media composition used. The vast majority of cultured subsurface isolates were gram-positive isolates and plasmid characterization was conducted per methods routinely used in the Sobecky laboratory. The percentage of plasmid incidence ranged from 10% to 60% of all isolates tested. This frequency appears to be somewhat higher than the incidence of plasmids we have observed in other habitats and we are increasing the number of isolates screened to confirm this observation. We are also

  13. An Assessment of the Icing Blade and the SEA Multi-Element Sensor for Liquid Water Content Calibration of the NASA GRC Icing Research Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Laura E.; Ide, Robert F.; Van Zante, Judith Foss

    2017-01-01

    The Icing Research Tunnel at NASA Glenn has recently switched to from using the Icing Blade to using the SEA Multi-Element Sensor (also known as the multi-wire) for its calibration of cloud liquid water content. In order to perform this transition, tests were completed to compare the Multi-Element Sensor to the Icing Blade, particularly with respect to liquid water content, airspeed, and drop size. The two instruments were found to compare well for the majority of Appendix C conditions. However, it was discovered that the Icing Blade under-measures when the conditions approach the Ludlam Limit. This paper also describes data processing procedures for the Multi-Element Sensor in the IRT, including collection efficiency corrections, mounting underneath a splitter plate, and correcting for a jump in the compensation wire power. Further data is presented to describe the repeatability of the IRT with the Multi-Element sensor, health-monitoring checks for the instrument, and a sensing-element configuration comparison.

  14. Assessment of Slope Stability and Interference of Structures Considering Seismity in Complex Engineering-Geological Conditions Using the Method of Finite Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menabdishvili, Papuna; Eremadze, Nelly

    2008-01-01

    There is elaborated the calculation model of slope deformation mode stability and the methodic of calculation considering the interference of structures to be built on it using the method of finite elements. There is examined the task of slope stability using the soil physically nonlinear finite element considering the seismicity 8. The deformation mode and field of coefficients of stability are obtained and slope supposed sliding curve is determined. The elaborated calculation methodic allows to determine the slope deformation mode, stability and select the optimum version of structure foundation at any slant and composition of slope layers

  15. [Monitoring and assessment contamination of toxic elements food in Tatarstan monitoring and evaluation of contamination by toxic elements of food products in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, O A; Karpova, M V; Makhmutova, I P; Musin, R A

    2014-01-01

    Actual consumption of toxic elements in the body of an adult human in the Republic of Tatarstan (during the period of the study of the production in 2008-2012) amounts for lead: 0.68 mg/week for cadmium: 0.18 mg/day, arsenic: 0.68 mg/day, mercury: 0.21 mg/week (per 1 kg body weight) or respectively: 22.81%, 18.0%, 13.69%, 4.27% of the allowable levels of the chemical load. We have performed calculations with account of the balance of food resources per capita per year in the Republic of Tatarstan. This analysis showed that the main dietary sources of income for cadmium there are milk and dairy products (48.32%), bakery products (16.07%), meat and meat products (13.22%); for lead there are bakely products (26.85%), potatoes (24.36%), milk and dairy products (23.94%), meat and meat products (7.55%); for mercury there are milk and dairy products (53.72%), meat and meat products (16.82%), potatoes (10.92%); fish and fish products (4.74%); for arsenic there are milk and dairy products (72.51%), meat and meat products (12.8%), bakery products (3.05% ,); fish and fish products (2.23%). It is important to know not only what products are the most contaminated, but what place in the structure of the nutrition they take.

  16. Assessment of trace element concentration distribution in human placenta by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence: Effect of neonate weight and maternal age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, Yueksel; Boerekci, Buenyamin; Levet, Aytac; Kurudirek, Murat

    2009-01-01

    Trace element status in human placenta is dependent on maternal-neonatal characteristics. This work was undertaken to investigate the correlation between essential trace element concentrations in the placenta and maternal-neonatal characteristics. Placenta samples were collected from total 61 healthy mothers at gestation between 37 and 41 weeks. These samples were investigated with the restriction that the mother's age was 20-40 years old and the neonate's weight was 1-4 kg. Percent concentrations of trace elements were determined using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The placenta samples were prepared and analyzed without exposure to any chemical treatment. Concentrations of Fe, Cu and Zn in placenta tissues were found statistically to vary corresponding to the age of the mother and weight of the neonate. In the subjects, the concentration of Fe and Cu were increased in heavier neonates (p<0.05) and the concentration of Zn was increased with increasing mother age (p<0.05). Consequently, the Fe, Cu and Zn elements appear to have interactive connections in human placenta.

  17. Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a multi-element contaminated soil profile assessed by in-situ soil pore water sampling, column leaching and sequential extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesley, Luke; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo; Clemente, Rafael; Lepp, Nicholas; Dickinson, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Three methods for predicting element mobility in soils have been applied to an iron-rich soil, contaminated with arsenic, cadmium and zinc. Soils were collected from 0 to 30 cm, 30 to 70 cm and 70 to 100 cm depths in the field and soil pore water was collected at different depths from an adjacent 100 cm deep trench. Sequential extraction and a column leaching test in the laboratory were compared to element concentrations in pore water sampled directly from the field. Arsenic showed low extractability, low leachability and occurred at low concentrations in pore water samples. Cadmium and zinc were more labile and present in higher concentrations in pore water, increasing with soil depth. Pore water sampling gave the best indication of short term element mobility when field conditions were taken into account, but further extraction and leaching procedures produced a fuller picture of element dynamics, revealing highly labile Cd deep in the soil profile. - Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a polluted soil can be realistically interpreted by in-situ soil pore water sampling.

  18. Some contradictions in contemporary assessment acrobatic elements used in the compositions of category "B-Class" in acrobatic rock'n'roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Lutsenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determine the impact of an innovative approach to improve the special physical and technical training of qualified athletes in acrobatic rock'n'roll. Material and Methods: theoretical analysis and synthesis of the literature, the competition rules, policy papers and documents catalog acrobatic elements "in class". The basic material for analysis was the changes to the 2014 WRRC, judging changes in their sport. Results: studied the catalog acrobatic elements "B-Class" (version 2 WRRC from 14.09.2014, reviewed and analyzed the results of stronger pairs category "B-class" in acrobatic rock'n'roll (World Cup, Russia, Sochi, Russia. The analysis of the requirements of execution of acrobatic elements. Conclusions: these findings demonstrate the need for an innovative approach to improve the special physical and technical training athletes acrobatic rock and roll category "B-Сlass". The difficulty level of acrobatic elements in acrobatic rock 'n' roll should be differential with respect to each of the age groups in their strict sequence the category "juniors" – "in-class" and "M-class".

  19. Geochemical processes assessed by Rare Earth Elements fractionation at “Laguna Verde” acidic-sulphate crater lake (Azufral volcano, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inguaggiato, Claudio; Burbano, Viviana; Rouwet, Dmitri; Garzón, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    The geochemical behaviour of major elements, Fe, Al, Mn, and Rare Earth Elements (REE) was investigated in the “Laguna Verde” acidic crater lake of Azufral volcano (Colombia). The cold lake water (T close to 10 °C) is sulphate-dominated, due to absorption and oxidation of H_2S (pH 2.1–2.7, Eh 196–260 mV), and Na-enriched (Total Dissolved Solids 0.79 g L"−"1). The total amount of REE dissolved in the lake ranges from 3.3 to 9.1 ppb. The REE patterns normalized to the local rocks show a Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE) depletion quite constant in the 15 samples. Similar patterns were already found in the acidic sulphate springs of Nevado del Ruiz volcano-hydrothermal system, caused by the precipitation of alunite and jarosite, absorbing LREE and hence removing them from solution. Alunite and jarosite minerals are not oversaturated at chemical-physical conditions within the lake itself, but alunite becomes oversaturated for temperatures above ≈100 °C, reigning in the underlying hydrothermal system. Water temperatures close to 75 °C were found in the northern part of the lake. Coupling the distribution of REE in lake water (LREE depleted) and the saturation indexes, we suggest that the distribution of REE in the lake water is the result of the alunite precipitation in the northern part of the lake and/or in the deeper hydrothermal system. The acidic hydrothermal fluids mobilize the REE with contents up to ≈5 orders of magnitude higher than seawater; acidic-hydrothermal systems, such as acidic crater lakes, can hence be considered potential REE “reservoirs”. - Highlights: • Acidic crater lakes can be considered potential Rare Earth Elements reservoirs. • Alunite precipitation removes Light Rare Earth Elements. • Rare Earth Elements identify geochemical processes in volcano-hydrothermal systems.

  20. Plant-beneficial elements status assessment in soil-plant system in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex: shedding light on forage grass safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2015-02-01

    Human health is closely linked with soils via plants, grazers, or plant-based products. This study estimated plant-beneficial elements (macronutrients: K, P; secondary macronutrients: Ca, Mg; micronutrients: Mo, Mn, Na, Ni, Se) in both soils and shoots of two forage grass species (Eriophorum angustifolium and Lolium perenne) prevalent in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex (Estarreja, Portugal). Both soils and plants from the chemical industrial areas exhibited differential concentrations of the studied elements. In soils, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in context of its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except P, and micronutrients such as Mo and Ni. In forage grass plant shoots, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in relation to its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except K. Between the two forage grass plants, high Se-harboring L. perenne cannot be recommended for its use as animal feed.

  1. Toxic trace element assessment for soils/sediments deposited during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita from southern Louisiana, USA: a sequential extraction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Honglan; Witt, Emitt C; Shu, Shi; Su, Tingzhi; Wang, Jianmin; Adams, Craig

    2010-07-01

    Analysis of soil/sediment samples collected in the southern Louisiana, USA, region three weeks after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita passed was performed using sequential extraction procedures to determine the origin, mode of occurrence, biological availability, mobilization, and transport of trace elements in the environment. Five fractions: exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to iron (Fe)-manganese (Mn) oxides, bound to organic matter, and residual, were subsequently extracted. The toxic trace elements Pb, As, V, Cr, Cu, and Cd were analyzed in each fraction, together with Fe in 51 soil/sediment samples. Results indicated that Pb and As were at relatively high concentrations in many of the soil/sediment samples. Because the forms in which Pb and As are present tend to be highly mobile under naturally occurring environmental conditions, these two compounds pose an increased health concern.Vanadium and Cr were mostly associated with the crystal line nonmobile residual fraction. A large portion of the Cu was associated with organic matter and residual fraction. Cadmium concentrations were low in all soil/sediment samples analyzed and most of this element tended to be associated with the mobile fractions. An average of 21% of the Fe was found in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction, indicating that a substantial part of the Fe was in an oxidized form. The significance of the overall finding of the present study indicated that the high concentrations and high availabilities of the potentially toxic trace elements As and Pb may impact the environment and human health in southern Louisiana and, in particular, the New Orleans area. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  2. Heavy metal and trace element contents in edible muscle of three commercial fish species, and assessment of possible risks associated with their human consumption in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three different highly consumed fish species from Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia namely Spangled emporer (Lethriuns nebulosus, Red striped seabream (Pagrus major and Black seabream (Spondyliosoma cantharus were evaluated for their muscle contents of heavy metals (e.g., Cd and Pb and trace elements (e.g., Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. The possible risks associated with their human consumption were also studied. A total of 60 fresh fish samples comprising of 20 samples from each above mentioned fish were collected, and were subjected for determination of heavy metal and trace element contents by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry after Microwave Wet Digestion. The results showed that, accumulation patterns of the heavy metals and trace elements followed the order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. There were variations among metal contents in the muscles of the three fish species; S. cantharus accumulated the highest levels of Cu, Zn and Mn, while the highest level of Fe could be detected in the muscles of P. major. The concentration of Cd and Pb remained comparable in the muscles of all three fish species. The calculated maximum daily intake (MDI values were found as 0.0003, 0.0009, 0.0035, 0.0001, 0.0000, 0.0000 mg/day/person for Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd and Pb, respectively. Conclusively, the present study indicated that, fish muscles contain relatively less burden of heavy metals and trace elements, and no health problem can be raised from human consumption of the examined commercial fishes at Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 271-278

  3. Experimental assessment of a full-scale lap scarf timber joint accompanied by a finite element analysis and digital image correlation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunecký, Jiří; Sebera, V.; Hasníková, Hana; Arciszewska-Kędzior, Anna; Tippner, J.; Kloiber, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 76, February (2015), s. 24-33 ISSN 0950-0618 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV004 Keywords : historicist joint * full-scale testing * finite element analysis * dowel * digital image correlation Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 2.421, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S095006181401246X

  4. Dissection of cis-regulatory element architecture of the rice oleosin gene promoters to assess abscisic acid responsiveness in suspension-cultured rice cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sol; Lee, Soo-Bin; Han, Chae-Seong; Lim, Mi-Na; Lee, Sung-Eun; Yoon, In Sun; Hwang, Yong-Sic

    2017-08-01

    Oleosins are the most abundant proteins in the monolipid layer surrounding neutral storage lipids that form oil bodies in plants. Several lines of evidence indicate that they are physiologically important for the maintenance of oil body structure and for mobilization of the lipids stored inside. Rice has six oleosin genes in its genome, the expression of all of which was found to be responsive to abscisic acid (ABA) in our examination of mature embryo and aleurone tissues. The 5'-flanking region of OsOle5 was initially characterized for its responsiveness to ABA through a transient expression assay system using the protoplasts from suspension-cultured rice cells. A series of successive deletions and site-directed mutations identified five regions critical for the hormonal induction of its promoter activity. A search for cis-acting elements in these regions deposited in a public database revealed that they contain various promoter elements previously reported to be involved in the ABA response of various genes. A gain-of-function experiment indicated that multiple copies of all five regions were sufficient to provide the minimal promoter with a distinct ABA responsiveness. Comparative sequence analysis of the short, but still ABA-responsive, promoters of OsOle genes revealed no common modular architecture shared by them, indicating that various distinct promoter elements and independent trans-acting factors are involved in the ABA responsiveness of rice oleosin multigenes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Dispersion and bioaccumulation of elements from an open-pit olivine mine in Southwest Greenland assessed using lichens, seaweeds, mussels and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated dispersion and bioaccumulation of mining-related elements from an open-pit olivine mine at Seqi in Southwest Greenland (64° N) using lichens (Flavocetraria nivalis), seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and fish (Myoxocephalus scorpius). The mine operated between 2005 and 2009, and samples were taken every year within a monitoring area 0-17 km from the mine during the period 2004-2011. A total of 46 elements were analysed in the samples. After mining began, highly elevated metal concentrations, especially nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co), were observed in lichens relative to pre-mining levels (up to a factor of 130) caused by dust dispersion from the mining activity. Elevated metal concentrations could be measured in lichens in distances up to ~5 km from the mine/ore treatment facility. Moderately elevated concentrations of Ni and Cr (up to a factor of 7) were also observed in seaweeds and mussels but only in close vicinity (<1 km) to the mine. Analyses of fish showed no significant changes in element composition. After mine closure, the elevated metal concentrations in lichens, seaweeds and mussels decreased markedly, and in 2011, significantly elevated metal concentrations could only be measured in lichens and only within a distance of 1 km from the mine.

  6. Elemental characterisation of strawberry grown in Islamabad by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry and its dietary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Wasim; Nasir Khalid; Mohammad Arif; Jamshed Hussain Zaidi

    2012-01-01

    Mineral contents of strawberry, collected from different farms of Islamabad were analysed by semi-absolute k 0-instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The samples were irradiated at two research reactors located in Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad. The analytical methodologies were validated by analysing reference materials, IAEA-336 (lichen) and IAEA-V-10 (hay powder). In all the samples, a total of 26 elements were quantified, among them 16 elements (Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Ru, Sc, Sr and Zn) were found in all the samples. The determined elemental concentrations in strawberry were compared with the reported values from other countries. In comparison with the mineral contents of other fruits, strawberry stands best source of Mn and the second most important source of K after banana. Intake of trace metals through this source was calculated and it was found that strawberry provides Mn (1.95-3.68 mg/kg), Cr (19.2-46.3 x 10 -3 mg/kg), Fe (3.45-8.72 mg/kg), K (1,520-1,670 mg/kg) and Mg (100-220 mg/kg), which forms 26, 19, 14, 7 and 7% of the recommended dietary allowances for the respective metals. The daily intake of Cd and Pb were compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intake defined by FAO/WHO. (author)

  7. Assessment of Trace Element Levels in Muscle Tissues of Fish Species Collected from a River, Stream, Lake, and Sea in Sakarya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Küpeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of some trace and essential elements, including Al, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn, were determined in 17 different fish species from Sakarya River, Çark Stream, Sapanca Lake, and Western Black Sea using ICP-OES after microwave (MW digestion procedure. During preparation of samples for analysis, wet and MW digestion methods were also compared. Accuracy of the digestion methods was checked by the analysis of DORM-3 reference material (Fish Protein Certified Reference Material for Trace Metals. Concentrations of trace elements were found as Al: 6.5–48.5, B: 0.06–3.30, Ba: 0.09–2.92, Cr: 0.02–1.64, Cu: 0.13–2.28, Fe: 7.28–39.9, Mn: 0.08–11.4, Ni: 0.01–26.1, Sr: 0.17–13.5, and Zn: 11.5–52.9 µg g−1. The obtained results were compared with other studies published in the literature. Trace element levels in various fish species collected from waters in Sakarya region were found to be below limit values provided by Turkish Food Codex (TFC, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, and World Health Organization (WHO.

  8. Environmental exposures of trace elements assessed using keratinized matrices from patients with chronic kidney diseases of uncertain etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diyabalanage, Saranga; Fonseka, Sanjeewani; Dasanayake, D M S N B; Chandrajith, Rohana

    2017-01-01

    An alarming increase in chronic kidney disease with unknown etiology (CKDu) has recently been reported in several provinces in Sri Lanka and chronic exposures to toxic trace elements were blamed for the etiology of this disease. Keratinized matrices such as hair and nails were investigated to determine the possible link between CKDu and toxic element exposures. Elements Li, B, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Ba, Hg and Pb of hair and nails of patients and age that matched healthy controls were determined with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that trace element contents in the hair of patients varies in the order of Zn>Fe>Al>Mn>Cu>Ba>Sr>Ni>Pb>Cr>B>Hg>Se>Mo>Co>As>Li>Cd while Fe>Al>Zn>Ni>Cu>Mn>Cr>Ba>Sr>B>Pb>Se>Mo>Co>Hg>Li>As>Cd in nail samples. The hair As levels of 0.007-0.165μgg -1 were found in CKDu subjects. However, no significant difference was observed between cases and controls. The total Se content in hair of CKDu subjects ranged from 0.043 to 0.513μgg -1 while it was varied from 0.031 to 1.15μgg -1 in controls. Selenium in nail samples varied from 0.037μgg -1 to 4.10μgg -1 in CKDu subjects and from 0.042μgg -1 to 2.19μgg -1 in controls. This study implies that substantial proportions of Sri Lankan population are Se deficient irrespective of gender, age and occupational exposure. Although some cutaneous manifestations were observed in patient subjects, chemical analyses of hair and nails indicated that patients were not exposed to toxic levels of arsenic or the other studied toxic elements. Therefore the early suggested causative factors such as exposure to environmental As and Cd, can be ruled out. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental Risk Assessment Based on High-Resolution Spatial Maps of Potentially Toxic Elements Sampled on Stream Sediments of Santiago, Cape Verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina M. S. Cabral Pinto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical mapping is the base knowledge to identify the regions of the planet with critical contents of potentially toxic elements from either natural or anthropogenic sources. Sediments, soils and waters are the vehicles which link the inorganic environment to life through the supply of essential macro and micro nutrients. The chemical composition of surface geological materials may cause metabolic changes which may favor the occurrence of endemic diseases in humans. In order to better understand the relationships between environmental geochemistry and public health, we present environmental risk maps of some harmful elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in the stream sediments of Santiago, Cape Verde, identifying the potentially harmful areas in this island. The Estimated Background Values (EBV of Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and V were found to be above the Canadian guidelines for any type of use of stream sediments and also above the target values of the Dutch and United States guidelines. The Probably Effect Concentrations (PEC, above which harmful effects are likely in sediment dwelling organisms, were found for Cr and Ni. Some associations between the geological formations of the island and the composition of stream sediments were identified and confirmed by descriptive statistics and by Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The EBV spatial distribution of the metals and the results of PCA allowed us to establish relationships between the EBV maps and the geological formations. The first two PCA modes indicate that heavy metals in Santiago stream sediments are mainly originated from weathering of underlying bedrocks. The first metal association (Co, V, Cr, and Mn; first PCA mode consists of elements enriched in basic rocks and compatible elements. The second association of variables (Zn and Cd as opposed to Ni; second PCA mode appears to be strongly controlled by the composition of alkaline volcanic rocks and pyroclastic rocks. So, the

  10. Spatial distribution of mercury and other trace elements in recent lake sediments from central Alberta, Canada: An assessment of the regional impact of coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanei, H.; Goodarzi, F.; Outridge, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    These have been growing concerns over the environmental impacts of the coal-fired power plants in the western Canadian province of Alberta, which collectively comprise one of the largest point sources of Hg and other trace elements nationally. The overall cumulative impact of the power plants since the beginning of their activities several decades ago has been a critical question for industry, government agencies, and the research community. This paper aims to delineate the cumulative geographic extent of impact by investigating the spatial distribution of mercury and other trace elements of environmental concern in nine freshwater lakes, which cover the large area surrounding the coal-fired power plants in central Alberta, Canada. 210-Lead dating was used in conjunction with physical evidence of deposited fly ash to determine the sediments' age and hence the depths corresponding to the onset of coal-fired power generation in 1956. Total mean concentrations and fluxes of elements of environmental concern with integrated values since 1956 were then determined. The concentration values do not reflect the catastrophic oil spill at Lake Wabamun in 2005. The post-1956 flux rates of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, W, and Zn were generally highest in sediment cores obtained from two lakes adjacent to power plants. However, the variable prevailing wind directions played an important role in determining the aerial distribution of Hg and other trace elements to the southeast and to the west of the power plants. Post-1956 fluxes of most elements declined downwind (westward), consistent with strong easterly winds transporting metal pollution further to the west of the power plants. However, spatial interpolation of the data suggested a major southern extension to the area of maximum metal deposition, which has not been sampled by this or previous studies in the region. An atmospheric model estimate of total Hg flux in 2007 near the Genesee power plant was

  11. Assessment of the traffic-related elements Ba, Cr and Zn during and after the construction of a peripheral highway using Tillandsia usneoides as atmospheric biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da; Nievola, Catarina C.; Alves, Edenise S.; Domingos, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. is an aerial epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substratum, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment. Due to this characteristic, this species also accumulates pollutants present in the atmosphere. In this study, T. usneoides was used as biomonitor aiming to verify if the construction of the western and southern parts of the peripheral highway Mario Covas (SP-21) in Sao Paulo city would alter the profile of atmospheric contamination by Ba, Cr and Zn in the region. These elements are often associated with traffic and can indicate contaminated urban areas. This knowledge is of great interest to the city, which has one of the biggest vehicle fleets in the world, with more than seven million circulating motor vehicles and serious environmental problems due to air pollution. Neutron Activation Analysis was employed as analytical technique. Samples of T. usneoides were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the induced activity was measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Increasing concentrations of Ba, Cr and Zn were observed in the biomonitor after the inauguration of the highway, indicating that these elements originated from vehicular emissions. (author)

  12. Assessment of the traffic-related elements Ba, Cr and Zn during and after the construction of a peripheral highway using Tillandsia usneoides as atmospheric biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nievola, Catarina C.; Alves, Edenise S.; Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: ccnievola@uol.com.br, E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.br, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br [Instituto de Botanica de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. is an aerial epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substratum, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment. Due to this characteristic, this species also accumulates pollutants present in the atmosphere. In this study, T. usneoides was used as biomonitor aiming to verify if the construction of the western and southern parts of the peripheral highway Mario Covas (SP-21) in Sao Paulo city would alter the profile of atmospheric contamination by Ba, Cr and Zn in the region. These elements are often associated with traffic and can indicate contaminated urban areas. This knowledge is of great interest to the city, which has one of the biggest vehicle fleets in the world, with more than seven million circulating motor vehicles and serious environmental problems due to air pollution. Neutron Activation Analysis was employed as analytical technique. Samples of T. usneoides were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the induced activity was measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Increasing concentrations of Ba, Cr and Zn were observed in the biomonitor after the inauguration of the highway, indicating that these elements originated from vehicular emissions. (author)

  13. Assessment of the main natural radionuclides, minor and trace elements in soils and sediments of the Shu valley (near the border of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveyeva, I.; Burkitbayev, M.; Jacimovic, R.; Planinsek, P.; Smodis, B.; Stegnar, P.

    2014-01-01

    New data on the concentrations of the main gamma-emitting radionuclides, minor and trace elements, and isotopes of uranium (with Ra-226 as a daughter product of U-238) and thorium in soils and sediments of the Shu valley (from the river Chon-Kemin to the river Kuragatty downstream the river Shu) are presented, determined by high-resolution gamma-spectrometry, k 0 -instrumental neutron activation analysis and alpha-spectrometry with appropriate radiochemical separations of the samples, respectively. The results obtained showed an aquatic migration pathway of most of the trace elements and radionuclides and predicted water pollution downstream the river Shu. The scandium method showed pollution by As, Br, Ca, Cr, Zr of the Tasotkel dam impoundment and by Ca and Cr of the river Shu below its confluence with the river Kuragatty. According to the disequilibrium isotopic method for uranium (using the isotopic ratio U-234/U-238), areas with accumulation and leaching processes were estimated for soils and sediments of the river Shu and its main inflows. (author)

  14. Assessment of trace elements, POPs, 210Po and stable isotopes (15N and 13C) in a rare filter-feeding shark: The megamouth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Jailson Fulgencio de; Merico, Agostino; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; Silva, Josilene; Seixas, Tércia Guedes; Godoy, José Marcus de Oliveira; Saint’Pierre, Tatiana Dillenburg; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pollutants were analyzed in a megamouth shark found stranded in Brazilian coast. • Stable isotopes analyzes revealed a pelagic and filter-feeding habits of the shark. • Low levels of pollutants seem to be linked with the trophic ecology of the species. - Abstract: With less than 60 records being reported worldwide, the megamouth (Megachasma pelagios) is today one of the least known shark species inhabiting our oceans. Therefore, information concerning the biology and ecology of this enigmatic organism is very scarce and limited to feeding behaviour and preferred habitat. The present work reports new data on the concentrations of trace elements, organic mercury, POPs and 210 Po in hepatic and muscular tissues of a specimen found stranded in the southeastern coast of Brazil. Additionally, we provide new evidence based on stable isotope analysis (δ 15 N and δ 13 C) confirming the preference for the pelagic habitat and the zooplanktivorous feeding behaviour of the megamouth. These results are consistent with the low concentrations of organic pollutant compounds and other elements measured in our samples

  15. An Assessment of Elemental Compositions and Concentrations in a Marble Sample from Hatnub Area using Internal Mono Standard Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, N.F.; EL-Shershaby, A.; EL-Bahi, S.; Walley El-Dine, N.; Abd El-Halim, E.S.; Afifi, S.

    2012-01-01

    A marble sample was taken from Hatnub area near Asyot, where a high pollution is expected. The sample was specially treated and prepared for elemental analysis using the k 0 -based internal mono standard neutron activation analysis . The irradiation facility of the first Egyptian Training Research Reactor (ETRR-1) was used to irradiate the sample together with gold and zirconium monitor samples. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS) built in the vertical thermal column of the second Egyptian Training Research Reactor (ETRR-2) was used to irradiate another weight of the marble sample and a sample from a certificated reference material JB-1 for short time irradiation. A new method was developed to measure the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio and the deviation in the real epithermal neutron spectrum ( 1/E 1±a lpha ) from the ideal (1/E ). The elemental analysis was carried out by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The accuracy of the internal mono standard method has been evaluated by analyzing the JB-1 certified reference material

  16. Contribution to assessing the stiffness reduction of structural elements in the global stability analysis of precast concrete multi-storey buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Marin

    Full Text Available This study deals with the reduction of the stiffness in precast concrete structural elements of multi-storey buildings to analyze global stability. Having reviewed the technical literature, this paper present indications of stiffness reduction in different codes, standards, and recommendations and compare these to the values found in the present study. The structural model analyzed in this study was constructed with finite elements using ANSYS® software. Physical Non-Linearity (PNL was considered in relation to the diagrams M x N x 1/r, and Geometric Non-Linearity (GNL was calculated following the Newton-Raphson method. Using a typical precast concrete structure with multiple floors and a semi-rigid beam-to-column connection, expressions for a stiffness reduction coefficient are presented. The main conclusions of the study are as follows: the reduction coefficients obtained from the diagram M x N x 1/r differ from standards that use a simplified consideration of PNL; the stiffness reduction coefficient for columns in the arrangements analyzed were approximately 0.5 to 0.6; and the variation of values found for stiffness reduction coefficient in concrete beams, which were subjected to the effects of creep with linear coefficients from 0 to 3, ranged from 0.45 to 0.2 for positive bending moments and 0.3 to 0.2 for negative bending moments.

  17. Assessment of micro, macro, toxic elements (Cd, Hg, Pb) and fatty acids profile in consumed fish commercially available in Cananeia and Cubatao, Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curcho, Michel Rodrigues da Silva Morales

    2009-01-01

    Aside from their nutritional importance, fish are considered one of the most important bio indicators in aquatic systems for the estimation of pollution levels by toxic metals. This is so, since fish can bio accumulate these elements and they occupy different trophic levels and present different sizes and age. The purpose of the present study was to contribute with important data for the knowledge of nutritional and toxic constituents in muscles of the most consumed fish species from two coastal regions, Cananeia and Cubatao. Cananeia fish species analyzed were: Micropogonias furnieri (Corvina), Macrodon ancylodon (Pescada), Centropomus undecimalis (Robalo peba) and Mugil platanus (Tainha). From Cubatao, Micropogonias furnieri (Corvina), Macrodon ancylodon (Pescada), Menticirrhus americanus (Perna de moca), Sardella braziliensis (Sardinha) and Mugil liza (Tainha). For this study, analytical methodologies were developed and validated, regarding precision and accuracy, by means of certified reference materials. Micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) and some trace elements (As, Br, Co, Cr, Rb) in fish muscle were determined by means of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV AAS) was used for total Hg determination and Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ET AAS) for Cd and Pb determinations. Proximate composition determinations according to AOAC methodologies and fatty acids profiles by gas chromatography were done in these muscle fish samples. Regarding fatty acids profile from the ω-6 family, Tainha species pool presented the highest values (8.9%) and Pescada species pool the lowest ones (4.4%) for Cananeia species. Fatty acids from the ω-3 family, Sardinha pool species presented the highest values (31.8%) for all species analyzed. Regarding micronutrients content great concentration variations between individual of the same species and between different species were observed. Discriminate analysis was used

  18. Commercial African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Recirculating Aquaculture Systems: Assessment of Element and Energy Pathways with Special Focus on the Phosphorus Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Marcus Strauch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of effluent waters and sediments from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus recirculation aquaculture systems requires a deeper understanding of the nutrient and energy flows and material pathways. Three semi-commercial systems, differing in stocking density, were sampled for nutritive and pollutant elements of the input- (tap water, feed and output pathways (fillet, carcass, process water, sediments by ICP-OES/MS and calorimetry. Highly water-soluble elements, e.g., potassium, accumulated in the water, whereas iron, copper, chromium and uranium where found in the solids. Feed derived phosphorous was accounted for, 58.3–64.2% inside the fish, 9.7–19.3% in sediments, and small amounts 9.6–15.5% in the process waters. A total of 7.1–9.9% of the feed accumulated as dry matter in the sediments, comprising 5.5–8.7% total organic carbon and 3.7–5.2% nitrogen. A total of 44.5–47.1% of the feed energy was found in the fish and 5.7–7.7% in the sediments. For reuse of water and nutrients in hydroponics, the macro-nutrients potassium, nitrate, phosphorus and the micro-nutrient iron were deficient when compared with generalized recommendations for plant nutrition. Low energy contents and C/N-ratio restrict the solely use of African catfish solids for biogas production or vermiculture. Using the outputs both for biogas supplement and general fertilizer in aquaponics farming (s.l. (combined with additional nutrients appears possible.

  19. Dynamic flow-through sequential extraction for assessment of fractional transformation and inter-element associations of arsenic in stabilized soil and sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buanuam, Janya; Wennrich, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    A dynamic flow-through extraction system was applied for the first time to ascertain the fractional transformation and inter-element associations of arsenic in stabilized environmental solids, as exemplified by the partitioning of soil and sludge stabilized with three additives, namely MnO 2 , Ca(OH) 2 and FeSO 4 . The extraction system used not only gave fractionation data, but also the extraction profiles (extractograms) which were used for investigation of the breaking down of phases, kinetic releasing of As and elemental association between As and inorganic additives. Five geochemical fractions of As were elucidated by accommodation in the flow manifold of a modified Wenzel's sequential extraction scheme, well established for fractionation of arsenic. The results revealed that MnO 2 and FeSO 4 have a slight effect on As phase transformation for soil and sludge samples amended for one week whereas the addition of Ca(OH) 2 increases As mobility due to the desorption of As from the solid Fe-oxides phase. The significant change in fractional transformation after 8 weeks of incubation can be seen in MnO 2 -treated soil. There was an increase of 17% in the non-mobilizable As fraction in MnO 2 -treated soil. From extractograms, arsenic in untreated soil was found to be rapidly leached and concurrently released with Fe. This may be evidence that the release of As is dependent on the dissolution of amorphous Fe oxides. In MnO 2 -treated soil, a strong affinity was observed between Mn and As in the amorphous Fe/Al oxides fraction, and this plays an important role in slowing down the kinetics of As releasing.

  20. Assessment of stability of trace elements in two natural matrix environmental standard reference materials. NIST-SRM 1547 Peach leaves and NIST-SRM 1566a Oyster Tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, E.A.; Spatz, R.O.

    2009-01-01

    The NIST program for environmental Standard Reference Materials (SRM) includes materials covering a range of matrices, mass fraction values and analytes. For many SRMs, mass fraction data are accumulated, incidentally, over time, as these are used routinely for quality assurance purposes. Although these are not formal stability studies, data generated may be useful in assessing stability. To evaluate the potential for assessing material stability from incidental use of SRMs, results of neutron activation analysis performed from 1992 through 2008 were compiled for SRM 1547 Peach Leaves and SRM 1566a Oyster Tissue. Results indicate that incidental use of SRMs yields useful information on SRM stability. (author)

  1. Assessment of the Risk of Non-Cancerous Diseases under the Exposure of Heavy Element in Urban Areas and Troubleshooting Pollutant Sources (The Case of Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Moattar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals are the main air pollutants in cities. Therefore, assessment of the risk of exposure to these metals through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact on inhabitants of contaminated areas of the world is of great importance. Methods: A weekly sampling of air particles smaller than 10 microns was performed in a residential area of Zanjan for two years. Risk assessment in the face of heavy metals from inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact for were measured for two children and adults. After fingerprinting high-risk metals, the air pollutants of the region were analyzed according to the PMF5 model. Results: The results showed that children at risk assessment (1.40 × 1000 at the highest concentration of manganese. The PMF5 model results of fingerprinting 15 heavy metals showed that predominant pollutants in the region, included lead and zinc industries with 42.3%, suspended soil with 26.4%, industrial activities with 23.5%, and combustion and fuel with 7.8% of contamination. It was also found that 55.5 percent of manganese emission was associated with lead and zinc industries and 22.4 percent were related to suspended soil. Conclusion: Risk assessment showed that children were exposed to non-cancerous diseases due to inhalation of manganese particles.

  2. Safety functions and safety function indicators - key elements in SKB'S methodology for assessing long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The application of so called safety function indicators in SKB safety assessment of a KBS-3 repository for spent nuclear fuel is presented. Isolation and retardation are the two main safety functions of the KBS-3 concept. In order to quantitatively evaluate safety on a sub-system level, these functions need to be differentiated, associated with quantitative measures and, where possible, with quantitative criteria relating to the fulfillment of the safety functions. A safety function is defined as a role through which a repository component contributes to safety. A safety function indicator is a measurable or calculable property of a repository component that allows quantitative evaluation of a safety function. A safety function indicator criterion is a quantitative limit such that if the criterion is fulfilled, the corresponding safety function is upheld. The safety functions and their associated indicators and criteria developed for the KBS-3 repository are primarily related to the isolating potential and to physical states of the canister and the clay buffer surrounding the canister. They are thus not directly related to release rates of radionuclides. The paper also describes how the concepts introduced i) aid in focussing the assessment on critical, safety related issues, ii) provide a framework for the accounting of safety throughout the different time frames of the assessment and iii) provide key information in the selection of scenarios for the safety assessment. (author)

  3. Assessment of the suitability of biodegradable rods for use in posterior lumbar fusion: An in-vitro biomechanical evaluation and finite element analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fon-Yih Tsuang

    Full Text Available Interbody fusion with posterior instrumentation is a common method for treating lumbar degenerative disc diseases. However, the high rigidity of the fusion construct may produce abnormal stresses at the adjacent segment and lead to adjacent segment degeneration (ASD. As such, biodegradable implants are becoming more popular for use in orthopaedic surgery. These implants offer sufficient stability for fusion but at a reduced stiffness. Tailored to degrade over a specific timeframe, biodegradable implants could potentially mitigate the drawbacks of conventional stiff constructs and reduce the loading on adjacent segments. Six finite element models were developed in this study to simulate a spine with and without fixators. The spinal fixators used both titanium rods and biodegradable rods. The models were subjected to axial loading and pure moments. The range of motion (ROM, disc stresses, and contact forces of facet joints at adjacent segments were recorded. A 3-point bending test was performed on the biodegradable rods and a dynamic bending test was performed on the spinal fixators according to ASTM F1717-11a. The finite element simulation showed that lumbar spinal fusion using biodegradable implants had a similar ROM at the fusion level as at adjacent levels. As the rods degraded over time, this produced a decrease in the contact force at adjacent facet joints, less stress in the adjacent disc and greater loading on the anterior bone graft region. The mechanical tests showed the initial average fatigue strength of the biodegradable rods was 145 N, but this decreased to 115N and 55N after 6 months and 12 months of soaking in solution. Also, both the spinal fixator with biodegradable rods and with titanium rods was strong enough to withstand 5,000,000 dynamic compression cycles under a 145 N axial load. The results of this study demonstrated that biodegradable rods may present more favourable clinical outcomes for lumbar fusion. These polymer rods

  4. Spectroscopic techniques for assessing the possible use of phosphate rock by-products for the removal of trace elements in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, M. J.; Perez-Sirvent, C.; Garcia-Lorenzo, M. L.; Bech, J.; Hernandez-Cordoba, M.

    2012-04-01

    The production of fertilizers from apatite results in the obtention of considerable amounts of phosphate rock byproducts, representing a serious environmental problem. In addition, soil contamination with heavy metals due to mining or metallurgical activities is a severe environmental problem, increased when soil use is changed to agricultural or urban uses. The aim of this work was to study the possibility of using phosphate rock byproducts for the in situ treatment of soils polluted by heavy metals, allowing to revalorise phosphate rock residues and at the same time, providing a low-cost solution for the contaminated soil. The following methodologies were applied in order to characterise minerals phases present in phosphate rock residues: Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (WDXRF), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS), thermogravimetry (TG) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The results obtained showed that the samples studied had a fine texture, showing average contents of 71%, 24% of sand and 5% for silt, sand and clay, respectivaly. In addition, these materials showed basic-neutral pH values (7.5-9) and a cationic interchange capacity of 20.4 meq/100g. Studied samples showed a 22% of carbonates and a 13% of apatite in their composition and all of them showed 4 bands at 1.100, 1.044, 674 y 576 cm-1, corresponding to P-O vibrations in PO4 groups. OH band vibrations appeared at 3.700-3.550 cm-1, and detected band at 3.400 cm-1 and 633 cm-1 could correspond to occluded water. On the other hand, detected bands at 1.460-1.430, 874 cm-1 suggested the presence of CaCO3 and carbonates in the apatite. After sample characterization, the performance of these residues to adsorb trace element ions (Cd+2 and Pb+2) from acidic aqueous solutions (simulating acidic mine drainage) was studied. The use of spectroscopic techniques after mixing soils and phosphate rock products demonstrate that these residues could be

  5. Concentration of heavy metals and trace elements in soils, waters and vegetables and assessment of health risk in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noli, Fotini, E-mail: noli@chem.auth.gr; Tsamos, Panagiotis, E-mail: pktsamos@chem.auth.gr

    2016-09-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils, waters and products in the regions of lignite mines and fired power plants is of great importance. The concentration of As, Βa, Co, Cr, Sr, Sc, Th, U, Zn in soils and waters in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant in Northern Greece was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The determination frequency was every three months during a period of one year in order to evaluate the seasonal impact of the pollution to the environment. Measurements were performed in three locations around the lignite mine as well as in one reference location at a certain distance from the mine. The results, which exhibited a slight seasonal variation, were compared, where possible, with literature values from other countries. The obtained data in most of the cases did not exceed the normal levels and indicated that the investigated area was only slightly contaminated. The concentration of heavy and trace metals was also measured in three common garden crops (tomato, cucumber and parsley) grown in this area. The calculated transfer factors (TF) from soil to vegetables and health risk quotients (HQ) do not denote a health risk. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation of heavy metals concentrations in soils and waters in a lignite mining area. • The elevated concentrations detected by NAA indicating minor contamination of the studied area. • Determination of minor and trace elements in vegetables. • The transfer factors and health risk quotients indicating a possible slight contamination in the area.

  6. Major-element geochemistry of the Silent Canyon--Black Mountain peralkaline volcanic centers, northwestern Nevada Test Site: applications to an assessment of renewed volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Sargent, K.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Silent Canyon and Black Mountain volcanic centers are located in the northern part of the Nevada Test Site. The Silent Canyon volcanic center is a buried cauldron complex of Miocene age (13 to 15 m.y.). Black Mountain volcanic center is an elliptical-shaped cauldron complex of late Miocene age. The lavas and tuffs of the two centers comprise a subalkaline-peralkaline association. Rock types range from quartz normative subalkaline trachyte and rhyolite to peralkaline commendite. The Gold Flat Member of the Thirsty Canyon Tuff (Black Mountain) is a pantellerite. The major-element geochemistry of the Black Mountain--Silent Canyon volcanic centers differ in the total range and distribution of SiO 2 , contents, the degree of peralkalinity (molecular Na 2 O + K 2 O > Al 2 O 3 ) and in the values of total iron and alumina through the range of rock types. These differences indicate that the suites were unrelated and evolved from differing magma bodies. The Black Mountain volcanic cycle represents a renewed phase of volcanism following cessation of the Timber Mountain--Silent Canyon volcanic cycles. Consequently, there is a small but numerically incalculable probability of recurrence of Black Mountain-type volcanism within the Nevada Test Site region. This represents a potential risk with respect to deep geologic storage of high-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site

  7. Finite Element-Assisted Assessment of the Thermo-cyclic Characteristics of Leads Soldered with SnAgCu(+Bi,In) Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Adrian; Nakanishi, Kohei; Matsuda, Tomoki; Sano, Tomokazu; Minagawa, Madoka; Okamoto, Masahide; Hirose, Akio

    2017-07-01

    Solder joints between leads and printed circuit boards in thin small outline packages were produced with conventional Sn1.0Ag0.7Cu (SAC107) and Sn3.0Ag0.7Cu (SAC305) solders as well as various solder alloys with gradually increasing amounts of Bi (up to 3.0 wt.%) and In (up to 1.0 wt.%) within the SAC107 base solder. The reliability of soldered leads in temperature cycle (TC) tests improved most with solder alloys containing both Bi (1.6 wt.%) and In (0.5 wt.%). Microindentation and electron probe microanalysis mappings revealed that the effect originates from a combination of solution and precipitation strengthening of the initial SAC alloy. The distribution of inelastic strain accumulation (ISA), as a measure for degradation, was determined in the solder joints by finite element calculations. It was shown that defects in the solder proximal to the lead (60-75 μm), which was underpinned by similar cracking characteristics along the lead-solder interface. The ISA was confirmed to be lower in SAC+Bi/In alloys owing to their enhanced elasto-plastic properties. Moreover, the addition of a thin Cu coating on the leads could improve the joint reliability, as suggested by the calculation of the ISA and the acceleration factor.

  8. Assessment of an X-Ray Spectrometer for fluorescence cross sections measurements of elements with 22≤Ζ≤55 in a secondary target configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delabat Diaz, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A performance evaluation of an X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) cross section measurements in a Secondary Target (ST) set-up has been carried out. Using Cd and Dy as STs, an annular 241 Am (∼1 Ci) radioactive source and an X-Ray Spectrometer with a Si(Li) semiconductor detector, the photon effective flux factors (Ι 0 Gε) were measured for some elements with 22≤Ζ≤55 as a function of the characteristics X-Rays energy for two different distances Source-St (0.5 cm and 1.0 cm). Thin high purity foils and a few pellets made out of composed materials were used as samples for the Ι 0 Gε calibrations. the contribution of 59.54 KeV scattered photons to the XRF was analysed and the Scattering Correction Factor (SCF) due to excitation by 59.54 keV scattered photons was estimated in the Cd configuration for further cross section measurements improvements. (Author)

  9. Concentration of heavy metals and trace elements in soils, waters and vegetables and assessment of health risk in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noli, Fotini; Tsamos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils, waters and products in the regions of lignite mines and fired power plants is of great importance. The concentration of As, Βa, Co, Cr, Sr, Sc, Th, U, Zn in soils and waters in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant in Northern Greece was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The determination frequency was every three months during a period of one year in order to evaluate the seasonal impact of the pollution to the environment. Measurements were performed in three locations around the lignite mine as well as in one reference location at a certain distance from the mine. The results, which exhibited a slight seasonal variation, were compared, where possible, with literature values from other countries. The obtained data in most of the cases did not exceed the normal levels and indicated that the investigated area was only slightly contaminated. The concentration of heavy and trace metals was also measured in three common garden crops (tomato, cucumber and parsley) grown in this area. The calculated transfer factors (TF) from soil to vegetables and health risk quotients (HQ) do not denote a health risk. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation of heavy metals concentrations in soils and waters in a lignite mining area. • The elevated concentrations detected by NAA indicating minor contamination of the studied area. • Determination of minor and trace elements in vegetables. • The transfer factors and health risk quotients indicating a possible slight contamination in the area.

  10. Chemistry of the heaviest elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of the chemical properties of the elements at the uppermost end of the periodic table are discussed. Some historical perspective is given, but major emphasis is on recent studies. Isotopes of these elements are short-lived and, therefore, must be studied near the site of production. They must be produced with charged-particle beams at accelerators rather than via neutron capture. The use of radioactive heavy actinide targets is often required and the number of atoms produced is so small that any chemistry to be performed must be done on an ''atom-at-a-time'' basis. Furthermore, a knowledge of their nuclear properties is required in order to identify and detect them. To date, both gas and aqueous phase properties of elements as heavy as element 104 (rutherfordium) and element 105 (hahnium) have been investigated, even though their longest-lived known isotopes have half-lives of only 65 and 35 seconds, respectively. The experimental results show that their chemical properties cannot be simply extrapolated from the known properties of their lighter homologs in the periodic table, emphasizing the importance of obtaining additional experimental information for the heaviest elements to compare with predictions and help assess the influence of relativistic effects. The feasibility of the extension of chemical studies to still heavier elements is also discussed. (orig.)

  11. Discrete Element Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  12. Arsenic and other trace elements in groundwater and human urine in Ha Nam province, the Northern Vietnam: contamination characteristics and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Long Hai; Nguyen, Hue Thi; Van Tran, Cuong; Nguyen, Ha Manh; Nguyen, Tung Hoang; Tu, Minh Binh

    2017-06-01

    The contamination characteristics of arsenic and other trace elements in groundwater and the potential risks of arsenic from the groundwater were investigated. Elevated contamination of arsenic, barium and manganese was observed in tube-well water of two villages (Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang) in Ha Nam province in the Northern Vietnam. Concentrations of As in the groundwater ranged from 12.8 to 884 µg/L with mean values in Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were 614.7 and 160.1 µg/L, respectively. About 83 % of these samples contained As concentrations exceeding WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg/L. The mean values of Mn and Ba in groundwater from Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were 300 and 657 μg/L and 650 and 468 μg/L, respectively. The mean value of Ba concentration in groundwater in both Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang was about 22 % of the samples exceeded the WHO guideline (700 µg/L). Arsenic concentrations in human urine of residents from Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were the range from 8.6 to 458 µg/L. The mean values of Mn and Ba in human urine of local people from Chuyen Ngoai were 46.9 and 62.8 μg/L, respectively, while those in people from Chau Giang were 25.9 and 45.9 μg/L, respectively. The average daily dose from ingesting arsenic for consuming both untreated and treated groundwater is from 0.02 to 11.5 and 0.003 to 1.6 μg/kg day, respectively. Approximately, 57 % of the families using treated groundwater and 64 % of the families using untreated groundwater could be affected by elevated arsenic exposure.

  13. Contamination by arsenic and other trace elements in tube-well water and its risk assessment to humans in Hanoi, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Fujihara, Junko; Kubota, Reiji; Minh, Tu Binh; Kim Trang, Pham Thi; Iwata, Hisato; Subramanian, Annamalai; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of As and other trace elements and their association were examined in groundwater (n=25) and human hair (n=59) collected at Gia Lam District and Thanh Tri District, suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam, in September 2001. Concentrations of As in the groundwater ranged from <0.10 to 330 μg/l, with about 40% of these exceeding WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg/l. Also, 76% and 12% of groundwater samples had higher concentrations of Mn and Ba than WHO drinking water guidelines, respectively. Arsenic concentrations in hair of residents in Gia Lam and Thanh Tri Districts (range 0.088-2.77 μg/g dry wt.) were lower than those in other As-contaminated areas of the world, but were higher than those of people in non-contaminated areas. Concentrations of As and Mn in hair of some individuals from the Gia Lam and Thanh Tri Districts exceeded the level associated with their toxicity and, therefore, a potential health risk of As and Mn is a concern for the people consuming the contaminated water in this area. Cumulative As exposure was estimated to be lower than the threshold levels at the present, which might explain the absence of manifestations of chronic As poisoning and arsenicosis in the residents of Gia Lam and Thanh Tri Districts. To our knowledge, this study revealed for the first time that the residents are exposed not only to As but also Mn and Ba from groundwater in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. - High concentrations of arsenic, manganese and barium were found in tube-well water and human hair in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam

  14. Tissue partition and risk assessments of trace elements in Indo-Pacific Finless Porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from the Pearl River Estuary coast, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiyang; Lin, Wenzhi; Yu, Ri-Qing; Sun, Xian; Ding, Yulong; Chen, Hailiang; Chen, Xi; Wu, Yuping

    2017-10-01

    Throughout the last few decades, an increased number of stranded marine mammals, particularly the Indo-Pacific Finless Porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides), were observed in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). As long-lived, apex predators vulnerable to bioaccumulation of contaminants, the tissue residue levels and health risk of trace elements (TEs) in N. phocaenoides from the PRE have been little studied. Eleven typical TEs distributed in skin, liver and kidney tissues were investigated from 25 specimens stranded along the PRE from 2007 to 2015 in the present study. It revealed that most TEs were highly accumulated in internal organs (liver and kidney), except for Zn with high residue levels in external skin. Compared with the TEs in prey items, the residue levels of Hg, Se, Zn, Cu, Cd and Cr in N. phocaenoides increased 4-618 times, indicating a potentially significant biomagnification. Sex-related differences of TE accumulation were not obvious, except for renal Mn, in which the females showed lower mean concentrations than males. Significantly positive correlations between body length and TE levels were found for Hg, Se and Cd. Results of the calculated risk quotients (RQ) suggested that the risks to N. phocaenoides from consumption of prey items were generally low, but further attentions should be paid to Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg and As due to the elevated RQ values. The concentrations of Hg, Cd and Se in the epidermis were positively correlated with the levels found in internal organs. Our investigation provides evidence to support the use of skin as one biomonitoring approach on Hg, Cd and Se contamination of internal tissues in this species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Discrimination and risk assessment due to the volatile compounds and the inorganic elements present in the Greek marc distillates Tsipouro and Tsikoudia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos H. Soufleros

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Tsipouro and Tsikoudia are two denominations with geographic indications of the traditional Greek marc distillate, which is produced in continental Greece and in the island of Crete respectively. It is produced by the Greek winegrowers as well as by the professional distillers. To provide data on the safety of domestic Tsipouro and Tsikoudia distillates for human consumption and to draw conclusions from any essential results, which might have an impact on the quality of this product, 23 samples were analysed for: (a Volatile compounds by the use of gas chromatography, (b Inorganic elements, using atomic absorption spectrometry and (c the pH values through-out using standard methods. Data revealed differences between these two denominations, which have been confirmed by the application of a statistic analysis and a PCA. Thus, Tsikoudia was found to contain statistically higher amounts of acetalde-hyde. However, the levels that have been observed did not exceed the official limits. Most of the Tsipouro and Tsikoudia samples also contained low concentrations of estragol, an anise compound, lead and copper, which do not represent a risk to consumer health due to their toxicity. On the other hand, the total concentration of higher alcohols was higher than the official minimum limit (140 g.hl-1 Absolute Alcohol-AA, while the amylic alcohols rarely exceeded 300 g.hl-1 AA. The high concentrations of ethyl acetate (>300 g.hl-1 AA and ethyl lactate in a few samples showed the necessity of limiting unwanted fermentations in the grape pomace. The analytical study showed that the quality of the marc distillate is, generally, satisfactory. However, it revealed great differences between Tsipouro and Tsikoudia even among the samples of each denomination and, con-sequently, these domestic distillates need standardization and a more systematic production.

  16. Assessment of the performance of various airfoil sections on power generation from a wind turbine using the blade element momentum theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaomin; Agarwal, Ramesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    It is well established that the power generated by a Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) is a function of the number of blades, the tip speed ratio (blade tip speed/wind free stream velocity) and the lift to drag ratio (CL /CD) of the airfoil sections of the blade. The airfoil sections used in HAWT are generally thick airfoils such as the S, DU, FX, Flat-back and NACA 6-series of airfoils. These airfoils vary in (CL /CD) for a given blade and ratio and therefore the power generated by HAWT for different blade airfoil sections will vary. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the effect of different airfoil sections on HAWT performance using the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory. In this study, we employ DU 91-W2-250, FX 66-S196-V1, NACA 64421, and Flat-back series of airfoils (FB-3500-0050, FB-3500-0875, and FB-3500-1750) and compare their performance with S809 airfoil used in NREL Phase II and III wind turbines; the lift and drag coefficient data for these airfoils sections are available. The output power of the turbine is calculated using these airfoil section blades for a given blade and ratio and is compared with the original NREL Phase II and Phase III turbines using S809 airfoil section. It is shown that by a suitable choice of airfoil section of HAWT blade, the power generated by the turbine can be significantly increased. Parametric studies are also conducted by varying the turbine diameter.

  17. Carbon and nitrogen elemental and isotopic ratios of filter-feeding bivalves along the French coasts: An assessment of specific, geographic, seasonal and multi-decadal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briant, Nicolas; Savoye, Nicolas; Chouvelon, Tiphaine; David, Valérie; Rodriguez, Samuel; Charlier, Karine; Sonke, Jeroen E; Chiffoleau, Jean François; Brach-Papa, Christophe; Knoery, Joël

    2018-02-01

    Primary consumers play a key role in coastal ecosystems by transferring organic matter from primary producers to predators. Among them, suspension-feeders, like bivalve molluscs are widely used in trophic web studies. The main goal of this study was to investigate variations of C and N elemental and isotopic ratios in common bivalves (M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and C. gigas) at large spatial (i.e. among three coastal regions) and different temporal (i.e. from seasonal to multi-decadal) scales in France, in order to identify potential general or specific patterns and speculate on their drivers. The observed spatial variability was related to the trophic status of the coastal regions (oligotrophic Mediterranean Sea versus meso- to eutrophic English Channel and Atlantic ocean), but not to ecosystem typology (estuaries, versus lagoons versus bays versus littoral systems). Furthermore, it highlighted local specificities in terms of the origin of the POM assimilated by bivalves (e.g., mainly continental POM vs. marine phytoplankton vs. microphytobenthic algae). Likewise, seasonal variability was related both to the reproduction cycle for C/N ratios of Mytilus spp. and to changes in trophic resources for δ 13 C of species located close to river mouth. Multi-decadal evolution exhibited shifts and trends for part of the 30-year series with decreases in δ 13 C and δ 15 N. Specifically, shifts appeared in the early 2000's, likely linking bivalve isotopic ratios to a cascade of processes affected by local drivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cl and C isotope analysis to assess the effectiveness of chlorinated ethene degradation by zero-valent iron: Evidence from dual element and product isotope values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audí-Miró, Carme; Cretnik, Stefan; Otero, Neus; Palau, Jordi; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Soler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► TCE and cis-DCE Cl isotope fractionation was investigated for the first time with ZVI. ► A C–Cl bond is broken in the rate-limiting step during ethylene ZVI dechlorination. ► Dual C/Cl isotope plot is a promising tool to discriminate abiotic degradation. ► Product-related carbon isotopic fractionation gives evidence of abiotic degradation. ► Hydrogenolysis and β-dichloroelimination pathways occur simultaneously. - Abstract: This study investigated C and, for the first time, Cl isotope fractionation of trichloroethene (TCE) and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) during reductive dechlorination by cast zero-valent iron (ZVI). Hydrogenolysis and β-dichloroelimination pathways occurred as parallel reactions, with ethene and ethane deriving from the β-dichloroelimination pathway. Carbon isotope fractionation of TCE and cis-DCE was consistent for different batches of Fe studied. Transformation of TCE and cis-DCE showed Cl isotopic enrichment factors (ε Cl ) of −2.6‰ ± 0.1‰ (TCE) and −6.2‰ ± 0.8‰ (cis-DCE), with Apparent Kinetic Isotope Effects (AKIE Cl ) for Cl of 1.008 ± 0.001 (TCE) and 1.013 ± 0.002 (cis-DCE). This indicates that a C–Cl bond breakage is rate-determining in TCE and cis-DCE transformation by ZVI. Two approaches were investigated to evaluate if isotope fractionation analysis can distinguish the effectiveness of transformation by ZVI as opposed to natural biodegradation. (i) Dual isotope plots. This study reports the first dual (C, Cl) element isotope plots for TCE and cis-DCE degradation by ZVI. The pattern for cis-DCE differs markedly from that reported for biodegradation of the same compound by KB-1, a commercially available Dehalococcoides-containing culture. The different trends suggest an expedient approach to distinguish abiotic and biotic transformation, but this needs to be confirmed in future studies. (ii) Product-related isotope fractionation. Carbon isotope ratios of the hydrogenolysis product cis

  19. Modelling of the radioactive daughter elements in soil to assess radiation impact due to contaminated irrigation water by parents of 231Pa, 226Ra, 238U, 237Np and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bela Kanyar; Katalin Eged; Tunde Katona; Gerhard Proehl; Ulla Bergstroem; Bengt Hallberg; Shelly Mobbs; Geert Olyslaegers; Theo Zeevaert; Palome Pinedo; Inmaculade Simon

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive wastes may contain both parent and daughter radionuclides. In some cases the transfer parameters of the daughter radio-elements differ significantly from that of the parent ones and therefore the dose contributions in the different pathways might be important to assess separately. The present work has compared 5 different site specific models by a scenario, using contaminated water for drinking and irrigation. Altogether 5 radionuclides from the investigated 10 ones contained radioactive daughter elements. In general, for long term studies in biosphere the steady-state formulations of processes are adequate to assess the contamination, except the infiltration into the deeper soil and sediment layers. According to the results of the modelling and computer simulations, the following daughters are to be assessed separately from their parents with respect to the radiation impact: for parent 231 Pa the daughter 227 Ac, for parent 226 Ra the daughters 222 Rn, 210 Pb and 210 Po and for parent 237 Np the daughter 233 Pa. The dose contributions of the daughters from parents 238 U and 239 Pu are less significant during the considered 100-10000 years. In case of contamination of irrigation water with 1 Bq x m -3 of the parent radionuclide 231 Pa, more than 90% of the external dose from soil exposure comes from the daughter 227 Ac (annually 15 nSv). By a similar contamination with 226 Ra as a parent radionuclide, 60% of the ingestion dose is due to food contamination with the daughters 210 Pb and 210 Po (approximately 150 nSv x a -1 ). (author)

  20. Development of a simple extraction cell with bi-directional continuous flow coupled on-line to ICP-MS for assessment of elemental associations in solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buanuam, Janya; Tiptanasup, Kasipa; Shiowatana, Juwadee

    2006-01-01

    A continuous-flow system comprising a novel, custom-built extraction module and hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection is proposed for assessing metal mobilities and geochemical associations in soil compartments as based on using the three step BCR (now...... the Measurements and Testing Programme of the European Commission) sequential extraction scheme. Employing a peristaltic pump as liquid driver, alternate directional flows of the extractants are used to overcome compression of the solid particles within the extraction unit to ensure a steady partitioning flow rate...... and thus to maintain constant operationally defined extraction conditions. The proposed flow set-up is proven to allow for trouble-free handling of soil samples up to 1 g and flow rates ≤ 10 mL min–1. The miniaturized extraction system was coupled to ICP-MS through a flow injection interface in order...

  1. Chemistry of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, N.N.; Earnshaw, A.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook presents an account of the chemistry of the elements for both undergraduate and postgraduate students. It covers not only the 'inorganic' chemistry of the elements, but also analytical, theoretical, industrial, organometallic;, bio-inorganic and other areas of chemistry which apply. The following elements of special nuclear interest are included: Rb, Cs, Fr, Sr, Ba, Ra, Po, At, Rn, Sc, Y, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, Tc, Ru, the Lanthanide Elements, the Actinide Elements. (U.K.)

  2. Assessment of Fuel Analysis Methodology and Fission Product Release for 37-Element Fuel by Using the Latest IST Codes during Stagnation Feeder Break in CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Jung, Jong Yeob

    2009-09-01

    Feeder break accident is regarded as one of the design basis accident in CANDU reactor which results in a fuel failure. For a particular range of inlet feeder break sizes, the flow in the channel is reduced sufficiently that the fuel and fuel channel integrity can be significantly affected to have damage in the affected channel, while the remainder of the core remains adequately cooled. The flow in the downstream channel can be more or less stagnated due to a balance between pressure at the break on the upstream side and the reverse driving pressure between the break and the downstream end. In the extreme, this can lead to rapid fuel heatup and fuel damage and failure of the fuel channel similar to that associated with a severe channel flow blockage. Such an inlet feeder break scenario is called a stagnation break. In this report, the fuel analysis methodology and the assessment results of fission product inventory and release during the stagnation feeder break are described for conservatively assumed limiting channel. The accident was assumed to be occurred in the refurbished Wolsong unit 1 and the latest safety codes were used in the analysis. Fission product inventories during the steady state were calculated by using ELESTRES-IST 1.2 code. The whole analysis process was carried out by a script file which was programmed by Perl language. The perl script file was programmed to make all ELESTRES input files for each bundle and each ring based on the given power-burnup history and thermal-hydraulic conditions of the limiting channel and to perform the fuel analysis automatically. The fission product release during the transient period of stagnation feeder break was evaluated by applying Gehl model. The amounts of each isotope's release are conservatively evaluated for additional 2 seconds after channel failure. The calculated fission product releases are provided to the following dose assessment as a source term

  3. Assessment of quality of life as an element of monitoring health status in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Viktorovna Bolotova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess quality of life (QL in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1 depending on its duration, mode of insulin administration,and degree of social adaptation. Materials and methods. Generic Core Scale and Diabetes Module of Pediatric Quality of Life Questionnaire were used to estimate QL in 72 diabeticchildren and adolescents aged 5-18 yr with the participation of one of the parents. Patients with severe concomitant pathology were not includedin the study. Results. Overall QL score in children and adolescents with DM1 was 73,043?1,24. The psycho-social activity of most patients in all age groups was ratherhigh in contrast to suppressed physical functions due to complications of DM1 ten or more years in duration (51,4?9,19 scores. The psycho-emotionalstate was less dependent on negative effects of the disease. Patients using an insulin pump had on the whole better QL than those receiving intensiveinsulin therapy (82 and 72 points respectively, p

  4. Human Health Risk Assessment and Safety Threshold of Harmful Trace Elements in the Soil Environment of the Wulantuga Open-Cast Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Jia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soil samples were collected from a large-scale open-cast coal mine area in Inner Mongolia, China. Arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, beryllium (Be and nickel (Ni in soil samples were detected using novel collision/reaction cell technology (CCT with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; collectively ICP-CCT-MS after closed-vessel microwave digestion. Human health risk from As, Cd, Be and Ni was assessed via three exposure pathways—inhalation, skin contact and soil particle ingestion. The comprehensive carcinogenic risk from As in Wulantuga open-cast coal mine soil is 6.29–87.70-times the acceptable risk, and the highest total hazard quotient of As in soils in this area can reach 4.53-times acceptable risk levels. The carcinogenic risk and hazard quotient of Cd, Be and Ni are acceptable. The main exposure route of As from open-cast coal mine soils is soil particle ingestion, accounting for 76.64% of the total carcinogenic risk. Considering different control values for each exposure pathway, the minimum control value (1.59 mg/kg could be selected as the strict reference safety threshold for As in the soil environment of coal-chemical industry areas. However, acceptable levels of carcinogenic risk are not unanimous; thus, the safety threshold identified here, calculated under a 1.00 × 10−6 acceptable carcinogenic risk level, needs further consideration.

  5. BLT-EC (Breach, Leach Transport, and Equilibrium Chemistry), a finite-element model for assessing the release of radionuclides from low-level waste disposal units: Background, theory, and model description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, R.J.; Sullivan, T.M.; Simonson, S.A.; Suen, C.J.

    1995-08-01

    Performance assessment models typically account for the processes of sorption and dissolution-precipitation by using an empirical distribution coefficient, commonly referred to as K d that combines the effects of all chemical reactions between solid and aqueous phases. In recent years, however, there has been an increasing awareness that performance assessments based solely on empirically based K d models may be incomplete, particularly for applications involving radionuclides having sorption and solubility properties that are sensitive to variations in the in-situ chemical environment. To accommodate variations in the in-situ chemical environment, and to assess its impact on radionuclide mobility, it is necessary to model radionuclide release, transport, and chemical processes in a coupled fashion. This modeling has been done and incorporated into the two-dimensional, finite-element, computer code BLT-EC (Breach, Leach, Transport, Equilibrium Chemistry). BLT-EC is capable of predicting container degradation, waste-form leaching, and advective-dispersive, multispecies, solute transport. BLT-EC accounts for retardation directly by modeling the chemical processes of complexation, sorption, dissolution-precipitation, ion-exchange, and oxidation-reduction reactions. In this report we: (1) present a detailed description of the various physical and chemical processes that control the release and migration of radionuclides from shallow land LLW disposal facilities; (2) formulate the mathematical models that represent these processes; (3) outline how these models are incorporated and implemented in BLT-EC; and (4) demonstrate the application of BLT-EC on a set of example problems

  6. Data Element Registry Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data Element Registry Services (DERS) is a resource for information about value lists (aka code sets / pick lists), data dictionaries, data elements, and EPA data...

  7. Basic Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Hae

    1992-02-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.

  8. Trace elements as paradigms of developmental neurotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Herz, Katherine T

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements have contributed unique insights into developmental neurotoxicity and serve as paradigms for such adverse effects. Many trace elements are retained in the body for long periods and can be easily measured to assess exposure by inexpensive analytical methods that became available...

  9. Radiolabelled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinger, H.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on radiolabelled cellular blood elements, covering new advances made during the past several years, in particular the use of Tc-99 as a tracer for blood elements. Coverage extends to several radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies that are specific for blood components and may label blood elements in vivo

  10. Superheavy-element spectroscopy: Correlations along element 115 decay chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, D.; Forsberg, U.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Golubev, P.; Fahlander, C.

    2016-05-01

    Following a brief summary of the region of the heaviest atomic nuclei yet created in the laboratory, data on more than hundred α-decay chains associated with the production of element 115 are combined to investigate time and energy correlations along the observed decay chains. Several of these are analysed using a new method for statistical assessments of lifetimes in sets of decay chains.

  11. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  12. Generalized finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachspress, E.

    2009-01-01

    Triangles and rectangles are the ubiquitous elements in finite element studies. Only these elements admit polynomial basis functions. Rational functions provide a basis for elements having any number of straight and curved sides. Numerical complexities initially associated with rational bases precluded extensive use. Recent analysis has reduced these difficulties and programs have been written to illustrate effectiveness. Although incorporation in major finite element software requires considerable effort, there are advantages in some applications which warrant implementation. An outline of the basic theory and of recent innovations is presented here. (authors)

  13. Elements beyond uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.; Loveland, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    This book is the 12th volume in a series on transuranium elements. Varied techniques for production of these elements, the methods used in the identification, and the exquisitely refined microchemical techniques required to deal wth samples sometimes involving only a few atoms are described in detail. The chapter on synthesis of the new elements is liberally laced with reminiscences of the proud progenitors as well as the criteria for the discovery of a new chemical element. The authors lament that the superheavy elements (elements in the region of atomic number 114) still elude detection even though their creation should be possible, and some, at least, should survive long enough to be detected. One chapter in the book is devoted to practical applictions of uranium, and the transuranic elements

  14. Assessment of Energetic Compounds, Semi-volatile Organic Compounds, and Trace Elements in Streambed Sediment and Stream Water from Streams Draining Munitions Firing Points and Impact Areas, Fort Riley, Kansas, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiner, R.L.; Pope, L.M.; Mehl, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    An assessment of energetic compounds (explosive and propellant residues) and associated semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and trace elements in streambed sediment and stream water from streams draining munitions firing points and impact areas at Fort Riley, northeast Kansas, was performed during 2007-08 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army. Streambed sediment from 16 sampling sites and stream-water samples from 5 sites were collected at or near Fort Riley and analyzed for as many as 17 energetic compounds, 65 SVOCs, and 27 trace elements. None of the energetic compounds or SVOCs were detected in streambed sediment collected from sites within the Fort Riley Military Reservation. This may indicate that these compounds either are not transported from dispersal areas or that analytical methods are not sensitive enough to detect the small concentrations that may be transported. Concentrations of munitions-associated trace elements did not exceed sediment-quality guidelines recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and are not indicative of contamination of streambed sediment at selected streambed sampling sites, at least in regards to movement from dispersal areas. Analytical results of stream-water samples provided little evidence of contamination by energetic compounds, SVOCs, or associated trace elements. Perchlorate was detected in 19 of 20 stream-water samples at concentrations ranging from an estimated 0.057 to an estimated 0.236 ug/L (micrograms per liter) with a median concentration of an estimated 0.114 ug/L, substantially less than the USEPA Interim Health Advisory criterion (15 ug/L), and is in the range of documented background concentrations. Because of these small concentrations and possible natural sources (precipitation and groundwater), it is likely that the occurrence of perchlorate in stream water is naturally occurring, although a definitive identification of the source of perchlorate in

  15. Assessing WAC Elements in Business Syllabi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Maureen O’Day; Annous, Samer

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates syllabi for evidence of the principles of writing across the curriculum (WAC) in courses offered by the Faculty of Business (FOB) at a university operating in a non–English-speaking country. The research analyzed all syllabi of FOB courses offered in the spring 2010 semester for evidence of WAC looking for indications of…

  16. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e elementos traco em amostras de sedimento do reservatorio Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-07-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  17. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e elementos traco em amostras de sedimento do reservatorio Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-07-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  18. Limitless Analytic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, O. D. L.

    2018-02-01

    We present equations for new limitless analytic line elements. These elements possess a virtually unlimited number of degrees of freedom. We apply these new limitless analytic elements to head-specified boundaries and to problems with inhomogeneities in hydraulic conductivity. Applications of these new analytic elements to practical problems involving head-specified boundaries require the solution of a very large number of equations. To make the new elements useful in practice, an efficient iterative scheme is required. We present an improved version of the scheme presented by Bandilla et al. (2007), based on the application of Cauchy integrals. The limitless analytic elements are useful when modeling strings of elements, rivers for example, where local conditions are difficult to model, e.g., when a well is close to a river. The solution of such problems is facilitated by increasing the order of the elements to obtain a good solution. This makes it unnecessary to resort to dividing the element in question into many smaller elements to obtain a satisfactory solution.

  19. Trace elements in wild and orchard honeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida-Silva, M.; Canha, N.; Galinha, C.; Dung, H.M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Sitoe, T. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The present study aims the identification and quantification of trace elements in two types of honey samples: Orchard honey and Wild honey from mainland Portugal. Chemical elements content was assessed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Concentrations were determinated for Ag, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, U, V and Zn. The nutritional values of both honey types were evaluated since this product contains some elements that are essential dietary nutrients for humans. Physical properties of the honey samples, such as electrical conductivy and pH, were assessed as well.

  20. The solar element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    2009-01-01

    of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, 'helium' was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed to J. Norman Lockyer. Did Lockyer discover helium as a solar element? How was the suggestion received by chemists, physicists...... and astronomers in the period until the spring of 1895, when William Ramsay serendipitously found the gas in uranium minerals? The hypothetical element helium was fairly well known, yet Ramsay's discovery owed little or nothing to Lockyer's solar element. Indeed, for a brief while it was thought that the two...... elements might be different. The complex story of how helium became established as both a solar and terrestrial element involves precise observations as well as airy speculations. It is a story that is unique among the discovery histories of the chemical elements....

  1. The synthetic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered.

  2. The synthetic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered

  3. Better Assessments Require Better Assessment Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiggins, Rick

    2018-01-01

    Stiggins says that, to build better assessment systems, educators and education leaders need more opportunities to learn the basic principles of sound assessment practice. He lays out what he views as the fundamental elements of assessment literacy.

  4. Fuel element loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P; s.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element loading system is described which conveys a plurality of fuel rods to longitudinal passages in fuel elements. Conveyor means successively position the fuel rods above the longitudinal passages in axial alignment therewith and adapter means guide the fuel rods from the conveyor means into the longitudinal passages. The fuel elements are vibrated to cause the fuel rods to fall into the longitudinal passages through the adapter means

  5. Elements in biological AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. 14 C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth's biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed

  6. Analogs for transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Laul, J.C.; Kutt, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental approach is being used to estimate the long-term environmental and biogeochemical behaviors of selected transuranic elements. The objective of this research is to estimate the effect that long-term (hundreds of years) environmental weathering has on the behavior of the transuranic elements americium and curium. This is achieved by investigating the actual behavior of naturally occurring rare earth elements, especially neodymium, that serve as transuranic analogs. Determination of the analog element behavior provides data that can be used to estimate the ultimate availability to man of transuranic materials released into the environment

  7. Chemistry of superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    2012-01-01

    The chemistry of superheavy elements - or transactinides from their position in the Periodic Table - is summarized. After giving an overview over historical developments, nuclear aspects about synthesis of neutron-rich isotopes of these elements, produced in hot-fusion reactions, and their nuclear decay properties are briefly mentioned. Specific requirements to cope with the one-atom-at-a-time situation in automated chemical separations and recent developments in aqueous-phase and gas-phase chemistry are presented. Exciting, current developments, first applications, and future prospects of chemical separations behind physical recoil separators ('pre-separator') are discussed in detail. The status of our current knowledge about the chemistry of rutherfordium (Rf, element 104), dubnium (Db, element 105), seaborgium (Sg, element 106), bohrium (Bh, element 107), hassium (Hs,