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Sample records for nabir assessment element

  1. NABIR Assessment Element, Expanded Rapid, Comprehensive, Lipid Biomarker Analysis for Subsurface, Community Composition and Nutritional/Physiological Status as Monitors of Remediation and Detoxification Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. White

    2005-09-14

    NABIR funding at the University of Tennessee Center for Biomarker Analysis (CBA) has led to several key contributions to the investigation of bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. This lab has played an integral part in assessing microbial communities at the field scale at the ORNL FRC (Istok et al., 2004) and two UMTRA sites (Anderson et al., 2003, Chang et al., 2001). Our work over the period of the grant has resulted in 42-peer reviewed publications, 62 presentations (14 of which were international), and one patent pending. Currently CBA has 2 papers in press. The main objectives relating to the field portion of this program were to provide comprehensive biomarker analysis for NABIR collaborators to enhance the understanding of microbial geo-bioprocesses involved in the effective immobilization of metals (We have worked with and published or currently are publishing with 10 groups of NAIBR investigators). The laboratory portion of our research centered on methods development and has led to three major innovations that could result in a systematic way of evaluating sites for potential bioremediation. The first of these is the development of an in situ sampling device (Peacock et al., 2004, Anderson et al., 2003, Istok et al., 2004) for the collection and concentration of microbial biomass. The second is the development of expanded lipid analysis based on the significantly greater sensitivity and selectivity of the LC/MS/MS that allows the analysis of respiratory quinones, diglycerides, sterols, intact phospholipids, poly-hydroxyalkonates, and potentially archaeol, and caldarchaeols from archea. These new analyses are accomplished more rapidly and with increased sensitivities and resolution than in the past (Lytle et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, Geyer et al., 2004). The third advance is the coupling of lipid analysis with 13C enrichment experiments (Lytle et al., 2001b, Geyer et al. 2005). With this technique it is now possible to follow the active portion of

  2. DOE-NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2003-01-28

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in situ to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program consists of four interrelated Science Elements (Biotransformation, Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, and Biogeochemistry). The program also has a cross-cutting Assessment Element that supports development of innovative approaches and technologies to support the science elements. An element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) addresses potential societal issues of implementing NABIR scientific findings. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2003 by the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division in DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) in the Office of Science. Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  3. DOE-NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2003-01-28

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in situ to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program consists of four interrelated Science Elements (Biotransformation, Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, and Biogeochemistry). The program also has a cross-cutting Assessment Element that supports development of innovative approaches and technologies to support the science elements. An element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) addresses potential societal issues of implementing NABIR scientific findings. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2003 by the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division in DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) in the Office of Science. Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  4. DOE NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes (Editor), Dan

    2002-01-09

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in place to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program is implemented through four interrelated scientific research elements (Biogeochemistry, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, Biotransformation, and Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology); and through an element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC), which addresses societal issues and potential concerns of stakeholders. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2002 by DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER). Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  5. DOE-NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts January 31-February 2, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Mary (ed.)

    2000-01-01

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the scientific understanding needed to use natural processes and to develop new methods to accelerate those processes for the bioremediation of contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The program is implemented through seven interrelated scientific research elements (Assessment, Bacterial Transport, Biogeochemical Dynamics, Bimolecular Science and Engineering, Biotransformation and Biodegradation, Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology and System Engineering, Integration, Prediction and Optimization); and through an element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC), which addresses societal issues and concerns of stakeholders through communication and collaboration among all relevant groups, including community leaders and representatives, engineers, scientists, lawyers, etc. The initial emphasis of NABIR program research is on the bioremediation of metals and radionuclides in the subsurface below the root zone, including both thick vadose and saturated zones. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on research funded in FY 1998-2000 by DOE's Office of Science through its Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Sixty-eight projects have been funded in the scientific program elements, and two have been funded in the BASIC program. Abstracts of these programs are summarized in this booklet, along with abstracts of other DOE programs related to research in the NABIR program.

  6. ARSITEKTUR VERNAKULAR NABIRE DAN KONDISI NABIRE PASCA GEMPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sri Gayatri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural disaster in Nabire in February 2004 and November 2004 has left a noumerous effects on buildings. Many buildings have destroyed because of the terrifying effect of natural disaster which caused a big loss both for material and for the human safety. However, the misapplication of construction and inappropriate choice of material almost cause the terrible damage. After the natural disaster passed, the only left is mostly on the long time needed to build the buildings for people who suffer from the disaster. Because of this problem above, many people usually stay in uncomfortable places such a tend, and this condition creates social and health problems. Concerning the problem above, it is needed to create the "quick built house" which is hopefully can be accepted by the community to cope with the terrifying effect of the natural disaster.In the first year of this research, the data concerning traditional architecture and vernacular architecture in Nabire will be collected. This step will be done in order to understand more detail about all the problem faced and identified all the potential aspects which can be developed to build house for people. The deepest study of vernacular architecture is expected not only to make the house close to the uniqueness of the local activities and culture, but also to make it understandable and built easily by the people/community, because its construction and architecture have become part of their life. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pada saat bencana alam di Nabire yang terjadi Februari 2004 dan November 2004, banyak bangunan roboh dan rusak. Kerugian sangat besar dan mengakibatkan kerugian baik material maupun keselamatan manusia. Kerusakan yang parah sering diakibatkan oleh salahnya penerapan konstruksi dan salah dalam pemilihan bahan bangunan. Sementara itu pasca bencana, menyisakan kesulitan berupa lamanya membangun bangunan penampungan korban bencana, sehingga seringkali korban bencana hanya

  7. The NABIR Strategic Plan 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2001-10-22

    successfully address these long-term problems. DOE's Environmental Quality R&D Portfolio includes environmental restoration and long-term stewardship as its highest priorities. A recent analysis of the portfolio (September 2000) suggested that R&D in these two areas is inadequate. The NABIR program aims (1) to provide the fundamental knowledge to support the development of new bioremediation technologies and (2) to advance the understanding of key processes that control the effectiveness of containment as a means of long term stewardship. NABIR has the distinction of being the only federal program that funds fundamental research on metal and radionuclide contaminants in the environment. The program's greatest strength is in focusing talents and expertise from many disciplines to address challenging research questions. The products from NABIR will influence the development of effective bioremediation technologies as well as contribute new knowledge about the function of subsurface ecological systems at the microbiological and geochemical levels. These advances can lead to more effective stewardship of natural resources as well as to remediation of DOE sites.

  8. Environmental Assessment for Selection and Operation of the Proposed Field Research Centers for the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-04-18

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), within the Office of Science (SC), proposes to add a Field Research Center (FRC) component to the existing Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. The NABIR Program is a ten-year fundamental research program designed to increase the understanding of fundamental biogeochemical processes that would allow the use of bioremediation approaches for cleaning up DOE's contaminated legacy waste sites. An FRC would be integrated with the existing and future laboratory and field research and would provide a means of examining the fundamental biogeochemical processes that influence bioremediation under controlled small-scale field conditions. The NABIR Program would continue to perform fundamental research that might lead to promising bioremediation technologies that could be demonstrated by other means in the future. For over 50 years, DOE and its predecessor agencies have been responsible for the research, design, and production of nuclear weapons, as well as other energy-related research and development efforts. DOE's weapons production and research activities generated hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste products. Past disposal practices have led to the contamination of soils, sediments, and groundwater with complex and exotic mixtures of compounds. This contamination and its associated costs and risks represents a major concern to DOE and the public. The high costs, long duration, and technical challenges associated with remediating the subsurface contamination at DOE sites present a significant need for fundamental research in the biological, chemical, and physical sciences that will contribute to new and cost-effective solutions. One possible low-cost approach for remediating the subsurface contamination of DOE sites is through the use of a technology known as bioremediation. Bioremediation has been defined as the use of microorganisms to

  9. Guidelines A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, James R.; Word, Charlotte J.; Bilyard, Gordon R.

    2002-03-15

    The purpose of this report is to help scientists communicate with stakeholders and the public (primarily nonscientists) about fundamental science research. The primary audience for this report is scientists involved in the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program of the U.S. Department of Energy. However, the information and insights in the report that are not program-specific should be helpful to scientists in other fundamental science research programs. The report first discusses why scientists should talk to stakeholders and the public, and the challenges associated with discussing the NABIR program. It is observed that communication initiatives can be characterized by three factors: relationships in the social environment, views of what constitutes communication, and accepted forms of communication practices and products. With a focus on informal science communication, recent efforts to gauge public understanding of science and the factors that affect public trust of science institutions are discussed. The social bases for scientist-nonscientist interactions are then examined, including possible sources of distrust and difficulties in transferring discussions of fundamental science from classrooms (where most of the public first learns about science) to public forums. Finally, the report contains specific suggestions for preparing, meeting, and following up on public interactions with stakeholders and the public, including themes common to public discussions of NABIR science and features of scientist-nonscientist interactions observed in interpersonal, small group, and large group interactions between NABIR scientists and stakeholders. A Quick Preparation Guide for Meeting NABIR Stakeholders is provided immediately following the Summary. It condenses some of the information and advice found in the text of the report.

  10. Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Harding; B Metting; C Word; G Bilyard; G Hund; J Amaya; J Weber; S Gajewski; S Underriner; T Peterson

    1998-12-10

    This primer is a tool to help prepare scientists for meetings with stakeholders. It was prepared for staff involved with the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. It discusses why some efforts in science communication may succeed while others fail, provides methods of approaching group interactions about science that may better orient expert participants, and summarizes experience drawn from observations of @oups interacting about topics in bioremediation or the NABIR program. The primer also provides briez usefid models for interacting with either expert or non-expert groups. Finally, it identifies topical areas that may help scientists prepare for public meetings, based on the developers' ongoing research in science communication in public forums.

  11. Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilyard, Gordon R.; Word, Charlotte J.; Weber, James R.; Harding, Anna K.

    2000-09-27

    This primer is a tool to help prepare scientists for meetings with stakeholders. It was prepared for staff involved with the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. It discusses why some efforts in science communication may succeed while others fail, provides methods of approaching group interactions about science that may better orient expert participants, and summarizes experience drawn from observations of groups interacting about topics in bioremediation or the NABIR program. The primer also provides brief, useful models for interacting with either expert or non-expert groups. Finally, it identifies topical areas that may help scientists prepare for public meetings, based on the developers' ongoing research in science communication in public forums.

  12. Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilyard, G.R.; Word, C.J.; Weber, J.R.; Harding, A.K.

    2000-09-27

    This primer is a tool to help prepare scientists for meetings with stakeholders. It was prepared for staff involved with the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. It discusses why some efforts in science communication may succeed while others fail, provides methods of approaching group interactions about science that may better orient expert participants, and summarizes experience drawn from observations of groups interacting about topics in bioremediation or the NABIR program. The primer also provides brief, useful models for interacting with either expert or non-expert groups. Finally, it identifies topical areas that may help scientists prepare for public meetings, based on the developers' ongoing research in science communication in public forums.

  13. Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC) Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.B.

    2002-02-28

    The Environmental Sciences Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has established a Field Research Center (FRC) to support the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee for the DOE Headquarters Office of Biological and Environmental Research within the Office of Science.

  14. Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC) Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.B.

    2002-02-28

    The Environmental Sciences Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has established a Field Research Center (FRC) to support the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee for the DOE Headquarters Office of Biological and Environmental Research within the Office of Science.

  15. Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, W.D.

    2009-09-02

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled “Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center”, which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2.

  16. In vivo resistance to chloroquine by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum at Nabire, Irian Jaya, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J K; Wiady, I; Fryauff, D J; Sutanihardja, M A; Leksana, B; Widjaya, H; Kysdarmanto; Subianto, B

    1997-06-01

    A survey of resistance to chloroquine by Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum was conducted during May 1995 at three mesoendemic villages 30 km southeast of Nabire, near the central northern coast of Irian Jaya, Indonesia. The prevalence of malaria at Urusumu (n = 157), Margajaya (n = 573), and Topo (n = 199) was 18%. 9%, and 9%, respectively, with spleen rates among children of 79%, 10%, and 27%. Infected patients among those screened formed a study population of 64 subjects eligible for a 28-day in vivo test of resistance to chloroquine. Sixty-three patients successfully completed the test; 45 males and 18 females 1-60 years of age, of whom 29 were Javanese transmigrants of five years residence in Irian Jaya and 34 were native to Irian Jaya. The seven-day day cumulative incidence of therapeutic failure for P. vivax and P. falciparum was 15% (n = 34) and 30% (n = 37). The 14- and 28-day estimates of cumulative incidence were 45% and 64% for P. vivax and 58% and 89% for P. falciparum. Almost all recurrences appeared in the face of ordinarily effective levels of chloroquine and its major metabolite, desethylchloroquine, in whole blood (> or = 100 ng/ml). Four infections by P. malariae in subjects enrolled in this study cleared by day 2 and none reappeared within 28 days. Chloroquine no longer provides effective therapy for falciparum or vivax malaria along the northern coast of Irian Jaya, Indonesia.

  17. Quality Assurance Plan for Field Activities at the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.C.

    2002-02-28

    The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established a Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program Field Research Center (FRC) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research. The FRC is located in Bear Creek Valley within the Y-12 Plant area of responsibility on DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. The NABIR program is a long-term effort designed to increase the understanding of fundamental biogeochemical processes that would allow the use of bioremediation approaches for cleaning up DOE's contaminated legacy waste sites. The FRC provides a site for investigators in the NABIR program to conduct research and obtain samples related to in situ bioremediation. The FRC is integrated with existing and future laboratory and field research and provides a means of examining the biogeochemical processes that influence bioremediation under controlled small-scale field conditions. This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) documents the quality assurance protocols for field and laboratory activities performed by the FRC staff. It supplements the requirements in the ORNL Nuclear Quality Assurance Program and the ESD Quality Assurance Program. The QAP addresses the requirements in Title 10 CFR, Part 830 Subpart A, ''Quality Assurance Requirements'', using a graded approach appropriate for Research and Development projects based on guidance from ''Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research'' (DOE-ER-STD-6001-92). It also supports the NABIR FRC Management Plan (Watson and Quarles 2000a) which outlines the overall procedures, roles and responsibilities for conducting research at the FRC. The QAP summarizes the organization, work activities, and qualify assurance and quality control protocols that will be used to generate scientifically defensible data at the FRC. The QAP pertains to field

  18. Quality Assurance Plan for Field Activities at the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.C.

    2002-02-28

    The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established a Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program Field Research Center (FRC) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research. The FRC is located in Bear Creek Valley within the Y-12 Plant area of responsibility on DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. The NABIR program is a long-term effort designed to increase the understanding of fundamental biogeochemical processes that would allow the use of bioremediation approaches for cleaning up DOE's contaminated legacy waste sites. The FRC provides a site for investigators in the NABIR program to conduct research and obtain samples related to in situ bioremediation. The FRC is integrated with existing and future laboratory and field research and provides a means of examining the biogeochemical processes that influence bioremediation under controlled small-scale field conditions. This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) documents the quality assurance protocols for field and laboratory activities performed by the FRC staff. It supplements the requirements in the ORNL Nuclear Quality Assurance Program and the ESD Quality Assurance Program. The QAP addresses the requirements in Title 10 CFR, Part 830 Subpart A, ''Quality Assurance Requirements'', using a graded approach appropriate for Research and Development projects based on guidance from ''Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research'' (DOE-ER-STD-6001-92). It also supports the NABIR FRC Management Plan (Watson and Quarles 2000a) which outlines the overall procedures, roles and responsibilities for conducting research at the FRC. The QAP summarizes the organization, work activities, and qualify assurance and quality control protocols that will be used to generate scientifically defensible data at the FRC. The QAP pertains to field

  19. Examining the Construct Validity of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Gentile, Brittany; Lynam, Donald R.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Lynam and colleagues recently developed a new self-report inventory for the assessment of psychopathy, the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA). Using a sample of undergraduates (N = 227), the authors examined the construct validity of the EPA by examining its correlations with self and stranger ratings on the Five-Factor Model, as well as…

  20. River Health Assessment Based on Fuzzy Matter-element Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to assess the health state of rivers by using fuzzy matter-element model.[Method] Based on fuzzy matter-element analysis theory,the assessment model of river health was established,then a modified method to calculate the superior subordinate degree was put forward according to Hamming distance.Afterwards,a multi-level evaluation model,which contained the assessment indicators about hydrological features,ecological characteristics,environmental traits and service function,was set ...

  1. Mapping Wound Assessment Data Elements in SNOMED CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Lori; Handfield, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The use of standardized terminologies is an essential component to support interoperability in electronic health records. In British Columbia, Canada, a commonly used nursing wound assessment template was mapped to SNOMED CT. Preliminary results have found that 50.8% of the wound assessment data elements had direct matches to concepts within SNOMED CT. Results of this mapping activity have produced a set of mapped wound assessment parameters to SNOMED CT.

  2. Assessing performance and validating finite element simulations using probabilistic knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolin, Ronald M.; Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.)

    2002-01-01

    Two probabilistic approaches for assessing performance are presented. The first approach assesses probability of failure by simultaneously modeling all likely events. The probability each event causes failure along with the event's likelihood of occurrence contribute to the overall probability of failure. The second assessment method is based on stochastic sampling using an influence diagram. Latin-hypercube sampling is used to stochastically assess events. The overall probability of failure is taken as the maximum probability of failure of all the events. The Likelihood of Occurrence simulation suggests failure does not occur while the Stochastic Sampling approach predicts failure. The Likelihood of Occurrence results are used to validate finite element predictions.

  3. Assessment of some heavy elements in Galma dam, Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butu, A.W

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the levels of concentration and distribution of Pb, Cr, Fe, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn and Cu in Galma dam, Zaria, Nigeria which spanned to 35Km. The main source of data was the surface water from the lower and the upper regions of the dam. The samples were collected and prepared in the laboratory according to standard method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS technique was used to analyze the data. The results showed concentration of Pb, Cr, Fe, Cd, Co, Zn and Cu at various levels and the concentration of Ni below detectable level. The results also showed the distribution of these elements at lower and upper regions of Galma dam. The enrichment of these heavy elements in the dam could be explained by the loading of the dam with debris and effluents produced by various human activities within the dam catchment area through overland and base flows and the release of elements from geologic processes. The concentration of Pb, Cr and Fe were observed to be slightly above NIS and WHO standards for drinking water. To minimize pollution of the reserviour, it is strongly recommended that there should be reduction in levels of some unhealthy practices such as indiscriminate discharge of effluents like, engine oil, lubricants, used batteries, electric bulbs/fluorescent tubes, electronic and electrical appliances and high level use of chemicals on the farms are recommended to be discouraged.

  4. Exposure assessment of a cyclist to particles and chemical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, C A; Silva, J R; Faria, T; Wolterbeek, T H; Almeida, S M

    2017-05-01

    Cycle paths can be used as a route for active transportation or simply to cycle for physical activity and leisure. However, exposure to air pollutants can be boosted while cycling, in urban environments, due to the proximity to vehicular emissions and elevated breathing rates. The objective of this work was to assess the exposure of a cyclist to particles and to chemical elements by combining real-time aerosol mass concentration reading equipment and biomonitoring techniques. PM10 and PM2.5 were measured on three cycle paths located in Lisbon, during weekdays and weekends and during rush hours and off-peak hours resulting in a total of 60 campaigns. Lichens were exposed along cycle paths for 3 months, and their element contents were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis using the k 0 methodology (k 0-INAA). Using a bicycle commute route of lower traffic intensity and avoiding rush hours or other times with elevated vehicular congestion facilitate a reduction in exposure to pollutants. The implementation of cycle paths in cities is important to stimulate physical activity and active transportation; however, it is essential to consider ambient air and pollutant sources to create safer infrastructures.

  5. Assessment of stochastically updated finite element models using reliability indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, X. G.; Wen, Q.; Ni, Y. Q.; Chen, Z. Q.

    2017-01-01

    Finite element (FE) model updating techniques have been a viable approach to correcting an initial mathematical model based on test data. Validation of the updated FE models is usually conducted by comparing model predictions with independent test data that have not been used for model updating. This approach of model validation cannot be readily applied in the case of a stochastically updated FE model. In recognizing that structural reliability is a major decision factor throughout the lifecycle of a structure, this study investigates the use of structural reliability as a measure for assessing the quality of stochastically updated FE models. A recently developed perturbation method for stochastic FE model updating is first applied to attain the stochastically updated models by using the measured modal parameters with uncertainty. The reliability index and failure probability for predefined limit states are computed for the initial and the stochastically updated models, respectively, and are compared with those obtained from the 'true' model to assess the quality of the two models. Numerical simulation of a truss bridge is provided as an example. The simulated modal parameters involving different uncertainty magnitudes are used to update an initial model of the bridge. It is shown that the reliability index obtained from the updated model is much closer to true reliability index than that obtained from the initial model in the case of small uncertainty magnitude; in the case of large uncertainty magnitude, the reliability index computed from the initial model rather than from the updated model is closer to the true value. The present study confirms the usefulness of measurement-calibrated FE models and at the same time also highlights the importance of the uncertainty reduction in test data for reliable model updating and reliability evaluation.

  6. Development of the damage assessment methodology for ceiling elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Atsumi; Nishitani, Akira; Wakatabe, Morimasa; Inai, Shinsuke; Ohdomari, Iwao; Tsutsumi, Hiroki

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the basic concept of a damage assessment methodology for ceiling elements with the aid of smart sensor board and inspection robot. In this proposed system, the distributed smart sensor boards firstly detect the fact of damage occurrence. Next, the robot inspects the damage location and captures the photographic image of damage condition. The smart sensor board for the proposed system mainly consists of microcontroller, strain gage and LAN module. The inspection robot integrated into the proposed system has a wireless camera and wireless LAN device for receiving signal to manipulate itself. At first, the effectiveness of the smart sensor board and inspection robot is tested by experiments of a full-scale suspended ceiling utilizing shaking table facilities. The model ceiling is subjected to several levels of excitations and thus various levels of damages are caused. Next, this robot inspection scheme is applied to the ceiling of a real structure damaged by the 2011 off the pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The obtained results indicate that the proposed system can detect the location and condition of the damage.

  7. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Ecological Integrity: Conservation Element Summary (HUC5)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map presents summaries of conservation elements by reporting unit (HUC5) alongside terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for change. This includes the...

  8. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Ecological Integrity: Conservation Element Summary (4KM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map presents summaries of conservation elements by reporting unit (4KM) alongside terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for change. This includes...

  9. Uranium density reduction on fuel element side plates assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Ilka A. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, Delvonei A.; Domingos, Douglas B.; Umbehaun, Pedro E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    During operation of IEA-R1 research reactor, located at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP, an abnormal oxidation on some fuel elements was noted. It was also verified, among the possible causes of the problem, that the most likely one was insufficient cooling of the elements in the core. One of the propositions to solve or minimize the problem is to reduce uranium density on fuel elements side plates. In this paper, the influence of this change on neutronic and thermal hydraulic parameters for IEA-R1 reactor is verified by simulations with the codes HAMMER and CITATION. Results are presented and discussed. (author)

  10. A new assessment of the alleged link between element 115 and element 117 decay chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, U.; Rudolph, D.; Fahlander, C.; Golubev, P.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Åberg, S.; Block, M.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Heßberger, F. P.; Kratz, J. V.; Yakushev, A.

    2016-09-01

    A novel rigorous statistical treatment is applied to available data (May 9, 2016) from search and spectroscopy experiments on the elements with atomic numbers Z = 115 and Z = 117. The present analysis implies that the hitherto proposed cross-reaction link between α-decay chains associated with the isotopes 293117 and 289115 is highly improbable.

  11. A new assessment of the alleged link between element 115 and element 117 decay chains

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, U.; Rudolph, D.; Fahlander, C; Golubev, P.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Åberg, S.; Block, M.; Düllmann, Ch.E.; Heßberger, F. P.; Kratz, J. V.; A. Yakushev

    2016-01-01

    A novel rigorous statistical treatment is applied to available data (May 9, 2016) from search and spectroscopy experiments on the elements with atomic numbers Z=115 and Z=117 . The present analysis implies that the hitherto proposed cross-reaction link between α -decay chains associated with the isotopes 293 117 and 289 115 is highly improbable.

  12. A new assessment of the alleged link between element 115 and element 117 decay chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Forsberg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel rigorous statistical treatment is applied to available data (May 9, 2016 from search and spectroscopy experiments on the elements with atomic numbers Z=115 and Z=117. The present analysis implies that the hitherto proposed cross-reaction link between α-decay chains associated with the isotopes 293117 and 289115 is highly improbable.

  13. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.405 Section 103.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.405 Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. (a) The AMS... paragraph (a) of this section, an AMS Assessment should consider each of the following: (1)...

  14. Trace element measurement for assessment of dog food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A; Elias, Camila; Bacchi, Márcio Arruda; Bode, Peter

    2017-02-12

    The quality of dog diets depends on adequate ingredients capable of providing optimal nutrition and free of contaminants, for promoting long-term health. Trace elements in 95 samples of dry food for dog puppies (n = 32) and adults (n = 63) of various brands were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mass fractions of most elements were within the permissible limits for dogs. Aluminum, antimony, and uranium presented fairly high levels in some samples, which may imply health risks. Aluminum mass fractions ranged from dog food. Antimony mass fractions ranged up to 5.14 mg/kg, with the highest values measured in six samples of dog food from the same producer. The mass fractions of uranium was found up to 4 mg/kg in commercial brands from five different producers.

  15. Quality Assessment and Control of Finite Element Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    34Computation of Stress Field Parameters in Areas of Steep Stress Gradients," Communciations in Applied Numerical Methods , Vol. 2, 1986, pp. 133-137. 56. Szabo...Methods for Second Derivatives in Finite Element Approximation of Linear Elasticity Problems," Communications in Applied % Numerical Methods , Vol. 1, 1985...Procedures," Communications in Applied Numerical Methods , Vol. 1, 1985, pp. 3-9. 176. Fletcher, C. A. J., Computational Galerkin Methods, Springer

  16. Assessment of intermittent trace element pollution by moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesa, M. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mcesa@units.it; Bizzotto, A. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Ferraro, C. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Fumagalli, F. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Nimis, P.L. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Moss bags of the aquatic bryophyte Rhynchostegium riparioides (Hedw.) C. Jens. were transplanted into an irrigation ditch in the Province of Vicenza (NE Italy), affected by intermittent trace element contamination due to galvanics. The study aimed at: (a) testing the ability of mosses to detect different patterns of pollution (b) providing information about intensity and temporal extension of pollution events, and (c) localising the main sources. Moss bags were collected after 20, 34, 48 and 62 days of exposure. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the desiccated apical shoots of mosses were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations measured in non-contaminated stations of a previous work were adopted as background values, to calculate the contamination factor (CF). Transplants were able to: (a) detect spatial patterns of bioaccumulation (b) reveal chronic contamination by Pb and Cu, intermittent contamination by Cr, Zn, and Ni, and a release of Cd by moss bags, and (c) localise the main emission sources. - Transplanted bryophytes are able to detect accidental trace element pollution in freshwaters of industrial areas.

  17. Study of element uptake in plants from the soil to assess environmental contamination by toxic elements

    CERN Document Server

    En, Z; Tsipin, V V; Tillaev, T; Jumaniyazova, G I

    2003-01-01

    Uptake of various elements by plants through the root system from the soil was studied. Vegetation experiments with cotton and white beet were carried out in the control and test fields. The test fields were enriched with phyto-bacterial strains capable of dissolving insoluble phosphate compounds. Analytical work involved analysis of blank, control and test soil samples and analysis of plants sampled in different growing periods: periods of first sprouts, florescence and ripening of the plants. Multielement analyses of soil and plant samples were carried out by instrumental neutron activation techniques using our WWR-SM research reactor. Results of the measurements have shown that macro- and microelement composition of the analyzed soil samples were consistent to clark contents except for copper. Our experiments have resulted that the concentration levels of copper in the soils were within 300-450 mg/kg, and its average concentration in cotton leaves was about similar to 35 mg/kg while in beet leaves it reach...

  18. Assessing elemental mercury vapor exposure from cultural and religious practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D M; Newby, C A; Leal-Almeraz, T O; Thomas, V M

    2001-08-01

    Use of elemental mercury in certain cultural and religious practices can cause high exposures to mercury vapor. Uses include sprinkling mercury on the floor of a home or car, burning it in a candle, and mixing it with perfume. Some uses can produce indoor air mercury concentrations one or two orders of magnitude above occupational exposure limits. Exposures resulting from other uses, such as infrequent use of a small bead of mercury, could be well below currently recognized risk levels. Metallic mercury is available at almost all of the 15 botanicas visited in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, but botanica personnel often deny having mercury for sale when approached by outsiders to these religious and cultural traditions. Actions by public health authorities have driven the mercury trade underground in some locations. Interviews indicate that mercury users are aware that mercury is hazardous, but are not aware of the inhalation exposure risk. We argue against a crackdown by health authorities because it could drive the practices further underground, because high-risk practices may be rare, and because uninformed government intervention could have unfortunate political and civic side effects for some Caribbean and Latin American immigrant groups. We recommend an outreach and education program involving religious and community leaders, botanica personnel, and other mercury users.

  19. Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-04-30

    Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 microg/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 microg/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 microg/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 microg/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 microg/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 microg/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 microg/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 microg/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 microg/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 microg/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 microg/g for zinc, 2.91-155 microg/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption.

  20. Construction and assessment of hierarchical edge elements for three-dimensional computations of eddy currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midtgaard, Ole-Morten

    1997-12-31

    This thesis considers the feasibility of doing calculations to optimize electrical machines without the need to build expensive prototypes. It deals with the construction and assessment of new, hierarchical, hexahedral edge elements for three-dimensional computations of eddy currents with the electric vector potential formulation. The new elements, five in all, gave up to second-order approximations for both the magnetic field and the current density. Theoretical arguments showed these elements to be more economical for a given polynomial order of the approximated fields than the serendipity family of nodal elements. Further it was pointed out how the support of a source field computed by using edge elements could be made very small provided that a proper spanning tree was used in the edge element mesh. This was exploited for the voltage forcing technique, where source fields were used as basis functions, with unknown total currents in voltage forced conductors as degrees of freedom. The practical assessment of the edge elements proved the accuracy to improve with increasing polynomial order, both for local and global quantities. The most economical element was, however, one giving only complete first-order approximations for both fields. Further, the edge elements turned out to be better than the nodal elements also in practice. For the voltage forcing technique, source field basis functions which had small support, resulted in large reduction of the CPU-time for solving the main equation system, compared to source fields which had large support. The new elements can be used in a p-type adaptive scheme, and they should also be applicable for other tangentially continuous field problems. 67 refs., 34 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Assessment of Human Organism's Intake of Trace Elements from Staple Foodstuffs in Central Region of Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Okina, O I; Frontasyeva, M A; Gundorina, S F

    2004-01-01

    The trace element content of raw materials and foodstuffs produced from them, typical for basket of goods of residents of Central Russia, was examined. An excess of permissible levels of some trace elements was observed. This phenomenon is explained in terms of different factors such as pollution of the environment, industrial technologies, biological peculiarities of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin. An assessment of human organism's trace element intake of different food allowances is given. This study was undertaken in the framework of IAEA CRP (Contract No. 11927/R2).

  2. Final Scientific/Technical Report – DE-FG02-06ER64172 – Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center – Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric E. Roden

    2009-03-17

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled “Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center”, which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2. Area 2 is a shallow pathway for migration of contaminated groundwater to seeps in the upper reach of Bear Creek at ORNL, mainly through a ca. 1 m thick layer of gravel located 4-5 m below the ground surface. The gravel layer is sandwiched between an overlying layer of disturbed fill material, and 2-3 m of undisturbed shale saprolite derived from the underlying Nolichucky Shale bedrock. The fill was put in place when contaminated soils were excavated and replaced by native saprolite from an uncontaminated area within Bear Creek Valley; the gravel layer was presumably installed prior to addition of the fill in order to provide a stable surface for the operation of heavy machinery. The undisturbed saprolite is highly weathered bedrock that has unconsolidated character but retains much of the bedding and fracture structure of the parent rock (shale with interbedded limestone). Hydrological tracer studies conducted during the Scheibe et al. field

  3. Performance Degradation Assessment of Rolling Element Bearings Based on an Index Combining SVD and Information Exergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance degradation assessment of rolling element bearings is vital for the reliable and cost-efficient operation and maintenance of rotating machines, especially for the implementation of condition-based maintenance (CBM. For robust degradation assessment of rolling element bearings, uncertainties such as those induced from usage variations or sensor errors must be taken into account. This paper presents an information exergy index for bearing performance degradation assessment that combines singular value decomposition (SVD and the information exergy method. Information exergy integrates condition monitoring information of multiple instants and multiple sensors, and thus performance degradation assessment uncertainties are reduced and robust degradation assessment results can be obtained using the proposed index. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed information exergy index are validated through experimental case studies.

  4. ON ASSESSMENT OF DILAPIDATION IN ELASTO-PLASTIC ELEMENTS OF BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for assessment of threshold limit and current rates of dilapidation in building elements which is based on the second strength theory. The method is realized in accordance with the criteria of the maximum linear deformations and with due account of reduction in elasticity module value when material creeping occurs. The method is directed on practical assessment of dynamics pertaining to the values of  rejection probability or destruction of building elements in the process of its operation during the period of its life cycle.In order to assess dilapidation in elasto-plastic elements of buildings it is necessary to make measurements of deformation growth according to external features, determine average deformation at the beginning of building operation and in specified period of time, threshold limit values of complete relative deformation that characterizes maximum allowable element dilapidation with account of plasticity. Further, а percentage dilapidation scale has been formed on the basis of remainder between average values of initial and threshold limit deformations and with due consideration of plasticity, rejection probability or  conjugate conditions with other building elements. So in order to form the percentage dilapidation scale the deformation remainder has been divided by 100 % dilapidation and temporary dilapidation scale has been formed when the remainder is divided by value of element service life. The scales reflect dilapidation rate of the building element through probability growth of its destruction. In this context dilapidated operational period of construction elements and structures should not be included in their rated service life which firstly should guarantee the required security level.

  5. Bioavailability and health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in Thriasio Plain, near Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Vasileios; Golia, Evangelia E; Shaheen, Sabry M; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Elevated concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) are usually found in areas of intense industrial activity. Thriasio Plain is a plain near Athens, Greece, where most of the heavy industry of the country has been situated for decades, but it also is a residential and horticultural area. We aimed at measuring the levels of PTEs in soils and indigenous plant species and assessing the health risk associated with direct soil ingestion. Samples of soils at roadsides and growing plants were collected from 31 sites of that area. Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were measured in both soils (as pseudo-total) and aerial plant tissues. We found that As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were higher than maximum regulatory limits. Element concentrations in plants were rather lower than expected, probably because indigenous plants have developed excluder behaviour over time. Copper and Zn soil-to-plant coefficients were highest among the other elements; for Cu this was unexpected, and probably associated with recent Cu-releasing industrial activity. Risk assessment analysis indicated that As was the element contributing more than 50 % of the health risk related to direct soil ingestion, followed by Cr, Pb, and, surprisingly, Mn. We concluded that in a multi-element contamination situation, elevated risk of PTEs (such as As, Cr and Pb) may reduce the tolerance limits of exposure to less-toxic elements (here, Mn).

  6. Assessment of trace element accumulation in surface sediments off Chennai coast after a major flood event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, V; Krishnakumar, S; Simon Peter, T; Nethaji, S; Suresh Kumar, K; Jayaprakash, M; Magesh, N S

    2017-01-30

    The present study was conducted to assess the trace element concentration in marine surface sediments after major flood event of Chennai metropolis, India. Thirty surface samples were collected from off Chennai coast. Trace elements, organic matter, CaCO3, sand-silt-clay and C/N ratios were studied to understand the accumulation dynamics on sediments. The elemental concentration, calcium carbonate and OM distribution suggest that they are derived from urban runoff and transported through Adyar and Cooum Rivers. The enrichment factor reveals that the sediments are enriched by Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Ni followed by Fe. The observed Igeo value shows that the samples are contaminated by Pb, Cu and Zn. The elemental concentration of the surface sediments is low when compared to other coastal region except Pb. The elevated level of Pb in the surface sediments is probably due to migration of contaminated urban soil from industrial and transportation sectors into marine environment.

  7. Assessment of Trace Element Daily Intake Based on Consumption Rate of Foodstuffs in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damastuti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are required by human body and have a variety role in biochemical functions mostly as catalyst for enzymatic activity in human body. Some trace elements are essential since they are inadequately or not synthesized by human body. The deficiency or excess of those essential trace element may cause disease and be deleterious to health. Since food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements either, the levels of trace elements in consumed food products must be determined. The determination of trace elements content in foodstuffs widely consumed in Bandung city were conducted to assess their daily intake and contribution to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA values. Food samples were collected from traditional markets spread across five regions of the Bandung city and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA. Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1567a Wheat Flour and 1568a Rice Flour and gave good results with % recovery, 93.2 – 104.8%; and %CV, 3.8-11.6%. A large variability of essential trace elements concentration in all types of foods analyzed were observed. The daily intake of Cr, Co, Mn, Se and Zn were supplied enough by the diet, except for Fe which found that almost all the foods analyzed were not give a satisfying contribution to the RDA value of Fe. These result were expected could provide information of nutritional status of the society and can be a reference for government and related institution to effectively making policies and solution for public health improvement

  8. Assessing the Basic Traits Associated with Psychopathy: Development and Validation of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Miller, Joshua D.; Miller, Drew J.; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    A new self-report assessment of the basic traits of psychopathy was developed with a general trait model of personality (five-factor model [FFM]) as a framework. Scales were written to assess maladaptive variants of the 18 FFM traits that are robustly related to psychopathy across a variety of perspectives including empirical correlations, expert…

  9. Assessing the Basic Traits Associated with Psychopathy: Development and Validation of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Miller, Joshua D.; Miller, Drew J.; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    A new self-report assessment of the basic traits of psychopathy was developed with a general trait model of personality (five-factor model [FFM]) as a framework. Scales were written to assess maladaptive variants of the 18 FFM traits that are robustly related to psychopathy across a variety of perspectives including empirical correlations, expert…

  10. Spatial Distribution and Fuzzy Health Risk Assessment of Trace Elements in Surface Water from Honghu Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Qiu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Chaoyang; Cai, Ying; Xiao, Minsi

    2017-09-04

    Previous studies revealed that Honghu Lake was polluted by trace elements due to anthropogenic activities. This study investigated the spatial distribution of trace elements in Honghu Lake, and identified the major pollutants and control areas based on the fuzzy health risk assessment at screening level. The mean total content of trace elements in surface water decreased in the order of Zn (18.04 μg/L) > Pb (3.42 μg/L) > Cu (3.09 μg/L) > Cr (1.63 μg/L) > As (0.99 μg/L) > Cd (0.14 μg/L), within limits of Drinking Water Guidelines. The results of fuzzy health risk assessment indicated that there was no obvious non-carcinogenic risk to human health, while carcinogenic risk was observed in descending order of As > Cr > Cd > Pb. As was regarded to have the highest carcinogenic risk among selected trace elements because it generally accounted for 64% of integrated carcinogenic risk. Potential carcinogenic risk of trace elements in each sampling site was approximately at medium risk level (10(-5) to 10(-4)). The areas in the south (S4, S13, and S16) and northeast (S8, S18, and S19) of Honghu Lake were regarded as the risk priority control areas. However, the corresponding maximum memberships of integrated carcinogenic risk in S1, S3, S10-S13, S15, and S18 were of relatively low credibility (50-60%), and may mislead the decision-makers in identifying the risk priority areas. Results of fuzzy assessment presented the subordinate grade and corresponding reliability of risk, and provided more full-scale results for decision-makers, which made up for the deficiency of certainty assessment to a certain extent.

  11. Quantitative Assessment of Cost and Time Implication of Susceptibility of Building Elements to Variation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Olusola Babatunde

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of research studies have been carried out on the causes and effects of variation on construction project delivery, thereby taking for granted the susceptibility of building elements to variations. This formed the basis of this paper with a view to assessing the cost and time implications of the susceptibility of each building element to variation during construction process in Nigeria. Archival record comprises contract drawings, original bill of quantities, addendum and reduction bill of quantities, and minutes of site meetings among others were used to extract data relating to initial cost, final construction cost, estimated period, final completion period of each building element attributed to variations. The data obtained were analyzed using statistical methods of average, percentage, regression analysis, and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The study identified the building elements having greater than 20% of cost overrun due to variation as earthwork and fillings, frame, windows and external doors, fittings and furnishings, water installation, and external services. The study further identified the building elements having greater than 25% time overrun due to variation as earthwork and fillings, block work (at substructure, upper floors, external walls, wall finishing among others. The results of ANOVA and regression analysis on the building elements cost and time were used to establish models. Thus, the established models are: AFC= 981690 + 1.033AIC; and AFCO= 608390.865 +1.310AIC to predict the average final cost of each building element, and the average final cost overrun of each building element due to variation respectively, where AFC= Average Final Cost, AIC= Average Initial Cost, and AFCO= Average Final Cost Overrun. Also, the study established the model: Y = 1.379(X – 0.251 for predicting the average actual completion period of each building element, where Y= Average Actual Completion Period, and X= Average Estimated Period

  12. Neutron activation analysis for assessing the concentrations of trace elements in laboratory detergents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskander, F.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to assess the concentration of 20 elements in the following laboratory detergents: Micro, Cavi-Clean liquid, RBS-35, Liqui-Nox, Treg-A-Zyme, Alcojet, Alconox, Alcotabs and Radiacwash: and a detergent additive: CaviClean additive. The upper detected limits or the concentration ranges for the detergents are (element concentration in ..mu..g/g): Ba, <20; Ce, <0.8; Cl, 27-10000; Co, <0.1; Cr, <1; Cs, <0.6; Eu, <0.009; Fe, <3-45; Hf, <0.07; Mn, <10; Ni, <5; Rb, <0.08-0.89; Sb, <0.006-1.8; Sc, <0.0003-0.008; Se, <0.05; Sr <30; Th, <0.6; U, <0.1; V, <10; Zn, <0.2-2.0. The concentrations of trace elements in the examined laboratory detergents are below those reported in the literature for household detergents.

  13. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Sudaryanto, Agus; Monirith, In; Kan-Atireklap, Supawat; Iwata, Hisato; Ismail, Ahmad; Sanguansin, Joompol; Muchtar, Muswerry; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-02-01

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people.

  14. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Monirith, In [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kan-Atireklap, Supawat [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Ismail, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sanguansin, Joompol [Eastern Marine Fisheries Development Center, Ban Phe, Muang, Rayong 21160 (Thailand); Muchtar, Muswerry [Research and Development Center for Oceanology Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Jl. Pasir Putih 1, Ancol Timur, Jakarta 11048 (Indonesia); Tana, Touch Seang [Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES), Office of the Council of Ministers, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-02-15

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. -- Intake of mercury through consumption of some marine fish species might be hazardous to the people in Southeast Asia.

  15. Fatigue assessment of an existing steel bridge by finite element modelling and field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwad, J.; Alencar, G.; Correia, J.; Jesus, A.; Calçada, R.; Kripakaran, P.

    2017-05-01

    The evaluation of fatigue life of structural details in metallic bridges is a major challenge for bridge engineers. A reliable and cost-effective approach is essential to ensure appropriate maintenance and management of these structures. Typically, local stresses predicted by a finite element model of the bridge are employed to assess the fatigue life of fatigue-prone details. This paper illustrates an approach for fatigue assessment based on measured data for a connection in an old bascule steel bridge located in Exeter (UK). A finite element model is first developed from the design information. The finite element model of the bridge is calibrated using measured responses from an ambient vibration test. The stress time histories are calculated through dynamic analysis of the updated finite element model. Stress cycles are computed through the rainflow counting algorithm, and the fatigue prone details are evaluated using the standard SN curves approach and the Miner’s rule. Results show that the proposed approach can estimate the fatigue damage of a fatigue prone detail in a structure using measured strain data.

  16. Using water, bryophytes, and macroinvertebrates to assess trace element concentrations in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, J.R.; Spahr, N.E.; Mize, S.V.; Boulger, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined trace elements concentrations and macroinvertebrate community structure at 32 sites in 22 streams in Colorado. Sites affected by mining activities (mining sites) and sites that were minimally disturbed (nonmining sites) were selected for the assessment. Water and transplanted aquatic bryophyte samples were analyzed for trace elements. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected to assess the effects of trace elements on the aquatic community of the stream. All samples of aquatic bryophytes had detectable concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Principal components analysis of chemical and physical properties classified sites into three groups. The first group represented sites that were unaffected to minimally affected by mining activities; the second group was characterized by sites with Cd, Pb and Zn predominant in the mineralogy; and the third group was characterized by sites with Cu predominant in the mineralogy. Six macroinvertebrate families were common in the study area. Median values of total abundance, taxa richness and mayfly and stonefly abundance were reduced at mining sites. Abundances of Heptageniidae, Chloroperlidae and Rhyacophila and Baetis sp. also were reduced at sites with elevated trace element concentrations. Tanytarsini chironomids were most abundant at reference and minimally-disturbed sites.

  17. Assessment of trace elements levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes using multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, M; Morsy, R; Soliman, H; Elnimr, T

    2016-01-01

    The trace elements metabolism has been reported to possess specific roles in the pathogenesis and progress of diabetes mellitus. Due to the continuous increase in the population of patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D), this study aims to assess the levels and inter-relationships of fast blood glucose (FBG) and serum trace elements in Type 2 diabetic patients. This study was conducted on 40 Egyptian Type 2 diabetic patients and 36 healthy volunteers (Hospital of Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt). The blood serum was digested and then used to determine the levels of 24 trace elements using an inductive coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Multivariate statistical analysis depended on correlation coefficient, cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to analysis the data. The results exhibited significant changes in FBG and eight of trace elements, Zn, Cu, Se, Fe, Mn, Cr, Mg, and As, levels in the blood serum of Type 2 diabetic patients relative to those of healthy controls. The statistical analyses using multivariate statistical techniques were obvious in the reduction of the experimental variables, and grouping the trace elements in patients into three clusters. The application of PCA revealed a distinct difference in associations of trace elements and their clustering patterns in control and patients group in particular for Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn that appeared to be the most crucial factors which related with Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, on the basis of this study, the contributors of trace elements content in Type 2 diabetic patients can be determine and specify with correlation relationship and multivariate statistical analysis, which confirm that the alteration of some essential trace metals may play a role in the development of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural integrity assessment by using finite element analysis based on damage mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Nak Hyun; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    This paper introduces structural integrity assessment by using Finite Element analysis based on damage mechanics. Several FE damage methods as like GTN model have been proposed up to the present. These damage models have their own advantages and disadvantages. It is important to select the proper damage model for the integrity assessment of the structure in interest. In this paper, selected several damage models are apply to simulate fracture behaviours of structures with various geometries, and the FE results are compared with the experimental results. These models are implemented to general purpose FE program, ABAQUS, via user-defined subroutines.

  19. An Integrated Assessment of Geochemical and Community Structure Determinants of Metal Reduction Rates in Subsurface Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka, Joel E.

    2005-08-11

    Summary of Results to Date: Our current research represents a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Florida State University (FSU), and the University of Tennessee. ORNL will serve as the lead institution with Dr. A.V. Palumbo responsible for project coordination, integration, and deliverables. This project was initiated in November, 2004, in the Integrative Studies Element of the NABIR program. The overall goal of our project is to provide an improved understanding of the relationships between microbial community structure, geochemistry, and metal reduction rates.

  20. Tipping elements and climate-economic shocks: Pathways toward integrated assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Robert E.; Shwom, Rachael L.; Wagner, Gernot; Yuan, Jiacan

    2016-08-01

    The literature on the costs of climate change often draws a link between climatic "tipping points" and large economic shocks, frequently called "catastrophes." The phrase "tipping points" in this context can be misleading. In popular and social scientific discourse, "tipping points" involve abrupt state changes. For some climatic "tipping points," the commitment to a state change may occur abruptly, but the change itself may be rate-limited and take centuries or longer to realize. Additionally, the connection between climatic "tipping points" and economic losses is tenuous, although emerging empirical and process-model-based tools provide pathways for investigating it. We propose terminology to clarify the distinction between "tipping points" in the popular sense, the critical thresholds exhibited by climatic and social "tipping elements," and "economic shocks." The last may be associated with tipping elements, gradual climate change, or nonclimatic triggers. We illustrate our proposed distinctions by surveying the literature on climatic tipping elements, climatically sensitive social tipping elements, and climate-economic shocks, and we propose a research agenda to advance the integrated assessment of all three.

  1. Quantifying trace elements in the emitted particulate matter during cooking and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorjinezhad, Soudabeh; Kerimray, Aiymgul; Amouei Torkmahalleh, Mehdi; Keleş, Melek; Ozturk, Fatma; Hopke, Philip K

    2017-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) measurements were conducted during heating corn oil, heating corn oil mixed with the table salt and heating low fat ground beef meat using a PTFE-coated aluminum pan on an electric stove with low ventilation. The main objectives of this study were to measure the size segregated mass concentrations, emission rates, and fluxes of 24 trace elements emitted during heating cooking oil or oil with salt and cooking meat. Health risk assessments were performed based on the resulting exposure to trace elements from such cooking activities. The most abundant elements (significantly different from zero) were Ba (24.4 ug m(-3)) during grilling meat and Ti during heating oil with salt (24.4 ug m(-3)). The health assessment indicates that the cooking with an electric stove with poor ventilation leading to chronic exposures may pose the risk of significant adverse health effects. Carcinogenic risk exceeded the acceptable level (target cancer risk 1 × 10(-6), US EPA 2015) by four orders of magnitude, while non-carcinogenic risk exceeded the safe level (target HQ = 1, US EPA 2015) by a factor of 5-20. Cr and Co were the primary contributors to the highest carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks, respectively.

  2. Assessing element-specific patterns of bioaccumulation across New England lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Darren M.; Mayes, Brandon; Sturup, Stefan; Folt, Carol L.; Chen, Celia Y., E-mail: celia.chen@dartmouth.edu

    2012-04-01

    improve our capacity to identify consistent patterns of bioaccumulation and drivers of elevated trace element concentrations under naturally high levels of variability. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed bioaccumulation of MeHg and 5 trace elements across trophic levels Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Patterns were compared across multiple sample dates in 7 New England lakes Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each element had a unique pattern of bioaccumulation, consistent across lakes Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterizing such patterns requires spatial and temporal replication in sampling.

  3. Analytical assessment for stress corrosion fatigue of CANDU fuel elements under load following conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horhoianu, Grigore; Ionescu, Drags; Pauna, Eduard [Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania). Nuclear Fuel Engineering Lab.

    2012-03-15

    When nuclear power reactors are operated in a load following (LF) mode, the nuclear fuel may be subjected to step changes in power on weekly, daily, or even hourly basis, depending on the grid's needs. Two load following tests performed in TRIGA Research Reactor of Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Pitesti were simulated with finite elements computer codes in order to evaluate Stress Corrosion Fatigue (SCF) of the sheath arising from expansion and contraction of the pellets in the corrosive environment. The 3D finite element analyses show that the cyclic strains give highly multiaxial stresses in the sheath at ridge region. This paper summarizes the results of the analytical assessment for SCF and their relation to CANDU fuel performance in LF tests conditions. (orig.)

  4. Critical elements for human health risk assessment of less than lifetime exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraets, Liesbeth; Nijkamp, Monique M; Ter Burg, Wouter

    2016-11-01

    Less than lifetime exposure has confronted risk assessors as to how to interpret the risks for human health in case a chronic health-based limit is exceeded. Intermittent, fluctuating and peak exposures do not match with the basis of the chronic limit values possibly leading to conservative outcomes. This paper presents guidance on how to deal with human risk assessment of less than lifetime exposure. Important steps to be considered are characterization of the human exposure situation, evaluation whether the human less than lifetime exposure scenario corresponds to a non-chronic internal exposure: toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic considerations, and, finally, re-evaluation of the risk assessment. Critical elements for these steps are the mode of action, Haber's rule, and toxicokinetics (ADME) amongst others. Previous work for the endpoints non-genotoxic carcinogenicity and developmental toxicity is included in the guidance. The guidance provides a way to consider the critical elements, without setting default factors to correct for the less than lifetime exposure in risk assessment.

  5. Human health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from environmental matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Elom, Nwabueze

    2012-01-01

    In assessing human health risk of potentially toxic elements (PTEs), it is not the concentration of PTEs in the environmental matrices that is of greatest concern but the fraction that is absorbed into the body via the exposure pathways. The determination of this fraction (i.e. the bioaccessible fraction) through the application of bioaccessibility protocols is the focus of this work. The study investigated human health risk of PTEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn) from oral ingestion of s...

  6. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiosussa@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furlan, Marcos R., E-mail: furlanagro@gmail.com [Universidade de Taubate, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias

    2013-07-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  7. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Breuer, Jörn; Vergne, Philippe; Sanz, María José; Rasmussen, Stine; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Ribas Artola, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep; He, Shang; Garrec, Jean Pierre; Calatayud, Vicent

    Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for consecutive periods of four weeks each to ambient air at up to 100 sites in 11 cities during 2000-2002. Results of the 2001 exposure experiments revealed a clear differentiation of trace element pollution within and among local monitoring networks. Pollution was influenced particularly by traffic emissions. Especially Sb, Pb, Cr, Fe, and Cu exhibited a very uneven distribution within the municipal areas with strong accumulation in plants from traffic-exposed sites in the city centres and close to major roads, and moderate to low levels in plants exposed at suburban or rural sites. Accumulation of Ni and V was influenced by other emission sources. The biomonitoring sites located in Spanish city centres featured a much higher pollution load by trace elements than those in other cities of the network, confirming previously reported findings obtained by chemical analyses of dust deposition and aerosols. At some heavily-trafficked sites, legal thresholds for Cu, Pb, and V contents in foodstuff and animal feed were reached or even surpassed. The study confirmed that the standardised grass exposure is a useful and reliable tool to monitor and to assess environmental levels of potentially toxic compounds of particulate matter.

  8. Epistemic uncertainty in the ranking and categorization of probabilistic safety assessment model elements: issues and findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Emanuele

    2008-08-01

    In this work, we study the effect of epistemic uncertainty in the ranking and categorization of elements of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) models. We show that, while in a deterministic setting a PSA element belongs to a given category univocally, in the presence of epistemic uncertainty, a PSA element belongs to a given category only with a certain probability. We propose an approach to estimate these probabilities, showing that their knowledge allows to appreciate "the sensitivity of component categorizations to uncertainties in the parameter values" (U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 1.174). We investigate the meaning and utilization of an assignment method based on the expected value of importance measures. We discuss the problem of evaluating changes in quality assurance, maintenance activities prioritization, etc. in the presence of epistemic uncertainty. We show that the inclusion of epistemic uncertainly in the evaluation makes it necessary to evaluate changes through their effect on PSA model parameters. We propose a categorization of parameters based on the Fussell-Vesely and differential importance (DIM) measures. In addition, issues in the calculation of the expected value of the joint importance measure are present when evaluating changes affecting groups of components. We illustrate that the problem can be solved using DIM. A numerical application to a case study concludes the work.

  9. What are the elements required to improve exposure estimates in life cycle assessments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Margni, Manuele

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aim to identify and discuss priority elements required to improve exposure estimates in Life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA aims at guiding decision-support to minimize damages on resources, humans, and ecosystems which incur via providing society with products and services. Potential...... human toxicity and ecosystem toxicity of chemicals posed by different product life cycle stages are characterized in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase. Exposure and effect quantification as part of LCIA toxicity characterization faces numerous challenges related to inventory analysis (e.......g. number and quantity of chemicals emitted), substance-specific modelling (e.g. organics, inorganics, nano-materials) in various environments and time horizons, human and ecosystem exposure quantification (e.g. exposed organisms and exposure pathways), and toxicity end-points (e.g. carcinogenicity...

  10. A First Assessment of the Elemental Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols in the Canadian Oil Sands Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabek-Zlotorzynska E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Canadian Oil Sands, which comprise 97% of Canada’s 176 billion barrels of proven oil reserves, are located beneath 140,200 km2 of boreal forests, prairies and wetlands, and are the second largest known deposit of crude oil in the world. As such, this region has experienced rapid industrial development, which resulted also in increasing industrial air emissions, primarily from bitumen upgrading and mine vehicle fleet operations. This rapid development has led to concerns regarding health risk to humans, and other terrestrial and aquatic wildlife associated with exposure to toxic contaminants, especially metals and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs particularly along the Athabasca River and its watershed. Canada’s Minister of the Environment announced that Environment Canada (EC will jointly lead, in collaboration with Government of Alberta and relevant stakeholders, the development and implementation of an enhanced monitoring system in the Oil Sands region to provide information on the state of the air, water, land andbiodiversity. This work presents preliminary data on the first assessment of elemental composition of fine particulate matter (particles<2.5 mm in diameter; PM2.5 at 3 air quality sites in close proximity to Oil Sands processing activities. Since December 2010, integrated 24 hour air samples were collected every sixth day on a 47-mm Teflon filters using Thermo Fisher Partisol 2000-FRM samplers operated by the National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS network that involves EC and the Canadian provinces and territories. All samples including laboratory, travel and field blanks were subjected to gravimetric determination of PM2.5 mass and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF analysis for 46 elements. Since ED-XRF is a non-destructive technique, PM2.5 samples were subsequently analyzed for 37 trace elements including rare earth elements using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS combined with microwave

  11. Elements at risk as a framework for assessing the vulnerability of communities to landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathoma-Köhle, M.; Neuhäuser, B.; Ratzinger, K.; Wenzel, H.; Dominey-Howes, D.

    2007-12-01

    The assessment of the vulnerability of communities prone to landslide related disasters is a topic that is growing in importance. Few studies discuss this issue and limited research has been carried out on the relationship between types of landslide and their potential impact on buildings and infrastructure. We outline a framework to undertake an assessment of the vulnerability of buildings to landslide utilising a similar framework used for assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami damage. The framework is based on the development of an "elements at risk database" that takes into consideration the characteristics and use of the buildings, their importance for the local economy and the characteristics of the inhabitants (population density, age and so forth). The attributes that affect vulnerability are imported and examined within a GIS database which is used to visualise the physical, human and economic vulnerability. The results may have important implications for disaster management and emergency planning, and the database can be used by various end-users and stakeholders such as insurance companies, local authorities and the emergency services. The approach presented here can be integrated in to a wider more detailed "Framework for Landslide Risk and Vulnerability Assessment for Communities". We illustrate the potential of this framework and present preliminary results from Lichtenstein, Baden Württemberg, Germany.

  12. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Edina; Braun, Mihály; Vidic, Andreas; Bogyó, Dávid; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2011-05-01

    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load.

  13. Assessing the utility of trace and rare earth elements as biosignatures in microbial iron oxyhydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eHeim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial iron oxyhydroxides are common deposits in natural waters, recent sediments and mine drainage systems and often contain significant accumulations of trace and rare earth elements (TREE. TREE patterns are widely used to characterize minerals and rocks, and to elucidate their evolution and origin. Whether and which characteristic TREE signatures distinguish between a biological and an abiological origin of iron minerals is still not well understood. Long-term flow reactor studies were performed in the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory to investigate the development of microbial mats dominated by iron-oxidizing bacteria, namely Mariprofundus sp. and Gallionella sp. The experiments investigated the accumulation and fractionation of TREE under controlled conditions and enabled us to assess potential biosignatures evolving within the microbial iron oxyhydroxides. Concentrations of Be, Y, Zn, Zr, Hf, W, Th, Pb, and U in the microbial mats were 1e3- to 1e5-fold higher than in the feeder fluids whereas the rare earth elements and Y (REE+Y contents were 1e4 and 1e6 fold enriched. Except for a hydrothermally induced Eu anomaly, the normalized REE+Y patterns of the microbial iron oxyhydroxides were very similar to published REE+Y distributions of Archaean Banded Iron Formations. The microbial iron oxyhydroxides from the flow reactors were compared to iron oxyhydroxides that were artificially precipitated from the same feeder fluid. These abiotic and inorganic iron oxyhydroxides show the same REE+Y distribution patterns. Our results indicate that the REE+Y mirror quite exactly the water chemistry, but they do not allow to distinguish microbially mediated from inorganic iron precipitates. All TREE studied showed an overall similar fractionation behavior in biogenic, abiotic and inorganic iron oxyhydroxides. Exceptions are Ni and Tl, which were only accumulated in the microbial iron oxyhydroxides and may point to a potential usage of these elements as

  14. Assessing elements of patient safety culture in Kermanshah health care and educational centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siros Kabodi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Annually, many accidents and preventable events happen for the patients hospitalized in treatment centers. Therefore, the related causing factors should be recognized in order to reduce the medical errors. Accordingly, the present study aimed to assess the relationship between patient’s safety culture elements and medical errors and also the ways to tackle them. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 380 employees working in the education and treatment centers affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2015. The hospital version of patient safety culture questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 19 using different statistical tests including multivariate analysis of variance and Pearson’s correlation. Result: The patient safety culture was at an undesirable level in the study centers. Of the elements related to safety culture, the lowest positive scores belonged to ‘issues related to employees’, and ‘reporting’ with scores of 23% and 26%, respectively. On the other hand, ‘team working in the organizations’ (59% and ‘organizational learning’ (57% obtained the highest positive scores. Fifty-eight percent of the respondents did not report any errors. Conclusion: The results of present study emphasize on creating a desirable organizational atmosphere, the need for staff participation in various levels of decision making, and creating the culture of reporting errors in order to recognize the causing factors and to promote patient safety culture.

  15. Major and trace elements assessment in sediment from Ituparanga reservoir, by activation analysis and ICP OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sharlleny A., E-mail: sharllenya@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Inorganica; Bevilacqua, Jose Eduardo [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Tecnologia, Qualidade e Avaliacao Ambiental; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2011-07-01

    The Ituparanga reservoir was built to generate electric power by the LIGHT Company and started its operation in 1912. It is fed by the Una, Sorocamirim and Sorocabucu rivers. This reservoir supplies water to a population of 600.000. This water system is affected by irregular soil occupation and urban development which has caught CETESB's (Environmental Company of Sao Paulo State) attention. In this study four geo-referenced sampling points were used and bottom sediment samples were collected. The sediment samples were dried at 400 deg C, ground in an agate mortar, sieved (200 mesh) and again homogenized. The instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the sediment samples in order to determine some major elements (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. By using ICP OES metals determination for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni was undertaken after digestion procedure according to the 3051 method from US EPA. The methodology validation for precision and accuracy was carried out by reference material analyses. For metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni the concentration values were compared to the oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL). The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated for sediment contamination assessment. (author)

  16. Fatigue and fracture assessment of cracks in steel elements using acoustic emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Navid; Metrovich, Brian; Nanni, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    Single edge notches provide a very well defined load and fatigue crack size and shape environment for estimation of the stress intensity factor K, which is not found in welded elements. ASTM SE(T) specimens do not appear to provide ideal boundary conditions for proper recording of acoustic wave propagation and crack growth behavior observed in steel bridges, but do provide standard fatigue crack growth rate data. A modified versions of the SE(T) specimen has been examined to provide small scale specimens with improved acoustic emission(AE) characteristics while still maintaining accuracy of fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) versus stress intensity factor (ΔK). The specimens intend to represent a steel beam flange subjected to pure tension, with a surface crack growing transverse to a uniform stress field. Fatigue test is conducted at low R ratio. Analytical and numerical studies of stress intensity factor are developed for single edge notch test specimens consistent with the experimental program. ABAQUS finite element software is utilized for stress analysis of crack tips. Analytical, experimental and numerical analysis were compared to assess the abilities of AE to capture a growing crack.

  17. Trace elements in sediments and mussels - spatial distribution, chemical partitioning, and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khairy, Mohammed A. [Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Kolb, Marit; Schmidt, Christiane; Zachmann, Dieter W.; Bahadir, Muefit [Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Mostafa, Alaa R.; EL-Fiky, Anwar A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2010-12-15

    Sediment samples were collected from 30 different locations in Abu Qir Bay (Mediterranean Sea), East Alexandria, Egypt and analyzed for trace elements. The highest concentrations of most of the elements were observed in the nearshore stations in the vicinity of the major anthropogenic activities as industrial settlements, wastewater discharges, and agricultural drainage. In addition, mussel samples of Mactra corallina and Tapes decussata were collected corresponding to the sediment samples. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Mn, and Zn in the mussel tissues were higher than concentrations in sediments, thus indicating their relatively high bioavailability. Sequential extraction procedure was performed on selected sediment samples. Significant correlations were observed between the concentrations of Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the exchangeable fraction of the sediments and the corresponding tissues of M. corallina. The output of the risk assessment applied on the sediments revealed that adverse ecological effects to benthic species could occur and that a higher level of risk is expected from the exposure to Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn. No adverse carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic human health effects are expected from the consumption of the two mussel species from Abu Qir Bay. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Application of finite element analysis for assessing biocompatibility of intra-arterial catheters and probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedingham, W; Neavin, T D

    1991-01-01

    A commercial finite element modeling program (FIDAP) was adapted to compute the fluid dynamics of laminar blood flow around an intra-arterial catheter and/or sensor probe. The model provided an accurate transient solution to the Navier-Stokes equations under pulsatile blood flow conditions. To simulate the compliance in the catheter tubing set, a second order convolution integral was incorporated into the boundary conditions. The saline drip rate and catheter compliance could be specified, and the bulk blood flow, blood pressure, and heart rate were varied to simulate specific patient conditions. Analysis of the transient solution was used to assess probable sites for thrombus activation and deposition. The transient velocity and pressure fields identified regions of separated flow and recirculation. The computed shear rates and stresses were used to predict hemolysis, platelet activation, and thrombus formation. Analysis of particle paths provided an estimate of residence times and thrombus deposition sites.

  19. Life cycle assessment of the production of rare earth elements for energy applications: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio eNavarro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth elements (REEs are a group of seventeen elements with similar chemical properties, including fifteen in the lanthanide group, yttrium, and scandium. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties REEs gain increasing importance in many new energy technologies and systems that contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel depletion (e.g., wind turbine, electric vehicles, high efficiency lighting, batteries, and hydrogen storage. However, it is well known that production of REEs is far from environmentally sustainable as it requires significant material and energy consumption while generating large amounts of air/water emissions and solid waste. Although life cycle assessment (LCA has been accepted as the most comprehensive approach to quantify the environmental sustainability of a product or process, to date, there have been only very limited LCA studies on the production of REEs. With the continual growth of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, global production of REEs will increase. Therefore reducing environmental footprints of REE production becomes critical and identifying environmental hotspots based on a holistic and comprehensive assessment on environmental impacts serves as an important starting point. After providing an overview of LCA methodology and a high-level description of the major REE production routes used from 1990s to today, this paper reviews the published LCA studies on the production of REEs. To date, almost all the LCA studies are based on process information collected from the operation of Mountain Pass facility in U.S. in 1990s and the operation of facilities in Bayan Obo, China. Knowledge gaps are identified and future research efforts are suggested to advance understanding on environmental impacts of REE production from the life cycle perspective.

  20. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Edina, E-mail: edina.simon@gmail.com [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Braun, Mihaly [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Vidic, Andreas [Department fuer Naturschutzbiologie, Vegetations- und Landschaftsoekologie, Universitat Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria); Bogyo, David [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Fabian, Istvan [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Tothmeresz, Bela [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary)

    2011-05-15

    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Highlights: > We studied the elements in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient, Austria. > We analysed 19 elements: Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Pb, S, Sr and Zn. > Elemental concentrations were higher in urban area than in the rural area. > Studied areas were separated by CDA based on the elemental concentrations. > Dust and leaves can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Studying the elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Sr, Zn) in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient in Wien, Austria we found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for Al, Ba, Fe, Pb, P and Se, and concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for Mn and Sr.

  1. Assessment of the non-linear behaviour of plastic ankle foot orthoses by the finite element method

    OpenAIRE

    Syngellakis, S.; Arnold, M. A.; Rassoulian, H.

    2000-01-01

    The stiffness characteristics of plastic ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) are studied through finite element modelling and stress analysis. Particular attention is given to the modelling and prediction of non-linear AFO behaviour, which has been frequently observed in previous experimental studies but not fully addressed analytically. Both large deformation effects and material non-linearity are included in the formulation and their individual influence on results assessed. The finite element progr...

  2. Assessment of trace element accumulation by earthworms in an orchard soil remediation study using soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofantia, Tiziana; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; McConnell, Laura L.; Davis, A. P.; Jackson, Dana

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed potential bioaccumulation of various trace elements in grasses and earthworms as a consequence of soil incorporation of organic amendments for in situ remediation of an orchard field soil contaminated with organochlorine and Pb pesticide residues. In this experiment, four organic amendments of differing total organic carbon content and quality (two types of composted manure, composted biosolids, and biochar) were added to a contaminated orchard field soil, planted with two types of grasses, and tested for their ability to reduce bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metals in earthworms. The experiment was carried out in 4-L soil microcosms in a controlled environment for 90 days. After 45 days of orchardgrass or perennial ryegrass growth, Lumbricus terrestris L. were introduced to the microcosms and exposed to the experimental soils for 45 days before the experiment was ended. Total trace element concentrations in the added organic amendments were below recommended safe levels and their phytoavailablity and earthworm availability remained low during a 90-day bioremediation study. At the end of the experiment, total tissue concentrations of Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn in earthworms and grasses were below recommended safe levels. Total concentrations of Pb in test soil were similar to maximum background levels of Pb recorded in soils in the Eastern USA (100 mg kg−1 d.w.) because of previous application of orchard pesticides. Addition of aged dairy manure compost and presence of grasses was effective in reducing the accumulation of soil-derived Pb in earthworms, thus reducing the risk of soil Pb entry into wildlife food chains.

  3. Assessment of elemental composition, microstructure, and hardness of stainless steel endodontic files and reamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabara, Myrsini; Bourithis, Lefteris; Zinelis, Spiros; Papadimitriou, George D

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the elemental composition, microstructure, and hardness of commercially available reamers, K files, and H files. Five instruments of each type from different manufacturers (Antaeos, FKG, Maillefer, Mani, and Micromega) were embedded in epoxy resin along their longitudinal axis. After metallographic grinding and polishing, the specimens were chemically etched and their microstructure investigated under an incident light microscope. The specimens were studied under a scanning electron microscope, and their elemental compositions were determined by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The same surfaces were repolished and X-ray diffraction was performed. The same specimen surface was used for the assessment of the Vickers hardness (HV200) by using a microhardness tester with a 200-g load and 20-s contact time. The hardness results were statistically analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a = 0.05). All files demonstrated extensively elongated grains parallel to longitudinal file axis because of cold drawing. The elemental composition of Maillefer and Mani reamers, Antaeos K files, and Mani H files were found in the range of AISI 303 SS, whereas all the rest were determined as AISI 304 SS. Two different phases (austenite SSt and martensite SSt) were identified with X-ray diffraction for all files tested. The results of hardness classified reamers in the following decreasing order (HMV200): Micromega = 673 +/- 29, Mani = 662 +/- 24, Maillefer = 601 +/- 34, Antaeos = 586 +/- 18, FKG = 557 +/- 19, and the K files (HV200): FKG = 673 +/- 16, Mani = 647 +/- 19, Maillefer = 603 +/- 41, Antaeos = 566 +/- 21, Micromega = 555 +/- 15, and the H files (HMV200): Mani = 640 +/- 12, FKG = 583 +/- 31, Maillefer = 581 +/- 5, Antaeos = 573 +/- 3, Micromega = 546 +/- 14. Although only two stainless steel alloys were used for the production of endodontic files, the differences in hardness are independent to the alloys used, implying that

  4. Assessment and management of elemental mercury poisoning-a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazoukis, George; Papadatos, Stamatis S; Michelongona, Paschalia; Fragkou, Archodula; Yalouris, Athanasios

    2017-02-01

    We describe a patient with elemental mercury aspiration and retention in the appendix after elemental mercury ingestion. Conservative management was proved to be successful for the removal of the mercury from the appendix while we do not suggest bronchoalveolar lavage in cases of small amount elemental mercury aspiration.

  5. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Biao, E-mail: bhuang@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Wenyou [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao [Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Niedermann, Silvana [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Agricultural Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  6. Concentrations and health risk assessment of rare earth elements in vegetables from mining area in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Maoqiang; Zhao, Jinshan; Li, Suyun; Liu, Danru; Wang, Kebo; Xiao, Peirui; Yu, Lianlong; Jiang, Ying; Song, Jian; Zhou, Jingyang; Wang, Liansen; Chu, Zunhua

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the concentrations of rare earth elements in vegetables and assess human health risk through vegetable consumption, a total of 301 vegetable samples were collected from mining area and control area in Shandong, China. The contents of 14 rare earth elements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The total rare earth elements in vegetables from mining and control areas were 94.08 μg kg(-1) and 38.67 μg kg(-1), respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p mining and control areas, respectively) and gourd vegetable had the lowest rare earth elements concentration (37.34 μg kg(-1) and 24.63 μg kg(-1) for mining and control areas, respectively). For both areas, the rare earth elements concentration in vegetables declined in the order of leaf vegetable > taproot vegetable > alliaceous vegetable > gourd vegetable. The rare earth elements distribution patterns for both areas were characterized by enrichment of light rare earth elements. The health risk assessment demonstrated that the estimated daily intakes (0.69 μg kg(-1) d(-1) and 0.28 μg kg(-1) d(-1) for mining and control areas, respectively) of rare earth elements through vegetable consumption were significantly lower than the acceptable daily intake (70 μg kg(-1) d(-1)). The damage to adults can be neglected, but more attention should be paid to the effects of continuous exposure to low levels of rare earth elements on children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Elements of a regulatory strategy for the consideration of future human actions in safety assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Wickham, S.M.; Galson, D.A. [Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this report is to discuss issues that should be considered in the development of a regulatory strategy for assessing future human actions in any forthcoming license application for a deep repository for spent fuel in Sweden and for sites of other repositories. The report comprises an outline of key issues concerning the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, reviews of regulatory developments, recent safety assessments and supporting studies, and international initiatives on the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, and the principal elements of a regulatory strategy. Performance assessments (PAs) are generally accepted as providing illustrations of system performance under given sets of assumptions. The results of PAs are clearer and easier tounderstand if certain large uncertainties are accounted for by determining performance under several different sets of assumptions or scenarios, each of which defines a possible evolution of the disposal system. A number of assumptions can be made that would restrict the scope of an assessment without reducing the credibility of the corresponding safety case. Reducing speculation about technological development, by assuming that the techniques used in future human activities are similar to those currently in use in the region or at similar sites, will simplify the assessment. A distinction is generally made between inadvertent and intentional intrusion, with intentional activities excluded because society cannot protect future populations from their own actions if they understand the potential consequences. A division of human activities into 'recent and ongoing' and 'future' activities considers not only the timing of the activities but also the degree of control or influence that can be imposed on them. Recent and ongoing human activities are those that affect an area beyond the immediate vicinity of the disposal facility and which neither the proponent

  8. Assessment of the exposure to elements from silver jewelry by hair mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Michalak, Izabela; Zielińska, Agnieszka; Górecki, Henryk

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present article was to assess the effect of wearing silver jewelry on mineral composition of human scalp hair. To investigate the possible effect of gender, a group of females and males was distinguished. Subjects, who declared in the questionnaire wearing silver jewelry, constituted 55% of the whole population. It was found that individuals wearing jewelry had increased levels of Ag (~3 times), Ba (30%), Ca (33%), La (40%), Li (25%), and Zn (27%) in hair and lowered level of: Al (34%), K (79%), and Na (32.5%) in comparison with the group that did not wear jewelry. Those differences were statistically significant. Lower levels of K and Na in hair of subjects wearing jewelry was probably related with an antagonism between Ag-K and Ag-Na found in the present work. Analyzing the effect of two grouping variables-gender and wearing silver jewelry-on hair composition, it was observed that statistically significant differences were determined for the following elements: As, Ba, Ca, and Se. Female hair contained two times more Ca, four times Ba, 36% less As, and five times less Se. It was found that 34% of the population wearing silver jewelry had higher Ag content in hair than the upper value of the reference range (0.567 mg/kg) determined for subjects who did not wear jewelry. Ag and other metals (especially Cu and Zn) from jewelry could be absorbed through the skin and therefore hair mineral analysis is useful in the assessment of this exposure. The study was carried out on Poles, among which silver jewelry is particularly popular. The population can be thus considered as exposed.

  9. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira, Joaquim [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Nadal, Martí [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, José L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for <1-year-old children were assessed. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were below safe (HQ<1) and acceptable (<10{sup −6}) limits, respectively, according to international standards. However, for Sb, non-carcinogenic risk was above 10% of the safety limit (HQ>0.1) for dermal contact with clothes. - Highlights: • We determined in skin-contact clothes the concentrations of a number of metals. • Dermal contact exposure and health risks for adults and for 1-year-old children were assessed. • Carcinogenic risks were considered as acceptable (<10{sup −6}). • For non-carcinogenic risks, only Sb exceeded a 10% of the HQ for dermal contact with clothes.

  10. A novel method to assess the effect of diagenesis on fossil teeth: Rare earth element signatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xingyue; WANG Chengshan; HUANG Chengmin; BAI Song; ZHANG Qing

    2011-01-01

    An attempt was made to test the validity of the signatures of rare earth elements (REE) as a tool to judge the effect of diagenesis on fossil teeth.Sample REE contents and features of fossil teeth and sediments from Jinsha Relics,Sichuan,Southwest China were analyzed.The difference in REE content between fossil teeth is significantly greater than that between sediments at the Jinsha Relics.Chondrite-normalized REE patterns showed that obvious LREE enrichment and strong Ce and HREE depletion occurred in all fossil teeth samples.Meanwhile δCe and δEu values varied more dramatically in fossil teeth than in sediments.Accordingly,low content,LREE enrichment,strong Ce depletion,the significantly positive correlation between LREE/HREE and δCe,and unchanged (La/Yb)N demonstrated that the fossil teeth from Jinsha Relics have not been contaminated by diagenesis.The REE signature might be a potential proxy to assess the effect of diagenesis on fossil teeth.

  11. Conceptual Elements: A Detailed Framework to Support and Assess Student Learning of Biology Core Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Tawnya; Branchaw, Janet

    2017-01-01

    The Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: Call to Action report has inspired and supported a nationwide movement to restructure undergraduate biology curricula to address overarching disciplinary concepts and competencies. The report outlines the concepts and competencies generally but does not provide a detailed framework to guide the development of the learning outcomes, instructional materials, and assessment instruments needed to create a reformed biology curriculum. In this essay, we present a detailed Vision and Change core concept framework that articulates key components that transcend subdisciplines and scales for each overarching biological concept, the Conceptual Elements (CE) Framework. The CE Framework was developed using a grassroots approach of iterative revision and incorporates feedback from more than 60 biologists and undergraduate biology educators from across the United States. The final validation step resulted in strong national consensus, with greater than 92% of responders agreeing that each core concept list was ready for use by the biological sciences community, as determined by scientific accuracy and completeness. In addition, we describe in detail how educators and departments can use the CE Framework to guide and document reformation of individual courses as well as entire curricula. PMID:28450444

  12. Safety assessment for the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundles with respect to the 37-element fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, H. C.; Lim, H. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    The KAERI and AECL have jointly developed an advanced CANDU fuel, called CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle. CANFLEX 43-element bundle has some improved features of increased operating margin and enhanced safety compared to the existing 37-element bundle. Since CANFLEX fuel bundle is designed to be compatible with the CANDU-6 reactor design, the behaviour in the thermalhydraulic system will be nearly identical with 37-element bundle. But due to different element design and linear element power distribution between the two bundles, it is expected that CANFLEX fuel behaviour would be different from the behaviour of the 37-element fuel. Therefore, safety assessments on the design basis accidents which result if fuel failures are performed. For all accidents selected, it is observed that the loading of CANFLEX bundle in an existing CANDU-6 reactor would not worsen the reactor safety. It is also predicted that fission product release for CANFLEX fuel bundle generally is lower than that for 37-element bundle. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  13. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index applied to sediment samples from the Guarapiranga reservoir, Brazil, for metal and trace element assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme M.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.b [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (EAAI/CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Inorganica e Radioatividade

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to assess sediment contamination by metals and other trace elements in five sampling points of the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Two collection campaigns were undertaken and the samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in order to determine the following elements: major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb , Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu). Soil samples were collected in the Guarapiranga Park, located next to the reservoir. Composite top soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in lines across the park at every 30m and were also analyzed by INAA. EF values was calculated using Sc as the conservative element for normalization purposes and soil from Guarapiranga region was used as background levels for the elements analyzed. EF > 1.5 were obtained for the elements As, Sb and Zn, with highest values for Zn (1.6elements, a 0.5

  14. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....

  15. Assessment of the non-linear behaviour of plastic ankle foot orthoses by the finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syngellakis, S; Arnold, M A; Rassoulian, H

    2000-01-01

    The stiffness characteristics of plastic ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) are studied through finite element modelling and stress analysis. Particular attention is given to the modelling and prediction of non-linear AFO behaviour, which has been frequently observed in previous experimental studies but not fully addressed analytically. Both large deformation effects and material non-linearity are included in the formulation and their individual influence on results assessed. The finite element program is subsequently applied to the simulation of a series of tests designed to investigate the relation between AFO trimline location and stiffness for moderate and large rotations. Through careful consideration and identification of key modelling parameters, the developed finite element solution proves to be a reliable and effective alternative means of assessing variations of a typical plastic AFO design so that particular patient requirements could be met, in the long term.

  16. Toxicological risk assessment of elemental gold following oral exposure to sheets and nanoparticles – A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Sharma, Anoop Kumar; Poulsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Elemental gold is used as a food coloring agent and in dental fillings. In addition, gold nanoparticles are gaining increasing attention due to their potential use as inert carriers for medical purposes. Although elemental gold is considered to be inert, there is evidence to suggest the release...... of gold ions from its surface. Elemental gold, or the released ions, is, to some extent, absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Gold is distributed to organs such as the liver, heart, kidneys and lungs. The main excretion route of absorbed gold is through urine. Data on the oral toxicity of elemental...... gold is limited. The acute toxicity of elemental gold seems to be low, as rats were unaffected by a single dose of 2000mg nanoparticles/kg of body weight. Information on repeated dose toxicity is very limited. Skin rashes have been reported in humans following the ingestion of liquors containing gold...

  17. Development of a Multiplexed, Bead-Based Assessment Tool for Rapid Identification and Quantitation of Microorganisms in Field Samples. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, M.; Halden, R.

    2002-10-09

    This was the final report for DOE NABIR grant DE-FG02-01ER63264 (PI Mary Lowe). The grant was entitled ''Development of a Multiplexed Bead-Based Assessment Tool for Rapid Identification and Quantitation of Microorganisms in Field Samples.'' The grant duration was one year. The purpose was to develop a bead-based assay for measuring analyte DNAs in environmental PCR products and to apply the method to a field experiment. The primary experiment was located at the UMTRA Old Rifle site.

  18. Quality Assessment of the Physico-Mechanical and Elemental Composition of Three Pencil Grades and Eraser Types Produced in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Omoniyi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality assessment of the physical (pH, electrical conductivity, density, writeability, eraseability, mechanical (compression test and break strength and elemental composition of the pencil grades HB, 2B and 3B and eraser types of brand names Ben 10, Tiky 20 and the commonest White eraser in Nigerian primary school (Gummes Co. China was carried out. The diameter of the graphite part increased in the order HB Cr > Cd. Though, the levels of the trace metals and essential elements detected in the school items are below the recommended limits, regulatory measures should be directed towards maintaining the standards of school items.

  19. Risk assessment of bioaccessible trace elements in smoke haze aerosols versus urban aerosols using simulated lung fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian; Betha, Raghu; Tan, Li Yun; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Smoke-haze episodes, caused by uncontrolled peat and forest fires, occur almost every year in the South-East Asian region with increased concentrations of PM2.5 (airborne particulate matter (PM) with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm). Particulate-bound trace elements (TrElems), especially carcinogenic and toxic elements, were measured during smoke haze as well as non-haze periods in 2014 as they are considered to be indicators of potential health effects. The bioaccessibilities of 13 TrElems were investigated using two types of simulated lung fluids (SLFs), Gamble's solution and artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF), instead of the commonly used leaching agent (water). The dissolution kinetics was also examined for these TrElems. Many TrElems showed higher solubility in SLFs, and were more soluble in ALF compared to the Gamble's solution. Cu, Mn and Cd were observed to be the most soluble trace elements in ALF, while in Gamble's solution the most soluble trace elements were Cu, Mn and Zn. The dissolution rates were highly variable among the elements. Health risk assessment was conducted based on the measured concentrations of TrElems and their corresponding toxicities for three possible scenarios involving interactions between carcinogenic and toxic TrElems and SLFs, using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health risk assessment model. The cumulative cancer risks exceeded the acceptable level (1 in a million i.e. 1 × 10-6). However, the estimation of health quotient (HQ) indicated no significant chronic toxic health effects. The risk assessment results revealed that the assessment of bioaccessibility of particulate-bound TrElems using water as the leaching agent may underestimate the health risk.

  20. Assessment of essential elements and heavy metals content on Mytilus galloprovincialis from river Tagus estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, I; Diniz, M S; Carvalho, M L; Santos, J P

    2014-06-01

    Trace elemental content was analysed in edible tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis collected in five different sampling areas near the mouth of river Tagus estuary in Lisbon. The concentrations of essential elements (S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Br and Sr) were determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry, while toxic elements (Cr, Cd, Hg, Se and Pb) were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that the essential elements K and S are present at the highest concentrations in all the studied samples reaching 2,920 and 4,520 μg g(-1) (fresh weight), respectively. The highest levels of heavy metals found were in two areas close to the city for Pb and Cd, but below the maximum allowed values.

  1. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Florida Peninsula Province (050) Positive Structural Elements

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Positive Structural Elements coverage maps, in the form of polygons, are known structural highs within the province that commonly define a basin proper or...

  2. Potentially toxic element phytoavailability assessment in Technosols from former smelting and mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Bashar; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Joussein, Emmanuel; Soubrand, Marilyne; Gauthier, Arnaud

    2015-04-01

    This study reports the chemical bioavailability of several potentially toxic elements (Zn, Pb, Cd, As, and Sb) in contaminated Technosols from two former smelting and mining areas. Though these elements have long been recognized as potentially harmful elements, understanding of their toxicity and environmental behavior in Technosols developed on former mining and smelting sites are more limited, particularly for As and Sb. Surface soils were sampled from metallophyte grassland contaminated with Zn, Pb, and Cd located at Mortagne-du-Nord (North France) and from a former mining settling basin contaminated with As, Pb, and Sb located at la Petite Faye (Limoges, France). Various selective single extraction procedures (CaCl2, NaNO3, NH4NO3, DTPA, and EDTA) were used together with germination tests with dwarf beans whose shoots were analyzed for their potentially toxic element concentrations after 21 days of growth. The extraction capacity of the potentially toxic elements followed the order EDTA > DTPA > NH4NO3 > CaCl2 > NaNO3 for both studied areas. Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis between the concentrations of potentially toxic elements accumulated in bean primary leaves or their mineral mass with their extractable concentrations showed a positive significant correlation with dilute CaCl2 and nitrate solutions extraction procedures. In contrast, for all studied elements, except Pb, the complexing and chelating extractants (EDTA and DTPA) exhibited poor correlation with the dwarf bean leaves concentrations. Moreover, results showed that the 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction procedure was the most suitable and provided the most useful indications of metal phytoavailability for studied elements.

  3. Mapping differential elemental accumulation in fish tissues: assessment of metal and trace element concentrations in wels catfish (Silurus glanis) from the Danube River by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovičić, Katarina; Nikolić, Dragica M; Višnjić-Jeftić, Željka; Đikanović, Vesna; Skorić, Stefan; Stefanović, Srđan M; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Hegediš, Aleksandar; Krpo-Ćetković, Jasmina; Jarić, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    Studies of metal accumulation in fish are mainly focused on the muscle tissue, while the metal accumulation patterns in other tissues have been largely neglected. Muscle is not always a good indicator of the whole fish body contamination. Elemental accumulation in many fish tissues and organs and their potential use in monitoring programs have not received proper attention. In the present study, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn concentrations were assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the following 14 tissues of the wels catfish (Silurus glanis) from the Danube River: muscle, gills, spleen, liver, kidneys, intestine, gizzard, heart, brain, gallbladder, swim bladder, vertebra, operculum, and gonads. A high level of differential elemental accumulation among the studied tissues was observed. The maximum overall metal accumulation was observed in the vertebra, followed by the kidneys and liver, with the metal pollution index (MPI) values of 0.26, 0.25, and 0.24, respectively. The minimum values were observed in the gallbladder, muscle, brain, and swim bladder, with MPI values of 0.03, 0.06, 0.07, and 0.09, respectively. Average metal concentrations in the fish muscle were below the maximum allowed concentrations for human consumption. The mean As, Cd, Pb, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations in the muscle were 0.028, 0.001, 0.001, 0.192, 3.966, and 3.969 μg/g wet weight, respectively. We believe that the presented findings could be of interest for the scientific community and freshwater ecosystem managers. There is a need for further research that would assess less studied tissues in different fish species.

  4. Toxicological Assessment of Toxic Element Residues in Swine Kidney and Its Role in Public Health Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran I. Petrović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the safety of consumers in Serbia the prevalence of toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg, Pb in swine kidney collected from three different areas in Serbia (n = 90 was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Also, in order to find information on the effects of accumulation of toxic elements on swine kidney, pathohistological examination of the kidneys was performed. The presence of mercury was found in 33.3% of kidney samples in the range of 0.005–0.055 mg/kg, while the presence of cadmium was detected less often (27.7% but in larger amounts (0.05–1.23 mg/kg. The presence of arsenic was found only in one sample, while no lead was found. The results of the metal-to-metal correlation analysis supported there were the result of different sources of contamination. Pathohistological examination of kidneys confirms tubulopathies with oedema and cell vacuolization. In addition, haemorrhages and necrosis of proximal kidney tubule cells were found. This study demonstrates that toxic elements in Serbian slaughtered pigs are found at levels comparable to those reported in other countries, and consequently the levels reported in this study do not represent a concern from a consumer safety point of view. The lack of a strong correlation between histopathological changes and the incidence of toxic elements found in this study might be explained as the result of synergism among toxic elements and other nephrotoxic compounds which enhance the toxicity of the individual toxins even at the relatively low mean concentrations observed in this study.

  5. Assessing the Amount of Chemical Elements in Biodegradable Agricultural Wastes and ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Kvasauskienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable agricultural wastes such as manure, has long been used as an organic fertilizer that improves soil structure, enriches the soil with micro-organisms and micro-elements necessary for plants and promotes humus formation. Manure can also be successfully used as a renewable energy source directly combusting and extracting energy. The carried out investigation showed that the incineration of manure remaining in ashes could also be used as a fertilizer. Waste combustion reduces its volume to 80–90%. Also, the investigation revealed that the amount of chemical elements (Na, Mg, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe decreased after combustion. However, the concentration of these elements in ashes is higher than that in raw manure. Article in Lithuanian

  6. The non-linear response of a muscle in transverse compression: assessment of geometry influence using a finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Laure-Lise; Mitton, David; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie; Laporte, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Most recent finite element models that represent muscles are generic or subject-specific models that use complex, constitutive laws. Identification of the parameters of such complex, constitutive laws could be an important limit for subject-specific approaches. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of modelling muscle behaviour in compression with a parametric model and a simple, constitutive law. A quasi-static compression test was performed on the muscles of dogs. A parametric finite element model was designed using a linear, elastic, constitutive law. A multi-variate analysis was performed to assess the effects of geometry on muscle response. An inverse method was used to define Young's modulus. The non-linear response of the muscles was obtained using a subject-specific geometry and a linear elastic law. Thus, a simple muscle model can be used to have a bio-faithful, biomechanical response.

  7. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for consec......Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed...

  8. Elastic-plastic mixed-iterative finite element analysis: Implementation and performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutjahjo, Edhi; Chamis, Christos C.

    1993-01-01

    An elastic-plastic algorithm based on Von Mises and associative flow criteria is implemented in MHOST-a mixed iterative finite element analysis computer program developed by NASA Lewis Research Center. The performance of the resulting elastic-plastic mixed-iterative analysis is examined through a set of convergence studies. Membrane and bending behaviors of 4-node quadrilateral shell finite elements are tested for elastic-plastic performance. Generally, the membrane results are excellent, indicating the implementation of elastic-plastic mixed-iterative analysis is appropriate.

  9. Assessment of ecotoxicological risks of element leaching from pulvarized coal ashes.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes the consequences of the disposal of the combustion residues of coal, especially the uptake of elements from such residues and their effects on various organisms. The effects on benthic organisms in fresh and in seawater are considered in the first two parts. The third part looks at the uptake of elements from coal residues and their effect on the growth of plants and worms.The central theme is the combustion residue known as pulverized fuel ash (PFA), or 'flyash'. Coal i...

  10. Thermodynamic Assessment of Interaction Relation between Lanthanum and Constituent Elements in Sn-Pb Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The interaction relation between lanthanum and the constituent elements of Sn-Pb alloy system was analyzed by using the thermodynamic models including Miedema formation energy model for binary system, Tanaka modification by excess entropy and the Chou geometric model for ternary system. The thermodynamic calculaton results show that lanthanum has higher affinity for Sn in the Sn-Pb system. This is an important foundation for the improvement of the metallurgical properties of Sn-Pb solder alloy by adding rare earth elements.

  11. Assessment of ecotoxicological risks of element leaching from pulverized coal ashes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes the consequences of the disposal of the combustion residues of coal, especially the uptake of elements from such residues and their effects on various organisms. The effects on benthic organisms in fresh and in seawater are considered in the first two parts. The third

  12. Assessment of ecotoxicological risks of element leaching from pulvarized coal ashes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes the consequences of the disposal of the combustion residues of coal, especially the uptake of elements from such residues and their effects on various organisms. The effects on benthic organisms in fresh and in seawater are considered in the first two parts. The third part look

  13. Temporal variability in estuarine fish otolith elemental fingerprints: Implications for connectivity assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis-Santos, Patrick; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; Tanner, Susanne E.; Vasconcelos, Rita P.; Elsdon, Travis S.; Cabral, Henrique N.

    2012-10-01

    The chemical composition of fish otoliths can provide valuable information for determining the nursery value of estuaries to adult populations of coastal fishes. However, understanding temporal variation in elemental fingerprints at different scales is important as it can potentially confound spatial discrimination among estuaries. Otolith elemental ratios (Li:Ca, Mg:Ca, Mn:Ca, Cu:Ca, Sr:Ca, Ba:Ca and Pb:Ca) of Platichthys flesus and Dicentrarchus labrax, from several estuaries along the Portuguese coast in two years and three seasons (spring, summer and autumn) within a year, were determined via Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Elemental fingerprints varied significantly among years and seasons within a year but we achieved accurate classifications of juvenile fish to estuarine nursery of origin (77-96% overall cross-validated accuracy). Although elemental fingerprints were year-specific, variation among seasons did not hinder spatial discrimination. Estuarine fingerprints of pooled seasonal data were representative of the entire juvenile year class and attained high discrimination (77% and 80% overall cross-validated accuracy for flounder and sea bass, respectively). Incorporating seasonal variation resulted in up to an 11% increase in correct classification of individual estuaries, in comparison to seasons where accuracies were lowest. Overall, understanding the implications of temporal variations in otolith chemistry for spatial discrimination is key to establish baseline data for connectivity studies.

  14. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition (e.g., Evans et al. 2012; Nittler et al. 201 l; Peplowski et al. 2012; Weider et al. 2012). The high Sand low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER on the planet's surface suggests a low oxygen fugacity of the present planetary materials. Estimates of the oxygen fugacity for Mercurian magmas are approximately 3- 7 log units below the Iron-Wiistite (Fe-FeO) oxygen buffer (McCubbin et al. 2012; Zolotov et al. 2013), several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from such as the Earth, Moon, or Mars (Herd 2008; Sharp, McCubbin, and Shearer 2013; Wadhwa 2008). Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions are available in our collections (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites). The goal of this study is to conduct experiments at high pressure and temperature conditions to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements as a function of decreasing oxygen fugacity.

  15. Spatial variability of trace elements and sources for improved exposure assessment in Barcelona

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Minguillon, Maria; Cirach, Marta; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Tsai, Ming; de Hoogh, Kees; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Kooter, Ingeborg M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Querol, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Trace and major elements concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured at 20 sites spread in the Barcelona metropolitan area (1 rural background, 6 urban background, 13 road traffic sites) and at 1 reference site. Three 2-week samples per site and size fraction were collected during 2009 using low

  16. Incorporating in vivo fall assessments in the simulation of femoral fractures with finite element models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zijden, A.M.; Janssen, D.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Groen, B.E.; Nienhuis, B.; Weerdesteyn, V.; Tanck, E.

    2015-01-01

    Femoral fractures are a major health issue. Most experimental and finite element (FE) fracture studies use polymethylmethacrylate cups on the greater trochanter (GT) to simulate fall impact loads. However, in vivo fall studies showed that the femur is loaded distally from the GT. Our objective was

  17. Assessment of the performance of rigid pavement back-calculation through finite element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoukry, Samir N.; William, Gergis W.; Martinelli, David R.

    1999-02-01

    This study focuses on examining the behavior of rigid pavement layers during the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test. Factors affecting the design of a concrete slab, such as whether the joints are doweled or undoweled and the spacing between the transverse joints, were considered in this study. Explicit finite element analysis was employed to investigate pavement layers' responses to the action of the impulse of the FWD test. Models of various dimensions were developed to satisfy the factors under consideration. The accuracy of the finite element models developed in this investigation was verified by comparing the finite element- generated deflection basin with that experimentally measured during an actual test. The results showed that the measured deflection basin can be reproduced through finite element modeling of the pavement structure. The resulting deflection basins from the use FE modeling was processed in order to backcalculate pavement layer moduli. This approach provides a method for the evaluation of the performance of existing backcalculation programs which are based on static elastic layer analysis. Based upon the previous studies conducted for the selection of software, three different backcalculation programs were chosen for the evaluation: MODULUS5.0, EVERCALC4.0, and MODCOMP3. The results indicate that ignoring the dynamic nature of the load may lead to crude results, especially during backcalculation procedures.

  18. Assessment of the essential element and heavy metal content of edible fish muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Santiago, S. [Centro de Fisica Atomica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Lisboa (Portugal); Nunes, M.L. [Instituto de Investigacao das Pescas e do Mar, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations of some essential and toxic elements in the muscle of ten species of commercial fish consumed in Portugal. We combined two different techniques for determination of the elements - energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to quantify K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb, and Sr and flame atomic-absorption spectrometry for analysis of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Hg, and Pb. The latter technique was used because of its higher sensitivity, because these elements were not detected by EDXRF. The results obtained show a similar pattern for the trace elements. K and Ca are present at the highest concentrations in all the samples studied, from 0.6-1.3% and from 0.04-0.08%, respectively, followed by Zn, Fe, Sr, Se, and Rb. Sr is present at higher concentrations than Rb in all the species studied except meagre. Concentrations of the elements in octopus do not follow this pattern - Fe is present at a higher concentration than Zn. Low concentrations of Cr (0.66-1.5 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Ni (0.11-0.24 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Cd (0.01-0.08 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Hg (0.49-2.74 {mu}g g{sup -1}), and Pb (0.02-0.06 {mu}g g{sup -1}) were observed in all the samples analysed. The concentration of Hg was highest in Helicolenus dactylopterus - 5.4 {mu}g g{sup -1} in one sample. (orig.)

  19. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high Sand low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wtistite (lW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at I GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multianvil press, at temperatures up to 1850degC. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-Si02 buffer, which is approximately 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi206) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of

  20. Assessment of contamination based on trace element concentrations in Gomphus flavipes (Odonata: Insect) larvae of the Upper Tisza Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, E; Kis, O; Jakab, T; Kolozsvári, I; Málnás, K; Harangi, S; Baranyai, E; Miskolczi, M; Tóthmérész, B; Dévai, Gy

    2017-02-01

    Odonata larvae are frequently used to assess the contamination of aquatic systems, because they tolerate a wide range of chemical and biological conditions in freshwater systems. In early 2000, the sediments of the Hungarian section of the River Tisza and the River Szamos were strongly enriched with heavy metals by an accidental mining spill. Earlier studies demonstrated higher contamination levels in the Szamos than in the Tisza, based on sediment analysis. The aim of our study was to assess the contamination in the Upper Tisza Region, along the upper reach of the Tisza, and the lower reach of the Szamos, based on the trace element concentrations of the Gomphus flavipes larvae. We collected 269 dragonfly specimens for the analyses. The Al, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn element contents were analysed in the dragonfly larvae by microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES). Significantly higher Ba and Cu concentrations were found in the dragonfly larvae of the Tisza than the Szamos. In spite of this, the Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn concentration was significantly lower in the dragonfly larvae of the Tisza than the Szamos. For all trace elements significant differences were found along the Tisza. Significant differences were also found in all trace element concentrations of dragonfly larvae among studied localities in the Szamos, except in the cases of Al and Ba. Our results demonstrated that the Szamos was more contaminated with Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn than the Tisza, but that the Tisza was more contaminated with Ba and Cu than the Szamos, based on the trace element concentrations in Gomphus flavipes larvae, which was likely to have been caused by the tributaries of the Tisza. In summary, our results indicated a continuous pollution of the Tisza and the Szamos and their tributaries.

  1. Micro-finite-element method to assess elastic properties of trabecular bone at micro- and macroscopic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, R; Auregan, J C; Hoc, T

    2017-09-08

    The objective of the present study is to assess the mechanical behavior of trabecular bone based on microCT imaging and micro-finite-element analysis. In this way two methods are detailed: (i) direct determination of macroscopic elastic property of trabecular bone; (ii) inverse approach to assess mechanical properties of trabecular bone tissue. Thirty-five females and seven males (forty-two subjects) mean aged (±SD) 80±11.7 years from hospitals of Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) diagnosed with osteoporosis following a femoral neck fracture due to a fall from standing were included in this study. Fractured heads were collected during hip replacement surgery. Standardized bone cores were removed from the femoral head's equator by a trephine in a water bath. MicroCT images acquisition and analysis were performed with CTan(®) software and bone volume fraction was then determined. Micro-finite-element simulations were per-formed using Abaqus 6.9-2(®) software in order to determine the macroscopic mechanical behaviour of the trabecular bone. After microCT acquisition, a longitudinal compression test was performed and the experimental macroscopic Young's Modulus was extracted. An inverse approach based on the whole trabecular bone's mechanical response and micro-finite-element analysis was performed to determine microscopic mechanical properties of trabecular bone. In the present study, elasticity of the tissue was shown to be similar to that of healthy tissue but with a lower yield stress. Classical histomorphometric analysis form microCT imaging associated with an inverse micro-finite-element method allowed to assess microscopic mechanical trabecular bone parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling and assessment of the response of super-light elements to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Campeanu, B.M.; Giraudo, M.

    2013-01-01

    in those cases, where a safe evacuation of the building is ensured, the high costs associated with the downtime and reparation of the building can be very high and not acceptable in the view of a safe and sustainable design of structures. In this respect, the newly patented building technology....... The implementation of a three-dimensional Finite Element Model (FEM) of the SL-deck is described and modelling aspects are discussed with particular reference to the sensitivity of the model to the thermal properties of the strong and light concrete. The results of the investigation are compared with the outcomes...... of the fire performances of complex concrete elements and in the focus on modelling issues related to the handling of the uncertainties. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group....

  3. Modeling and assessment of the response of super-light elements to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Campeanu, B.M.; Giraudo, M.

    in those cases, where a safe evacuation of the building is ensured, the high costs associated with the downtime and reparation of the building can be very high and not acceptable in the view of a safe and sustainable design of structures. In this respect, the newly patented building technology....... The implementation of a three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the SL-deck is described and modelling aspects are discussed with particular reference to the sensitivity of the model to the thermal properties of the strong and light concrete. The results of the investigation are compared with the outcomes...... of the fire performances of complex concrete elements and in the focus on modelling issues related to the handling of the uncertainties....

  4. Assessment of the effects of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies and trace elements on cognitive performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghadir AH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad H Alghadir,1 Sami A Gabr,1,2 Einas Al-Eisa11Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, EgyptBackground: Homeostatic imbalance of trace elements such as iron (Fe, copper (Cu, and zinc (Zn demonstrated adverse effects on brain function among older adults.Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of trace elements and the presence of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADAs in human cognitive abilities among healthy older adults.Methods: A total of 100 healthy subjects (65 males, 35 females; age range; 64–96 years were recruited for this study. Based on Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA score, the participants were classified according to cognitive performance into normal (n=45, moderate (n=30, and severe (n=25. Cognitive functioning, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA, serum trace elements – Fe, Cu, Zn, Zn/Cu, and GADAs were assessed using LOTCA battery, pre-validated physical activity (PA questionnaire, atomic absorption, and immunoassay techniques, respectively.Results: Approximately 45% of the study population (n=45 had normal distribution of cognitive function and 55% of the study population (n=55 had abnormal cognitive function; they were classified into moderate (score 62–92 and severe (score 31–62. There was a significant reduction in the level of Zn and Zn/Cu ratio along with an increase in the level of Fe, Cu, and anti-GADAs in subjects of severe (P=0.01 and moderate (P=0.01 cognitive performance. LOTCA-cognitive scores correlated positively with sex, HbA1c, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Zn/Cu ratio, and negatively with age, PA, body mass index, and anti-GADAs. Significant inter-correlation was reported between serum trace element concentrations and anti-GADAs which suggest producing a cognitive decline via oxidative and neural

  5. Preliminary Assessment of Health Risks of Potentially Toxic Elements in Settled Dust over Beijing Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Wan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine levels, health risks, sources, and spatial distributions of potentially toxic elements in settled dust over Beijing urban area, 62 samples were collected mostly from residential building outdoor surfaces, and their <63 μm fractions were measured for 12 potentially toxic elements. The results show that V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Ba in dust are from predominantly natural sources, whereas Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb mostly originate from anthropogenic sources. Exposure to these elements in dust has significant non-cancer risks to children but insignificant to adults. Cancer risks of Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Cd via inhalation and dermal contact are below the threshold of 10−6–10−4 but As via dust ingestion shows a tolerable risk. The non-cancer risks to children are contributed mainly (75% by As, Pb, and Sb, and dominantly (92% via dust ingestion, with relatively higher risks mainly occurring in the eastern and northeastern Beijing urban areas. Although Cd, Zn, and Cu in dust are heavily affected by anthropogenic sources, their health risks are insignificant. Source appointments suggest that coal burning emissions, the dominant source of As, are likely the largest contributors to the health risk, and traffic-related and industrial emissions are also important because they contribute most of the Pb and Sb in dust.

  6. Using trace element content and lead isotopic composition to assess sources of PM in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, D.; Castro, T.; Bernal, J. P.; Almanza-Veloz, V.; Zavala, M.; González-Castillo, E.; Saavedra, M. I.; Perez-Arvízu, O.; Díaz-Trujillo, G. C.; Molina, L. T.

    2016-05-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at two urban sites (Parque Morelos (PQM) and CECyTE (CEC)) in Tijuana during the Cal-Mex campaign from May 24 to June 5, 2010. Concentration of trace elements (Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, and Pb), and Pb isotopic composition were determined in order to study the sources of PM impacting each site. Other chemical analysis (gravimetric, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), were also performed. Finally, back-trajectories were calculated to facilitate the interpretation of the chemical data. Trace elements results show that CEC is a receptor site affected by mixed regional sources: sea salt, mineral, urban, and industrial. On the other hand, PQM seems to be impacted mainly by local sources. In particular, Pb at CEC is of anthropogenic, as well as crustal origin. This conclusion is supported by the lead isotopic composition, whose values are consistent with a combination of lead extracted from US mines, and lead from bedrocks in the Mexican Sierras. Some of the time variability observed can be explained using the back-trajectories.

  7. Geometry reconstruction method for patient-specific finite element models for the assessment of tibia fracture risk in osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caouette, Christiane; Ikin, Nicole; Villemure, Isabelle; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Rauch, Frank; Aubin, Carl-Éric

    2017-04-01

    Lower limb deformation in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) impairs ambulation and may lead to fracture. Corrective surgery is based on empirical assessment criteria. The objective was to develop a reconstruction method of the tibia for OI patients that could be used as input of a comprehensive finite element model to assess fracture risks. Data were obtained from three children with OI and tibia deformities. Four pQCT scans were registered to biplanar radiographs, and a template mesh was deformed to fit the bone outline. Cortical bone thickness was computed. Sensitivity of the model to missing slices of pQCT was assessed by calculating maximal von Mises stress for a vertical hopping load case. Sensitivity of the model to ±5 % of cortical thickness measurements was assessed by calculating loads at fracture. Difference between the mesh contour and bone outline on the radiographs was below 1 mm. Removal of one pQCT slice increased maximal von Mises stress by up to 10 %. Simulated ±5 % variation of cortical bone thickness leads to variations of up to 4.1 % on predicted fracture loads. Using clinically available tibia imaging from children with OI, the developed reconstruction method allowed the building of patient-specific finite element models.

  8. Airborne trace elements near a petrochemical industrial complex in Thailand assessed by the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonpeng, Chaiwat; Polyiam, Wetchasart; Sriviboon, Chutima; Sangiamdee, Duangkamon; Watthana, Santi; Nimis, Pier Luigi; Boonpragob, Kansri

    2017-05-01

    Several trace elements discharged by the petrochemical industry are toxic to humans and the ecosystem. In this study, we assessed airborne trace elements in the vicinity of the Map Ta Phut petrochemical industrial complex in Thailand by transplanting the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum to eight industrial, two rural, and one clean air sites between October 2013 and June 2014. After 242 days, the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V, and Zn in lichens at most industrial sites were higher than those at the rural and the control sites; in particular, As, Cu, Mo, Sb, V, and Zn were significantly higher than at the control site (p industrial sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that most elements were associated with industry, with lesser contributions from traffic and agriculture. Based on the pollution load indexes (PLIs), two industrial sites were highly polluted, five were moderately polluted, and one had a low pollution level, whereas the pollution load at the rural sites was comparable to background levels. This study reinforces the utility of lichens as cost-effective biomonitors of airborne elements, suitable for use in developing countries, where adequate numbers of air monitoring instruments are unavailable due to financial, technical, and policy constraints.

  9. Assessment of gender and age effects on serum and hair trace element levels in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Simashkova, Natalia V; Skalnaya, Anastasia A; Klyushnik, Tatiana P; Bjørklund, Geir; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-06-29

    The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the levels of essential trace elements in hair and serum in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and investigate the age and gender effects. Children with ASD were characterized by significantly higher levels of copper (Cu) (+8%), iron (Fe) (+5%), and selenium (Se) (+13%) levels in hair and only 8% higher serum Cu levels. After stratification for gender, ASD boys were characterized by significantly increased hair Cu (+ 25%), Fe (+ 25%), and Se (+ 9%) levels, whereas in girls only Se content was elevated (+ 15%). Boys and girls suffering from ASD were characterized by significantly higher serum manganese (Mn) (+20%) and Cu (+18%) as compared to the control values, respectively. In the group of younger children (2-5 years), no significant group difference in hair trace element levels was detected, whereas serum Cu levels were significantly higher (+7%). In turn, the serum concentration of Se in ASD children was 11% lower than that in neurotypical children. In the group of older children with ASD (6-10 years), hair Fe and Se levels were 21% and 16% higher, whereas in serum only Cu levels were increased (+12%) as compared to the controls. Correlation analysis also revealed a different relationship between serum and hair trace element levels with respect to gender and age. Therefore, it is highly recommended to assess several bioindicative matrices for critical evaluation of trace element status in patients with ASD in order to develop adequate personalized nutritional correction.

  10. Trace elements assessment in agricultural and desert soils of Aswan area, south Egypt: Geochemical characteristics and environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Mohamed Abdallah Gad; Pöllmann, Hebert

    2015-12-01

    Determination of chemical elements, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Sc, Sr, Ti, Y, and Zn have been performed in agricultural and desert soils and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) at Aswan area. Consequently, the pollution indices, univariate and multivariate statistical methods have been applied, in order to assess the geochemical characteristics of these elements and their impact on soil environmental quality and plant, and to reach for their potential input sources. The investigation revealed that the mean and range values of all element concentrations in agricultural soil are higher than those in desert soil. Furthermore, the agricultural soil displayed various degrees of enrichment and pollution of Cd, Zn, Mo, Co, P, Ti, Pb. The geochemical pattern of integrated pollution indices gave a clear image of extreme and strong pollution in the agricultural soil stations, their poor quality with high risk to human health and considered as a tocsin for an alert. In contrast, the desert soil is the good environmental quality and safe for plant, animal and human health. Alfalfa is tolerant plant and considered as a biomarker for P and Mo in polluted agricultural soil. Four geochemical associations of analyzing elements in agricultural soil and three ones in desert soil have been generated, and their enhancements were essentially caused by various anthropogenic activities and geogenic sources. The investigation also revealed that the broad extended desert soil is fruitful and promising as cultivable lands for agricultural processes in the futures.

  11. Nanominerals and potentially hazardous elements from coal cleaning rejects of abandoned mines: Environmental impact and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Gredilla, Ainara; da Boit, Kátia; Teixeira, Elba C; Sampaio, Carlos H; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Silva, Luis F O

    2017-02-01

    Soils around coal mining are important reservoir of hazardous elements (HEs), nanominerals, and ultrafine compounds. This research reports and discusses the soil concentrations of HEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in coal residues of abandoned mines. To assess differences regarding environmental impact and risk assessment between coal abandoned mines from the Santa Catarina state, eighteen coal cleaning rejects with different mineralogical and chemical composition, from eight abandoned mines were collected. Nanominerals and ultra-fine minerals from mining-contaminated areas were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), providing new information on the mineralogy and nano-mineralogy of these coal residues. The total contents of 57 elements (HEs, alkali metals, and rare earth elements) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The calculation of NWACs (Normalized Average Weighted Concentration), together with the chemometric analysis by Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed the variability of the samples regarding their city and their mine of origin. Moreover, the results confirmed the existence of hotspots in mines near urban areas.

  12. Assessment of Trace Element Concentrations in Birds of Prey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2016-07-01

    This study presents liver concentrations of trace elements of cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus), common buzzards (Buteo buteo), common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo) collected in Korea from 2007 to 2008. Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in common kestrel juveniles were greater than in other juveniles of birds of prey. Adult cinereous vultures had greater Fe, Pb, and Cd concentrations than in those of other species, but common kestrels had greater Mn and Cu concentrations than in those of other birds of prey. Zinc concentrations in Eurasian eagle owl juveniles and adults were greater than in juveniles and adults of other species, respectively. In common kestrels, Fe, Cu, Pb, and Cd concentrations were significantly greater in adults than in juveniles. In Eurasian eagle owls, only Pb concentrations were greater in adults than in juveniles. Essential elements, such as Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu concentrations, were within the range of other birds of prey studies. Seventeen individual birds of prey (30 %) were at a level considered Pb exposed (6-30 µg/g dw). This is a greater proportion than reported earlier in herons, egrets, and other birds from Korea. Elevated Pb concentration might be attributed to ingestion of Pb shot and bullet fragments for cinereous vultures and common buzzards, and urbanization for common kestrels. Cadmium concentrations in birds of prey were within the background concentrations (birds.

  13. Major and trace elements assessment in sediment samples from Rio Grande Reservoir, by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.b [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo(CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Inorganica e Radioatividade; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Bevilacqua, Jose Eduardo [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo(CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Qualidade das Aguas

    2009-07-01

    The Rio Grande Reservoir, Southeast of the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) supplies water for four counties (Sao Bernardo do Campo, Sao Caetano do Sul, Santo Andre and Diadema). It has been seriously affected by urban expansion, due to chaotic urban occupation and improper use of the surrounding areas. In this study bottom sediment samples were collected, by using a Van Veen sampler, during the dry and rainy seasons. Four sampling points were defined by using GPS and are located at the mouth of the Rio Grande and Ribeirao Pires Rivers, in the middle of the reservoir and near the catchment point of the water supply. The sediment samples were submitted to instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and the following elements were determined: As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U e Zn and the rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb, Yb. Short irradiation was also performed for total Hg determination by NAA using {sup 197}Hg radioisotope. This was possible due to the high Hg concentration levels in these sediments. The methodology validation was carried out by certified reference material analyses. The results obtained for multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values obtained for As and metals Cr, Hg and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values) and adopted by CETESB. (author)

  14. Study of Concrete Quality Assessment of Structural Elements Using Rebound Hammer Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Gehlot

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Structures are assemblies of load carrying members capable of safely transferring the superimposed loads to the foundations. Their main and most looked after property is the strength of the material that they are made of. Concrete, as we all know, is an integral material used for construction purposes. The concept of nondestructive testing (NDT is to obtain material properties of in place specimens without the destruction of neither the specimen nor the structure from which it is taken. However, one problem that has been prevalent within the concrete industry for years is that the true properties of an in-place specimen have never been tested without leaving a certain degree of damage on the structure. . The investigation reported here is to present study of Calibration Graphs for Non Destructive Testing Equipment, the Rebound Hammer and to study the quality of the concrete in existing structures. These Rebound Hammer Test were then used to test the quality of the concrete of the various structural elements (columns & beams of single storied newly under constructed building of TPO office of MBM Engineering College Jodhpur. The use of this method produces results that lie close to the true values when compared with other methods A correlation between rebound number and strength of concrete structure is established, which can be used as well for strength estimation of concrete structures. The method can be extended to test existing structures by taking direct measurements on concrete elements

  15. TRACE ELEMENTS IN PLASMA AND NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT IN PATIENTS WITH COMPENSATED CIRRHOSIS ON A LIVER TRANSPLANT LIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thays Santana GUERRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background - In chronic liver disease, trace element levels in plasma are usually low. However, the specific cause and functional implications of this abnormality are yet not well understood. These element levels may decrease as a result of abnormal liver function in patients with cirrhosis and/or malnutrition. Objective - To evaluate the nutritional status and the profile of trace elements in plasma of patients with cirrhosis on a liver transplant list and to correlate them with disease severity. Methods - This cross-sectional study evaluated 31 male patients diagnosed with compensated liver cirrhosis on a waiting list for liver transplant. Nutritional status was objectively evaluated through anthropometry using Mendenhall score and Blackburn classification, subjectively through the Detsky questionnaire and severity of the disease by MELD and CTP score. Trace elements (Zn, Se, Cu, Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in plasma were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney test. Results - According to the nutritional assessment 19 (61.3% were malnourished and 12 (38.7% were overweight. Regarding disease severity 12 (39% were classified as Child A, 17 (55%, Child B and 2 (6% Child C, with 46.9% of patients with MELD score >17. The trace element analysis indicated that 31 (100% had Mn levels above the reference range, 23 (74.2% low levels of Cu, 29 (93.5% with deficiency of Se, and 31 (100% low levels of Ca and Mg. Disease severity did not show statistical difference between the studied trace elements, in contrast to the nutritional status, in which the malnourished group showed higher levels of Mn (P=0.01 and Fe (P=0.01 and low levels of Zn (P=0.03 when compared to the overweight group. Conclusion - The results showed that the trace elements in plasma are altered in chronic liver disease; without significant correlation to disease severity, but correlated to nutritional status

  16. Ecological risk assessment of elemental pollution in sediment from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Md Suhaimi; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Ab; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah; Siong, Wee Boon; Sanuri, Ezwiza [Analytical Chemistry Application Group, Waste and Environmental Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43000, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Eleven (11) surface sediment samples were collected from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques were applied for the determinations metal contents and their distributions in sediment samples. The results shown that Arsenic (As) concentrations are enriched at all sampling stations except for station TAR 09, with enrichment factor (EF) values ranged from 1.1 to 7.2. The elements such as Cd, Cr, Sb and U showed enrichment at a few stations and other elements (Cr, Cu, Pb, Th, Zn) shown as background levels in all stations. Degrees of contamination in this study were calculated base on concentrations of six elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). TAR 11 station can be categorized as very high degree of contamination with degree of contamination value of 43.2. TAR 07 station can be categorized as a considerable degree of contamination (contamination value of 16.9). Six stations (TAR 01, 03, 04, 05, 06, 08, 10) showed moderate degree of contamination, with contamination values ranging from 8.0 to 16.0. TAR 02 and TAR 09 stations showed low degree of contaminations (< 8.0). TAR 11 showed very high ecological risk index (R{sub I}) with RI value is 916. TAR 07 and TAR 10 showed moderate ecological risk index with R{sub I} value 263 and 213, respectively. Other stations showed low ecological risk with RI values ranging from 42.3 to 117 (< 150). Very high ecological risk index could give an adverse effect to the benthic organism. The data obtained from the enrichment factor, degree of contamination and ecological risk index provided vital information, which can be used for future comparison. Information from the present study will be useful to the relevant government agencies and authorities in preparing preventive action to control direct discharge of heavy metals from industries, agro-base activities and domestic waste to the rivers and the sea.

  17. Physics of Failure as a Basis for Solder Elements Reliability Assessment in Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally assessment of reliability of electrical components is done by classical reliability techniques using failure rates as the basic measure of reliability. In this paper a structural reliability approach is applied in order to include all relevant uncertainties and to give a more detailed...... description of the reliability. A physics of failure approach is applied. A SnAg solder component used in power electronics is used as an example. Crack propagation in the SnAg solder is modeled and a model to assess the accumulated plastic strain is proposed based on a physics of failure approach. Based...

  18. Comparative assessment of mineral elements and heavy metals accumulation in vegetable species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metal (cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium and mineral element (potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium levels in edible parts of tomato, potato, spinach, beetroot, parsley, parsnip, carrot, cauliflower, pepper and broccoli were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Six samples for each species originating from different localities were collected from green markets. The heavy metal concentrations ranged from calcium > phosphorus > magnesium. The highest mean levels of the heavy metals, as well as of potassium, calcium and magnesium, were found in spinach. A large number of samples containing high levels of toxic heavy metals, especially of cadmium and lead, impose the necessity for strict regulative guidelines concerning individual vegetable crops production, harvest, handling and storing, in order to diminish possibility of contamination.

  19. Discrete element modelling approach to assessment of granular properties in concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piet STROEVEN; Huan HE; Martijn STROEVEN

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the technological relevance of a concurrent algorithm-based discrete element modelling (DEM)system, HADES. This new system is the successor of SPACE that is limited to spherical grains only. It can realistically simulate the packing of arbitrary-shaped particles up to the fully compacted state. Generation of families of such particles, i.e., generally representing aggregate of fluvial origin and crushed rock, respectively, and the forming way of particulate structure are described.Similarly shaped particles are proposed for simulation of cement paste because of conformity with experimental results obtained by the X-ray tomography method. Technologically relevant territories inside and outside concrete technology are presently explored in this efficient, reliable, and economic way. Some results obtained by this DEM approach are presented.

  20. Elemental Speciation as an Essential Part of Formulating Exposure Assessments that Support Risk Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical form specific toxicity of arsenic has caused scientists to move toward species specific assessments with an emphasis on biological relevance of an exposure. For example, numerous studies on the occurrence of arsenic in rice have documented the exposure potential fro...

  1. RESIDUAL OPERATIONAL RESOURCE ASSESSMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ELEMENTS OF POWER ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Khoroshilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a specific assessment of heat resistant steel residual resource which  is  based  on  time determination of pore output on grain boundary with due account of an operational temperature, chemical composition and structure of the investigated steel.

  2. Flow cytometry of sputum: assessing inflammation and immune response elements in the bronchial airways**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: The evaluation of sputum leukocytes by flow cytometry is an opportunity to assess characteristics of cells residing in the central airways, yet it is hampered by certain inherent properties of sputum including mucus and large amounts of contaminating cells and debris. ...

  3. Assessment of a hybrid finite element-transfer matrix model for flat structures with homogeneous acoustic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimonti, Luca; Atalla, Noureddine; Berry, Alain; Sgard, Franck

    2014-05-01

    Modeling complex vibroacoustic systems including poroelastic materials using finite element based methods can be unfeasible for practical applications. For this reason, analytical approaches such as the transfer matrix method are often preferred to obtain a quick estimation of the vibroacoustic parameters. However, the strong assumptions inherent within the transfer matrix method lead to a lack of accuracy in the description of the geometry of the system. As a result, the transfer matrix method is inherently limited to the high frequency range. Nowadays, hybrid substructuring procedures have become quite popular. Indeed, different modeling techniques are typically sought to describe complex vibroacoustic systems over the widest possible frequency range. As a result, the flexibility and accuracy of the finite element method and the efficiency of the transfer matrix method could be coupled in a hybrid technique to obtain a reduction of the computational burden. In this work, a hybrid methodology is proposed. The performances of the method in predicting the vibroacoutic indicators of flat structures with attached homogeneous acoustic treatments are assessed. The results prove that, under certain conditions, the hybrid model allows for a reduction of the computational effort while preserving enough accuracy with respect to the full finite element solution.

  4. Nuclide documentation. Element specific parameter values used in the biospheric models of the safety assessments SR 97 and SAFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sara; Bergstroem, Ulla [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    In this report the element and nuclide specific parameter values used in the biospheric models of the safety assessments SR 97 and SAFE are presented. The references used are presented and where necessary the process of estimation of data is described. The parameters treated in this report are distribution coefficients in soil, organic soil and suspended matter in freshwater and brackish water, root uptake factors for pasturage, cereals, root crops and vegetables, bioaccumulation factors for freshwater fish, brackish water fish, freshwater invertebrates and marine water plants, transfer coefficients for transfer to milk and meat, translocation factors and dose coefficients for external exposure, ingestion (age-dependent values) and inhalation (age-dependent values). The radionuclides treated are those which could be of interest in the two safety assessments. Physical data such as half-lives and type of decay are also presented.

  5. Geochemical fractions and risk assessment of trace elements in soils around Jiaojia gold mine in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feifei; Kong, Linghao; Yang, Liyuan; Zhang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Soils located adjacent to the Jiaojia gold mine were sampled and analyzed to determine the degree of which they were contaminated by trace elements (Hg, As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn) in Shandong Province, China. All 18 samples exhibited mean Hg, As, Cd, and Pb concentrations in excess of local background values, while the mean concentrations of Cu and Zn were below the background values. In addition, the concentrations of trace elements in gold smelter (GS) soils were higher than in the gold mine (GM) soils. The result from a modified Tessier sequential extraction procedure was that with the exception of Cu in soils near the smelter, the trace elements were predominantly associated with the residual fraction. After residual fraction, most Hg was mainly humic acid and strong organic fraction, while most As was the humic acid. Cd was associated with the water soluble, ion exchange, and carbonate fractions compared with the other trace elements. Furthermore, Cu, Pb, and Zn were more concentrated in the humic acid and Fe/Mn oxide fraction. The fractions of trace elements were affected by soil pH and Ec (Electrical conductivity). The humic acid fraction of Hg as well as the ion exchange fraction of Cd and Zn displayed negative correlations with soil pH. The strong organic fraction of Hg, the Fe/Mn oxide fraction of Cd, and the carbonate fraction of Zn were positively related to the soil Ec. The strong organic fraction and ion exchange fraction of Zn were negatively related to soil Ec. However, the ion exchange and carbonate fractions of As showed significant positive correlations with soil pH. A calculated individual availability factor (A f (i) ) is used; the values of each trace element in the soils are in the following order: Cu > Cd > Pb > Zn > As > Hg. When combined with a risk assessment code, data suggest that Hg, As, Pb, and Zn levels showed low risk for the environment, whereas Cd levels in soils adjacent to the GM and Cu levels in soils adjacent to the GS showed

  6. Assessment of toxicity potential of metallic elements in discarded electronics:A case study of mobile phones in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Y. Wu; Y. C. Chan; A. Middendorf; X. Gu; H. W. Zhong

    2008-01-01

    The electronic waste (e-waste) is increasingly flooding Asia, especially China. E-waste could precipitate a growing volume of toxic input to the local environment if it was not handed properly. This makes the evaluation of environmental impact from electronics an essentially important task for the life cycle assessment (LCA) and the end-of-life management of electronic products. This study presented a quantitative investigation on the environmental performance of typical electronics. Two types of disposed mobile phones (MPs), as a representative of consumer electronics, were evaluated in terms of toxicity potential indicator (TPI) with an assumption of worst-case scenario. It is found that the composition and the percentages of constituents in MPs are similar. More than 20 metallic elements make up 35 wt.%-40 wt.% of the total weight, of which 12 elements are identified to be highly hazardous and 12 are less harmful. With the TPI technique, the environmental performance of Pb is attributed to be 20.8 mg-1. The total TPIs of metallic elements in the old and new type MP is 255,403 and 127,639 units, respectively, which is equivalent to the effect of releasing 6.14 and 12.28g Pb into the environment. The average TPI of the old and new type MP is 4.1 and 4.5 mg-1, respectively, which suggests a similar eco-efficiency per unit mass. The new model of MP is more eco-effective than the old one, which is not due to a reduction in the type of hazardous elements, but rather due to a significant miniaturization of the package with less weight. A single MP can have a considerable toxicity to the environment as referred to Pb, which suggests a major concern for the environmental impact of the total e-waste with a huge quantity and a heavy mass in China.

  7. Assessment of toxicity potential of metallic elements in discarded electronics: a case study of mobile phones in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B Y; Chan, Y C; Middendorf, A; Gu, X; Zhong, H W

    2008-01-01

    The electronic waste (e-waste) is increasingly flooding Asia, especially China. E-waste could precipitate a growing volume of toxic input to the local environment if it was not handed properly. This makes the evaluation of environmental impact from electronics an essentially important task for the life cycle assessment (LCA) and the end-of-life management of electronic products. This study presented a quantitative investigation on the environmental performance of typical electronics. Two types of disposed mobile phones (MPs), as a representative of consumer electronics, were evaluated in terms of toxicity potential indicator (TPI) with an assumption of worst-case scenario. It is found that the composition and the percentages of constituents in MPs are similar. More than 20 metallic elements make up 35 wt.%-40 wt.% of the total weight, of which 12 elements are identified to be highly hazardous and 12 are less harmful. With the TPI technique, the environmental performance of Pb is attributed to be 20.8 mg(-1). The total TPIs of metallic elements in the old and new type MP is 255,403 and 127,639 units, respectively, which is equivalent to the effect of releasing 6.14 and 12.28 g Pb into the environment. The average TPI of the old and new type MP is 4.1 and 4.5 mg(-1), respectively, which suggests a similar eco-efficiency per unit mass. The new model of MP is more eco-effective than the old one, which is not due to a reduction in the type of hazardous elements, but rather due to a significant miniaturization of the package with less weight. A single MP can have a considerable toxicity to the environment as referred to Pb, which suggests a major concern for the environmental impact of the total e-waste with a huge quantity and a heavy mass in China.

  8. Assessment of metabolome annotation quality: a method for evaluating the false discovery rate of elemental composition searches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Matsuda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In metabolomics researches using mass spectrometry (MS, systematic searching of high-resolution mass data against compound databases is often the first step of metabolite annotation to determine elemental compositions possessing similar theoretical mass numbers. However, incorrect hits derived from errors in mass analyses will be included in the results of elemental composition searches. To assess the quality of peak annotation information, a novel methodology for false discovery rates (FDR evaluation is presented in this study. Based on the FDR analyses, several aspects of an elemental composition search, including setting a threshold, estimating FDR, and the types of elemental composition databases most reliable for searching are discussed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The FDR can be determined from one measured value (i.e., the hit rate for search queries and four parameters determined by Monte Carlo simulation. The results indicate that relatively high FDR values (30-50% were obtained when searching time-of-flight (TOF/MS data using the KNApSAcK and KEGG databases. In addition, searches against large all-in-one databases (e.g., PubChem always produced unacceptable results (FDR >70%. The estimated FDRs suggest that the quality of search results can be improved not only by performing more accurate mass analysis but also by modifying the properties of the compound database. A theoretical analysis indicates that FDR could be improved by using compound database with smaller but higher completeness entries. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: High accuracy mass analysis, such as Fourier transform (FT-MS, is needed for reliable annotation (FDR <10%. In addition, a small, customized compound database is preferable for high-quality annotation of metabolome data.

  9. Assessment of Static Delamination Propagation Capabilities in Commercial Finite Element Codes Using Benchmark Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orifici, Adrian C.; Krueger, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    With capabilities for simulating delamination growth in composite materials becoming available, the need for benchmarking and assessing these capabilities is critical. In this study, benchmark analyses were performed to assess the delamination propagation simulation capabilities of the VCCT implementations in Marc TM and MD NastranTM. Benchmark delamination growth results for Double Cantilever Beam, Single Leg Bending and End Notched Flexure specimens were generated using a numerical approach. This numerical approach was developed previously, and involves comparing results from a series of analyses at different delamination lengths to a single analysis with automatic crack propagation. Specimens were analyzed with three-dimensional and two-dimensional models, and compared with previous analyses using Abaqus . The results demonstrated that the VCCT implementation in Marc TM and MD Nastran(TradeMark) was capable of accurately replicating the benchmark delamination growth results and that the use of the numerical benchmarks offers advantages over benchmarking using experimental and analytical results.

  10. Assessment of the influence of anthropogenic factors on elements of the ecological network in Vojvodina (Serbia using the Leopold matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kicošev Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt steppes and marshes represent the most valuable ecosystems in the world, providing numerous ecosystem services that are extremely vulnerable to anthropogenic influences. These types of habitat in the territory of Serbia are most dominant in Banat and a significant portion of them is under protection or in the process of becoming protected. The section surrounding the protected areas of Slano Kopovo Special Nature Reserve, Rusanda Nature Park and Okanj Bara Special Nature Reserve with the non-building area of Novi Bečej, Kumane, Melenci, Elemir and Taraš cadastral municipalities, has been chosen for the analysis. The aim of this paper was to assess the influence of specific anthropogenic factors on the elements of an ecological network using the analytical method that can generate the required results in a manner suitable for presentation to various stakeholders. To achieve this aim, the Leopold matrix model, used for assessing anthropogenic influence on the environment, has been chosen. The specificity of this issue of protecting and preserving elements of an ecological network resulted in the need to isolate and evaluate the factors affecting the preservation of habitats and functionality of ecosystems, unlike the concept of Leopold matrix, which treats all factors as equally important in the process of evaluation. Evaluation results indicate significant effects of historical, perennial manner of using the area and other resources in the non-building area.

  11. Assessment of the geoavailability of trace elements from selected zinc minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Hageman, Phillip L.; Benzel, William M.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Morman, Suzette; Choate, LaDonna M.; Lowers, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This assessment focused on five zinc-bearing minerals. The minerals were subjected to a number of analyses including quantitative X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, leaching tests, and bioaccessibility and toxicity studies. Like a previous comprehensive assessment of five copper-bearing minerals, the purpose of this assessment was to obtain structural and chemical information and to characterize the reactivity of each mineral to various simulated environmental and biological conditions. As in the copper minerals study, analyses were conducted consistent with widely accepted methods. Unless otherwise noted, analytical methods used for this study were identical to those described in the investigation of copper-bearing minerals. Two sphalerite specimens were included in the zinc-minerals set. One sphalerite was recovered from a mine in Balmat, New York; the second came from a mine in Creede, Colorado. The location and conditions of origin are significant because, as analyses confirmed, the two sphalerite specimens are quite different. For example, data acquired from a simulated gastric fluid (SGF) study indicate that the hydrothermally formed Creede sphalerite contains orders of magnitude higher arsenic, cadmium, manganese, and lead than the much older metamorphic Balmat sphalerite. The SGF and other experimental results contained in this report suggest that crystallizing conditions such as temperature, pressure, fluidization, or alteration processes significantly affect mineral properties—properties that, in turn, influence reactivity, solubility, and toxicity. The three remaining minerals analyzed for this report—smithsonite, hemimorphite, and hydrozincite—are all secondary minerals or alteration products of zinc-ore deposits. In addition, all share physical characteristics such as tenacity, density, streak, and cleavage. Similarities end there. The chemical composition, unit-cell parameters, acid-neutralizing potential, and other observable and

  12. Santos estuarine sediments, Brazil - metal and trace element assessment by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Eduardo P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: ducamorim@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Berbel, Glaucia; Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos nos Oceanos (LABNUT)

    2009-07-01

    The Santos estuary system is an intricate pattern of tidal channels and small rivers originating from the adjacent Pre-Cambrian slopes. These two major estuaries share a common area in the upper portion of the region which interacts with each other. The largest harbor in Latin America is located at the eastern outlet of the Santos estuary. This intricate and sensitive ecosystem is highly susceptible to human impact from industrial activities, urban sewage and polluted solid wastes disposal. Due to its high vulnerability CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State) sporadically monitors the contamination levels of water, sediment and marine organisms in this region. The present study reports results concerning the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements in the Santos estuarine marine sediments. Thirty two bottom sediment samples (SS0601 to SS0616 (summer) and SW0601 to SW0616 (winter) were collected in this estuary, including regions of Sao Vicente, Santos, Cubatao and Vicente de Carvalho, by a vanVeen sampler in the summer and winter of 2006. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The concentration values obtained for As and metals Cr and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values) and are adopted by CETESB. (author)

  13. Using DOProC method in reliability assessment of steel elements exposed to fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krejsa Martin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue crack damage depends on a number of stress range cycles. This is a time factor in the course of reliability for the entire designed service life. Three sizes are important for the characteristics of the propagation of fatigue cracks - initial size, detectable size and acceptable size. The theoretical model of fatigue crack progression can be based on a linear fracture mechanic. Depending on location of an initial crack, the crack may propagate in structural element e.g. from the edge or from the surface. When determining the required degree of reliability, it is possible to specify the time of the first inspection of the construction which will focus on the fatigue damage. Using a conditional probability and Bayesian approach, times for subsequent inspections can be determined. For probabilistic modelling of fatigue crack progression was used the original and new probabilistic method - the Direct Optimized Probabilistic Calculation (“DOProC”, which uses a purely numerical approach without any simulation techniques or approximation approach based on optimized numerical integration.

  14. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2015-07-01

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for 0.1) for dermal contact with clothes.

  15. Assessment of a Hybrid Continuous/Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Code for Geothermal Reservoir Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yidong; Podgorney, Robert; Huang, Hai

    2017-03-01

    FALCON (Fracturing And Liquid CONvection) is a hybrid continuous/discontinuous Galerkin finite element geothermal reservoir simulation code based on the MOOSE (Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment) framework being developed and used for multiphysics applications. In the present work, a suite of verification and validation (V&V) test problems for FALCON was defined to meet the design requirements, and solved to the interests of enhanced geothermal system modeling and simulation. The intent for this test problem suite is to provide baseline comparison data that demonstrates the performance of FALCON solution methods. The test problems vary in complexity from a single mechanical or thermal process, to coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in geological porous medium. Numerical results obtained by FALCON agreed well with either the available analytical solutions or experimental data, indicating the verified and validated implementation of these capabilities in FALCON. Whenever possible, some form of solution verification has been attempted to identify sensitivities in the solution methods, and suggest best practices when using the FALCON code.

  16. Selected elements of rock burst state assessment in case studies from the Silesian hard coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KABIESZ Józef; MAKóWKA Janusz

    2009-01-01

    Exploitation of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is conducted in complex and difficult conditions. These difficulties are connected with the occurrence of many natural mining hazards and limitations resulting from the existing in this area surface infrastructure. One of the most important problems of Polish mining is the rock burst hazard and reliable evaluation of its condition. During long-years' mining practice in Poland a comprehensive system of evaluation and control of this hazard was de-veloped. In the paper the main aspects of rock burst hazard state evaluation will be presented, comprising: 1) rock mass inclination for rock bursts, I.e., rock strength properties investigation, comprehensive parametric evaluation of rock mass inclination for rock bursts, prognosis of seismic events induced by mining operations, methods of computer-aided modelling of stress and rock mass deformation parameters distribution, strategic rock mass classification under rock burst degrees; 2) immediate seismic and rock burst hazard state evaluation, I.e., low diameter test drilling method, seismologic and seismoacoustic method, comprehensive method of rock burst hazard state evaluation, non-standard methods of evaluation; 3) legal aspects of rock burst hazard state evaluation. Selected elements of the hazard state evaluation system are illustrated with specific practical examples of their applica-tion.

  17. Elusive Critical Elements of Transformative Risk Assessment Practice and Interpretation: Is Alternatives Analysis the Next Step?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Royce A

    2015-11-01

    This article argues that "game-changing" approaches to risk analysis must focus on "democratizing" risk analysis in the same way that information technologies have democratized access to, and production of, knowledge. This argument is motivated by the author's reading of Goble and Bier's analysis, "Risk Assessment Can Be a Game-Changing Information Technology-But Too Often It Isn't" (Risk Analysis, 2013; 33: 1942-1951), in which living risk assessments are shown to be "game changing" in probabilistic risk analysis. In this author's opinion, Goble and Bier's article focuses on living risk assessment's potential for transforming risk analysis from the perspective of risk professionals-yet, the game-changing nature of information technologies has typically achieved a much broader reach. Specifically, information technologies change who has access to, and who can produce, information. From this perspective, the author argues that risk assessment is not a game-changing technology in the same way as the printing press or the Internet because transformative information technologies reduce the cost of production of, and access to, privileged knowledge bases. The author argues that risk analysis does not reduce these costs. The author applies Goble and Bier's metaphor to the chemical risk analysis context, and in doing so proposes key features that transformative risk analysis technology should possess. The author also discusses the challenges and opportunities facing risk analysis in this context. These key features include: clarity in information structure and problem representation, economical information dissemination, increased transparency to nonspecialists, democratized manufacture and transmission of knowledge, and democratic ownership, control, and interpretation of knowledge. The chemical safety decision-making context illustrates the impact of changing the way information is produced and accessed in the risk context. Ultimately, the author concludes that although

  18. Assessment of suitability of tree species for the production of biomass on trace element contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelou, Michael W.H., E-mail: michael.evangelou@env.ethz.ch [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Deram, Annabelle, E-mail: annabelle.deram@univ-lille2.fr [Laboratoire des sciences vegetales et fongiques - EA4483, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques-ILIS, Universite Lille Nord de France - 3, rue du Professeur Laguesse, B.P. 83, F-59006 Lille Cedex (France); Gogos, Alexander; Studer, Bjoern; Schulin, Rainer [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birch: lowest metal concentrations in foliage, wood and bark. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bark proportion does not have to decline with increasing age of tree. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long harvest rotation (>25 y) reduces metal concentrations in stem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birch: most suitable tree for BCL. - Abstract: To alleviate the demand on fertile agricultural land for production of bioenergy, we investigated the possibility of producing biomass for bioenergy on trace element (TE) contaminated land. Soil samples and plant tissues (leaves, wood and bark) of adult willow (Salix sp.), poplar (Populus sp.), and birch (Betula pendula) trees were collected from five contaminated sites in France and Germany and analysed for Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ca, and K. Cadmium concentration in tree leaves were correlated with tree species, whereas Zn concentration in leaves was site correlated. Birch revealed significantly lower leaf Cd concentrations (1.2-8.9 mg kg{sup -1}) than willow and poplar (5-80 mg kg{sup -1}), thus posing the lowest risk for TE contamination of surrounding areas. Birch displayed the lowest bark concentrations for Ca (2300-6200 mg kg{sup -1}) and K (320-1250 mg kg{sup -1}), indicating that it would be the most suitable tree species for fuel production, as high concentrations of K and Ca decrease the ash melting point which results in a reduced plant lifetime. Due to higher TE concentrations in bark compared to wood a small bark proportion in relation to the trunk is desirable. In general the bark proportion was reduced with the tree age. In summary, birch was amongst the investigated species the most suitable for biomass production on TE contaminated land.

  19. A finite element study of balloon expandable stent for plaque and arterial wall vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-07-01

    The stresses induced within plaque tissues and arterial layers during stent expansion inside an atherosclerotic artery can be exceeded from the yield stresses of those tissues and, consequently, lead to plaque or arterial layer rupture. The distribution and magnitude of the stresses in each component involved in stenting might be clearly different for different plaque types and different arterial layers. In this study, a nonlinear finite element simulation was employed to investigate the effect of plaque composition (calcified, cellular, and hypocellular) on the stresses induced in the arterial layers (intima, media, and adventitia) during implantation of a balloon expandable coronary stent into a stenosed artery. The atherosclerotic artery was assumed to consist of a plaque and normal/healthy arterial tissues on its outer side. The results indicated a significant influence of plaque types on the maximum stresses induced within the plaque wall and arterial layers during stenting but not when computing maximum stress on the stent. The stress on the stiffest calcified plaque wall was in the fracture level (2.38 MPa), whereas cellular and hypocellular plaques remain stable owing to less stress on their walls. Regardless of plaque types, the highest von Mises stresses were observed on the stiffest intima layer, whereas the lowest stresses were seen to be located in less stiff media layer. The computed stresses on the intima layer were found to be high enough to initiate a rupture in this stiff layer. These findings suggest a higher risk of arterial vascular injury for the intima layer, while a lower risk of arterial injury for the media and adventitia layers.

  20. Finite element modelling of squirrel, guinea pig and rat skulls: using geometric morphometrics to assess sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, P G; Fagan, M J; Rayfield, E J; Jeffery, N

    2011-12-01

    Rodents are defined by a uniquely specialized dentition and a highly complex arrangement of jaw-closing muscles. Finite element analysis (FEA) is an ideal technique to investigate the biomechanical implications of these specializations, but it is essential to understand fully the degree of influence of the different input parameters of the FE model to have confidence in the model's predictions. This study evaluates the sensitivity of FE models of rodent crania to elastic properties of the materials, loading direction, and the location and orientation of the models' constraints. Three FE models were constructed of squirrel, guinea pig and rat skulls. Each was loaded to simulate biting on the incisors, and the first and the third molars, with the angle of the incisal bite varied over a range of 45°. The Young's moduli of the bone and teeth components were varied between limits defined by findings from our own and previously published tests of material properties. Geometric morphometrics (GMM) was used to analyse the resulting skull deformations. Bone stiffness was found to have the strongest influence on the results in all three rodents, followed by bite position, and then bite angle and muscle orientation. Tooth material properties were shown to have little effect on the deformation of the skull. The effect of bite position varied between species, with the mesiodistal position of the biting tooth being most important in squirrels and guinea pigs, whereas bilateral vs. unilateral biting had the greatest influence in rats. A GMM analysis of isolated incisor deformations showed that, for all rodents, bite angle is the most important parameter, followed by elastic properties of the tooth. The results here elucidate which input parameters are most important when defining the FE models, but also provide interesting glimpses of the biomechanical differences between the three skulls, which will be fully explored in future publications. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of

  1. Gene Expression Profiling in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms After Finite Element Rupture Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Philipp; Schiele, Sandra; Ginsbach, Philip; Grond-Ginsbach, Caspar; Hakimi, Maani; Böckler, Dittmar; Lorenzo-Bermejo, Justo; Dihlmann, Susanne

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the association between local biomechanical rupture risk calculations from finite element analysis (FEA) and whole-genome profiling of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) wall to determine if AAA wall regions with highest and lowest estimated rupture risk show different gene expression patterns. Six patients (mean age 74 years; all men) scheduled for open surgery to treat asymptomatic AAAs (mean diameter 55.2±3.5 mm) were recruited for the study. Rupture risk profiles were estimated by FEA from preoperative computed tomography angiography data. During surgery, AAA wall samples of ~10 mm(2) were extracted from the lowest and highest rupture risk locations identified by the FEA. Twelve samples were processed for RNA extraction and subsequent whole genome expression profiling. Expression of single genes and of predefined gene groups were compared between vessel wall areas with highest and lowest predicted rupture risk. Normalized datasets comprised 15,079 gene transcripts with expression above background. In biopsies with high rupture risk, upregulation of 18 and downregulation of 18 genes was detected when compared to the low-risk counterpart. Global analysis of predefined gene groups revealed expression differences in genes associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation (p<0.001), matrix metalloproteinase activity (p<0.001), and chemokine signaling (p<0.001). Increased expression of genes involved in degrading ECM components was present in AAA wall regions with highest biomechanical stress, supporting the thesis of mechanotransduction. More experimental studies with cooperation of multicenter vascular biobanks are necessary to understand AAA etiologies and identify further parameters of FEA model complementation.

  2. Clinical Aspects of Trace Elements: Zinc in Human Nutrition - Assessment of Zinc Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Pluhator

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the limiting and vulnerable zinc pool has not been identified, it becomes a challenge to determine which of the many zinc pools is most susceptible to deficiency. As a consequence, defining and assessing zinc status in the individual patient is a somewhat uncertain process. Laboratory analysis of zinc status is difficult because no single biochemical criterion can reliably reflect zinc body stores. Many indexes have been examined in the hopes of discovering a method for the assessment of zinc nutriture. None of the methods currently used can be wholeheartedly recommended because they are fraught with problems that affect their use and interpretation. However, these methods remain in use for clinical and research purposes, though their benefits and drawbacks must always be acknowledged. Until an acceptable method of analysis is discovered, clinicians must rely for confirmation of zinc deficiency on a process of supplementing with zinc and observing the patient’s response. The main indexes (plasma/serum, erythrocyte, leukocyte, neutrophil, urine, hair and salivary zinc levels, taste acuity and oral zinc tolerance tests, and measurement of metallothionein levels are reviewed. Measurement of plasma or erythrocyte metallothionein levels shows promise as a future tool for the accurate determination of zinc status.

  3. Testing contamination risk assessment methods for toxic elements from mine waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdaal, A.; Jordan, G.; Szilassi, P.; Kiss, J.; Detzky, G.

    2012-04-01

    Major incidents involving mine waste facilities and poor environmental management practices have left a legacy of thousands of contaminated sites like in the historic mining areas in the Carpathian Basin. Associated environmental risks have triggered the development of new EU environmental legislation to prevent and minimize the effects of such incidents. The Mine Waste Directive requires the risk-based inventory of all mine waste sites in Europe by May 2012. In order to address the mining problems a standard risk-based Pre-selection protocol has been developed by the EU Commission. This paper discusses the heavy metal contamination in acid mine drainage (AMD) for risk assessment (RA) along the Source-Pathway-Receptor chain using decision support methods which are intended to aid national and regional organizations in the inventory and assessment of potentially contaminated mine waste sites. Several recognized methods such as the European Environmental Agency (EEA) standard PRAMS model for soil contamination, US EPA-based AIMSS and Irish HMS-IRC models for RA of abandoned sites are reviewed, compared and tested for the mining waste environment. In total 145 ore mine waste sites have been selected for scientific testing using the EU Pre-selection protocol as a case study from Hungary. The proportion of uncertain to certain responses for a site and for the total number of sites may give an insight of specific and overall uncertainty in the data we use. The Pre-selection questions are efficiently linked to a GIS system as database inquiries using digital spatial data to directly generate answers. Key parameters such as distance to the nearest surface and ground water bodies, to settlements and protected areas are calculated and statistically evaluated using STATGRAPHICS® in order to calibrate the RA models. According to our scientific research results, of the 145 sites 11 sites are the most risky having foundation slope >20o, 57 sites are within distance 66 (class VI

  4. Identifying the elements of physics courses that impact student learning: Curriculum, instructor, peers, and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Emily Lincoln Ashbaugh

    Prior research across hundreds for introductory physics courses has demonstrated that traditional physics instruction does not generally lead to students learning physics concepts in a meaningful way, but that interactive-engagement physics courses do sometimes promote a great deal more student learning. In this work I analyze a reform effort in a large-enrollment, introductory, physics course. I find that evaluating a curriculum in isolation from other influences, such as the instructor implementation and the student population, is problematical. Instead, I propose a model of classroom culture identifying the curriculum, instructor, and student peer group as key components to creating a learning environment. Assessment, a key influence of classroom culture, is considered a product of the instructor/curriculum interaction. All three aspects of the classroom culture have the potential to influence student learning outcomes. I analyze the implementation of two different reformed physics series in terms of classroom culture. In a calculus-based course, I evaluate a new reform-based curriculum for the first and third quarters of instruction. In the first quarter, mechanics, I find that having an instructor teach in alignment with the philosophy of the reformed curriculum is essential, with students of only certain section instructors having improved outcomes over traditional instruction on measures of conceptual understanding. In the electromagnetism quarter of instruction, student outcomes for all reformed sections are higher than those from traditional sections in spite of variations in instructor implementation. The vast range of instructor-student interactions within such a reformed course are analyzed in an observational study, finding that some types of interactions are characteristic of particular instructors, regardless of the content studied that day. An analysis of assessment proposes an alternative grading method that is superior to the traditional grading

  5. Technical elements for the performance assessment of a high-level waste geologic repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, William Bradley

    Techniques for predicting various performance elements of a high level radioactive waste repository are developed and demonstrated. In the unsaturated Yucca Mountain repository site gaseous radionuclides traveling through open fractures will be retarded by absorption into pore-bound liquid. For small values of the modified Peclet number the fractured porous medium can be modeled as an equivalent continuum as demonstrated by discrete fracture analysis. The travel time for C-14(O2) from failed containers to the accessible environment is predicted to be hundreds to thousands of years and doses from above ground concentrations to be much lower than background radiation at sea level. A spent fuel source term is developed for episodic flooding of a partially-failed container. Solubility-limited, congruent, preferential and alteration-rate based release modes are considered. Transport is by advection with the mostly-intact container being credited with effectively blocking diffusive pathways. The possible benefits of limited oxygen entry into the container is also discussed. Calculated releases in response to assumed major flooding episodes are comparable to those of wet-drip models. A weapons-plutonium glass waste form might be driven to supercriticality by a flooding episode in the distant future if neutron poisons are first washed away as shown by a preliminary hydrodynamics-coupled reactor model. Criticality is approached from the undermoderated side as water enters the degraded waste form. Point neutronics equations track the event through self-shutdown by water expulsion. Calculated event magnitudes are comparable to those of documented criticality accidents. The fundamental problem of diffusion from a circular disc source at constant concentration located in the boundary of a semi-infinite media is solved numerically using coordinate transformation, grid scaling, and intelligent finite difference algorithms. The resulting time-dependent mass-transfer rate is

  6. Trace element analytics and multivariate statistics for investigation and assessment of the pollution situation in rivers; Elementspurenanalytik und multivariate Statistik zur Untersuchung und Bewertung des Belastungszustandes von Fliessgewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulinger, A.M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2002-07-01

    In order to describe and assess the element distribution and the trend of the pollution in sediments, particulate suspended matter and dissolved matter of the river Elbe more than 60 elements were determined in several sampling campaigns along the entire river during the nineties. By analyzing the resulting data with two- and multi-way principal components analysis geogenic and anthropogenically influenced elements were distinguished and typical longitudinal profiles concerning geogenic or anthropogenic characteristics were summarized. Sampling locations having similiar element distribution patterns were aggregated to characteristic Elbe sections by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. The temporal trend of the pollution within the different sections was quantified by comparing the mean concentrations of the anthropogenically influenced elements. Two- and Three-way PLS regression models were applied to predict element concentrations in one certain river compartment from measured concentrations in one or two different compartments. (orig.)

  7. Liver safety assessment: required data elements and best practices for data collection and standardization in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avigan, Mark I; Bjornsson, Einar S; Pasanen, Markku; Cooper, Charles; Andrade, Raul J; Watkins, Paul B; Lewis, James H; Merz, Michael

    2014-11-01

    A workshop was convened to discuss best practices for the assessment of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in clinical trials. In a breakout session, workshop attendees discussed necessary data elements and standards for the accurate measurement of DILI risk associated with new therapeutic agents in clinical trials. There was agreement that in order to achieve this goal the systematic acquisition of protocol-specified clinical measures and lab specimens from all study subjects is crucial. In addition, standard DILI terms that address the diverse clinical and pathologic signatures of DILI were considered essential. There was a strong consensus that clinical and lab analyses necessary for the evaluation of cases of acute liver injury should be consistent with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on pre-marketing risk assessment of DILI in clinical trials issued in 2009. A recommendation that liver injury case review and management be guided by clinicians with hepatologic expertise was made. Of note, there was agreement that emerging DILI signals should prompt the systematic collection of candidate pharmacogenomic, proteomic and/or metabonomic biomarkers from all study subjects. The use of emerging standardized clinical terminology, CRFs and graphic tools for data review to enable harmonization across clinical trials was strongly encouraged. Many of the recommendations made in the breakout session are in alignment with those made in the other parallel sessions on methodology to assess clinical liver safety data, causality assessment for suspected DILI, and liver safety assessment in special populations (hepatitis B, C, and oncology trials). Nonetheless, a few outstanding issues remain for future consideration.

  8. Assessment of the capacity of the national ecological network elements for road construction and operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kicošev Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Road construction and usage have a wide range of direct and indirect negative effects on protected areas. The impact of state roads on protected areas in Vojvodina was reviewed in this article, based on the orientation values of habitat loss and secondary negative effects originating from traffic functioning. Results of the assessment indicate that the use of existing roads constructed on habitats within the national ecological network exceeded the capacity of individual PA-protected areas (e.g., in case of Straža Natural Monument. Recorded capacity overflow on other PAs occurs solely as a consequence of overlapping between protected areas and areas of influence of roads routed along the borders of protected areas (which is the case with Slano Kopovo Special Nature Reserve and Selevenjske pustare Special Nature Reserve. The aim of this article is to show that even with the smallest values of the parameters related to the width of roads and critical distance from the habitat, the vulnerability of certain core areas of the national ecological network is evident.

  9. Lichen (Xanthoria parietina) biomonitoring of trace element contamination and air quality assessment in Livorno Province (Tuscany, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scerbo, R.; Barghigiani, C.; Ristori, T. [CNR Istituto di Biofisica, Via S. Lorenzo 26, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Possenti, L.; Barale, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Via Volta, Pisa (Italy); Lampugnani, L. [CNR Istituto di Chimica Analitica Strumentale, Via Risorgimento, Pisa (Italy)

    1999-10-29

    This paper deals with the biomonitoring of air in Livorno Province (Tuscany, Italy) using lichens for both quantitative monitoring of airborne metals and air quality assessment. On the basis of the possible sources of metal pollution in the study area, the following elements were analyzed: As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Zn and Hg. The small number of lichen species, the often stunted appearance of the specimens, and metal analysis revealed widespread atmospheric pollution in the study area. The results indicate extensive anthropic impact. The highest levels of contamination were recorded for Hg, Cd, Pb, and V concentrations. Good agreement was found between bioindication and metal concentrations in lichens. The impact of anthropic activities is particularly due to steelworks and chemical plants, combustion processes related to energy production and vehicle emissions. In addition to air pollution, some natural factors, such as climate, rocky shores or ozone, were assumed to affect lichen occurrence. Comparison with the Lake Orta area in northern Italy showed Livorno Province was more contaminated by trace elements. Similar contamination levels were found in another area of Tuscany, probably due to the geological characteristics of this region.

  10. Assessment of contamination with trace elements and man-made radionuclides around Temelin Nuclear Power Plant in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinova, Lenka; Frontasyeva, Marina; Vergel, Konstantin; Bayushkina, Ekaterina

    2014-11-01

    The results of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and trace elements, determined in moss Pleurozium schreberi collected around the Temelin Nuclear Power Station in the Czech Republic in 2011, are presented. The monitored area around NPP Temelin comprises 29 sampling sites located along 8 profile radii stretched as of 2, 5, 10, and 20 km from the NPP. Some pollution sources are located in the study area. A total of 42 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Pb, Th, and U) were determined by epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis with the neutron flux density Φepi=3.6×1011n/(cm2s) at the pulsed fast reactor IBR-2, FLNP, JINR. To determine the presence of radionuclides and their measurable activity in samples, laboratory gamma spectrometry was found to be the best detection method. A coaxial HPGe detector with samples in the geometry of Marinelli containers in the laboratory of Faculty of Nuclear Sciences CTU in Prague was used. To assess the influence of NPP Temelin on the Biomass in 20 km radius, the mass activity of 137Cs (Bq/kg) was determined. No other short-term radionuclides have ever been identified in any spectrum.

  11. Quality assessment of structure and language elements of written responses given by seven Scandinavian drug information centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reppe, Linda Amundstuen; Spigset, Olav; Kampmann, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    for which queries were part of the study. The responses were assessed qualitatively by six clinical pharmacologists (internal experts) and six general practitioners (GPs, external experts). In addition, linguistic aspects of the responses were evaluated by a plain language expert. RESULTS: The quality......PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify structure and language elements affecting the quality of responses from Scandinavian drug information centres (DICs). METHODS: Six different fictitious drug-related queries were sent to each of seven Scandinavian DICs. The centres were blinded...... of responses was generally judged as satisfactory to good. Presenting specific advice and conclusions were considered to improve the quality of the responses. However, small nuances in language formulations could affect the individual judgments of the experts, e.g. on whether or not advice was given. Some...

  12. Quality assessment of structure and language elements of written responses given by seven Scandinavian drug information centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reppe, Linda Amundstuen; Spigset, Olav; Kampmann, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify structure and language elements affecting the quality of responses from Scandinavian drug information centres (DICs). METHODS: Six different fictitious drug-related queries were sent to each of seven Scandinavian DICs. The centres were blinded...... for which queries were part of the study. The responses were assessed qualitatively by six clinical pharmacologists (internal experts) and six general practitioners (GPs, external experts). In addition, linguistic aspects of the responses were evaluated by a plain language expert. RESULTS: The quality...... of responses was generally judged as satisfactory to good. Presenting specific advice and conclusions were considered to improve the quality of the responses. However, small nuances in language formulations could affect the individual judgments of the experts, e.g. on whether or not advice was given. Some...

  13. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Ribeira do Iguape river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Francisco J.V. de; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: franciscovc@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: gilsonn@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELTA - Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: franciscoj@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELAI - Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2011-07-01

    The watershed region of the Ribeira do Iguape River and the estuarine complex of the Paranagua-Iguape- Cananeia and the various river basins located between this region and the Atlantic Ocean, is known as the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira do Iguape River runs a total length of approximately 470 km, being the main source of fresh water in the Estuarine Complex of the Iguape-Cananeia-Paranagua (Lagamar). The Ribeira do Iguape River is the last major river in the State of Sao Paulo that has not been altered by dams. During virtually the entire 20th century, the region of the Ribeira Valley was the scene of constant environmental degradation resulting from the intense exploration and refining of lead, zinc and silver ores that were processed in the mines of the region, in a rudimentary way and without any control over environmental impacts. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aims to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals and semi-metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the sediment and water of aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The determination of these elements was carried out by GF AAS technique for water samples and ICP OES for the sediment samples. This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, according to precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb were compared to the Canadian Environmental oriented values (TEL and PEL). The results obtained for multielemental analyses in the sediment samples were compared to UCC values (Upper Continental Crust). (author)

  14. Critical assessment of finite element analysis applied to metal–oxide interface roughness in oxidising zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, P., E-mail: Philip.Platt@manchester.ac.uk [University of Manchester, School of Materials, Materials Performance Centre, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Frankel, P. [University of Manchester, School of Materials, Materials Performance Centre, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gass, M. [AMEC, Walton House, Faraday Street, Birchwood Park, Risley, Warrington WA3 6GA (United Kingdom); Preuss, M. [University of Manchester, School of Materials, Materials Performance Centre, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    As a nuclear fuel cladding material, zirconium alloys act as a barrier between the fuel and pressurised steam or lithiated water environment. Controlling degradation mechanisms such as oxidation is essential to extending the in-service lifetime of the fuel. At temperatures of ∼360 °C zirconium alloys are known to exhibit cyclical, approximately cubic corrosion kinetics. With acceleration in the oxidation kinetics occurring every ∼2 μm of oxide growth, and being associated with the formation of a network of lateral cracks. Finite element analysis has been used previously to explain the lateral crack formation by the development of localised out-of-plane tensile stresses at the metal–oxide interface. This work uses the Abaqus finite element code to assess critically current approaches to representing the oxidation of zirconium alloys, with relation to undulations at the metal–oxide interface and localised stress generation. This includes comparison of axisymmetric and 3D quartered modelling approaches, and investigates the effect of interface geometry and plasticity in the metal substrate. Particular focus is placed on the application of the anisotropic strain tensor used to represent the oxidation mechanism, which is typically applied with a fixed coordinate system. Assessment of the impact of the tensor showed that 99% of the localised tensile stresses originated from the out-of-plane component of the strain tensor, rather than the in-plane expansion as was previously thought. Discussion is given to the difficulties associated with this modelling approach and the requirements for future simulations of the oxidation of zirconium alloys.

  15. Integrated non-destructive assessment of relevant structural elements of an Italian heritage site: the Carthusian monastery of Trisulti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainieri, C.; Marra, A.; Rainieri, G. M.; Gargaro, D.; Pepe, M.; Fabbrocino, G.

    2015-07-01

    The analysis of historical structures in need of preservation and restoration interventions is a very complex task due to the large uncertainties in the characterization of structural properties and detailing in view of the structural response. Moreover, the predictive performance of numerical analyses and simulations depend on the availability of information about the constructional properties of the architectural complex, crack patterns and active degradation phenomena. In particular, local changes in material properties or damage due to past events (such as earthquakes) can affect individual structural elements. They can be hardly detected as a result of the maintenance interventions carried out over the centuries and the possibility to carry out limited or even no destructive investigations due to the historical relevance of the structure. Thus, non-destructive investigations play a fundamental role in the assessment of historical structures minimizing, at the same time, the invasiveness of interventions. The present paper deals with an explanatory case study concerning the structural investigations carried out in view of the seismic assessment of an Italian historical monument, the Carthusian monastery of Trisulti in Collepardo, erected in 1204 under Pope Innocenzo HI. The relevance of the case study is due to the application, in combination, of different NDT methods, such as sonic tests, and active and passive infrared thermography, in order to characterize relevant masonry elements. Moreover, an advanced system for the in-situ nondestructive vibration-based estimation of the tensile loads in ancient tie-rods is described and the main results obtained from its application for the characterization of the tie-rods of the cloister are presented.

  16. Assessment of chemical element migration in soil-plant complex of Urov endemic localities of East Transbaikalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadim V., Ermakov; Valentina, Danilova; Sabsbakhor, Khushvakhtova; Aklexander, Degtyarev; Sergey, Tyutikov; Victor, Berezkin; Elena, Karpova

    2014-05-01

    The comparative evaluation of the levels of biologically active chemical elements and their migration in the soil-plant complex of two Urov endemic locations in East Transbaikalia (Zolinsky and Uryumkansky) and background areas (Western Baikal region and the western area of the Trans-Baikal region) was conducted. The predominant soil-forming rocks in East Transbaikalia are weathering products of Proterozoic carbonated granitoids PR2. The surface rocks consist from granite, granodiorite, diorite quartz diorite, gabbro, norite, gabbro-norite and other. Soils - mountain and cryogenic meadow forests, mountain permafrost taiga podzolised, meadow alluvial, peaty meadow [2]. The paludification of narrow valleys and thermokarst phenomena are typical in Urov endemic localities. It reflects on the spotted of soil and differentiation of chemical composition of soils and plants. Most of the chemical elements in soils were determined by means of X-ray fluorescence, and trace elements in soils and plants - by atomic absorption spectrometry. The selenium content was measured by spectrofluorimetric method [3]. The research processed by methods of variation statistics. It was found that the soils of two locations of the Urov subregion of the biosphere were more enriched with iron, barium, calcium, uranium, thorium, phosphorus, and to a lesser extent strontium compared to background soils. The ratio of Ca: P was significantly higher in the soil of background areas, and Ca: Sr, on the contrary, in endemic soils. In assessing the migration of trace elements in soil-plant complex by means of the total content of trace elements and biological absorption coefficient found a marked accumulation by plants manganese, chromium, arsenic and weak plants accumulation of cobalt and nickel. Soil landscape is not much different in content of selenium, but its migration in plants was reduced in places of spread of Urov disease [1]. The concentrators of cadmium (leaves of different species of willow

  17. Assessment of Pulse Echo Response of Flat Bottom Holes Through Curved Interfaces Using the Patch Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, G.; Reddy, Sudhan; Krishnamurthy, C. V.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2009-03-01

    The World Federations of Non-Destructive Evaluations Centers (WFNDEC) has proposed two studies for 2008 Benchmark problem. The first study deals with surface curvature effects across fluid-solid media to evaluate immersion transducer's P-wave response from Flat Bottom Holes (FBH) situated in the solid medium. The second study pertains to pulse echo response from Side Drilled Holes (SDH). We report the results for P-wave response from a FBH due to a transducer placed above a curved interface using the frequency domain Patch Element Model (PEM), developed at CNDE at IITM. The assessment employs an optimized algorithm to determine the points of reflection/refraction on any planar or curved interface between two media and incorporates the Divergence Factor (DF) to account for curvature effects on the field assessment. We also report results on the 2007 benchmark problem dealing with the response from FBH which has two parts: One is model based study and the other is comparison of model with experiments. The PEM results for 2007 and 2008 are compared with the available results from experiments and other models.

  18. Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; Barbier, F; Ayouni, L; Gil, F

    2013-09-01

    Although fish intake has potential health benefits, the presence of metal contamination in seafood has raised public health concerns. In this study, levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products and compared with the maximum levels currently in force. In a further step, potential human health risks for the consumers were assessed. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for their toxic elements content. High mercury concentrations were found in some predatory species (blue shark, cat shark, swordfish and tuna), although they were below the regulatory maximum levels. In the case of cadmium, bivalve mollusks such as canned clams and mussels presented higher concentrations than fish, but almost none of the samples analyzed exceeded the maximum levels. Lead concentrations were almost negligible with the exception of frozen common sole, which showed median levels above the legal limit. Tin levels in canned products were far below the maximum regulatory limit, indicating that no significant tin was transferred from the can. Arsenic concentrations were higher in crustaceans such as fresh and frozen shrimps. The risk assessment performed indicated that fish and shellfish products were safe for the average consumer, although a potential risk cannot be dismissed for regular or excessive consumers of particular fish species, such as tuna, swordfish, blue shark and cat shark (for mercury) and common sole (for lead).

  19. In situ assessment of phyto and zooavailability of trace elements: A complementary approach to chemical extraction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauget, Benjamin; Faure, Olivier; Conord, Cyrille; Crini, Nadia; de Vaufleury, Annette

    2015-07-15

    For an accurate risk assessment of sites contaminated by trace elements (TE), measurements of bioavailability must be performed. This is routinely achieved using the standardized 0.01M CaCl2 method. However, the suitability of chemical extractions as proxies of bioavailability is questionable. We analyzed the correlations between chemically estimated TE bioavailability and TE actually accumulated by coupling plant and snails bioindicators. Results showed a better correlation between plant TE contents and CaCl2 fraction while total soil concentration better explained snail TE contents. However in both cases chemical measures were not suitable to predict TE accumulation and bioavailability. Considering the soil properties only improve the estimation of Cr, Ni and Pb accumulation by plants while for snails, TE contents in viscera were dependent both on soil and plant contents and soil properties. It highlights the complementarities of biomonitoring methods to assess bioavailability. This dual approach allows a "physiologically defined" evaluation of bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk assessment and seasonal variations of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Upper Han River, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Siyue, E-mail: lisiyue@wbgcas.cn [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang Quanfa, E-mail: qzhang@wbgcas.cn [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Surface water samples were collected from 42 sampling sites throughout the upper Han River during the time period of 2005-2006. The concentrations of trace metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for the seasonal variability and preliminary risk assessment. The results demonstrated that concentrations of 11 heavy metals showed significant seasonality and most variables exhibited higher levels in the rainy season. Principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) revealed that variables governing water quality in one season may not be important in another season. Risk of metals on human health was then evaluated using Hazard Quotient (HQ) and carcinogenic risk, and indicated that As with HQ >1 and carcinogenic risk >10{sup -4}, was the most important pollutant leading to non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic concerns, in particular for children. The first five largest elements to chronic risks were As, Pb, V, Se and Sb, in the dry season, while they were As, V, Co, Pb and Sb in the rainy season. This assessment would help establish pollutant loading reduction goal and the total maximum daily loads, and consequently contribute to preserve public health in the Han River basin and develop water conservation strategy for the interbasin water transfer project.

  1. Toxic element mobility assessment and modeling for regional geo-scientific survey to support Risk Assessment in a European Union context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdaal, Ahmed; Jordan, Gyozo; Bartha, Andras; Fugedi, Ubul

    2013-04-01

    The Mine Waste Directive 2006/21/EC requires the risk-based inventory of all mine waste sites in Europe. The geochemical documentation concerning inert classification and ranking of the mine wastes requires detailed field study and laboratory testing and analyses of waste material to assess the Acid Mine Drainage potential and toxic element mobility. The procedure applied in this study used a multi-level decision support scheme including: 1) expert judgment, 2) data review, 3) representative field sampling and laboratory analysis of formations listed in the Inert Mining Waste List, and 4) requesting available laboratory analysis data from selected operating mines. Based on expert judgment, the listed formations were classified into three categories. A: inert B: probably inert, but has to be checked, C: probably not inert, has to be examined. This paper discusses the heavy metal contamination risk assessment (RA) in leached quarry-mine waste sites in Hungary. In total 34 mine waste sites (including tailing lagoons and heaps of both abandoned mines and active quarries) have been selected for scientific testing using the EU Pre-selection Protocol. Over 93 field samples have been collected from the mine sites including Ore (Andesite and Ryolite), Coal (Lignite, black and brown coals), Peat, Alginite, Bauxite, Clay and Limestone. Laboratory analyses of the total toxic element content (aqua regia extraction), the mobile toxic element content (deionized water leaching) and the analysis of different forms of sulfur (sulfuric acid potential) ) on the base of Hungarian GKM Decree No. 14/2008. (IV. 3) concerning mining waste management. A detailed geochemical study together with spatial analysis and GIS has been performed to derive a geochemically sound contamination RA of the mine waste sites. Key parameters such as heavy metal and sulphur content, in addition to the distance to the nearest surface and ground water bodies, or to sensitive receptors such as settlements and

  2. An Assessment of the SEA Multi-Element Sensor for Liquid Water Content Calibration of the NASA GRC Icing Research Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Laura E.; Ide, Robert F.; Van Zante, Judith F.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Icing Research tunnel has been using an Icing Blade technique to measure cloud liquid water content (LWC) since 1980. The IRT conducted tests with SEA Multi-Element sensors from 2009 to 2011 to assess their performance in measuring LWC. These tests revealed that the Multi-Element sensors showed some significant advantages over the Icing Blade, particularly at higher water contents, higher impingement rates, and large drop sizes. Results of these and other tests are presented here.

  3. Evaluating Stress Distribution Pattern in Periodontal Ligament of Maxillary Incisors during Intrusion Assessed by the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Salehi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: The use of miniscrews has expedited the true maxillary incisor intrusion and has minimized untoward side effects such as labial tipping. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution in the periodontal ligament of maxillary incisors when addressed to different models of intrusion mechanics using miniscrews by employing finite element methods. The degree of relative and absolute intrusion of maxillary incisors in different conditions was also evaluated. Materials and Method: Finite element model of maxillary central incisor to first premolar was generated by assembling images obtained from a three-dimensional model of maxillary dentition. Four different conditions of intrusion mechanics were simulated with different placement sites of miniscrews as well as different points of force application. In each model, 25-g force was applied to maxillary incisors via miniscrews. Results: In all four models, increased stress values were identified in the apical region of lateral incisor. Proclination of maxillary incisors was also reported in all the four models. The minimum absolute intrusion was observed when the miniscrew was placed between the lateral incisor and canine and the force was applied at right angles to the archwire, which is very common in clinical practice. Conclusion: From the results yield by this study, it seems that the apical region of lateral incisor is the most susceptible region to root resorption during anterior intrusion. When the minimum flaring of maxillary incisors is required in clinical situations, it is suggested to place the miniscrew halfway between the roots of lateral incisor and canine with the force applied to the archwire between central and lateral incisor. In order to achieve maximum absolute intrusion, it is advised to place miniscrew between the roots of central and lateral incisors with the force applied at a right angle to the archwire between these two teeth.

  4. Evaluating Stress Distribution Pattern in Periodontal Ligament of Maxillary Incisors during Intrusion Assessed by the Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Parisa; Gerami, Alayar; Najafi, Amirhosein; Torkan, Sepideh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The use of miniscrews has expedited the true maxillary incisor intrusion and has minimized untoward side effects such as labial tipping. Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution in the periodontal ligament of maxillary incisors when addressed to different models of intrusion mechanics using miniscrews by employing finite element methods. The degree of relative and absolute intrusion of maxillary incisors in different conditions was also evaluated. Materials and Method Finite element model of maxillary central incisor to first premolar was generated by assembling images obtained from a three-dimensional model of maxillary dentition. Four different conditions of intrusion mechanics were simulated with different placement sites of miniscrews as well as different points of force application. In each model, 25-g force was applied to maxillary incisors via miniscrews. Results In all four models, increased stress values were identified in the apical region of lateral incisor. Proclination of maxillary incisors was also reported in all the four models. The minimum absolute intrusion was observed when the miniscrew was placed between the lateral incisor and canine and the force was applied at right angles to the archwire, which is very common in clinical practice. Conclusion From the results yield by this study, it seems that the apical region of lateral incisor is the most susceptible region to root resorption during anterior intrusion. When the minimum flaring of maxillary incisors is required in clinical situations, it is suggested to place the miniscrew halfway between the roots of lateral incisor and canine with the force applied to the archwire between central and lateral incisor. In order to achieve maximum absolute intrusion, it is advised to place miniscrew between the roots of central and lateral incisors with the force applied at a right angle to the archwire between these two teeth. PMID:26636119

  5. Encrustation and trace element composition of Neogloboquadrina dutertrei assessed from single chamber analyses, implications for paleotemperature estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.-J. A. Brummer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Crust formation is a common phenomenon in planktonic foraminifera. Because of their different formation mechanism and hence composition, crusts affect the overall test composition and therefore complicate the use of crust-bearing foraminifera in paleoceanography. Such species are often used to estimate subsurface paleotemperatures and although the influence of the crust on the trace element/Ca ratio is recognised, it has not been systematically explored between and within tests. Here we use laser ablation ICP-MS to assess the variability in trace element composition of the crust of Neogloboquadrina dutertrei within individual chambers, as well as the effect of compositional heterogeneity of the crust on whole test chemistry. Compositionally, the outer crust differs from inner layer by lower Mg/Ca and Mn/Ca, but is indistinguishable in Sr/Ca. Crust thickness decreases towards the younger chambers and it may be entirely absent from the last chamber. In contrast to Mn/Ca and Sr/Ca, crustal Mg/Ca ratios show a tendency towards higher values on the younger chambers. These patterns in crust thickness and in crust Mg/Ca indicates that temperature is not the dominant factor controlling crust composition. Temperature estimates based on N. dutertrei, and presumably other crust-forming species too, are therefore biased towards too low values. Through comparison of modern and glacial tests we show that this bias is not constant and that changes in the crust thickness and/or in the Mg/Ca values can spuriously suggest temperature changes.

  6. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  7. Managing Identifiers for Elements of Provenance of the Third National Climate Assessment in the Global Change Information System (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, C.; Aulenbach, S.; Duggan, B.; Goldstein, J.

    2013-12-01

    A Federal Advisory Committee (The "National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee" or NCADAC) has overseen the development of a draft climate report that after extensive review will be considered by the Federal Government in the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA). This comprehensive report (1) Integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of the Program and discusses the scientific uncertainties associated with such findings; (2) Analyzes the effects of global change on the natural environment, agriculture, energy production and use, land and water resources, transportation, human health and welfare, human social systems, and biological diversity; and (3) Analyzes current trends in global change, both human-induced and natural, and projects major trends for the subsequent 25 to 100 years. The U.S. Global Change Program (USGCRP), composed of the 13 federal agencies most concerned with global change, is building a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will ultimately organize access to all of the research, data, and information about global change from across the system. A prototype of the system has been constructed that captures and presents all of the elements of provenance of the NCA through a coherent data model and friendly front end web site. This work will focus on the globally unique and persistent identifiers used to reference and organize those items. These include externally referenced items, such as DOIs used by scientific journal publishers for research articles or by agencies as dataset identifiers, as well as our own internal approach to identifiers, our overall data model and experiences managing persistent identifiers within the GCIS.

  8. Potential and limitations of finite element modelling in assessing structural integrity of coralline algae under future global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne, L. A.; Griffin, J.; Schmidt, D. N.; Rayfield, E. J.

    2015-10-01

    Coralline algae are important habitat formers found on all rocky shores. While the impact of future ocean acidification on the physiological performance of the species has been well studied, little research has focused on potential changes in structural integrity in response to climate change. A previous study using 2-D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) suggested increased vulnerability to fracture (by wave action or boring) in algae grown under high CO2 conditions. To assess how realistically 2-D simplified models represent structural performance, a series of increasingly biologically accurate 3-D FE models that represent different aspects of coralline algal growth were developed. Simplified geometric 3-D models of the genus Lithothamnion were compared to models created from computed tomography (CT) scan data of the same genus. The biologically accurate model and the simplified geometric model representing individual cells had similar average stresses and stress distributions, emphasising the importance of the cell walls in dissipating the stress throughout the structure. In contrast models without the accurate representation of the cell geometry resulted in larger stress and strain results. Our more complex 3-D model reiterated the potential of climate change to diminish the structural integrity of the organism. This suggests that under future environmental conditions the weakening of the coralline algal skeleton along with increased external pressures (wave and bioerosion) may negatively influence the ability for coralline algae to maintain a habitat able to sustain high levels of biodiversity.

  9. Geochemistry of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River Drainage (China): distribution, sources, and water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingpeng; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhaoyu; Wu, Tairan

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River drainage basin, which is the drinking water source area of South-to-North Water Transfer Project (China), affect large numbers of people and should therefore be carefully monitored. To investigate the distribution, sources, and quality of river water, this study integrating catchment geology and multivariate statistical techniques was carried out in the Dan River drainage from 99 river water samples collected in 2013. The distribution of trace metal concentrations in the Dan River drainage was similar to that in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, indicating that the reservoir was significantly affected by the Dan River drainage. Moreover, our results suggested that As, Sb, Cd, Mn, and Ni were the major pollutants. We revealed extremely high concentrations of As and Sb in the Laoguan River, Cd in the Qingyou River, Mn, Ni, and Cd in the Yinhua River, As and Sb in the Laojun River, and Sb in the Dan River. According to the water quality index, water in the Dan River drainage was suitable for drinking; however, an exposure risk assessment model suggests that As and Sb in the Laojun and Laoguan rivers could pose a high risk to humans in terms of adverse health and potential non-carcinogenic effects.

  10. Finite element modelling of the glenohumeral capsule can help assess the tested region during a clinical exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Benjamin J; Drury, Nicholas J; Moore, Susan M; McMahon, Patrick J; Weiss, Jeffrey A; Debski, Richard E

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the efficacy of evaluating the region of the glenohumeral capsule being tested by clinical exams for shoulder instability using finite element (FE) models of the glenohumeral joint. Specifically, the regions of high capsule strain produced by glenohumeral joint positions commonly used during a clinical exam were identified. Kinematics that simulated a simple translation test with an anterior load at three external rotation angles were applied to a validated, subject-specific FE model of the glenohumeral joint at 60° of abduction. Maximum principal strains on the glenoid side of the inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGHL) were significantly higher than the maximum principal strains on the humeral side, for all three regions of the IGHL at 30° and 60° of external rotation. These regions of localised strain indicate that these joint positions might be used to test the glenoid side of the IGHL during this clinical exam, but are not useful for assessing the humeral side of the IGHL. The use of FE models will facilitate the search for additional joint positions that isolate high strains to other IGHL regions, including the humeral side of the IGHL.

  11. Chemical contamination assessment of the Hudson-Raritan Estuary as a result of the attacks on the World Trade Center: analysis of trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, K L; Commey, S; Apeti, D A; Lauenstein, G G

    2010-12-01

    The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) resulted in the destruction of buildings, and the release of tons of dust and debris into the environment. As part of the effort to characterize the environmental impact of the WTC collapse, Mussel Watch Program trace element measurements from the Hudson-Raritan Estuary (HRE) were assessed for the years before (1986-2001) and after (2001-2005) the attack. Trace element measurements in the HRE were significantly higher than Mussel Watch measurements taken elsewhere in the Nation. Post-attack trace element measurements were not significantly different from pre-attack measurements. The impacts of WTC collapse may have been obscured by high ambient levels of trace elements in the HRE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Trace elements in livers of great egret (Ardea alba) from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region: a preliminary assessment of temporal trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rcsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Paulo T.M.S., E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IME/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation of trace element concentrations present in great egret livers during six years, from 2006 to 2011. The data were obtained in twenty six livers of great egrets from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR). The elements Br, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cd and Hg by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Arithmetic means and standard deviations of element concentrations of the results obtained in each year were calculated for the samples collected in each year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA; α = 0.05) followed by Kruskal Wallis test was applied to examine if there are temporal differences in the element mean concentrations over time. In general, significant differences of element concentrations were not obtained. However, an increase in Cd and Mn concentrations in the recent years was observed which may indicate recent increase to these elements in environment. The preliminary data obtained suggests the continuation of this kind of study to better understand the temporal trends of trace elements in the aquatic environment of SPMR. (author)

  13. Comparison of different enrichment factors to assess the natural accumulation of trace elements in sediment cores from Nhecolandia Pantanal, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Levi F.; Damatto, Sandra R., E-mail: leyi@usp.br, E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barbiero, Laurent, E-mail: barbiero@ltmg.obs.mip.fr [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furian, Sonia M., E-mail: furian@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Geografia; Rezende Filho, Ary T., E-mail: ary.rezende@ufms.br [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), MS (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharias, Arquitetura e Urbanismo e Geografia

    2015-07-01

    Four sediment cores were collected at different lakes of salty water, commonly known as 'Salinas', in the Nhecolandia Wetland. In the collected cores, Salina A, Salina 6, Salina M and Salina V, the elements As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Se, U, Zn and rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb concentrations were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. Aiming to verify the best criterion to evaluate the enrichment factor of minor and major elements in the sediment cores, three different calculations of the enrichment factor was employed. The first one, EF (Enrichment Factor), compares the normalized element concentrations with Upper Continental Crust normalized values, the second one, GNF (Geochemical Normalization Factor) compares the ratio between the element concentration and the normalizer with the depth in the sediment core; for these both factors the element Sc was used as a normalizer element. The third one factor, BEF (Base Enrichment Factor), compares the concentrations determined throughout the core with the results obtained in the base of it. With the results, it was possible to conclude that the best enrichment factor to evaluate the enhancement of elements in natural environments is the one that takes into account the core element concentration obtained in the base of it, BEF. (author)

  14. Assessment by Finite Element Modeling Indicates That Surgical Intramuscular Aponeurotomy Performed Closer to the Tendon Enhances Intended Acute Effects in Extramuscularly Connected Muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yucesoy, C.A.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of location of aponeurotomy on the muscular mechanics of extramuscularly connected muscle were assessed. Using finite element modeling, extensor digitorum longus muscle of the rat was studied for the effects of aponeurotomy performed in each of three locations on the proximal

  15. The Mind’s Eye on Personal Profiles: A Cognitive Perspective on Profile Elements that Inform Initial Trustworthiness Assessments in Virtual Project Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter; Valcke, Martin; Koper, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Rusman, E., Van Bruggen, J., Sloep, P., Valcke, M., & Koper, R. (2013). The Mind’s Eye on Personal Profiles: A Cognitive Perspective on Profile Elements that Inform Initial Trustworthiness Assessments and Social Awareness in Virtual Project Teams. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), 22(2-3),

  16. The Mind’s Eye on Personal Profiles: A Cognitive Perspective on Profile Elements that Inform Initial Trustworthiness Assessments in Virtual Project Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter; Valcke, Martin; Koper, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Rusman, E., Van Bruggen, J., Sloep, P., Valcke, M., & Koper, R. (2013). The Mind’s Eye on Personal Profiles: A Cognitive Perspective on Profile Elements that Inform Initial Trustworthiness Assessments and Social Awareness in Virtual Project Teams. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), 22(2-3),

  17. Metal, trace and rare earth element assessment in a sedimentary profile from Promissao reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L., E-mail: shasilva@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Quimica Inorganica; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DGRN/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Departamento de Geologia e Recursos Naturais; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.gov.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2015-07-01

    In the present study the preliminary results for the Promissao reservoir, situated in the Lower Tiete region covering a little more than 1% of the SP state population, is characterized by intense agropastoral activities. Its operations for generating electrical energy started in 1975. It is located at Tiete River and its hydrographic basin has a drainage area of 530 km{sup 2}. The total extension of the reservoir is 110 km along the Tiete River, with a medium depth of 20 m. A core sampler was used and a 33 cm sediment core was collected from the dam in January 2013, sliced at every 2.5 cm, totaling 13 samples. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the sediment samples in order to determine some major (Fe, K, and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, and Zn) and rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb, and Yb). The enrichment factor (EF) was applied to the results obtained by using North American Shale Composite, Upper Continental Crust and the concentration values of the last layer of this profile as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. When the results for As, Cr, and Zn were compared to threshold effect level (TEL) and probable effect level (PEL) oriented values, sediments from 0-10 cm exceeded the TEL values for As (5.9 mg kg{sup -1}), all samples exceeded the PEL values for Cr (90 mg kg{sup -1}), and all samples had much lower values than TEL values for Zn (123 mg kg{sup -1}). (author)

  18. Assessing the efficiency and the criticality of the elements belonging to a complex territorial system subject to natural hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Minciardi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of natural hazards can be mitigated by the use of proper 'pre-event' interventions on 'key' elements of the territory, that is on elements that are mostly vulnerable to a given catastrophic scenario and whose loss of functionality can cause damages on people, property and environment. In this respect, methodologies and tools should be studied to support decision makers in the analysis of a territory, in order to point out such elements. In this work, vulnerability is taken into account under two aspects: 'physical vulnerability', which measures the propensity of a territorial element to suffer damage when subject to an external stress corresponding to the occurrence of a natural phenomenon; 'functional vulnerability', which measures the propensity of a territorial element to suffer loss in functionality, even when that is caused by the loss of functionality of other territorial elements. In the proposed modeling approach, vulnerability is represented through the use of a graph-based formalization. A territorial system is represented as a complex set of elements or sub-systems. Such elements have differentiated and dedicated functions, and they may be functionally interconnected among them. In addition, vulnerability is defined through the use of two different variables, namely the criticality and the efficiency. Focusing the attention on the temporal phases corresponding to the occurrence of a calamitous event, the first one measures the service demand of an element, whereas the efficiency is a measure of the service that can be offered by such an element. The approach presented is largely independent from the natural risk considered. Besides, the tools introduced for the vulnerability analysis of the territorial system can also be used to formalize decision problems relevant to the location of the available resources for emergency management. A specific case study pertaining to the hydrological risk in the Val di Vara area (Italy is

  19. Assessing the efficiency and the criticality of the elements belonging to a complex territorial system subject to natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minciardi, R.; Sacile, R.; Trasforini, E.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of natural hazards can be mitigated by the use of proper "pre-event" interventions on "key" elements of the territory, that is on elements that are mostly vulnerable to a given catastrophic scenario and whose loss of functionality can cause damages on people, property and environment. In this respect, methodologies and tools should be studied to support decision makers in the analysis of a territory, in order to point out such elements. In this work, vulnerability is taken into account under two aspects: "physical vulnerability", which measures the propensity of a territorial element to suffer damage when subject to an external stress corresponding to the occurrence of a natural phenomenon; "functional vulnerability", which measures the propensity of a territorial element to suffer loss in functionality, even when that is caused by the loss of functionality of other territorial elements. In the proposed modeling approach, vulnerability is represented through the use of a graph-based formalization. A territorial system is represented as a complex set of elements or sub-systems. Such elements have differentiated and dedicated functions, and they may be functionally interconnected among them. In addition, vulnerability is defined through the use of two different variables, namely the criticality and the efficiency. Focusing the attention on the temporal phases corresponding to the occurrence of a calamitous event, the first one measures the service demand of an element, whereas the efficiency is a measure of the service that can be offered by such an element. The approach presented is largely independent from the natural risk considered. Besides, the tools introduced for the vulnerability analysis of the territorial system can also be used to formalize decision problems relevant to the location of the available resources for emergency management. A specific case study pertaining to the hydrological risk in the Val di Vara area (Italy) is presented.

  20. Contamination level, distribution and health risk assessment of heavy and toxic metallic and metalloid elements in a cultivated mushroom Pleurotus florida (Mont.) singer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Rouhollah; Moudi, Maryam; Khojeh, Vahid

    2016-12-15

    There are great concentrations of toxic metallic and metalloid elements such as lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium or silver in many species of mushrooms comparative to other fruits and vegetables. In this study, contamination with heavy and toxic metallic and metalloid elements in the cultivated mushroom of (Pleurotus florida (Mont.) Singer) is investigated. P. florida was cultivated on different substrates; wheat straw (as blank), wheat straw + pine cone, wheat straw + soybean straw and wheat straw + urea and the effects of these substrates on contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results showed that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the target mushroom are at the typical levels. The estimated daily intakes of studied metallic and metalloid elements were below their oral reference dosage mentioned by the international regulatory bodies. Health risk index (HRI) was calculated to evaluate the consumer's health risk assessment from the metal intake that contaminated in the cultivated mushroom of P. florida on the different nutrient sources. In this study, the individual HRIs were less than 1, which indicates insignificant potential health risk associated with the consumption of target mushroom from the studied substrates. Based on the HRIs values among the toxic metallic and metalloid elements, As in the target mushroom in the substrate of the wheat straw + pine cone is the main sources of risk, and it may cause severe health problems. Thus, this study suggests that the concentrations of heavy and toxic elements should be periodically monitored in cultivated mushrooms.

  1. A method for the assessment of the mineral/organic matter association of trace elements in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkin, B.P.; Somerfield, C,; Laban, K.L. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Department of Mineral Resources Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Describes a method for the sequential dissolution of coal samples enabling the location and mineral association of the trace elements to be determined. The technique is based on the sequential attack of a coal sample by acids using a sealed microwave digestion system. An advantage of the trace element technique is that the forms of sulphur in the coal can be determined simultaneously with the trace elements with sulphate sulphur, pyritic sulphur and organic sulphur being extracted in the three fractions. Selective dissolution was verified by X-ray diffraction, following low temperature ashing, and the petrographic analysis of the residues. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Platinum-group elements in southern Africa: mineral inventory and an assessment of undiscovered mineral resources: Chapter Q in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Causey, J. Douglas; Parks, Heather L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The platinum-group elements, platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium, possess unique physical and chemical characteristics that make them indispensable to modern technology and industry. However, mineral deposits that are the main sources of these elements occur only in three countries in the world, raising concerns about potential disruption in mineral supply. Using information in the public domain, mineral resource and reserve information has been compiled for mafic and ultramafic rocks in South Africa and Zimbabwe that host most of the world’s platinum-group element resources.

  3. Bioavailability and risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in garden edible vegetables and soils around a highly contaminated former mining area in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Vasileios; Shaheen, Sabry M; Boersch, Judith; Frohne, Tina; Du Laing, Gijs; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-01-15

    Although soil contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in Europe has a history of many centuries, related problems are often considered as having been dealt with due to the enforcement of tight legislations. However, there are many unsolved issues. We aimed to assess PTE levels in highly contaminated soils and in garden edible vegetables using human health risk indices in order to evaluate the availability and mobilization of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). In four gardens in Germany, situated on, or in the vicinity of, a mine dump area, we planted beans (Phaseolus vulgaris ssp. nanus), carrots (Daucus sativus) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa ssp. capitata). We examined soil-to-plant mobilization of elements using transfer coefficient (TC), as well as soil contamination using contamination factor (CF), enrichment factor (EF), and bioaccumulation index (Igeo). In addition, we tested two human health risk assessment indices: Soil-induced hazard quotient (HQS) (representing the "direct soil ingestion" pathway), and vegetable-induced hazard quotient (HQV) (representing the "vegetable intake" pathway). The studied elements were highly elevated in the soils. The values in garden 2 were especially high (e.g., Pb: 13789.0 and Hg: 36.8 mg kg(-1)) and largely exceeded the reported regulation limits of 50 (for As), 40 (Cu), 400 (Pb), 150 (Zn), and 5 (Hg) mg kg(-1). Similarly, element concentrations were very high in the grown vegetables. The indices of CF, EF and Igeo were enhanced even to levels that are rarely reported in the literature. Specifically, garden 2 indicated severe contamination due to multi-element deposition. The contribution of each PTE to the total of measured HQS revealed that Pb was the single most important element causing health risk (contributing up to 77% to total HQS). Lead also posed the highest risk concerning vegetable consumption, contributing up to 77% to total HQV. The presence of lead

  4. Assessment of Bioavailable Concentrations of Germanium and Rare Earth Elements in the Rhizosphere of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Fischer, Ronny; Moschner, Christin; Székely, Balázs

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of Germanium (Ge) and Rare Earth Elements in soils are estimated at 1.5 mg kg -1 (Ge), 25 mg kg -1 (La) and 20 mg kg -1 (Nd), which are only roughly smaller than concentrations of Pb and Zn. Germanium and rare earth elements are thus not rare but widely dispersed in soils and therefore up to date, only a few minable deposits are available. An environmental friendly and cost-effective way for Ge and rare earth element production could be phytomining. However, the most challenging part of a phytomining of these elements is to increase bioavailable concentrations of the elements in soils. Recent studies show, that mixed cultures with white lupine or other species with a high potential to mobilize trace metals in their rhizosphere due to an acidification of the soil and release of organic acids in the root zone could be a promising tool for phytomining. Complexation of Ge and rare earth elements by organic acids might play a key role in controlling bioavailability to plants as re-adsorption on soil particles and precipitation is prevented and thus, concentrations in the root zone of white lupine increase. This may also allow the complexes to diffuse along a concentration gradient to the roots of mixed culture growing species leading to enhanced plant uptake. However, to optimize mixed cultures it would be interesting to know to which extend mobilization of trace metals is dependent from chemical speciation of elements in soil due to the interspecific interaction of roots. A method for the identification of complexes of germanium and rare earth elements with organic acids, predominantly citric acid in the rhizosphere of white lupine was developed and successfully tested. The method is based on coupling of liquid chromatography with ICP-MS using a zic-philic column (SeQuant). As a preliminary result, we were able to show that complexes of germanium with citric acid exist in the rhizosphere of white lupin, what may contribute to the bioavailability of this

  5. Using lead isotopes and trace element records from two contrasting Lake Tanganyika sediment cores to assess watershed – Lake exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odigie, Kingsley; Cohen, A.D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Flegal, R

    2014-01-01

    Lead isotopic and trace element records of two contrasting sediment cores were examined to reconstruct historic, industrial contaminant inputs to Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Observed fluxes of Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in age-dated sediments collected from the lake varied both spatially and temporally over the past two to four centuries. The fluxes of trace elements were lower (up to 10-fold) at a mid-lake site (MC1) than at a nearshore site (LT-98-58), which is directly downstream from the Kahama and Nyasanga River watersheds and adjacent to the relatively pristine Gombe Stream National Park. Trace element fluxes at that nearshore site did not measurably change over the last two centuries (1815–1998), while the distal, mid-lake site exhibited substantial changes in the fluxes of trace elements – likely caused by changes in land use – over that period. For example, the flux of Pb increased by ∼300% from 1871 to 1991. That apparent accelerated weathering and detrital mobilization of lithogenic trace elements was further evidenced by (i) positive correlations (r = 0.77–0.99, p < 0.05) between the fluxes of Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and those of iron (Fe) at both sites, (ii) positive correlations (r = 0.82–0.98, p < 0.01, n = 9) between the fluxes of elements (Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and the mass accumulation rates at the offshore site, (iii) the low enrichment factors (EF < 5) of those trace elements, and (iv) the temporal consistencies of the isotopic composition of Pb in the sediment. These measurements indicate that accelerated weathering, rather than industrialization, accounts for most of the increases in trace element fluxes to Lake Tanganyika in spite of the development of mining and smelting operations within the lake’s watershed over the past century. The data also indicate that the mid-lake site is a much more sensitive and useful recorder of environmental changes than the nearshore site. Furthermore, the lead isotopic compositions

  6. The distributed lambda (λ) model (DLM): a 3-D, finite-element muscle model based on Feldman's λ model; assessment of orofacial gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2013-12-01

    The authors aimed to design a distributed lambda model (DLM), which is well adapted to implement three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element descriptions of muscles. A muscle element model was designed. Its stress-strain relationships included the active force-length characteristics of the λ model along the muscle fibers, together with the passive properties of muscle tissues in the 3-D space. The muscle element was first assessed using simple geometrical representations of muscles in the form of rectangular bars. It was then included in a 3-D face model, and its impact on lip protrusion was compared with the impact of a Hill-type muscle model. The force-length characteristic associated with the muscle elements matched well with the invariant characteristics of the λ model. The impact of the passive properties was assessed. Isometric force variation and isotonic displacements were modeled. The comparison with a Hill-type model revealed strong similarities in terms of global stress and strain. The DLM accounted for the characteristics of the λ model. Biomechanically, no clear differences were found between the DLM and a Hill-type model. Accurate evaluations of the λ model, based on the comparison between data and simulations, are now possible with 3-D biomechanical descriptions of the speech articulators because of the DLM.

  7. Determination of essential elements (copper, manganese, selenium and zinc) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk and nutritional assessment and mercury-selenium balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, P; Hernández, A F; Pla, A; Femia, P; Navas-Acien, A; Gil, F

    2013-12-01

    Fish and shellfish are an important source not only of toxic heavy metals, but also of essential elements in the diet. In this study, levels of Cu, Mn, Se and Zn have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for essential elements content. The potential human health risks for the consumers and the nutritional value of the products analyzed were assessed. Furthermore, the mercury-selenium ratios and the selenium health benefit value (Se-HBVs) were calculated. The highest concentrations of Cu were found in crustaceans species (shrimp and prawn) as they have hemocyanin (a copper-containing protein) that functions as an oxygen-transport molecule. Mn levels were higher in canned bivalve molluscs, such as cockle and clam, and in fresh common sole. Concerning Se, two fresh predatory fish species (tuna and swordfish) presented the most remarkable concentrations of this element. The highest concentration of the essential metals analysed was found for Zn, especially in fresh and canned mussels. All the species analyzed showed beneficial Hg:Se ratios and Se-HBVs, except for the shark species (blue shark and cat shark) and gilt-head bream because of their high Hg levels and low Se content, respectively. Nevertheless, the biomagnification usually observed in hazardous metals such as Hg would not occur for the essential elements measured in predatory species. The estimated daily intakes of the elements studied represented very low percentages of their reference values, ranging from 0.1% (Se) to 3.9% (Cu) for person weighting 60 kg, so the intake of these elements through fish and shellfish would not pose any risk for the average consumer. Moreover, the contribution of fish and shellfish products to the recommended daily allowances and adequate intakes of these mineral elements ranges from 2.5% (Mn) to 25.4% (Se).

  8. Assessing element distribution and speciation in a stream at abandoned Pb-Zn mining site by combining classical, in-situ DGT and modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omanović, Dario; Pižeta, Ivanka; Vukosav, Petra; Kovács, Elza; Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Tamás, János

    2015-04-01

    The distribution and speciation of elements along a stream subjected to neutralised acid mine drainage (NAMD) effluent waters (Mátra Mountain, Hungary; Toka stream) were studied by a multi-methodological approach: dissolved and particulate fractions of elements were determined by HR-ICPMS, whereas speciation was carried out by DGT, supported by speciation modelling performed by Visual MINTEQ. Before the NAMD discharge, the Toka is considered as a pristine stream, with averages of dissolved concentrations of elements lower than world averages. A considerable increase of element concentrations caused by effluent water inflow is followed by a sharp or gradual concentration decrease. A large difference between total and dissolved concentrations was found for Fe, Al, Pb, Cu, Zn and As in effluent water and at the first downstream site, with high correlation factors between elements in particulate fraction, indicating their common behaviour, governed by the formation of ferri(hydr)oxides (co)precipitates. In-situ speciation by the DGT technique revealed that Zn, Cd, Ni, Co, Mn and U were predominantly present as a labile, potentially bioavailable fraction (>90%). The formation of strong complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM) resulted in a relatively low DGT-labile concentration of Cu (42%), while low DGT-labile concentrations of Fe (5%) and Pb (12%) were presumably caused by their existence in colloidal (particulate) fraction which is not accessible to DGT. Except for Fe and Pb, a very good agreement between DGT-labile concentrations and those predicted by the applied speciation model was obtained, with an average correlation factor of 0.96. This study showed that the in-situ DGT technique in combination with model-predicted speciation and classical analysis of samples could provide a reasonable set of data for the assessment of the water quality status (WQS), as well as for the more general study of overall behaviour of the elements in natural waters subjected

  9. Spatial characterization, risk assessment, and statistical source identification of the dissolved trace elements in the Ganjiang River-feeding tributary of the Poyang Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Jiang, Yinghui; Wang, Min; Wang, Peng; Shi, Guangxun; Ding, Mingjun

    2017-01-01

    Surface water samples were collected from 20 sampling sites throughout the Ganjiang River during pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons, and the concentrations of dissolved trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the spatial and seasonal variations, risk assessment, source identification, and categorization for risk area. The result demonstrated that concentrations of the elements exhibited significant seasonality. The high total element concentrations were detected at sites close to the intensive mining and urban activities. The concentrations of the elements were under the permissible limits as prescribed by related standards with a few exceptions. The most of heavy metal pollution index (HPI) values were lower than the critical index limit, indicating the basically clean water used as habitat for aquatic life. As was identified as the priority pollutant of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic concerns, and the inhabitants ingesting the surface water at particular site might be subjected to the integrated health risks for exposure to the mixed trace elements. Multivariate statistical analyses confirmed that Zn, As, Cd, and Tl were derived from mining and urban activities; V, Cd, and Pb exhibited mixed origin; and Co, Ni, and Cu mainly resulted from natural processes. Three categorized risk areas corresponded to high, moderate, and low risks, respectively. As a whole, the upstream of the Ganjiang River was identified as the high-risk area relatively.

  10. Objective Assessment of an Ionic Footbath (IonCleanse: Testing Its Ability to Remove Potentially Toxic Elements from the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic footbaths are often used in holistic health centres and spas to aid in detoxification; however, claims that these machines eliminate toxins from the body have not been rigorously evaluated. In this proof-of-principle study, we sought to measure the release of potentially toxic elements from ionic footbaths into distilled and tap water with and without feet. Water samples were collected and analyzed following 30-minute ionic footbath sessions without feet using both distilled (n=1 and tap water (n=6 and following four ionic footbaths using tap water (once/week for 4 weeks in six healthy participants. Urine collection samples were analyzed at four points during the study. Hair samples were analyzed for element concentrations at baseline and study conclusion. Contrary to claims made for the machine, there does not appear to be any specific induction of toxic element release through the feet when running the machine according to specifications.

  11. Development of a simple extraction cell with bi-directional continuous flow coupled on-line to ICP-MS for assessment of elemental associations in solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buanuam, Janya; Tiptanasup, Kasipa; Shiowatana, Juwadee

    2006-01-01

    A continuous-flow system comprising a novel, custom-built extraction module and hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection is proposed for assessing metal mobilities and geochemical associations in soil compartments as based on using the three step BCR (now...... to discretely introduce appropriate extract volumes to the detector at a given time and with a given dilution factor. The proposed hyphenated method demonstrates excellent performance for on-line monitoring of major and trace elements (Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cd) released when applying the various extracting...... the extraction time. Thus, the intimate elemental association between Cd and Zn in contaminated soils could be assessed....

  12. Short-term assessment of the dynamics of elements in wastewater irrigated Mediterranean soil and tomato fruits through sequential dissolution and lead isotopic signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Cary, Lise; Surdyk, Nicolas; Psarras, Georgios; Kasapakis, Giannis; Chartzoulakis, Kostas; Sandei, L.; Guerrot, Catherine; Pettenati, Marie; Kloppmann, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    International audience; To fight against sanitary risks due to the use of raw or insufficiently treated wastewaters, an irrigation system combining a farm-scale decentralized wastewater treatment and an improved drip irrigation management was developed. The whole soil-water-plant system was monitored on an experimental tomato field in Crete to assess the potential element accumulation due to drip irrigation with secondary treated wastewaters during three years. Although a decrease of the majo...

  13. Extramuscular myofascial force transmission alters substantially the acute effects of surgical aponeurotomy: assessment by finite element modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yucesoy, Can; Koopman, Bart; Grootenboer, Henk; Huijing, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Effects of extramuscular myofascial force transmission on the acute effects of aponeurotomy were studied using finite element modeling and implications of such effects on surgery were discussed. Aponeurotomized EDL muscle of the rat was modeled in two conditions: (1) fully isolated (2) with intact

  14. Speciation of rare earth elements in natural terrestrial waters: assessing the role of dissolved organic matter from the modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianwu; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2003-07-01

    Humic Ion-Binding Model V, which focuses on metal complexation with humic and fulvic acids, was modified to assess the role of dissolved natural organic matter in the speciation of rare earth elements (REEs) in natural terrestrial waters. Intrinsic equilibrium constants for cation-proton exchange with humic substances (i.e., p KMHA for type A sites, consisting mainly of carboxylic acids), required by the model for each REE, were initially estimated using linear free-energy relationships between the first hydrolysis constants and stability constants for REE metal complexation with lactic and acetic acid. p KMHA values were further refined by comparison of calculated Model V "fits" to published data sets describing complexation of Eu, Tb, and Dy with humic substances. A subroutine that allows for the simultaneous evaluation of REE complexation with inorganic ligands (e.g., Cl -, F -, OH -, SO 42-, CO 32-, PO 43-), incorporating recently determined stability constants for REE complexes with these ligands, was also linked to Model V. Humic Ion-Binding Model V's ability to predict REE speciation with natural organic matter in natural waters was evaluated by comparing model results to "speciation" data determined previously with ultrafiltration techniques (i.e., organic acid-rich waters of the Nsimi-Zoetele catchment, Cameroon; dilute, circumneutral-pH waters of the Tamagawa River, Japan, and the Kalix River, northern Sweden). The model predictions compare well with the ultrafiltration studies, especially for the heavy REEs in circumneutral-pH river waters. Subsequent application of the model to world average river water predicts that organic matter complexes are the dominant form of dissolved REEs in bulk river waters draining the continents. Holding major solute, minor solute, and REE concentrations of world average river water constant while varying pH, the model suggests that organic matter complexes would dominate La, Eu, and Lu speciation within the pH ranges of 5

  15. Assessment of Trace Elements Levels in Sediment and Water in Some Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining(ASM Localities in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Agyarko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of eight trace elements, Cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg and arsenic(As in sediment and water were assessed in four artisanal and small-scale mining(ASM localities in the Amansie West District (6°28′N 1°53′W of Ghana along two river courses from May 2011to July 2011. Triplicate water and sediment samples were randomly taken at five different points at each of the localities and the elements determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS . Using the Geo-accumulation Index( Igeo assessment, the sediments were found to be polluted to different degrees with Cu(Uncontaminated to moderately contaminated/Moderately contaminated, Hg (Uncontaminated to moderately contaminated/Moderately contaminated and As(Moderately contaminated/Moderately to strongly contaminated. The Enrichment Factor (EF indicated human influence - artisanal mining activities on the sediment concentration of Cd and Pb for all the localities and only some of the localities for the rest of the trace elements. The elements are major sediment pollutants ( EF > 2 in one or more of the localities. The Igeo and EF gave diverse status of the sediment qualities of the localities. Cd, Pb, Hg and As water concentrations in the four artisanal mining localities were all found to be above the WHO maximum acceptable of levels for drinking water. Inhabitants in the mining localities face the risk of getting various diseases by drinking the waters contaminated with the trace elements.

  16. Suitability of elemental fingerprinting for assessing the geographic origin of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca) seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela; Meisel, Thomas; Maneiko, Marija

    2013-02-15

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the classification of the geographical origin of pumpkin seeds and oil from Austria, China and Russia. The distribution of element traces in pumpkin seed and pumpkin seed oils in relation to the geographical origin of soils of several agricultural farms in Austria was studied in detail. Samples from several geographic origins were taken from parts of the pumpkin, pumpkin flesh, seeds, the oil extracted from the seeds and the oil-extraction cake as well as the topsoil on which the plants were grown. Plants from different geographical origin show variations of the elemental patterns that are significantly large, reproducible over the years and ripeness period and show no significant influence of oil production procedure, to allow to a discrimination of geographical origin. A successful differentiation of oils from different regions in Austria, China and Russia classified with multivariate data analysis is demonstrated.

  17. Water-quality assessment of the Rio Grande Valley, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas; organic compounds and trace elements in bed sediment and fish tissue, 1992-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, L.F.; Anderholm, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of contaminants in aquatic systems are major components of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Bed-sediment samples were collected at 18 sites in the Rio Grande Valley study unit between September 1992 and March 1993 to characterize the geographic distribution of organic compounds, including chlorinated insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and other chlorinated hydrocarbons, and also trace elements. Two-millimeter-size- fraction sediment was analyzed for organic compounds and less than 63-micron-size-fraction sediment was analyzed for trace elements. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were detected in 33 percent of the bed-sediment samples. With the exception of DDT-related compounds, no other organochlorine insecticides or polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in samples of bed sediment. Whole-body fish samples were collected at 11 of the bed- sediment sites and analyzed for organic compounds. Organic compounds were reported more frequently in samples of fish, and more types of organic compounds were found in whole-body fish samples than in bed-sediment samples. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were detected in 91 percent of whole-body fish samples. Polychlorinated biphenyls, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, trans- nonachlor, and hexachlorobenzene were other organic compounds detected in whole-body samples of fish from at least one site. Because of the extent of mineralized areas in the Rio Grande Basin arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc concentrations in bed-sediment samples could represent natural conditions at most sites. However, a combination of natural conditions and human activities appears to be associated with elevated trace-element concentrations in the bed-sediment sample from the site Rio Grande near Creede, Colorado, because this sample exceeded the background trace-element concentrations calculated for this study. Fish-liver samples were collected at 12 of the bed

  18. Simulation-aided constitutive law development - Assessment of low triaxiality void nucleation models via extended finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jifeng; Kontsevoi, Oleg Y.; Xiong, Wei; Smith, Jacob

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a multi-scale computational framework has been established in order to investigate, refine and validate constitutive behaviors in the context of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) void mechanics model. The eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) has been implemented in order to (1) develop statistical volume elements (SVE) of a matrix material with subscale inclusions and (2) to simulate the multi-void nucleation process due to interface debonding between the matrix and particle phases. Our analyses strongly suggest that under low stress triaxiality the nucleation rate of the voids f˙ can be well described by a normal distribution function with respect to the matrix equivalent stress (σe), as opposed to that proposed (σbar + 1 / 3σkk) in the original form of the single void GTN model. The modified form of the multi-void nucleation model has been validated based on a series of numerical experiments with different loading conditions, material properties, particle shape/size and spatial distributions. The utilization of XFEM allows for an invariant finite element mesh to represent varying microstructures, which implies suitability for drastically reducing complexity in generating the finite element discretizations for large stochastic arrays of microstructure configurations. The modified form of the multi-void nucleation model is further applied to study high strength steels by incorporating first principles calculations. The necessity of using a phenomenological interface separation law has been fully eliminated and replaced by the physics-based cohesive relationship obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations in order to provide an accurate macroscopic material response.

  19. Nanominerals, fullerene aggregates, and hazardous elements in coal and coal combustion-generated aerosols: An environmental and toxicological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Jyotilima; Narzary, Bardwi; Roy, Sonali; Bordoloi, Manobjyoti; Saikia, Prasenjit; Saikia, Binoy K

    2016-12-01

    Studies on coal-derived nanoparticles as well as nano-minerals are important in the context of the human health and the environment. The coal combustion-generated aerosols also affect human health and environmental quality aspects in any coal-fired station. In this study, the feed coals and their combustion-generated aerosols from coal-fired boilers of two tea industry facilities were investigated for the presence of nanoparticles/nano minerals, fullerene aggregates, and potentially hazardous elements (PHEs). The samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), High resolution-transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (HR-TEM/EDS) and Ultra Violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) to know their extent of environmental risks to the human health when present in coals and aerosols. The feed coals contain mainly clay minerals, whilst glass fragments, spinel, quartz, and other minerals occur in lesser quantities. The PM samples contain potentially hazardous elements (PHEs) like As, Pb, Cd and Hg. Enrichment factor of the trace elements in particulate matters (PMs) was calculated to determine their sources. The aerosol samples were also found to contain nanomaterials and ultrafine particles. The fullerene aggregates along with potentially hazardous elements were also detected in the aerosol samples. The cytotoxicity studies on the coal combustion-generated PM samples show their potential risk to the human health. This detailed investigation on the inter-relationship between the feed coals and their aerosol chemistry will be useful for understanding the extent of environmental hazards and related human health risk.

  20. Risk assessment of total and bioavailable potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in urban soils of Baghdad-Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Samera H; Schauer, James J; Shafer, Martin M; Al-Rheem, Esam Abd; Skaar, Pamela S; Heo, Jongbae; Tejedor-Tejedor, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    The solubility of soil-associated potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in surrogate biological fluids provides valuable information about their potential health hazard. This work addresses the concentrations and bioaccessibility of nine PTEs (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) in thirty eight agricultural land and playground soils collected from a semi-arid urban area of Baghdad-Iraq. Two surrogate biological fluids (SBFs), macrophage vacuole (MS) and gastric (GS) solutions, were used to extract the metals to simulate the biological availability of the PTEs via inhalation and ingestion exposure routes. ICP/AES was used to quantify PTEs in both strong acid digests (for total concentration), and in the SBF extracts. Soil contamination factors showed that some sites exhibited elevated levels of As (36 ± 10 mg/kg), however, these levels of As are not likely to have significant human health impacts whether the particulate arsenic is ingested or/and inhaled. Soil-geochemical variables (including: pH, EC, CO3(=), soil organic carbon (SOC)) and major elements (e.g. Al, Ca, and Fe) were used to interpret the lability of PTEs in the soils. Hazardous index (HI) based non-cancer risk of inhalation and ingestion of PTEs was estimated to be 2-fold higher for that based on total element concentrations compared with that for bioavailable fractions for both children and adults. A similar conclusion was reached for the estimated cancer risk (which was lower than the threshold level of concern for children and adults). A sensitivity analysis showed that there is a 97% chance for children and 90% for adults to have hazardous indices of the total PTEs >1 (the acceptable value); the corresponding metrics for the bioavailable fraction of the elements were 39% for children, and 3% for adults; these results were sensitive to the concentrations of "airborne" soil particles.

  1. Availability of TNM Staging Data Elements in the Medical Record and Training Needs Assessment: Results from the 2014 SEER Training Needs Assessment for TNM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Anne-Michelle; Schussler, Nicola; Negoita, Serban; Adamo, Margaret; Cronin, Kathleen; Cyr, Jean; Gress, Donna; Grove, Carmela; Kosary, Carol; Liu, Benmei; Sun, Leon; Ward, Kevin; Penberthy, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    In 2016, the cancer registry community will directly assign T, N and M components of stage. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program implemented a field study to determine how often T, N and M were not available in the medical record, requiring the registrar to directly assign clinical or pathologic TNM stage components. The field study also identified specific training needs. T, N and M status were collected from multiple sources within medical records for a total of 280 cases, 56 each from breast, prostate, colon, lung, and ovarian cancer. TNM data elements were also directly assigned by a series of reviewers and by study participants using the medical records with TNM information redacted. Availability of physician-assigned TNM was estimated from the medical record. Also, participant responses were compared to preferred answers. Pathologic T, N and M were available more often in the medical records than were clinical values and varied by site. Pathologic T and N were available for about two-thirds of the cases, but the clinical elements were available for only about 20% of cases. The agreement between participant responses and review panel assignments varied by data element and cancer site. Agreement was modest for most data elements and cancer sites, ranging from 54% for clinical T to 92% for clinical M for all cancer sites combined. The data elements for TNM staging and stage group were often missing from the medical records, so registrars in the field will need to assign TNM frequently. Furthermore, the results of this study strongly suggest that more training is required, even among those who currently assign TNM.

  2. Reliability assessment of MVP-BURN and JENDL-4.0 related to nuclear transmutation of light platinum group elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Atsunori; Nilsson, Mikael; Ozawa, Masaki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2017-09-01

    The Aprés ORIENT research program, as a concept of advanced nuclear fuel cycle, was initiated in FY2011 aiming at creating stable, highly-valuable elements by nuclear transmutation from ↓ssion products. In order to simulate creation of such elements by (n, γ) reaction succeeded by β- decay in reactors, a continuous-energy Monte Carlo burnup calculation code MVP-BURN was employed. Then, it is one of the most important tasks to con↓rm the reliability of MVP-BURN code and evaluated neutron cross section library. In this study, both an experiment of neutron activation analysis in TRIGA Mark I reactor at University of California, Irvine and the corresponding burnup calculation using MVP-BURN code were performed for validation of the simulation on transmutation of light platinum group elements. Especially, some neutron capture reactions such as 102Ru(n, γ)103Ru, 104Ru(n, γ)105Ru, and 108Pd(n, γ)109Pd were dealt with in this study. From a comparison between the calculation (C) and the experiment (E) about 102Ru(n, γ)103Ru, the deviation (C/E-1) was signi↓cantly large. Then, it is strongly suspected that not MVP-BURN code but the neutron capture cross section of 102Ru belonging to JENDL-4.0 used in this simulation have made the big di↑erence as (C/E-1) >20%.

  3. Reliability assessment of MVP-BURN and JENDL-4.0 related to nuclear transmutation of light platinum group elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terashima Atsunori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aprés ORIENT research program, as a concept of advanced nuclear fuel cycle, was initiated in FY2011 aiming at creating stable, highly-valuable elements by nuclear transmutation from ↓ssion products. In order to simulate creation of such elements by (n, γ reaction succeeded by β− decay in reactors, a continuous-energy Monte Carlo burnup calculation code MVP-BURN was employed. Then, it is one of the most important tasks to con↓rm the reliability of MVP-BURN code and evaluated neutron cross section library. In this study, both an experiment of neutron activation analysis in TRIGA Mark I reactor at University of California, Irvine and the corresponding burnup calculation using MVP-BURN code were performed for validation of the simulation on transmutation of light platinum group elements. Especially, some neutron capture reactions such as 102Ru(n, γ103Ru, 104Ru(n, γ105Ru, and 108Pd(n, γ109Pd were dealt with in this study. From a comparison between the calculation (C and the experiment (E about 102Ru(n, γ103Ru, the deviation (C/E-1 was signi↓cantly large. Then, it is strongly suspected that not MVP-BURN code but the neutron capture cross section of 102Ru belonging to JENDL-4.0 used in this simulation have made the big di↑erence as (C/E-1 >20%.

  4. Assessment of major and trace elements in soil and sediments from Osamu Utsumi Uranium mine by WDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilhen, Sabine N.; Oliveira, Fernando Mendes de; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Sakata, Solange K.; Scapin, Marcos A., E-mail: sksakata@ipen.br, E-mail: snguilhen@ipen.br, E-mail: mecotrim@ipen.br, E-mail: mascapin@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Filho, Walter S., E-mail: scassiotti@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios

    2015-07-01

    From 1982 to 1995, the Brazilian Nuclear Industries (INB) extracted and processed uranium from the Osamu Utsumi mine, located in Caldas (Minas Gerais/Brazil). After the operations were suspended in the mine, INB was convened to meet national regulatory requirements for decommissioning the mine. Several studies have since been initiated in order to support a safe and responsible closure of the mine. In this context, this work aims to establish and validate a non-destructive methodology for quantitative simultaneous determination of major and minor constituents in soil and sediments from Osamu Utsumi uranium mine by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF). The method was validated in accordance to the criteria established by INMETRO (Brazilian's National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology). The precision and accuracy achieved are statistically comparable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology's standard reference material, SRM 2709a. The results showed significantly higher amounts of rare-earth elements and uranium in sediment samples, most likely because of the leaching process occurring in the pit's surroundings. This process is promoted by the acid mine drainage (AMD) that solubilized the elements present in the tailings throughout the mine's area. The solubilized elements end up accumulating in the pit water and further depositing up in the sediment. (author)

  5. Assessment of vitamin and trace element supplementation in severely burned patients undergoing long-term parenteral and enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perro, G; Bourdarias, B; Cutillas, M; Higueret, D; Sanchez, R; Iron, A

    1995-10-01

    The efficacy of an oral supplement of vitamins and trace elements during a longterm artificial parenteral and enteral nutrition was investigated for 3 months in patients with extensive burns. Thirty severely burned patients (22 male, 8 female, age 41 +/- 18 years, range 23-59 years, 33 +/- 12% total body surface area burn, 22% +/- 8 full thickness burn surface area) were included. Every 10 days, from day 10 until day 90, we determined serum levels of: *vitamins B1, B12, A, E, *folic acid, *copper, zinc, iron, *transferrin, albumin, prealbumin, total proteins, *fibronectin, retinol binding protein (RBP), *calcium, *phosphorus, *triglycerides, *total cholesterol, *C reactive protein (CRP), *erythrocyte folic acid. The mean daily nutritional support was 60 Kcals and 0.4 g N per kg of body weight, 70% enterally and 30% parenterally administered, with enteral vitamin and trace element supplementation. On day 10, there was a decrease of the serum level of 19/20 parameters. For 8 parameters (vitamin A, total cholesterol, iron, transferrin, fibronectin, phosphorus, RBP, total proteins), the level was lower than usual. Between day 10 and day 20, a significant normalization of 6 of them was noted, the average levels of transferrin and iron remaining below normal values until day 50. There was a significant decrease in C-reactive protein levels, however above normal limits. No deficiency in vitamins or trace elements was found. Cyclic variations of serum levels occurred which may be more related to volemic, hydroelectrolytic, endocrine and inflammatory disorders than to nutritional problems.

  6. Surface-water-quality assessment of the Yakima River basin in Washington: major-and minor-element data for sediment, water, and aquatic biota, 1987-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, Gregory J.; Fluter, Shelley L.; McKenzie, Stuart W.; Rinella, Joseph F.; Crawford, J. Kent; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Bridges, Jennifer L.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    1994-01-01

    Major- and minor-element concentrations are presented for streambed and suspended sediment, filtered- and unfiltered-water, and aquatic-biota samples collected during 1987-91 from the Yakima River Basin in south-central Washington. The samples were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-quality Assessment (NAWQA) program which is designed to provide results that are useful in understanding and managing the Nation's water resources. This report includes the sampling approach, field collection and processing techniques, and methods of chemical analysis, as well as a compilation of chemical data, statistical summaries, and quality- control data. These data may be used by scientists and resource managers to describe (1) spatial distribution of selected major and minor elements in sediment, water, and aquatic biota of the Yakima River Basin; (2) temporal variation for element concentrations in filtered water and in suspended sediment at selected sites; (3) suita- bility of surface water for preservation of aquatic life and protection of human health; and (4) major natural and anthropogenic sources of major and minor elements in the Yakima River Basin that affect observed water-quality conditions.

  7. [Distribution Characteristics, Sources and Pollution Assessment of Trace Elements in Surficial Sediments of the Coastal Wetlands, Northeastern Hainan Island].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-kun; Gan, Hua-yang; Bi, Xiang-yang; Wang, Jia-sheng

    2016-04-15

    Totally 128 surficial sediments samples were collected from the coastal wetlands, northeastern Hainan Island and analyzed for their concentrations of 14 elements including Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO, Cu, Ni, Sr, Zn, V, Pb, Cr, Zr, As, Cd and Hg, TOC and grain sizes. The mean concentrations of trace metals V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, Cd and Hg were (40.13 +/- 32.65), (35.92 +/- 26.90), (13.03 +/- 11.46), (11.56 +/- 10.27)-, (48.75 +/- 27.00), (5.48 +/- 1.60), ( 18.70 +/- 8.66), (0.054 +/- 0.045 ), (0.050 +/- 0.050) microg x g(-1), respectively, which were much lower than those in Pearl River Estuary, Yangzi River Estuary, Bohai Bay, upper crust and average shale. The average concentrations of Sr and Zr were much higher, reaching up to (1253.60 +/- 1649.58) microg x g(-1) and (372.40 +/- 516.49) microg x g(-1), respectively. The spatial distribution patterns of Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO, Cu, Ni, Zn, V, Pb, Cr, Cd and Hg concentrations were the same as each other except for those of As, Sr and Zr. Generally, relatively high concentrations of these elements only appeared in the Haikou Bay, Nandu estuary, Dongzhai Harbor, Qinglan Harbor and Xiaohai in study area. The factor analysis revealed that the trace elements Al2O3 Fe2O3, MnO, Cu, Ni, Zn, V, Pb, Cr and part of Hg were mainly originated from the rock material by natural weathering processes, while the Cd and a part of Hg were from the biological source controlled by TOC. As and part of MnO were influenced by anthropogenic source, especially by aquacultures. Zr and some MnO were derived from heavy minerals dominated by the coarse grain of sediments. In contrast to the ERL, ERM and the results of enrichment factors (EF) , the environment of study area was good in general and the degree of contamination by trace elements was low on the whole. However, there are still some places where anthropogenic input have caused serious enrichments of trace elements and the occasional adverse effect on benthic organism induced by Ni could probably

  8. Exposure assessment models for elemental components of particulate matter in an urban environment: A comparison of regression and random forest approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokamp, Cole; Jandarov, Roman; Rao, M. B.; LeMasters, Grace; Ryan, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Exposure assessment for elemental components of particulate matter (PM) using land use modeling is a complex problem due to the high spatial and temporal variations in pollutant concentrations at the local scale. Land use regression (LUR) models may fail to capture complex interactions and non-linear relationships between pollutant concentrations and land use variables. The increasing availability of big spatial data and machine learning methods present an opportunity for improvement in PM exposure assessment models. In this manuscript, our objective was to develop a novel land use random forest (LURF) model and compare its accuracy and precision to a LUR model for elemental components of PM in the urban city of Cincinnati, Ohio. PM smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and eleven elemental components were measured at 24 sampling stations from the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS). Over 50 different predictors associated with transportation, physical features, community socioeconomic characteristics, greenspace, land cover, and emission point sources were used to construct LUR and LURF models. Cross validation was used to quantify and compare model performance. LURF and LUR models were created for aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), vanadium (V), zinc (Zn), and total PM2.5 in the CCAAPS study area. LURF utilized a more diverse and greater number of predictors than LUR and LURF models for Al, K, Mn, Pb, Si, Zn, TRAP, and PM2.5 all showed a decrease in fractional predictive error of at least 5% compared to their LUR models. LURF models for Al, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Pb, Si, Zn, TRAP, and PM2.5 all had a cross validated fractional predictive error less than 30%. Furthermore, LUR models showed a differential exposure assessment bias and had a higher prediction error variance. Random forest and other machine learning methods may provide more accurate exposure assessment.

  9. Use of human milk in the assessment of toxic metal exposure and essential element status in breastfeeding women and their infants in coastal Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzunov Letinić, Judita; Matek Sarić, Marijana; Piasek, Martina; Jurasović, Jasna; Varnai, Veda Marija; Sulimanec Grgec, Antonija; Orct, Tatjana

    2016-12-01

    Pregnant and lactating women and infants are vulnerable population groups for adverse effects of toxic metals due to their high nutritional needs and the resultant increased gastrointestinal absorption of both, essential and toxic elements. Although breastfeeding is recommended for infants worldwide, as human milk is the best source of nutrients and other required bioactive factors, it is also a pathway of maternal excretion of toxic substances including toxic metals and thus a source of infant exposure. The aim of this research was to assess health risks in breastfeeding women in the coastal area of the Republic of Croatia and their infants (N=107) due to maternal exposure to Cd and Pb via cigarette smoking, and Hg via seafood and dental amalgam fillings, and their interaction with essential elements. Biological markers of exposure were the concentrations of main toxic metals Pb, Cd and Hg in maternal blood and three types of breast milk throughout lactation stages. Biological markers of effects were the levels of essential elements Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in maternal serum and breast milk. With regard to cigarette smoking as a source of exposure to Cd and Pb, there were effects of smoking on Cd concentration in blood and correlations between the smoking index and Cd concentrations in maternal blood (ρ=0.593; Pelement status, only Se levels in maternal serum decreased by 10% in persons who continued smoking during pregnancy compared to non-smokers. In conclusion, the levels of main toxic metals Cd, Pb and Hg and essential elements Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in maternal blood and three types of breast milk samples in the studied area of coastal Croatia showed no risk of disrupted essential element levels with regard of toxic metal exposure in both breastfeeding women and their infants.

  10. Metal and trace element assessment of estuary sediments from Santos, Brazil, by neutron activation and atomic absorption techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Eduardo P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: ducamorim@yahoo.com.br; defavaro@ipen.br; Berbel, Glaucia B.B.; Braga, Elisabete S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos nos Oceanos - LABNUT]. E-mail: edsbraga@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    In order to better understanding geochemical and environmental processes and their possible changes due to anthropogenic activities trace metal analyses and their distribution in marine sediments are commonly undertaken. The present study reports result concerning the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements in the Santos estuarine marine sediments. Thirteen bottom sediment samples (SV0501 to SV0513) were collected in this estuary, including regions of Sao Vicente, Santos, Cubatao, Vicente de Carvalho and Santos' Bay, in the summer of 2005. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). For total mercury determination cold vapor atomic absorption technique (CV AAS) was employed. In both cases methodology validation was performed by certified reference material analyses. The results obtained for multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared with NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values obtained for As and metals Cr, Hg and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values). In general, the samples located near the Cubatao region showed higher concentrations for all elements analyzed probably due to the high impact of industrial activities. (author)

  11. Assessment of essential elements and chemical contaminants in thirteen fish species from the Bay Aratu, Bahia, Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E; Viana, Z C V; Souza, N F A; Korn, M G A; Santos, V L C S

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of ten elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V and Zn) were determinate in muscle tissues of 13 fish species from Aratu Bay, Bahia, Brazil by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The accuracy and precision of our results were checked by using two certified reference materials: BCR-422 cod muscle and SRM 1566b oyster tissue. The average trace element concentrations in the fish species varied in the following ranges, in μg g-1: 0.03-0.8 for Cr; 2.0-33.7 for Cu, 2.4-135.1 for Fe, 1.6-25.6 for Se; 1.6-35.1 for Sr; and 2.8-40.5 for Zn. The Diaptereus rhombeus (carapeba) specie presented the highest concentrations of Se, Cu and Fe. Chromium and Se were present at levels above the limit of tolerance allowed by the National Agency of Sanitary Vigilance (ANVISA). The results were also evaluated using the multivariate analysis techniques: principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA).

  12. Batch leaching tests of motherboards to assess environmental contamination by bromine, platinum group elements and other selected heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, César; Grosselli, Melina; González, Patricia; Martínez, Dante; Gil, Raúl

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a batch leaching test was executed to evaluate the toxicity associated with chemicals contained in motherboards. The leaching solutions used were distilled water, nitric acid, acetic acid and synthetic acid rain solution. A total of 21 elements including Ag, As, Au, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hf, Ir, Mn, Ni, Os, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rd, Rh, Se, U and Zn were analyzed. In this study, the pH values of all the leachates fell within the range of 2.33-4.88. The highest concentrations of metals were obtained from the acid rain solution, whilst the maximum value of bromine was achieved with solution of acetic acid. Appreciable concentrations of platinum group elements were detected with concentrations around 3.45, 1.43, 1.21 and 22.19 µg L(-1) for Ir, Pd, Pt and Rh, respectively. The different leaching of the motherboards revealed the predominant presence of the toxic substances in the leached from the e-waste.

  13. Spatial distribution of trace elements and risk assessment in agricultural soils affected by sulphide exploitation in Riotinto (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Antonio; González, Isabel; López, María.; Galán, Emilio; González, Félix

    2010-05-01

    The decadence of mining activity in the Riotinto Mining District (SW Spain) during the end of the last century has led to citrus agriculture as the new social development. This new activity has been carried out around abandoned mines without the assessment of soil pollution. The aim of this work is to study the distribution of potentially toxic elements in soils of the Riotinto mining area and compare them with the element concentration absorbed by plants, in order to assess the potential risk involved in the use of the studied soils, defining also the most dangerous areas for agricultural activities. Twenty-seven agricultural soil samples were collected from the Riotinto area. Major and trace elements were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) after 4 acid (HF-HClO4-HNO3-HCl) digestion, except As, Co and Cr that were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). In general, the total concentrations of the trace elements analysed exceeded the background concentration values for Andalusian soils and, on occasions, they surpassed the threshold values defined by percentile 95 for the geological domain of the South Portuguese Zone (Galán et al., 2008). Copper and Zn displayed median values of 99 and 150 mg/kg, respectively, and 44% of the samples surpassed the threshold of 147 and 173 mg/kg for Cu and Zn, respectively. Arsenic reached up to 204 mg/kg and Pb up to 598 mg/kg. The association As-Cu-Pb-Zn and their distribution close the Riotinto waste dumps (NE of the studied area) suggests an anthropogenic origin for these elements. On the contrary, Ni, Cr and Co showed also high values with median concentrations of 41, 113 and 23 mg/kg, respectively, but about 30-48% of the samples were below the baseline values proposed for these elements. The distribution of Fe-Co-Cr-Ni shows they are enriched in the SW part associated to volcanic rocks, which suggests a geogenic origin for them. In order to evaluate the

  14. Integrating the fish embryo toxicity test as triad element for sediment toxicity assessment based on the water framework directive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzke, Mariana [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Dept. Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Delov, Vera [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Ecotoxicology, Fraunhofer Inst. for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Aachen (Germany); Stahlschmidt-Allner, Petra; Allner, Bernhard [Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Oehlmann, Joerg [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to complement analyses according to the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) with a sediment toxicity analysis as part of an integrated river assessment. To this end, Hessian water courses were analyzed using the sediment quality triad concept according to Chapman with chemical analyses, in situ effect evaluations, and ecotoxicological assessments. For the ecotoxicological assessment (fish embryo toxicity test with Danio rerio), a new evaluation scheme was developed, the fish teratogenicity index (FTI), that allows for a classification of sediments into ecological quality classes compliant to the WFD. Materials and methods sediment and macrozoobenthos samples were taken from tributaries of the rivers Fulda and Lahn. Sediments were characterized regarding particle size, carbon, heavy metals, and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content. Macroinvertebrate samples were taken via multi-habitat sampling. The fish embryo toxicity test with D. rerio was conducted as a contact assay on the basis of DIN 38415-6. Results and discussion The integrated assessment indicated a significant influence of heavy metals and carbon content on macroinvertebrate communities. The bioaccessibility of sediment pollutants were clearly demonstrated by the FTI, which showed a wide range of adverse effects. A significant linear relationship between metals and the FTI was detected. However, there was no statistically significant evidence that macroinvertebrate communities were affected by the hydromorphological quality clements at the sampling sites. Conclusions The new scheme for the assessment of fish embryo toxicity test was successfully applied. The results suggest that sediment compounds impact macroinvertebrate communities and early development of fish. It demonstrates that the quality of sediments should be evaluated on a routine basis as part of an integrated river assessment. (orig.)

  15. Metadata elements preferred in searching and assessing relevance of archived television broadcast by scholars and students in media studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Brian

    knowledge about users’ information seeking behaviour in the context of television broadcast. Methodologically the thesis is based on grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Strauss & Corbin, 1998), which is in concordance with the cognitive integrated framework.  Grounded theory emphasises inductive......The present doctoral work concerns the investigation of three aspects of scholars’ and students’ information seeking behaviour in a television broadcast context, and the associated implications for design and construction of metadata elements in surrogate records in future broadcast retrieval...... systems.  The three aspects of information seeking behaviour in focus are information need characteristics, preferred search entries, and application of relevance criteria.  The thesis provides considerations regarding the construction of surrogate records for broadcasts in the Danish national collection...

  16. The Assessment of Comprehensive Vulnerability of Chemical Industrial Park Based on Entropy Method and Matter-element Extension Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jingyi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on studying connotative meaning, evaluation methods and models for chemical industry park based on in-depth analysis of relevant research results in China and abroad, it summarizes and states the feature of menacing vulnerability and structural vulnerability and submits detailed influence factors such as personnel vulnerability, infrastructural vulnerability, environmental vulnerability and the vulnerability of safety managerial defeat. Using vulnerability scoping diagram establishes 21 evaluation indexes and an index system for the vulnerability evaluation of chemical industrial park. The comprehensive weights are calculated with entropy method, combining matter-element extension model to make the quantitative evaluation, then apply to evaluate some chemical industrial park successfully. This method provides a new ideas and ways for enhancing overall safety of the chemical industrial park.

  17. Pollution Assessment of Toxic and Potentially Toxic Elements in Agricultural Soils of the City Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschale, Minbale; Sileshi, Yilma; Kelly-Quinn, Mary; Hailu, Dereje

    2017-02-01

    Due to the significantly fast urban expansion and increased industrial activities, the soils in the farms in Addis Ababa are contaminated by some toxic and potentially toxic elements (As, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, B, Ba, Sr, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd) in varying degrees. The mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, As and B in most of the soil farms were found to be higher than the maximum recommended limits. The mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni and Mn were found to be higher than the background soil concentrations given for uncontaminated soils. Multivariate analyses coupled with correlation analysis were used to identify possible sources. The geo-accumulation index values for Cr, Mn and Pb indicated that the farm soils were unpolluted to moderately polluted as a result of anthropogenic activities. A comprehensive environmental management strategy should be formulated by the government to measure further pollution of the farmland soil.

  18. Assessment of elemental and NROM/TENORM hazard potential from non-nuclear industries in North Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mekawy, A F; Badran, H M; Seddeek, M K; Sharshar, T; Elnimr, T

    2015-09-01

    Non-nuclear industries use raw materials containing significant levels of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The processing of these materials may expose workers engaged in or even people living near such sites to technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) above the natural background. Inductively coupled plasma and gamma ray spectrometry have been used to determine major and trace elements and radionuclide concentrations in various samples, respectively, in order to investigate the environmental impact of coal mining and cement plant in North Sinai, Egypt. Generally, very little attention was directed to the large volumes of waste generated by either type of industrial activities. Different samples were analyzed including various raw materials, coal, charcoal, Portland and white cement, sludge, and wastes. Coal mine and cement plant workers dealing with waste and kaolin, respectively, are subjected to a relatively high annual effective dose. One of the important finding is the enhancement of all measured elements and radionuclides in the sludge found in coal mine. It may pose an environmental threat because of its large volume and its use as combustion material. The mine environment may have constituted Al, Fe, Cr, and V pollution source for the local area. Higher concentration of Al, Fe, Mn, B, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, and TENORM were found in Portland cement and Zn in white cement. Coal has higher concentrations of Al, Fe, B, Co, Cr, and V as well as (226)Ra and (232)Th. The compiled results from the present study and different worldwide investigations demonstrate the obvious unrealistic ranges normally used for (226)Ra and (232)Th activity concentrations in coal and provided ranges for coal, Portland and white cement, gypsum, and limestone.

  19. [Application of ICP-MS in assessing the pollution of seldom monitored trace elements in city roadside dusts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shu-Hua; Gao, Bo; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Huai-Dong; Wang, Jian-Kang; Huang, Yong

    2013-12-01

    Seldom monitored trace element concentrations in road dusts colleted from Shihezi City were studied. A total of 32 sampling stations were selected. The concentration of 10 seldom monitored trace elements (B, Be, Bi, Co, Ga, Li, Sb, Sn, T1, V) were determined. Their pollution degree and source identification were analyzed by using Geoaccumulation Index, correlation coefficient and principal factor analysis. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of Li, Be, B, V, Co, Ga, Sn, Sb, T1 and Bi were 24. 91, 1.68, 41. 11, 72. 66, 13. 58, 36. 26, 3.64, 3.37, 0. 42 and 0.52 mgkg-1, respectively. The mean concentrations of Li, T1, Co, Be, B, and V were lower than or similar to the soil background values of Xinjiang province. However, the mean concentrations of Ga, Sn, Sb and Bi were higher than the background values of Xijiang province and world soil. The results of Geoaccumulation Index indicated that the pollution degrees of Li, Be, B, V, Co, Ga and T1 were zero, and belonged to the category of non-pollution. However the pollution of Sb, Bi and Sn were considerably serious, and their pollution grades were 2, 1 and 1 respectively. The source of SMTEs in road dusts of Shihezi City was identified by multivariate statistics (principal component analysis and correlation analysis). The results showed that Sb, Co, T1 and Bi mainly originated from human activities, Li, Be, B, V represented natural sources, while Sn and Ga have the mixed sources of nature and human activities.

  20. Updated study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element data collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project, October 2009-March 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater samples have been collected in California as part of statewide investigations of groundwater quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP is being conducted in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Quality-control samples (source-solution blanks, equipment blanks, and field blanks) were collected in order to ensure the quality of the groundwater sample results. Olsen and others (2010) previously determined study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element results based primarily on field blanks collected in California from May 2004 through January 2008. SRLs are raised reporting levels used to reduce the likelihood of reporting false detections attributable to contamination bias. The purpose of this report is to identify any changes in the frequency and concentrations of detections in field blanks since the last evaluation and update the SRLs for more recent data accordingly. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), strontium (Sr), thallium (Tl), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Data from 179 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from March 2006 through March 2013 by the GAMA-PBP indicated that for trace elements that had a change in detection frequency and concentration since the previous review, the shift occurred near October 2009, in conjunction with a change in the capsule filters used by the study. Results for 89 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from October 2009 through March 2013 were

  1. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION--A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT, PHASE II: ELEMENT MODES OF OCCURRENCE FOR THE OHIO 5/6/7, WYODAK AND NORTH DAKOTA COAL SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan Kolker; Stanley J. Mroczkowski; Curtis A. Palmer; Kristen O. Dennen; Robert B. Finkelman; John H. Bullock Jr.

    2002-05-30

    This study reports on the second phase (Phase II) of USGS research activities in support of DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95101 ''Toxic Substances From Coal Combustion--A Comprehensive Assessment'', funded under DOE Interagency Agreement DE-AI22-95PC95145. The purpose of the study was to provide a quantitative and semi-quantitative characterization of the modes of occurrence of trace elements in coal samples investigated under Phase II, including (1) Ohio 5/6/7, an Ohio bituminous coal sample blended from the No.5, No.6, and No.7 beds; (2) North Dakota, a lignite sample from the Falkirk Mine, Underwood, ND, and (3) Wyodak, a sub-bituminous coal sample from the Cordero Mine, Gillette, WY. Samples from these coal beds were selected for their range in rank and commercial applicability. Results of this research provide basic information on the distribution of elements in Phase II coal samples, information needed for development of a commercial predictive model for trace-element behavior during coal combustion.

  2. Use of geochemical signatures, including rare earth elements, in mosses and lichens to assess spatial integration and the influence of forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandois, L.; Agnan, Y.; Leblond, S.; Séjalon-Delmas, N.; Le Roux, G.; Probst, A.

    2014-10-01

    In order to assess the influence of local environment and spatial integration of Trace Metals (TM) by biomonitors, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, V and Zn and some rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been measured in lichens and mosses collected in three French forest sites located in three distinct mountainous areas, as well as in the local soil and bedrock, and in both bulk deposition (BD) and throughfall (TF). Similar enrichment factors (EF) were calculated using lichens and mosses and local bedrock for most elements, except for Cs, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Cu which were significantly (KW, p lichens and mosses at each study sites, indicating a regional integration of atmospheric deposition by both biomonitors. Both TM signature and REE composition of mosses revealed that this biomonitor is highly influenced by throughfall composition, and reflect atmospheric deposition interaction with the forest canopy. This explained the higher enrichment measured in mosses for elements which concentration in deposition were influenced by the canopy, either due to leaching (Mn), direct uptake (Ni), or dry deposition dissolution (Pb, Cu, Cs).

  3. Nonlinear quasi-static finite element simulations predict in vitro strength of human proximal femora assessed in a dynamic sideways fall setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Peter; Schwiedrzik, Jakob; Zysset, Philippe K; Fliri-Hofmann, Ladina; Widmer, Daniel; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Blauth, Michael; Windolf, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Osteoporotic proximal femur fractures are caused by low energy trauma, typically when falling on the hip from standing height. Finite element simulations, widely used to predict the fracture load of femora in fall, usually include neither mass-related inertial effects, nor the viscous part of bone׳s material behavior. The aim of this study was to elucidate if quasi-static non-linear homogenized finite element analyses can predict in vitro mechanical properties of proximal femora assessed in dynamic drop tower experiments. The case-specific numerical models of 13 femora predicted the strength (R(2)=0.84, SEE=540N, 16.2%), stiffness (R(2)=0.82, SEE=233N/mm, 18.0%) and fracture energy (R(2)=0.72, SEE=3.85J, 39.6%); and provided fair qualitative matches with the fracture patterns. The influence of material anisotropy was negligible for all predictions. These results suggest that quasi-static homogenized finite element analysis may be used to predict mechanical properties of proximal femora in the dynamic sideways fall situation.

  4. Geospatial risk assessment and trace element concentration in reef associated sediments, northern part of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve, Southeast Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, S; Ramasamy, S; Simon Peter, T; Godson, Prince S; Chandrasekar, N; Magesh, N S

    2017-08-21

    Fifty two surface sediments were collected from the northern part of the Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve to assess the geospatial risk of sediments. We found that distribution of organic matter and CaCO3 distributions were locally controlled by the mangrove litters and fragmented coral debris. In addition, Fe and Mn concentrations in the marine sediments were probably supplied through the riverine input and natural processes. The Geo-accumulation of elements fall under the uncontaminated category except Pb. Lead show a wide range of contamination from uncontaminated-moderately contaminated to extremely contaminated category. The sediment toxicity level of the elements revealed that the majority of the sediments fall under moderately to highly polluted sediments (23.07-28.84%). The grades of potential ecological risk suggest that predominant sediments fall under low to moderate risk category (55.7-32.7%). The accumulation level of trace elements clearly suggests that the coral reef ecosystem is under low to moderate risk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Health risk assessment of trace elements via dietary intake of 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and egg) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nazma; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Islam, Md Saiful; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Tukun, Avonti Basak; Islam, Saiful; M A Rahim, Abu Torab

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of six trace elements [chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As)] were assessed in 'non-piscine protein source' foodstuffs (meat, milk and eggs) to evaluate contamination level and human health risks in Bangladesh. The range of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb and As in the investigated foodstuffs was 1.24-2.17, 1.29-2.56, 0.92-2.31, 0.12-0.44, 0.15-0.48 and 0.14-0.57 mg kg fresh weight(-1), respectively. The estimated mean levels of most of the elements were higher than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) for dietary foods. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of Cr and Cd were higher than the maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI) for children, indicating that they are more susceptible to toxic elements through food consumption. The target hazard quotients (THQs) and target carcinogenic risk (TCR) of As (THQ > 1 and TCR > 10(-4)) for both the adults and children suggest that the consumers of non-piscine foodstuffs (especially cow milk and chicken meat) are exposed chronically to metal pollution with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health consequences.

  6. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-09-23

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element-induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10(-6)) and lower than priority risk levels (10(-4)) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10(-4), higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10(-4)).

  7. The LLNL Heavy Element Facility -- Facility Management, Authorization Basis, and Readiness Assessment Lessons Learned in the Heavy Element Facility (B251) Transition from Category II Nuclear Facility to Radiological Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M; Anderson, B; Brown, E; Gray, L

    2006-04-10

    This paper presents Facility Management, Readiness Assessment, and Authorization Basis experience gained and lessons learned during the Heavy Element Facility Risk Reduction Program (RRP). The RRP was tasked with removing contaminated glove boxes, radioactive inventory, and contaminated ventilation systems from the Heavy Element Facility (B251) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The RRP was successful in its goal in April 2005 with the successful downgrade of B251 from a Category II Nuclear Facility to a Radiological Facility. The expertise gained and the lessons learned during the planning and conduct of the RRP included development of unique approaches in work planning/work control (''Expect the unexpected and confirm the expected'') and facility management. These approaches minimized worker dose and resulted in significant safety improvements and operational efficiencies. These lessons learned can help similar operational and management activities at other sites, including facilities restarting operations or new facility startup. B251 was constructed at LLNL to provide research areas for conducting experiments in radiochemistry using transuranic elements. Activities at B251 once included the preparation of tracer sets associated with the underground testing of nuclear devices and basic research devoted to a better understanding of the chemical and nuclear behavior of the transuranic elements. Due to the age of the facility, even with preventative maintenance, facility safety and experimental systems were deteriorating. A variety of seismic standards were used in the facility design and construction, which encompassed eight building increments constructed over a period of 26 years. The cost to bring the facility into compliance with the current seismic and other requirements was prohibitive, and simply maintaining B251 as a Category II nuclear facility posed serious cost considerations under a changing regulatory environment

  8. Transboundary geophysical mapping of geological elements and salinity distribution critical for the assessment of future sea water intrusion in response to sea level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jørgensen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical techniques are increasingly used as tools for characterising the subsurface and they are generally required to develop subsurface models that properly delineate the distribution of aquifers and aquitards, salt/freshwater interfaces and geological structures that affect groundwater flow. In a study area covering 730 km2 across the border between Germany and Denmark a combination of an airborne transient electromagnetic survey (performed with the SkyTEM system, a high-resolution seismic survey and borehole logging has been used in an integrated mapping of important geological, physical and chemical features of the subsurface. The spacing between flight lines is 200–250 m giving a total of about 3200 line km. About 38 km of seismic lines have been collected. Faults bordering a graben structure, deep and shallow buried tunnel valleys, glaciotectonic thrust complexes, marine clay units, and sand aquifers are all examples of geological elements mapped by the geophysical data that control groundwater flow and to some extent hydrochemistry. Additionally, the data provide an excellent picture of the salinity distribution in the area thus providing important information on the fresh-saltwater boundary and the chemical status of groundwater. Although, the westernmost part of the study area along the North Sea coast is saturated with saline water and the TEM data therefore is strongly influenced by the increased electrical conductivity here, buried valleys and other geological elements are still revealed. The salinity distribution indicates preferential flow paths through and along specific geological elements within the area. The effects of future sea level rise on the groundwater system and chemical status are discussed with special emphasis on the importance of knowing the existence, distribution and geometry of the mapped geological elements, and assessing their control on the groundwater salinity distribution.

  9. Biomonitoring of selected freshwater macrophytes to assess lake trace element contamination: a case study of Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita N. KUMAR

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A biomonitoring study was carried out at Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, a proposed Ramsar site, Gujarat State, India, to ascertain the degree of trace element contamination. The study focused on assessment of trace element contamination in certain aquatic macrophytes to be used as biomonitors, in comparison with the sediments (abiotic monitor for heavy metal pollution. Good information was provided by analyzing roots, stems and leaves of native aquatic plants (biomonitors represented by eight species: Bergia odorata, Hydrilla verticillata, Ipomoea aquatica, Najas graminea, Nelumbo nucifera, Phragmites karka, Typha angustata and Vellisnaria spiralis, alongwith surface sediments and water, were analyzed for Cd, Co, Cu, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination. The highest concentrations of the trace elements were measured in Ipomoea aquatica and the lowest in Bergia odorata. Based on the concentration and toxicity status observed in the lake's vegetation, the six metals are arranged in the following decreasing order: Zn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cd. Compared with the standard, normal and critical toxicity range in plants, the detected values of Cd and Pb falls within normal range, while that of Co, Ni and Cu were within the critical range. However, Zn showed the highest concentration and alarming toxicity levels, which is considered as one of the most hazardous pollutants in Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary. Certain aquatic macrophytes species are also proposed as biomonitors for the investigated heavy metal pollutants. Such result was significant in the plant species such as Ipomoea aquatica and Phragmites karka, which are the two most useful species in biomonitoring studies due to their ability to accumulate elements in high concentration in the roots and their availability throughout the year. The results showed the significant difference in accumulation rate of some metals like Zn, Cu and Ni in different plant organs, which showed more accumulation in root than

  10. A study of trace element contamination using multivariate statistical techniques and health risk assessment in groundwater of Chhaprola Industrial Area, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Ramanathan, A L; Tripathi, Ritu; Farswan, Sandhya; Kumar, Devendra; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2017-01-01

    This study is an investigation on spatio-chemical, contamination sources (using multivariate statistics), and health risk assessment arising from the consumption of groundwater contaminated with trace and toxic elements in the Chhaprola Industrial Area, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. In this study 33 tubewell water samples were analyzed for 28 elements using ICP-OES. Concentration of some trace and toxic elements such as Al, As, B, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb and U exceeded their corresponding WHO (2011) guidelines and BIS (2012) standards while the other analyzed elements remain below than those values. Background γ and β radiation levels were observed and found to be within their acceptable limits. Multivariate statistics PCA (explains 82.07 cumulative percent for total 6 of factors) and CA indicated (mixed origin) that natural and anthropogenic activities like industrial effluent and agricultural runoff are responsible for the degrading of groundwater quality in the research area. In this study area, an adult consumes 3.0 L (median value) of water therefore consuming 39, 1.94, 1461, 0.14, 11.1, 292.6, 13.6, 23.5 μg of Al, As, B, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb and U from drinking water per day respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) value exceeded the safe limit of 1 which for As, B, Al, Cr, Mn, Cd, Pb and U at few locations while hazard index (HI) > 5 was observed in about 30% of the samples which indicated potential health risk from these tubewells for the local population if the groundwater is consumed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Multivariate statistical evaluation of dissolved trace elements and a water quality assessment in the middle reaches of Huaihe River, Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Liu, Guijian; Liu, Houqi; Lam, Paul K S

    2017-04-01

    A total of 211 water samples were collected from 53 key sampling points from 5-10th July 2013 at four different depths (0m, 2m, 4m, 8m) and at different sites in the Huaihe River, Anhui, China. These points monitored for 18 parameters (water temperature, pH, TN, TP, TOC, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Cd, Mn, B, Fe, Al, Mg, and Ba). The spatial variability, contamination sources and health risk of trace elements as well as the river water quality were investigated. Our results were compared with national (CSEPA) and international (WHO, USEPA) drinking water guidelines, revealing that Zn, Cd and Pb were the dominant pollutants in the water body. Application of different multivariate statistical approaches, including correlation matrix and factor/principal component analysis (FA/PCA), to assess the origins of the elements in the Huaihe River, identified three source types that accounted for 79.31% of the total variance. Anthropogenic activities were considered to contribute much of the Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, and Mn via industrial waste, coal combustion, and vehicle exhaust; Ba, B, Cr and Cu were controlled by mixed anthropogenic and natural sources, and Mg, Fe and Al had natural origins from weathered rocks and crustal materials. Cluster analysis (CA) was used to classify the 53 sample points into three groups of water pollution, high pollution, moderate pollution, and low pollution, reflecting influences from tributaries, power plants and vehicle exhaust, and agricultural activities, respectively. The results of the water quality index (WQI) indicate that water in the Huaihe River is heavily polluted by trace elements, so approximately 96% of the water in the Huaihe River is unsuitable for drinking. A health risk assessment using the hazard quotient and index (HQ/HI) recommended by the USEPA suggests that Co, Cd and Pb in the river could cause non-carcinogenic harm to human health.

  12. Development of Genesis Solar Wind Sample Cleanliness Assessment: Initial Report on Sample 60341 Optical Imagery and Elemental Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C. P.; Goreva, Y. S.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Allton, J. H.; Rodriguez, P. J.; Burkett, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2005 the Genesis science team has experimented with techniques for removing the contaminant particles and films from the collection surface of the Genesis fragments. A subset of 40 samples have been designated as "cleaning matrix" samples. These are small samples to which various cleaning approaches are applied and then cleanliness is assessed optically, by TRXRF, SEM, ToF-SIMS, XPS, ellipsometry or other means [1-9]. Most of these sam-ples remain available for allocation, with cleanliness assessment data. This assessment allows evaluation of various cleaning techniques and handling or analytical effects. Cleaning techniques investigated by the Genesis community include acid/base etching, acetate replica peels, ion beam, and CO2 snow jet cleaning [10-16]. JSC provides surface cleaning using UV ozone exposure and ultra-pure water (UPW) [17-20]. The UPW rinse is commonly used to clean samples for handling debris between processing by different researchers. Optical microscopic images of the sample taken before and after UPW cleaning show what has been added or removed during the cleaning process.

  13. Assessing the biomineralization processes in the shell microstructure of modern brachiopods: variations in the oxygen isotope composition and minor element ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner Garcia, Sara Ana; Rollion-Bard, Claire; Burckel, Pierre; Tomašových, Adam; Angiolini, Lucia; Henkel, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Brachiopods have been extensively used to reconstruct physicochemical conditions of ancient oceans due to their extensive fossil record and shells made of stable low-Mg calcite. In this context, it is important to assess the impact of brachiopod shell biomineralization processes on geochemical proxies. Six modern species of brachiopod specimen representing the three low-Mg calcite orders (i.e. Terebratulida, Rhynchonellida and Thecideida) were selected, in order to identify the most reliable taxa and the best shell portions to use for measurements of proxies. Three main different shell structures were identified: (1) only primary layer, (2) primary and secondary fibrous layers and (3) same as (2) with also a tertiary columnar layer. Oxygen isotope composition was measured at the micrometre scale with high-resolution ion microprobe. Generally, O isotope values of shells composed of primary and secondary layers show a progression towards more positive values from the outer primary layer to the inner secondary layer. The columnar tertiary shell layer, when present, has the most positive isotopic O values, the closest to the isotopic equilibrium. Variations at the micrometre scale are higher than those measured by conventional bulk techniques, as already shown by Cusack et al. (2012). Trace elements ratios (Li/Ca, B/Ca, Na/Ca, Mg/Ca, and Sr/Ca) were determined by laser ablation coupled to an ICP-MS. The trace element points define profiles parallel to the O isotope ion probe spots. The elemental ratio profiles of species composed by primary and secondary shell layers (Terebratalia transversa, Magasella sanguinea and Magellania venosa) show different behaviours depending on the elements. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca values are constant throughout all profiles, even Mg/Ca values are more variable. The values of both ratios are in good agreement with previous studies (Perez-Huerta et al., 2008; Butler et al., 2015). Li/Ca values are also constant among the different profiles. In

  14. Electrical properties of rat muscle after sciatic nerve injury: Impact on surface impedance measurements assessed via finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, M. A.; Rutkove, S. B.

    2010-04-01

    Tetrapolar surface electrical impedance methods are sensitive to changes in muscle status and can therefore provide a means for studying neuromuscular disease noninvasively. In order to better understand the relationship between surface impedance measurements and the actual muscle electrical properties, we performed measurements on 20 adult Wistar rats, 8 of which underwent sciatic nerve crush. Surface impedance measurements were performed on the left hind limb both before injury and out to 2 weeks after injury. In addition, both normal and sciatic crush animals were sacrificed and the dielectric properties of the extracted gastrocnemius muscle measured. We found that 50 kHz conductivities were greater in the animals that underwent crush than in the animals that did not. The permittivities in both directions, however, showed non-significant differences. In order to analyze the effect of these changes as well as the accompanying reduction in muscle volume, a finite element model of the hind limb was developed based on computerized tomographic imaging. The model successfully predicted the surface impedance values in the animals after crush injury and, by its inverse application, may be used to help determine the underlying electrical properties of muscle in various neuromuscular diseases based on surface impedance data.

  15. Non-linear finite element model to assess the effect of tendon forces on the foot-ankle complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Orcajo, Enrique; Souza, Thales R; Bayod, Javier; Barbosa de Las Casas, Estevam

    2017-08-11

    A three-dimensional foot finite element model with actual geometry and non-linear behavior of tendons is presented. The model is intended for analysis of the lower limb tendon forces effect in the inner foot structure. The geometry of the model was obtained from computational tomographies and magnetic resonance images. Tendon tissue was characterized with the first order Ogden material model based on experimental data from human foot tendons. Kinetic data was employed to set the load conditions. After model validation, a force sensitivity study of the five major foot extrinsic tendons was conducted to evaluate the function of each tendon. A synergic work of the inversion-eversion tendons was predicted. Pulling from a peroneus or tibialis tendon stressed the antagonist tendons while reducing the stress in the agonist. Similar paired action was predicted for the Achilles tendon with the tibialis anterior. This behavior explains the complex control motion performed by the foot. Furthermore, the stress state at the plantar fascia, the talocrural joint cartilage, the plantar soft tissue and the tendons were estimated in the early and late midstance phase of walking. These estimations will help in the understanding of the functional role of the extrinsic muscle-tendon-units in foot pronation-supination. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel application of ecological analyses to assess transposable element distributions in the genome of the domestic cow, Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Brent; Elliott, Tyler A; Linquist, Stefan; Kremer, Stefan C; Gregory, T Ryan; Cottenie, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are among the most abundant components of many eukaryotic genomes. Efforts to explain TE abundance, as well as TE diversity among genomes, have led some researchers to draw an analogy between genomic and ecological processes. Adopting this perspective, we conducted an analysis of the cow (Bos taurus) genome using techniques developed by community ecologists to determine whether environmental factors influence community composition. Specifically, each chromosome within the Bos taurus genome was treated as a "linear transect", and a multivariate redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to identify large-scale spatial patterns in TE communities associated with 10 TE families. The position of each TE community on the chromosome accounted for ∼50% of the variation along the chromosome "transect". Multivariate analysis further revealed an effect of gene density on TE communities that is influenced by several other factors in the (genomic) environment, including chromosome length and TE density. The results of this analysis demonstrate that ecological methods can be applied successfully to help answer genomic questions.

  17. Trace element distributions in surficial sediments of the northern Tyrrhenian Sea: Contribution to heavy-metal pollution assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Leonardo; Sartori, Franco; Damiani, Vincenzo; Ferretti, Ornella; Viel, Monique

    1991-03-01

    The trace element distributions in surficial sediment of Tyrrhenian Sea have been investigated as a part of a series of studies on the environmental quality of the area off the Tuscany coast (west-central Italy). This research has focused on the presence of possible contaminated zones; it also provides data for the identification and future monitoring and control of pollution sources. The study of numerous surface sediments and core samples has made it possible to distinguish between heavy-metal enrichments related to natural sources and other anomalies caused by anthropogenic contamination. Over much of the basin, the surface Pb, Cu, Zn, and As contents appear considerably enriched relative to those below 15 cm; among these metals, Pb shows the highest and most widespread enrichment. Only in the case of some coarse-grained sediments close to the mouth of Cecina River it is possible to relate anomalously high Zn contents to natural sources. In all other sampling stations, the enrichments of Pb, Cu, Zn, and As are ascribed to man's influence. The sediment distributions of Co, Cr, and Ni do not seem to be related to anthropogenic activities; rather they mirror influx of materials derived from sources of ophiolitic rock. The distribution of barium shows only two significant positive anomalies, and both are related to natural causes. Concentrations of vanadium are high in a zone close to an important smelting plant; these are thought to be of anthropogenic origin.

  18. Trace element distributions in surficial sediments of the northern Tyrrhenian Sea: Contribution to heavy-metal pollution assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leoni, L.; Sartori, F. (Univ. of Pisa, (Italy)); Damiani, V.; Ferretti, O.; Viel, M. (ENEA, La Spezia (Italy))

    The trace element distributions in surficial sediments of Tyrrhenian Sea have been investigated as a part of a series of studies on the environmental quality of the area off the Tuscany coast (west-central Italy). This research has focused on the presence of possible contaminated zones; it also provides data for the identification and future monitoring and control of pollution sources. The study of numerous surface sediments and core samples has made it possible to distinguish between heavy-metal enrichments related to natural sources and other anomalies caused by anthropogenic contamination. Over much of the basin, the surface Pb, Cu, Zn, and As contents appear considerably enriched relative to the those below 15 cm; among these metals. Pb shows the highest and most widespread enrichment. Only in the case of some coarse-grained sediments close to the mouth of Cecina River it is possible to relate anomalously high Zn contents to natural sources. In all other sampling stations, the enrichments of Pb, Cu, Zn, and As are ascribed to man's influence. The sediment distributions of Co, Cr, and Ni do not seem to be related to anthropogenic activities; rather they mirror influx of materials derived from sources of ophiolitic rock. The distribution of barium shows only two significant positive anomalies, and both are related to natural causes. Concentrations of vanadium are high in a zone close to an important smelting plant; these are thought to be of anthropogenic origin.

  19. Loading and composite restoration assessment of various non-carious cervical lesions morphologies - 3D finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, P V; Machado, A C; Zeola, L F; Souza, P G; Galvão, A M; Montes, T C; Pereira, A G; Reis, B R; Coleman, T A; Grippo, J O

    2015-09-01

    The present study analysed the effects of different occlusal loading on premolars displaying various non-carious cervical lesions morphologies, restored (or not) with composites, by 3D finite element analysis. A three-dimensional digital model of a maxillary premolar was generated using CAD software. Three non-carious cervical lesions morphological types were simulated: wedged-shaped, saucer and mixed. All virtual models underwent three loading types (100 N): vertical, buccal and palatal loading. The simulated non-carious cervical lesions morphologies were analysed with and without restorations to consider specific regions, such as the occlusal and gingival walls as well as the depth of the lesions. Data summarizing the stress distribution were obtained in MPa using Maximum Principal Stress. Palatal loads were responsible for providing the highest values of accumulated tensile stress on the buccal wall; 27.66 MPa and 25.76 MPa for mixed and wedged-shaped morphologies, respectively. The highest tensile values found on non-carious cervical lesions morphologies restored with composite resin were 5.9 MPa in the mixed morphology, similar to those found on sound models despite their morphologies and occlusal loading. The various non-carious cervical lesions morphologies had little effect on stress distribution patterns, whereas the loading type and presence of composite restorations influenced the biomechanical behaviour of the maxillary premolars. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  20. Risk assessment of children’s exposure to potentially harmful elements (PHE in selected urban parks of the Silesian agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kicińska Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author determined the total contents of selected elements potentially hazardous for health (PHE: As, Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Sn in soils, sand of sandboxes and airborne dust collected in three urban parks of the Silesian agglomeration. The upper limit of Cd content (a Polish regulation was exceeded in the soils of two largest and most frequented parks, the Silesian Park and the Kościuszko Park. The mean Cd contents in soils are 9 and 7 mg/kg, respectively. The metal contents of the sand from sandboxes are generally much lower than those of the soils: Cu 28 times on average, As 13 times, and Cd and Ni around 4 times, while the Co and Sn contents of sand are comparable with those of soils. Airborne dusts are a significant source of metals: they contain Cd (1–20 mg/kg, Co (2–17 mg/kg and Cu (6–143 mg/kg. The quotients of the health risk indicate a potential health risk caused by As, Cd and Ni for children, particularly those with a low (below 15 kg body weight. The risk level of 1–4% PTMDI (Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake origins from an accidental swallowing of soil.

  1. Mineral resource assessment of rare-earth elements, thorium, titanium, and uranium in the Greenville 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesure, Frank G.; Curtin, Gary C.; Daniels, David L.; Jackson, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Mineral resources of the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina, were assessed between 1984 and 1990 under the Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The mineral resource assessments were made on the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and the presence of mines, prospects, and mineral occurrences from the literature. This report is an assessment of the rare-earth elements (REE), thorium, titanium, and uranium resources in the Greenville quadrangle and is based on heavy mineral concentrates collected in 1951-54 by the USGS (Overstreet and others, 1968; Caldwell and White, 1973; Cuppels and White, 1973); on the results of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) sampling program (Ferguson, 1978, 1979); on analyses of stream-sediment and heavy-mineral-concentrate samples (Jackson and Moore, 1992, G.C Cullin, USGS, unpub. data, 1992) on maps showing aerial gamma radiation in the Greenville quadrangle (D.L. Daniels, USGS, unpub. data, 1992); and on the geology as mapped by Nelson and others (1987, 1989).

  2. Assessment of ambient background concentrations of elements in soil using combined survey and open-source data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Hannah G; Clarke, Bradley O; Dasika, Raghava; Wallis, Christian J; Reichman, Suzie M

    2017-02-15

    Understanding ambient background concentrations in soil, at a local scale, is an essential part of environmental risk assessment. Where high resolution geochemical soil surveys have not been undertaken, soil data from alternative sources, such as environmental site assessment reports, can be used to support an understanding of ambient background conditions. Concentrations of metals/metalloids (As, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were extracted from open-source environmental site assessment reports, for soils derived from the Newer Volcanics basalt, of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. A manual screening method was applied to remove samples that were indicated to be contaminated by point sources and hence not representative of ambient background conditions. The manual screening approach was validated by comparison to data from a targeted background soil survey. Statistical methods for exclusion of contaminated samples from background soil datasets were compared to the manual screening method. The statistical methods tested included the Median plus Two Median Absolute Deviations, the upper whisker of a normal and log transformed Tukey boxplot, the point of inflection on a cumulative frequency plot and the 95th percentile. We have demonstrated that where anomalous sample results cannot be screened using site information, the Median plus Two Median Absolute Deviations is a conservative method for derivation of ambient background upper concentration limits (i.e. expected maximums). The upper whisker of a boxplot and the point of inflection on a cumulative frequency plot, were also considered adequate methods for deriving ambient background upper concentration limits, where the percentage of contaminated samples is <25%. Median ambient background concentrations of metals/metalloids in the Newer Volcanic soils of Melbourne were comparable to ambient background concentrations in Europe and the United States, except for Ni, which was naturally enriched in the basalt-derived soils of

  3. Review of Trace-Element Field-Blank Data Collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program, May 2004-January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element quality-control samples (for example, source-solution blanks, field blanks, and field replicates) were collected as part of a statewide investigation of groundwater quality in California, known as the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Trace-element field blanks were collected to evaluate potential bias in the corresponding environmental data. Bias in the environmental data could result from contamination in the field during sample collection, from the groundwater coming into contact with contaminants on equipment surfaces or from other sources, or from processing, shipping, or analyzing the samples. Bias affects the interpretation of environmental data, particularly if any constituents are present solely as a result of extrinsic contamination that would have otherwise been absent from the groundwater that was sampled. Field blanks were collected, analyzed, and reviewed to identify and quantify extrinsic contamination bias. Data derived from source-solution blanks and laboratory quality-control samples also were considered in evaluating potential contamination bias. Eighty-six field-blank samples collected from May 2004 to January 2008 were analyzed for the concentrations of 25 trace elements. Results from these field blanks were used to interpret the data for the 816 samples of untreated groundwater collected over the same period. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum

  4. Assessing the effects of the Prestige oil spill on the European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis): Trace elements and stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanpera, Carola [Dept. Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: csanpera@ub.edu; Valladares, Sonia; Moreno, Rocio; Ruiz, Xavier [Dept. Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jover, Lluis [Dept. Salut Publica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    The Prestige oil spill resulted in the mortality of several seabird species on the Atlantic NW coast of Spain. Shag casualties were particularly relevant, since populations are resident in the area the whole year round and because of several features which make them highly vulnerable to environmental hazards. Ecological catastrophes give us the opportunity of collecting samples which, otherwise, would be difficult to obtain. We examine the potential of shag corpses as bioindicators of inorganic pollution and the possible factors of variability, such as biological traits (sex, age) or nutrition status. We determined trace elements (Hg, Se, Cr, Pb, Zn and Cu) and isotopic signatures ({sup 15}N, {sup 13}C) in soft tissues (muscle, liver) and in primary feathers formed at different times (before and after the Prestige) in individuals of known sex and age, collected at the time of the Prestige disaster. These were compared with data from another group of shags trapped accidentally in fishing gear in 2005. Our results did not seem to be affected by sex or age on any of the analysed variables. The higher nitrogen isotopic signatures in the soft tissues of the Prestige shags may be related to the nutrition stress caused by a poorer body condition, which is also reflected in increasing levels of some metals in the liver. This isotopic enrichment was also observed in newly forming feathers when compared to the old ones. On the other hand, the lower {delta}{sup 15}N and Hg values in shag feathers from 2005 point to a shift in feeding resources to prey of lower trophic levels. We found that feather features (being an inert tissue and having a conservative composition), if combined with careful dating and chemical analysis, offer a very useful tool to evaluate temporal and spatial changes in seabird ecology in relation to pollution events.

  5. Validating Multidimensional Outcome Assessment Using the TBI Common Data Elements: An Analysis of the TRACK-TBI Pilot Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lindsay D; Ranson, Jana; Ferguson, Adam R; Giacino, Joseph; Okonkwo, David O; Valadka, Alex; Manley, Geoffrey; McCrea, Michael

    2017-06-08

    The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) is often the primary outcome measure in clinical trials for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although the GOSE's capture of global function outcome has several strengths, concerns have been raised about its limited ability to identify mild disability and failure to capture the full scope of problems patients exhibit after TBI. This analysis examined the convergence of disability ratings across a multidimensional set of outcome domains in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury (TRACK-TBI) Pilot study. The study collected measures recommended by the TBI Common Data Elements (CDE) Workgroup. Patients presenting to 3 emergency departments with a TBI of any severity enrolled in TRACK-TBI prospectively after injury; outcome measures were collected at 3 and six months postinjury. Analyses examined frequency of impairment and overlap between impairment status across the CDE outcome domains of Global Level of Functioning (GOSE), Neuropsychological (cognitive) Impairment, Psychological Status, TBI Symptoms, and Quality of Life. GOSE score correlated in the expected direction with other outcomes (M Spearman's rho = .21 and .49 with neurocognitive and self-report outcomes, respectively). The subsample in the Upper Good Recovery (GOSE 8) category appeared quite healthy across most other outcomes, although 19.0% had impaired executive functioning (Trail Making Test Part B). A significant minority of participants in the Lower Good Recovery subgroup (GOSE 7) met criteria for impairment across numerous other outcome measures. The findings highlight the multidimensional nature of TBI recovery and the limitations of applying only a single outcome measure.

  6. Metal and trace element assessment of sediments from Guarapiranga reservoir, Sao Paulo State, by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: guitato@terra.com.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil); Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J.; Bevilacqua, Jose E. [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo(CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Inorganica e Radioatividade

    2009-07-01

    Guarapiranga Reservoir is extremely important due to the fact that it is one of the main water reservoirs for South America's largest city, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Guarapiranga Basin is located within the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo - RMSP, and occupies an area of approximately 630 km{sup 2}, and the reservoir itself is located in the northern part of the basin occupying approximately 26 km{sup 2}. This reservoir is characterized by environmental impacts from urban invasion, industrial and sewage wastes, all of which seriously affect its water quality. Due to its vulnerability CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State) regularly monitors the contamination levels of waters and once a year sediment samples. In order to better understand geochemical and environmental processes and their possible changes due to anthropogenic activities trace metals analyses and their distribution in sediments are commonly undertaken. The present study reports results concerning the distribution of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements in sediments from the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cr and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values) and adopted by CETESB. (author)

  7. An element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K.; Iidzima, K.

    1983-03-30

    An anode of a light metal is used in the element, along with an electrolyte which consists of an ether solvent and an ionogenic additive in the form of a salt of dithiocarbamic acid. The element has good discharge characteristics.

  8. Tracey - a simulation model of trace element fluxes in soil-plant system for long-term assessment of a radioactive groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke (Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Eckersten, Henrik (Dept. of Ecology and Crop Production, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Reinlert, Andre (Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)); Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik (Dept. Land and WaterResources, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Avila, Rodolfo (Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden)); Greger, Maria (Dept. of Botany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    We developed a general trace element model called Tracey to simulate dynamically the possible accumulation of radionuclides as a result of an long-term radioactive contamination of groundwater in terrestrial ecosystems. The overall objectives of the study are to: 1) Develop and evaluate a multi-compartmental model that dynamically simulates the transport and accumulation of a radionuclide in the soil-plant system at a time scale relevant for risk assessment of nuclear fuel waste; and 2) Asses the possible accumulation of radionuclide in terrestrial ecosystems due to an eventual long-term continuous radioactive groundwater contamination. Specific objectives were to assess: - The proportion of the contamination accumulated and where it is stored in the ecosystem. - The importance of the plant uptake approach for accumulation of radionuclides. - The most important radionuclide properties and ecosystem characteristics for accumulation and losses. - The proportion of the contamination lost and how is it lost. - The circumstances which stimulated export of radionuclides to other ecosystems. The model presented here, called Tracey, is a stand-alone version to allow for long simulation periods relevant for the time scale of risk assessment of nuclear waste (i.e. several thousand years) with time steps as short as one day. Tracey is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclide are described for different plant parts and for several soil layers. Each layer includes pools of slowly and quickly decomposing litter, humus, solved and absorbed trace element. The trace element fluxes are assumed to be proportional to either water or carbon fluxes, these fluxes are simulated using the dynamic model CoupModel for fluxes of water, carbon, nitrogen and carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Two different model approaches were used to describe plant uptake of radionuclides. The one called passive uptake approach is driven by water uptake and the one called active

  9. A recent assessment of the elemental composition of New Zealand pastures in relation to meeting the dietary requirements of grazing livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, S O; Grace, N D

    2014-01-01

    study is the only large scale assessment of the mineral composition of New Zealand pastures to be published in 30 yr and the first to include a full range of trace elements. Knowing the proportion of pastures that are unlikely to meet nutritional requirements for some elements helps to define the risk areas for grazing livestock systems and provides an estimate of how prevalent mineral deficiencies might be if current practices of supplementation were not in place.

  10. Assessing anthropogenic levels, speciation, and potential mobility of rare earth elements (REEs) in ex-tin mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aysha Masood; Yusoff, Ismail; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Bakar, Ahmad Farid Abu; Alias, Yatimah

    2016-12-01

    A study was carried out to determine the level of rare earth elements (REEs) in water and sediment samples from ex-mining lakes and River in Kinta Valley, Perak, Malaysia. Surface water and sediments from an ex-mining lake and Kinta River water samples were analyzed for REEs by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The total concentration of REEs in the ex-mining lake water samples and sediments were found to be 3685 mg/l and 14159 mg/kg, respectively, while the total concentration of REEs in Kinta River water sample was found to be 1224 mg/l. REEs in mining lake water were found to be within 2.42 mg/l (Tb) to 46.50 mg/l (Ce), while for the Kinta River, it was 1.33 mg/l (Ho) to 29.95 mg/l (Ce). Sediment samples were also found with REEs from 9.81 mg/kg (Ho) to 765.84 mg/kg (Ce). Ce showed the highest average concentrations for mining lake (3.88 to 49.08 mg/l) and Kinta River (4.44 to 33.15 mg/l) water samples, while the concentration of La was the highest (11.59 to 771.61 mg/kg) in the mining lake sediment. Lu was shown to have the highest enrichment of REEs in ex-mining lake sediments (107.3). Multivariate statistical analyses such as factor analysis and principal component analysis indicated that REEs were associated and controlled by mixed origin, with similar contributions from anthropogenic and geogenic sources. The speciation study of REEs in ex-tin mining sediments using a modified five-stage sequential extraction procedure indicated that yttrium (Y), gadolinium (Gd), and lanthanum (La) were obtained at higher percentages from the adsorbed/exchanged/carbonate fraction. The average potential mobility of the REEs was arranged in a descending order: Yb > Gd > Y = Dy > Pr > Er > Tm > Eu > Nd > Tb > Sc > Lu > Ce > La, implying that under favorable conditions, these REEs could be released and subsequently pollute the environment.

  11. Comprehensive assessment of seldom monitored trace elements pollution in the riparian soils of the Miyun Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lanfang; Gao, Bo; Zhou, Yang; Xu, Dongyu; Gao, Li; Yu, Hui; Wang, Shiyan

    2016-10-01

    The South-to-North Water Diversion Project has aroused widespread concerns about the potential ecological risks posed by the project, especially for the Miyun Reservoir (MYR). The potential release risk of metals from the flooded riparian soils into MYR after water impoundment is one of key scientific problems. In this study, riparian soil samples were collected considering three vertical heights (130, 140, and 145 m) and four types of land uses in the MYR areas, namely, forestland, grassland, wasteland, and recreational land. We analyzed soils texture, the content and chemical fractionations of seldom monitored trace elements (SMTEs): Li, Be, B, V, Co, Ni, Ga, Sn, Sb, Tl, and Bi). Results showed that the four types of soils in MYR had the similar textures, while recreational land showed significantly higher contents of Ni and V. Additionally, there were no significant differences found for most SMTEs (except for V) at different vertical heights in each soil type, while the concentrations of V at 140 and 145 m in forestland and recreational land were significantly higher than those at 130 m. However, a comprehensive evaluation of potential ecological risk (contamination factor (CF), modified degree of contamination (mCd), and geoaccumulation factor (I geo)) consistently indicated the insignificant contaminations of all SMTEs in MYR soils before water impoundment. The Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction results showed that the chemical fractionations of SMTEs were independent of land use patterns and vertical heights. Co in reducible fractions and Ni were identified as the candidates which had potential to release into MYR when the lands were submerged. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) results suggested that a portion of V, Co, and Ni may originate from anthropogenic activities, and the coal combustion was possibly the main anthropogenic source. The findings of this work would provide valuable information on the

  12. Metadata elements preferred in searching and assessing relevance of archived television broadcast by scholars and students in media studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Brian

    to reveal the academics’ information needs, and preferred access points for searching and assessing the relevance of television broadcasts.  With reference to the first research area concerning aspects of users’ information seeking behaviour in relation to television broadcasts, the investigation identifies...... systems.  The three aspects of information seeking behaviour in focus are information need characteristics, preferred search entries, and application of relevance criteria.  The thesis provides considerations regarding the construction of surrogate records for broadcasts in the Danish national collection......’ information needs; 2) the users’ search entry preferences; and 3) the users’ application of relevance criteria.  Investigation of these aspects of the academics’ information seeking behaviour reveals which television broadcast dimensions that are of importance for effective retrieval of television broadcasts...

  13. Metadata elements preferred in searching and assessing relevance of archived television broadcast by scholars and students in media studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Brian

    to reveal the academics’ information needs, and preferred access points for searching and assessing the relevance of television broadcasts.  With reference to the first research area concerning aspects of users’ information seeking behaviour in relation to television broadcasts, the investigation identifies...... systems.  The three aspects of information seeking behaviour in focus are information need characteristics, preferred search entries, and application of relevance criteria.  The thesis provides considerations regarding the construction of surrogate records for broadcasts in the Danish national collection......’ information needs; 2) the users’ search entry preferences; and 3) the users’ application of relevance criteria.  Investigation of these aspects of the academics’ information seeking behaviour reveals which television broadcast dimensions that are of importance for effective retrieval of television broadcasts...

  14. Assessment of multiple exposure to chemical elements and health risks among residents near Huodehong lead-zinc mining area in Yunnan, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yirun; Wang, Ruming; Fan, Liyun; Chen, Tiantian; Bai, Yahong; Yu, Qianru; Liu, Ying

    2017-05-01

    The contents of chemical elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) in 11 kinds of crop/vegetables and soils around the Huodehong lead-zinc mining area in Yunnan, Southwest China were determined by using inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results showed that element contents in soils decreased in the order of Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd. The high geo-accumulation indexes (Igeo) showed that cultivated soils near mine were practically polluted by Cd, Pb and Zn. The contents of Cd, Cr and Pb in crop/vegetables samples were significantly higher than the maximum permissible standard set by China. The potential health risk assessments among local residents were evaluated by the hazard index (HI), the total carcinogenic risk (TCR), the target hazard quotient (THQ) and carcinogenic risk (CR), respectively. The results showed that diet was the dominant exposure pathway. The results of HI for adult and child were 6.21 and 6.08, respectively. TCR values of Cr and Cd were more than 10(-4). The THQ decreased in the following order: Cd > Pb > Cu > Zn > Cr. Among all kinds of crop/vegetables, leafy-vegetables were the major source of Cd and Pb exposure, root-vegetable were the important factors for Cu and Zn exposure, but tuber-vegetable were the factors for Cr exposure. The contents of Cd and Pb in human scalp hairs near Huodehong mine were higher than that in S20km area. Females possessed a higher risk for Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb exposure than males in study area. Significant differences between ages were found for Cd, Cu and Pb (p chemical elements risk to human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Risk Assessment of Adverse Events of Nursing Activities as the Element of Quality Management in Healhcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiśniewska Malgorzata Z.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present MedCARVER+Shock method and Pareto analysis and its usability for the risk assessment of adverse events of nursing activities. 888 activities carried out by all 190 nurses working at the District Hospital X located in Poland were taken into account. During the research the qualitative approach was used. As the result sixteen groups of nursing activities causing the highest risk of adverse events were selected. Special attention required in: admission of a patient to the ward, sterilization, verbal communication with the patient, using of intravenous cannulas, needles, syringes, devices for transfusion of infusion liquids, servicing of hospital rooms, first aid in life-threatening situations, using medical devices and equipment. Ten basic causes of the risk of adverse events were identified, among others: lack of trainings, of modern equipment, of staff, failure to comply with procedures, lack of staff supervision, poor quality of ancillary materials, lack of management commitment. Finally MedCARVER+Shock method and Pareto analysis usability has been confirmed but it appeared that it is time-consuming and requires support from skilled professionals. Several suggestions have been put forward to improve the utility of MedCARVER+Shock.

  16. Interrater Reliability and Concurrent Validity of a New Rating Scale to Assess the Performance of Everyday Life Tasks in Dementia: The Core Elements Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Werd, Maartje M E; Hoelzenbein, Angela C; Boelen, Daniëlle H E; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde; Hüell, Michael; Kessels, Roy P C; Voigt-Radloff, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Errorless learning (EL) is an instructional procedure involving error reduction during learning. Errorless learning is mostly examined by counting correctly executed task steps or by rating them using a Task Performance Scale (TPS). Here, we explore the validity and reliability of a new assessment procedure, the core elements method (CEM), which rates essential building blocks of activities rather than individual steps. Task performance was assessed in 35 patients with Alzheimer's dementia recruited from the Relearning methods on Daily Living task performance of persons with Dementia (REDALI-DEM) study using TPS and CEM independently. Results showed excellent interrater reliabilities for both measure methods (CEM: intraclass coefficient [ICC] = .85; TPS: ICC = .97). Also, both methods showed a high agreement (CEM: mean of measurement difference [MD] = -3.44, standard deviation [SD] = 14.72; TPS: MD = -0.41, SD = 7.89) and correlated highly (>.75). Based on these results, TPS and CEM are both valid for assessing task performance. However, since TPS is more complicated and time consuming, CEM may be the preferred method for future research projects.

  17. Spatial risk assessment and trace element concentration in reef associated sediments of Van Island, southern part of the Gulf of Mannar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, S; Ramasamy, S; Chandrasekar, N; Peter, T Simon; Godson, Prince S; Gopal, V; Magesh, N S

    2017-02-15

    Forty eight surface sediment samples were collected from the vicinity of Van Island in order to assess the sediment pollution level and potential ecological risk on coral reef ecosystem. The analytical and correlation results indicate a distribution of elements is chiefly controlled by the CaCO3 and OM. The enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index show the elevated level of Pb in the surface sediments is due to application of lead petrol and coal incinerating power plants. The sediment pollution index reveals that majority of the sediments falling under highly polluted sediment category (35.4%) followed by moderately polluted (25%) and dangerous sediment category (14.58%). The potential ecological risk suggests that nearly 66.6% of the samples falling under the low risk category, moderate risk category (20.8%) followed by considerable risk category (8.33%) and very high risk category (4.1%). The accumulation level of trace elements clearly suggests that the coral reef ecosystem is under low risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Assessment of Compressive Size Effect of Plane Concrete Using Combination of Micro-Plane Damage Based Model and 3D Finite Elements Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Labibzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the material behavior dependence of laboratory concrete specimens built with the same concrete mixture under the same load conditions to their geometrical sizes is well established. This phenomenon which is observed not only in concrete but also in most quasi-brittle materials such as rock, ceramic or composite materials is now called as size effect. Many of the existing structural analyzing codes are not able to consider this important feature of concrete structures especially under compressive loadings. However we know that the main purpose of concrete application in structural members is to resist compression. The aim of this study is to show the ability of author's recently developed 3D finite elements code equipped with the proposed author's newly micro-planes damage based model for considering of compressive size effect of plane concrete. To do so, two different sizes of cubic concrete specimens are modeled with mentioned code under the uniaxial compressive test and their fracture mechanisms, pre-peak and post-peak strain-stress paths are investigated. Obtained results reveal the good coincidence with experimental evidences. In fact, the combination of proposed micro-planes damage based model and developed presented 3D finite elements technique creates a powerful numerical tool to capture and predict precisely strain localization and fracture mechanism in the specimens and consequently to assess properly the compressive size effect of plane concrete in analysis and design.

  19. Pollution indexing and health risk assessments of trace elements in indoor dusts from classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olujimi, Olanrewaju; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are known to have a negative impact on human health especially children through oral ingestion. Total metal concentrations were determined in indoor dust from 19 locations consisting of classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria. Digestion and instrumentation reproducibility were validated using certified reference materials (BCR 723 (Road Dust), NIST 2711a (Montana Soil) and NIST SRM 1640e (Trace element in water)). The measured and certified values showed good agreement. Potential threat levels using geo-accumulation (Igeo) and human health risk for both children and adult were assessed. The mean Igeo levels for the classified and probable carcinogens is in the order Cd (4.84) > Cr (3.28) > Pb (2.61) > Ni (2.48) > As (1.64) while other elements are in the order Zn (5.41) > Ba (4.86) > Sr (4.38) > Zn (4.27) > V (3.24) > Cu (3.14) > Hg (2.61) ≈ TI (2.61). For human health risk, ingestion was the main route of exposure followed by dermal uptake and inhalation. Hazard index values for all studied metals were lower than the safe level of 1 while Hg vapor exhibited the highest risk value (0.13) in the case of children. The carcinogenic risk for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb were all within the acceptable level (10-4-10-6), but there was potential carcinogenic risk posed by Cr for both adults and children.

  20. Level and Contamination Assessment of Environmentally Sensitive Elements in Smaller than 100 μm Street Dust Particles from Xining, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Zhao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of the environmentally sensitive elements (ESEs As, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in smaller than 100 μm street dust particles from Xining were measured using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and their contamination levels were assessed based on enrichment factor (EF, geoaccumulation index (Igeo and pollution load index (PLI. The concentrations of As, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in smaller than 100 μm street dust particles from Xining are 0.1–0.8, 2.7–10.9, 0.7–5.2, 0.3–1.1, 0.6–2.5, 1.2–11.1, 0.7–1.3 and 0.4–2.9 times the background values of Qinghai soil, respectively. The calculated EF and Igeo values reveal the order Co > Pb > Cu > Zn > V > Ni > Mn > As. The EF and Igeo values of Co, Cu, Pb and Zn are higher indicating that there is considerable pollution by these elements in smaller than 100 μm street dust particles, especially for Co. The EF and Igeo of Mn, Ni and V are lower and the assessment results indicate an absence of distinct Mn, Ni and V pollution in the studied samples. The mean value of PLIsite is 1.14, indicating a slightly pollution in the whole city of Xining. The order of PLIarea for the five tested districts is Center District (CD > East District (ED > West District (WD > North District (ND > South District (SD, showing that ESEs pollution in the South District is the lightest while it is the highest in the Central District.

  1. Concordance Between Life Satisfaction and Six Elements of Well-Being Among Respondents to a Health Assessment Survey, HealthPartners Employees, Minnesota, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Nicolaas P; Kottke, Thomas E; Lowry, Marcia; Katz, Abigail S; Gallagher, Jason M; Knudson, Susan M; Rauri, Sachin J; Tillema, Juliana O

    2016-12-22

    We assessed and tracked perceptions of well-being among employees of member companies of HealthPartners, a nonprofit health care provider and health insurance company in Bloomington, Minnesota. The objective of our study was to determine the concordance between self-reported life satisfaction and a construct of subjective well-being that comprised 6 elements of well-being: emotional and mental health, social and interpersonal status, financial status, career status, physical health, and community support. We analyzed responses of 23,268 employees (of 37,982 invitees) from 6 HealthPartners companies who completed a health assessment in 2011. We compared respondents' answers to the question, "How satisfied are you with your life?" with their indicators of well-being where "high life satisfaction" was defined as a rating of 9 or 10 on a scale of 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest) and "high level of well-being" was defined as a rating of 9 or 10 for 5 or 6 of the 6 indicators of well-being. We found a correlation between self-reported life satisfaction and the number of well-being elements scored as high (9 or 10) (r = 0.62, P life satisfaction, only 34.7% of those indicating high life satisfaction reported high overall well-being. The correlation between self-reported life satisfaction and our well-being measure was strong, and members who met our criterion of high overall well-being were likely to report high life satisfaction. However, many respondents who reported high life satisfaction did not meet our criterion for high overall well-being, which suggests that either they adapted to negative life circumstances or that our well-being measure did not identify their sources of life satisfaction.

  2. [Defusing of victims of the terrorist attacks in Paris. Elements of assessment one-month post-event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, N; Cheucle, E; Faure, P; Digard, F; Dalphin, C; Pachiaudi, V; Simond, M; Darbon, R; Collinet, C; Habibi, R; Gueugniaud, P-Y

    2016-12-29

    The terrorist attacks (fusillades and suicide attacks) in Paris on 13 November 2015 have had a major psychic impact on all individuals directly or secondarily exposed to them. Medico-psychological unit (CUMP) of the Paris Île-de-France region's immediate care services were immediately mobilized and rapidly strengthened by all regional medico-psychological units (CUMP) throughout the country. Psychological assistance has been provided in several key points of Paris and specifically in the 11th district City Hall of Paris where Lyon's Medico-psychological unit was located. These specific immediate psychological assistances, referred to as a "defusing process" by the medico-psychological unit (CUMP), are mostly devoted to provide the victims with an entry point to a psychological healthcare relationship and give them a first sense of soothing and relief even though they do not prevent further psychological care follow up for the victims. Nonetheless, the potential therapeutic effect of this "defusing process" has not yet been sufficiently established nor demonstrated by any scientific study. A phoning survey was carried out one-month post-terrorist attacks and interviewed the 129 victims who benefited from the "defusing process" conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in order to collect data and assess its effects. These people, whether directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses, whose average age is 35, are mostly living in the Île-de-France region. Most of them present a high score on the IES-R scale, whether they were directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses. Almost all of them (96.5%) experienced at least one medical care contact within this one-month post-trauma period with psychotropic medication for 37% of them. Regarding the defusing conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in the 11th district City Hall of Paris, it appears that 93% of the victims who were looked after indicated that they were satisfied and 87.4% of

  3. Tracey - a simulation model of trace element fluxes in soil-plant system for long-term assessment of a radioactive groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke (Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Eckersten, Henrik (Dept. of Ecology and Crop Production, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Reinlert, Andre (Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)); Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik (Dept. Land and WaterResources, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Avila, Rodolfo (Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden)); Greger, Maria (Dept. of Botany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    We developed a general trace element model called Tracey to simulate dynamically the possible accumulation of radionuclides as a result of an long-term radioactive contamination of groundwater in terrestrial ecosystems. The overall objectives of the study are to: 1) Develop and evaluate a multi-compartmental model that dynamically simulates the transport and accumulation of a radionuclide in the soil-plant system at a time scale relevant for risk assessment of nuclear fuel waste; and 2) Asses the possible accumulation of radionuclide in terrestrial ecosystems due to an eventual long-term continuous radioactive groundwater contamination. Specific objectives were to assess: - The proportion of the contamination accumulated and where it is stored in the ecosystem. - The importance of the plant uptake approach for accumulation of radionuclides. - The most important radionuclide properties and ecosystem characteristics for accumulation and losses. - The proportion of the contamination lost and how is it lost. - The circumstances which stimulated export of radionuclides to other ecosystems. The model presented here, called Tracey, is a stand-alone version to allow for long simulation periods relevant for the time scale of risk assessment of nuclear waste (i.e. several thousand years) with time steps as short as one day. Tracey is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclide are described for different plant parts and for several soil layers. Each layer includes pools of slowly and quickly decomposing litter, humus, solved and absorbed trace element. The trace element fluxes are assumed to be proportional to either water or carbon fluxes, these fluxes are simulated using the dynamic model CoupModel for fluxes of water, carbon, nitrogen and carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Two different model approaches were used to describe plant uptake of radionuclides. The one called passive uptake approach is driven by water uptake and the one called active

  4. In-vivo assessment of femoral bone strength using Finite Element Analysis (FEA based on routine MDCT imaging: a preliminary study on patients with vertebral fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Liebl

    Full Text Available To experimentally validate a non-linear finite element analysis (FEA modeling approach assessing in-vitro fracture risk at the proximal femur and to transfer the method to standard in-vivo multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT data of the hip aiming to predict additional hip fracture risk in subjects with and without osteoporosis associated vertebral fractures using bone mineral density (BMD measurements as gold standard.One fresh-frozen human femur specimen was mechanically tested and fractured simulating stance and clinically relevant fall loading configurations to the hip. After experimental in-vitro validation, the FEA simulation protocol was transferred to standard contrast-enhanced in-vivo MDCT images to calculate individual hip fracture risk each for 4 subjects with and without a history of osteoporotic vertebral fractures matched by age and gender. In addition, FEA based risk factor calculations were compared to manual femoral BMD measurements of all subjects.In-vitro simulations showed good correlation with the experimentally measured strains both in stance (R2 = 0.963 and fall configuration (R2 = 0.976. The simulated maximum stress overestimated the experimental failure load (4743 N by 14.7% (5440 N while the simulated maximum strain overestimated by 4.7% (4968 N. The simulated failed elements coincided precisely with the experimentally determined fracture locations. BMD measurements in subjects with a history of osteoporotic vertebral fractures did not differ significantly from subjects without fragility fractures (femoral head: p = 0.989; femoral neck: p = 0.366, but showed higher FEA based risk factors for additional incident hip fractures (p = 0.028.FEA simulations were successfully validated by elastic and destructive in-vitro experiments. In the subsequent in-vivo analyses, MDCT based FEA based risk factor differences for additional hip fractures were not mirrored by according BMD measurements. Our data suggests, that MDCT

  5. Transboundary geophysical mapping of geological elements and salinity distribution critical for the assessment of future sea water intrusion in response to sea level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jørgensen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical techniques are increasingly being used as tools for characterising the subsurface, and they are generally required to develop subsurface models that properly delineate the distribution of aquifers and aquitards, salt/freshwater interfaces, and geological structures that affect groundwater flow. In a study area covering 730 km2 across the border between Germany and Denmark, a combination of an airborne electromagnetic survey (performed with the SkyTEM system, a high-resolution seismic survey and borehole logging has been used in an integrated mapping of important geological, physical and chemical features of the subsurface. The spacing between flight lines is 200–250 m which gives a total of about 3200 line km. About 38 km of seismic lines have been collected. Faults bordering a graben structure, buried tunnel valleys, glaciotectonic thrust complexes, marine clay units, and sand aquifers are all examples of geological structures mapped by the geophysical data that control groundwater flow and to some extent hydrochemistry. Additionally, the data provide an excellent picture of the salinity distribution in the area and thus provide important information on the salt/freshwater boundary and the chemical status of groundwater. Although the westernmost part of the study area along the North Sea coast is saturated with saline water and the TEM data therefore are strongly influenced by the increased electrical conductivity there, buried valleys and other geological elements are still revealed. The mapped salinity distribution indicates preferential flow paths through and along specific geological structures within the area. The effects of a future sea level rise on the groundwater system and groundwater chemistry are discussed with special emphasis on the importance of knowing the existence, distribution and geometry of the mapped geological elements, and their control on the groundwater salinity distribution is assessed.

  6. Assessment of metal, trace and rare earth element concentrations in a sedimentary profile from Ponte Nova reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Flavio R.; Bordon, Isabella C.C.L.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: flavio@baquara.com, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: shasilva@sp.gov.br, E-mail: rfranklin@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2015-07-01

    Ponte Nova reservoir, located in the upper basin of the Tiete River in the southern region of Sao Paulo State, covers an area of 25.7 km{sup 2} and drains an area of 320 km{sup 2}. It was built in 1972 to control the rivers flow in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) and water supply. A 30 cm sediment core was collected in the dam in August 2014, sliced at every 2.5 cm. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the sediment samples to determine some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. The enrichment factor (EF) and Igeo were applied to the results by using NASC (North American Shale Composite) as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. An EF>1.5 was obtained for As, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U, and rare earths Ce, Eu, La, Nd and Sm when NASC values were used, but only for Br, when the last layer concentration values were used as reference values. Similar results were obtained for the Igeo index. For semi-metal As and metals Cr and Zn concentration values were compared to oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL) only Cr exceeded TEL value in some slices of the profile. These results may indicate that there is no anthropogenic contribution for the elements analyzed in this reservoir. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the results. (author)

  7. Assessment of metal and trace element contamination in water, sediment, plants, macroinvertebrates, and fish in Tavasci Marsh, Tuzigoot National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Miller, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    at depth for Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, In, Pb, Sb, Sn, Te, and Zn. Radioisotope dating indicates that the elevated metal and trace element concentrations are associated with sediments deposited before 1963. Arsenic concentration was greater in cattail roots compared with surrounding sediment at Tavasci Marsh. Concentrations of As, Ni, and Se from yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis) in Tavasci Marsh exceeded the 75th percentile of several other regional studies. Mercury concentration in dragonfly larvae and fish from Tavasci Marsh were similar to or greater than in Tavasci Marsh sediment. Future work includes a biologic risk assessment utilizing the data collected in this study to provide the monument management with additional information for their restoration plan.

  8. Geochemical background/baseline values in top soils of Campania region: assessment of the toxic elements threat to ecosystem and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Albanese, S.; Bove, M.; Cicchella, D.; Civitillo, D.; Cosenza, A.; Grezzi, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the late years an intense geochemical prospecting activity on the whole territory of Campania region (Southern Italy) has been carried aiming at the definition of the geochemical backgrounds/baselines at both regional and local scale. At the end of 2003 the first edition of an atlas containing 200 maps showing the distribution patterns of 40 chemical elements on the whole regional territory was published (De Vivo et al., 2003, 2006a; Albanese et al., 2007a). The atlas provided a base knowledge of environmental status of the region and allowed to individuate some critical areas to be further investigated by topsoils sampling follow up activity; the topsoils are considered as the best media in order to examine closely the sources and the distribution patterns of harmful elements at a local scale. The topsoils sampling was mainly focused on anthropized areas (at urban and metropolitan scale), industrial settlments, brownfields and intensely cultivated zones, aimed at: • showing the distribution of concentration values and to determine baseline values (or backgrounds, depending on local conditions) of each analyzed element (38) in the top soils; • assessing harmful elements pollution levels and their geographic distribution; • providing reliable analytical data for assessment of toxic element pollution threat to ecosystem and human health; • creating a sound basis for policy makers and legislators who need to address the public concerns regarding environmental pollution. Five atlases (De Vivo et al., 2006b; Albanese et al., 2007b; Lima et al., 2007; Fedele et al., 2007 Cicchella et al., 2009) were produced reporting soil geochemical maps compiled using 1620 samples collected both in the metropolitan and provincial area of Napoli and in the cities of Avellino, Benevento, Caserta and Salerno. Further studies were also carried out taking into account Pb isotopes (Cicchella et al., 2008a), PGE's (Cicchella et al., 2003; 2008b) and bioavailability of harmful

  9. Dietary exposure and health risk assessment for 14 toxic and essential trace elements in Yaoundé: the Cameroonian total diet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimou, Marie-Madeleine; Pouillot, Régis; Charrondiere, U Ruth; Noël, Laurent; Guérin, Thierry; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    Dietary exposure to trace elements (aluminium, antimony, barium, cadmium, lead, nickel, vanadium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, germanium, lithium, strontium and tellurium) was assessed by the total diet study (TDS) method. Sixty-four pooled samples representing 96.5% of the diet in Yaoundé, Cameroon, were prepared "as consumed" before analysis. Consumption data were sourced from a households' budget survey. Dietary exposures were compared with health-based guidance or nutritional values and to worldwide TDS results. The health-based guidance value was exceeded by ≤ 0.2% of the study population for aluminium, antimony, barium, cadmium, nickel and vanadium. For lead, the observed 95th percentile of exposure (3.05 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1)) equals the critical value considered by JECFA for cardiovascular effects; therefore, risk to health cannot be excluded for certain consumer groups. The population at risk of excess intake for manganese, copper, molybdenum and nickel was considered to be low (≤ 0.3%). The prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated at 5.9% for copper and was nil for molybdenum. Due to the lack of toxicological and/or nutritional consistent data to perform a risk assessment, dietary exposures to germanium, lithium, strontium and tellurium were provided as supplementary data. The food groups highest contributors to exposure were "tubers and starches" for aluminium (27%), lead (39%) and copper (26%), "cereals and cereal products" for cadmium (54%) and manganese (35%), "fruits, vegetables and oilseeds" for barium (34%), molybdenum (49%) and nickel (31%), "beverages" for antimony (27%) and "fish" for vanadium (43% - lower bound). Measures should be recommended to maintain low levels of exposure before the problem could become an important health or trade issue.

  10. Physiological interpretation of inductance and low-resistance terms in four-element windkessel models: assessment by generalized sensitivity function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burattini, Roberto; Bini, Silvia

    2011-07-01

    Physiological relevance of parameters of three arterial models, denominated W4P, W4S and IVW, was assessed by computation of parameter-related generalized sensitivity functions (GSFs), which allow the definition of heart-cycle time intervals where the information content of experimental data, useful for estimation of each model parameter, is concentrated. The W4P and W4S are derived from the three-element windkessel by connecting an inductance, L, in parallel or in series, respectively, with aortic characteristic impedance, R(c). In the IVW, L is placed in series at the input of a viscoelastic windkessel, incorporating a Voigt cell (a resistor, R(d), in series with a capacitor, C). Pressure and flow measured in the ascending aorta of five ferrets and five dogs were used to estimate all model parameters, by fitting to pressure. For each model structure, parameter-related GSFs were generated. Focusing on controversial L, R(c) and R(d) physical meaning, our GSF analysis yielded the conclusion that, in both the W4S and the IVW, but not in the W4P, the L-term is suitable to represent the inertial properties of blood motion. Moreover, the meaning of aortic characteristic impedance ascribed to R(c) is questionable; while R(d) is likely to account for viscous losses of arterial wall motion.

  11. Fate-mapping the mammalian hindbrain: segmental origins of vestibular projection neurons assessed using rhombomere-specific Hoxa2 enhancer elements in the mouse embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualetti, Massimo; Díaz, Carmen; Renaud, Jean-Sébastien; Rijli, Filippo M; Glover, Joel C

    2007-09-05

    As a step toward generating a fate map of identified neuron populations in the mammalian hindbrain, we assessed the contributions of individual rhombomeres to the vestibular nuclear complex, a major sensorimotor area that spans the entire rhombencephalon. Transgenic mice harboring either the lacZ or the enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter genes under the transcriptional control of rhombomere-specific Hoxa2 enhancer elements were used to visualize rhombomere-derived domains. We labeled functionally identifiable vestibular projection neuron groups retrogradely with conjugated dextran-amines at successive embryonic stages and obtained developmental fate maps through direct comparison with the rhombomere-derived domains in the same embryos. The fate maps show that each vestibular neuron group derives from a unique rostrocaudal domain that is relatively stable developmentally, suggesting that anteroposterior migration is not a major contributor to the rostrocaudal patterning of the vestibular system. Most of the groups are multisegmental in origin, and each rhombomere is fated to give rise to two or more vestibular projection neuron types, in a complex pattern that is not segmentally iterated. Comparison with studies in the chicken embryo shows that the rostrocaudal patterning of identified vestibular projection neuron groups is generally well conserved between avians and mammalians but that significant species-specific differences exist in the rostrocaudal limits of particular groups. This mammalian hindbrain fate map can be used as the basis for targeting genetic manipulation to specific subpopulations of vestibular projection neurons.

  12. Use of selective chemical extractions as a strategy for the risk assessment in sites with a high level of potentially toxic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martinez Sanchez, Maria Jose; Garcia Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Hernandez Perez, Carmen; Molina Ruiz, Jose; Bech, Jaume

    2016-04-01

    The present study deals with the geochemical fractions of Pb, Cd, Zn and As present on profiles using chemical simple extraction process. This work was conducted on Portman Bay, a site located in the SE Spain and strongly affected by mining activities. Four simple extractions were applied to selected samples in order to evaluate the potential mobility of metals. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled to with an energy-dispersion spectrometry (SEM-EDS) were applied for the characterisation of both the samples and the residues remaining after each extraction, providing additional information about the sediment phases carrying the elements studied. Soil pollution assessment was carried out using the contamination factor (CF) and the pollution load index (PLI) for total contents, and indicators of mobility for each extraction: natural mobility indicator (NMI), acid mine drainage mobility indicator (AMI), oxic mobility indicator (OMI) and anoxic mobility indicator (ANMI). The results obtained after the extractions suggested that the highest PTEs content were extracted in the acidic medium. The mineralogical composition is an important factor that should be taken into account in the evaluation of PTEs mobility, firstly because the mineral phases react differently in the proposed situations depending on their chemical nature, and secondly, because the presence of a particular phase (with different degree of reactivity) depends on the degree of weathering.

  13. PELTIER ELEMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Tani, Laurits

    2015-01-01

    To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.

  14. An Integrated Assessment of Geochemical and Community Structure Determinants of Metal Reduction Rates in Subsurface Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfiffner, Susan M.; Brandt, Craig C.; Kostka, Joel E.; Palumbo, Anthony V.

    2005-08-11

    Our current research represents a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Florida State University (FSU), and the University of Tennessee. ORNL will serve as the lead institution with Dr. A.V. Palumbo responsible for project coordination, integration, and deliverables. This project was initiated in November, 2004, in the Integrative Studies Element of the NABIR program. The overall goal of our project is to provide an improved understanding of the relationships between microbial community structure, geochemistry, and metal reduction rates. The research seeks to address the following questions: Is the metabolic diversity of the in situ microbial community sufficiently large and redundant that bioimmobilization of uranium will occur regardless of the type of electron donor added to the system? Are their donor specific effects that lead to enrichment of specific community members that then impose limits on the functional capabilities of the system? Will addition of humics change rates of uranium reduction without changing community structure? Can resource-ratio theory be used to understand changes in uranium reduction rates and community structure with respect to changing C:P ratios?

  15. Assessment of potential migration of radionuclides and trace elements from the White Mesa uranium mill to the Ute Mountain Ute Reservation and surrounding areas, southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Marston, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe requested that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Geological Survey conduct an independent evaluation of potential offsite migration of radionuclides and selected trace elements associated with the ore storage and milling process at an active uranium mill site near White Mesa, Utah. Specific objectives of this study were (1) to determine recharge sources and residence times of groundwater surrounding the mill site, (2) to determine the current concentrations of uranium and associated trace elements in groundwater surrounding the mill site, (3) to differentiate natural and anthropogenic contaminant sources to groundwater resources surrounding the mill site, (4) to assess the solubility and potential for offsite transport of uranium-bearing minerals in groundwater surrounding the mill site, and (5) to use stream sediment and plant material samples from areas surrounding the mill site to identify potential areas of offsite contamination and likely contaminant sources. The results of age-dating methods and an evaluation of groundwater recharge temperatures using dissolved-gas samples indicate that groundwater sampled in wells in the surficial aquifer in the vicinity of the mill is recharged locally by precipitation. Tritium/helium age dating methods found a "modern day" apparent age in water samples collected from springs in the study area surrounding the mill. This apparent age indicates localized recharge sources that potentially include artificial recharge of seepage from constructed wildlife refuge ponds near the mill. The stable oxygen isotope-ratio, delta oxygen-18, or δ(18O/16O), known as δ18O, and hydrogen isotope-ratio, delta deuterium, or δ(2H/1H), known as δD, data indicate that water discharging from Entrance Spring is isotopically enriched by evaporation and has a similar isotopic fingerprint as water from Recapture Reservoir, which is used as facilities water on the mill site. Water from Recapture

  16. The Distributed Lambda (?) Model (DLM): A 3-D, Finite-Element Muscle Model Based on Feldman's ? Model; Assessment of Orofacial Gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors aimed to design a distributed lambda model (DLM), which is well adapted to implement three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element descriptions of muscles. Method: A muscle element model was designed. Its stress-strain relationships included the active force-length characteristics of the ? model along the muscle fibers, together…

  17. The Distributed Lambda (?) Model (DLM): A 3-D, Finite-Element Muscle Model Based on Feldman's ? Model; Assessment of Orofacial Gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors aimed to design a distributed lambda model (DLM), which is well adapted to implement three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element descriptions of muscles. Method: A muscle element model was designed. Its stress-strain relationships included the active force-length characteristics of the ? model along the muscle fibers, together…

  18. Assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace elements in selected placer-mined creeks in the birch creek watershed near central, Alaska, 2001-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Langley, Dustin E.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, completed an assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace-element concentrations in streambed sediment of the upper Birch Creek watershed near Central, Alaska. The assessment covered one site on upper Birch Creek and paired sites, upstream and downstream from mined areas, on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek. Stream-discharge and suspended-sediment concentration data collected at other selected mined and unmined sites helped characterize conditions in the upper Birch Creek watershed. The purpose of the project was to provide the Bureau of Land Management with baseline information to evaluate watershed water quality and plan reclamation efforts. Data collection began in September 2001 and ended in September 2005. There were substantial geomorphic disturbances in the stream channel and flood plain along several miles of Harrison Creek. Placer mining has physically altered the natural stream channel morphology and removed streamside vegetation. There has been little or no effort to re-contour waste rock piles. During high-flow events, the abandoned placer-mine areas on Harrison Creek will likely contribute large quantities of sediment downstream unless the mined areas are reclaimed. During 2004 and 2005, no substantial changes in nutrient or major-ion concentrations were detected in water samples collected upstream from mined areas compared with water samples collected downstream from mined areas on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek that could not be attributed to natural variation. This also was true for dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance-a measure of total dissolved solids. Sample sites downstream from mined areas on Harrison Creek and Frying Pan Creek had higher median suspended-sediment concentrations, by a few milligrams per liter, than respective upstream sites. However, it is difficult to attach much importance to the small downstream increase

  19. A skill assessment of the biogeochemical model REcoM2 coupled to the finite element sea-ice ocean model (FESOM 1.3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schourup-Kristensen, V.; Sidorenko, D.; Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.; Völker, C.

    2014-07-01

    In coupled ocean-biogeochemical models, the choice of numerical schemes in the ocean circulation component can have a large influence on the distribution of the biological tracers. Biogeochemical models are traditionally coupled to ocean general circulation models (OGCMs), which are based on dynamical cores employing quasi regular meshes, and therefore utilize limited spatial resolution in a global setting. An alternative approach is to use an unstructured-mesh ocean model, which allows variable mesh resolution. Here, we present initial results of a coupling between the Finite Element Sea-ice Ocean Model (FESOM) and the biogeochemical model REcoM2, with special focus on the Southern Ocean. Surface fields of nutrients, chlorophyll a and net primary production were compared to available data sets with focus on spatial distribution and seasonal cycle. The model produced realistic spatial distributions, especially regarding net primary production and chlorophyll a, whereas the iron concentration became too low in the Pacific Ocean. The modelled net primary production was 32.5 Pg C yr-1 and the export production 6.1 Pg C yr-1. This is lower than satellite-based estimates, mainly due to the excessive iron limitation in the Pacific along with too little coastal production. Overall, the model performed better in the Southern Ocean than on the global scale, though the assessment here is hindered by the lower availability of observations. The modelled net primary production was 3.1 Pg C yr-1 in the Southern Ocean and the export production 1.1 Pg C yr-1. All in all, the combination of a circulation model on an unstructured grid with an ocean biogeochemical model shows similar performance to other models at non-eddy-permitting resolution. It is well suited for studies of the Southern Ocean, but on the global scale deficiencies in the Pacific Ocean would have to be taken into account.

  20. A skill assessment of the biogeochemical model REcoM2 coupled to the Finite Element Sea Ice-Ocean Model (FESOM 1.3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schourup-Kristensen, V.; Sidorenko, D.; Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.; Völker, C.

    2014-11-01

    In coupled biogeochmical-ocean models, the choice of numerical schemes in the ocean circulation component can have a large influence on the distribution of the biological tracers. Biogeochemical models are traditionally coupled to ocean general circulation models (OGCMs), which are based on dynamical cores employing quasi-regular meshes, and therefore utilize limited spatial resolution in a global setting. An alternative approach is to use an unstructured-mesh ocean model, which allows variable mesh resolution. Here, we present initial results of a coupling between the Finite Element Sea Ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) and the biogeochemical model REcoM2 (Regulated Ecosystem Model 2), with special focus on the Southern Ocean. Surface fields of nutrients, chlorophyll a and net primary production (NPP) were compared to available data sets with a focus on spatial distribution and seasonal cycle. The model produces realistic spatial distributions, especially regarding NPP and chlorophyll a, whereas the iron concentration becomes too low in the Pacific Ocean. The modelled NPP is 32.5 Pg C yr-1 and the export production 6.1 Pg C yr-1, which is lower than satellite-based estimates, mainly due to excessive iron limitation in the Pacific along with too little coastal production. The model performs well in the Southern Ocean, though the assessment here is hindered by the lower availability of observations. The modelled NPP is 3.1 Pg C yr-1 in the Southern Ocean and the export production 1.1 Pg C yr-1. All in all, the combination of a circulation model on an unstructured grid with a biogeochemical-ocean model shows similar performance to other models at non-eddy-permitting resolution. It is well suited for studies of the Southern Ocean, but on the global scale deficiencies in the Pacific Ocean would have to be taken into account.

  1. Element Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Describes a research assignment for 8th grade students on the elements of the periodic table. Students use web-based resources and a chemistry handbook to gather information, construct concept maps, and present the findings to the full class using the mode of their choice: a humorous story, a slideshow or gameboard, a brochure, a song, or skit.…

  2. A human health risk assessment of rare earth elements in soil and vegetables from a mining area in Fujian Province, Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Chen, Zhibiao; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yonghe

    2013-10-01

    Contaminated food through dietary intake has become the main potential risk impacts on human health. This study investigated concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, vegetables, human hair and blood, and assessed human health risk through vegetables consumption in the vicinity of a large-scale mining area located in Hetian Town of Changting County, Fujian Province, Southeast China. The results of the study included the following mean concentrations for total and bio-available REEs of 242.92 ± 68.98 (135.85-327.56)μg g(-1) and 118.59 ± 38.49 (57.89-158.96)μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in agricultural soil, respectively, and total REEs of 3.58 ± 5.28 (0.07-64.42)μg g(-1) dw in vegetable samples. Concentrations of total REEs in blood and hair collected from the local residents ranged from 424.76 to 1274.80 μg L(-1) with an average of 689.74 ± 254.25 μg L(-1) and from 0.06 to 1.59 μg g(-1) with an average of 0.48 ± 0.59 μg g(-1) of the study, respectively. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between REEs in blood and corresponding soil samples (R(2)=0.6556, p0.05). Mean concentrations of REEs of 2.85 (0.59-10.24)μg L(-1) in well water from the local households was 53-fold than that in the drinking water of Fuzhou city (0.054 μg L(-1)). The health risk assessment indicated that vegetable consumption would not result in exceeding the safe values of estimate daily intake (EDI) REEs (100-110 μg kg(-1)d(-1)) for adults and children, but attention should be paid to monitoring human beings health in such rare earth mining areas due to long-term exposure to high dose REEs from food consumptions.

  3. Guidelines - A Primer for Communicating Effectively with NABIR Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, James R.; Schell, Charlotte J.; Marino, T; Bilyard, Gordon R.

    2004-02-10

    This version of the communication primer comprises two interlocking parts: Pat 1, a practical section, intended to prepare you for public interactions, and Part 2, a theoretical section that provides social and technical bases for the practices recommended in Part 1. The mutual support of practice and theory is very familiar in science and clearly requires a willingness to observe and revise our prior assumptions--in this document, we invoke both. We hope that is offering will represent a step both towards improving practice and maturing the theory of practical science communication.

  4. Assessment of exposures and potential risks to the US adult population from the leaching of elements from gold and ceramic dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, G Mark; James, Kyle Jordan; Peters, Rachel Elizabeth; Clemow, Scott Richard; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the 2001 to 2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) on the number and placement of tooth restorations in adults, we quantified daily doses due to leaching of elements from gold (Au) alloy and ceramic restorative materials. The elements with the greatest leaching rates from these materials are often the elements of lowest proportional composition. As a result, exposure due to wear will predominate for those elements of relatively high proportional composition, while exposure due leaching may predominate for elements of relatively low proportional composition. The exposure due to leaching of silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd) from Au alloys exceeded published reference exposure levels (RELs) for these elements when multiple full surface crowns were present. Six or more molar crowns would result in exceeding the REL for Ag, whereas three or more crowns would be necessary to exceed the REL for Pd. For platinum (Pt), the majority of tooth surfaces, beyond just molar crowns, would be necessary to exceed the REL for Pd. Exposures due to leaching of elements from ceramic dental materials were less than published RELs for all components examined here, including having all restorations composed of ceramic.

  5. Concentrations and Geographical Variations of Selected Toxic Elements in Meat from Semi-Domesticated Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. in Mid- and Northern Norway: Evaluation of Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Ali Hassan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Meat samples (n = 100 from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. were randomly collected from 10 grazing districts distributed over four Norwegian counties in 2008 and 2009. The main aim was to study concentrations and geographical variations in selected toxic elements; cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, arsenic (As, copper (Cu, nickel (Ni and vanadium (V in order to assess the risk associated with reindeer meat consumption. Sample solutions were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma high resolution mass spectrometer (ICP-HRMS, whereas analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analyses. Geographical variations in element concentrations were revealed, with As and Cd demonstrating the largest geographical differences. No clear geographical gradient was observed except for the east-west downward gradient for As. The As concentrations were highest in the vicinity of the Russian border, and only Cd was shown to increase with age (p < 0.05. Sex had no significant effect on the concentration of the studied elements. The concentrations of all the studied elements in reindeer meat were generally low and considerably below the maximum levels (ML available for toxic elements set by the European Commission (EC. Thus, reindeer meat is not likely to be a significant contributor to the human body burden of toxic elements.

  6. Social Moderation and Dynamic Elements in Crowdsourced Geospatial Data: A Report on Quality Assessment, Dynamic Extensions and Mobile Device Engagement in the George Mason University Geocrowdsourcing Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    hybrid combination of professional, authoritative elements and citizen-based neo-geographic elements. Figure 3. UCSB Personal Guidance System...mobile devices utilize Collector for ArcGIS to automatically stream device GPS coordinates to ArcGIS Online while being carried along trails or...Rice et al. (2014)57, Rice et al. (2015)58,59, and Qin et al. (2015a), have in the past involved a hybrid desktop and mobile interaction paradigm

  7. An Assessment of the Icing Blade and the SEA Multi-Element Sensor for Liquid Water Content Calibration of the NASA GRC Icing Research Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Laura E.; Ide, Robert F.; Van Zante, Judith Foss

    2017-01-01

    The Icing Research Tunnel at NASA Glenn has recently switched to from using the Icing Blade to using the SEA Multi-Element Sensor (also known as the multi-wire) for its calibration of cloud liquid water content. In order to perform this transition, tests were completed to compare the Multi-Element Sensor to the Icing Blade, particularly with respect to liquid water content, airspeed, and drop size. The two instruments were found to compare well for the majority of Appendix C conditions. However, it was discovered that the Icing Blade under-measures when the conditions approach the Ludlam Limit. This paper also describes data processing procedures for the Multi-Element Sensor in the IRT, including collection efficiency corrections, mounting underneath a splitter plate, and correcting for a jump in the compensation wire power. Further data is presented to describe the repeatability of the IRT with the Multi-Element sensor, health-monitoring checks for the instrument, and a sensing-element configuration comparison.

  8. Assessment of the effects of municipal sewage, immersed idols and boating on the heavy metal and other elemental pollution of surface water of the eutrophic Hussainsagar Lake (Hyderabad, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M Vikram; Babu, K Sagar; Balaram, V; Satyanarayanan, M

    2012-04-01

    The surface water qualities of Hussainsagar, an eutrophic urban lake in the midst of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad (India) receiving large quantities of external inputs--both untreated municipal sewage containing industrial effluents, and treated sewage, a large number of annually immersed idols of God and Goddess, and intense boating activities were assessed in relation to the concentration of elements including heavy metals of the water along the necklace road of the lake. Elemental analyses of water using ICP-MS revealed 26 elements including heavy metals--As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Ba, Zn, Mo, V, Co, Ag, Sr, Rb, Mg, K, Ca, Al, Si, Sb, Na, Li, and B, in the surface water of the lake. Of these, the first 15 elements were found in elevated concentrations in the water at the outfall point of the untreated municipal sewage (site 3), which was the main dominating source of contamination of the lake water while Cu and Sb were recorded in higher concentrations at the outfall of treated effluent from Sewage Treatment Plant, and three elements (Ba, Si, and B) were in higher concentration at the sites of outfall of sewage flowing from an oxygenated pond (site 4), Ca, Zn, and Sr, at the site immersed with idols (site 1), and Pb, Ag, and Al at the center of the lake (site 5) with intense boating activities. Concentrations of most of these elements exceeded the maximum permissible limits of national (Indian Council Medical Research) standards for drinking water. The concentrations of most of the elemental contaminants showed significant positive correlations between them.

  9. Variation of B1 gene and AF146527 repeat element copy numbers according to Toxoplasma gondii strains assessed using real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jean-Marc; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2012-04-01

    Using the multicopy B1 gene and AF146527 element for the amplification of Toxoplasma gondii DNA raises the issue of reliable quantification for clinical diagnosis. We applied relative quantification to reference strains using the single-copy P30 gene as a reference. According to the parasite type, the copy numbers for the B1 gene and AF146527 element were found to be 5 to 12 and 4 to 8 times lower than the previous estimations of 35 and 230 copies, respectively.

  10. Assessment of Slope Stability and Interference of Structures Considering Seismity in Complex Engineering-Geological Conditions Using the Method of Finite Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menabdishvili, Papuna; Eremadze, Nelly

    2008-07-01

    There is elaborated the calculation model of slope deformation mode stability and the methodic of calculation considering the interference of structures to be built on it using the method of finite elements. There is examined the task of slope stability using the soil physically nonlinear finite element considering the seismicity 8. The deformation mode and field of coefficients of stability are obtained and slope supposed sliding curve is determined. The elaborated calculation methodic allows to determine the slope deformation mode, stability and select the optimum version of structure foundation at any slant and composition of slope layers.

  11. Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector. Fact sheets on technology elements and system calculations for technology tracks; Teknologivurdering af alternative drivmidler til transportsektoren. Fakta-ark for teknologi-elementer og systemberegninger for teknologi-spor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    The report documents an analysis, which aims at evaluating technologies in connection with alternative fuels for the transportation sector. During the analysis process a method has been developed for consistent evaluation of alternative transportation fuels with the largest technological and economic potential. This appendix presents key fact sheets which substantiate the analysis presented in the report 'Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector'. (BA)

  12. Assessment and Accommodation of Thermal Expansion of the Internal Active Thermal Control System Coolant During Launch to On-Orbit Activation of International Space Station Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Darryl; Ungar, Eugene K.; Holt, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) employs an Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) comprised of several single-phase water coolant loops. These coolant loops are distributed throughout the ISS pressurized elements. The primary element coolant loops (i.e. U.S. Laboratory module) contain a fluid accumulator to accomodate thermal expansion of the system. Other element coolant loops are parasitic (i.e. Airlock), have no accumulator, and require an alternative approach to insure that the system maximum design pressure (MDP) is not exceeded during the Launch to Activation (LTA) phase. During this time the element loops is a stand alone closed system. The solution approach for accomodating thermal expansion was affected by interactions of system components and their particular limitations. The mathematical solution approach was challenged by the presence of certain unknown or not readily obtainable physical and thermodynamic characteristics of some system components and processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of a few of the solutions that evolved over time, a novel mathematical solution to eliminate some of the unknowns or derive the unknowns experimentally, and the testing and methods undertaken.

  13. Assessment of atmospheric trace element concentrations by lichen-bag near an oil/gas pre-treatment plant in the Agri Valley (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, R.; Trippetta, S.; Sabia, S.

    2015-02-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of 17 trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn) were measured by means of the "lichen-bag" technique in the Agri Valley (southern Italy). The lichen samples were collected from an unpolluted site located in Rifreddo forest (southern Italy), about 30 km away from the study area along the north direction. The bags were exposed to ambient air for 6 and 12 months. The exposed-to-control (EC) ratio values highlighted that the used lichen species were suitable for biomonitoring investigations. The results showed that the concentrations of almost all the examined trace elements increased with respect to the control after 6-12-month exposures. Furthermore, Ca, Al, Fe, K, Mg and S were the most abundant trace elements both in the 6-month and 12-month-exposed samples. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) results highlighted that the major sources of the measured atmospheric trace elements were related both to anthropogenic contributions due to traffic, combustion processes agricultural practices, construction and quarrying activities, and to natural contributions mainly represented by the re-suspension of local soil and road dusts. In addition, the contribution both of secondary atmospheric reactions involving Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA) plant emissions and the African dust long-range transport were also identified.

  14. Assessment of atmospheric trace element concentrations by lichen-bag near an oil/gas pre-treatment plant in the Agri Valley (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Caggiano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric concentrations of 17 trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn were measured by means of the "lichen-bag" technique in the Agri Valley (southern Italy. The lichen samples were collected from an unpolluted site located in Rifreddo forest (southern Italy. The bags were exposed to ambient air for 6 and 12 months. The exposed-to-control (EC ratio values highlighted that the used lichen species were suitable for biomonitoring investigations. The results showed that the concentrations of almost all the examined trace elements increased with respect to the control after 6–12 month exposures. Furthermore, Ca, Al, Fe, K, Mg and S were the most abundant trace elements both in the 6 and 12 month-exposed samples. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA results highlighted that the major sources of the measured atmospheric trace elements were related both to anthropogenic contributions due to traffic, combustion processes, agricultural practices, construction and quarrying activities, and to natural contributions mainly represented by the re-suspension of local soil and road dusts. In addition, the contribution both of secondary atmospheric reactions involving Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA plant emissions and the African dust long-range transport were also identified.

  15. Rare earth elements upon assessment of reasons of the geophagy in Sikhote-Alin region (Russian Federation), Africa and other world regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichev, Alexander M; Popov, Vladimir K; Chekryzhov, Igor Yu; Seryodkin, Ivan V; Stolyarova, Tatiana A; Zakusin, Sergey V; Sergievich, Alexandr A; Khoroshikh, Pavel P

    2016-12-01

    Rocks eaten by wild animals on the Bolshoy Shanduyskiy kudur in the Sikhote-Alin region (Russian Federation) are zeolite-clay mineral complexes-products of weathering of zeolitized vitric tuffs of rhyolite composition, deposited in aqueous medium within the volcanic caldera of about 55 million years ago. By composition of rock-forming oxides, the tuffs refer to high-potassium calc-alkaline series. In trace elements of most favorite kudurites of the Bolshoy Shanduyskiy kudur, there are significantly increased contents of most of rare earth elements (2-5 times in comparison with surrounding rocks). The results of our analysis of geological and geochemical data on kudurs and kudurites in another part of the Sikhote-Alin, as well as on other regions of the world (particularly, in Africa and Indonesia), taking into account new data on the prevalence of rare earth elements in living matter and their medical and biological properties, enable us to consider the version of causal connection of the geophagy with rare earth elements.

  16. Geochemical soil survey of the Netherlands. Atlas of major and trace elements in topsoil and parent material; assessment of natural and anthropegenic enrichment factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, G. van der

    2006-01-01

    Geochemical surveying is a generic tool to provide high quality, multi-element databases of the Earth’s surface compartments such as soil, sediment, and stream water. Such databases are not only an essential component of environmental knowledge, but also of relevance to other fields such as spatial

  17. Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a multi-element contaminated soil profile assessed by in-situ soil pore water sampling, column leaching and sequential extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beesley, Luke, E-mail: l.beesley@2007.ljmu.ac.u [Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo [Departamento de Quimica Agricola, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Clemente, Rafael [Dep. of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, PO Box 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain); Lepp, Nicholas; Dickinson, Nicholas [Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Three methods for predicting element mobility in soils have been applied to an iron-rich soil, contaminated with arsenic, cadmium and zinc. Soils were collected from 0 to 30 cm, 30 to 70 cm and 70 to 100 cm depths in the field and soil pore water was collected at different depths from an adjacent 100 cm deep trench. Sequential extraction and a column leaching test in the laboratory were compared to element concentrations in pore water sampled directly from the field. Arsenic showed low extractability, low leachability and occurred at low concentrations in pore water samples. Cadmium and zinc were more labile and present in higher concentrations in pore water, increasing with soil depth. Pore water sampling gave the best indication of short term element mobility when field conditions were taken into account, but further extraction and leaching procedures produced a fuller picture of element dynamics, revealing highly labile Cd deep in the soil profile. - Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a polluted soil can be realistically interpreted by in-situ soil pore water sampling.

  18. Some contradictions in contemporary assessment acrobatic elements used in the compositions of category "B-Class" in acrobatic rock'n'roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Lutsenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determine the impact of an innovative approach to improve the special physical and technical training of qualified athletes in acrobatic rock'n'roll. Material and Methods: theoretical analysis and synthesis of the literature, the competition rules, policy papers and documents catalog acrobatic elements "in class". The basic material for analysis was the changes to the 2014 WRRC, judging changes in their sport. Results: studied the catalog acrobatic elements "B-Class" (version 2 WRRC from 14.09.2014, reviewed and analyzed the results of stronger pairs category "B-class" in acrobatic rock'n'roll (World Cup, Russia, Sochi, Russia. The analysis of the requirements of execution of acrobatic elements. Conclusions: these findings demonstrate the need for an innovative approach to improve the special physical and technical training athletes acrobatic rock and roll category "B-Сlass". The difficulty level of acrobatic elements in acrobatic rock 'n' roll should be differential with respect to each of the age groups in their strict sequence the category "juniors" – "in-class" and "M-class".

  19. Assessment of trace elements, POPs, (210)Po and stable isotopes ((15)N and (13)C) in a rare filter-feeding shark: The megamouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Jailson Fulgencio de; Merico, Agostino; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; Silva, Josilene; Seixas, Tércia Guedes; Godoy, José Marcus de Oliveira; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana Dillenburg; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Reis, Estéfane Cardinot; Tavares, Davi Castro; Lemos, Leila Soledade; Siciliano, Salvatore

    2015-06-15

    With less than 60 records being reported worldwide, the megamouth (Megachasma pelagios) is today one of the least known shark species inhabiting our oceans. Therefore, information concerning the biology and ecology of this enigmatic organism is very scarce and limited to feeding behaviour and preferred habitat. The present work reports new data on the concentrations of trace elements, organic mercury, POPs and (210)Po in hepatic and muscular tissues of a specimen found stranded in the southeastern coast of Brazil. Additionally, we provide new evidence based on stable isotope analysis (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) confirming the preference for the pelagic habitat and the zooplanktivorous feeding behaviour of the megamouth. These results are consistent with the low concentrations of organic pollutant compounds and other elements measured in our samples.

  20. Plant-beneficial elements status assessment in soil-plant system in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex: shedding light on forage grass safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2015-02-01

    Human health is closely linked with soils via plants, grazers, or plant-based products. This study estimated plant-beneficial elements (macronutrients: K, P; secondary macronutrients: Ca, Mg; micronutrients: Mo, Mn, Na, Ni, Se) in both soils and shoots of two forage grass species (Eriophorum angustifolium and Lolium perenne) prevalent in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex (Estarreja, Portugal). Both soils and plants from the chemical industrial areas exhibited differential concentrations of the studied elements. In soils, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in context of its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except P, and micronutrients such as Mo and Ni. In forage grass plant shoots, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in relation to its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except K. Between the two forage grass plants, high Se-harboring L. perenne cannot be recommended for its use as animal feed.

  1. The Assessment of Properties of the Information Flow in the Subsystem «The Measuring Sensor – The Processing Element»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaev Victor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed the scope and types of automated information systems containing subsystems of the “measuring sensor – element processing”. On the basis of the Queuing theory a model of evaluating the properties of information flow in the subsystem. The time spent by the sensor data generation and processing time of the output data array to the processing elements described by an arbitrary distribution law. Using little’s formula the analytical solution allows to estimate the required level of performance of the subsystem. The research of the obtained solution in the range of parameters of interest. On the basis of General theoretical solutions identified four private practical case, different values of the coefficients of variation of information flows.

  2. Assessment of macro-micro element accumulation capabilities of Elodea nuttallii under gradient redox statuses with elevated NH4-N concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, Tanjeena; ASAEDA, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic plants often encounter various redox conditions in their natural environment. Elodea nuttallii (Planch.), a submerged aquatic macrophyte, has a flexile ability to use different nutrient sources from various environments. In the present study, Elodea nuttallii was subjected to various redox conditions (+400 mV to –180 mV) at both normal (2.5 ppm) and high (10 ppm) ammonium concentrations and evaluated for macro and micro element accumulation. A reduced environment was prepared by addin...

  3. Toxic trace element assessment for soils/sediments deposited during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita from southern Louisiana, USA: a sequential extraction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Honglan; Witt, Emitt C; Shu, Shi; Su, Tingzhi; Wang, Jianmin; Adams, Craig

    2010-07-01

    Analysis of soil/sediment samples collected in the southern Louisiana, USA, region three weeks after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita passed was performed using sequential extraction procedures to determine the origin, mode of occurrence, biological availability, mobilization, and transport of trace elements in the environment. Five fractions: exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to iron (Fe)-manganese (Mn) oxides, bound to organic matter, and residual, were subsequently extracted. The toxic trace elements Pb, As, V, Cr, Cu, and Cd were analyzed in each fraction, together with Fe in 51 soil/sediment samples. Results indicated that Pb and As were at relatively high concentrations in many of the soil/sediment samples. Because the forms in which Pb and As are present tend to be highly mobile under naturally occurring environmental conditions, these two compounds pose an increased health concern.Vanadium and Cr were mostly associated with the crystal line nonmobile residual fraction. A large portion of the Cu was associated with organic matter and residual fraction. Cadmium concentrations were low in all soil/sediment samples analyzed and most of this element tended to be associated with the mobile fractions. An average of 21% of the Fe was found in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction, indicating that a substantial part of the Fe was in an oxidized form. The significance of the overall finding of the present study indicated that the high concentrations and high availabilities of the potentially toxic trace elements As and Pb may impact the environment and human health in southern Louisiana and, in particular, the New Orleans area. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  4. Heavy metal and trace element contents in edible muscle of three commercial fish species, and assessment of possible risks associated with their human consumption in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three different highly consumed fish species from Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia namely Spangled emporer (Lethriuns nebulosus, Red striped seabream (Pagrus major and Black seabream (Spondyliosoma cantharus were evaluated for their muscle contents of heavy metals (e.g., Cd and Pb and trace elements (e.g., Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. The possible risks associated with their human consumption were also studied. A total of 60 fresh fish samples comprising of 20 samples from each above mentioned fish were collected, and were subjected for determination of heavy metal and trace element contents by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry after Microwave Wet Digestion. The results showed that, accumulation patterns of the heavy metals and trace elements followed the order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. There were variations among metal contents in the muscles of the three fish species; S. cantharus accumulated the highest levels of Cu, Zn and Mn, while the highest level of Fe could be detected in the muscles of P. major. The concentration of Cd and Pb remained comparable in the muscles of all three fish species. The calculated maximum daily intake (MDI values were found as 0.0003, 0.0009, 0.0035, 0.0001, 0.0000, 0.0000 mg/day/person for Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd and Pb, respectively. Conclusively, the present study indicated that, fish muscles contain relatively less burden of heavy metals and trace elements, and no health problem can be raised from human consumption of the examined commercial fishes at Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 271-278

  5. Dispersion and bioaccumulation of elements from an open-pit olivine mine in Southwest Greenland assessed using lichens, seaweeds, mussels and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated dispersion and bioaccumulation of mining-related elements from an open-pit olivine mine at Seqi in Southwest Greenland (64° N) using lichens (Flavocetraria nivalis), seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and fish (Myoxocephalus scorpius). The mine operated between 2005 and 2009, and samples were taken every year within a monitoring area 0-17 km from the mine during the period 2004-2011. A total of 46 elements were analysed in the samples. After mining began, highly elevated metal concentrations, especially nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co), were observed in lichens relative to pre-mining levels (up to a factor of 130) caused by dust dispersion from the mining activity. Elevated metal concentrations could be measured in lichens in distances up to ~5 km from the mine/ore treatment facility. Moderately elevated concentrations of Ni and Cr (up to a factor of 7) were also observed in seaweeds and mussels but only in close vicinity (mine. Analyses of fish showed no significant changes in element composition. After mine closure, the elevated metal concentrations in lichens, seaweeds and mussels decreased markedly, and in 2011, significantly elevated metal concentrations could only be measured in lichens and only within a distance of 1 km from the mine.

  6. Assessment of Trace Element Levels in Muscle Tissues of Fish Species Collected from a River, Stream, Lake, and Sea in Sakarya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Küpeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of some trace and essential elements, including Al, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn, were determined in 17 different fish species from Sakarya River, Çark Stream, Sapanca Lake, and Western Black Sea using ICP-OES after microwave (MW digestion procedure. During preparation of samples for analysis, wet and MW digestion methods were also compared. Accuracy of the digestion methods was checked by the analysis of DORM-3 reference material (Fish Protein Certified Reference Material for Trace Metals. Concentrations of trace elements were found as Al: 6.5–48.5, B: 0.06–3.30, Ba: 0.09–2.92, Cr: 0.02–1.64, Cu: 0.13–2.28, Fe: 7.28–39.9, Mn: 0.08–11.4, Ni: 0.01–26.1, Sr: 0.17–13.5, and Zn: 11.5–52.9 µg g−1. The obtained results were compared with other studies published in the literature. Trace element levels in various fish species collected from waters in Sakarya region were found to be below limit values provided by Turkish Food Codex (TFC, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, and World Health Organization (WHO.

  7. Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoff Brindley

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction TERMINOLOGY AND KEY CONCEPTS The term assessment refers to a variety of ways of collecting information on a learner's language ability or achievement. Although testing and assessment are often used interchangeably, the latter is an umbrella term encompassing measurement instruments administered on a ‘one-off’ basis such as tests, as well as qualitative methods of monitoring and recording student learning such as observation, simulations of project work. Assessment is also distinguished from evaluation which is concerned with the overall language programme and not just with what individual students have learnt. Proficiency assessment refers to the assessment of general language abilities acquired by the learner independent of a course of study.This kind of assessment is often done through the administration of standardised commercial language-proficency tests. On the other hand, assessment of achievement aims to establish what a student had learned in relation to a particular course or curriculum (thus frequently carried out by the teacher) .Achievement assesssment may be based either on the specific content of the course or on the course objectives (Hughes 1989).

  8. Environmental Risk Assessment Based on High-Resolution Spatial Maps of Potentially Toxic Elements Sampled on Stream Sediments of Santiago, Cape Verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina M. S. Cabral Pinto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical mapping is the base knowledge to identify the regions of the planet with critical contents of potentially toxic elements from either natural or anthropogenic sources. Sediments, soils and waters are the vehicles which link the inorganic environment to life through the supply of essential macro and micro nutrients. The chemical composition of surface geological materials may cause metabolic changes which may favor the occurrence of endemic diseases in humans. In order to better understand the relationships between environmental geochemistry and public health, we present environmental risk maps of some harmful elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in the stream sediments of Santiago, Cape Verde, identifying the potentially harmful areas in this island. The Estimated Background Values (EBV of Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and V were found to be above the Canadian guidelines for any type of use of stream sediments and also above the target values of the Dutch and United States guidelines. The Probably Effect Concentrations (PEC, above which harmful effects are likely in sediment dwelling organisms, were found for Cr and Ni. Some associations between the geological formations of the island and the composition of stream sediments were identified and confirmed by descriptive statistics and by Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The EBV spatial distribution of the metals and the results of PCA allowed us to establish relationships between the EBV maps and the geological formations. The first two PCA modes indicate that heavy metals in Santiago stream sediments are mainly originated from weathering of underlying bedrocks. The first metal association (Co, V, Cr, and Mn; first PCA mode consists of elements enriched in basic rocks and compatible elements. The second association of variables (Zn and Cd as opposed to Ni; second PCA mode appears to be strongly controlled by the composition of alkaline volcanic rocks and pyroclastic rocks. So, the

  9. Environmental exposures of trace elements assessed using keratinized matrices from patients with chronic kidney diseases of uncertain etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diyabalanage, Saranga; Fonseka, Sanjeewani; Dasanayake, D M S N B; Chandrajith, Rohana

    2017-01-01

    An alarming increase in chronic kidney disease with unknown etiology (CKDu) has recently been reported in several provinces in Sri Lanka and chronic exposures to toxic trace elements were blamed for the etiology of this disease. Keratinized matrices such as hair and nails were investigated to determine the possible link between CKDu and toxic element exposures. Elements Li, B, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Ba, Hg and Pb of hair and nails of patients and age that matched healthy controls were determined with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that trace element contents in the hair of patients varies in the order of Zn>Fe>Al>Mn>Cu>Ba>Sr>Ni>Pb>Cr>B>Hg>Se>Mo>Co>As>Li>Cd while Fe>Al>Zn>Ni>Cu>Mn>Cr>Ba>Sr>B>Pb>Se>Mo>Co>Hg>Li>As>Cd in nail samples. The hair As levels of 0.007-0.165μgg(-1) were found in CKDu subjects. However, no significant difference was observed between cases and controls. The total Se content in hair of CKDu subjects ranged from 0.043 to 0.513μgg(-1) while it was varied from 0.031 to 1.15μgg(-1) in controls. Selenium in nail samples varied from 0.037μgg(-1) to 4.10μgg(-1) in CKDu subjects and from 0.042μgg(-1) to 2.19μgg(-1) in controls. This study implies that substantial proportions of Sri Lankan population are Se deficient irrespective of gender, age and occupational exposure. Although some cutaneous manifestations were observed in patient subjects, chemical analyses of hair and nails indicated that patients were not exposed to toxic levels of arsenic or the other studied toxic elements. Therefore the early suggested causative factors such as exposure to environmental As and Cd, can be ruled out. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Transboundary geophysical mapping of geological elements and salinity distribution critical for the assessment of future sea water intrusion in response to sea level rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, F.; Scheer, W.; Thomsen, S.

    2012-01-01

    revealed. The mapped salinity distribution indicates preferential flow paths through and along specific geological structures within the area. The effects of a future sea level rise on the groundwater system and groundwater chemistry are discussed with special emphasis on the importance of knowing....../freshwater boundary and the chemical status of groundwater. Although the westernmost part of the study area along the North Sea coast is saturated with saline water and the TEM data therefore are strongly influenced by the increased electrical conductivity there, buried valleys and other geological elements are still...

  11. Assessment of the behavior of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in soil from the Sarno River Basin through a compositional data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Thiombane; Vivo Benedetto, De; Albanese, Stefano; Martín-Fernández, Josep-Antoni; Lima, Annamaria; Doherty, Angela

    2017-04-01

    The Sarno River Basin (south-west Italy), nestled between the Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex and the limestone formations of the Campania-Apennine Chain, is one of the most polluted river basins in Europe due to a high rate of industrialization and intensive agriculture. Water from the Sarno River, which is heavily contaminated by the discharge of human and industrial waste, is partially used for irrigation on the agricultural fields surrounding it. We apply compositional data analysis on 319 samples collected during two field campaigns along the river course, and throughout the basin, to determine the level and potential origin (anthropogenic and/or geogenic) of the potentially toxic elements (PTEs). The concentrations of 53 elements determined by ICP-MS, and were subsequently log-transformed. Using a clr-biplot and principal factor analysis, the variability and the correlations between a subset of extracted variables (26 elements) were identified. Using both normalized raw data and clr-transformed coordinates, factor association interpolated maps were generated to better visualize the distribution and potential sources of the PTEs in the Sarno Basin. The underlying geology substrata appear to be associated with raised of levels of Na, K, P, Rb, Ba, V, Co, B, Zr, and Li, due to the presence of pyroclastic rocks from Mt. Somma-Vesuvius. Similarly, elevated Pb, Zn, Cd, and Hg concentrations are most likely related to both geological and anthropogenic sources, the underlying volcanic rocks and contamination from fossil fuel combustion associated with urban centers. Interpolated factors score maps and clr-biplot indicate a clear correlation between Ni and Cr in samples taken along the Sarno River, and Ca and Mg near the Solofra district. After considering nearby anthropogenic sources, the Ni and Cr are PTEs from the Solofra tannery industry, while Ca and Mg correlate to the underlying limestone-rich soils of the area. This study shows the applicability of the

  12. Structured Analysis of the Logistic Support Analysis (LSA) Task, ’Integrated Logistic Support (ILS) Assessment Maintenance Planning E-1 Element’ (APJ 966-204)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    Preliminary Maintenance Allocation Chart ( PMAC ) or his Maintenance Allocation Chart (MAC), (subsequently identified as (P)MAC). Although the (B)MC should drive...process which are stored in the maintenance assessment file. SUBASS/ PMAC SUBASBESMENT SUBASSESSNENT OF (P)MAC COMPATIBILITY WITH (B)MP OF (P) MAC...from the El.Al process ASS/STRU/ PMAC ASSESSMUT OF ASSESSMENT OF STRUCTURAL CONSISTENCY OF (P)MAC TO (B)M STRCTURAL CONSISTENCY FIELD INFORMATION;TYPE

  13. Contribution to assessing the stiffness reduction of structural elements in the global stability analysis of precast concrete multi-storey buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Marin

    Full Text Available This study deals with the reduction of the stiffness in precast concrete structural elements of multi-storey buildings to analyze global stability. Having reviewed the technical literature, this paper present indications of stiffness reduction in different codes, standards, and recommendations and compare these to the values found in the present study. The structural model analyzed in this study was constructed with finite elements using ANSYS® software. Physical Non-Linearity (PNL was considered in relation to the diagrams M x N x 1/r, and Geometric Non-Linearity (GNL was calculated following the Newton-Raphson method. Using a typical precast concrete structure with multiple floors and a semi-rigid beam-to-column connection, expressions for a stiffness reduction coefficient are presented. The main conclusions of the study are as follows: the reduction coefficients obtained from the diagram M x N x 1/r differ from standards that use a simplified consideration of PNL; the stiffness reduction coefficient for columns in the arrangements analyzed were approximately 0.5 to 0.6; and the variation of values found for stiffness reduction coefficient in concrete beams, which were subjected to the effects of creep with linear coefficients from 0 to 3, ranged from 0.45 to 0.2 for positive bending moments and 0.3 to 0.2 for negative bending moments.

  14. Assessment of the traffic-related elements Ba, Cr and Zn during and after the construction of a peripheral highway using Tillandsia usneoides as atmospheric biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nievola, Catarina C.; Alves, Edenise S.; Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: ccnievola@uol.com.br, E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.br, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br [Instituto de Botanica de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. is an aerial epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substratum, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment. Due to this characteristic, this species also accumulates pollutants present in the atmosphere. In this study, T. usneoides was used as biomonitor aiming to verify if the construction of the western and southern parts of the peripheral highway Mario Covas (SP-21) in Sao Paulo city would alter the profile of atmospheric contamination by Ba, Cr and Zn in the region. These elements are often associated with traffic and can indicate contaminated urban areas. This knowledge is of great interest to the city, which has one of the biggest vehicle fleets in the world, with more than seven million circulating motor vehicles and serious environmental problems due to air pollution. Neutron Activation Analysis was employed as analytical technique. Samples of T. usneoides were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the induced activity was measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Increasing concentrations of Ba, Cr and Zn were observed in the biomonitor after the inauguration of the highway, indicating that these elements originated from vehicular emissions. (author)

  15. Distribution and mobility of heavy elements in floodplain agricultural soils along the Ibar River (Southern Serbia and Northern Kosovo). Chemometric investigation of pollutant sources and ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barać, Nemanja; Škrivanj, Sandra; Bukumirić, Zoran; Živojinović, Dragana; Manojlović, Dragan; Barać, Milan; Petrović, Rada; Ćorac, Aleksandar

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the influence of a high-magnitude flood event on heavy elements (HEs) pollution and mobility in the agricultural soils along Ibar River in Southern Serbia and Northern Kosovo. The study area was one of the most important Pb/Zn industrial regions in Europe. Soil samples (n = 50) collected before and after the floods in May 2014 were subjected to the sequential extraction procedure proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). The results indicated that the floods significantly increased not only the pseudo total concentrations of HEs in the soil but also their mobile and potentially bioavailable amounts. Moreover, higher concentrations (both pseudo total and potentially bioavailable) were found in the agricultural soils closer to the industrial hotspots. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis successfully grouped the analyzed elements according to their anthropogenic or natural origin. The floods significantly increased the potential ecological risk of HEs associated with Pb/Zn industrial activities in the study area. The potential ecological risk of Cd after the floods was highest and should be of special concern.

  16. Assessing the Assessment Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRue, James

    1989-01-01

    Describes the historical use of assessment centers as staff development and promotional tools and their current use in personnel selection. The elements that constitute a true assessment center are outlined, and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages for employers and applicants focuses on positions in library administration. (10…

  17. NAA-SLR and ICP-AES application in the assessment of mass fraction of 19 chemical elements in pediatric and young adult prostate glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaichick, Vladimir; Zaichick, Sofia

    2013-12-01

    The effect of age on the mass fraction of 19 chemical elements in the intact prostate of 50 apparently healthy 0-30-year-old males was investigated by neutron activation analysis with high-resolution spectrometry of short-lived radionuclides and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Mean values (M ± standard error of the mean) for mass fraction (in milligrams per kilogram, on dry weight basis) of chemical elements were as follows: Al, 77 ± 17; B, 1.31 ± 0.29; Ba, 4.0 ± 1.2; Br, 37.7 ± 4.3; Ca, 1,536 ± 189; Cl, 13,414 ± 949; Cu, 12.3 ± 2.1; Fe, 132 ± 11; K, 11,547 ± 468; Li, 0.064 ± 0.009; Mg, 922 ± 89; Mn, 1.88 ± 0.16; Na, 9,834 ± 411; P, 6,741 ± 335; S, 8,034 ± 251; Si, 199 ± 34; Sr, 1.40 ± 0.19; and Zn, 277 ± 33. The upper limit of mean mass fraction of V was ≤0.24. This work revealed that there is significant tendency for the mass fractions of Ca, K, Mg, and Zn in the prostate tissue of healthy individuals to increase with age from the time of birth up to 30 years. It means that Ca, K, Mg, and Zn mass fractions in prostate tissue are the androgen-dependent parameters. Our finding of a positive correlation between the prostatic Zn and Ca, K, Mg, P, and S mass fractions indicates that there is a special relationship of Zn with some main electrolytes (Ca, K, and Mg) and with P- and S-containing compounds in the prostate. It was shown also that high levels of Al, B, Ba, Br, Cl, Li, Na, and Sr mass fraction in prostate tissue do not indicate a direct involvement of these elements in the reproductive function of the prostate.

  18. Assessment of 28 nm UTBB FD-SOI technology platform for RF applications: Figures of merit and effect of parasitic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Esfeh, B.; Kilchytska, V.; Barral, V.; Planes, N.; Haond, M.; Flandre, D.; Raskin, J.-P.

    2016-03-01

    This work provides a detailed study of 28 nm fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD-SOI) planar ultra-thin body and BOX (UTBB) MOSFETs for high frequency applications. All parasitic elements such as the parasitic gate and source/drain series resistances, total capacitances are extracted and their effects on RF performance are analyzed and compared with previous work on similar devices. Two main RF figures of merit (FoM) such as the current gain cut-off frequency (fT) and the maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) are determined. It is shown that fT of ∼280 GHz and fmax of ∼250 GHz are achievable in the shortest devices. Based on the extracted parameters, the validation of the small-signal equivalent circuit used for modeling UTBB MOSFETs is investigated by comparing simulated and measured S-parameters.

  19. Methodology to assess the mobility of trace elements between water and contaminated estuarine sediments as a function of the site physico-chemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Gredilla, Ainara; de Diego, Alberto; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2014-03-01

    This work presents an innovative methodology to have a rapid diagnosis about the mobility of selected trace elements of known toxicity and biological risk (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn and Zn) present in contaminated sediments. The novel strategy presented in this work uses, therefore, the own estuarine water in contact with sediments as the extracting agent to perform the mobility tests, simulating the real situation of the estuary. This water suffers from different physico-chemical conditions (low and high tides) and gives consequently, rather better information than the one obtained by the routine sequential extraction procedures. The final step of this methodology was the use of spatial modelling by kriging method and multivariate chemometric analysis, both for a better interpretation of the results. To achieve this goal, sediment and water samples were strategically collected at eight different points (four in tributary rivers, one in a closed dock, two in the main channel and another one in the mouth) along the Nerbioi-Ibaizabal River estuary (Metropolitan Bilbao, Basque Country) approximately every three months (summer, autumn, winter and spring) during a whole year. Physico-chemical changes, such as pH, carbonate content and organic matter of the sediments, together with variations in water salinity appear to be responsible for metal mobility from the sediment to the water layer. The influence of these variables was higher in the sites located close to the sea. Moreover, the mobility of trace elements was even higher at high tide in sediments with lower metal content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Mobile Genetic Elements from Microbial Assemblages Obtained from the Field Research Center Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Sobecky; Cassie Hodges; Kerri Lafferty; Mike Humphreys; Melanie Raimondo; Kristin Tuttle; Tamar Barkay

    2004-03-17

    Considerable knowledge has been gained from the intensive study of a relatively limited group of bacterial plasmids. Recent efforts have begun to focus on the characterization of, at the molecular level, plasmid populations and associated mobile genetic elements (e.g., transposons, integrons) occurring in a wider range of aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Surprisingly, however, little information is available regarding the incidence and distribution of mobile genetic elements extant in contaminated subsurface environments. Such studies will provide greater knowledge on the ecology of plasmids and their contributions to the genetic plasticity (and adaptation) of naturally occurring subsurface microbial communities. We requested soil cores from the DOE NABIR Field Research Center (FRC) located on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The cores, received in February 2003, were sampled from four areas on the Oak Ridge Site: Area 1, Area 2, Area 3 (representing contaminated subsurface locales) and the background reference sites. The average core length (24 in) was subdivided into three profiles and soil pH and moisture content were determined. Uranium concentration was also determined in bulk samples. Replicate aliquots were fixed for total cell counts and for bacterial isolation. Four different isolation media were used to culture aerobic and facultative microbes from these four study areas. Colony forming units ranged from a minimum of 100 per gram soil to a maximum of 10,000 irrespective of media composition used. The vast majority of cultured subsurface isolates were gram-positive isolates and plasmid characterization was conducted per methods routinely used in the Sobecky laboratory. The percentage of plasmid incidence ranged from 10% to 60% of all isolates tested. This frequency appears to be somewhat higher than the incidence of plasmids we have observed in other habitats and we are increasing the number of isolates screened to confirm this observation. We are also

  1. Circular economy: To be or not to be in a closed product loop? A Life Cycle Assessment of aluminium cans with inclusion of alloying elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2016-01-01

    Packaging, representing the second largest source of aluminium scrap at global level, deserves a key role in the transition towards the circular economy. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of aluminium products has been typically based on one life cycle considering pure aluminium flows and neglecting...

  2. 基于灰色物元分析法的导弹装备采办风险评估%Risk Assessment of Missile Equipment Acquisition Based on Grey Matter Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹翊天; 李彦彬; 吴振亚; 张斯嘉

    2015-01-01

    This paper established the assessment index system of missile equipment acquisition risk problems. It used grey theory and matter element analysis to build up the grey matter element analysis model for evaluating the risk for certain missile equipment. Then it gives the correlation coefficients of total acquisition risk with each evaluating grey-group and concluded assessment conclusion according to principle of maximum degree of membership. Finally,it verifies the feasibility of model and put forward suggestions for missile equipment acquisition.%对于导弹装备存在的采办风险问题,建立了导弹装备采办的评估指标体系。灰色理论与物元分析法相结合,构建了灰色物元模型,对某型导弹采办风险进行了评估,得出总的采办风险与各个评估灰类的关联系数,用最大隶属度原则得出评估结论。用实例验证了该模型的可行性,并对导弹装备的采办提出相应建议。

  3. Finite Element-Assisted Assessment of the Thermo-cyclic Characteristics of Leads Soldered with SnAgCu(+Bi,In) Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Adrian; Nakanishi, Kohei; Matsuda, Tomoki; Sano, Tomokazu; Minagawa, Madoka; Okamoto, Masahide; Hirose, Akio

    2017-03-01

    Solder joints between leads and printed circuit boards in thin small outline packages were produced with conventional Sn1.0Ag0.7Cu (SAC107) and Sn3.0Ag0.7Cu (SAC305) solders as well as various solder alloys with gradually increasing amounts of Bi (up to 3.0 wt.%) and In (up to 1.0 wt.%) within the SAC107 base solder. The reliability of soldered leads in temperature cycle (TC) tests improved most with solder alloys containing both Bi (1.6 wt.%) and In (0.5 wt.%). Microindentation and electron probe microanalysis mappings revealed that the effect originates from a combination of solution and precipitation strengthening of the initial SAC alloy. The distribution of inelastic strain accumulation (ISA), as a measure for degradation, was determined in the solder joints by finite element calculations. It was shown that defects in the solder proximal to the lead (60-75 μm), which was underpinned by similar cracking characteristics along the lead-solder interface. The ISA was confirmed to be lower in SAC+Bi/In alloys owing to their enhanced elasto-plastic properties. Moreover, the addition of a thin Cu coating on the leads could improve the joint reliability, as suggested by the calculation of the ISA and the acceleration factor.

  4. Concentration of heavy metals and trace elements in soils, waters and vegetables and assessment of health risk in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noli, Fotini, E-mail: noli@chem.auth.gr; Tsamos, Panagiotis, E-mail: pktsamos@chem.auth.gr

    2016-09-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils, waters and products in the regions of lignite mines and fired power plants is of great importance. The concentration of As, Βa, Co, Cr, Sr, Sc, Th, U, Zn in soils and waters in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant in Northern Greece was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The determination frequency was every three months during a period of one year in order to evaluate the seasonal impact of the pollution to the environment. Measurements were performed in three locations around the lignite mine as well as in one reference location at a certain distance from the mine. The results, which exhibited a slight seasonal variation, were compared, where possible, with literature values from other countries. The obtained data in most of the cases did not exceed the normal levels and indicated that the investigated area was only slightly contaminated. The concentration of heavy and trace metals was also measured in three common garden crops (tomato, cucumber and parsley) grown in this area. The calculated transfer factors (TF) from soil to vegetables and health risk quotients (HQ) do not denote a health risk. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation of heavy metals concentrations in soils and waters in a lignite mining area. • The elevated concentrations detected by NAA indicating minor contamination of the studied area. • Determination of minor and trace elements in vegetables. • The transfer factors and health risk quotients indicating a possible slight contamination in the area.

  5. Assessing the chemical behavior and spatial distribution of yttrium and rare earth elements (YREEs) in a coastal aquifer adjacent to the Urmia Hypersaline Lake, NW Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Nassim; Kalantari, Nasrollah; Amiri, Vahab; Nakhaei, Mohammad

    2017-07-15

    This study aims to shed light on the seasonal behavior of yttrium and rare earth elements (YREEs) in the Urmia Aquifer (UA), in the immediate vicinity of Urmia Lake (UL) in Iran. Samples of groundwater, collected under dry and wet conditions in coastal wells of UA, suggest a large degree of variability in both YREE abundance and normalized patterns. Although weathering or water-rock interactions (between the surface/groundwater and rock samples) were predicted to be the most probable source in explaining YREEs in groundwater samples, results to the contrary indicate that the groundwater do not inherit aquifer rock-like YREE signatures in the study area; this might be due to the relative stability of YREEs during the process of water-rock interactions, which suggest that methods based on YREEs can be beneficial in discrimination of water sources. Furthermore, findings demonstrated no significant relationship between Ce/Ce* and salinity (0.08 and 0.05 in wet and dry seasons, respectively), and between Eu/Eu* and salinity (0.1 and -0.04 in wet and dry seasons, respectively). Dissimilarity of patterns of YREEs in rock and water samples reveals YREEs as no conservative tracers in determining the UL saltwater intrusion into coastal groundwater. Therefore, the groundwater YREE concentrations and fractionation patterns in UA warrant controlling by coastal aquifer need to be controlled by other chemical weathering, adsorption, desorption, and solution complexation reactions. Finally, comparison of REE concentration values in groundwater samples with corresponding indicative admissible drinking water concentrations (IAC) demonstrated their suitability for drinking purposes.

  6. Arsenic and other trace elements in groundwater and human urine in Ha Nam province, the Northern Vietnam: contamination characteristics and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Long Hai; Nguyen, Hue Thi; Van Tran, Cuong; Nguyen, Ha Manh; Nguyen, Tung Hoang; Tu, Minh Binh

    2017-06-01

    The contamination characteristics of arsenic and other trace elements in groundwater and the potential risks of arsenic from the groundwater were investigated. Elevated contamination of arsenic, barium and manganese was observed in tube-well water of two villages (Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang) in Ha Nam province in the Northern Vietnam. Concentrations of As in the groundwater ranged from 12.8 to 884 µg/L with mean values in Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were 614.7 and 160.1 µg/L, respectively. About 83 % of these samples contained As concentrations exceeding WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg/L. The mean values of Mn and Ba in groundwater from Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were 300 and 657 μg/L and 650 and 468 μg/L, respectively. The mean value of Ba concentration in groundwater in both Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang was about 22 % of the samples exceeded the WHO guideline (700 µg/L). Arsenic concentrations in human urine of residents from Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were the range from 8.6 to 458 µg/L. The mean values of Mn and Ba in human urine of local people from Chuyen Ngoai were 46.9 and 62.8 μg/L, respectively, while those in people from Chau Giang were 25.9 and 45.9 μg/L, respectively. The average daily dose from ingesting arsenic for consuming both untreated and treated groundwater is from 0.02 to 11.5 and 0.003 to 1.6 μg/kg day, respectively. Approximately, 57 % of the families using treated groundwater and 64 % of the families using untreated groundwater could be affected by elevated arsenic exposure.

  7. Micro- and nano-environments of C sequestration in soil: a multi-elemental STXM-NEXAFS assessment of black C and organomineral associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Dawit; Lehmann, Johannes; Wang, Jian; Kinyangi, James; Heymann, Karen; Lu, Yingshen; Wirick, Sue; Jacobsen, Chris

    2012-11-01

    Black C is an essential component of the terrestrial C pool and its formation is often credited as a CO(2) sink by transferring the fast-cycling C from the atmosphere-biosphere system into slower cycling C in the geosphere. This study is the first multi-element K- (C, N, Ca, Fe, Al and Si) soft-X-ray STXM-NEXAFS investigation conducted at a submicron-scale spatial resolution specifically targeting black C and its interaction with the mineral and non-black C organic matter in the organomineral assemblage. The STXM-NEXAFS micrographs and spectra demonstrated that pyrogenic C was dominated by quinoide, aromatic, phenol, ketone, alcohol, carboxylic and hydroxylated- and ether-linked C species. There was also evidence for the presence of pyridinic, pyridonic, pyrrolic, amine and nitril N functionalities. The non-black C organic matter contained amino acids, amino sugars, nucleic acids and polysaccharides known to exhibit negatively charged carboxylic, phenolic, enolic, thiolate and phosphate functionalities highly reactive towards metal ions and black C. The metal-rich mineral matrix was composed of phyllosilicate clay minerals, Fe and Al hydroxypolycations, oxides, hydroxides and oxyhydroxide that can attract and bind organic biopolymers. STXM-NEXAFS provided evidence for interactive association between pyrogenic C, non-black C organic matter and the mineral oxide and oxyhydroxide communities in the organomineral interface. These intimate associations occurred through a "two-way" direct linkage between black C and the mineral or non-black C organic matter or via a "three-way" indirect association where non-black C organic matter could serve as a molecular cross-linking agent binding black C with the mineral matrix or vice versa where inorganic oxides, hydroxides and polycations could act as a bridge to bind black C with non-black C organic matter. The binding and sequestration of black C in the investigated micro- and nano-C repository environments seem to be the

  8. Discrete Element Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  9. [Preliminary elements for assessing a French program implemented in 2004 establishing cannabis clinics for young users: outpatients' profiles of use and monitoring individual care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivana, Obradovic

    2009-01-01

    Since its launch at the end of 2004, the cannabis clinics for young users (CCYU) system has offered support for young users of cannabis or other psychoactive substances and for their families. The aim of the present study is to describe the outpatients' profiles, assess the response and support offered to them, and understand the individual self-help trajectories that were initiated within this setting. The analyses are based on a sample of 3,788 people, 78% of which are substance users--mainly of cannabis (92%). The survey results show a predominance of men (81%), young adults (57%) and clients referred by the criminal justice system (48%). Approximately 40% are cannabis smokers on a daily basis. The study differentiates the various user profiles according to the sources of patient referral. When exploring the facilitating factors presumed to influence the likelihood of successful attempts to reduce cannabis use in the short term, the study provides insight into the principle of therapeutic compliance, by identifying some essential requirements for reducing the risk of drop out at the early stages of treatment.

  10. Human Health Risk Assessment and Safety Threshold of Harmful Trace Elements in the Soil Environment of the Wulantuga Open-Cast Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Jia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soil samples were collected from a large-scale open-cast coal mine area in Inner Mongolia, China. Arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, beryllium (Be and nickel (Ni in soil samples were detected using novel collision/reaction cell technology (CCT with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; collectively ICP-CCT-MS after closed-vessel microwave digestion. Human health risk from As, Cd, Be and Ni was assessed via three exposure pathways—inhalation, skin contact and soil particle ingestion. The comprehensive carcinogenic risk from As in Wulantuga open-cast coal mine soil is 6.29–87.70-times the acceptable risk, and the highest total hazard quotient of As in soils in this area can reach 4.53-times acceptable risk levels. The carcinogenic risk and hazard quotient of Cd, Be and Ni are acceptable. The main exposure route of As from open-cast coal mine soils is soil particle ingestion, accounting for 76.64% of the total carcinogenic risk. Considering different control values for each exposure pathway, the minimum control value (1.59 mg/kg could be selected as the strict reference safety threshold for As in the soil environment of coal-chemical industry areas. However, acceptable levels of carcinogenic risk are not unanimous; thus, the safety threshold identified here, calculated under a 1.00 × 10−6 acceptable carcinogenic risk level, needs further consideration.

  11. Environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, M C; Tennant, J

    1997-11-01

    The significance, standard elements, components, and documentation of an environmental assessment in home care are discussed. This assessment is delineated within Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and from a functional perspective. An Environmental Assessment Form that can be used as a documentation tool is included.

  12. Determination of Trace Elements in Marine Cetaceans by ICP-MS and Health Risk Assessment%ICP-MS 法测定海洋鲸豚的微量元素及其健康风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁玉龙; 宁曦; 桂端; 莫辉; 李育森; 吴玉萍

    2015-01-01

    The liver,kidney and muscle samples from seven cetaceans were digested by microwave digestion,and trace elements amounts of V,Cd,Cu,Zn,As,Cr,Ni,Mn,Se,Hg and Pb were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS),and the health risk assessment for Zn,Cu,Cd,Hg,Se in the liver was conducted.The results of international lob-ster hepatopancreas standard (TORT-2)showed acceptable agreement with the certified values,and the relative standard devia-tion (RSD)of eleven kinds of trace elements were less than 3.54%,showing that the method is suitable for the determination of trace elements in cetaceans.The experimental results indicated that different tissues and organs of the dolphins had different trace elements,presenting the tissue specificity.There is a certain inter-species difference among different dolphins about the bioaccumulation ability of the trace elements.The distribution of trace elements in whales presented a certain regularity:the con-tents of most elements in liver,kidney were much higher than the contents of muscle tissues,Cu,Mn,Hg,Se,and Zn exhibit the higher concentrations in liver,while Cd was mainly accumulated in kidney.And according to the health risk assessment in liver,the exceeding standardrate of selenium and copper in seven kinds of whales was 100%,suggesting that these whales were suffering the contamination of trace elements.The experimental results is instructive to the study of trace elements in cetaceans, while this is the first report for the concentrations in organs of Striped dolphin,Bottlenose dolphin,Fraser’s Dolphin and Risso’ s dolphin in China,it may provide us valuable data for the conservation of cetaceans.%建立了微波消解电感耦合等离子质谱(ICP-MS)法测定珠江口水域搁浅的七种不同鲸豚肌肉,肝脏和肾脏中的 V,Cr,Cu,Zn,As,Cd,Ni,Mn,Se,Hg,Pb 等11种微量元素的分析方法,并对七种鲸豚肝脏中的 Zn,Cu,Cd,Hg,Se 五种元素进

  13. Matter Element Extension Assessment Models of the Risks in High-tech Virtual Enterprise%高技术虚拟企业风险的可拓物元评估模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高长元; 王晓明; 李红霞

    2011-01-01

    高技术虚拟企业风险的量化是管理高技术虚拟企业风险的关键,针对风险因素权重的主观性特点,在分析其他学者对风险量化的基础上,采用可拓物元分析方法对风险因素权重进行修正,以提高各风险因素权重的客观性,并利用可拓物元理论对高技术虚似企业风险进行了评估.%The quantization of risks is core for risk management of high-tech virtual enterprise. According to the characteristics that the weights of risk factors are subjective, and analyzing of other scholars on the basis of quantitative risk. This paper investigates matter element extension assessment models to revise the weights of risk factors, improve the objectivity of each risk factor weight, and then enable the risk assessment of HTVE more precise.

  14. 42 CFR 56.203 - Project elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Centers § 56.203 Project elements. A project for... population, based on the assessment prepared pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section which indicates in... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 56.203 Section 56.203...

  15. 42 CFR 51c.203 - Project elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Community Health Centers § 51c.203 Project elements. A project... fulfill the needs identified in the assessment prepared pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section and how... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.203 Section 51c.203...

  16. Eco-environment impact assessment of land consolidation based on matter-element model%基于物元分析模型的土地整理生态环境影响评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申晓强; 刘志斌; 朱志宇

    2012-01-01

    【目的】评价土地整理项目整理前、后对生态环境的影响,旨在为今后土地整理工作中减少对生态环境的破坏提供经验。【方法】参考生态环境影响评价的相关指标体系,根据土地整理项目相关标准,从水、土壤、生物和社会环境4个生态要素中,选取了11个指标构成土地整理生态环境影响评价的指标体系。在物元分析理论的基础上,采用改进层次分析法确定指标权重,构建了土地整理生态环境影响评价的物元模型,并采用该模型对开原市庆云堡镇土地整理项目进行了评价。【结果】利用构建的土地整理生态环境影响评价物元模型,对开原市庆云堡镇土地整理项目的评价显示,土地整理后项目区的生态环境等级为“较好”,较土地整理前的“一般”等级有很大提升;土地整理项目区的生态环境得到了很大改善,水量供需能力和灌溉保证率得到提升,水土流失得以控制,人均耕地面积增加,中低产耕地面积减少,土壤肥力和生物多样性得到改善,系统抗灾能力增强。【结论】评价结果与实际情况基本相符,说明基于改进层次分析法的物元分析模型在用于土地整理生态环境影响评价时具有一定的可靠性。%【Objective】 The study is to evaluate eco-environment impact assessment of the basic farmland consolidation project,designed for future land consolidation in reducing damage to ecological environment to provide experience.【Method】 By referring to the ecological environmental impact assessment index system,according to the standards related land consolidation,the index system of ecological environmental impact assessment of land consolidation is constructed by selecting 11 indexes from the 4 ecological elements i.e.water,soil,biological and social.Based on matter-element analysis theory,the index weights are confirmed by using the improved AHP

  17. 海龙中微量元素的主成分分析及风险评估%Principal Component Analysis and Risk Assessment of Trace Elements in Sea Dragon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙杰; 陈发荣; 韩力挥

    2015-01-01

    13 trace elements in 5 kinds of sea dragon samples including microphis boaja , trachyrhamphus serratus , syngnathus acus linnaeus , syngnathoides biaculatus and solenognathhs hardwickii ,were determined by using microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).Principal component elements were analyzed in 5 kinds of sea dragon by using SPSS 11.5.A new risk assessment method was developed by comparing calculated values of EWI with their PTWI.The result showed that Ni , Se, As, Cd, Cs, Co, Sr, Ba were principal component el-ements in Sea Dragon .Besides, there were a large number of essential trace elements in 5 kinds of sea dragon ( Sr 88.216~353.04μg/g, Zn 21.85~40.75μg/g, Se 1.71~2.46 μg/g).In addition, the determination of toxic ele-ments such as Pb , Cd, Cr illustrated that their values partially beyond limited values .Besides, syngnathus acus Lin-naeus was the best choice by the principal component comprehensive evaluation .It can be concluded that the Se and Cd values of EWI were lower than that of PTWI in 5 kinds of sea dragon .%采用微波消解—电感耦合等离子质谱法( ICP-MS)测定了宝珈海龙、粗吻海龙、尖海龙、拟海龙和刁海龙样品中13种微量元素的含量,结合SPSS11.5对海龙中微量元素进行了主成分分析畅通过计算主成分元素的每周吸收量(EWI),并且与相应元素的最高允许吸收量(PTWI)进行比较,建立了一种新的风险评估方法.结果表明:Ni,Se,As,Cd,Cs,Co,Sr,Ba为海龙的主成分元素;此外,5种海龙样品还含有大量人体必需微量元素,其含量范围分别为Sr 88.22~353.04μg/g,Zn 21.85~40.75μg/g,Se 1.71~2.46μg/g.通过分析有害元素结果发现,部分海龙样品中Pb、Cd和Cr元素的含量超出了相应限量值,主成分综合评价表明尖海龙为最佳选择,5种海龙样品中Cd和Se元素的EWI值均低于PTWI值.

  18. Superheavy-element spectroscopy: Correlations along element 115 decay chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a brief summary of the region of the heaviest atomic nuclei yet created in the laboratory, data on more than hundred α-decay chains associated with the production of element 115 are combined to investigate time and energy correlations along the observed decay chains. Several of these are analysed using a new method for statistical assessments of lifetimes in sets of decay chains.

  19. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in Design and Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Todd C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) enables industrial designers to analyze complex components by dividing them into smaller elements, then assessing stress and strain characteristics. Traditionally mainframe based, FEA is being increasingly used in microcomputers. (SK)

  20. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e elementos traco em amostras de sedimento do reservatorio Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-07-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  1. Data Element Registry Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data Element Registry Services (DERS) is a resource for information about value lists (aka code sets / pick lists), data dictionaries, data elements, and EPA data...

  2. Element-ary Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamp, Homer W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the historic development of the periodic table from the four-element theory to the Lavoisier's table. Presents a table listing the old and new names of chemicals and the Lavoisier's table of elements. Lists two references. (YP)

  3. On Element SDD Approximability

    CERN Document Server

    Avron, Haim; Toledo, Sivan

    2009-01-01

    This short communication shows that in some cases scalar elliptic finite element matrices cannot be approximated well by an SDD matrix. We also give a theoretical analysis of a simple heuristic method for approximating an element by an SDD matrix.

  4. Elemental Chemical Puzzlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicholas C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides nine short chemically based puzzles or problems extensible for use with students from middle school to college. Some of these will strengthen students' recognition of individual elements and element names. Others require students to focus on the salient properties of given chemical elements.

  5. Alu elements and DNA double-strand break repair

    OpenAIRE

    White, Travis B; Morales, Maria E.; Deininger, Prescott L.

    2015-01-01

    Alu elements represent one of the most common sources of homology and homeology in the human genome. Homeologous recombination between Alu elements represents a major form of genetic instability leading to deletions and duplications. Although these types of events have been studied extensively through genomic sequencing to assess the impact of Alu elements on disease mutations and genome evolution, the overall abundance of Alu elements in the genome often makes it difficult to assess the rele...

  6. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  7. Musikalske elementer i musikaler

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Linnea Reitan

    2014-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven undersøker hvordan musikalske elementer kan bli brukt i musikaler for å påvirke den dramaturgiske helheten. Gjennom både musikalsk og dramaturgisk analyse viser jeg hvordan elementer i musikk kan ha innvirkning på forestillingens dramaturgi. In this master thesis I am aiming to examine the musical elements used in the songs in musicals. Music is an important element in the musical, and therefore I want to look at how some musical elements can contribute to the musical'...

  8. Ecological Impact Post-assessment of Projects Based on Fuzzy Matter-element Model%基于模糊物元模型的工程项目生态影响后评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳大兵; 王正中; 马希明

    2012-01-01

    根据模糊物元理论、合作博弈理论、并结合海明贴近度,提出了基于合作博弈权重的模糊物元后评价模型(FME-CGW)。将模型应用于黑河中游的生态影响后评价,评价结果表明:黑河流域治理项目对中游生态影响有较明显改善,评价等级为二级,与其他方法比较,结果基本一致,评价结果合理可靠。对工程项目生态影响后评价模型进行了初步探讨,以期为工程项目生态影响后评价研究提供一种实用可操作的定量后评价方法。%Based on fuzzy matter-element theory,cooperative game theory and Hamming approach degree,the FME-CGW post-assessment model is proposed to assess the ecological impact of projects.The derived model is applied to the ecological impact post-evaluation in Heihe basin.The results show that the treatment project in Heihe basin is benefical to the ecological environment of the middle reach of Heihe River,and the ecologial environment of Heihe basin has been improved obviously.The results are reasonable and satisfactory by comparing to the other methods.This study is a preliminary discussion for the ecological impact post-evaluation model of projects,and could provide a practical and feasible method for ecological impact post-evaluation.

  9. Assessing oral bioaccessibility of trace elements in soils under worst-case scenarios by automated in-line dynamic extraction as a front end to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosende, María; Magalhães, Luis M; Segundo, Marcela A; Miró, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    A novel biomimetic extraction procedure that allows for the in-line handing of ≥400 mg solid substrates is herein proposed for automatic ascertainment of trace element (TE) bioaccessibility in soils under worst-case conditions as per recommendations of ISO norms. A unified bioaccessibility/BARGE method (UBM)-like physiological-based extraction test is evaluated for the first time in a dynamic format for accurate assessment of in-vitro bioaccessibility of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in forest and residential-garden soils by on-line coupling of a hybrid flow set-up to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Three biologically relevant operational extraction modes mimicking: (i) gastric juice extraction alone; (ii) saliva and gastric juice composite in unidirectional flow extraction format and (iii) saliva and gastric juice composite in a recirculation mode were thoroughly investigated. The extraction profiles of the three configurations using digestive fluids were proven to fit a first order reaction kinetic model for estimating the maximum TE bioaccessibility, that is, the actual worst-case scenario in human risk assessment protocols. A full factorial design, in which the sample amount (400-800 mg), the extractant flow rate (0.5-1.5 mL min(-1)) and the extraction temperature (27-37°C) were selected as variables for the multivariate optimization studies in order to obtain the maximum TE extractability. Two soils of varied physicochemical properties were analysed and no significant differences were found at the 0.05 significance level between the summation of leached concentrations of TE in gastric juice plus the residual fraction and the total concentration of the overall assayed metals determined by microwave digestion. These results showed the reliability and lack of bias (trueness) of the automatic biomimetic extraction approach using digestive juices.

  10. Finite element procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Bathe, Klaus-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Finite element procedures are now an important and frequently indispensable part of engineering analyses and scientific investigations. This book focuses on finite element procedures that are very useful and are widely employed. Formulations for the linear and nonlinear analyses of solids and structures, fluids, and multiphysics problems are presented, appropriate finite elements are discussed, and solution techniques for the governing finite element equations are given. The book presents general, reliable, and effective procedures that are fundamental and can be expected to be in use for a long time. The given procedures form also the foundations of recent developments in the field.

  11. Environmental assessment of freshwater ecosystems of the Sava River watershed and Cerkniško Lake, Slovenia, using the bioindicator species Fontinalis antipyretica: insights from stable isotopes and selected elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechora, Špela; Kanduč, Tjaša

    2016-06-01

    Ten locations in the Notranjska region, Slovenia, with different land use in the catchment (town, village and agricultural areas), including reference points with different geological composition considered as unpolluted sites, were sampled for water and aquatic moss to evaluate environmental assessment in fresh water systems of the Sava River watershed. Samples of fresh water and Fontinalis antipyretica were taken in all four seasons during the years 2010 and 2012. The water chemistry of the investigated locations was dominated by [Formula: see text], while concentrations of [Formula: see text] seasonally ranged from 2.1 to 6.4 mg L(-1) and at one of the reference sites did not exceed 1.3 mg L(-1). δ(13)CDIC values seasonally ranged from -13.3 to -8.1 ‰ and indicated waters dominated by degradation of organic matter and dissolution of carbonates. δ(13)Cplant values of F. antipyretica seasonally ranged from -45 to -32.9 ‰ and of δ(15)Nplant from -0.2 to 6.5 ‰. The higher δ(15)N value of 6.5 ‰ found in F. antipyretica was related to agricultural activity in the watershed. The content of minor and trace elements in F. antipyretica ranged from 4-38 µg g(-1) for Ni, 17-105 µg g(-1) for Zn, 2-28 µg g(-1) for Pb, 0.26-1.95 µg g(-1) for Cd, 4-27 µg g(-1) for Cu, 4-49 µg g(-1) for Cr, 1-6 µg g(-1) for As and 0.33-3.24 µg g(-1) for Se. The most polluted watershed was the Pšata stream (agricultural area, cattle farm with the highest concentration of nitrate in water) also with highest values for Ni, Cr, Pb, Zn and As.

  12. Assessment on soil heavy metals contamination by matter-element model%基于物元分析法的农田土壤重金属污染评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维明; 王晓飞; 魏萌萌; 黎铉海

    2015-01-01

    The traditional evaluation model for soil heavy metal pollution consisted diverse indexes and the result ex-hibited uncertainty.Based on the matter element theory and dependency function in the extension theory, an evalua-tion model for soil heavy metal pollution was established.In the present study, the established model was used to as-sess the heavy metal contamination in a sugarcane soil in Guangxi.It was shown that the pollution level of the sugar-cane soil was between clean and good, and the evaluation result was comparable to the result made by the Nemerow index method, which proved the feasibility of this established evaluation method.%传统的土壤重金属污染评级往往存在指标过多和污染程度的不确定性等问题。该研究从物元分析和关联函数出发,建立了土壤重金属污染评价的物元模型,并利用该模型对广西某蔗田土壤的重金属污染状况进行评价。结果表明,研究区农田土壤重金属污染水平处于清洁和尚清洁两级,污染程度低,与土壤内梅罗综合污染指数法的评价结果基本一致,表明该评价模型具有较高的可靠性。

  13. Main: -300ELEMENT [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -300ELEMENT S000122 11-May-2006 (last modified) kehi Present upstream of the promot...er from the B-hordein gene of barley and the alpha-gliadin, gamma-gliadin, and low molecular weight glutenin... genes of wheat; See S000001 -300CORE; See S000002 -300MOTIF; -300 element; hordein; gliadin; glutenin; seed; wheat (Triticum aestivum) TGHAAARK ...

  14. A dry element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, T.; Ota, A.

    1983-08-11

    The agglomerate for the element is made from activated charcoal powder, an electrically conducting additive and a neutral electrolyte. The activated charcoal makes up 30 to 50 percent of the weight of the agglomerate. It is a mixture of hydrophobized and unhydrophobized powder in a ratio of 85 to 70 to 15 to 30. The element has high discharge characteristics.

  15. A battery element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, M.; Koboyasi, S.; Oisi, K.; Okadzaki, R.; Ota, A.

    1983-07-29

    An anode made of an alkaline or an alkaline earth metal and an electrolyte based on an organic solvent are used in the element. A mixture of Mn203 and Mn304 in a 9 to 1 to 3 to 7 ratio serves as the cathode. The element has a stable discharge curve at a nominal voltage of 1.5 volts.

  16. Financial risk assessment for overseas mining investment based on matter element model%基于物元模型的海外矿业投资金融风险评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明贵; 陈家愿; 袁纬芳

    2014-01-01

    海外矿业投资需要面临许多风险,金融风险作为对矿业投资具有重大影响的一种风险,对海外矿业投资金融风险评价是企业在进行海外矿产资源开发需要做的重要准备。本文首先对海外矿业投资金融风险进行了分类,并分析了其影响因素,在此基础上建立了评价指标体系,结合德尔菲法确定了指标权重;其次,对评价指标进行了分级,建立了基于物元模型的海外矿业投资金融风险评价模型;最后将评价模型运用于实例之中,对澳大利亚、巴西、美国、加拿大等7个国家进行了金融风险评价。研究结果表明:美国、俄罗斯、加拿大、巴西以及澳大利亚的金融风险等级属于中等或偏下,印度与南非在中等偏上,与实际较相符,具有一定的参考价值。%The financial risk ,one of the hardest risks which the overseas mineral investment should be faced ,has a significant impact .So the assessment of financial risk is very important for the preparation of overseas mineral resource development .Firstly ,this paper classified overseas mining investment financial risk ,analyzed the main factors of it ,and determined the weight of each index by the Delphi .Secondly , classified each index and built a matter element evaluation model for overseas mining investment .Finally , seven countries include Canada ,Australia ,America ,Russia ,South Africa ,India and Brazil were assessed . The results showed that the financial risk in America ,Russia ,Canada ,Brazil and Australia belong to moderate and low level ,the level of financial risk in India and South Africa are above the average .The model has practical values and conforms to reality .

  17. Assessing oral bioaccessibility of trace elements in soils under worst-case scenarios by automated in-line dynamic extraction as a front end to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosende, María [FI-TRACE group, Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa, km 7.5, Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears E-07122 (Spain); Magalhães, Luis M.; Segundo, Marcela A. [REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, R. de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, Porto 4050-313 (Portugal); Miró, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.miro@uib.es [FI-TRACE group, Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa, km 7.5, Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears E-07122 (Spain)

    2014-09-09

    Highlights: • Automatic oral bioaccessibility tests of trace metals under worst-case scenarios. • Use of intricate and realistic digestive fluids (UBM method). • Analysis of large amounts of soils (≥400 mg) in a flow-based configuration. • Smart interface to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. • Comparison of distinct flow systems mimicking physiological conditions. - Abstract: A novel biomimetic extraction procedure that allows for the in-line handing of ≥400 mg solid substrates is herein proposed for automatic ascertainment of trace element (TE) bioaccessibility in soils under worst-case conditions as per recommendations of ISO norms. A unified bioaccessibility/BARGE method (UBM)-like physiological-based extraction test is evaluated for the first time in a dynamic format for accurate assessment of in-vitro bioaccessibility of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in forest and residential-garden soils by on-line coupling of a hybrid flow set-up to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Three biologically relevant operational extraction modes mimicking: (i) gastric juice extraction alone; (ii) saliva and gastric juice composite in unidirectional flow extraction format and (iii) saliva and gastric juice composite in a recirculation mode were thoroughly investigated. The extraction profiles of the three configurations using digestive fluids were proven to fit a first order reaction kinetic model for estimating the maximum TE bioaccessibility, that is, the actual worst-case scenario in human risk assessment protocols. A full factorial design, in which the sample amount (400–800 mg), the extractant flow rate (0.5–1.5 mL min{sup −1}) and the extraction temperature (27–37 °C) were selected as variables for the multivariate optimization studies in order to obtain the maximum TE extractability. Two soils of varied physicochemical properties were analysed and no significant differences were found at the 0.05 significance level

  18. 43 CFR 4.1307 - Elements; burdens of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... individual shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion by a preponderance of the evidence as to the elements... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elements; burdens of proof. 4.1307 Section... Review of Proposed Individual Civil Penalty Assessments Under Section 518(f) of the Act § 4.1307 Elements...

  19. The solar element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    2009-01-01

    Apart from hydrogen, helium is the most abundant chemical element in the universe, and yet it was only discovered on the Earth in 1895. Its early history is unique because it encompasses astronomy as well as chemistry, two sciences which the spectroscope brought into contact during the second half...... of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, 'helium' was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed to J. Norman Lockyer. Did Lockyer discover helium as a solar element? How was the suggestion received by chemists, physicists...... elements might be different. The complex story of how helium became established as both a solar and terrestrial element involves precise observations as well as airy speculations. It is a story that is unique among the discovery histories of the chemical elements....

  20. Trace elements and rat pouchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzymała-Czyż, Sławomira; Banasiewicz, Tomasz; Walas, Stanisław; Kościński, Tomasz; Wenska-Chyży, Ewa; Drews, Michał; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    The procedure of restorative proctocolectomy is associated with a complete removal of the colon and slight reduction of ileum length, which together can lead to systemic shortages of trace elements. Inflammatory changes in the pouch mucosa may also have some impact. However, there is no data on trace elements in pouchitis. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to assess the effect of acute pouchitis on the status of selected trace elements in rats. Restorative proctocolectomy with the construction of intestinal J-pouch was performed in twenty-four Wistar rats. Three weeks after the surgery, pouchitis was induced. Eight untreated rats created the control group. Liver concentrations of selected micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Co, Mn, Se) were measured in both groups six weeks later, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Liver concentrations of trace elements did not differ between the study and the control groups. However, copper, cobalt and selenium concentrations [μg/g] were statistically lower (p<0.02, p<0.05 and p<0.04, respectively) in rats with severe pouchitis (n=9) as compared with rats with mild pouchitis (n=7) [median (range): Cu--7.05 (3.02-14.57) vs 10.47 (5.16-14.97); Co--0.55 (0.37-0.96) vs 0.61 (0.52-0.86); Se--1.17 (0.69-1.54) vs 1.18 (0.29-1.91)]. In conclusion, it seems that acute pouchitis can lead to a significant deficiency of trace elements.

  1. The elements of life and medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellan, Prinessa; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-03-13

    Which elements are essential for human life? Here we make an element-by-element journey through the periodic table and attempt to assess whether elements are essential or not, and if they are, whether there is a relevant code for them in the human genome. There are many difficulties such as the human biochemistry of several so-called essential elements is not well understood, and it is not clear how we should classify elements that are involved in the destruction of invading microorganisms, or elements which are essential for microorganisms with which we live in symbiosis. In general, genes do not code for the elements themselves, but for specific chemical species, i.e. for the element, its oxidation state, type and number of coordinated ligands, and the coordination geometry. Today, the biological periodic table is in a position somewhat similar to Mendeleev's chemical periodic table of 1869: there are gaps and we need to do more research to fill them. The periodic table also offers potential for novel therapeutic and diagnostic agents, based on not only essential elements, but also non-essential elements, and on radionuclides. Although the potential for inorganic chemistry in medicine was realized more than 2000 years ago, this area of research is still in its infancy. Future advances in the design of inorganic drugs require more knowledge of their mechanism of action, including target sites and metabolism. Temporal speciation of elements in their biological environments at the atomic level is a major challenge, for which new methods are urgently needed.

  2. Computation of Asteroid Proper Elements: Recent Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Z.

    2017-06-01

    The recent advances in computation of asteroid proper elements are briefly reviewed. Although not representing real breakthroughs in computation and stability assessment of proper elements, these advances can still be considered as important improvements offering solutions to some practical problems encountered in the past. The problem of getting unrealistic values of perihelion frequency for very low eccentricity orbits is solved by computing frequencies using the frequency-modified Fourier transform. The synthetic resonant proper elements adjusted to a given secular resonance helped to prove the existence of Astraea asteroid family. The preliminary assessment of stability with time of proper elements computed by means of the analytical theory provides a good indication of their poorer performance with respect to their synthetic counterparts, and advocates in favor of ceasing their regular maintenance; the final decision should, however, be taken on the basis of more comprehensive and reliable direct estimate of their individual and sample average deviations from constancy.

  3. Health Risk Assessment of Metal Elements in Drinking Water in 10 Cities,Guangdong Province%广东省十城市饮用水中部分元素健康风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲亚斌; 林立丰; 张建鹏; 戴昌芳; 辜少虹; 刘荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the human health risk of metal elements in drinking water in the urban area of 10 cities,Guangdong province. Methods The concentration of 9 kinds of metal9 (As, Cr6+, Cd, Pb, Hg, Se, Mn, Cu, Zn) in drinking water sampled from centralized water supply systems were determined in 2nd quarter to 4th quarter of 2011. The health risks of exposure to 9 kinds of metal elements through oral route were assessed,according to the models recommended by the US EPA. Results The average qualified rate of Hg in drinking water was 98.8%(169/171), and the concentration of other 8 kinds of metal elements were in compliance with the requirements of the standard for drinking water quality. The levels of carcinogenic risk caused by three kinds gene toxic substances ranked as Cr6+(3.71×10-5/a)>As(l.04×l0-5Va)>Cd(0.16xl0-5/a). The total carcinogenic risk was 4.91×l0-5/a. The levels of hazard indices caused by non-gene toxic substances ranked as Cu (11.82×l0-10/a)>Pb(6.41×l0-10/a)>Hg(3.06×l0-10/a)>Se(l.04×l0-10)/a)>Mn(0.58×l0-10)/a)>Zn(0.24×l0-10/a). Conclusion The health risk of 9 kinds of metal elements in drinking water is respectively below the maximum tolerable value recommended by ICRP (5.0×l0-5/a),in 10 cities of Guangdong province.%目的 对广东省10城市饮用水中元素的健康风险进行评估.方法 于2011年2-4季度,对各监测点市政水厂的出厂水中砷、铬(六价)、镉、铅、汞、硒、锰、铜、锌9种元素浓度进行检测.采用美国环保署推荐的健康风险评价模型,计算上述9种元素经口途径暴露的健康风险.结果 广东省10个城市出厂水中除汞的合格率为98.8%( 169/171)外,其他指标均全部合格.3种基因毒金属所引起的健康危害的个人年风险水平由高至低依次为铬(六价)(3.71×10-5/a)>砷( 1.04×10-5/a)>镉(0.16×10-5/a),总健康风险值为4.91×10-5/a.6种躯体毒金属健康危害的个人年风险水平由高至低依次为铜(11.82×10-10/a

  4. Flow Element Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Air distribution in ventilated rooms is a flow process that can be divided into different elements such as supply air jets, exhaust flows, thermal plumes, boundary layer flows, infiltration and gravity currents. These flow elements are isolated volumes where the air movement is controlled...... by a restricted number of parameters, and the air movement is fairly independent of the general flow in the enclosure. In many practical situations, the most convenient· method is to design the air distribution system using flow element theory....

  5. Discovery of element 112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The new elements 110, 111, and 112 were synthesized and unambiguously identified in experiments at SHIP. Due to strong shell effects the dominant decay mode is not fission, but emission of alpha particles. Theoretical investigations predict that maximum shell effects should exist in nuclei near proton number 114 and neutron number 184. Measurements give hope that isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical Superheavy Elements could be produced by fusion reactions using {sup 118}Pb as target. systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that transfer of nucleons is the important process to initiate the fusion.

  6. Finite element mesh generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lo, Daniel SH

    2014-01-01

    Highlights the Progression of Meshing Technologies and Their ApplicationsFinite Element Mesh Generation provides a concise and comprehensive guide to the application of finite element mesh generation over 2D domains, curved surfaces, and 3D space. Organised according to the geometry and dimension of the problem domains, it develops from the basic meshing algorithms to the most advanced schemes to deal with problems with specific requirements such as boundary conformity, adaptive and anisotropic elements, shape qualities, and mesh optimization. It sets out the fundamentals of popular techniques

  7. Chemistry of surface sediment along a north-south transect across the equator in the Central Indian Basin: An assessment of biogenic and detrital influences on elemental burial on the seafloor

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Parthiban, G.; Pattan, J.N.; Jauhari, P.

    . Though the Rare Earth Elements (REE) exhibit a mutual coherence in the sediment, they display an increasing affinity towards Mn and decreasing affinity towards Ti with increasing atomic number. Such a subtle but systematic variation within the REE group...

  8. Divergent picornavirus IRES elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements were first identified about 20 years ago within the 5' untranslated region of picornavirus RNAs. They direct a cap-independent mechanism of translation initiation on the viral RNA. Within the picornavirus family it is now known that there are four...... classes of IRES element which vary in size (450-270nt), they also have different, complex, secondary structures and distinct requirements for cellular proteins to allow them to function. This review describes the features of each class of picornavirus IRES element but focuses on the characteristics...... of the most recently described group, initially identified within the porcine teschovirus-1 RNA, which has strong similarities to the IRES elements from within the genomes of hepatitis C virus and the pestiviruses which are members of the flavivirus family. The selection of the initiation codon...

  9. New functionalities in abundant element oxides: ubiquitous element strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Hideo; Hayashi, Katsuro; Kamiya, Toshio; Atou, Toshiyuki; Susaki, Tomofumi

    2011-06-01

    While most ceramics are composed of ubiquitous elements (the ten most abundant elements within the Earth's crust), many advanced materials are based on rare elements. A 'rare-element crisis' is approaching owing to the imbalance between the limited supply of rare elements and the increasing demand. Therefore, we propose a 'ubiquitous element strategy' for materials research, which aims to apply abundant elements in a variety of innovative applications. Creation of innovative oxide materials and devices based on conventional ceramics is one specific challenge. This review describes the concept of ubiquitous element strategy and gives some highlights of our recent research on the synthesis of electronic, thermionic and structural materials using ubiquitous elements.

  10. New roof element system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Jesper; Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs.......The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs....

  11. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  12. New roof element system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Jesper; Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs.......The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs....

  13. Structural elements design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Draycott, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Gives clear explanations of the logical design sequence for structural elements. The Structural Engineer says: `The book explains, in simple terms, and with many examples, Code of Practice methods for sizing structural sections in timber, concrete,masonry and steel. It is the combination into one book of section sizing methods in each of these materials that makes this text so useful....Students will find this an essential support text to the Codes of Practice in their study of element sizing'.

  14. A battery element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatanabe, U.; Aoki, K.; Ito, K.; Ogava, K.; Okadzaki, R.

    1983-07-29

    An anode made of a light metal is used in the element, along with an anhydrous liquid electrolyte and a cathode made of CuC12(CFn)x or another material. The current tap of the anode is made from aluminum, gold, silver or another metal of the platinum group and the current tap may be coated with this metal. The thickness of the coating is 0.1 to 1 micrometer. The element has a long storage life.

  15. Atoms, molecules & elements

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Young scientists will be thrilled to explore the invisible world of atoms, molecules and elements. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Students will label each part of the atom, learn what compounds are, and explore the patterns in the periodic table of elements to find calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), and helium (He) through hands-on activities.

  16. 基于物元模型的海外铁矿资源开发经济环境评价研究%Macroeconomic environment assessment for overseas iron ore investment based on matter element model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明贵; 谢为

    2014-01-01

    China has an increasing demand for iron ore resource with the rapid development of the economy and the steel industry ,so developing overseas iron ore is badly needed .It has an important significance to evaluate the macroeconomic environment for overseas iron ore development .Firstly ,the paper determined the countries which would be evaluated ;secondly ,identified the main factors influencing the macroeconomic environment ,established an assessment index system and determined the weight of each index by the Delphi method ;thirdly ,built a matter element evaluation model ,established the sutra field and controlled field ,and then calculated out the relating degree of the model ;finally ,classified the macroeconomic environment for the 14 countries ,which showed the evaluation results are very well .%随着我国经济和钢铁工业的快速发展,对铁矿资源的需求日趋加大,合理开发与利用海外铁矿资源已经越来越重要,而对国别宏观经济环境进行评价则具有非常重要的意义。本文首先确定了海外铁矿资源开发经济环境评价的主要国家;其次,对影响经济环境的主要因素进行了识别,运用德尔菲法确立了评价指标体系和权重;再次,建立了物元评价模型,确定了节域和经典域并计算出关联度和综合关联度;最后,对14个国家宏观经济环境等级进行了划分,评价结果与实际较为符合。

  17. Trace elements in dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filler, Guido; Felder, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    In end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), pediatric nephrologists must consider the homeostasis of the multiple water-soluble ions that are influenced by renal replacement therapy (RRT). While certain ions such as potassium and calcium are closely monitored, little is known about the handling of trace elements in pediatric dialysis. RRT may lead to accumulation of toxic trace elements, either due to insufficient elimination or due to contamination, or to excessive removal of essential trace elements. However, trace elements are not routinely monitored in dialysis patients and no mechanism for these deficits or toxicities has been established. This review summarizes the handling of trace elements, with particular attention to pediatric data. The best data describe lead and indicate that there is a higher prevalence of elevated lead (Pb, atomic number 82) levels in children on RRT when compared to adults. Lead is particularly toxic in neurodevelopment and lead levels should therefore be monitored. Monitoring of zinc (Zn, atomic number 30) and selenium (Se, atomic number 34) may be indicated in the monitoring of all pediatric dialysis patients to reduce morbidity from deficiency. Prospective studies evaluating the impact of abnormal trace elements and the possible therapeutic value of intervention are required.

  18. Passive degassing at Nyiragongo (D.R. Congo) and Etna (Italy) volcanoes: the chemical characterization of the emissions and assessment of their uptake of trace elements emissions on the local environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sergio; Scaglione, Sarah; Milazzo, Silvia; D'Alessandro, Walter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Giuffrida, Giovanni; Tedesco, Dario; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Volcanoes are well known as an impressive large natural source of trace elements into the troposphere. Among others, Etna (Italy) and Nyiragongo (D.R. Congo), two noteworthy emitters on Earth, are two stratovolcanoes located in different geological settings, both characterized by persistent passive degassing from their summit craters. Here, we present some results on trace element composition in volcanic plume emissions, atmospheric bulk deposition (rainwater) and their uptake of the surrounding vegetation, with the aim to compare and identify differences and similarities between this these two volcanoes. Volcanic emissions were sampled by using active filter-pack for acid gases (sulfur and halogens) and specific teflon filters for particulates (major and trace elements). The impact of the volcanogenic deposition in the surrounding of the crater rims was investigated by using different sampling techniques: bulk rain collectors gauges were used to collect atmospheric bulk deposition, and biomonitoring technique was carried out to collect gases and particulates by using endemic plant species. Concentrations of major and trace elements of volcanic plume emissions (gases and particulates) were obtained by elution and microwave digestion of the collected filters: sulfur and halogens were determined by ion chromatography and ICP-MS, and untreated filters for particulate were acid digested and analysed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Rain water and plant samples were also analysed for major and trace elements by using ICP-OES and ICP-MS. In total 55 elements were determined. The estimates of the trace element fluxes confirm that Etna and Nyiragongo are large sources of metals to the atmosphere, especially considering their persistent state of passive degassing. In general, chemical composition of the volcanic aerosol particles of both volcanoes is characterized by two main components: one is related to the silicic component produced by magma bursting and fragmentation, enriching

  19. Quantification of multiple elements in dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Hollergaard, Mads;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS) is a unique matrix that offers advantages compared to conventional blood collection making it increasingly popular in large population studies. We here describe development and validation of a method to determine multiple elements in DBS. METHODS: Elements were...... extracted from punches and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was evaluated with quality controls with defined element concentration and blood spiked with elements to assess accuracy and imprecision. DBS element concentrations were compared with concentrations...... in venous blood. Samples with different hematocrit were spotted onto filter paper to assess hematocrit effect. RESULTS: The established method was precise and accurate for measurement of most elements in DBS. There was a significant but relatively weak correlation between measurement of the elements Mg, K...

  20. The first ANDES elements: 9-DOF plate bending triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Carmelo; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1991-01-01

    New elements are derived to validate and assess the assumed natural deviatoric strain (ANDES) formulation. This is a brand new variant of the assumed natural strain (ANS) formulation of finite elements, which has recently attracted attention as an effective method for constructing high-performance elements for linear and nonlinear analysis. The ANDES formulation is based on an extended parametrized variational principle developed in recent publications. The key concept is that only the deviatoric part of the strains is assumed over the element whereas the mean strain part is discarded in favor of a constant stress assumption. Unlike conventional ANS elements, ANDES elements satisfy the individual element test (a stringent form of the patch test) a priori while retaining the favorable distortion-insensitivity properties of ANS elements. The first application of this formulation is the development of several Kirchhoff plate bending triangular elements with the standard nine degrees of freedom. Linear curvature variations are sampled along the three sides with the corners as gage reading points. These sample values are interpolated over the triangle using three schemes. Two schemes merge back to conventional ANS elements, one being identical to the Discrete Kirchhoff Triangle (DKT), whereas the third one produces two new ANDES elements. Numerical experiments indicate that one of the ANDES element is relatively insensitive to distortion compared to previously derived high-performance plate-bending elements, while retaining accuracy for nondistorted elements.

  1. Assessment of atmospheric pollution of chemical elements by epiphytic lichen analysis at the Campus of the Sao Paulo University; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica de elementos quimicos pela analise de liquen epifitico no Campus da Cidade Universitaria de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana Rocho

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution has been a frequent topic of research, due to the effects that it can cause on the health of living organisms, environment and climate. In order to identify pollution sources and their effects, biomonitoring has been studied due to its low cost and possibility of sampling in wide geographic areas. In this study for passive biomonitoring of air pollution levels at the Cidade Universitaria Armando Salles de Oliveira (CUASO), University of Sao Paulo campus, epiphytic lichens of Canoparmelia texana species were used. The lichens collected from tree barks at different sampling sites in the CUASO were cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Lichen samples were analyzed by X - ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). For XRFS, cylindrical pellets of samples were prepared to determine As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Rb, S, Sr and Zn. For NAA, lichen sample aliquots along with synthetic elemental standards were irradiated both for short and long periods at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The induced activities were measured by a gamma ray spectrometer to determine As, Br, Ca Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, V and Zn. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analysis of certified reference materials (MRCs). Their results of relative errors and standard deviations were below 15% for most of the elements. The standardized difference or En score values were lower than |1| indicating satisfactory results. Replicate analyses of a lichen sample by XRFS and NAA, indicated good homogeneity of the sample for the elements determined. The lichen results showed that the mean concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se and U were higher in samples from CUASO than those from regions considered unpolluted. For Fe, K, La, S, V and Zn, they were of the same order of magnitude. The correlation study between the elements showed high correlation (r > 0.7) for elements

  2. Influence of chemical elements on mammalian spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec-Wróblewska, U; Kamiński, P; Lakota, P

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to heavy metals is the most important risk factor in the assessment of spermatogenesis. About 30-40 % cases of infertility are caused by the male factor, and most of them are due to the small quantity of spermatozoa or to inferior spermatozoa quality. The negative impact on sperm motility, morphology and concentration of such chemical elements as Al, Cr, Cd, Pb or Fe was observed, while positive influence was noticed for Zn, Mg, and Ca. The influence of Mn, Cu, Ni or Se on spermatozoa is ambiguous. Chemical elements known as necessary for capacitation and acrosome reaction are Zn, Mg and Ca, while Cd and Pb disturb initiation and progress of the acrosome reaction. The positive effect of chemical elements Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn, lies in their protection against oxidative stress. On the other hand, Al, Cu and Ni induce structural changes in the testes and epididymis or influence interactions with other chemical elements.

  3. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put...... of responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...

  4. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.

    1956-08-01

    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  5. Creativity Management Key Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Fuchs Ángeles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are constantly looking towards innovation. In order to reach it they must foment creativity. This paper analyzes a series of elements considered in the organizational creativity management and proposes a model with the indispensable factors that organizations should consider to reach it. These elements are: culture and organizational environment, strategy, structure, communication, relation with customers, human resources (recruiting, training, job design, compensation, promotion, and performance evaluation, long term orientation and the organizational life cycle. Having the analysis of those elements as a basis, the indispensable pillars on management creativity are identified. The proposed model is based on 5 pillars: the alignment between strategic, culture and organizational structure, called by the authors 'Holy Trinity'; intern publicity; customer’s voice; recognition and a look towards future. Finally, the case of an innovative Peruvian enterprise is presented from the model’s perspective and the study conclusions.

  6. Elemental analysis in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Stephan; Dernovics, Mihaly; Koellensperger, Gunda

    2015-02-01

    This article focuses on analytical strategies integrating atomic spectroscopy in biotechnology. The rationale behind developing such methods is inherently linked to unique features of the key technique in elemental analysis, which is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: (1) the high sensitivity and selectivity of state of the art instrumentation, (2) the possibility of accurate absolute quantification even in complex matrices, (3) the capability of combining elemental detectors with chromatographic separation methods and the versatility of the latter approach, (4) the complementarity of inorganic and organic mass spectrometry, (5) the multi-element capability and finally (6) the capability of isotopic analysis. The article highlights the most recent bio-analytical developments exploiting these methodological advantages and shows the potential in biotechnological applications.

  7. Advanced finite element technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wriggers, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The book presents an overview of the state of research of advanced finite element technologies. Besides the mathematical analysis, the finite element development and their engineering applications are shown to the reader. The authors give a survey of the methods and technologies concerning efficiency, robustness and performance aspects. The book covers the topics of mathematical foundations for variational approaches and the mathematical understanding of the analytical requirements of modern finite element methods. Special attention is paid to finite deformations, adaptive strategies, incompressible, isotropic or anisotropic material behavior and the mathematical and numerical treatment of the well-known locking phenomenon. Beyond that new results for the introduced approaches are presented especially for challenging nonlinear problems.

  8. An alkaline element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arita, T.; Murakami, K.; Okha, K.

    1983-04-28

    A cathode with a dual layer active mass is installed in the disk shaped alkaline silver and zinc element. The first layer, which is turned towards the anode, contains 85 parts Ag2O, 5 parts electrolytic MnO2 and 10 parts graphite. The second layer, which contacts the bottom of the element, contains 35 parts Ag2O, 60 parts electrolytic MnO2 and 5 parts graphite. The electrical capacity of the first and second layers is 60 and 40, respectively. The first layer may be discharged with a high current density and the second layer with less current density. The element has high characteristics with comparatively low cost.

  9. Intelligent Elements for ISHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando; Oostdyk, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of architecture models for implementing Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) capabilities. For example, approaches based on the OSA-CBM and OSA-EAI models, or specific architectures developed in response to local needs. NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has developed one such version of an extensible architecture in support of rocket engine testing that integrates a palette of functions in order to achieve an ISHM capability. Among the functional capabilities that are supported by the framework are: prognostic models, anomaly detection, a data base of supporting health information, root cause analysis, intelligent elements, and integrated awareness. This paper focuses on the role that intelligent elements can play in ISHM architectures. We define an intelligent element as a smart element with sufficient computing capacity to support anomaly detection or other algorithms in support of ISHM functions. A smart element has the capabilities of supporting networked implementations of IEEE 1451.x smart sensor and actuator protocols. The ISHM group at SSC has been actively developing intelligent elements in conjunction with several partners at other Centers, universities, and companies as part of our ISHM approach for better supporting rocket engine testing. We have developed several implementations. Among the key features for these intelligent sensors is support for IEEE 1451.1 and incorporation of a suite of algorithms for determination of sensor health. Regardless of the potential advantages that can be achieved using intelligent sensors, existing large-scale systems are still based on conventional sensors and data acquisition systems. In order to bring the benefits of intelligent sensors to these environments, we have also developed virtual implementations of intelligent sensors.

  10. Elements of social security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    (Alte Länder). This is the 9th and last edition of the publication,covering income levels and rules for social security and personal taxation for 1999. Basis for the projections to 1999 income levels is the 1998 data (in some cases 1999 data)for OECD's Taxing Wages as reported by national experts.......Elements of Social Security is a comparative study of important elements of the social security systems in Denmark (DK), Sweden (S), Finland (FIN), Austria (A), Germany (D), the Netherlands (NL), Great Britain (GB) and Canada (CAN). It should be emphasized that Germany is the former West Germany...

  11. Rocket propulsion elements

    CERN Document Server

    Sutton, George P

    2011-01-01

    The definitive text on rocket propulsion-now revised to reflect advancements in the field For sixty years, Sutton's Rocket Propulsion Elements has been regarded as the single most authoritative sourcebook on rocket propulsion technology. As with the previous edition, coauthored with Oscar Biblarz, the Eighth Edition of Rocket Propulsion Elements offers a thorough introduction to basic principles of rocket propulsion for guided missiles, space flight, or satellite flight. It describes the physical mechanisms and designs for various types of rockets' and provides an unders

  12. Finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Finite element analysis is an engineering method for the numerical analysis of complex structures. This book provides a bird's eye view on this very broad matter through 27 original and innovative research studies exhibiting various investigation directions. Through its chapters the reader will have access to works related to Biomedical Engineering, Materials Engineering, Process Analysis and Civil Engineering. The text is addressed not only to researchers, but also to professional engineers, engineering lecturers and students seeking to gain a better understanding of where Finite Element Analysis stands today.

  13. Finite elements and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, O C

    2006-01-01

    A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o

  14. Elements of social security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security is a comparative study of important elements of the social security systems in Denmark (DK), Sweden (S), Finland (FIN), Austria (A), Germany (D), the Netherlands (NL), Great Britain (GB) and Canada (CAN). It should be emphasized that Germany is the former West Germany...... (Alte Länder). This is the 9th and last edition of the publication,covering income levels and rules for social security and personal taxation for 1999. Basis for the projections to 1999 income levels is the 1998 data (in some cases 1999 data)for OECD's Taxing Wages as reported by national experts....

  15. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  16. Annihilators of nilpotent elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham A. Klein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Let x be a nilpotent element of an infinite ring R (not necessarily with 1. We prove that A(x—the two-sided annihilator of x—has a large intersection with any infinite ideal I of R in the sense that card(A(x∩I=cardI. In particular, cardA(x=cardR; and this is applied to prove that if N is the set of nilpotent elements of R and R≠N, then card(R\\N≥cardN.

  17. Archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haina; Peng, Nan; Shah, Shiraz Ali

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes, such as spind......SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes...

  18. An alkaline element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obi, F.

    1983-09-29

    A current tap pressed into the anode is installed in the central part of the top of the element. There is an internal top made of plastic under the top. There is a projection in the center of the top with an opening, through which the current tap is passed. The edge of the plastic top serves as an insulation lining between the metallic top and the body, which serves as the current tap for the cathode. A separator is placed between the anode and the cathode. Electrolyte leaks are prevented in the slotted disk elements.

  19. Elemental composition of strawberry plants inoculated with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense REC3, assessed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Molina, M F; Lovaisa, N C; Salazar, S M; Díaz-Ricci, J C; Pedraza, R O

    2014-07-01

    The elemental composition of strawberry plants (Fragaria ananassa cv. Macarena) inoculated with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense REC3, and non-inoculated controls, was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. This allowed simultaneous semi-quantification of different elements in a small, solid sample. Plants were inoculated and grown hydroponically in 50% or 100% Hoagland solution, corresponding to limited or optimum nutrient medium, respectively. Bacteria-inoculated plants increased the growth index 45% and 80% compared to controls when grown in 100% and 50% Hoagland solution, respectively. Thus, inoculation with A. brasilense REC3 in a nutrient-limited medium had the strongest effect in terms of increasing both shoot and root biomass and growth index, as already described for Azospirillum inoculated into nutrient-poor soils. SEM-EDS spectra and maps showed the elemental composition and relative distribution of nutrients in strawberry tissues. Leaves contained C, O, N, Na, P, K, Ca and Cu, while roots also had Si and Cl. The organic fraction (C, O and N) accounted for over 96.3% of the total chemical composition; of the mineral fraction, Na had higher accumulation in both leaves and roots. Azospirillum-inoculated and control plants had similar elemental quantities; however, in bacteria-inoculated roots, P was significantly increased (34.33%), which constitutes a major benefit for plant nutrition, while Cu content decreased (35.16%).

  20. Beam transport elements

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    Two of the beam transport elements for the slow ejection system. On the left, a quadrupole 1.2 m long with a 5 cm aperture, capable of producing a gradient of 5000 gauss. On the right, a 1 m bending magnet with a 4 cm gap; its field is 20 000 gauss.

  1. Movies and Literary Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rodney D.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends using movie clips to stimulate students' interest in reading a novel as well as to teach elements of fiction such as plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. Describes each clip and provides study questions. Includes a listing of movies made from books. (NH)

  2. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  3. Light element ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, KJ; Varma, KBR; Raju, AR

    1988-01-01

    An overview of a few structually important light element ceramics is presented. Included in the overview are silicon nitide, sialon, aluminium nitride, boron carbide and silicon carbide. Methods of preparation, characterization and industrial applications of these ceramics are summarized. Mechanical properties, industrial production techniques and principal uses of these ceramics are emphasized.

  4. Water, the intangible element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotting, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Water is the key to life. No living creature can survive without water. Too much water or polluted water are serious threats to mankind. Managing this intangible element is complex, not only in wet deltaic regions but also in the (semi-)arid regions of the world. Combined efforts of the hydro(geo)lo

  5. CEDS Addresses: Rubric Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Common Education Data Standards (CEDS) Version 4 introduced a common data vocabulary for defining rubrics in a data system. The CEDS elements support digital representations of both holistic and analytic rubrics. This document shares examples of holistic and analytic project rubrics, available CEDS Connections, and a logical model showing the…

  6. The elements of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey P. Fedotov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Article "Elements of Life" offers a hypothesis about the relationship of the phenomenon of traditional Chinese medicine with the physical laws. It shows the principle of forming a sequence of daily activity of the acupuncture meridians as a consequence of the Doppler effect in the process of flowing around the planet Earth by cosmic wind (by Ether. In accordance with this specification the daily structure of meridians had been built. It is suggested that the essence of the Chinese Qi (Chi are vibrations of a certain range in the medium. Consequently, it became possible to set the interrelation of frequencies of the visible spectrum with certain meridians. It is shown that the topological relationship of ancient (barrier points of the Five Elements (Wu-Shu points are associated with the wave lengths of the so-called Qi. It is shown also that the essence of the Wu-Xing law is based on daily circulation patterns of meridians. The examples of the surrounding world, including pulses processes in the human body, are confirming the above mentioned theses. A correlation diagram between the main elements by Dr. Samohotsky A.S. (dissertation "The experience of the definition of medical laws", 1946 and the Five Elements of traditional Chinese philosophy is established. The above represented hypotheses are yet introduced in practice in form of pulse spectral analysis system.

  7. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  8. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable...

  9. Elemental Chem Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Mariscal, Antonio Joaquin

    2008-01-01

    This educative material uses the symbols of 45 elements to spell the names of 32 types of laboratory equipment usually found in chemical labs. This teaching material has been divided into three puzzles according to the type of the laboratory equipment: (i) glassware as reaction vessels or containers; (ii) glassware for measuring, addition or…

  10. Reference: -300ELEMENT [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -300ELEMENT Kreis M, Williamson MS, Forde J, Schmitz D, Clark J, Buxton B, Pywell J..., Marris C, Henderson J, Harris N, Shewry PR, Forde BG, Miflin BJ Differential gene expression in the developing barley endosperm. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B314:355-365 (1986) ...

  11. Inside finite elements

    CERN Document Server

    Weiser, Martin

    2016-01-01

    All relevant implementation aspects of finite element methods are discussed in this book. The focus is on algorithms and data structures as well as on their concrete implementation. Theory is covered as far as it gives insight into the construction of algorithms. Throughout the exercises a complete FE-solver for scalar 2D problems will be implemented in Matlab/Octave.

  12. Element transport in aquatic ecosystems – Modelling general and element-specific mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Konovalenko, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclides are widely used in energy production and medical, military and industrial applications. Thus, understanding the behaviour of radionuclides which have been or may be released into ecosystems is important for human and environmental risk assessment. Modelling of radionuclides or their stable element analogues is the only tool that can predict the consequences of accidental release. In this thesis, two dynamic stochastic compartment models for radionuclide/element transfer in a mar...

  13. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  14. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  15. Elements of quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Meystre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Elements of Quantum Optics gives a self-contained and broad coverage of the basic elements necessary to understand and carry out research in laser physics and quantum optics, including a review of basic quantum mechanics and pedagogical introductions to system-reservoir interactions and to second quantization. The text reveals the close connection between many seemingly unrelated topics, such as probe absorption, four-wave mixing, optical instabilities, resonance fluorescence and squeezing. It also comprises discussions of cavity quantum electrodynamics and atom optics. The 4th edition includes a new chapter on quantum entanglement and quantum information, as well as added discussions of the quantum beam splitter, electromagnetically induced transparency, slow light, and the input-output formalism needed to understand many problems in quantum optics. It also provides an expanded treatment of the minimum-coupling Hamiltonian and a simple derivation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, an important gateway to rese...

  16. Elements of String Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, Maurizio

    2011-03-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Notation, units and conventions; 1. A short review of standard and inflationary cosmology; 2. The basic string cosmology equations; 3. Conformal invariance and string effective action; 4. Duality symmetries and cosmological solutions; 5. Inflationary kinematics; 6. The string phase; 7. The cosmic background of relic gravitational waves; 8. Scalar perturbations and the anisotropy of the CMB radiation; 9. Dilaton phenomenology; 10. Elements of brane cosmology; Index.

  17. Quantum theory elements

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, David Robert

    1962-01-01

    Quantum Theory: A Treatise in Three Volumes, I: Elements focuses on the principles, methodologies, and approaches involved in quantum theory, including quantum mechanics, linear combinations, collisions, and transitions. The selection first elaborates on the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, exactly soluble bound state problems, and continuum. Discussions focus on delta function normalization, spherically symmetric potentials, rectangular potential wells, harmonic oscillators, spherically symmetrical potentials, Coulomb potential, axiomatic basis, consequences of first three postula

  18. Nuclear fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  19. A sealing element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obi, F.; Takada, K.

    1983-09-22

    A sealing lining made of a mixture of polyethylene or polypropylene with an additive which prevents destruction of the lining is used in the element. The content of the additive in the mixture is 10 to 30 percent by mass. The additive basically consists of polyethylene. Carboxyl groups are introduced into the polymer as an anion and sodium, potassium and molybdenum are introduced as the cation.

  20. New Aperture Partitioning Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, S.; Calef, B.; Williams, S.

    Postprocessing in an optical system can be aided by adding an optical element to partition the pupil into a number of segments. When imaging through the atmosphere, the recorded data are blurred by temperature-induced variations in the index of refraction along the line of sight. Using speckle imaging techniques developed in the astronomy community, this blurring can be corrected to some degree. The effectiveness of these techniques is diminished by redundant baselines in the pupil. Partitioning the pupil reduces the degree of baseline redundancy, and therefore improves the quality of images that can be obtained from the system. It is possible to implement the described approach on an optical system with a segmented primary mirror, but not very practical. This is because most optical systems do not have segmented primary mirrors, and those that do have relatively low bandwidth positioning of segments due to their large mass and inertia. It is much more practical to position an active aperture partitioning element at an aft optics pupil of the optical system. This paper describes the design, implementation and testing of a new aperture partitioning element that is completely reflective and reconfigurable. The device uses four independent, annular segments that can be positioned with a high degree of accuracy without impacting optical wavefront of each segment. This mirror has been produced and is currently deployed and working on the 3.6 m telescope.

  1. Helium the disappearing element

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Wheeler M

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the book is helium, the element, and its use in myriad applications including MRI machines, particle accelerators, space telescopes, and of course balloons and blimps. It was at the birth of our Universe, or the Big Bang, where the majority of cosmic helium was created; and stellar helium production continues. Although helium is the second most abundant element in the Universe, it is actually quite rare here on Earth and only exists because of radioactive elements deep within the Earth. This book includes a detailed history of the discovery of helium, of the commercial industry built around it, how the helium we actually encounter is produced within the Earth, and the state of the helium industry today. The gas that most people associate with birthday party balloons is running out. “Who cares?” you might ask. Well, without helium, MRI machines could not function, rockets could not go into space, particle accelerators such as those used by CERN could not operate, fiber optic cables would not...

  2. The transuranium elements: From neptunium and plutonium to element 112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-07-26

    Beginning in the 1930`s, both chemists and physicists became interested in synthesizing new artificial elements. The first transuranium element, Np, was synthesized in 1940. Over the past six decades, 20 transuranium elements have been produced. A review of the synthesis is given. The procedure of naming the heavy elements is also discussed. It appears feasible to produce elements 113 and 114. With the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator, it should be possible to reach the superheavy elements in the region of the spherical Z=114 shell, but with fewer neutrons than the N=184 spherical shell. 57 refs, 6 figs.

  3. Geographic polymorphism of P element in populations of Drosophila sturtevanti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane M. de Almeida

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this report was to detect full-sized P element sequences in eight strains of Drosophila sturtevanti populations from distant geographic regions and to assess the structural geographic variation among P element sequences. PCR analysis confirmed the presence of a putative complete P element in all strains. Southern blot analysis indicated bands shared by all strains, and bands restricted to geographically related strains. Parsimony analysis corroborated the hybridization pattern that reflected the geographic relationships.

  4. Occurrence model for magmatic sulfide-rich nickel-copper-(platinum-group element) deposits related to mafic and ultramafic dike-sill complexes: Chapter I in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Seal, Robert R., II; Piatak, Nadine M.; Chandler, Val W.; Mars, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Magmatic sulfide deposits containing nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu), with or without (±) platinum-group elements (PGE), account for approximately 60 percent of the world’s nickel production. Most of the remainder of the Ni production is derived from lateritic deposits, which form by weathering of ultramafic rocks in humid tropical conditions. Magmatic Ni-Cu±PGE sulfide deposits are spatially and genetically related to bodies of mafic and/or ultramafic rocks. The sulfide deposits form when the mantle-derived mafic and/or ultramafic magmas become sulfide-saturated and segregate immiscible sulfide liquid, commonly following interaction with continental crustal rocks.

  5. Sifat kualitatif dan kuantitatif kuskus di Pulau Moor Kabupaten Nabire Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyantono Supriyantono

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Reserch on cuscus diversity at Moor island was carried out on November to December 2002. The aim of the research was to know qualitative and quntitative traits, feed and mating behaviour, anatomy of digestion tract and anatomy reproduction organ. Method of case study was used in the research. We found two species of cuscus at Moor island which were Phalanger orientalis and Spilocuscus maculatus. Generally, S. maculatus is bigger than P. orientalis. Both of them can be distinguished easily. Digestion tract of S. maculatus is better than P. orientalis. The form of reproduction organ of those cuscus is very specific and no differ each other.

  6. Method of securing filter elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Erik P.; Haslam, Jeffery L.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2016-10-04

    A filter securing system including a filter unit body housing; at least one tubular filter element positioned in the filter unit body housing, the tubular filter element having a closed top and an open bottom; a dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element; and a socket in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element that receives the dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element to secure the tubular filter element to the filter unit body housing.

  7. It is elemental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Reich, Peter B.; Khachane, Amit N.

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that resource quantity and elemental stoichiometry play major roles in shaping below and aboveground plant biodiversity, but their importance for shaping microbial diversity in soil remains unclear. Here, we used statistical modeling on a regional database covering 179...... diversity and composition were primarily driven by variation in soil resource stoichiometry (total C:N:P ratios), itself linked to different land uses, and secondarily driven by other important biodiversity drivers such as climate, soil spatial heterogeneity, soil pH, root influence (plant-soil microbe...

  8. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  9. Osteoporosis and trace elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, J.; Boivin, G.; Andersen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    More than 200 million people are affected by osteoporosis worldwide, as estimated by 2 million annual hip fractures and other debilitating bone fractures (vertebrae compression and Colles' fractures). Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disease with potential contributions from genetic, endocrine...... in new bone and results in a net gain in bone mass, but may be associated with a tissue of poor quality. Aluminum induces impairment of bone formation. Gallium and cadmium suppresses bone turnover. However, exact involvements of the trace elements in osteoporosis have not yet been fully clarified...

  10. Elements of probability theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rumshiskii, L Z

    1965-01-01

    Elements of Probability Theory presents the methods of the theory of probability. This book is divided into seven chapters that discuss the general rule for the multiplication of probabilities, the fundamental properties of the subject matter, and the classical definition of probability. The introductory chapters deal with the functions of random variables; continuous random variables; numerical characteristics of probability distributions; center of the probability distribution of a random variable; definition of the law of large numbers; stability of the sample mean and the method of moments

  11. Elements of real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sprecher, David A

    2010-01-01

    This classic text in introductory analysis delineates and explores the intermediate steps between the basics of calculus and the ultimate stage of mathematics: abstraction and generalization.Since many abstractions and generalizations originate with the real line, the author has made it the unifying theme of the text, constructing the real number system from the point of view of a Cauchy sequence (a step which Dr. Sprecher feels is essential to learn what the real number system is).The material covered in Elements of Real Analysis should be accessible to those who have completed a course in

  12. Elements of analytical dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kurth, Rudolph; Stark, M

    1976-01-01

    Elements of Analytical Dynamics deals with dynamics, which studies the relationship between motion of material bodies and the forces acting on them. This book is a compilation of lectures given by the author at the Georgia and Institute of Technology and formed a part of a course in Topological Dynamics. The book begins by discussing the notions of space and time and their basic properties. It then discusses the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and Hamilton's principle and first integrals. The text concludes with a discussion on Jacobi's geometric interpretation of conservative systems. This book will

  13. Analytical elements of mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Analytical Elements of Mechanics, Volume 1, is the first of two volumes intended for use in courses in classical mechanics. The books aim to provide students and teachers with a text consistent in content and format with the author's ideas regarding the subject matter and teaching of mechanics, and to disseminate these ideas. The book opens with a detailed exposition of vector algebra, and no prior knowledge of this subject is required. This is followed by a chapter on the topic of mass centers, which is presented as a logical extension of concepts introduced in connection with centroids. A

  14. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions.

  15. Elements of Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elements of Architecture explores new ways of engaging architecture in archaeology. It conceives of architecture both as the physical evidence of past societies and as existing beyond the physical environment, considering how people in the past have not just dwelled in buildings but have existed...... and affective impacts, of these material remains. The contributions in this volume investigate the way time, performance and movement, both physically and emotionally, are central aspects of understanding architectural assemblages. It is a book about the constellations of people, places and things that emerge...

  16. Diffractive elements performance in chromatic confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, J; Duque, D; Alean, A; Toledo, M [Grupo de Optica y EspectroscopIa, Centro de Ciencia Basica, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana. Medellin (Colombia); Meneses, J [Laboratorio de Optica y Tratamiento de Senales, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Gharbi, T, E-mail: jgarzonr10@une.net.co [Laboratoire d' Optique P. M. Duffieux, UMR-6603 CNR/Universite de Franche-Comte. 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2011-01-01

    The Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) has been widely used in the semiconductor industry and biomedicine because of its depth discrimination capability. Subsequent to this technique has been developed in recent years Chromatic Confocal Microscopy. This method retains the same principle of confocal and offers the added advantage of removing the axial movement of the moving system. This advantage is usually accomplished with an optical element that generates a longitudinal chromatic aberration and a coding system that relates the axial position of each point of the sample with the wavelength that is focused on each. The present paper shows the performance of compact chromatic confocal microscope when some different diffractive elements are used for generation of longitudinal chromatic aberration. Diffractive elements, according to the process and manufacturing parameters, may have different diffraction efficiency and focus a specific wavelength in a specific focal position. The performance assessment is carried out with various light sources which exhibit an incoherent behaviour and a broad spectral width.

  17. Ring-laser gyroscope system using dispersive element(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A ring-laser gyroscope system includes a ring-laser gyroscope (RLG) and at least one dispersive element optically coupled to the RLG's ring-shaped optical path. Each dispersive element has a resonant frequency that is approximately equal to the RLG's lasing frequency. A group index of refraction defined collectively by the dispersive element(s) has (i) a real portion that is greater than zero and less than one, and (ii) an imaginary portion that is less than zero.

  18. Leaching of Main Elements of Glass Immersed in Beishan Groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The leaching quantities of the elements from the HLW are very important parameters for the safety assessments of the repository of high level radioactive wastes. It is necessary to study the leaching

  19. Risk Assessment of Military Logistics Outsourcing Based on Matter- element Analysis%基于物元分析的军事物流外包风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳辉; 刘士通; 张松

    2012-01-01

    军事物流外包风险直接关系到外包策略的实现。建立了评估指标体系,基于物元分析理论构造了物元分析模型,并运用模糊层次分析法确定评估指标的权重,通过计算待评物元对评估等级的关联度,评估风险等级。应用实例说明了评估模型的可行性和可靠性,为军事物流外包工作提供了一种方法。%The risk of military logistics outsourcing is directly related to the implementation of outsourcing strategy. This paper established an evaluation index system and matter-lement analysis model based on its theory, fixed the weighting of evaluation element by adopting FAHP. The relevancy degree of matter element under evaluation was calculated to evaluate the rank of military logistics outsourcing risk. It clarified the dependence and feasibility of the evaluating model by practical example, and can provide a method for the military logistics outsourcing works o

  20. Connectivity measures in EEG microstructural sleep elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris eSakellariou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During Non-Rapid Eye Movement sleep (NREM the brain is relatively disconnected from the environment, while connectedness between brain areas is also decreased. Evidence indicates that these dynamic connectivity changes are delivered by microstructural elements of sleep: short periods of environmental stimuli evaluation followed by sleep promoting procedures. The connectivity patterns of the latter, among other aspects of sleep microstructure, are still to be fully elucidated.We suggest here a methodology for the assessment and investigation of the connectivity patterns of EEG microstructural elements, such as sleep spindles. The methodology combines techniques in the preprocessing, estimation, error assessing and visualization of results levels in order to allow the detailed examination of the connectivity aspects (levels and directionality of information flow over frequency and time with notable resolution, while dealing with the volume conduction and EEG reference assessment. The high temporal and frequency resolution of the methodology will allow the association between the microelements and the dynamically forming networks that characterise them, and consequently possibly reveal aspects of the EEG microstructure. The proposed methodology is initially tested on artificially generated signals for proof of concept and subsequently applied to real EEG recordings via a custom built MATLAB-based tool developed for such studies. Preliminary results from 843 fast sleep spindles recorded in whole night sleep of 5 healthy volunteers indicate a prevailing pattern of interactions between centroparietal and frontal regions.We demonstrate hereby an opening to our knowledge attempt to estimate the scalp EEG connectivity that characterizes fast sleep spindles via an EEG-element connectivity methodology we propose. The application of the latter, via a computational tool we developed suggests it is able to investigate the connectivity patterns related to the

  1. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  2. An efficient rectangular plate element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new 12-parameter rectangular plate element is presented by useof the double set parameter method. The error in the energy norm is of order O(h2), one order higher than the commonly used Adini nonconforming element.

  3. Real-time x-ray fluorescence analysis of crop canopy to spatially assess phytoextraction efficiency and subsurface status of low-Z elements: a case study for phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thanh

    2017-04-01

    Leaf analysis has been extensively used to interpret results of nutrient supplementation studies about crop growth and yield responses, and to define availability thresholds for a wide range of soils and climatic conditions. The compositional results reflect the nutritional status, uptake efficiency, and the geo-chemical environment of the element in the subsurface. An X-ray fluorescence (XRF)-based proximal sensing approach was evaluated and proposed for real-time determination of water content and element-specific composition of corn seedling leaves, which was comprised mostly of essential macronutrients of low-atomic number Z, such as phosphorus (P) or potassium. Intensities of scattered radiation associated with the X-ray tube Ag anode were significantly correlated with leaf water content (θw), which was used to normalize fluorescence intensities of P. Crop canopy water status was also obtained as ancillary data. The θw - P relative concentration relationship was best described by a sigmoidal function (r2 = 0.938 and RMSE=0.02). The Ag-Lα line was deemed to be effective for normalizing the intensities of Kα lines of P and other low-Z elements, in addition to the commonly used Kα and Kβ lines. Its intensity was significantly correlated to leaf water content and was used to develop calibrations and obtain P concentration on a dry weight basis and unbiased estimates of crop P status. Therefore, the in situ fluorescence sensing system presents a new paradigm in nutrient management to re-evaluate calibrations of observed crop responses against those predicted by current soil testing and fertility recommendations. Updates to the rates of supplemental P and crop growth response relationships are critically needed as crop cultivars, supplemental P sources, or alternative soil-crop management systems are continually changing. Changes in soil microenvironments that are site- or field-specific, and climate are expected to continue to be the norm and can modify those

  4. 基于现场检测及有限元分析的铁塔工程安全性评估%Security Assessment of Steel Tower Based on the Field Test Results and Finite Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙正华; 方平; 毛东建; 张彪

    2012-01-01

    Inspection items and method of steel tower were discussed in this paper. Firstly, some items such as degree of gravity vertical, thickness of anti-corrosion coating, dimension of components , connection quality of welding and bolt were inspected and dynamic characteristic of the radar tower was tested in the field through environmental excitation. Secondly, the finite element model of the radar tower was developed and analyzed through the ANSYS software based on the data from field tests and the design documents. It is shown that the results of dynamical characteristic calculated by the finite element model are accordance with those measured from the field test. Therefore, it can be concluded that the finite element model is valid and can be taken as the foundation for the following dynamic response study. Finally, the static and dynamic responses of the radar tower were calculated by the finite element model. It is shown that the ratio of resistance and the action of the radar steel tower components is more than 1.0 and it can be concluded that the bearing capacity of the radar steel tower under the current condition can satisfy with the normal use requirement.%本文探讨了铁塔钢结构工程的检测项目与检测方法,首先,通过对某铁塔工程的倾斜率、尺寸、涂层厚度、连接质量等各项参数的现场检测,并结合环境激励的方法对铁塔工程进行动力特性测试.然后,根据现场实测数据及设计图纸资料,利用ANSYS有限元软件建立铁塔结构的有限元模型并进行分析.分析结果表明:铁塔工程的有限元模型动力特性计算结果和现场实测结果相比较接近,说明所建立的有限元模型可以满足工程需要,并可以为进一步分析提供基础.最后,对该有限元模型在设计荷载作用下进行静动力响应分析,计算结果表明:铁塔结构各构件的抗力和作用效应之比均大于1.0,说明该铁塔工程在目前状况下其承载能力可以满足正常使用要求.

  5. 岩体滑坡冲击能计算及受灾体易损性定量评估%IMPACT ENERGY CALCULATION FOR ROCK SLOPE AND QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF VULNERABILITY FOR ELEMENT AT RISK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴越; 刘东升; 李明军

    2011-01-01

    In the processes of landslide mass sliding and impacting on element at risk, the internal collapse of landslide mass will dissipate part of kinetic energy. But in practice, this part of energy is not taken usually into account. The discrete element method(DEM) is adopted to get impact force-time curves; and the impact energy conversion equation is also deduced based on impulse law and energy conservation law. With the analysis of the energy dissipation principle in the sliding and impacting processes of a practical rock slope, a comparison is made between the calculation method which takes both internal and external energy dissipations into account and the method which only takes external energy dissipation into account. The result shows that there is a significant difference between the two methods; and the internal energy dissipation can not be ignored. Moreover, the influence factors of impact energy and vulnerability for element at risk are both analyzed. The analysis result shows that impact energy is most sensitive to internal friction angle of landslide debris; second sensitive to distance between element at risk and landslide mass, gap length between joint segments, density of landslide mass and width of impact surface; last sensitive to the cohesion of landslide mass. In addition, the impact direction of landslide debris can simulataneously effect both impact energy and anti-impact energy.%滑体下滑及对受灾体冲击过程中,由于滑体内部的崩解碰撞将会耗散部分动能,而工程中通常采用简化的方法计算滑体冲击能,没有考虑内部耗能的影响.采用离散元法模拟得到滑体对受灾体的冲击力-时间曲线,根据冲量定律和能量守恒定律换算得到滑体冲击能.以实际工程为例,详细分析滑体下滑过程与冲击受灾体过程中的能耗规律.结果表明:同时考虑下滑和冲击过程中滑体内外部耗能的计算方法与只考虑滑体外部摩擦耗能的计算方法相比,

  6. Assessment of contamination for inorganic elements and phthalate esters in household dust from the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo; Avaliacao da contaminacao por elementos inorganicos e esteres ftalicos em poeira domestica da regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Valdirene de Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    Household dust has been identified as an important vector of exposure by inorganic and organic substances potentially toxic in children and adults. The dust composition has a strong influence of contaminants provided from internal and external environments. During the natural process of wearing or weather incidents of artifacts and materials variety, the chemical substances are released into the environment in the steam form or by leaching from final products. Once released, they can be accumulated and enriched in the dust; and by continuous exposure (inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact mechanisms), these substances are harmful to human health. In this work, a study to determine the inorganic constituents and phthalate esters concentrations in residential indoor environment dust samples, correlating them with the probable anthropogenic sources was proposed. Dust samples were collected from 69 residences in neighborhoods Pirituba, Freguesia do O, Jaragua and Perus of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, using a domestic vacuum cleaner, between 2006 and 2008. The samples were sieved in the fractions of 850, 850-300, 300-150, 150-75, 75-63 and <63 {mu}m. The analysis by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed the presence of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb. The presence of phthalate esters (DEHP, DnBP, DEP, DEHA, DMP and BBP) was detected, by GCMS analyses. From the enrichment factor (EF), the elements P, S, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were classified as being significant and extremely enriched in the dust. The natural and anthropogenic contributions by statistical tools as factor analysis (AF) and cluster were identified. The elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were present significantly elevated concentrations in relation to the total exposure values (ingestion, inhalation and skin contact) and to risk. (author)

  7. Trace element emissions from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    Trace elements are emitted during coal combustion. The quantity, in general, depends on the physical and chemical properties of the element itself, the concentration of the element in the coal, the combustion conditions and the type of particulate control device used, and its collection efficiency as a function of particle size. Some trace elements become concentrated in certain particle streams following combustion such as bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas particulate matter, while others do not. Various classification schemes have been developed to describe this partitioning behaviour. These classification schemes generally distinguish between: Class 1: elements that are approximately equally concentrated in the fly ash and bottom ash, or show little or no fine particle enrichment, examples include Mn, Be, Co and Cr; Class 2: elements that are enriched in the fly ash relative to bottom ash, or show increasing enrichment with decreasing particle size, examples include As, Cd, Pb and Sb; Class 3: elements which are emitted in the gas phase (primarily Hg (not discussed in this review), and in some cases, Se). Control of class 1 trace elements is directly related to control of total particulate matter emissions, while control of the class 2 elements depends on collection of fine particulates. Due to the variability in particulate control device efficiencies, emission rates of these elements can vary substantially. The volatility of class 3 elements means that particulate controls have only a limited impact on the emissions of these elements.

  8. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  9. ELEMENTAL FORMS OF HOSPITALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Emanuel Korstanje

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern studies emphasized on the needs of researching the hospitality as relevant aspects of tourism and hospitality fields. Anyway, these approaches are inextricably intertwined to the industry of tourism and do not take seriously the anthropological and sociological roots of hospitality. In fact, the hotel seems to be a partial sphere of hospitality at all. Under this context, the present paper explores the issue of hospitality enrooted in the political and economic indo-European principle of free-transit which is associated to a much broader origin.  Starting from the premise etymologically hostel and hospital share similar origins, we follow the contributions of J Derrida to determine the elements that formed the hospitality up to date.

  10. COLOR- SENSITIZED SOLAR ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gish R. A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic devices are a promising solution to the energy crisis, because they generate electricity directly from sunlight, without producing CO2. While color-sensitized batteries are the most studied element, mainly due to its low cost and high efficiency solar energy conversion into electricity. Until recently, the color-sensitized solar cells performance was less than 1%, however, the use of titanium dioxide as the anode material have greatly raised their efficiency. The advantages of titanium dioxide is primarily in the low cost, but its use provides high light capture efficiency, with external quantum efficiency (efficiency incident photon - charge, usually in the range of 60-90% using nanocrystal forms in comparison with

  11. Ucla, escuela elemental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1962-03-01

    Full Text Available La Escuela Elemental de Preparación de la Universidad de California, en Los Angeles, está dedicada a la educación e investigación y preparación del profesorado de la infancia. Se ha construido en un paraje maravilloso, de frondosa vegetación, frente a un terreno bastante quebrado, circunstancia que presta mayor encanto al conjunto, construido con gran pericia y adaptación al paisaje a base de una dominante horizontalidad, con materiales sencillos (ladrillos, hierro y madera y gran comunicación con la naturaleza mediante grandes cristaleras correderas que ensanchan las clases y las suplementan hacia el jardín de acuerdo con las nuevas normas y prácticas docentes.

  12. Composición elemental y contenido de metales en sedimentos marinos de la bahía Mejillones del Sur, Chile: evaluación ambiental de la zona costera Elemental composition and metal contents in the marine sediments of Mejillones del Sur Bay, Chile: an environmental assessment of the coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Valdés

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se midió la concentración de carbono total, nitrógeno total, azufre total, materia orgánica, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cu y Zn en sedimentos costeros (10 m de profundidad de columna de agua de ocho sectores de la bahía Mejillones. La composición elemental de los sedimentos sería el resultado de la abundante materia orgánica autóctona presente en este sistema costero. El orden de abundancia de los metales analizados fue: Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd. La concentración de metales no se explicaría por el contenido de materia orgánica ni la composición granulométrica de los sedimentos costeros. La evaluación del contenido de metales en los sedimentos, mostró que el Ni, Zn y Pb estarían levemente enriquecidos en la actualidad, aún cuando los valores se mantienen dentro de un rango cercano a los niveles preindustriales. El análisis del dendrograma de similitud de los sectores de estudio separó la línea de costa de Mejillones en dos grandes zonas; una asociada a la actividad industrial desarrollada en la bahía, y otra correspondiente al área de desarrollo urbano de Mejillones con características similares a aquellos ambientes libres de actividad antrópica directa.The total carbon, total nitrogen, total sulphur, organic matter, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn concentrations were measured in coastal sediments (10 m water depth at eight stations in Mejillones Bay. The elemental composition of these sediments is a function of the autochthonous organic matter generated in this coastal system. The order of abundance for the metals was: Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd. The metal content is not explained by the organic matter content or grain size of these coastal sediments. The evaluation of the concentration metals in the sediments showed that Ni, Zn, and Pb are slightly enriched at the present, although with values that are similar to preindustrial concentrations. A cluster analysis of the similarity in the study area separated the Mejillones coast into two main zones

  13. The fantastic four.. elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, Antonella; D'Addezio, Giuliana; Rubbia, Giuliana; Ramieri, Caterina; Todaro, Riccardo; Scipilliti, Francesca; Tosto, Eleonora

    2015-04-01

    With a "Sunday between territory and music to 'National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology," October 12, 2014 the headquarters of INGV Roma kicked off the activities of the second edition of the Week of Planet Earth. The laboratory of scientific outreach and museum activities together with volunteers of the National Civil Service have organized the whole day dedicated to the dissemination of earth sciences, involving adults and children. Especially for primary school children a laboratory was made involving three amusing activities all aimed at inspiring respect for the Earth: a theatrical representation called "The Fantastic 4... elements", a behavioral game and a nursery rhyme reading. The theater as a means of communication of science is an innovative and creative way to introduce children to important scientific concepts. The use of this methodology and simple language favoring the emotional involvement of the child facilitating learning. The main character is a child, chosen to facilitate the identification of the spectators with the protagonist, that through a fantastic journey discovers the importance of the four elements of our planet: earth, fire, air and water. As a second step, volunteers involved children in reading a nursery rhyme "the ABC to become a Friend of the Earth" inviting them to protect and respect the environment and its resources. Finally, the behavioral game gave indications about behaviors to adopt to safeguard the planet. Volunteers introduced a billboard divided into two colors, green to indicate the right behaviors and red for the wrong ones. Each child, after reading a card with indication on the behavior to adopt, had to decide if they were correct or not with respect to the environment safeguard. After listening to the children's answer, the volunteer gave the correct explanation about the appropriate behavior to adopt. At the end of the activities, each child received a certificate as "a friend of Planet Earth".

  14. An element by element spectral element method for elastic wave modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Weijun; WANG Xiuming; ZHANG Hailan

    2006-01-01

    The spectral element method which combines the advantages of spectral method with those of finite element method,provides an efficient tool in simulating elastic wave equation in complex medium. Based on weak form of elastodynamic equations, mathematical formulations for Legendre spectral element method are presented. The wave field on an element is discretized using high-order Lagrange interpolation, and integration over the element is accomplished based upon the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre integration rule. This results in a diagonal mass matrix which leads to a greatly simplified algorithm. In addition, the element by element technique is introduced in our method to reduce the memory sizes and improve the computation efficiency. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the spectral accuracy and the efficiency. Because of combinations of the finite element scheme and spectral algorithms, this method can be used for complex models, including free surface boundaries and strong heterogeneity.

  15. Novel high-performance element in the electromagnetic finite-element method--node-edge element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Xinqing; Peng Zhen

    2008-01-01

    It is known in the computational electromagnetics (CEM) that the node element has a relative well-conditioned matrix,but suffers from the spurious solution problem; whereas the edge element has no spurious solutions,but usually produces an ill-conditioned matrix.Particularly,when the mesh is over dense,the iterative solution of the matrix equation from edge element converges very slowly.Based on the node element and edge element,a node-edge element is presented,which has no spurious solutions and better-conditioned matrix.Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed node-edge element is more efficient than now-widely used edge element.

  16. Techniques for assessing the performance of in situ bioreduction and immobilization of metals and radionuclides in contaminated subsurface environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, P.M.; Watson, D.B.; Blake, D.A.; Beard, L.P.; Brooks, S.C.; Carley, J.M.; Criddle, C.S.; Doll, W.E.; Fields, M.W.; Fendorf, S.E.; Geesey, G.G.; Ginder-Vogel, M.; Hubbard, S.S.; Istok, J.D.; Kelly, S.; Kemner, K.M.; Peacock, A.D.; Spalding, B.P.; White, D.C.; Wolf, A.; Wu, W.; Zhou, J.

    2004-11-14

    Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex face a daunting challenge of remediating huge below inventories of legacy radioactive and toxic metal waste. More often than not, the scope of the problem is massive, particularly in the high recharge, humid regions east of the Mississippi river, where the off-site migration of contaminants continues to plague soil water, groundwater, and surface water sources. As of 2002, contaminated sites are closing rapidly and many remediation strategies have chosen to leave contaminants in-place. In situ barriers, surface caps, and bioremediation are often the remedial strategies of chose. By choosing to leave contaminants in-place, we must accept the fact that the contaminants will continue to interact with subsurface and surface media. Contaminant interactions with the geosphere are complex and investigating long term changes and interactive processes is imperative to verifying risks. We must be able to understand the consequences of our action or inaction. The focus of this manuscript is to describe recent technical developments for assessing the performance of in situ bioremediation and immobilization of subsurface metals and radionuclides. Research within DOE's NABIR and EMSP programs has been investigating the possibility of using subsurface microorganisms to convert redox sensitive toxic metals and radionuclides (e.g. Cr, U, Tc, Co) into a less soluble, less mobile forms. Much of the research is motivated by the likelihood that subsurface metal-reducing bacteria can be stimulated to effectively alter the redox state of metals and radionuclides so that they are immobilized in situ for long time periods. The approach is difficult, however, since subsurface media and waste constituents are complex with competing electron acceptors and hydrogeological conditions making biostimulation a challenge. Performance assessment of in situ biostimulation strategies is also difficult and typically requires detailed

  17. 基于熵权模糊物元的轨道交通运营安全评价%Operation Safety Assessment of Rail Transit Based on Entropy Weight Fuzzy Matter Element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪勇; 吴丽霞; 蔡明

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve issues of quantization of qualitative indexes and scope definition of hierar-chical values in the rail transit operation safety evaluation process, an evaluation model which combined entropy weight (EW) with fuzzy matter-element (FME) to evaluate rail transit operation safety indicators was established. It was based on fuzzy matter-element model by introducing entropy method to finalize index weight and selecting the idea of Euclid approach degree to reflect the extent of closeness between the unvalued safety results and standard safety results. On the basis of previous studies, indexes of urban rail transit operation safety evaluation system were divided into four levels, including excellent, good, fair, and bad. Besides, the range of each level was also provided. Taking Chongqing rail transit Line 3 as an example, compared to method of extension matter-element (EME), the EW-FME model were ana-lyzed. The results showed that the EW-FME model evaluation index was 0.5889 and the EME level of risk evaluation was 3, which both reached to the degree of good safety. The study indicates that EW-FME model can solve the problem of non-quantitative evaluation effectively. The precision of evaluation is further improved in comparison with EME model.%为解决轨道交通运营安全评价过程中定性指标难以量化以及分级量值范围界定模糊等问题,在模糊物元分析的基础上,引入熵值法确定指标权重,并利用欧氏贴近度反映待评安全结果与标准安全结果互相接近的程度,建立了一种评价轨道交通运营安全指数的熵权模糊物元模型.在总结前人研究成果的基础上,将城市轨道交通运营安全评价指标体系中的各指标划分成"优"、"良"、"一般"、"差"4个评判等级,并给出了各等级的适用范围.以重庆市轨道交通3号线为例,对比可拓物元法进行分析,结果显示熵权模糊物元法评价指标值为0.588 9,可拓物

  18. Collapse Assessment for Deepwater Drilling Risers on the Basis of Finite Element Method%基于有限元法的深水钻井隔水管压溃评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀全; 陈国明; 宋强; 畅元江; 许亮斌

    2015-01-01

    Collapse is one of the major failure modes in deepw ater drilling risers .In the existing theo-retical algorithm ,the effects of defects on riser collapse cannot be considered .This paper describes the effects of wear and corrosion on the potential for riser collapse ,sets up a method of finite element evalua-tion for nonlinear collapse of deepwater drilling risers ,and details how the verification and analysis for the method were carried out .It showed that the analysis results of finite element stress analysis coincided well with that recommended by API RP 2RD and DNV OS F101 ,the accuracy of finite element analysis method for riser collapse was verified .At the initial stage of riser collapse ,risers were elastically deformed .After the difference between internal and external pressures reaches a critical value ,risers were plastically de-formed .The point of abrupt change from elastic to plastic deformation is the critical point of riser collapse . After collapsing ,the original intact risers became flat and some risers that had defects initially became cone-shaped .In addition ,the critical collapse pressure of risers decreased gradually with the increase of the defect sizes of risers .%压溃是深水钻井隔水管主要的失效模式之一,现有的理论算法无法考虑缺陷对隔水管压溃的影响。因此,考虑磨损和腐蚀对隔水管压溃性能的影响,建立了深水钻井隔水管非线性压溃有限元评估方法,并与深水钻井隔水管压溃理论评估方法进行了对比。结果表明:有限元压溃分析方法与 API RP 2RD、DNV OS F101推荐算法的分析结果基本一致,验证了隔水管压溃有限元分析方法的准确性;压溃过程的初始阶段隔水管发生弹性变形,当内外压差达到临界压力时,隔水管开始发生塑性变形,弹性阶段向塑性阶段的突变点即为隔水管压溃临界点;完好隔水管压溃后截面呈扁平状,缺损隔水管压溃后截面呈

  19. The Chemistry of Superheavy Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Schädel, M

    2003-01-01

    The chemistry of transactinide or superheavy elements has reached element 108. Preparations are under way to leap to element 112 and beyond. The current status of this atom-at-a-time chemical research and its future perspectives are reviewed from an experimental point of view together with some of the interesting results from n -rich nuclides near and at the N=162 neutron shell. Experimental techniques and important results enlightening typical chemical properties of elements 104 through 108 are presented in an exemplary way. From the results of these experiments it is justified to place these elements in the Periodic Table of the Elements in to groups 4 through 8, respectively. However, mainly due to the influence of relativistic effects, it is no longer possible to deduce detailed chemical properties of these superheavy elements simply from this position.

  20. Basic study on behaviors of radioactive and toxic inorganic elements in environment, and environmental assessment for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Outline of the prize-winning study of the 12th Osaka Nuclear Science Corporation Prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikawa, Yoko; Kudo, Akira [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1999-01-01

    This study was made aiming to establish geological disposal technology for high-level radioactive wastes generated in nuclear power plant. A basic study for the technology was made using various radioactive materials containing Pu, U, Cs, Se, etc. as a tracer. First, adsorption mechanisms of various nuclides in ground water such as Cs, Co, Se, etc. onto rocks were investigated by indoor experiment. A certain correlation between the apparent adsorption rate of a nuclide onto rocks and diffusion coefficient into micropores in rocks was demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. To estimate the radionuclide migration during more than one thousand years based on the results from indoor experiments is difficult, so that construction of a mathematical model was attempted to make numerical simulation. Thus,it was suggested that the properties of underground barrier are considerably related to the adsorption rates of nuclides and also diffusion coefficients into micropores. In addition, the effects of soil microorganisms and organic compounds on the behaviors of radioactive nuclides in soil ecosphere were investigated by extra-low level analysis of long-life radioactivities. More than 10% of Pu derived from Atomic Bomb at Nagasaki were found to be strongly bound to organic compounds in soils, showing that the element is extremely reactive with organic substances. (M.N.)

  1. Chemistry of the superheavy elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädel, Matthias

    2015-03-13

    The quest for superheavy elements (SHEs) is driven by the desire to find and explore one of the extreme limits of existence of matter. These elements exist solely due to their nuclear shell stabilization. All 15 presently 'known' SHEs (11 are officially 'discovered' and named) up to element 118 are short-lived and are man-made atom-at-a-time in heavy ion induced nuclear reactions. They are identical to the transactinide elements located in the seventh period of the periodic table beginning with rutherfordium (element 104), dubnium (element 105) and seaborgium (element 106) in groups 4, 5 and 6, respectively. Their chemical properties are often surprising and unexpected from simple extrapolations. After hassium (element 108), chemistry has now reached copernicium (element 112) and flerovium (element 114). For the later ones, the focus is on questions of their metallic or possibly noble gas-like character originating from interplay of most pronounced relativistic effects and electron-shell effects. SHEs provide unique opportunities to get insights into the influence of strong relativistic effects on the atomic electrons and to probe 'relativistically' influenced chemical properties and the architecture of the periodic table at its farthest reach. In addition, they establish a test bench to challenge the validity and predictive power of modern fully relativistic quantum chemical models.

  2. Self-Assessment in University Assessment of Prior Learning Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinke, D. Joosten-Ten; Sluijsmans, D. M. A.; Jochems, W. M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Competency-based university education, in which lifelong learning and flexible learning are key elements, demands a renewed vision on assessment. Within this vision, Assessment of Prior Learning (APL), in which learners have to show their prior learning in order for their goals to be recognised, becomes an important element. This article focuses…

  3. Vesta's Elemental Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Beck, A. W.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, D. J.; McCoy, T. J.; McSween, H. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peplowski, P. N.; Raymond, C. A.; Reedy, R. C.; Russell, C. T.; Titus, T. N.; Toplis, M. J.; Yamashita, N.

    2014-01-01

    Many lines of evidence (e.g. common geochemistry, chronology, O-isotope trends, and the presence of different HED rock types in polymict breccias) indicate that the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites originated from a single parent body. Meteorite studies show that this protoplanet underwent igneous differentiation to form a metallic core, an ultramafic mantle, and a basaltic crust. A spectroscopic match between the HEDs and 4 Vesta along with a plausible mechanism for their transfer to Earth, perhaps as chips off V-type asteroids ejected from Vesta's southern impact basin, supports the consensus view that many of these achondritic meteorites are samples of Vesta's crust and upper mantle. The HED-Vesta connection was put to the test by the NASA Dawn mission, which spent a year in close proximity to Vesta. Measurements by Dawn's three instruments, redundant Framing Cameras (FC), a Visible-InfraRed (VIR) spectrometer, and a Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND), along with radio science have strengthened the link. Gravity measurements by Dawn are consistent with a differentiated, silicate body, with a dense Fe-rich core. The range of pyroxene compositions determined by VIR overlaps that of the howardites. Elemental abundances determined by nuclear spectroscopy are also consistent with HED-compositions. Observations by GRaND provided a new view of Vesta inaccessible by telescopic observations. Here, we summarize the results of Dawn's geochemical investigation of Vesta and their implications.

  4. EAF optimal managing elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Dragna, E. C.

    2017-01-01

    Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF) is an important and complex aggregate. We present elements of EAF operating efficiency. The reliability of the EAF is mainly determined by electric circuit reliability and especially of the transformator of the furnace. This due to the fact that, in an electric steel plant, the objective „24 tapping/day” involves. Due to the complexity of the process, the EAF operation needs a computer usage and, in his componence, it must have two independent calculation units (UC1) and (UC2). Based on these two input sets (Σi1) and ((Σi2), the calculation unit (UC1) builds the general operation procedure based on mathematical methods. For that purpose, there are used the results of the 5 mathematical methods: the mathematical model to write-off the function objective (M.F.O.); the mathematical model of calculating the charge (M.C.C.); the mathematical model of conducting the effective melt (M.C.M.); the mathematical model of reheating the charge (M.R.C.); the mathematical model of blasting the reactive dusts (M.B.R.D.).

  5. DOE limited standard: Operations assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Purpose of this standard is to provide DOE Field Element assessors with a guide for conducting operations assessments, and provide DOE Field Element managers with the criteria of the EM Operations Assessment Program. Sections 6.1 to 6.21 provide examples of how to assess specific areas; the general techniques of operations assessments (Section 5) may be applied to other areas of health and safety (e.g. fire protection, criticality safety, quality assurance, occupational safety, etc.).

  6. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from two estuarine systems: Santos/Sao Vicente and Cananeia, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e outros elementos de interesse em amostras de sedimentos dos estuarios de Santos/Sao Vicente e Cananeia, estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Eduardo Paulo de

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated some toxic metals such as Cd, Hg and Pb and some other major and trace elements in surface sediment samples, from two different systems under different degrees of anthropogenic actions: the estuarine system of Santos/Sao Vicente and the southern part of the Cananeia estuary, both on the Sao Paulo state coast. Sediment samples were collected in 16 stations in the Santos/Sao Vicente estuary and 13 stations in the Cananeia estuary, during summer and winter of 2005 and 2006, in both estuaries. Three analytical techniques were used: NAA, AAS and ICP OES. NAA was used for the quantification of major element concentration levels (Ca, Fe and Na), trace elements (As, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, and Zn and rare earths elements La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb). ICP OES was used for determination of the concentration levels of Al, Ba, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Cr, Sn, Sr, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Tl, Ti, V and Zn. AAS for Cd and Pb quantification through graphite furnace (GF AAS) and Hg through cold vapor generation (CV AAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference material analyses for the three analytical techniques used. Detection and quantification limits were calculated for each element evaluated. Seasonal variations (summer and winter), spatial and temporal (2005 e 2006) variations of metals and trace elements were also evaluated. In the Santos estuary, in general, metal and trace element concentrations , organic matter content and % of pelitic fraction found in the Santos channel (area 1) were higher than those of the Santos Bay (area 2) and Sao Vicente channel (area 3). Area 1 suffers high impact from industrial activities from the Cubatao region and Santos port. The sediments from station 14 (area 3, Sao Vicente channel), showed the same behavior of those from area 1, suffering influence from the industrial pole and located in a mangrove area. In comparison with TEL and PEL

  7. RECOGNITION AND ASSESSMENT IN ACCOUNTANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMA FLORIN CONSTANTIN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The recognition and assessment of the component elements of the annual financial statements’ structures is crucial in order that the information released by them fulfils the qualitative characteristics and the reflected image is a “true and fair view”. Therefore, our approach takes into consideration the recognition and assessment methods for the component elements of the financial statements’ structures, as well as certain possible risks arising from the erroneous recognition or non-recognition of some of these elements.

  8. EDGE-ORIENTED HEXAGONAL ELEMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Yang; Jiachang Sun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, two new nonconforming hexagonal elements are presented, which are based on the trilinear function space Q(3)1 and are edge-oriented, analogical to the case of the rotated Q1 quadrilateral element. A priori error estimates are given to show that the new elements achieve first-order accuracy in the energy norm and second-order accuracy in the L2 norm. This theoretical result is confirmed by the numerical tests.

  9. Matrix elements of unstable states

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, V; Meißner, U -G; Rusetsky, A

    2012-01-01

    Using the language of non-relativistic effective Lagrangians, we formulate a systematic framework for the calculation of resonance matrix elements in lattice QCD. The generalization of the L\\"uscher-Lellouch formula for these matrix elements is derived. We further discuss in detail the procedure of the analytic continuation of the resonance matrix elements into the complex energy plane and investigate the infinite-volume limit.

  10. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  11. Photoshop Elements 10 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Obermeier, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Perfect your photos and images with this "focused" guide to the latest version of Photoshop Elements For most of us, the professional-level Photoshop is overkill for our needs. Amateur photographers and photo enthusiasts turn to Photoshop Elements for a powerful but simpler way to edit and retouch their snapshots. Photoshop Elements 10 For Dummies, fully updated and revised for the latest release of this software product, helps you navigate Elements to create, edit, fix, share, and organize the high-quality images you desire. Full color pages bring the techniques to life and make taking great

  12. Gamification Elements for Learning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Layth Khaleel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamification technique is getting popular to be implemented in learning or training application. It is referred to the use of game elements or game thinking in a non-game context in order to increase engagement between students and learning application. Since there are many elements of games that are identified from previous works, this study focuses on game elements from Gamification technique that positively affect learning when applied to a learning application. Therefore, the objectives of this research are to identify game elements that can be gamified in a learning application; and to verify those elements by multiple users (gamers, students, and experts. Suitable game elements are identified through literature reviews. Two approaches are used to verify these elements; interview experts and administer a survey to gamers and students. The finding of this study suggests the use of a group of game elements with three aims, (1 increase the level of fun and entertainment; (2 motivate students to challenge each other; and (3 improve gaming and learning skills. In a further study, these elements will be implemented in a learning application and its effectiveness shall be tested.

  13. Infinte Periodic Structure of Lightweight Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Sorokin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Lightweight wooden structures have become more popular as a sustainable, environmental- friendly and cost-effective alternative to concrete, steel and masonry buildings. However, there are certain drawbacks regarding noise and vibration due to the smaller weight and stiffness of wooden buildings...... for proper dynamic assessment of lightweight buildings. Instead, this paper discusses and compares the use of finite element analysis and a wave approach based on Floquet theory. The present analysis has focus on the effect of periodicity on vibration transmission within semi-infinite beam structures. Two....... Furthermore, lightweight building elements are typically periodic structures that behave as filters for sound propagation within certain frequency ranges (stop bands), thus only allowing transmission within the pass bands. Hence, traditional methods based on statistical energy analysis cannot be used...

  14. Fourier analysis for rotating-element ellipsometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Jai; Chegal, Won; Cho, Hyun Mo

    2011-01-15

    We introduce a Fourier analysis of the waveform of periodic light-irradiance variation to capture Fourier coefficients for multichannel rotating-element ellipsometers. In this analysis, the Fourier coefficients for a sample are obtained using a discrete Fourier transform on the exposures. The analysis gives a generic function that encompasses the discrete Fourier transform or the Hadamard transform, depending on the specific conditions. Unlike the Hadamard transform, a well-known data acquisition method that is used only for conventional multichannel rotating-element ellipsometers with line arrays with specific readout-mode timing, this Fourier analysis is applicable to various line arrays with either nonoverlap or overlap readout-mode timing. To assess the effects of the novel Fourier analysis, the Fourier coefficients for a sample were measured with a custom-built rotating-polarizer ellipsometer, using this Fourier analysis with various numbers of scans, integration times, and rotational speeds of the polarizer.

  15. Clean Elements in Abelian Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angelina Y M Chin

    2009-04-01

    Let be a ring with identity. An element in is said to be clean if it is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. is said to be clean if all of its elements are clean. If every idempotent in is central, then is said to be abelian. In this paper we obtain some conditions equivalent to being clean in an abelian ring.

  16. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  17. SNTP program fuel element design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Lewis A.; Ales, Matthew W.

    1993-06-01

    The SNTP program is evaluating the feasibility of utilizing a particle bed reactor to develop a high-performance nuclear thermal rocket engine. The optimum fuel element arrangement depends on the power level desired and the intended application. The key components of the fuel element have been developed and are being tested.

  18. RESEARCH METHODS OF LOCATIVE ELEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULAYMANOVA N.J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the methods of investigation of locative elements. Sentence analysis with locative elements is taken according to the results of component analysis in the system of contradicting – opposition. More over the article is full of examples related to the description of various syntactic units.

  19. Single element hydrogen sensing material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, B.; Boelsma, C.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a single element thin-film device, to a method for producing a thin-film device, to a single element for detecting hydrogen absorption, to a hydrogen sensor, to an apparatus for detecting hydrogen and to an electro-magnetic transformer comprising said sensor. A thin-

  20. Solution of Finite Element Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    An important step in solving any problem by the finite element method is the solution of the global equations. Numerical solution of linear equations is a subject covered in most courses in numerical analysis. However, the equations encountered in most finite element applications have some special...