WorldWideScience

Sample records for na-asp-2 protein secreted

  1. Extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Darzins, Aldis

    2014-07-22

    Nucleic acids encoding secretion signals, expression vectors containing the nucleic acids, and host cells containing the expression vectors are disclosed. Also disclosed are polypeptides that contain the secretion signals and methods of producing polypeptides, including methods of directing the extracellular secretion of the polypeptides. Exemplary embodiments include cellulase proteins fused to secretion signals, methods to produce and isolate these polypeptides, and methods to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.

  2. Identification of protein secretion systems and novel secreted proteins in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krehenbrink Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins secreted by bacteria play an important role in infection of eukaryotic hosts. Rhizobia infect the roots of leguminous plants and establish a mutually beneficial symbiosis. Proteins secreted during the infection process by some rhizobial strains can influence infection and modify the plant defence signalling pathways. The aim of this study was to systematically analyse protein secretion in the recently sequenced strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Results Similarity searches using defined protein secretion systems from other Gram-negative bacteria as query sequences revealed that R. l. bv. viciae 3841 has ten putative protein secretion systems. These are the general export pathway (GEP, a twin-arginine translocase (TAT secretion system, four separate Type I systems, one putative Type IV system and three Type V autotransporters. Mutations in genes encoding each of these (except the GEP were generated, but only mutations affecting the PrsDE (Type I and TAT systems were observed to affect the growth phenotype and the profile of proteins in the culture supernatant. Bioinformatic analysis and mass fingerprinting of tryptic fragments of culture supernatant proteins identified 14 putative Type I substrates, 12 of which are secreted via the PrsDE, secretion system. The TAT mutant was defective for the symbiosis, forming nodules incapable of nitrogen fixation. Conclusion None of the R. l. bv. viciae 3841 protein secretion systems putatively involved in the secretion of proteins to the extracellular space (Type I, Type IV, Type V is required for establishing the symbiosis with legumes. The PrsDE (Type I system was shown to be the major route of protein secretion in non-symbiotic cells and to secrete proteins of widely varied size and predicted function. This is in contrast to many Type I systems from other bacteria, which typically secrete specific substrates encoded by genes often localised in close proximity to

  3. Development of secreted proteins as biotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin-Debs, Angelika L; Boche, Irene; Gille, Hendrik; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2004-04-01

    As one of the most important classes of proteins, secreted factors account for about one-tenth of the human genome, 3000 - 4000 in total, including factors of signalling pathways, blood coagulation and immune defence, as well as digestive enzymes and components of the extracellular matrix. Secreted proteins are a rich source of new therapeutics and drug targets, and are currently the focus of major drug discovery programmes throughout the industry. Many of the most important novel drugs developed in biotechnology have resulted from the application of secreted proteins as therapeutics. Secreted proteins often circulate throughout the body and, therefore, have access to most organs and tissues. Because of that, many of the factors are themselves therapeutic agents. This paper gives an overview on the features and functions of human secreted proteins and peptides, as well as strategies by which to discover additional therapeutic proteins from the human 'secretome'. Furthermore, a variety of examples are provided for the therapeutic use of recombinant secreted proteins as 'biologicals', including features and applications of recombinant antibodies, erythropoietin, insulin, interferon, plasminogen activators, growth hormone and colony-stimulating factors.

  4. Exocytosis and protein secretion in Trypanosoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossignol Michel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human African trypanosomiasis is a lethal disease caused by the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei. The proteins secreted by T. brucei inhibit the maturation of dendritic cells and their ability to induce lymphocytic allogenic responses. To better understand the pathogenic process, we combined different approaches to characterize these secreted proteins. Results Overall, 444 proteins were identified using mass spectrometry, the largest parasite secretome described to date. Functional analysis of these proteins revealed a strong bias toward folding and degradation processes and to a lesser extent toward nucleotide metabolism. These features were shared by different strains of T. brucei, but distinguished the secretome from published T. brucei whole proteome or glycosome. In addition, several proteins had not been previously described in Trypanosoma and some constitute novel potential therapeutic targets or diagnostic markers. Interestingly, a high proportion of these secreted proteins are known to have alternative roles once secreted. Furthermore, bioinformatic analysis showed that a significant proportion of proteins in the secretome lack transit peptide and are probably not secreted through the classical sorting pathway. Membrane vesicles from secretion buffer and infested rat serum were purified on sucrose gradient and electron microscopy pictures have shown 50- to 100-nm vesicles budding from the coated plasma membrane. Mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of Trypanosoma proteins in these microvesicles, showing that an active exocytosis might occur beyond the flagellar pocket. Conclusions This study brings out several unexpected features of the secreted proteins and opens novel perspectives concerning the survival strategy of Trypanosoma as well as possible ways to control the disease. In addition, concordant lines of evidence support the original hypothesis of the involvement of microvesicle-like bodies in the

  5. Analysis of Secreted Proteins Using SILAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Jeanette; Blagoev, Blagoy; Kratchmarova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Secreted proteins serve a crucial role in the communication between cells, tissues, and organs. Proteins released to the extracellular environment exert their function either locally or at distant points of the organism. Proteins are secreted in a highly dynamic fashion by cells and tissues...... in the body responding to the stimuli and requirements presented by the extracellular milieu. Characterization of secretomes derived from various cell types has been performed using different quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategies, several of them taking advantage of labeling with stable...... isotopes. Here, we describe the use of Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) for the quantitative analysis of the skeletal muscle secretome during myogenesis....

  6. Growth hormone secretion in protein energy malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günöz, H; Neyzł, O; Sencer, E; Molvalilar, S; Argun, A

    1981-07-01

    Plasma hGH levels were assessed in 15 infants with protein energy malnutrition following insulin induced hypoglycemia, arginine and L-Dopa provocation tests and intravenous glucose tolerance test. Fasting hGH levels were high in 85.7% of the cases. An adequate hGH response to stimulation was obtained in only 42.8% of the cases with insulin induced hypoglycemia; in 52.5% with arginine; in 30.8% with L-Dopa. Response to at least one type of provocation was obtained in all 5 cases to which all three tests were applied. Exaggerated or delayed response to provocative stimuli was also encountered in a number of the cases. Intravenous glucose tolerance test did not lead to suppression in hGH secretion or to increase in insulin secretion in these subjects. The results indicate that marasmic protein energy malnutrition may lead to defects in the hGH secretory function of the hypothalamopituitary axis.

  7. Unconventional protein secretion (UPS) pathways in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Robinson, David G; Jiang, Liwen

    2014-08-01

    As in yeast and mammalian cells, novel unconventional protein secretion (UPS) or unconventional membrane trafficking pathways are now known to operate in plants. UPS in plants is generally associated with stress conditions such as pathogen attack, but little is known about its underlying mechanism and function. Here, we present an update on the current knowledge of UPS in the plants in terms of its transport pathways, possible functions and its relationship to autophagy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Proteomics of protein secretion by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Zijnge

    Full Text Available The extracellular proteome (secretome of periodontitis-associated bacteria may constitute a major link between periodontitis and systemic diseases. To obtain an overview of the virulence potential of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, an oral and systemic human pathogen implicated in aggressive periodontitis, we used a combined LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics approach to characterize the secretome and protein secretion pathways of the rough-colony serotype a strain D7S. LC-MS/MS revealed 179 proteins secreted during biofilm growth. Further to confirming the release of established virulence factors (e.g. cytolethal distending toxin [CDT], and leukotoxin [LtxA], we identified additional putative virulence determinants in the secretome. These included DegQ, fHbp, LppC, Macrophage infectivity protein (MIP, NlpB, Pcp, PotD, TolB, and TolC. This finding indicates that the number of extracellular virulence-related proteins is much larger than previously demonstrated, which was also supported by in silico analysis of the strain D7S genome. Moreover, our LC-MS/MS and in silico data revealed that at least Type I, II, and V secretion are actively used to excrete proteins directly into the extracellular space, or via two-step pathways involving the Sec/Tat systems for transport across the inner membrane, and outer membrane factors, secretins and auto-transporters, respectively for delivery across the outer membrane. Taken together, our results provide a molecular basis for further elucidating the role of A. actinomycetemcomitans in periodontal and systemic diseases.

  9. A Novel Mechanism for Protein Delivery by the Type 3 Secretion System for Extracellularly Secreted Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda-Dominguez, Farid; Huerta-Cantillo, Jazmin; Chavez-Dueñas, Lucia; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando

    2017-03-28

    The type 3 secretion system (T3SS) is essential for bacterial virulence through delivering effector proteins directly into the host cytosol. Here, we identified an alternative delivery mechanism of virulence factors mediated by the T3SS, which consists of the association of extracellularly secreted proteins from bacteria with the T3SS to gain access to the host cytosol. Both EspC, a protein secreted as an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) autotransporter, and YopH, a protein detected on the surface of Yersinia , require a functional T3SS for host cell internalization; here we provide biophysical and molecular evidence to support the concept of the EspC translocation mechanism, which requires (i) an interaction between EspA and an EspC middle segment, (ii) an EspC translocation motif (21 residues that are shared with the YopH translocation motif), (iii) increases in the association and dissociation rates of EspC mediated by EspA interacting with EspD, and (iv) an interaction of EspC with the EspD/EspB translocon pore. Interestingly, this novel mechanism does not exclude the injection model (i.e., EspF) operating through the T3SS conduit; therefore, T3SS can be functioning as an internal conduit or as an external railway, which can be used to reach the translocator pore, and this mechanism appears to be conserved among different T3SS-dependent pathogens. IMPORTANCE The type 3 secretion system is essential for injection of virulence factors, which are delivered directly into the cytosol of the host cells for usurping and subverting host processes. Recent studies have shown that these effectors proteins indeed travel inside an "injectisome" conduit through a single step of translocation by connecting the bacterium and host cell cytoplasms. However, all findings are not compatible with this model. For example, both YopH, a protein detected on the surface of Yersinia , and EspC, an autotransporter protein secreted by enteropathogenic E. coli , require a

  10. Secretion Trap Tagging of Secreted and Membrane-Spanning Proteins Using Arabidopsis Gene Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Groover; Joseph R. Fontana; Juana M. Arroyo; Cristina Yordan; W. Richard McCombie; Robert A. Martienssen

    2003-01-01

    Secreted and membrane-spanning proteins play fundamental roles in plant development but pose challenges for genetic identification and characterization. We describe a "secretion trap" screen for gene trap insertions in genes encoding proteins routed through the secretory pathway. The gene trap transposon encodes a ß-glucuronidase reporter enzyme...

  11. [Mass spectrometry identification of secreted proteins from Bacillus firmus and analysis of its secretive sequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sun; Song, Xiaoling; Huang, Jie

    2011-07-01

    Bacillus firmus was a common probiotics bacteria in nature and widely used in the shrimp aquaculture. In order to construct expression vectors for secretive proteins, we identified several major secretive proteins of Bacillus firmus by mass spectrometry and analyzed their gene sequences to find signal peptide sequences. The secreted proteins of Bacillus firmus were extracted and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The 3 highly expressed protein bands in the SDS-PAGE were identified by mass spectrometry Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI)-Time of Flight (TOF)/Time of Flight (TOF) and the sequences were downloaded from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. Then Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) primers were designed according to the downloaded sequences and specific DNA bands were amplified sequenced and bioinformatics analyzed. The proteins were identified as the putative chitinase, enterotoxin A and protein BCG9842 of Bacillus firmus. Three signal peptides were conformed by using the online software SignaIP 3.0, namely bf-43, bf-37 and bf-16. The cellular localization of the secreted sequences were analyzed by PSORT. And we found that bf-43 located in the outer membrane of cells, bf-37 and bf-16 located in the extracellular cell. 3 major secreted proteins of Bacillus firmus have been identified. 3 possible signal peptides were obtained and will be useful for the construction of expression vectors for secretive proteins.

  12. Evaluation of bottlenecks in the late stages of protein secretion in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, A; Tjalsma, H; Smith, H.E; Meima, R.; Venema, G; Bron, S; van Dijl, J.M

    Despite a high capacity for secretion of homologous proteins, the secretion of heterologous proteins by Bacillus subtilis is frequently inefficient. In the present studies, we have investigated and compared bottlenecks in the secretion of four heterologous proteins: Bacillus lichenifomis

  13. Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chitinase, a Gradually Secreted Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folders, J. (Jindra); Algra, J. (Jon); Roelofs, M.S. (Marc); Loon, L.C. van; Tommassen, J.P.M.; Bitter, Wilbert

    2001-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes many proteins into its extracellular environment via the type I, II, and III secretion systems. In this study, a gene, chiC, coding for an extracellular chitinolytic enzyme, was identified. The chiC gene encodes a polypeptide of 483 amino

  14. Delivery of therapeutic proteins as secretable TAT fusion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinterman, Marcella; Farzaneh, Farzin; Habib, Nagy; Malik, Farooq; Gäken, Joop; Tavassoli, Mahvash

    2009-02-01

    The trans-acting activator of transcription (TAT) protein transduction domain (PTD) mediates the transduction of peptides and proteins into target cells. The TAT-PTD has an important potential as a tool for the delivery of therapeutic agents. The production of TAT fusion proteins in bacteria, however, is problematic because of protein insolubility and the absence of eukaryotic post-translational modification. An attractive alternative, both for in vitro protein production and for in vivo applications, is the use of higher eukaryotic cells for secretion of TAT fusion proteins. However, the ubiquitous expression of furin endoprotease (PACE or SPC1) in the Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum, and the presence of furin recognition sequences within TAT-PTD, results in the cleavage and loss of the TAT-PTD domain during its secretory transition through the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. In this study, we show the development of a synthetic TATkappa-PTD in which mutation of the furin recognition sequences, but retention of protein transduction activity, allows secretion of recombinant proteins, followed by successful uptake of the modified protein, by the target cells. This system was used to successfully secrete marker protein, green fluorescent protein (GFP), and apoptin, a protein with tumor-specific cytotoxicity. Detection of GFP, phosphorylation, and induction of cell death by TATkappa-GFP-apoptin indicated that the secreted proteins were functional in target cells. This novel strategy therefore has important potential for the efficient delivery of therapeutic proteins.

  15. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Je Min, E-mail: jemin@knu.ac.kr [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Horticultural Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Jik [Biotechnology Institute, Nongwoo Bio Co, Ltd, Yeoju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Rose, Jocelyn K.C. [Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Yeam, Inhwa [Department of Horticulture and Breeding, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Dong [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Yeast secretion trap (YST) is a valuable tool for mining secretome. • A total of 80 secreted proteins are newly identified via YST in pepper fruits. • The secreted proteins are differentially regulated during pepper development and ripening. • Transient GFP-fusion assay and in planta secretion trap can effectively validate the secretion of proteins. - Abstract: Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening.

  16. Proteolytic events in the processing of secreted proteins in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmels, T P; Martin, F; Durand, H; Tiraby, G

    1991-01-01

    Secreted heterologous proteins have been found to be produced much less efficiently by fungi than secreted homologous ones. This could be due, at least in part, to proteolytic cleavage by site-specific endoproteases of the secretory pathway, similar to the yeast KEX2 protease and the mammalian dibasic endoproteinases found in secretory pathways. Mature secreted fungal proteins may be protected from such cleavage due to the absence of cleavable sites in exposed regions. A comparison of the dipeptide distributions of 33 secreted and 34 cytoplasmic proteins from fungal producers of extracellular enzymes indicated a significant bias for some doublets, including the basic dipeptides Lys-Arg, Arg-Arg and Arg-Lys which have also been demonstrated to be KEX2 substrates. Other combinations were also found to be rare in secreted proteins, which could indicate either a broader specificity of the considered endopeptidase, or the presence either in the secretory organelles or among the secreted proteins of additional proteases with different specificities. Experimental evidence that the Lys-Arg site is processed in Tolypocladium geodes was provided by cloning a synthetic prosequence upstream of a phleomycin resistance (Sh ble) gene and analyzing the N-terminus of the corresponding protein purified from the culture supernatant. This system also provides a tool for further studies of specific proteases of fungi.

  17. Excreted/Secreted Proteins from Trypanosome Procyclic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestine Michelle Atyame Nten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma secretome was shown to be involved in parasite virulence and is suspected of interfering in parasite life-cycle steps such as establishment in the Glossina midgut, metacyclogenesis. Therefore, we attempted to identify the proteins secreted by procyclic strains of T. brucei gambiense and T. brucei brucei, responsible for human and animal trypanosomiasis, respectively. Using mass spectrometry, 427 and 483 nonredundant proteins were characterized in T. brucei brucei and T. brucei gambiense secretomes, respectively; 35% and 42% of the corresponding secretome proteins were specifically secreted by T. brucei brucei and T. brucei gambiense, respectively, while 279 proteins were common to both subspecies. The proteins were assigned to 12 functional classes. Special attention was paid to the most abundant proteases (14 families because of their potential implication in the infection process and nutrient supply. The presence of proteins usually secreted via an exosome pathway suggests that this type of process is involved in trypanosome ESP secretion. The overall results provide leads for further research to develop novel tools for blocking trypanosome transmission.

  18. Secreted proteins as a fundamental source for biomarker discovery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťastná, Miroslava; Van Eyk, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, 4-5 (2012), s. 722-735 ISSN 1615-9853 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : conditioned media * secreted proteins * proteomics * biomarker discovery Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.132, year: 2012

  19. Large-scale production of secreted proteins in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Nagamani

    2012-01-01

    The production of recombinant therapeutic proteins is an active area of research in drug development. These bio-therapeutic drugs target nearly 150 disease states and promise to bring better treatments to patients. However, if new bio-therapeutics are to be made more accessible and affordable, improvements in production performance and optimization of processes are necessary. A major challenge lies in controlling the effect of process conditions on production of intact functional proteins. To achieve this, improved tools are needed for bio-processing. For example, implementation of process modeling and high-throughput technologies can be used to achieve quality by design, leading to improvements in productivity. Commercially, the most sought after targets are secreted proteins due to the ease of handling in downstream procedures. This chapter outlines different approaches for production and optimization of secreted proteins in the host Pichia pastoris.

  20. Proteomic identification of secreted proteins of Propionibacterium acnes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes is a human skin commensal that resides preferentially within sebaceous follicles; however, it also exhibits many traits of an opportunistic pathogen, playing roles in a variety of inflammatory diseases such as acne vulgaris. To date, the underlying disease-causing mechanisms remain ill-defined and knowledge of P. acnes virulence factors remains scarce. Here, we identified proteins secreted during anaerobic cultivation of a range of skin and clinical P. acnes isolates, spanning the four known phylogenetic groups. Results Culture supernatant proteins of P. acnes were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and all Coomassie-stained spots were subsequently identified by MALDI mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). A set of 20 proteins was secreted in the mid-exponential growth phase by the majority of strains tested. Functional annotation revealed that many of these common proteins possess degrading activities, including glycoside hydrolases with similarities to endoglycoceramidase, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase and muramidase; esterases such as lysophospholipase and triacylglycerol lipase; and several proteases. Other secreted factors included Christie-Atkins-Munch-Petersen (CAMP) factors, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and several hypothetical proteins, a few of which are unique to P. acnes. Strain-specific differences were apparent, mostly in the secretion of putative adhesins, whose genes exhibit variable phase variation-like sequence signatures. Conclusions Our proteomic investigations have revealed that the P. acnes secretome harbors several proteins likely to play a role in host-tissue degradation and inflammation. Despite a large overlap between the secretomes of all four P. acnes phylotypes, distinct differences between predicted host-tissue interacting proteins were identified, providing potential insight into the differential virulence properties of P. acnes isolates

  1. Proteomic identification of secreted proteins of Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holland Carsten

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes is a human skin commensal that resides preferentially within sebaceous follicles; however, it also exhibits many traits of an opportunistic pathogen, playing roles in a variety of inflammatory diseases such as acne vulgaris. To date, the underlying disease-causing mechanisms remain ill-defined and knowledge of P. acnes virulence factors remains scarce. Here, we identified proteins secreted during anaerobic cultivation of a range of skin and clinical P. acnes isolates, spanning the four known phylogenetic groups. Results Culture supernatant proteins of P. acnes were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and all Coomassie-stained spots were subsequently identified by MALDI mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS. A set of 20 proteins was secreted in the mid-exponential growth phase by the majority of strains tested. Functional annotation revealed that many of these common proteins possess degrading activities, including glycoside hydrolases with similarities to endoglycoceramidase, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase and muramidase; esterases such as lysophospholipase and triacylglycerol lipase; and several proteases. Other secreted factors included Christie-Atkins-Munch-Petersen (CAMP factors, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, and several hypothetical proteins, a few of which are unique to P. acnes. Strain-specific differences were apparent, mostly in the secretion of putative adhesins, whose genes exhibit variable phase variation-like sequence signatures. Conclusions Our proteomic investigations have revealed that the P. acnes secretome harbors several proteins likely to play a role in host-tissue degradation and inflammation. Despite a large overlap between the secretomes of all four P. acnes phylotypes, distinct differences between predicted host-tissue interacting proteins were identified, providing potential insight into the differential virulence

  2. Secretion and extracellular space travel of Wnt proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Julia Christina; Boutros, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Wnt signaling pathways control many processes during development, stem cell maintenance and homeostasis, and their aberrant regulation has been linked to diseases in man including diabetes, neurodegeneration and cancer. Wnts are hydrophobic proteins, however, quite paradoxically, they can travel over distances to induce cell-type specific responses. While there has been an initial focus on elucidating the intracellular signaling cascade, discoveries in the past few years have shed light on a highly complex, and regulated secretory process that guides Wnt proteins through the exocytic pathway. Wnt proteins are at least in portion packaged onto extracellular carriers such as exosomes. Similar to dysregulation of components in the Wnt receiving cell, failure to regulate Wnt secretion has been linked to cancer. Here, we review recent discoveries on factors and processes implicated in Wnt secretion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of protein uptake and degradation on recombinant protein secretion in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyo, Keith E. J.; Liu, Zihe; Magnusson, Ylva

    2014-01-01

    Protein titers, a key bioprocessing metric, depend both on the synthesis of protein and the degradation of protein. Secreted recombinant protein production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive platform as minimal media can be used for cultivation, thus reducing fermentation costs and simp...

  4. Characterization of a Mycobacterium leprae antigen related to the secreted Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein MPT32

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieles, B.; van Agterveld, M.; Janson, A.; Clark-Curtiss, J.; Rinke de Wit, T.; Harboe, M.; Thole, J.

    1994-01-01

    Secreted proteins may serve as major targets in the immune response to mycobacteria. To identify potentially secreted Mycobacterium leprae antigens, antisera specific for culture filtrate proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used to screen a panel of recombinant antigens selected previously

  5. Protein-crystal interface mediates cell adhesion and proangiogenic secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Chen, Weisi; Gillis, Brian; Fischbach, Claudia; Estroff, Lara A; Gourdon, Delphine

    2017-02-01

    The nanoscale materials properties of bone apatite crystals have been implicated in breast cancer bone metastasis and their interactions with extracellular matrix proteins are likely involved. In this study, we used geologic hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ), closely related to bone apatite, to investigate how HAP surface chemistry and nano/microscale topography individually influence the crystal-protein interface, and how the altered protein deposition impacts subsequent breast cancer cell activities. We first utilized Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to assess the molecular conformation of fibronectin (Fn), a major extracellular matrix protein upregulated in cancer, when it adsorbed onto HAP facets. Our analysis reveals that both low surface charge density and nanoscale roughness of HAP facets individually contributed to molecular unfolding of Fn. We next quantified cell adhesion and secretion on Fn-coated HAP facets using MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Our data show elevated proangiogenic and proinflammatory secretions associated with more unfolded Fn adsorbed onto nano-rough HAP facets with low surface charge density. These findings not only deconvolute the roles of crystal surface chemistry and topography in interfacial protein deposition but also enhance our knowledge of protein-mediated breast cancer cell interactions with apatite, which may be implicated in tumor growth and bone metastasis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Glycosylation in secreted proteins from yeast Kluyveromyces lactis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.V.; Passos, F.M.L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia. Lab. de Fisiologia de Microrganismos; Azevedo, B.R.; Pimenta, A.M.C.; Santoro, M.M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia. Lab. de Enzimologia e Fisico-Quimica de Proteina

    2008-07-01

    Full text: The nutritional status of a cell culture affects either the expression or the traffic of a number of proteins. The identification of the physiological conditions which favor protein secretion has important biotechnological consequences in designing systems for recombinant extracellular protein industrial production. Yeast Kluyvromyces lactis has been cultured in a continuous stirring tank bioreactor (CSTR) under nitrogen limitation at growth rates (0.03 h{sup -1} and 0.09 h{sup -1}) close to either exponential or stationary batch growth phases, respectively the objective was to investigate the extracellular glycoproteins at these two level of nitrogen limitation. Proteins from free cell extracts were separated by gradient SDS-PAGE (5-15%) and two-dimensional chromatography, and were analyzed by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS). In SDS-PAGE analysis, differences in extracellular proteome were visualized: different proteins profiles at these two growth rates. The 0.09 h-1 growth rate showed larger number of bands using colloidal Coma ssie Blue staining. Different bands were detected at these two growth rates when the PAS assay for glycoprotein detection in polyacrylamide gel was used. The two-dimensional chromatogram profiles were comparatively distinguished between the 0.03 h{sup -1} and 0.09 h{sup -1} growth rate samples. Protein peaks from the second dimension, were subjected to mass spectrometry. The mass spectrums visualized showed glycosylated proteins with N-acetylglucosamine molecules and 8, 9 or 15 hexoses molecules. Comparisons between the proteins averaged mass values with the deduced proteins masses from K. lactis secreted proteins database indicated possible post-translational modifications, such as post-translational proteolysis, acetylation, deamidation and myristoylation.

  7. SepD/SepL-dependent secretion signals of the type III secretion system translocator proteins in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wanyin; Yu, Hong B; Li, Yuling; Finlay, B Brett

    2015-04-01

    The type III protein secretion system (T3SS) encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is essential for the pathogenesis of attaching/effacing bacterial pathogens, including enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and Citrobacter rodentium. These pathogens use the T3SS to sequentially secrete three categories of proteins: the T3SS needle and inner rod protein components; the EspA, EspB, and EspD translocators; and many LEE- and non-LEE-encoded effectors. SepD and SepL are essential for translocator secretion, and mutations in either lead to hypersecretion of effectors. However, how SepD and SepL control translocator secretion and secretion hierarchy between translocators and effectors is poorly understood. In this report, we show that the secreted T3SS components, the translocators, and both LEE- and non-LEE-encoded effectors all carry N-terminal type III secretion and translocation signals. These signals all behave like those of the effectors and are sufficient for mediating type III secretion and translocation by wild-type EPEC and hypersecretion by the sepD and sepL mutants. Our results extended previous observations and suggest that the secretion hierarchy of the different substrates is determined by a signal other than the N-terminal secretion signal. We identified a domain located immediately downstream of the N-terminal secretion signal in the translocator EspB that is required for SepD/SepL-dependent secretion. We further demonstrated that this EspB domain confers SepD/SepL- and CesAB-dependent secretion on the secretion signal of effector EspZ. Our results thus suggest that SepD and SepL control and regulate secretion hierarchy between translocators and effectors by recognizing translocator-specific export signals. Many bacterial pathogens use a syringe-like protein secretion apparatus, termed the type III protein secretion system (T3SS), to secrete and inject numerous proteins directly into the host cells to

  8. A new potential secretion pathway for recombinant proteins in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangqiang; Xia, Yongjun; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Haiqin; Ai, Lianzhong; Chen, Wei

    2015-11-10

    Secretion of cytoplasmic expressed proteins into growth media has significant advantages. Due to the lack of an outer membrane, Bacillus subtilis is considered as a desirable 'cell factory' for the secretion of recombinant proteins. However, bottlenecks in the classical pathway for the secretion of recombinant proteins limit its use on a wide scale. In this study, we attempted to use four typical non-classically secreted proteins as signals to export three recombinant model proteins to the culture medium. All four non-classically secreted proteins can direct the export of the intrinsically disordered nucleoskeletal-like protein (Nsp). Two of them can guide the secretion of alkaline phosphatase (PhoA). One can lead the secretion of the thermostable β-galactosidase BgaB, which cannot be secreted with the aid of typical Sec-dependent signal peptides. Our results show that the non-classically secreted proteins lead the recombinant proteins to the culture medium, and thus non-classical protein secretion pathways can be exploited as a novel secretion pathway for recombinant proteins.

  9. Ubiquilin 1 modulates amyloid precursor protein trafficking and Abeta secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Mikko; Lu, Alice; Thomas, Anne V; Romano, Donna M; Kim, Minji; Jones, Phill B; Xie, Zhongcong; Kounnas, Maria Z; Wagner, Steven L; Berezovska, Oksana; Hyman, Bradley T; Tesco, Giuseppina; Bertram, Lars; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2006-10-27

    Ubiquilin 1 (UBQLN1) is a ubiquitin-like protein, which has been shown to play a central role in regulating the proteasomal degradation of various proteins, including the presenilins. We recently reported that DNA variants in UBQLN1 increase the risk for Alzheimer disease, by influencing expression of this gene in brain. Here we present the first assessment of the effects of UBQLN1 on the metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). For this purpose, we employed RNA interference to down-regulate UBQLN1 in a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal cell lines. We demonstrate that down-regulation of UBQLN1 accelerates the maturation and intracellular trafficking of APP, while not interfering with alpha-, beta-, or gamma-secretase levels or activity. UBQLN1 knockdown increased the ratio of APP mature/immature, increased levels of full-length APP on the cell surface, and enhanced the secretion of sAPP (alpha- and beta-forms). Moreover, UBQLN1 knockdown increased levels of secreted Abeta40 and Abeta42. Finally, employing a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assay, we show that UBQLN1 and APP come into close proximity in intact cells, independently of the presence of the presenilins. Collectively, our findings suggest that UBQLN1 may normally serve as a cytoplasmic "gatekeeper" that may control APP trafficking from intracellular compartments to the cell surface. These findings suggest that changes in UBQLN1 steady-state levels affect APP trafficking and processing, thereby influencing the generation of Abeta.

  10. Comparative transcriptional analysis of Bacillus subtilis cells overproducing either secreted proteins, lipoproteins or membrane proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marciniak, Bogumila C.; Trip, Hein; van-der Veek, Patricia J.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Marciniak, Bogumiła C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bacillus subtilis is a favorable host for the production of industrially relevant proteins because of its capacity of secreting proteins into the medium to high levels, its GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) status, its genetic accessibility and its capacity to grow in large

  11. Systematic high-yield production of human secreted proteins in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xueyu; Chen Qiang; Lian Min; Zhou Yanfeng; Zhou Mo; Lu Shanyun; Chen Yunjia; Luo Jingchu; Gu Xiaocheng; Jiang Ying; Luo Ming; Zheng Xiaofeng

    2005-01-01

    Human secreted proteins play a very important role in signal transduction. In order to study all potential secreted proteins identified from the human genome sequence, systematic production of large amounts of biologically active secreted proteins is a prerequisite. We selected 25 novel genes as a trial case for establishing a reliable expression system to produce active human secreted proteins in Escherichia coli. Expression of proteins with or without signal peptides was examined and compared in E. coli strains. The results indicated that deletion of signal peptides, to a certain extent, can improve the expression of these proteins and their solubilities. More importantly, under expression conditions such as induction temperature, N-terminus fusion peptides need to be optimized in order to express adequate amounts of soluble proteins. These recombinant proteins were characterized as well-folded proteins. This system enables us to rapidly obtain soluble and highly purified human secreted proteins for further functional studies

  12. Distribution of Flagella Secreted Protein and Integral Membrane Protein Among Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    secreted protein and integral membrane protein among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from Thailand Piyarat Pootong 1·, Oralak Serichantalergs...Ladaporn Bodhidatta \\ Frederic Poly2, Patricia Guerry2 and Carl J Mason 1 Abstract Background: Campylobacter jejuni, a gram-negative bacterium, is a...groups of integral membrane protein. The significance of these different FspA variants to virulence requires further study. Background Campylobacter

  13. Synthesis and secretion of proteins by perifused caput epididymal tubules, and association of secreted proteins with spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinefelter, G.R.; Hamilton, D.W.

    1985-11-01

    We have used perifusion organ culture of proximal and distal caput epididymal tubules of the rat to study the secretion of proteins by epididymal epithelium and uptake of the luminal radioactive proteins by sperm. The amount of incorporation of L-(35S)methionine into luminal fluid proteins was time dependent and completely inhibited by cycloheximide. The association of labeled proteins with cultured sperm was also dependent on time and continuous, with sperm still acquiring labeled luminal proteins after protein synthesis was arrested. A Mr = 46,000 molecule was found to be heavily labeled in luminal fluid and sperm extracts. Fluorograms of all L-(35S)methionine extracts immunoprecipitated using an antiepididymal alpha-lactalbumin antibody (Klinefelter and Hamilton, 1984) showed labeling of an Mr = 18,000 molecule and, in addition, the Mr = 46,000 molecule, but immunostaining was specific only for the Mr = 18,000 molecule and the heavy chain of the immunoglobulin. We suggest that the Mr = 46,000 molecule may be galactosyltransferase. Galactose oxidase-NaB(3H)4 labeling of the cultured caput sperm cell surface revealed a Mr = 23,000 molecule that was able to be immunoprecipitated with antiepididymal alpha-lactalbumin antibody. Our data suggest that this cell surface molecule is similar to one component of the fluid epididymal alpha-lactalbumin-like complex and, in addition, show that glycosylation of the sperm surface can occur in the caput epididymidis.

  14. Comparative transcriptional analysis of Bacillus subtilis cells overproducing either secreted proteins, lipoproteins or membrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciniak Bogumiła C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus subtilis is a favorable host for the production of industrially relevant proteins because of its capacity of secreting proteins into the medium to high levels, its GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe status, its genetic accessibility and its capacity to grow in large fermentations. However, production of heterologous proteins still faces limitations. Results This study aimed at the identification of bottlenecks in secretory protein production by analyzing the response of B. subtilis at the transcriptome level to overproduction of eight secretory proteins of endogenous and heterologous origin and with different subcellular or extracellular destination: secreted proteins (NprE and XynA of B. subtilis, Usp45 of Lactococcus lactis, TEM-1 β-lactamase of Escherichia coli, membrane proteins (LmrA of L. lactis and XylP of Lactobacillus pentosus and lipoproteins (MntA and YcdH of B. subtilis. Responses specific for proteins with a common localization as well as more general stress responses were observed. The latter include upregulation of genes encoding intracellular stress proteins (groES/EL, CtsR regulated genes. Specific responses include upregulation of the liaIHGFSR operon under Usp45 and TEM-1 β-lactamase overproduction; cssRS, htrA and htrB under all secreted proteins overproduction; sigW and SigW-regulated genes mainly under membrane proteins overproduction; and ykrL (encoding an HtpX homologue specifically under membrane proteins overproduction. Conclusions The results give better insights into B. subtilis responses to protein overproduction stress and provide potential targets for genetic engineering in order to further improve B. subtilis as a protein production host.

  15. Burkholderia cenocepacia type VI secretion system mediates escape of type II secreted proteins into the cytoplasm of infected macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosales-Reyes

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that survives intracellularly in macrophages and causes serious respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. We have previously shown that bacterial survival occurs in bacteria-containing membrane vacuoles (BcCVs resembling arrested autophagosomes. Intracellular bacteria stimulate IL-1β secretion in a caspase-1-dependent manner and induce dramatic changes to the actin cytoskeleton and the assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex onto the BcCV membrane. A Type 6 secretion system (T6SS is required for these phenotypes but surprisingly it is not required for the maturation arrest of the BcCV. Here, we show that macrophages infected with B. cenocepacia employ the NLRP3 inflammasome to induce IL-1β secretion and pyroptosis. Moreover, IL-1β secretion by B. cenocepacia-infected macrophages is suppressed in deletion mutants unable to produce functional Type VI, Type IV, and Type 2 secretion systems (SS. We provide evidence that the T6SS mediates the disruption of the BcCV membrane, which allows the escape of proteins secreted by the T2SS into the macrophage cytoplasm. This was demonstrated by the activity of fusion derivatives of the T2SS-secreted metalloproteases ZmpA and ZmpB with adenylcyclase. Supporting this notion, ZmpA and ZmpB are required for efficient IL-1β secretion in a T6SS dependent manner. ZmpA and ZmpB are also required for the maturation arrest of the BcCVs and bacterial intra-macrophage survival in a T6SS-independent fashion. Our results uncover a novel mechanism for inflammasome activation that involves cooperation between two bacterial secretory pathways, and an unanticipated role for T2SS-secreted proteins in intracellular bacterial survival.

  16. Alternative Protein Secretion in the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuvaraka Thavayogarajah

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum invades human red blood cells, residing in a parasitophorous vacuole (PV, with a parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM separating the PV from the host cell cytoplasm. Here we have investigated the role of N-myristoylation and two other N-terminal motifs, a cysteine potential S-palmitoylation site and a stretch of basic residues, as the driving force for protein targeting to the parasite plasma membrane (PPM and subsequent translocation across this membrane. Plasmodium falciparum adenylate kinase 2 (Pf AK2 contains these three motifs, and was previously proposed to be targeted beyond the parasite to the PVM, despite the absence of a signal peptide for entry into the classical secretory pathway. Biochemical and microscopy analyses of PfAK2 variants tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP showed that these three motifs are involved in targeting the protein to the PPM and translocation across the PPM to the PV. It was shown that the N-terminal 37 amino acids of PfAK2 alone are sufficient to target and translocate GFP across the PPM. As a control we examined the N-myristoylated P. falciparum ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (PfARF1. PfARF1 was found to co-localise with a Golgi marker. To determine whether or not the putative palmitoylation and the cluster of lysine residues from the N-terminus of PfAK2 would modulate the subcellular localization of PfARF1, a chimeric fusion protein containing the N-terminus of PfARF1 and the two additional PfAK2 motifs was analysed. This chimeric protein was targeted to the PPM, but not translocated across the membrane into the PV, indicating that other features of the N-terminus of PfAK2 also play a role in the secretion process.

  17. Heterologous protein secretion in Lactococcus lactis: a novel antigen delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langella P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are Gram-positive bacteria and are generally regarded as safe (GRAS organisms. Therefore, LAB could be used for heterologous protein secretion and they are good potential candidates as antigen delivery vehicles. To develop such live vaccines, a better control of protein secretion is required. We developed an efficient secretion system in the model LAB, Lactococcus lactis. Staphylococcal nuclease (Nuc was used as the reporter protein. We first observed that the quantity of secreted Nuc correlated with the copy number of the cloning vector. The nuc gene was cloned on a high-copy number cloning vector and no perturbation of the metabolism of the secreting strain was observed. Replacement of nuc native promoter by a strong lactococcal one led to a significant increase of nuc expression. Secretion efficiency (SE of Nuc in L. lactis was low, i.e., only 60% of the synthesized Nuc was secreted. Insertion of a synthetic propeptide between the signal peptide and the mature moiety of Nuc increased the SE of Nuc. On the basis of these results, we developed a secretion system and we applied it to the construction of an L. lactis strain which secretes a bovine coronavirus (BCV epitope-protein fusion (BCV-Nuc. BCV-Nuc was recognized by both anti-BCV and anti-Nuc antibodies. Secretion of this antigenic fusion is the first step towards the development of a novel antigen delivery system based on LAB-secreting strains.

  18. Analysis of Exocyst-Positive Organelle (EXPO)-Mediated Unconventional Protein Secretion (UPS) in Plant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Wang, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Unconventional protein secretion (UPS) together with conventional protein secretion (CPS) is responsible for protein secretion in plants. We have previously identified a novel UPS pathway in plants, which is mediated by exocyst-positive organelle-EXPO. Here, we describe detailed protocols to study UPS in plants by using Arabidopsis protoplasts or transgenic suspension cells, expressing the EXPO marker Exo70E2-XFP, as materials. Via drug and osmotic treatment plus secretion assay, we illustrate several major methods to analyze EXPO-mediated UPS in plant cells, which also supplys mining tools for similar study.

  19. The Role of Pathogen-Secreted Proteins in Fungal Vascular Wilt Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sain, Mara; Rep, Martijn

    2015-10-09

    A limited number of fungi can cause wilting disease in plants through colonization of the vascular system, the most well-known being Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum. Like all pathogenic microorganisms, vascular wilt fungi secrete proteins during host colonization. Whole-genome sequencing and proteomics screens have identified many of these proteins, including small, usually cysteine-rich proteins, necrosis-inducing proteins and enzymes. Gene deletion experiments have provided evidence that some of these proteins are required for pathogenicity, while the role of other secreted proteins remains enigmatic. On the other hand, the plant immune system can recognize some secreted proteins or their actions, resulting in disease resistance. We give an overview of proteins currently known to be secreted by vascular wilt fungi and discuss their role in pathogenicity and plant immunity.

  20. Protein trafficking, ergosterol biosynthesis and membrane physics impact recombinant protein secretion in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattanovich Diethard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing availability of 'omics' databases provide important platforms for yeast engineering strategies since they offer a lot of information on the physiology of the cells under diverse growth conditions, including environmental stresses. Notably, only a few of these approaches have considered a performance under recombinant protein production conditions. Recently, we have identified a beneficial effect of low oxygen availability on the expression of a human Fab fragment in Pichia pastoris. Transcriptional analysis and data mining allowed for the selection of potential targets for strain improvement. A first selection of these candidates has been evaluated as recombinant protein secretion enhancers. Results Based on previous transcriptomics analyses, we selected 8 genes for co-expression in the P. pastoris strain already secreting a recombinant Fab fragment. Notably, WSC4 (which is involved in trafficking through the ER has been identified as a novel potential target gene for strain improvement, with up to a 1.2-fold increase of product yield in shake flask cultures. A further transcriptomics-based strategy to modify the yeast secretion system was focused on the ergosterol pathway, an aerobic process strongly affected by oxygen depletion. By specifically partially inhibiting ergosterol synthesis with the antifungal agent fluconazole (inhibiting Erg11p, we tried to mimic the hypoxic conditions, in which the cellular ergosterol content was significantly decreased. This strategy led to an improved Fab yield (2-fold without impairing cellular growth. Since ergosterol shortage provokes alterations in the plasma membrane composition, an important role of this cellular structure in protein secretion is suggested. This hypothesis was additionally supported by the fact that the addition of non-ionic surfactants also enhanced Fab secretion. Conclusions The current study presents a systems biotechnology-based strategy for the

  1. The Chlamydia type III secretion system C-ring engages a chaperone-effector protein complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris E Spaeth

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, specialized chaperones bind to secreted effector proteins and maintain them in a partially unfolded form competent for translocation by type III secretion systems/injectisomes. How diverse sets of effector-chaperone complexes are recognized by injectisomes is unclear. Here we describe a new mechanism of effector-chaperone recognition by the Chlamydia injectisome, a unique and ancestral line of these evolutionarily conserved secretion systems. By yeast two-hybrid analysis we identified networks of Chlamydia-specific proteins that interacted with the basal structure of the injectisome, including two hubs of protein-protein interactions that linked known secreted effector proteins to CdsQ, the putative cytoplasmic C-ring component of the secretion apparatus. One of these protein-interaction hubs is defined by Ct260/Mcsc (Multiple cargo secretion chaperone. Mcsc binds to and stabilizes at least two secreted hydrophobic proteins, Cap1 and Ct618, that localize to the membrane of the pathogenic vacuole ("inclusion". The resulting complexes bind to CdsQ, suggesting that in Chlamydia, the C-ring of the injectisome mediates the recognition of a subset of inclusion membrane proteins in complex with their chaperone. The selective recognition of inclusion membrane proteins by chaperones may provide a mechanism to co-ordinate the translocation of subsets of inclusion membrane proteins at different stages in infection.

  2. Pharmacological inhibition of dynamin II reduces constitutive protein secretion from primary human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Kockx

    Full Text Available Dynamins are fission proteins that mediate endocytic and exocytic membrane events and are pharmacological therapeutic targets. These studies investigate whether dynamin II regulates constitutive protein secretion and show for the first time that pharmacological inhibition of dynamin decreases secretion of apolipoprotein E (apoE and several other proteins constitutively secreted from primary human macrophages. Inhibitors that target recruitment of dynamin to membranes (MiTMABs or directly target the GTPase domain (Dyngo or Dynole series, dose- and time- dependently reduced the secretion of apoE. SiRNA oligo's targeting all isoforms of dynamin II confirmed the involvement of dynamin II in apoE secretion. Inhibition of secretion was not mediated via effects on mRNA or protein synthesis. 2D-gel electrophoresis showed that inhibition occurred after apoE was processed and glycosylated in the Golgi and live cell imaging showed that inhibited secretion was associated with reduced post-Golgi movement of apoE-GFP-containing vesicles. The effect was not restricted to macrophages, and was not mediated by the effects of the inhibitors on microtubules. Inhibition of dynamin also altered the constitutive secretion of other proteins, decreasing the secretion of fibronectin, matrix metalloproteinase 9, Chitinase-3-like protein 1 and lysozyme but unexpectedly increasing the secretion of the inflammatory mediator cyclophilin A. We conclude that pharmacological inhibitors of dynamin II modulate the constitutive secretion of macrophage apoE as a class effect, and that their capacity to modulate protein secretion may affect a range of biological processes.

  3. A secreted protein is an endogenous chemorepellant in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan E; Gomer, Richard H

    2012-07-03

    Chemorepellants may play multiple roles in physiological and pathological processes. However, few endogenous chemorepellants have been identified, and how they function is unclear. We found that the autocrine signal AprA, which is produced by growing Dictyostelium discoideum cells and inhibits their proliferation, also functions as a chemorepellant. Wild-type cells at the edge of a colony show directed movement outward from the colony, whereas cells lacking AprA do not. Cells show directed movement away from a source of recombinant AprA and dialyzed conditioned media from wild-type cells, but not dialyzed conditioned media from aprA(-) cells. The secreted protein CfaD, the G protein Gα8, and the kinase QkgA are necessary for the chemorepellant activity of AprA as well as its proliferation-inhibiting activity, whereas the putative transcription factor BzpN is dispensable for the chemorepellant activity of AprA but necessary for inhibition of proliferation. Phospholipase C and PI3 kinases 1 and 2, which are necessary for the activity of at least one other chemorepellant in Dictyostelium, are not necessary for recombinant AprA chemorepellant activity. Starved cells are not repelled by recombinant AprA, suggesting that aggregation-phase cells are not sensitive to the chemorepellant effect. Cell tracking indicates that AprA affects the directional bias of cell movement, but not cell velocity or the persistence of cell movement. Together, our data indicate that the endogenous signal AprA acts as an autocrine chemorepellant for Dictyostelium cells.

  4. Non-peptide guided auto-secretion of recombinant proteins by super-folder green fluorescent protein in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Tang, Rongxing; Zhu, Dewu; Wang, Wenfeng; Yi, Li; Ma, Lixin

    2017-08-01

    Protein secretion in Escherichia coli is usually led by a signal peptide that targets the protein to specific secretory pathways. In this study, we demonstrated that the superfolder green fluorescent protein (sfGFP) could be served as a non-signal peptide to guide protein auto-secretion in E. coli. This auto-secretion was characterized as a three-step process through the sub-cellular localization analysis: inner membrane trans-location followed by anchoring at outer membrane, and then being released into culture media. We further determined that the beta-barrel structure and net negative charges of sfGFP played important roles in its auto-extracellular secretion property. Using sfGFP as a carrier, heterologous proteins ranging from peptide to complex protein, including antibacterial peptide PG4, endo-beta-N-acethylglucosamindase H (Endo H), human arginase-1 (ARG1), and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) were all successfully expressed and secreted extracellularly when fused to the carboxyl end of sfGFP. Besides facilitating the extracellular secretion, sfGFP fusion proteins can also be correctly folded and formed the active complex protein structure, including the trimetric human ARG1 and homo-hexametric GAD. This is the first report that sfGFP can guide the secretion of recombinant proteins out of the cells from cytoplasm in E. coli without affecting their conformation and function.

  5. Roles of silkworm endoplasmic reticulum chaperones in the secretion of recombinant proteins expressed by baculovirus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Saki; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Xu, Jian; Li, Zhiqing; Shirai, Shintaro; Mon, Hiroaki; Morokuma, Daisuke; Lee, Jae Man

    2015-11-01

    Baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is widely used for production of recombinant eukaryotic proteins in insect larvae or cultured cells. BEVS has advantages over bacterial expression system in producing post-translationally modified secreted proteins. However, for some unknown reason, it is very difficult for insects to secrete sufficiently for certain proteins of interest. To understand the reasons why insect cells fail to secrete some kinds of recombinant proteins, we here employed three mammalian proteins as targets, EPO, HGF, and Wnt3A, with different secretion levels in BEVS and investigated their mRNA transcriptions from the viral genome, subcellular localizations, and interactions with silkworm ER chaperones. Moreover, we observed that no significantly influence on the secretion amounts of all three proteins when depleting or overexpressing most endogenous ER chaperone genes in cultured silkworm cells. However, among all detected ER chaperones, the depletion of BiP severely decreased the recombinant protein secretion in BEVS, indicating the possible central role of Bip in silkworm secretion pathway.

  6. Effect of secretory pathway gene overexpression on secretion of a fluorescent reporter protein in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalén, Martin; Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg

    2016-01-01

    roles in the process have been identified through transcriptomics. The assignment of function to these genes has been enabled in combination with gene deletion studies. In this work, 14 genes known to play a role in protein secretion in filamentous fungi were overexpressed in Aspergillus nidulans....... The background strain was a fluorescent reporter secreting mRFP. The overall effect of the overexpressions could thus be easily monitored through fluorescence measurements, while the effects on physiology were determined in batch cultivations and surface growth studies. Results: Fourteen protein secretion...... pathway related genes were overexpressed with a tet-ON promoter in the RFP-secreting reporter strain and macromorphology, physiology and protein secretion were monitored when the secretory genes were induced. Overexpression of several of the chosen genes was shown to cause anomalies on growth, micro...

  7. Loss of Cln3 impacts protein secretion in the social amoeba Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Robert J

    2017-07-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), also referred to as Batten disease, is the most common form of childhood neurodegeneration. Mutations in CLN3 cause the most prevalent subtype of the disease, which manifests during early childhood and is currently untreatable. The precise function of the CLN3 protein is still not known, which has inhibited the development of targeted therapies. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, loss of the CLN3 homolog, Cln3, reduces adhesion during early development, which delays streaming and aggregation. The results of the present study indicate that this phenotype may be at least partly due to aberrant protein secretion in cln3 - cells. It is well-established that Cln3 localizes primarily to the contractile vacuole (CV) system in Dictyostelium, and to a lesser extent, compartments of the endocytic pathway. Intriguingly, the CV system has been linked to the secretion of proteins that do not contain a signal peptide for secretion (i.e., unconventional protein secretion). Proteins that do contain a signal peptide are secreted via a conventional mechanism involving the endoplasmic reticulum, transport through the Golgi, and secretion via vesicle release. In this study, Cln3 was observed to co-localize with the Golgi marker wheat germ agglutinin suggesting that Cln3 participates in both secretion mechanisms. Chimeras of wild-type (WT) and cln3 - cells displayed delayed streaming and aggregation, and interestingly, cln3 - cells starved in conditioned media (CM) harvested from starving WT cells showed near normal timing of streaming and aggregation suggesting aberrant protein secretion in Cln3-deficient cells. Based on these observations, LC-MS/MS was used to reveal the protein content of CM from starved cells (mass spectrometry data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004897). A total of 450 proteins were detected in WT and cln3 - CM, of which 3 were absent in cln3 - CM. Moreover, 12 proteins that were present in

  8. Two outer membrane proteins are required for maximal type I secretion of the Caulobacter crescentus S-layer protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toporowski, Michael C; Nomellini, John F; Awram, Peter; Smit, John

    2004-12-01

    Transport of RsaA, the crystalline S-layer subunit protein of Caulobacter crescentus, is mediated by a type I secretion mechanism. Two proteins have been identified that play the role of the outer membrane protein (OMP) component in the RsaA secretion machinery. The genes rsaF(a) and rsaF(b) were identified by similarity to the Escherichia coli hemolysin secretion OMP TolC by using the C. crescentus genome sequence. The rsaF(a) gene is located several kilobases downstream of the other transporter genes, while rsaF(b) is completely unlinked. An rsaF(a) knockout had approximately 56% secretion compared to wild-type levels, while the rsaF(b) knockout reduced secretion levels to approximately 79%. When expression of both proteins was eliminated, there was no RsaA secretion, but a residual level of approximately 9% remained inside the cell, suggesting posttranslational autoregulation. Complementation with either of the individual rsaF genes by use of a multicopy vector, which resulted in 8- to 10-fold overexpression of the proteins, did not restore RsaA secretion to wild-type levels, indicating that both rsaF genes were required for full-level secretion. However, overexpression of rsaF(a) (with normal rsaF(b) levels) in concert with overexpression of rsaA resulted in a 28% increase in RsaA secretion, indicating a potential for significantly increasing expression levels of an already highly expressing type I secretion system. This is the only known example of type I secretion requiring two OMPs to assemble a fully functional system.

  9. Insulin-degrading enzyme is exported via an unconventional protein secretion pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leissring Malcolm A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE is a ubiquitously expressed zinc-metalloprotease that degrades several pathophysiologically significant extracellular substrates, including insulin and the amyloid β-protein (Aβ, and accumulating evidence suggests that IDE dysfunction may be operative in both type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer disease (AD. Although IDE is well known to be secreted by a variety of cell types, the underlying trafficking pathway(s remain poorly understood. To address this topic, we investigated the effects of known inhibitors or stimulators of protein secretion on the secretion of IDE from murine hepatocytes and HeLa cells. IDE secretion was found to be unaffected by the classical secretion inhibitors brefeldin A (BFA, monensin, or nocodazole, treatments that readily inhibited the secretion of α1-antitrypsin (AAT overexpressed in the same cells. Using a novel cell-based Aβ-degradation assay, we show further that IDE secretion was similarly unaffected by multiple stimulators of protein secretion, including glyburide and 3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl-ATP (Bz-ATP. The calcium ionophore, A23187, increased extracellular IDE activity, but only under conditions that also elicited cytotoxicity. Our results provide the first biochemical evidence that IDE export is not dependent upon the classical secretion pathway, thereby identifying IDE as a novel member of the select class of unconventionally secreted proteins. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying IDE secretion, which would be facilitated by the assays described herein, promises to uncover processes that might be defective in disease or manipulated for therapeutic benefit.

  10. Novel insulin from the bullfrog: its structure and function in protein secretion by hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulsebus, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Bullfrog insulin was extracted and purified from the pancreas of Rana catesbeiana adults using gel filtration and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Amino acid analysis of bullfrog insulin revealed 52 amino acids instead of the most common number of 51. The most unique features of bullfrog insulin is a two amino acid extension on the amino terminus (A1) of the A chain. This is the only insulin to date that has an extension at this position. Bullfrog and porcine insulin increase protein secretion from bullfrog adult and three developmental stages of tadpole hepatocytes in a totally defined, serum-free culture system. The hormone slightly stimulates protein secretion by premetamorphic and early prometamorphic tadpoles. Late prometamorphic tadpoles respond to bullfrog and porcine insulin with higher concentrations of secreted protein than either of the two previous developmental stages. Insulin treated adult hepatocytes secrete significantly higher concentrations of protein than any of the tadpole stages. 35 S-methionine and 35 S-cysteine were added to the culture medium for twelve hours. Proteins secreted into the medium were separated using SDS polyacrylamide linear gradient gels. Densitometer scans of autoradiograms did not show an increases in any specific proteins, but did show a generalized increase in all secreted proteins for both adults, and tadpoles

  11. High-yield secretion of recombinant proteins from the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos Martinez, Erick Miguel; Fimognari, Lorenzo; Sakuragi, Yumiko

    2017-01-01

    Microalga-based biomanufacturing of recombinant proteins is attracting growing attention due to its advantages in safety, metabolic diversity, scalability and sustainability. Secretion of recombinant proteins can accelerate the use of microalgal platforms by allowing post-translational modificati......Microalga-based biomanufacturing of recombinant proteins is attracting growing attention due to its advantages in safety, metabolic diversity, scalability and sustainability. Secretion of recombinant proteins can accelerate the use of microalgal platforms by allowing post......-translational modifications and easy recovery of products from the culture media. However, currently, the yields of secreted recombinant proteins are low, which hampers the commercial application of this strategy. This study aimed at expanding the genetic tools for enhancing secretion of recombinant proteins in Chlamydomonas...... reinhardtii, a widely used green microalga as a model organism and a potential industrial biotechnology platform. We demonstrated that the putative signal sequence from C. reinhardtii gametolysin can assist the secretion of the yellow fluorescent protein Venus into the culture media. To increase the secretion...

  12. A lower isoelectric point increases signal sequence-mediated secretion of recombinant proteins through a bacterial ABC transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Hyunjong; Park, Jiyeon; Kim, Sun Chang; Ahn, Jung Hoon

    2017-12-01

    Efficient protein production for industrial and academic purposes often involves engineering microorganisms to produce and secrete target proteins into the culture. Pseudomonas fluorescens has a TliDEF ATP-binding cassette transporter, a type I secretion system, which recognizes C-terminal LARD3 signal sequence of thermostable lipase TliA. Many proteins are secreted by TliDEF in vivo when recombined with LARD3, but there are still others that cannot be secreted by TliDEF even when LARD3 is attached. However, the factors that determine whether or not a recombinant protein can be secreted through TliDEF are still unknown. Here, we recombined LARD3 with several proteins and examined their secretion through TliDEF. We found that the proteins secreted via LARD3 are highly negatively charged with highly-acidic isoelectric points (pI) lower than 5.5. Attaching oligo-aspartate to lower the pI of negatively-charged recombinant proteins improved their secretion, and attaching oligo-arginine to negatively-charged proteins blocked their secretion by LARD3. In addition, negatively supercharged green fluorescent protein (GFP) showed improved secretion, whereas positively supercharged GFP did not secrete. These results disclosed that proteins' acidic pI and net negative charge are major factors that determine their secretion through TliDEF. Homology modeling for TliDEF revealed that TliD dimer forms evolutionarily-conserved positively-charged clusters in its pore and substrate entrance site, which also partially explains the pI dependence of the TliDEF-dependent secretions. In conclusion, lowering the isoelectric point improved LARD3-mediated protein secretion, both widening the range of protein targets for efficient production via secretion and signifying an important aspect of ABC transporter-mediated secretions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Feature-based prediction of non-classical and leaderless protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jannick Dyrløv; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Blom, Nikolaj

    2004-01-01

    -containing) secretory proteins where only the mature part of the protein has been annotated or cases where the signal peptide remains uncleaved. By scanning the entire human proteome we identified new proteins potentially undergoing non-classical secretion. Predictions can be made at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/SecretomeP....

  14. Systems and methods for the secretion of recombinant proteins in gram negative bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, III, Sydnor T.; Dominguez, Miguel A.; DeLisa, Matthew P.; Haitjema, Charles H.

    2017-02-21

    Disclosed herein are systems and methods for producing recombinant proteins utilizing mutant E. coli strains containing expression vectors carrying nucleic acids encoding the proteins, and secretory signal sequences to direct the secretion of the proteins to the culture medium. Host cells transformed with the expression vectors are also provided.

  15. Investigating the dynamics of recombinant protein secretion from a microalgal host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauersen, Kyle J; Huber, Isabel; Wichmann, Julian; Baier, Thomas; Leiter, Andreas; Gaukel, Volker; Kartushin, Viktor; Rattenholl, Anke; Steinweg, Christian; von Riesen, Lena; Posten, Clemens; Gudermann, Frank; Lütkemeyer, Dirk; Mussgnug, Jan H; Kruse, Olaf

    2015-12-10

    Production of recombinant proteins with microalgae represents an alternative platform over plant- or bacterial-based expression systems for certain target proteins. Secretion of recombinant proteins allows accumulation of the target product physically separate from the valuable algal biomass. To date, there has been little investigation into the dynamics of recombinant protein secretion from microalgal hosts-the culture parameters that encourage secreted product accumulation and stability, while encouraging biomass production. In this work, the efficiency of recombinant protein production was optimized by adjusting cultivation parameters for a strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii previously engineered to secrete a functional recombinant Lolium perenne ice binding protein (LpIBP), which has applications as a frozen food texturing and cryopreservation additive, into its culture medium. Three media and several cultivation styles were investigated for effects on secreted LpIBP titres and culture growth. A combination of acetate and carbon dioxide feeding with illumination resulted in the highest overall biomass and recombinant protein titres up to 10mgL(-1) in the culture medium. Pure photoautotrophic production was possible using two media types, with recombinant protein accumulation in all cultivations correlating to culture cell density. Two different cultivation systems were used for scale-up to 10L cultivations, one of which produced yields of secreted recombinant protein up to 12mgL(-1) within six cultivation days. Functional ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) of the LpIBP from total concentrated extracellular protein extracts was demonstrated in a sucrose solution used as a simplified ice cream model. IRI lasted up to 7 days, demonstrating the potential of secreted products from microalgae for use as food additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Crystal structure of the Yersinia type III secretion protein YscE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phan, Jason; Austin, Brian P.; Waugh, David S. (NIH)

    2010-12-06

    The plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis utilizes a contact-dependent (type III) secretion system (T3SS) to transport virulence factors from the bacterial cytosol directly into the interior of mammalian cells where they interfere with signal transduction pathways that mediate phagocytosis and the inflammatory response. The type III secretion apparatus is composed of 20-25 different Yersinia secretion (Ysc) proteins. We report here the structure of YscE, the smallest Ysc protein, which is a dimer in solution. The probable mode of oligomerization is discussed.

  17. Balanced trafficking between the ER and the Golgi apparatus increases protein secretion in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Jichen; Huang, Mingtao; Petranovic, Dina

    2018-01-01

    of ADP-ribosylation factor GTP activating proteins, Gcs1p and Glo3p, which are involved in the process of COPI-coated vesicle formation. Engineering the retrograde trafficking increased the secretion of alpha-amylase but did not induce production of reactive oxygen species. An expanded ER membrane......The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used as a cell factory to produce recombinant proteins. However, S. cerevisiae naturally secretes only a few proteins, such as invertase and the mating alpha factor, and its secretory capacity is limited. It has been reported that engineering protein...... recombinant proteins, endoglucanase I from Trichoderma reesei and glucan-1,4-alpha-glucosidase from Rhizopus oryzae, indicating overexpression of GLO3 in a SEC16 moderate overexpression strain might be a general strategy for improving production of secreted proteins by yeast....

  18. Protein secretion in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, Xavier Oswin

    2008-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are multicellular eukaryotic organisms, which represent a separate taxonomic group organisms within the fungal kingdom, apart from the yeasts. These fungi always need a substrate to grow on, this can be living or dead material. Fungi possess the capacity to secrete high levels of

  19. An optimized approach to recover secreted proteins from fibroblast conditioned-media for secretomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien ePare

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The proteins secreted by a particular type of cell, the secretome, play important roles in the regulation of many physiological processes via paracrine/autocrine mechanisms, and they are of increasing interest to help understanding rare diseases and to identify potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. To facilitate ongoing research involving secreted proteins, we revisited cell culture protocols and whole secreted protein enrichment protocols. A reliable method for culturing and precipitating secreted protein from patient-derived fibroblast conditioned-medium was established. The method is based on the optimization of cell confluency and incubation time conditions. The well-established carrier-based TCA-DOC protein precipitation method was consistently found to give higher protein recovery yield. According to our results, we therefore propose that protein enrichment should be performed by TCA-DOC precipitation method 48 hours at 95% of confluence in a serum-deprived culture medium. Given the importance of secreted proteins as a source to elucidate the pathogenesis of rare diseases, especially neurological disorders, this approach may help to discover novel candidate biomarkers with potential clinical significance.

  20. Protein secretion systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: an essay on diversity, evolution and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain eFILLOUX

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein secretion systems are molecular nanomachines used by Gram-negative bacteria to thrive within their environment. They are used to release enzymes that hydrolyze complex carbon sources into usable compounds, or to release proteins that capture essential ions such as iron. They are also used to colonize and survive within eukaryotic hosts, causing acute or chronic infections, subverting the host cell response and escaping the immune system. In this article, the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is used as a model to review the diversity of secretion systems that bacteria have evolved to achieve these goals. This diversity may result from a progressive transformation of cell envelope complexes that initially may not have been dedicated to secretion. The striking similarities between secretion systems and type IV pili, flagella, bacteriophage tail or efflux pumps is a nice illustration of this evolution. Differences are also needed since various secretion configurations calls for diversity. For example, some proteins are released in the extracellular medium while others are directly injected into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Some proteins are folded before being released and transit into the periplasm. Other proteins cross the whole cell envelope at once in an unfolded state. However, the secretion system requires conserved basic elements or features. For example, there is a need for an energy source or for an outer membrane channel. The structure of this review is thus quite unconventional. Instead of listing secretion types one after each other, it presents a melting pot of concepts indicating that secretion types are in constant evolution and use basic principles. In other words, emergence of new secretion systems could be predicted the way Mendeleïev had anticipated characteristics of yet unknown elements.

  1. A proteomic approach for identification of secreted proteins during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kratchmarova, Irina; Kalume, Dario E; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2002-01-01

    additional secreted proteins including resistin, secreted acidic cysteine-rich glycoprotein/osteonectin, stromal cell-derived factor-1, cystatin C, gelsolin, and matrix metalloprotease-2 were identified by this method. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify several novel secreted proteins...

  2. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J.; Rhodes, Ryan G.; Nakayama, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  3. Cytoskeletal proteins in gastric H/sup +/ secretion: cAMP dependent phosphorylation, immunolocalization, and protein blotting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuppoletti, J.; Sachs, G.; Malinowska, D.H.

    1986-05-01

    The rabbit gastric parietal cell is an excellent model for the study of regulation of secretion and the role of cytoskeleton in secretion. Changes in morphology (appearance of expanded secretory canaliculi lined with microvilli) accompany H/sup +/ secretion stimulated by histamine (cAMP mediated). Parietal cells contain immunoreactive tubulin and are highly enriched in F-actin at secretory canaliculi, detected with fluorescently labelled phallacidin. They have previously shown increased protein phosphorylation in histamine-stimulated purified parietal cells concommitant with increases in H/sup +/ secretion. They report here possible functions of the phosphoproteins. Four of these proteins of apparent size on SDS PAGE of 24, 30, 48 and 130 Kd were membrane associated. /sup 125/I-actin binding to three proteins (24, 30 and 48 Kd) was shown using overlays. A 130 Kd protein reacted with anti-vinculin monoclonal antibody on immunoblots, and was immunolocalized at secretory canaliculi. As a working hypothesis, parietal cells possess membrane-associated proteins which change their state of phosphorylation upon stimulation of H/sup +/. These proteins may be cytoskeletal elements involved in regulation of H/sup +/ secretion. The 130 Kd vinculin-like protein may serve a microfilament-membrane linking role.

  4. Applying unconventional secretion of the endochitinase Cts1 to export heterologous proteins in Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Janpeter; Sarkari, Parveen; Kreibich, Saskia; Brefort, Thomas; Feldbrügge, Michael; Schipper, Kerstin

    2012-10-15

    The demand on the biotechnological production of proteins for pharmaceutical, medical and industrial applications is steadily growing. For the production of challenging proteins, we aim to establish a novel expression platform in the well characterized eukaryotic microorganism Ustilago maydis. In filaments of this fungus, secretion of the endochitinase Cts1 depends on mRNA transport along microtubules, which is mediated by the key RNA-binding protein Rrm4. Here, we report two important findings: (i) Cts1 secretion occurs via a novel unconventional route and (ii) this secretory mechanism can be exploited for the export of active heterologous proteins. Initially, we used β-glucuronidase (Gus) as a reporter for unconventional secretion. This bacterial enzyme is inactivated by N-glycosylation during its passage through the conventional eukaryotic secretory pathway. By contrast, in our system Gus was exported in its active form by fusion to Cts1 confirming its secretion by an unconventional route. As a proof-of-principle for economically important biopharmaceuticals we expressed an active single-chain antibody. Importantly, the novel protein export pathway circumvents N-glycosylation which is advantageous in many applications, e.g., to avoid undesired immune reactions in humans. Thus, the unconventional Cts1 secretion machinery has a high potential for the production of biotechnologically relevant proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Protein composition of the threat induced epidermal secretion from the Arabian Gulf catfish, Arius thalassinus (Ruppell).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hassan, J M; Thomson, M; Summers, B; Criddle, R S

    1987-01-01

    1. When threatened or injured, the Arabian Gulf catfish (Arius thalassinus, Ruppell) secretes a thick gel-like layer of proteinaceous material to its skin surface mainly from unicellular glands of the epidermis termed club cells. 2. Since a preparation from this secretion has been implicated in stimulation of the rate of wound healing in man and other test animals, the total gel protein composition was analysed by chemical, chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques. 3. Gel proteins were separated into soluble and insoluble fractions by extractions with increasingly strong solubilizing agents and the most insoluble components were solubilized only upon treatment with 10% SDS or concentrated organic acids. 4. Some of the soluble proteins from the secretion are also present in the insoluble protein fractions, indicating that the insoluble material is formed in part by aggregation of the soluble proteins. 5. The secretion was shown to be distinct from the catfish venom and differed greatly from typical fish mucus secretions in its composition and distribution of protein components.

  6. Expression of active secreted forms of human amyloid beta-protein precursor by recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhasin, R; Van Nostrand, W E; Saitoh, T; Donets, M A; Barnes, E A; Quitschke, W W; Goldgaber, D

    1991-01-01

    Three alternatively spliced forms of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), APP-695, APP-751, and APP-770, were expressed in the baculovirus expression vector system. The recombinant proteins were secreted into the culture medium by infected insect cells, and APP molecules were detected in insect cells and medium 2 days after infection with the recombinant APP-baculoviruses. A partial sequence of the NH2 terminus of the secreted protein revealed identity with the native secreted protein and sho...

  7. Human surfactant protein A2 gene mutations impair dimmer/trimer assembly leading to deficiency in protein sialylation and secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Song

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein A2 (SP-A2 plays an essential role in surfactant metabolism and lung host defense. SP-A2 mutations in the carbohydrate recognition domain have been related to familial pulmonary fibrosis and can lead to a recombinant protein secretion deficiency in vitro. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism of protein secretion deficiency and the subsequent biological effects in CHO-K1 cells expressing both wild-type and several different mutant forms of SP-A2. We demonstrate that the SP-A2 G231V and F198S mutants impair the formation of dimmer/trimer SP-A2 which contributes to the protein secretion defect. A deficiency in sialylation, but not N-linked glycosylation, is critical to the observed dimmer/trimer impairment-induced secretion defect. Furthermore, both mutant forms accumulate in the ER and form NP-40-insoluble aggregates. In addition, the soluble mutant SP-A2 could be partially degraded through the proteasome pathway but not the lysosome or autophagy pathway. Intriguingly, 4-phenylbutyrate acid (4-PBA, a chemical chaperone, alleviates aggregate formation and partially rescued the protein secretion of SP-A2 mutants. In conclusion, SP-A2 G231V and F198S mutants impair the dimmer/trimer assembly, which contributes to the protein sialylation and secretion deficiency. The intracellular protein mutants could be partially degraded through the proteasome pathway and also formed aggregates. The treatment of the cells with 4-PBA resulted in reduced aggregation and rescued the secretion of mutant SP-A2.

  8. Transcriptional regulation of the S-layer protein type I secretion system in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toporowski, Michael C; Nomellini, John F; Awram, Peter; Levi, Assaf; Smit, John

    2005-10-01

    The Gram-negative Caulobacter crescentus exports RsaA, the crystalline S-layer subunit protein using a dedicated type I secretion system. The protein and two transporter genes (rsaADE) are located together, comparable to the Escherichia coli type I hemolysin hlyCABD operon, where read through of a stem loop following hlyCA results in reduced transcription of the hlyBD. Using two genetic approaches and a direct assessment of transcription from regions 5' to the genes we learned that rsaD and rsaE were transcribed together as a separate transcript from rsaA. These results are contrary to previous assumptions about the rsaADE type I secretion gene control and add another theme to the area of type I secretion transcription regulation. It may be that to accommodate the high levels of RsaA secretion, the type I transporters must be transcribed independently from rsaA.

  9. Correlating levels of type III secretion and secreted proteins with fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS) for secreting factors that enable Escherichia coli O157:H7 to produce attaching and effacing lesions (A/E) on epithelial cells. The importance of LEE-encoded proteins in intestinal colonization of cattle is well-stud...

  10. A novel fusion partner for enhanced secretion of recombinant proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jung-Hoon; Sung, Bong Hyun; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho; Sohn, Jung-Hoon

    2016-12-01

    Expressing proteins with fusion partners improves yield and simplifies the purification process. We developed a novel fusion partner to improve the secretion of heterologous proteins that are otherwise poorly excreted in yeast. The VOA1 (YGR106C) gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a subunit of vacuolar ATPase. We found that C-terminally truncated Voa1p was highly secreted into the culture medium, even when fused with rarely secreted heterologous proteins such as human interleukin-2 (hIL-2). Deletion mapping of C-terminally truncated Voa1p, identified a hydrophilic 28-amino acid peptide (HL peptide) that was responsible for the enhanced secretion of target protein. A purification tag and a protease cleavage site were added to use HL peptide as a multi-purpose fusion partner. The utility of this system was tested via the expression and purification of various heterologous proteins. In many cases, the yield of target proteins fused with the peptide was significantly increased, and fusion proteins could be directly purified with affinity chromatography. The fusion partner was removed by in vitro processing, and intact proteins were purified by re-application of samples to affinity chromatography.

  11. Dissecting the Wnt secretion pathway: key questions on the modification and intracellular trafficking of Wnt proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harterink, M.; Korswagen, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The Wnt family of signalling proteins has essential functions in development and adult tissue homoeostasis throughout the animal kingdom. Although signalling cascades triggered by Wnt proteins have been extensively studied, much remains to be learned about how Wnts are produced and secreted. Over

  12. Small proteins of plant-pathogenic fungi secreted during host colonization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rep, M.

    2005-01-01

    Small proteins secreted by plant pathogenic fungi in their hosts have been implicated in disease symptom development as well as in R-gene mediated disease resistance. Characteristically, this class of proteins shows very limited phylogenetic distribution, possibly due to accelerated evolution

  13. Identification of a Chitin-Binding Protein Secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folders, J. (Jindra); Tommassen, J.P.M.; Loon, L.C. van; Bitter, Wilbert

    1999-01-01

    One of the major proteins secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a 43-kDa protein, which is cleaved by elastase into smaller fragments, including a 30-kDa and a 23-kDa fragment. The N-terminal 23-kDa fragment was previously suggested as corresponding to a staphylolytic protease and was designated

  14. Fluorescence microscopy visualization of halomucin, a secreted 927 kDa protein surrounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenke, R.; von Gronau, S.; Bolhuis, H.; Gruska, M.; Pfeiffer, F; Oesterhelt, D.

    2015-01-01

    At the time of its first publication, halomucin from Haloquadratum walsbyi strain HBSQ001 was the largest archaeal protein known (9159 aa). It has a predicted signal sequence, making it likely to be an extracellular or secreted protein. Best BLAST matches were found to be mammalian mucins that

  15. Further observations on incorporation of the 14C-leucine into proteins by freshly secreted milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Using freshly secreted bovine milk, no incorporation of DL (1- 14 C)-leucine was observed in the total milk proteins and acid precipitated casein, when these protein fractions were isolated from skim milk. A significant portion of the radioactivity however, remained associated with the heat coagulable whey proteins and proteose-peptone fractions. This association was shown to be due to non enzymatic physical sequestering of the radioactive amino acid or its metabolites with these proteins. Most of the radioactivity was associated with the cream layer proteins and the cellular fraction. The results obtained using filtered milk, incubated milk and certain antibiotics also indicated that the incorporation of 14 C leucine into proteins by freshly secreted milk may be a purely microbial process and physical sequestering of an amino acids with milk proteins. (author)

  16. Profiling of proteins secreted in the bovine oviduct reveals diverse functions of this luminal microenvironment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viju Vijayan Pillai

    Full Text Available The oviductal microenvironment is a site for key events that involve gamete maturation, fertilization and early embryo development. Secretions into the oviductal lumen by either the lining epithelium or by transudation of plasma constituents are known to contain elements conducive for reproductive success. Although previous studies have identified some of these factors involved in reproduction, knowledge of secreted proteins in the oviductal fluid remains rudimentary with limited definition of function even in extensively studied species like cattle. In this study, we used a shotgun proteomics approach followed by bioinformatics sequence prediction to identify secreted proteins present in the bovine oviductal fluid (ex vivo and secretions from the bovine oviductal epithelial cells (in vitro. From a total of 2087 proteins identified, 266 proteins could be classified as secreted, 109 (41% of which were common for both in vivo and in vitro conditions. Pathway analysis indicated different classes of proteins that included growth factors, metabolic regulators, immune modulators, enzymes, and extracellular matrix components. Functional analysis revealed mechanisms in the oviductal lumen linked to immune homeostasis, gamete maturation, fertilization and early embryo development. These results point to several novel components that work together with known elements mediating functional homeostasis, and highlight the diversity of machinery associated with oviductal physiology and early events in cattle fertility.

  17. Profiling of proteins secreted in the bovine oviduct reveals diverse functions of this luminal microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Viju Vijayan; Weber, Darren M; Phinney, Brett S; Selvaraj, Vimal

    2017-01-01

    The oviductal microenvironment is a site for key events that involve gamete maturation, fertilization and early embryo development. Secretions into the oviductal lumen by either the lining epithelium or by transudation of plasma constituents are known to contain elements conducive for reproductive success. Although previous studies have identified some of these factors involved in reproduction, knowledge of secreted proteins in the oviductal fluid remains rudimentary with limited definition of function even in extensively studied species like cattle. In this study, we used a shotgun proteomics approach followed by bioinformatics sequence prediction to identify secreted proteins present in the bovine oviductal fluid (ex vivo) and secretions from the bovine oviductal epithelial cells (in vitro). From a total of 2087 proteins identified, 266 proteins could be classified as secreted, 109 (41%) of which were common for both in vivo and in vitro conditions. Pathway analysis indicated different classes of proteins that included growth factors, metabolic regulators, immune modulators, enzymes, and extracellular matrix components. Functional analysis revealed mechanisms in the oviductal lumen linked to immune homeostasis, gamete maturation, fertilization and early embryo development. These results point to several novel components that work together with known elements mediating functional homeostasis, and highlight the diversity of machinery associated with oviductal physiology and early events in cattle fertility.

  18. Profiling of proteins secreted in the bovine oviduct reveals diverse functions of this luminal microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Viju Vijayan; Weber, Darren M.; Phinney, Brett S.

    2017-01-01

    The oviductal microenvironment is a site for key events that involve gamete maturation, fertilization and early embryo development. Secretions into the oviductal lumen by either the lining epithelium or by transudation of plasma constituents are known to contain elements conducive for reproductive success. Although previous studies have identified some of these factors involved in reproduction, knowledge of secreted proteins in the oviductal fluid remains rudimentary with limited definition of function even in extensively studied species like cattle. In this study, we used a shotgun proteomics approach followed by bioinformatics sequence prediction to identify secreted proteins present in the bovine oviductal fluid (ex vivo) and secretions from the bovine oviductal epithelial cells (in vitro). From a total of 2087 proteins identified, 266 proteins could be classified as secreted, 109 (41%) of which were common for both in vivo and in vitro conditions. Pathway analysis indicated different classes of proteins that included growth factors, metabolic regulators, immune modulators, enzymes, and extracellular matrix components. Functional analysis revealed mechanisms in the oviductal lumen linked to immune homeostasis, gamete maturation, fertilization and early embryo development. These results point to several novel components that work together with known elements mediating functional homeostasis, and highlight the diversity of machinery associated with oviductal physiology and early events in cattle fertility. PMID:29155854

  19. Protein secretion is required for pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A to promote lung cancer growth in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Pan

    Full Text Available Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPPA has been reported to regulate the activity of insulin-like growth factor (IGF signal pathway through proteolytic degradation of IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs thereby increasing the local concentration of free IGFs available to receptors. In this study we found that PAPPA is secreted from two out of seven lung cancer cell lines examined. None of immortalized normal bronchial epithelial cells (HBE tested secrets PAPPA. There is no correlation between expression level and secretion of PAPPA in these cells. A cell line over-expressing PAPPA accompanied with secretion shows no notable changes in proliferation under cell culture conditions in vitro, but displays significantly augmentation of tumor growth in vivo in a xenograft model. In contrast, a cell line over-expressing PAPPA without secretion exhibits reduction of tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. Down-regulation of PAPPA expression and secretion by RNAi knockdown decreases tumor growth after implanted in vivo. The tumor promoting activity of PAPPA appears to be mediated mainly through augmentation of the IGF signaling pathway as indicated by notable increases in downstream Akt kinase phosphorylation in tumor samples. Our results indicate that PAPPA secretion may play an important role in lung cancer growth and progression.

  20. Interactions between Trypanosoma cruzi Secreted Proteins and Host Cell Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe Costa, Renata; da Silveira, Jose F.; Bahia, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is one of the prevalent neglected tropical diseases, affecting at least 6–7 million individuals in Latin America. It is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking insects. After infection, the parasite invades and multiplies in the myocardium, leading to acute myocarditis that kills around 5% of untreated individuals. T. cruzi secretes proteins that manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to promote host cell invasion. The primary secreted lysosomal peptidase in T. cruzi is cruzipain, which has been shown to modulate the host immune response. Cruzipain hinders macrophage activation during the early stages of infection by interrupting the NF-kB P65 mediated signaling pathway. This allows the parasite to survive and replicate, and may contribute to the spread of infection in acute Chagas disease. Another secreted protein P21, which is expressed in all of the developmental stages of T. cruzi, has been shown to modulate host phagocytosis signaling pathways. The parasite also secretes soluble factors that exert effects on host extracellular matrix, such as proteolytic degradation of collagens. Finally, secreted phospholipase A from T. cruzi contributes to lipid modifications on host cells and concomitantly activates the PKC signaling pathway. Here, we present a brief review of the interaction between secreted proteins from T. cruzi and the host cells, emphasizing the manipulation of host signaling pathways during invasion. PMID:27065960

  1. Interactions between Trypanosoma cruzi secreted proteins and host cell signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Watanabe Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is one of the prevalent neglected tropical diseases, affecting at least 6-7 million individuals in Latin America. It is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi, which is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking insects. After infection, the parasite invades and multiplies in the myocardium, leading to acute myocarditis that kills around 5% of untreated individuals. T. cruzi secretes proteins that manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to promote host cell invasion. The primary secreted lysosomal peptidase in T. cruzi is cruzipain, which has been shown to modulate the host immune response. Cruzipain hinders macrophage activation during the early stages of infection by interrupting the NF-kB P65 mediated signaling pathway. This allows the parasite to survive and replicate, and may contribute to the spread of infection in acute Chagas disease. Another secreted protein P21, which is expressed in all of the developmental stages of T. cruzi, has been shown to modulate host phagocytosis signaling pathways. The parasite also secretes soluble factors that exert effects on host extracellular matrix, such as proteolytic degradation of collagens. Finally, secreted phospholipase A from T. cruzi contributes to lipid modifications on host cells and concomitantly activates the PKC signaling pathway. Here we present a brief review of the interaction between secreted proteins from T. cruzi and the host cells, emphasizing the manipulation of host signaling pathways during invasion.

  2. Novel protein isoforms of carcinoembryonic antigen are secreted from pancreatic, gastric and colorectal cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) is an oncofetal cell surface glycoprotein. Because of its high expression in cancer cells and secretion into serum, CEA has been widely used as a serum tumor marker. Although other members of CEACAM family were investigated for splice variants/variants-derived protein isoforms, few studies about the variants of CEACAM5 have been reported. In this study, we demonstrated the existence of novel CEACAM5 splice variants and splice variant-derived protein isoforms in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines. Results We identified two novel CEACAM5 splice variants in gastrointestinal (pancreatic, gastric, and colorectal) cancer cell lines. One of the variants possessed an alternative minor splice site that allowed generation of GC-AG intron. Furthermore, CEA protein isoforms derived from the novel splice variants were expressed in cancer cell lines and those protein isoforms were secreted into the culture medium. Although CEA protein isoforms always co-existed with the full-length protein, the secretion patterns of these isoforms did not correlate with the expression patterns. Conclusions This is the first study to identify the expression of CEA isoforms derived from the novel splice variants processed on the unique splice site. In addition, we also revealed the secretion of those isoforms from gastrointestinal cancer cell lines. Our findings suggested that discrimination between the full-length and identified protein isoforms may improve the clinical utility of CEA as a tumor marker. PMID:24070190

  3. Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Österlund, Tobias; Liu, Zihe

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular st...

  4. Extracellular vesicles secreted by Schistosoma mansoni contain protein vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotillo, Javier; Pearson, Mark; Potriquet, Jeremy; Becker, Luke; Pickering, Darren; Mulvenna, Jason; Loukas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Herein we show for the first time that Schistosoma mansoni adult worms secrete exosome-like extracellular vesicles ranging from 50 to 130nm in size. Extracellular vesicles were collected from the excretory/secretory products of cultured adult flukes and purified by Optiprep density gradient, resulting in highly pure extracellular vesicle preparations as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Nanosight tracking analysis. Extracellular vesicle proteomic analysis showed numerous known vaccine candidates, potential virulence factors and molecules implicated in feeding. These findings provide new avenues for the exploration of host-schistosome interactions and offer a potential mechanism by which some vaccine antigens exert their protective efficacy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Gene delivery of therapeutic polypeptides to brain capillary endothelial cells for protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Annette Burkhart; Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Moos, Torben

    Background: The potential for treatment of chronic disorders affecting the CNS is complicated by the inability of several drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). None-viral gene therapy applied to brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) denotes a novel approach to overcome the restraints...... in this passage, as turning BCECs into recombinant protein factories by transfection could result in protein secretion into the brain. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of transfection to primary rat brain capillary endothelial cells (RBEC) for recombinant protein synthesis...... of the proteins. Morphological examination of the protein expression was determined using immunofluorescence detecting FLAG. Additionally, the transfection efficiency were determined by Flow cytometry. Perspective: Our study opens for knowledge on how non-viral gene therapy to BCECs can lead to protein secretion...

  6. Electrolyte and protein secretion by the perfused rabbit mandibular gland stimulated with acetylcholine or catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Conigrave, A D; Novak, I

    1980-01-01

    stimulation, the rate of protein secretion fell off much faster than the rate of fluid secretion.7. The beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol evoked a fluid secretory response only equal to about 5% of that evoked by acetylcholine, but still the response declined during continued stimulation. The electrolyte...... composition of isoproterenol-evoked saliva was vastly different from that evoked by acetylcholine, being particularly rich in K and HCO(3). The isoproterenol-evoked saliva was also extremely rich in protein so that the total protein secretion evoked by isoproterenol was much greater than that evoked...... unstimulated or evoked by acetylcholine or eserine, could be blocked completely by atropine.4. During prolonged stimulation with acetylcholine, the fluid secretory response declined rapidly over a period of about 15 min from an initial high value to a much lower plateau value. After 3 or more hours...

  7. Caught in the act: discovering secreted proteins from fungi and oomycetes in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Doris; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Annette Bruun

    Host-microbe relationships largely rely on secreted proteins like enzymes, virulence factors and antimicrobial peptides. To discover proteins secreted by microbe and host during the interaction with each other, we produced dual-organism cDNA libraries from three different fungus- or oomycete......-infected host systems. By methods such as TAST (transposon-assisted signal trapping) and PCR with degenerated primers, the libraries are screened for secreted proteins, especially enzymes, which are then further characterized. We investigate a fourth system, the mycorrhizal fungus Paxillus convolutus......, by applying a similar strategy with a fungus-only library. As a result, we will show that our approach is widely applicable and allows us to deepen the understanding a variety of different host-microbe systems....

  8. Comparative genome analysis of entomopathogenic fungi reveals a complex set of secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Charley Christian; Junges, Angela; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Thompson, Claudia Elizabeth; de Morais, Guilherme Loss; Boldo, Juliano Tomazzoni; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Andreis, Fábio Carrer; Gerber, Alexandra Lehmkuhl; Sbaraini, Nicolau; da Paixão, Rana Louise de Andrade; Broetto, Leonardo; Landell, Melissa; Santi, Lucélia; Beys-da-Silva, Walter Orlando; Silveira, Carolina Pereira; Serrano, Thaiane Rispoli; de Oliveira, Eder Silva; Kmetzsch, Lívia; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Schrank, Augusto

    2014-09-29

    Metarhizium anisopliae is an entomopathogenic fungus used in the biological control of some agricultural insect pests, and efforts are underway to use this fungus in the control of insect-borne human diseases. A large repertoire of proteins must be secreted by M. anisopliae to cope with the various available nutrients as this fungus switches through different lifestyles, i.e., from a saprophytic, to an infectious, to a plant endophytic stage. To further evaluate the predicted secretome of M. anisopliae, we employed genomic and transcriptomic analyses, coupled with phylogenomic analysis, focusing on the identification and characterization of secreted proteins. We determined the M. anisopliae E6 genome sequence and compared this sequence to other entomopathogenic fungi genomes. A robust pipeline was generated to evaluate the predicted secretomes of M. anisopliae and 15 other filamentous fungi, leading to the identification of a core of secreted proteins. Transcriptomic analysis using the tick Rhipicephalus microplus cuticle as an infection model during two periods of infection (48 and 144 h) allowed the identification of several differentially expressed genes. This analysis concluded that a large proportion of the predicted secretome coding genes contained altered transcript levels in the conditions analyzed in this study. In addition, some specific secreted proteins from Metarhizium have an evolutionary history similar to orthologs found in Beauveria/Cordyceps. This similarity suggests that a set of secreted proteins has evolved to participate in entomopathogenicity. The data presented represents an important step to the characterization of the role of secreted proteins in the virulence and pathogenicity of M. anisopliae.

  9. Moderate expression of SEC16 increases protein secretion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Jichen; Huang, Mingtao; Petranovic, Dina

    2017-01-01

    in yeast, by moderately overexpressing SEC16, which is involved in protein translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. The moderate overexpression of SEC16 increased α-amylase secretion by generating more endoplasmic reticulum exit sites. The production of reactive oxygen species...... were observed. Finally, the moderate overexpression of SEC16 was shown to improve the secretion of two other recombinant proteins, Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase I and Rhizopus oryzae glucan-1,4-α-glucosidase, indicating that this mechanism is of general relevance....

  10. Dystrophin deficiency leads to disturbance of LAMP1-vesicle-associated protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duguez, S.; Duddy, W.; Johnston, H.

    2013-01-01

    (SILAC), finding marked enrichment of vesicular markers in the mdx secretome. These included the lysosomal-associated membrane protein, LAMP1, that co-localized in vesicles with an over-secreted cytoskeletal protein, myosin light chain 1. These LAMP1/MLC1-3-positive vesicles accumulated in the cytosol...... of mdx myotubes and were secreted into the culture medium in a range of abnormal densities. Restitution of dystrophin expression, by exon skipping, to some 30 % of the control value, partially normalized the secretome profile and the excess LAMP1 accumulation. Together, our results suggest that a lack...

  11. High-yield secretion of recombinant proteins from the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Martinez, Erick Miguel; Fimognari, Lorenzo; Sakuragi, Yumiko

    2017-09-01

    Microalga-based biomanufacturing of recombinant proteins is attracting growing attention due to its advantages in safety, metabolic diversity, scalability and sustainability. Secretion of recombinant proteins can accelerate the use of microalgal platforms by allowing post-translational modifications and easy recovery of products from the culture media. However, currently, the yields of secreted recombinant proteins are low, which hampers the commercial application of this strategy. This study aimed at expanding the genetic tools for enhancing secretion of recombinant proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a widely used green microalga as a model organism and a potential industrial biotechnology platform. We demonstrated that the putative signal sequence from C. reinhardtii gametolysin can assist the secretion of the yellow fluorescent protein Venus into the culture media. To increase the secretion yields, Venus was C-terminally fused with synthetic glycomodules comprised of tandem serine (Ser) and proline (Pro) repeats of 10 and 20 units [hereafter (SP) n , wherein n = 10 or 20]. The yields of the (SP) n -fused Venus were higher than Venus without the glycomodule by up to 12-fold, with the maximum yield of 15 mg/L. Moreover, the presence of the glycomodules conferred an enhanced proteolytic protein stability. The Venus-(SP) n proteins were shown to be glycosylated, and a treatment of the cells with brefeldin A led to a suggestion that glycosylation of the (SP) n glycomodules starts in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Taken together, the results demonstrate the utility of the gametolysin signal sequence and (SP) n glycomodule to promote a more efficient biomanufacturing of microalgae-based recombinant proteins. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Adiporedoxin, an upstream regulator of ER oxidative folding and protein secretion in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Mark P; Liu, Libin; Laflamme, Collette J; Karastergiou, Kalypso; Meshulam, Tova; Ding, Shi-Ying; Wu, Yuanyuan; Lee, Mi-Jeong; Gygi, Steven P; Fried, Susan K; Pilch, Paul F

    2015-11-01

    Adipocytes are robust protein secretors, most notably of adipokines, hormone-like polypeptides, which act in an endocrine and paracrine fashion to affect numerous physiological processes such as energy balance and insulin sensitivity. To understand how such proteins are assembled for secretion we describe the function of a novel endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductase, adiporedoxin (Adrx). Adrx knockdown and overexpressing 3T3-L1 murine adipocyte cell lines and a knockout mouse model were used to assess the influence of Adrx on secreted proteins as well as the redox state of ER resident chaperones. The metabolic phenotypes of Adrx null mice were characterized and compared to WT mice. The correlation of Adrx levels BMI, adiponectin levels, and other inflammatory markers from adipose tissue of human subjects was also studied. Adiporedoxin functions via a CXXC active site, and is upstream of protein disulfide isomerase whose direct function is disulfide bond formation, and ultimately protein secretion. Over and under expression of Adrx in vitro enhances and reduces, respectively, the secretion of the disulfide-bonded proteins including adiponectin and collagen isoforms. On a chow diet, Adrx null mice have normal body weights, and glucose tolerance, are moderately hyperinsulinemic, have reduced levels of circulating adiponectin and are virtually free of adipocyte fibrosis resulting in a complex phenotype tending towards insulin resistance. Adrx protein levels in human adipose tissue correlate positively with adiponectin levels and negatively with the inflammatory marker phospho-Jun kinase. These data support the notion that Adrx plays a critical role in adipocyte biology and in the regulation of mouse and human metabolism via its modulation of adipocyte protein secretion.

  13. Preliminary identification of secreted proteins by Leptospira interrogans serovar Kennewicki strain Pomona Fromm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardi, L.M.P.; Portaro, F.C.; Abreu, P.A.E.; Barbosa, A.S. [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Morais, Z.M.; Vasconcellos, S.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This project aimed to identify secreted proteins by pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Kennewicki strain Pomona Fromm (LPF) by proteomic analyses. The strain LPF, whose virulence was maintained by passages in hamsters, were cultured in EMJH medium. The supernatants were centrifuged, dialyzed and subjected to lyophilization. Protein samples were resolved first by IEF at pH 3 to 10, immobilized pH gradient 13-cm strips. Strips were then processed for the second-dimension separation on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins from gel spots were subjected to reduction, cysteine-alkylation, and in-gel tryptic digestion, and analyzed by LC/MS/MS spectrometry. Liquid chromatography-based separation followed by automated tandem mass spectrometry was also used to identify secreted proteins. In silico analyses were performed using the PSORTbV.3.0 program and SignalP server. One major obstacle to secretome studies is the difficulty to obtain extracts of secreted proteins without citoplasmatic contamination. In addition, the extraction of low concentration proteins from large volumes of culture media, which are rich in salts, BSA and other compounds, frequently interfere with most proteomics techniques. For these reasons, several experimental approaches were used to optimize the protocol applied. In spite of this fact, our analysis resulted in the identification of 200 proteins with high confidence. Only 5 of 63 secreted proteins predicted by in silico analysis were found. Other classes identified included proteins that possess signal peptide but whose cellular localization prediction is unknown or may have multiple localization sites, and proteins that lack signal peptide and are thus thought to be secreted via non conventional mechanisms or resulting from cytoplasmic contamination by cell lysis. Many of these are hypothetical proteins with no putative conserved domains detected. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify secreted proteins by

  14. Preliminary identification of secreted proteins by Leptospira interrogans serovar Kennewicki strain Pomona Fromm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricardi, L.M.P.; Portaro, F.C.; Abreu, P.A.E.; Barbosa, A.S.; Morais, Z.M.; Vasconcellos, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: This project aimed to identify secreted proteins by pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Kennewicki strain Pomona Fromm (LPF) by proteomic analyses. The strain LPF, whose virulence was maintained by passages in hamsters, were cultured in EMJH medium. The supernatants were centrifuged, dialyzed and subjected to lyophilization. Protein samples were resolved first by IEF at pH 3 to 10, immobilized pH gradient 13-cm strips. Strips were then processed for the second-dimension separation on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins from gel spots were subjected to reduction, cysteine-alkylation, and in-gel tryptic digestion, and analyzed by LC/MS/MS spectrometry. Liquid chromatography-based separation followed by automated tandem mass spectrometry was also used to identify secreted proteins. In silico analyses were performed using the PSORTbV.3.0 program and SignalP server. One major obstacle to secretome studies is the difficulty to obtain extracts of secreted proteins without citoplasmatic contamination. In addition, the extraction of low concentration proteins from large volumes of culture media, which are rich in salts, BSA and other compounds, frequently interfere with most proteomics techniques. For these reasons, several experimental approaches were used to optimize the protocol applied. In spite of this fact, our analysis resulted in the identification of 200 proteins with high confidence. Only 5 of 63 secreted proteins predicted by in silico analysis were found. Other classes identified included proteins that possess signal peptide but whose cellular localization prediction is unknown or may have multiple localization sites, and proteins that lack signal peptide and are thus thought to be secreted via non conventional mechanisms or resulting from cytoplasmic contamination by cell lysis. Many of these are hypothetical proteins with no putative conserved domains detected. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify secreted proteins by

  15. Signal regulatory proteins (SIRPS) are secreted presynaptic organizing molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemori, Hisashi; Sanes, Joshua R

    2008-12-05

    Formation of chemical synapses requires exchange of organizing signals between the synaptic partners. Using synaptic vesicle aggregation in cultured neurons as a marker of presynaptic differentiation, we purified candidate presynaptic organizers from mouse brain. A major bioactive species was the extracellular domain of signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRP-alpha), a transmembrane immunoglobulin superfamily member concentrated at synapses. The extracellular domain of SIRP-alpha is cleaved and shed in a developmentally regulated manner. The presynaptic organizing activity of SIRP-alpha is mediated in part by CD47. SIRP-alpha homologues, SIRP-beta and -gamma also have synaptic vesicle clustering activity. The effects of SIRP-alpha are distinct from those of another presynaptic organizer, FGF22: the two proteins induced vesicle clusters of different sizes, differed in their ability to promote neurite branching, and acted through different receptors and signaling pathways. SIRP family proteins may act together with other organizing molecules to pattern synapses.

  16. Galectin-3 directs antimicrobial guanylate binding proteins to vacuoles furnished with bacterial secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Eric M; Pilla-Moffett, Danielle M; Zwack, Erin E; Piro, Anthony S; Finethy, Ryan; Kolb, Joseph P; Martinez, Jennifer; Brodsky, Igor E; Coers, Jörn

    2017-02-28

    Many invasive bacteria establish pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) as intracellular niches for microbial growth. Immunity to these infections is dependent on the ability of host cells to recognize PVs as targets for host defense. The delivery of several host defense proteins to PVs is controlled by IFN-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs), which themselves dock to PVs through poorly characterized mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that GBPs detect the presence of bacterial protein secretion systems as "patterns of pathogenesis" associated with PVs. We report that the delivery of GBP2 to Legionella -containing vacuoles is dependent on the bacterial Dot/Icm secretion system, whereas the delivery of GBP2 to Yersinia- containing vacuoles (YCVs) requires hypersecretion of Yersinia translocon proteins. We show that the presence of bacterial secretion systems directs cytosolic carbohydrate-binding protein Galectin-3 to PVs and that the delivery of GBP1 and GBP2 to Legionella- containing vacuoles or YCVs is substantially diminished in Galectin-3-deficient cells. Our results illustrate that insertion of bacterial secretion systems into PV membranes stimulates Galectin-3-dependent recruitment of antimicrobial GBPs to PVs as part of a coordinated host defense program.

  17. Secretion of Human Protein C in Mouse Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae-Won Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the production of recombinant human protein C (rec-hPC in milk, we created two homozygous mice lines for the goat β-casein/hPC transgene. Females and males of both lines (#10 and #11 displayed normal growth, fertility, and lactated normally. The copy number of the transgene was about fivefold higher in #10 line as compared to #11 line. mRNA expression of the transgene was only detected in the mammary glands of both lines. Furthermore, mRNA expression was fourfold higher on day 7 than on day 1 during lactation. Northern blot analysis of mRNA expression in the #10 line of transgenic (Tg mice indicated a strong expression of the transgene in the mammary glands after seven days of lactation. Comparison of rec-hPC protein level with that of mRNA in the mammary glands showed a very similar pattern. A 52-kDa band corresponding to the hPC protein was strongly detected in mammary glands of the #10 line during lactation. We also detected two bands of heavy chain and one weak band of light chain in the milk of the #10 and #11 lines. One single band at 52 kDa was detected from CHO cells transfected with hPC cDNA. hPC was mainly localized in the alveolar epithelial cell of the mammary glands. The protein is strongly expressed in the cytoplasm of the cultured mammary gland tissue. hPC protein produced in milk ranged from 2 to 28 ng/mL. These experiments indicated that rec-hPC can be produced at high levels in mice mammary glands.

  18. Secretion of anti-Plasmodium effector proteins from a natural Pantoea agglomerans isolate by using PelB and HlyA secretion signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, Dawn C; Lampe, David J

    2011-07-01

    The insect-vectored disease malaria is a major world health problem. New control strategies are needed to supplement the current use of insecticides and medications. A genetic approach can be used to inhibit development of malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) in the mosquito host. We hypothesized that Pantoea agglomerans, a bacterial symbiont of Anopheles mosquitoes, could be engineered to express and secrete anti-Plasmodium effector proteins, a strategy termed paratransgenesis. To this end, plasmids that include the pelB or hlyA secretion signals from the genes of related species (pectate lyase from Erwinia carotovora and hemolysin A from Escherichia coli, respectively) were created and tested for their efficacy in secreting known anti-Plasmodium effector proteins (SM1, anti-Pbs21, and PLA2) in P. agglomerans and E. coli. P. agglomerans successfully secreted HlyA fusions of anti-Pbs21 and PLA2, and these strains are under evaluation for anti-Plasmodium activity in infected mosquitoes. Varied expression and/or secretion of the effector proteins was observed, suggesting that the individual characteristics of a particular effector may require empirical testing of several secretion signals. Importantly, those strains that secreted efficiently grew as well as wild-type strains under laboratory conditions and, thus, may be expected to be competitive with the native microbiota in the environment of the mosquito midgut.

  19. Secretion of Anti-Plasmodium Effector Proteins from a Natural Pantoea agglomerans Isolate by Using PelB and HlyA Secretion Signals▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, Dawn C.; Lampe, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The insect-vectored disease malaria is a major world health problem. New control strategies are needed to supplement the current use of insecticides and medications. A genetic approach can be used to inhibit development of malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) in the mosquito host. We hypothesized that Pantoea agglomerans, a bacterial symbiont of Anopheles mosquitoes, could be engineered to express and secrete anti-Plasmodium effector proteins, a strategy termed paratransgenesis. To this end, plasmids that include the pelB or hlyA secretion signals from the genes of related species (pectate lyase from Erwinia carotovora and hemolysin A from Escherichia coli, respectively) were created and tested for their efficacy in secreting known anti-Plasmodium effector proteins (SM1, anti-Pbs21, and PLA2) in P. agglomerans and E. coli. P. agglomerans successfully secreted HlyA fusions of anti-Pbs21 and PLA2, and these strains are under evaluation for anti-Plasmodium activity in infected mosquitoes. Varied expression and/or secretion of the effector proteins was observed, suggesting that the individual characteristics of a particular effector may require empirical testing of several secretion signals. Importantly, those strains that secreted efficiently grew as well as wild-type strains under laboratory conditions and, thus, may be expected to be competitive with the native microbiota in the environment of the mosquito midgut. PMID:21602368

  20. Visualization and characterization of individual type III protein secretion machines in live bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongdeng; Lara-Tejero, María; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Galán, Jorge E

    2017-06-06

    Type III protein secretion machines have evolved to deliver bacterially encoded effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. Although electron microscopy has provided a detailed view of these machines in isolation or fixed samples, little is known about their organization in live bacteria. Here we report the visualization and characterization of the Salmonella type III secretion machine in live bacteria by 2D and 3D single-molecule switching superresolution microscopy. This approach provided access to transient components of this machine, which previously could not be analyzed. We determined the subcellular distribution of individual machines, the stoichiometry of the different components of this machine in situ, and the spatial distribution of the substrates of this machine before secretion. Furthermore, by visualizing this machine in Salmonella mutants we obtained major insights into the machine's assembly. This study bridges a major resolution gap in the visualization of this nanomachine and may serve as a paradigm for the examination of other bacterially encoded molecular machines.

  1. Proteomes of the barley aleurone layer: A model system for plant signalling and protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Andersen, Birgit; Shahpiri, Azar

    2011-01-01

    to gibberellic acid produced by the embryo, the aleurone layer synthesises hydrolases that are secreted to the endosperm for the degradation of storage products. The barley aleurone layer can be separated from the other seed tissues and maintained in culture, allowing the study of the effect of added signalling...... molecules in an isolated system. These properties have led to its use as a model system for the study of plant signalling and germination. More recently, proteome analysis of the aleurone layer has provided new insight into this unique tissue including identification of plasma membrane proteins and targeted...... analysis of germination-related changes and the thioredoxin system. Here, analysis of intracellular and secreted proteomes reveals features of the aleurone layer system that makes it promising for investigations of plant protein secretion mechanisms....

  2. A Secreted Protein Promotes Cleavage Furrow Maturation during Cytokinesis

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xuehong; Vogel, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental modifications in cell shape depend on dynamic interactions between the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton. In contrast, existing models of cytokinesis describe substantial cell surface remodeling that involves many intracellular regulatory and structural proteins but includes no contribution from the extracellular matrix [1–3]. Here, we show that extracellular hemicentins assemble at the cleavage furrow of dividing cells in the C. elegans germline and in preimplantation mouse...

  3. Identification of a conserved cluster of skin-specific genes encoding secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Pierre; Salois, Patrick; St-Amant, Natalie; Gaumond, Marie-Hélène; Lanctôt, Christian

    2004-06-09

    Terminal differentiation of keratinocytes results in the formation of a cornified layer composed of cross-linked intracellular and extracellular material. Using a signal trap expression screening strategy, we have identified four cDNAs encoding secreted proteins potentially involved in this process. One of the cDNAs is identical to the short isoform of suprabasin, a recently described epidermis-specific protein, which is shown here to contain a functional secretory signal. The second cDNA, sk89, encodes a protein of 493 amino acids, rich in glycine and serine residues. The third cDNA encodes a C-terminal fragment of SK89 (amino acids 410-493). It comprises exons 13 to 18 of the sk89 locus but transcription starts at an isoform-specific exon encoding a distinct secretory signal. The fourth cDNA encodes keratinocyte differentiation-associated protein (KDAP), a precursor protein of 102 amino acids. Subcellular localization by immunofluorescence and detection of the tagged proteins by Western blotting confirmed that the four proteins are secreted. Northern analysis and in situ hybridization revealed that expression of the corresponding genes was restricted to the suprabasal keratinocytes of the epidermis. These genes encoding epidermis-specific secreted products are found in a conserved cluster on human chromosome 19q13.12 and on mouse chromosome 7A3.

  4. Decidual-secreted factors alter invasive trophoblast membrane and secreted proteins implying a role for decidual cell regulation of placentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Melaleuca Menkhorst

    Full Text Available Inadequate or inappropriate implantation and placentation during the establishment of human pregnancy is thought to lead to first trimester miscarriage, placental insufficiency and other obstetric complications. To create the placental blood supply, specialized cells, the 'extravillous trophoblast' (EVT invade through the differentiated uterine endometrium (the decidua to engraft and remodel uterine spiral arteries. We hypothesized that decidual factors would regulate EVT function by altering the production of EVT membrane and secreted factors. We used a proteomics approach to identify EVT membrane and secreted proteins regulated by decidual cell factors. Human endometrial stromal cells were decidualized in vitro by treatment with estradiol (10(-8 M, medroxyprogesterone acetate (10(-7 M and cAMP (0.5 mM for 14 days. Conditioned media (CM was collected on day 2 (non-decidualized CM and 14 (decidualized CM of treatment. Isolated primary EVT cultured on Matrigel™ were treated with media control, non-decidualized or decidualized CM for 16 h. EVT CM was fractionated for proteins <30 kDa using size-exclusion affinity nanoparticles (SEAN before trypsin digestion and HPLC-MS/MS. 43 proteins produced by EVT were identified; 14 not previously known to be expressed in the placenta and 12 which had previously been associated with diseases of pregnancy including preeclampsia. Profilin 1, lysosome associated membrane glycoprotein 1 (LAMP1, dipeptidyl peptidase 1 (DPP1/cathepsin C and annexin A2 expression by interstitial EVT in vivo was validated by immunhistochemistry. Decidual CM regulation in vitro was validated by western blotting: decidualized CM upregulated profilin 1 in EVT CM and non-decidualized CM upregulated annexin A2 in EVT CM and pro-DPP1 in EVT cell lysate. Here, non-decidualized factors induced protease expression by EVT suggesting that non-decidualized factors may induce a pro-inflammatory cascade. Preeclampsia is a pro

  5. An integrated transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of sea star epidermal secretions identifies proteins involved in defense and adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Elise; Leroy, Baptiste; Wattiez, Ruddy; Ladurner, Peter

    2015-10-14

    Sea stars rely on epidermal secretions to cope with their benthic life. Their integument produces a mucus, which represents the first barrier against invaders; and their tube feet produce adhesive secretions to pry open mussels and attach strongly but temporarily to rocks. In this study, we combined high-throughput sequencing of expressed mRNA and mass-spectrometry-based identification of proteins to establish the first proteome of mucous and adhesive secretions from the sea star Asterias rubens. We show that the two secretions differ significantly, the major adhesive proteins being only present in trace amounts in the mucus secretion. Except for 41 proteins which were present in both secretions, a total of 34 and 244 proteins were identified as specific of adhesive secretions and mucus, respectively. We discuss the role of some of these proteins in the adhesion of sea stars as well as in their protection against oxygen reactive species and microorganisms. In addition, 58% of the proteins identified in adhesive secretions did not present significant similarity to other known proteins, revealing a list of potential novel sea star adhesive proteins uncharacterized so far. The panel of proteins identified in this study offers unprecedented opportunities for the development of sea star-inspired biomimetic materials. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The Role of Pathogen-Secreted Proteins in Fungal Vascular Wilt Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sain, M.; Rep, M.

    2015-01-01

    A limited number of fungi can cause wilting disease in plants through colonization of the vascular system, the most well-known being Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum. Like all pathogenic microorganisms, vascular wilt fungi secrete proteins during host colonization. Whole-genome sequencing

  7. Identification of secreted proteins of Aspergillus oryzae associated with growth on solid cereal substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesebeke, te R.; Boussier, A.; Biezen, de N.; Hondel, van den C.; Punt, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Filamentous growth of Aspergillus oryzae on solid cereal substrates involves secretion of substrate converting enzymes and a solid substrate specific polarised hyphal growth phenotype. To identify proteins produced under these specific conditions, the extracts of A. oryzae grown on wheat-based media

  8. A novel screening system for secretion of heterologous proteins in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, Hein; van der Veek, Patricia J.; Renniers, Ton C.; Meima, Rob; Sagt, Cees M.; Mohrmann, Lisette; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    High-level production of secretory proteins in Bacillus subtilis leads to a stress response involving the two-component system CssRS and its target genes htrA and htrB. Here, we used this sensing system in a reporter strain in which gfp is under control of P(htrA), the secretion stress responsive

  9. A Rapid Method for Determining the Concentration of Recombinant Protein Secreted from Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. W.; Zhao, Y.; Niu, L. P.; Jiang, R.; Song, Y.; Feng, H.; feng, K.; Qi, C.

    2011-02-01

    Pichia secretive expression system is one of powerful eukaryotic expression systems in genetic engineering, which is especially suitable for industrial utilization. Because of the low concentration of the target protein in initial experiment, the methods and conditions for expression of the target protein should be optimized according to the protein yield repetitively. It is necessary to set up a rapid, simple and convenient analysis method for protein expression levels instead of the generally used method such as ultrafiltration, purification, dialysis, lyophilization and so on. In this paper, acetone precipitation method was chosen to concentrate the recombinant protein firstly after comparing with four different protein precipitation methods systematically, and then the protein was analyzed by SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. The recombinant protein was determined with the feature of protein band by the Automated Image Capture and 1-D Analysis Software directly. With this method, the optimized expression conditions of basic fibroblast growth factor secreted from pichia were obtained, which is as the same as using traditional methods. Hence, a convenient tool to determine the optimized conditions for the expression of recombinant proteins in Pichia was established.

  10. A structurally informed autotransporter platform for efficient heterologous protein secretion and display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Wouter SP

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The self-sufficient autotransporter (AT pathway, ubiquitous in Gram-negative bacteria, combines a relatively simple protein secretion mechanism with a high transport capacity. ATs consist of a secreted passenger domain and a β-domain that facilitates transfer of the passenger across the cell-envelope. They have a great potential for the extracellular expression of recombinant proteins but their exploitation has suffered from the limited structural knowledge of carrier ATs. Capitalizing on its crystal structure, we have engineered the Escherichia coli AT Hemoglobin protease (Hbp into a platform for the secretion and surface display of heterologous proteins, using the Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine target ESAT6 as a model protein. Results Based on the Hbp crystal structure, five passenger side domains were selected and one by one replaced by ESAT6, whereas a β-helical core structure (β-stem was left intact. The resulting Hbp-ESAT6 chimeras were efficiently and stably secreted into the culture medium of E. coli. On the other hand, Hbp-ESAT6 fusions containing a truncated β-stem appeared unstable after translocation, demonstrating the importance of an intact β-stem. By interrupting the cleavage site between passenger and β-domain, Hbp-ESAT6 display variants were constructed that remain cell associated and facilitate efficient surface exposure of ESAT6 as judged by proteinase K accessibility and whole cell immuno-EM analysis. Upon replacement of the passenger side domain of an alternative AT, EspC, ESAT6 was also efficiently secreted, showing the approach is more generally applicable to ATs. Furthermore, Hbp-ESAT6 was efficiently displayed in an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain upon chromosomal integration of a single encoding gene copy, demonstrating the potential of the Hbp platform for live vaccine development. Conclusions We developed the first structurally informed AT platform for efficient secretion and

  11. Genome-scale analysis of the high-efficient protein secretion system of Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Lifang; Feizi, Amir; Osterlund, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    related fungal species such as Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger. To evaluate the defined component list, we performed transcriptome analysis on three a-amylase over-producing strains with varying levels of secretion capacities. Specifically, secretory components involved in the ER...... by overproducing amylase. Conclusion: In combination with the transcriptome data, the most complete secretory component list and the putative secretome, we improved the systemic understanding of the secretory machinery of A. oryzae in response to high levels of protein secretion. The roles of many newly predicted...

  12. Proteins synthesized and secreted by larvae of the ectoparasitic wasp, Eulophus pennicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, E H; Edwards, J P

    2001-03-01

    A microscopic examination of Eulophus pennicornis larvae on their host Lacanobia oleracea, revealed that peristaltic waves travelled from the anterior to posterior end of the feeding wasp larvae, and vice versa. In addition, when wasp larvae were immersed in PBS in vitro, they released a variety of proteins, with molecular weights ranging from (at least) 14 to 200 kDa. Amongst these was a protein with an estimated molecular weight similar to that of the 27 kDa parasitism-specific protein (PSP) detected in plasma from parasitized L. oleracea [Richards and Edwards, Insect Biochem Mol Biol 29:557-569 (1999)]. Similar results were obtained when the wasp larvae were incubated on balls of cotton wool soaked in tissue culture medium or sucrose, i.e., conditions that resemble their natural feeding behaviour. These results (and others) indicate that the wasp larvae release proteins, putatively through their mouth. Protein synthesis studies using (35)S-methionine indicated that the wasp larvae synthesize and secrete a variety of proteins in vitro, including one with a molecular weight corresponding to that of the L. oleracea 27 kDa PSP. As expected, only a portion of the total proteins synthesized by the parasitoid larvae were subsequently secreted. In addition, the autoradiogram of secreted proteins contained significantly fewer bands than silver-stained SDS gels of proteins released into PBS or onto cotton wool. Thus, some of the additional bands detected on the latter gels are thought to represent proteins that were not of wasp origin. Instead, these proteins released by the wasp larvae are speculated to be derived from their gut and, as such, probably represent proteins derived from host haemolymph and ingested during feeding. This possibility was supported by an electrophoretic analysis of homogenate supernatants prepared from wasp larvae with or without their gut contents. These studies indicated that the gut contents of the larval parasitoid contributes several

  13. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudenda, Lwiindi; Aguilar Pierle, Sebastian; Turse, Joshua E.; Scoles, Glen A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Clauss, Therese RW; Ueti, Massaro W.; Brown, Wendy C.; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2014-08-07

    Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, enabling ticks to feed for several days without detection. During feeding ticks subvert host defences such as hemostasis and inflammation, which would otherwise result in coagulation, wound repair and rejection of the tick. Molecular characterization of the proteins and pharmacological molecules secreted in tick saliva offers an opportunity to develop tick vaccines as an alternative to the use of acaricides, as well as new anti-inflammatory drugs. We performed proteomics informed by transcriptomics to identify D. andersoni saliva proteins that are secreted during feeding. The transcript data generated a database of 21,797 consensus sequences, which we used to identify 677 proteins secreted in the saliva of D. andersoni ticks fed for 2 and 5 days, following proteomic investigations of whole saliva using mass spectrometry. Salivary gland transcript levels of unfed ticks were compared with 2 and 5 day fed ticks to identify genes upregulated early during tick feeding. We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified.

  14. Astrocyte-Secreted Matricellular Proteins in CNS Remodelling during Development and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma V. Jones

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Matricellular proteins are secreted, nonstructural proteins that regulate the extracellular matrix (ECM and interactions between cells through modulation of growth factor signaling, cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Despite being well described in the context of nonneuronal tissues, recent studies have revealed that these molecules may also play instrumental roles in central nervous system (CNS development and diseases. In this minireview, we discuss the matricellular protein families SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, Hevin/SC1 (SPARC-like 1, TN-C (Tenascin C, TSP (Thrombospondin, and CCN (CYR61/CTGF/NOV, which are secreted by astrocytes during development. These proteins exhibit a reduced expression in adult CNS but are upregulated in reactive astrocytes following injury or disease, where they are well placed to modulate the repair processes such as tissue remodeling, axon regeneration, glial scar formation, angiogenesis, and rewiring of neural circuitry. Conversely, their reexpression in reactive astrocytes may also lead to detrimental effects and promote the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Selective condensation drives partitioning and sequential secretion of cyst wall proteins in differentiating Giardia lamblia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Konrad

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Controlled secretion of a protective extracellular matrix is required for transmission of the infective stage of a large number of protozoan and metazoan parasites. Differentiating trophozoites of the highly minimized protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia secrete the proteinaceous portion of the cyst wall material (CWM consisting of three paralogous cyst wall proteins (CWP1-3 via organelles termed encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs. Phylogenetic and molecular data indicate that Diplomonads have lost a classical Golgi during reductive evolution. However, neogenesis of ESVs in encysting Giardia trophozoites transiently provides basic Golgi functions by accumulating presorted CWM exported from the ER for maturation. Based on this "minimal Golgi" hypothesis we predicted maturation of ESVs to a trans Golgi-like stage, which would manifest as a sorting event before regulated secretion of the CWM. Here we show that proteolytic processing of pro-CWP2 in maturing ESVs coincides with partitioning of CWM into two fractions, which are sorted and secreted sequentially with different kinetics. This novel sorting function leads to rapid assembly of a structurally defined outer cyst wall, followed by slow secretion of the remaining components. Using live cell microscopy we find direct evidence for condensed core formation in maturing ESVs. Core formation suggests that a mechanism controlled by phase transitions of the CWM from fluid to condensed and back likely drives CWM partitioning and makes sorting and sequential secretion possible. Blocking of CWP2 processing by a protease inhibitor leads to mis-sorting of a CWP2 reporter. Nevertheless, partitioning and sequential secretion of two portions of the CWM are unaffected in these cells. Although these cysts have a normal appearance they are not water resistant and therefore not infective. Our findings suggest that sequential assembly is a basic architectural principle of protective wall formation and requires

  16. Expression, Purification, and Biophysical Characterization of a Secreted Anthrax Decoy Fusion Protein in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalimuthu Karuppanan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax toxin receptor-mediated drug development for blocking anthrax toxin action has received much attention in recent decades. In this study, we produced a secreted anthrax decoy fusion protein comprised of a portion of the human capillary morphogenesis gene-2 (CMG2 protein fused via a linker to the fragment crystallizable (Fc domain of human immunoglobulin G1 in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using a transient expression system. Using the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV 35S promoter and co-expression with the p19 gene silencing suppressor, we were able to achieve a high level of recombinant CMG2-Fc-Apo (rCMG2-Fc-Apo protein accumulation. Production kinetics were observed up to eight days post-infiltration, and maximum production of 826 mg/kg fresh leaf weight was observed on day six. Protein A affinity chromatography purification of the rCMG2-Fc-Apo protein from whole leaf extract and apoplast wash fluid showed the homodimeric form under non-reducing gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the molecular integrity of the secreted protein. The N-glycosylation pattern of purified rCMG2-Fc-Apo protein was analysed; the major portion of N-glycans consists of complex type structures in both protein samples. The most abundant (>50% N-glycan structure was GlcNAc2(XylMan3(FucGlcNAc2 in rCMG2-Fc-Apo recovered from whole leaf extract and apoplast wash fluid. High mannose N-glycan structures were not detected in the apoplast wash fluid preparation, which confirmed the protein secretion. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that high-level production of rCMG2-Fc-Apo can be achieved by transient production in Nicotiana benthamiana plants with apoplast targeting.

  17. Application of a nitrocellulose immunoassay for quantitation of proteins secreted in cultured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaDuca, F.M.; Dang, C.V.; Bell, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    A macro immunoassay was developed to quantitate proteins (antigens) secreted in the culture media of primary rat hepatocytes. Dilutions of protein standards and undiluted spent culture media were applied to numbered sheets of nitrocellulose (NC) paper by vacuum filtration (in volumes up to 1 ml) through a specially designed macrofiltration apparatus constructed of plexiglas. Sequential incubation of the NC with bovine serum albumin blocking buffer, monospecific antibody, and 125 I Protein A enabled quantitation of protein concentration by determination of NC bound radioactivity. Linear and reproducible standard curves were obtained with fibrinogen, albumin, transferrin, and haptoglobin. A high degree of coefficient of correlation between radioactivity (cmp) and protein concentration was found. Intra- and inter-test reproducibility was excellent. By using monospecific antibodies, single proteins (i.e., fibrinogen), as low as 32 ng/ml, could be quantified in heterogeneous protein mixtures and in spent culture media. The assay was sensitive to the difference of fibrinogen secretion under nonstimulatory (serum-free hormonally define medium, SFHD) and stimulatory (SFHD plus hydrocortisone) culture conditions. The procedure and techniques described are applicable to the quantitation of any protein in a suitable buffer

  18. A secreted serine protease of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and its interactions with fungal proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Célia MA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus, the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. Serine proteases are widely distributed and this class of peptidase has been related to pathogenesis and nitrogen starvation in pathogenic fungi. Results A cDNA (Pbsp encoding a secreted serine protease (PbSP, was isolated from a cDNA library constructed with RNAs of fungal yeast cells recovered from liver of infected mice. Recombinant PbSP was produced in Escherichia coli, and used to develop polyclonal antibodies that were able to detect a 66 kDa protein in the P. brasiliensis proteome. In vitro deglycosylation assays with endoglycosidase H demonstrated that PbSP is a N-glycosylated molecule. The Pbsp transcript and the protein were induced during nitrogen starvation. The Pbsp transcript was also induced in yeast cells infecting murine macrophages. Interactions of PbSP with P. brasiliensis proteins were evaluated by two-hybrid assay in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PbSP interacts with a peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase, calnexin, HSP70 and a cell wall protein PWP2. Conclusions A secreted subtilisin induced during nitrogen starvation was characterized indicating the possible role of this protein in the nitrogen acquisition. PbSP interactions with other P. brasiliensis proteins were reported. Proteins interacting with PbSP are related to folding process, protein trafficking and cytoskeleton reorganization.

  19. Identification of Two Translocon Proteins of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type III Secretion System 2▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kodama, Toshio; Hiyoshi, Hirotaka; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Akeda, Yukihiro; Matsuda, Shigeaki; Park, Kwon-Sam; Cantarelli, Vlademir V.; Iida, Tetsuya; Honda, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) translocon complex is composed of several associated proteins, which form a translocation channel through the host cell plasma membrane. These proteins are key molecules that are involved in the pathogenicity of many T3SS-positive bacteria, because they are necessary to deliver effector proteins into host cells. A T3SS designated T3SS2 of Vibrio parahaemolyticus is thought to be related to the enterotoxicity of this bacterium in humans, but the effector tr...

  20. Consuming viscous prey: a novel protein-secreting delivery system in neotropical snail-eating snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Hussam; de Oliveira, Leonardo; Grazziotin, Felipe G; Campagner, Michelle; Jared, Carlos; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Prudente, Ana L

    2014-03-25

    Efficient venom delivery systems are known to occur only in varanoid lizards and advanced colubroidean snakes among squamate reptiles. Although components of these venomous systems might have been present in a common ancestor, the two lineages independently evolved strikingly different venom gland systems. In snakes, venom is produced exclusively by serous glands in the upper jaw. Within the colubroidean radiation, lower jaw seromucous infralabial glands are known only in two distinct lineages-the basal pareatids and the more advanced Neotropical dipsadines known as "goo-eating snakes". Goo-eaters are a highly diversified, ecologically specialized clade that feeds exclusively on invertebrates (e.g., gastropod molluscs and annelids). Their evolutionary success has been attributed to their peculiar feeding strategies, which remain surprisingly poorly understood. More specifically, it has long been thought that the more derived Dipsadini genera Dipsas and Sibynomorphus use glandular toxins secreted by their infralabial glands to extract snails from their shells. Here, we report the presence in the tribe Dipsadini of a novel lower jaw protein-secreting delivery system effected by a gland that is not functionally related to adjacent teeth, but rather opens loosely on the oral epithelium near the tip of the mandible, suggesting that its secretion is not injected into the prey as a form of envenomation but rather helps control the mucus and assists in the ingestion of their highly viscous preys. A similar protein-secreting system is also present in the goo-eating genus Geophis and may share the same adaptive purpose as that hypothesized for Dipsadini. Our phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that the acquisition of a seromucous infralabial gland represents a uniquely derived trait of the goo-eating clade that evolved independently twice within the group as a functionally complex protein-secreting delivery system. The acquisition by snail-eating snakes of such a complex

  1. Comparison of secretory signal peptides for heterologous protein expression in microalgae: Expanding the secretion portfolio for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vitor Dutra Molino

    Full Text Available Efficient protein secretion is a desirable trait for any recombinant protein expression system, together with simple, low-cost, and defined media, such as the typical media used for photosynthetic cultures of microalgae. However, low titers of secreted heterologous proteins are usually obtained, even with the most extensively studied microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, preventing their industrial application. In this study, we aimed to expand and evaluate secretory signal peptides (SP for heterologous protein secretion in C. reinhardtii by comparing previously described SP with untested sequences. We compared the SPs from arylsulfatase 1 and carbonic anhydrase 1, with those of untried SPs from binding protein 1, an ice-binding protein, and six sequences identified in silico. We identified over 2000 unique SPs using the SignalP 4.0 software. mCherry fluorescence was used to compare the protein secretion of up to 96 colonies for each construct, non-secretion construct, and parental wild-type cc1690 cells. Supernatant fluorescence varied according to the SP used, with a 10-fold difference observed between the highest and lowest secretors. Moreover, two SPs identified in silico secreted the highest amount of mCherry. Our results demonstrate that the SP should be carefully selected and that efficient sequences can be coded in the C. reinhardtii genome. The SPs described here expand the portfolio available for research on heterologous protein secretion and for biomanufacturing applications.

  2. Secretion of endogenous and exogenous proteins from polarized MDCK cell monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, T A; Beaudry, G; Rizzolo, L; Colman, A; Rindler, M; Adesnik, M; Sabatini, D D

    1986-04-01

    Confluent monolayers of MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells provide a widely used system to study the biogenesis of epithelial cell polarity. We now report that these cells are also capable of the vectorial constitutive secretion of a major endogenous product, a glycoprotein of 81 kDa, which is released into the medium from the apical surface within 30 min of its synthesis. This release represents a bona fide exocytotic secretory process and is not the result of proteolytic cleavage of a plasma membrane-associated precursor since, in cells treated with chloroquine, a protein indistinguishable from the mature secretory product accumulated intracellularly. In contrast to the vectorial secretion of the endogenous product, a variety of exogenous exocrine and endocrine proteins synthesized in MDCK cells transfected with the corresponding genes were secreted from both the apical and basolateral surfaces. These included proteins such as rat growth hormone, chicken oviduct lysozyme, bovine gastric prochymosin, and rat salivary gland alpha 2u-globulin, which in their cells of origin are secreted via a regulated pathway, as well as the liver form of the alpha 2u-globulin and the immunoglobulin kappa chain, which are normally released constitutively. These results demonstrate the existence of secretory pathways that lead to both surfaces of MDCK cells and are accessible to the foreign secretory products. They are consistent with the operation of a sorting mechanism in which the polarized secretion of the endogenous product is effected through the recognition of signals that prevent its random distribution within the fluid phase in the cellular endomembrane system.

  3. Heterologous protein secretion in Lactobacilli with modified pSIP vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Lea Karlskås

    Full Text Available We describe new variants of the modular pSIP-vectors for inducible gene expression and protein secretion in lactobacilli. The basic functionality of the pSIP system was tested in Lactobacillus strains representing 14 species using pSIP411, which harbors the broad-host-range Lactococcus lactis SH71rep replicon and a β-glucuronidase encoding reporter gene. In 10 species, the inducible gene expression system was functional. Based on these results, three pSIP vectors with different signal peptides were modified by replacing their narrow-host-range L. plantarum 256rep replicon with SH71rep and transformed into strains of five different species of Lactobacillus. All recombinant strains secreted the target protein NucA, albeit with varying production levels and secretion efficiencies. The Lp_3050 derived signal peptide generally resulted in the highest levels of secreted NucA. These modified pSIP vectors are useful tools for engineering a wide variety of Lactobacillus species.

  4. Secreted dual reporter assay with Gaussia luciferase and the red fluorescent protein mCherry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Wider

    Full Text Available The availability of a wide range of reporter proteins, which can easily be quantitated, has had a major impact on many fields of biomedical research. In some experiments with tissue culture cells, it is necessary to control for differences in transfection efficiency and in other expression parameters. This requirement has been very conveniently met with the popular dual luciferase assay. Its disadvantages are the requirement for cell lysis, the inability to analyze the same cells repeatedly, and the cost, at least in its most commonly used commercial format. Here we describe a novel dual reporter assay with the naturally secreted luciferase from Gaussia princeps as the main reporter protein and a secreted version of the red fluorescent protein mCherry as internal standard. After first measuring mCherry fluorescence in the medium, an enzyme buffer with coelenterazine as substrate is added to the same sample to trigger a glow-type luminescence of the luciferase. The simple and cheap assay can easily be adapted to a variety of experimental situations. As a case in point, we have developed a panel of Gaussia luciferase reporter genes for transcriptional activation assays with estrogen and glucocorticoid response elements, and with response elements for fusion proteins with the Gal4 DNA binding domain for use in mammalian cells. Our secreted dual reporter assay should be an attractive alternative to the currently available commercial kits.

  5. The type III protein secretion system contributes to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri biofilm formation

    KAUST Repository

    Zimaro, Tamara

    2014-04-18

    Background: Several bacterial plant pathogens colonize their hosts through the secretion of effector proteins by a Type III protein secretion system (T3SS). The role of T3SS in bacterial pathogenesis is well established but whether this system is involved in multicellular processes, such as bacterial biofilm formation has not been elucidated. Here, the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) was used as a model to gain further insights about the role of the T3SS in biofilm formation. Results: The capacity of biofilm formation of different X. citri T3SS mutants was compared to the wild type strain and it was observed that this secretion system was necessary for this process. Moreover, the T3SS mutants adhered proficiently to leaf surfaces but were impaired in leaf-associated growth. A proteomic study of biofilm cells showed that the lack of the T3SS causes changes in the expression of proteins involved in metabolic processes, energy generation, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and bacterial motility as well as outer membrane proteins. Furthermore, EPS production and bacterial motility were also altered in the T3SS mutants. Conclusions: Our results indicate a novel role for T3SS in X. citri in the modulation of biofilm formation. Since this process increases X. citri virulence, this study reveals new functions of T3SS in pathogenesis. 2014 Zimaro et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  6. Novel diagnosis for citrus stubborn disease by detection of a spiroplasma citri-secreted protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinxia; Pagliaccia, Deborah; Morgan, Robyn; Qiao, Yongli; Pan, Songqin; Vidalakis, Georgios; Ma, Wenbo

    2014-02-01

    Citrus stubborn disease (CSD), first identified in California, is a widespread bacterial disease found in most arid citrus-producing regions in the United States and the Mediterranean Region. The disease is caused by Spiroplasma citri, an insect-transmitted and phloem-colonizing bacterium. CSD causes significant tree damage resulting in loss of fruit production and quality. Detection of CSD is challenging due to low and fluctuating titer and sporadic distribution of the pathogen in infected trees. In this study, we report the development of a novel diagnostic method for CSD using an S. citri-secreted protein as the detection marker. Microbial pathogens secrete a variety of proteins during infection that can potentially disperse systemically in infected plants with the vascular flow. Therefore, their distribution may not be restricted to the pathogen infection sites and could be used as a biological marker for infection. Using mass spectrometry analysis, we identified a unique secreted protein from S. citri that is highly expressed in the presence of citrus phloem extract. ScCCPP1, an antibody generated against this protein, was able to distinguish S. citri-infected citrus and periwinkle from healthy plants. In addition, the antiserum could be used to detect CSD using a simple direct tissue print assay without the need for sample processing or specialized lab equipment and may be suitable for field surveys. This study provides proof of a novel concept of using pathogen-secreted protein as a marker for diagnosis of a citrus bacterial disease and can probably be applied to other plant diseases.

  7. Structural characterization of the α-mating factor prepro-peptide for secretion of recombinant proteins in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Sabreen; Wei, Peter; Moua, Pachai; Park, Sung Pil James; Kwon, Janet; Patel, Arth; Vu, Anthony T; Catolico, Jason A; Tsai, Yu Fang Tina; Shaheen, Nadia; Chu, Tiffany T; Tam, Vivian; Khan, Zill-E-Huma; Joo, Hyun Henry; Xue, Liang; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Tsai, Jerry W; Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P

    2017-01-20

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has been used extensively for expressing recombinant proteins because it combines the ease of genetic manipulation, the ability to provide complex posttranslational modifications and the capacity for efficient protein secretion. The most successful and commonly used secretion signal leader in Pichia pastoris has been the alpha mating factor (MATα) prepro secretion signal. However, limitations exist as some proteins cannot be secreted efficiently, leading to strategies to enhance secretion efficiency by modifying the secretion signal leader. Based on a Jpred secondary structure prediction and knob-socket modeling of tertiary structure, numerous deletions and duplications of the MATα prepro leader were engineered to evaluate the correlation between predicted secondary structure and the secretion level of the reporters horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and Candida antarctica lipase B. In addition, circular dichroism analyses were completed for the wild type and several mutant pro-peptides to evaluate actual differences in secondary structure. The results lead to a new model of MATα pro-peptide signal leader, which suggests that the N and C-termini of MATα pro-peptide need to be presented in a specific orientation for proper interaction with the cellular secretion machinery and for efficient protein secretion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Systematic analysis of secreted proteins reveals synergism between IL6 and other proteins in soft agar growth of MCF10A cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Huffel, Sofie C; Tham, Jill M; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Lim, Kohpang; Yang, Chunxuan; Tan, Yikloo; Ong, Felicia; Lee, Ian; Hong, Wanjin

    2011-03-25

    Breast cancer, the most common malignancy in women, still holds many secrets. The causes for non-hereditary breast cancer are still unknown. To elucidate any role for circulating naturally secreted proteins, a screen of secreted proteins' influence of MCF10A cell anchorage independent growth was set up. To systematically screen secreted proteins for their capacity to transform mammalian breast epithelial cells, a soft agar screen of MCF10A cells was performed using a library of ~ 470 secreted proteins. A high concentration of infecting viral particles was used to obtain multiple infections in individual cells to specifically study the combined effect of multiple secreted proteins. Several known breast cancer factors, such as Wnt, FGF and IL were retained, as well as factors that were previously unknown to have a role in breast cancer, such as paraoxonase 1 and fibroblast growth factor binding protein 2. Additionally, a combinatory role of Interleukin 6 with other factors in MCF10A anchorage-independent growth is demonstrated. The transforming effect of combinations of IL6 with other secreted proteins allows studying the transformation of mammary epithelial cells in vitro, and may also have implications in in vivo studies where secreted proteins are upregulated or overexpressed.

  9. Identification of genes encoding the type IX secretion system and secreted proteins in Flavobacterium columnare IA-S-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes, causes columnaris disease in wild and aquaculture-reared freshwater fish. The mechanisms responsible for columnaris disease are not known. Many members of the phylum Bacteroidetes use type IX secretion systems (T9SSs) to secrete enzymes...

  10. Brucella Modulates Secretory Trafficking via Multiple Type IV Secretion Effector Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeni, Sebenzile; Child, Robert; Ng, Tony W.; Kupko, John J.; Wehrly, Tara D.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Celli, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular pathogenic bacterium Brucella generates a replicative vacuole (rBCV) derived from the endoplasmic reticulum via subversion of the host cell secretory pathway. rBCV biogenesis requires the expression of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB, which is thought to translocate effector proteins that modulate membrane trafficking along the endocytic and secretory pathways. To date, only a few T4SS substrates have been identified, whose molecular functions remain unknown. Here, we used an in silico screen to identify putative T4SS effector candidate proteins using criteria such as limited homology in other bacterial genera, the presence of features similar to known VirB T4SS effectors, GC content and presence of eukaryotic-like motifs. Using β-lactamase and CyaA adenylate cyclase reporter assays, we identified eleven proteins translocated into host cells by Brucella, five in a VirB T4SS-dependent manner, namely BAB1_0678 (BspA), BAB1_0712 (BspB), BAB1_0847 (BspC), BAB1_1671 (BspE) and BAB1_1948 (BspF). A subset of the translocated proteins targeted secretory pathway compartments when ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, and the VirB effectors BspA, BspB and BspF inhibited protein secretion. Brucella infection also impaired host protein secretion in a process requiring BspA, BspB and BspF. Single or combined deletions of bspA, bspB and bspF affected Brucella ability to replicate in macrophages and persist in the liver of infected mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Brucella modulates secretory trafficking via multiple T4SS effector proteins that likely act coordinately to promote Brucella pathogenesis. PMID:23950720

  11. Development of a chitinase and v-cathepsin negative bacmid for improved integrity of secreted recombinant proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaba, S.A.; Salcedo, A.M.; Wafula, P.O.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The application of the baculovirus-in sect cell expression system for the production of integral membrane and secreted proteins is often more troublesome than for cytoplasmic proteins. One protein expressed at low levels in insect cells is the Theileria parva sporozoite surface protein p67.

  12. DANCE, a novel secreted RGD protein expressed in developing, atherosclerotic, and balloon-injured arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Ruiz-Lozano, P; Lindner, V; Yabe, D; Taniwaki, M; Furukawa, Y; Kobuke, K; Tashiro, K; Lu, Z; Andon, N L; Schaub, R; Matsumori, A; Sasayama, S; Chien, K R; Honjo, T

    1999-08-06

    We have identified and characterized mouse, rat, and human cDNAs that encode a novel secreted protein of 448 amino acids named DANCE (developmental arteries and neural crest epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like). DANCE contains six calcium-binding EGF-like domains, one of which includes an RGD motif. Overexpression studies of recombinant DANCE protein document that DANCE is a secreted 66-kDa protein. DANCE and recently described protein S1-5 comprise a new EGF-like protein family. The human DANCE gene was mapped at chromosome 14q32.1. DANCE mRNA is mainly expressed in heart, ovary, and colon in adult human tissues. Expression profile analysis by in situ hybridization revealed prominent DANCE expression in developing arteries. DANCE is also expressed in neural crest cell derivatives, endocardial cushion tissue, and several other mesenchymal tissues. In adult vessels, DANCE expression is largely diminished but is reinduced in balloon-injured vessels and atherosclerotic lesions, notably in intimal vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells that lose their ability to proliferate in late stage of injury. DANCE protein was shown to promote adhesion of endothelial cells through interaction of integrins and the RGD motif of DANCE. DANCE is thus a novel vascular ligand for integrin receptors and may play a role in vascular development and remodeling.

  13. Transgenic silkworms secrete the recombinant glycosylated MRJP1 protein of Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhengying; Qian, Qiujie; Wang, Yiran; Che, Jiaqian; Ye, Lupeng; Shen, Lirong; Zhong, Boxiong

    2017-10-01

    Major royal jelly protein-1 (MRJP1) is the most abundant glycoprotein of royal jelly (RJ) and is considered a potential component of functional foods. In this study, we used silkworm transgenic technology to obtain five transgenic silkworm lineages expressing the exogenous recombinant Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, protein-1 (rAccMRJP1) under the control of a fibroin light chain (Fib-L) promoter in the posterior silk glands. The protein was successfully secreted into cocoons; specifically, the highest rAccMRJP1 protein content was 0.78% of the dried cocoons. Our results confirmed that the protein band of the exogenous rAccMRJP1 protein expressed in the transgenic silkworm lineages was a glycosylated protein. Therefore, this rAccMRJP1 protein could be used as an alternative standard protein sample to measure the freshness of RJ. Moreover, we also found that the overall trend between the expression of the endogenous and exogenous genes was that the expression level of the endogenous Fib-L gene declined as the expression of the exogenous rAccMRJP1 gene increased in the transgenic silkworm lineages. Thus, by employing genome editing technology to reduce silk protein expression levels, a silkworm bioreactor expression system could be developed as a highly successful system for producing various valuable heterologous proteins, potentially broadening the applications of the silkworm.

  14. On the presence of prostatic secretion protein in rat seminal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstroem, E.; Pousette, A.; Bjoerk, P.; Hoegberg, B.; Carlstroem, K.; Sundelin, B.; Gustafsson, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The copulating plug collected from the tip of the penis from rats immediately after decapitation contains a protein very similar and probably identical to PSP (prostatic secretion protein); this protein has earlier been purified from rat prostatic cytosol and characterized. The protein present in the copulating plug interacts with [3H]estramustine and binds to the antibody raised against rat PSP. The concentration of the protein in the copulating plug is 400 ng/mg of total protein, when measured using the radioimmunoassay technique developed earlier for measurement of PSP in rat prostate. The [3H]estramustine-protein complex formed in a preparation of the copulating plug has an apparent molecular weight of about 50,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of about 3S when analyzed using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The complex was retained on Concanavalin-A Sepharose indicating that the protein is a glycoprotein. Binding of the complex was also observed on hydroxylapatite and DEAE-Sephadex columns, from which it was eluted at 0.18 M KCl. Light microscope autoradiograms of rat sperms incubated with 125I-labeled PSP indicated that PSP is bound to all parts of the sperms. A macromolecule interacting with the PSP-antibodies is also present in human seminal fluid but at a concentration considerably lower than in rat seminal fluid. The present study shows that a macromolecule probably identical to prostatic secretion protein is present in the copulating plug from the rat. The biological role of this protein in normal male fertility is discussed

  15. Inhibition of Plasmodium berghei Development in Mosquitoes by Effector Proteins Secreted from Asaia sp. Bacteria Using a Novel Native Secretion Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Bongio, Nicholas J.; Lampe, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Novel interventions are needed to prevent the transmission of the Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. One possible method is to supply mosquitoes with antiplasmodial effector proteins from bacteria by paratransgenesis. Mosquitoes have a diverse complement of midgut microbiota including the Gram-negative bacteria Asaia bogorensis. This study presents the first use of Asaia sp. bacteria for paratransgenesis against P. berghei. We identified putative secreted proteins from A. bogorensis by ...

  16. Soy Germed Protein Plus Zn as an Inducer Insulin Secretion on Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERY WINARSI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglicemic induces pancreatic cells to produce inadequate insulin. However, previous studies revealed that soy protein induce pancreatic cells to secrete insulin. Hence, this study was aimed to investigate effect of soy germed protein on the insulin and blood glucose level of type-2 diabetes mellitus with Zn enrichment. The research involved twenty four women that characterized with having more blood glucose level than normal, body mass index more than twenty three kg/m2, and age more than fourty years old. They were divided into three groups randomly, eight woman for each group. The first, second and third group were treated respectively with milk containing soy germed protein plus Zn, this product without Zn, and placebo, all for two months. Blood samples were taken at baseline, one and two months after observation. Results showed that two months after observation the insulin level increased from 194.79 to 519.82 pmol/ml (P = 0.033 in group consuming milk containing soy germed protein with or without Zn, supported by significantly reduced blood glucose level. This result might be correlated with the potency of isoflavones in soy germ protein to protect pancreatic beta cellsmembrane from free radicals attack. Therefore, this maintain the cells integrity and to secrete optimal insulin.

  17. Secretion of a recombinant protein without a signal peptide by the exocrine glands of transgenic rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kerekes

    Full Text Available Transgenic rabbits carrying mammary gland specific gene constructs are extensively used for excreting recombinant proteins into the milk. Here, we report refined phenotyping of previously generated Venus transposon-carrying transgenic rabbits with particular emphasis on the secretion of the reporter protein by exocrine glands, such as mammary, salivary, tear and seminal glands. The Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon transgenic construct contains the Venus fluorophore cDNA, but without a signal peptide for the secretory pathway, driven by the ubiquitous CAGGS (CAG promoter. Despite the absence of a signal peptide, the fluorophore protein was readily detected in milk, tear, saliva and seminal fluids. The expression pattern was verified by Western blot analysis. Mammary gland epithelial cells of SB-CAG-Venus transgenic lactating does also showed Venus-specific expression by tissue histology and fluorescence microscopy. In summary, the SB-CAG-Venus transgenic rabbits secrete the recombinant protein by different glands. This finding has relevance not only for the understanding of the biological function of exocrine glands, but also for the design of constructs for expression of recombinant proteins in dairy animals.

  18. Protein malnutrition after weaning disrupts peripheral clock and daily insulin secretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Patricia Cristine; Batista, Thiago Martins; Vettorazzi, Jean Franciesco; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Vieira, Elaine; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães

    2017-12-01

    Changes in nutritional state may alter circadian rhythms through alterations in expression of clock genes. Protein deficiency has a profound effect on body metabolism, but the effect of this nutrient restriction after weaning on biological clock has not been explored. Thus, this study aims to investigate whether the protein restriction affects the daily oscillation in the behavior and metabolic rhythms, as well as expression of clock genes in peripheral tissues. Male C57BL/6 J mice, after weaning, were fed a normal-protein (NP) diet or a low-protein (LP) diet for 8 weeks. Mice fed an LP diet did not show difference in locomotor activity and energy expenditure, but the food intake was increased, with parallel increased expression of the orexigenic neuropeptide Npy and disruption of the anorexigenic Pomc oscillatory pattern in the hypothalamus. LP mice showed disruption in the daily rhythmic patterns of plasma glucose, triglycerides and insulin. Also, the rhythmic expression of clock genes in peripheral tissues and pancreatic islets was altered in LP mice. In pancreatic islets, the disruption of clock genes was followed by impairment of daily glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and the expression of genes involved in exocytosis. Pharmacological activation of REV-ERBα could not restore the insulin secretion in LP mice. The present study demonstrates that protein restriction, leading to development of malnutrition, alters the peripheral clock and metabolic outputs, suggesting that this nutrient provides important entraining cues to regulate the daily fluctuation of biological clock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Secretion of a recombinant protein without a signal peptide by the exocrine glands of transgenic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerekes, Andrea; Hoffmann, Orsolya Ivett; Iski, Gergely; Lipták, Nándor; Gócza, Elen; Kues, Wilfried A; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Hiripi, László

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic rabbits carrying mammary gland specific gene constructs are extensively used for excreting recombinant proteins into the milk. Here, we report refined phenotyping of previously generated Venus transposon-carrying transgenic rabbits with particular emphasis on the secretion of the reporter protein by exocrine glands, such as mammary, salivary, tear and seminal glands. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon transgenic construct contains the Venus fluorophore cDNA, but without a signal peptide for the secretory pathway, driven by the ubiquitous CAGGS (CAG) promoter. Despite the absence of a signal peptide, the fluorophore protein was readily detected in milk, tear, saliva and seminal fluids. The expression pattern was verified by Western blot analysis. Mammary gland epithelial cells of SB-CAG-Venus transgenic lactating does also showed Venus-specific expression by tissue histology and fluorescence microscopy. In summary, the SB-CAG-Venus transgenic rabbits secrete the recombinant protein by different glands. This finding has relevance not only for the understanding of the biological function of exocrine glands, but also for the design of constructs for expression of recombinant proteins in dairy animals.

  20. Identification of Secreted Proteins from Ionizing Radiation-Induced Senescent MCF7 Cells Using Comparative Proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Na Kyung; Kim, Han Na; Hong, Mi Na; Park, Su Min; Lee, Jae Seon [Korea Institue of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Seong Gil [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Cellular senescence was first described by Hayflick and Moorhead in 1961 who observed that cultures of normal human fibroblasts had a limited replicative potential and eventually became irreversibly arrest. The majority of senescent cells assume a characteristic flattened and enlarged morphological change, senescence associated beta-galactosidase positivity and over the years a large number of molecular phenotypes have been described, such as changes in gene expression, protein processing and chromatin organization. In contrast to apoptosis, senescence does not destroy the cells but leaves them metabolically and synthetically active and therefore able to affect their microenvironment. In particular, senescent fibroblasts and some cancer cells were found to secrete proteins with known or putative tumor-promoting functions such as growth factors or proteolytic enzymes. However, the knowledge about secreted proteins from senescent tumor cells and their functions to surrounding cells is still lacking. In this study, changes of senescence-associated secretory protein expression profile were observed in MCF7 human breast cancer cells exposed to gamma-ray radiation using two dimensional electrophoresis. Also, we identified up-regulated secretory proteins during ionizing radiation-induced cellular senescence

  1. Secretion of biologically active interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) by Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro-Hernandez, Julio; Loera-Arias, Maria J; Gamez-Escobedo, Anali; Franco-Molina, Moises; Gomez-Gutierrez, Jorge G; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Gutierrez-Puente, Yolanda; Saucedo-Cardenas, Odila; Valdes-Flores, Jesus; Montes-de-Oca-Luna, Roberto

    2008-07-28

    Chemokines are a large group of chemotactic cytokines that regulate and direct migration of leukocytes, activate inflammatory responses, and are involved in many other functions including regulation of tumor development. Interferon-gamma inducible-protein-10 (IP-10) is a member of the C-X-C subfamily of the chemokine family of cytokines. IP-10 specifically chemoattracts activated T lymphocytes, monocytes, and NK cells. IP-10 has been described also as a modulator of other antitumor cytokines. These properties make IP-10 a novel therapeutic molecule for the treatment of chronic and infectious diseases. Currently there are no suitable live biological systems to produce and secrete IP-10. Lactococcus lactis has been well-characterized over the years as a safe microorganism to produce heterologous proteins and to be used as a safe, live vaccine to deliver antigens and cytokines of interest. Here we report a recombinant strain of L. lactis genetically modified to produce and secrete biologically active IP-10. The IP-10 coding region was isolated from human cDNA and cloned into an L. lactis expression plasmid under the regulation of the pNis promoter. By fusion to the usp45 secretion signal, IP-10 was addressed out of the cell. Western blot analysis demonstrated that recombinant strains of L. lactis secrete IP-10 into the culture medium. Neither degradation nor incomplete forms of IP-10 were detected in the cell or supernatant fractions of L. lactis. In addition, we demonstrated that the NICE (nisin-controlled gene expression) system was able to express IP-10 "de novo" even two hours after nisin removal. This human IP-10 protein secreted by L. lactis was biological active as demonstrated by Chemotaxis assay over human CD3+T lymphocytes. Expression and secretion of mature IP-10 was efficiently achieved by L. lactis forming an effective system to produce IP-10. This recombinant IP-10 is biologically active as demonstrated by its ability to chemoattract human CD3+ T

  2. Secretion of biologically active interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10 by Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saucedo-Cardenas Odila

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemokines are a large group of chemotactic cytokines that regulate and direct migration of leukocytes, activate inflammatory responses, and are involved in many other functions including regulation of tumor development. Interferon-gamma inducible-protein-10 (IP-10 is a member of the C-X-C subfamily of the chemokine family of cytokines. IP-10 specifically chemoattracts activated T lymphocytes, monocytes, and NK cells. IP-10 has been described also as a modulator of other antitumor cytokines. These properties make IP-10 a novel therapeutic molecule for the treatment of chronic and infectious diseases. Currently there are no suitable live biological systems to produce and secrete IP-10. Lactococcus lactis has been well-characterized over the years as a safe microorganism to produce heterologous proteins and to be used as a safe, live vaccine to deliver antigens and cytokines of interest. Here we report a recombinant strain of L. lactis genetically modified to produce and secrete biologically active IP-10. Results The IP-10 coding region was isolated from human cDNA and cloned into an L. lactis expression plasmid under the regulation of the pNis promoter. By fusion to the usp45 secretion signal, IP-10 was addressed out of the cell. Western blot analysis demonstrated that recombinant strains of L. lactis secrete IP-10 into the culture medium. Neither degradation nor incomplete forms of IP-10 were detected in the cell or supernatant fractions of L. lactis. In addition, we demonstrated that the NICE (nisin-controlled gene expression system was able to express IP-10 "de novo" even two hours after nisin removal. This human IP-10 protein secreted by L. lactis was biological active as demonstrated by Chemotaxis assay over human CD3+T lymphocytes. Conclusion Expression and secretion of mature IP-10 was efficiently achieved by L. lactis forming an effective system to produce IP-10. This recombinant IP-10 is biologically active as

  3. Using hierarchical clustering of secreted protein families to classify and rank candidate effectors of rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Diane G O; Win, Joe; Cano, Liliana M; Szabo, Les J; Kamoun, Sophien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i) contain a secretion signal, (ii) are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii) have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv) are small and cysteine rich, (v) contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi) are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii) contain internal repeats, and (viii) do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components.

  4. Using hierarchical clustering of secreted protein families to classify and rank candidate effectors of rust fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane G O Saunders

    Full Text Available Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i contain a secretion signal, (ii are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv are small and cysteine rich, (v contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii contain internal repeats, and (viii do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components.

  5. In Pichia pastoris, growth rate regulates protein synthesis and secretion, mating and stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebnegger, Corinna; Graf, Alexandra B; Valli, Minoska; Steiger, Matthias G; Gasser, Brigitte; Maurer, Michael; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2014-04-01

    Protein production in yeasts is related to the specific growth rate μ. To elucidate on this correlation, we studied the transcriptome of Pichia pastoris at different specific growth rates by cultivating a strain secreting human serum albumin at μ = 0.015 to 0.15 h(-1) in glucose-limited chemostats. Genome-wide regulation revealed that translation-related as well as mitochondrial genes were upregulated with increasing μ, while autophagy and other proteolytic processes, carbon source-responsive genes and other targets of the TOR pathway as well as many transcriptional regulators were downregulated at higher μ. Mating and sporulation genes were most active at intermediate μ of 0.05 and 0.075 h(-1) . At very slow growth (μ = 0.015 h(-1) ) gene regulation differs significantly, affecting many transporters and glucose sensing. Analysis of a subset of genes related to protein folding and secretion reveals that unfolded protein response targets such as translocation, endoplasmic reticulum genes, and cytosolic chaperones are upregulated with increasing growth rate while proteolytic degradation of secretory proteins is downregulated. We conclude that a high μ positively affects specific protein secretion rates by acting on multiple cellular processes. © 2014 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-NoDerivs Licence, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non- commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  6. Using Hierarchical Clustering of Secreted Protein Families to Classify and Rank Candidate Effectors of Rust Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Diane G. O.; Win, Joe; Cano, Liliana M.; Szabo, Les J.; Kamoun, Sophien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i) contain a secretion signal, (ii) are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii) have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv) are small and cysteine rich, (v) contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi) are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii) contain internal repeats, and (viii) do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components. PMID:22238666

  7. FAM20: an evolutionarily conserved family of secreted proteins expressed in hematopoietic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobos Everardo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematopoiesis is a complex developmental process controlled by a large number of factors that regulate stem cell renewal, lineage commitment and differentiation. Secreted proteins, including the hematopoietic growth factors, play critical roles in these processes and have important biological and clinical significance. We have employed representational difference analysis to identify genes that are differentially expressed during experimentally induced myeloid differentiation in the murine EML hematopoietic stem cell line. Results One identified clone encoded a previously unidentified protein of 541 amino acids that contains an amino terminal signal sequence but no other characterized domains. This protein is a member of family of related proteins that has been named family with sequence similarity 20 (FAM20 with three members (FAM20A, FAM20B and FAM20C in mammals. Evolutionary comparisons revealed the existence of a single FAM20 gene in the simple vertebrate Ciona intestinalis and the invertebrate worm Caenorhabditis elegans and two genes in two insect species, Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae. Six FAM20 family members were identified in the genome of the pufferfish, Fugu rubripes and five members in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The mouse Fam20a protein was ectopically expressed in a mammalian cell line and found to be a bona fide secreted protein and efficient secretion was dependent on the integrity of the signal sequence. Expression analysis revealed that the Fam20a gene was indeed differentially expressed during hematopoietic differentiation and that the other two family members (Fam20b and Fam20c were also expressed during hematcpoiesis but that their mRNA levels did not vary significantly. Likewise FAM20A was expressed in more limited set of human tissues than the other two family members. Conclusions The FAM20 family represents a new family of secreted proteins with potential functions in regulating

  8. A novel strategy to improve protein secretion via overexpression of the SppA signal peptide peptidase in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Dongbo; Wang, Hao; He, Penghui; Zhu, Chengjun; Wang, Qin; Wei, Xuetuan; Nomura, Christopher T; Chen, Shouwen

    2017-04-24

    Signal peptide peptidases play an important role in the removal of remnant signal peptides in the cell membrane, a critical step for extracellular protein production. Although these proteins are likely a central component for extracellular protein production, there has been a lack of research on whether protein secretion could be enhanced via overexpression of signal peptide peptidases. In this study, both nattokinase and α-amylase were employed as prototypical secreted target proteins to evaluate the function of putative signal peptide peptidases (SppA and TepA) in Bacillus licheniformis. We observed dramatic decreases in the concentrations of both target proteins (45 and 49%, respectively) in a sppA deficient strain, while the extracellular protein yields of nattokinase and α-amylase were increased by 30 and 67% respectively in a strain overexpressing SppA. In addition, biomass, specific enzyme activities and the relative gene transcriptional levels were also enhanced due to the overexpression of sppA, while altering the expression levels of tepA had no effect on the concentrations of the secreted target proteins. Our results confirm that SppA, but not TepA, plays an important functional role for protein secretion in B. licheniformis. Our results indicate that the sppA overexpression strain, B. licheniformis BL10GS, could be used as a promising host strain for the industrial production of heterologous secreted proteins.

  9. Characterization of SNARE proteins in human pituitary adenomas: targeted secretion inhibitors as a new strategy for the treatment of acromegaly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Edwin A; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Aflorei, Elena D; Powell, Michael; Grieve, Joana; Alusi, Ghassan; Pobereskin, Luis; Shariati, Babak; Cudlip, Simon; Roncaroli, Federico; Mendoza, Nigel; Grossman, Ashley B; Harper, Elaine A; Korbonits, Márta

    2013-12-01

    Targeted secretion inhibitors (TSIs), a new class of recombinant biotherapeutic proteins engineered from botulinum toxin, represent a novel approach for treating diseases with excess secretion. They inhibit hormone secretion from targeted cell types through cleavage of SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-activating protein receptor) proteins. qGHRH-LH(N)/D is a TSI targeting pituitary somatotroph through binding to the GHRH-receptor and cleavage of the vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) family of SNARE proteins. Our objective was to study SNARE protein expression in pituitary adenomas and to inhibit GH secretion from somatotropinomas using qGHRH-LH(N)/D. We analyzed human pituitary adenoma analysis for SNARE expression and response to qGHRH-LH(N)/D treatment. The study was conducted in University Hospitals. We used pituitary adenoma samples from 25 acromegaly and 47 nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma patients. Vesicle-SNARE (VAMP1-3), target-SNARE (syntaxin1, SNAP-23, and SNAP-25), and GHRH-receptor detection with RT-qPCR, immunocytochemistry, and immunoblotting. Assessment of TSI catalytic activity on VAMPs and release of GH from adenoma cells. SNARE proteins were variably expressed in pituitary samples. In vitro evidence using recombinant GFP-VAMP2&3 or pituitary adenoma lysates suggested sufficient catalytic activity of qGHRH-LH(N)/D to degrade VAMPs, but was unable to inhibit GH secretion in somatotropinoma cell cultures. SNARE proteins are present in human pituitary somatotroph adenomas that can be targeted by TSIs to inhibit GH secretion. qGHRH-LH(N)/D was unable to inhibit GH secretion from human somatotroph adenoma cells. Further studies are required to understand how the SNARE proteins drive GH secretion in human somatotrophs to allow the development of novel TSIs with a potential therapeutic benefit.

  10. Insulin Stimulates S100B Secretion and These Proteins Antagonistically Modulate Brain Glucose Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartchow, Krista Minéia; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; de Souza, Daniela F; Biasibetti, Regina; Bobermin, Larissa D; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Brain metabolism is highly dependent on glucose, which is derived from the blood circulation and metabolized by the astrocytes and other neural cells via several pathways. Glucose uptake in the brain does not involve insulin-dependent glucose transporters; however, this hormone affects the glucose influx to the brain. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid levels of S100B (an astrocyte-derived protein) have been associated with alterations in glucose metabolism; however, there is no evidence whether insulin modulates glucose metabolism and S100B secretion. Herein, we investigated the effect of S100B on glucose metabolism, measuring D-(3)H-glucose incorporation in two preparations, C6 glioma cells and acute hippocampal slices, and we also investigated the effect of insulin on S100B secretion. Our results showed that: (a) S100B at physiological levels decreases glucose uptake, through the multiligand receptor RAGE and mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK signaling, and (b) insulin stimulated S100B secretion via PI3K signaling. Our findings indicate the existence of insulin-S100B modulation of glucose utilization in the brain tissue, and may improve our understanding of glucose metabolism in several conditions such as ketosis, streptozotocin-induced dementia and pharmacological exposure to antipsychotics, situations that lead to changes in insulin signaling and extracellular levels of S100B.

  11. Multiplexed profiling of secreted proteins for the detection of potential space biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieriks, Birger; De Vos, Winnok H; Moreels, Marjan; Ghardi, Myriam; Hennekam, Raoul; Broers, Jos L V; Baatout, Sarah; van Oostveldt, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Space travel exposes astronauts to a plethora of potentially detrimental conditions, such as cosmic radiation and microgravity. As both factors are hard to simulate on Earth, present knowledge remains limited. However, this knowledge is of vital importance, making space flight experiments a necessity for determining the biological effects and the underlying biochemical processes, especially when keeping future long-term interplanetary missions in mind. Instead of estimating the long-term effects, which usually implicate severe endpoints (e.g., cancer) and which are often difficult to attribute, research has shifted to finding representative biomarkers for rapid and sensitive detection of individual radiosensitivity. In this context, an appealing set of candidate markers is the group of secreted proteins, as they exert an intercellular signaling function and are easy to assess. We screened a subset of secreted proteins in cells exposed to space travel by means of multiplex bead array analysis. To determine the cell-specific signatures of the secreted molecules, we compared the conditioned medium of normal fibroblast cells to fibroblasts isolated from a patient with Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome, which are known to have a perturbed nuclear architecture and DNA damage response. Out of the 88 molecules screened, 20 showed a significant level increase or decrease, with a differential response to space conditions between the two cell types. Among the molecules that were retained, which may prove to be valuable biomarkers, are apolipoprotein C-III, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, β-2-microglobulin, ferritin, MMP-3, TIMP-1 and VEGF.

  12. Nicotinic Acid Increases Adiponectin Secretion from Differentiated Bovine Preadipocytes through G-Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Kopp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition period in dairy cows (3 weeks prepartum until 3 weeks postpartum is associated with substantial mobilization of energy stores, which is often associated with metabolic diseases. Nicotinic acid (NA is an antilipolytic and lipid-lowering compound used to treat dyslipidaemia in humans, and it also reduces non-esterified fatty acids in cattle. In mice the G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A ligand NA positively affects the secretion of adiponectin, an important modulator of glucose and fat metabolism. In cattle, the corresponding data linking NA to adiponectin are missing. Our objective was to examine the effects of NA on adiponectin and AMPK protein abundance and the expression of mRNAs of related genes such as chemerin, an adipokine that enhances adiponectin secretion in vitro. Differentiated bovine adipocytes were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTX to verify the involvement of GPR signaling, and treated with 10 or 15 µM NA for 12 or 24 h. NA increased adiponectin concentrations (p ≤ 0.001 and the mRNA abundances of GPR109A (p ≤ 0.05 and chemerin (p ≤ 0.01. Pre-incubation with PTX reduced the adiponectin response to NA (p ≤ 0.001. The NA-stimulated secretion of adiponectin and the mRNA expression of chemerin in the bovine adipocytes were suggestive of GPR signaling-dependent improved insulin sensitivity and/or adipocyte metabolism in dairy cows.

  13. Milk basic protein increases ghrelin secretion and bone mineral density in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuko; Chacrabati, Rakhi; Ono-Ohmachi, Aiko; Gong, Zhi; Ikenoya, Chika; Aizawa, Sayaka; Nara, Takayuki Y; Morita, Yoshikazu; Kato, Ken; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    Milk basic protein (MBP), a mixture of proteins isolated from bovine milk, is known to increase bone formation. Ghrelin, a stomach-derived peptide hormone, also has been reported to stimulate osteoblast formation. The aim of this study was to determine whether MBP-induced bone formation is mediated via ghrelin. MBP was chronically administered to mice in their drinking water for 3 wk, and body weight, water intake, and bone mineral density were measured. Additionally, plasma bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b, and ghrelin concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To examine the direct effect of MBP on ghrelin secretion, gastric tissue culture and primary mucosal cells were stimulated by MBP. The in vivo study of young, growing mice showed that chronic MBP intake for 3 wk increased the plasma ghrelin concentration and bone mineral density of the hind limb tibia. In vitro studies using minced rat gastric mucosa tissues and primary murine isolated gastric mucosal cells revealed that MBP stimulated ghrelin release in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, MBP-induced ghrelin secretion was partly inhibited by adrenergic blockers. These findings suggest a novel mechanism by which MBP directly acts on ghrelin secretion. Additionally, the elevated ghrelin level induced by MBP may act as a mediator for bone formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical evaluation of MPT-64 and MPT-59, two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for skin test reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T; Jensen, B N; Ravn, P

    1996-01-01

    SETTING: Department of Pulmonary Medicine P, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, MPT-64 and MPT-59 to induce delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions following intradermal administration. DESIGN...

  15. Exocrine pancreas glutamate secretion help to sustain enterocyte nutritional needs under protein restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, S; Kuster, E; Gluch, D; Mariotta, L; Lutz, C; Reding, T V; Graf, R; Verrey, F; Camargo, S M R

    2018-04-01

    Glutamine (Gln) is the most concentrated amino acid in blood and considered conditionally essential. Its requirement is increased during physiological stress, such as malnutrition or illness, despite its production by muscle and other organs. In the malnourished state, Gln has been suggested to have a trophic effect on the exocrine pancreas and small intestine. However, the Gln transport capacity, the functional relationship of these two organs, and the potential role of the Gln-glutamate (Glu) cycle are unknown. We observed that pancreatic acinar cells express lower levels of Glu than Gln transporters. Consistent with this expression pattern, the rate of Glu influx into acinar cells was approximately sixfold lower than that of Gln. During protein restriction, acinar cell glutaminase expression was increased and Gln accumulation was maintained. Moreover, Glu secretion by acinar cells into pancreatic juice and thus into the lumen of the small intestine was maintained. In the intestinal lumen, Glu absorption was preserved and Glu dehydrogenase expression was augmented, potentially providing the substrates for increasing energy production via the TCA cycle. Our findings suggest that one mechanism by which Gln exerts a positive effect on exocrine pancreas and small intestine involves the Gln metabolism in acinar cells and the secretion of Glu into the small intestine lumen. The exocrine pancreas acinar cells not only avidly accumulate Gln but metabolize Gln to generate energy and to synthesize Glu for secretion in the pancreatic juice. Secreted Glu is suggested to play an important role during malnourishment in sustaining small intestinal homeostasis. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Glutamine (Gln) has been suggested to have a trophic effect on exocrine pancreas and small intestine in malnourished states, but the mechanism is unknown. In this study, we suggest that this trophic effect derives from an interorgan relationship between exocrine pancreas and small intestine for Gln

  16. Blimp-1 controls plasma cell function through regulation of immunoglobulin secretion and the unfolded protein response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Julie; Shi, Wei; Minnich, Martina; Liao, Yang; Crawford, Simon; Smyth, Gordon K; Kallies, Axel; Busslinger, Meinrad; Nutt, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cell differentiation requires silencing of B cell transcription, while establishing antibody-secretory function and long-term survival. The transcription factors Blimp-1 and IRF4 are essential for plasma cell generation, however their function in mature plasma cells has remained elusive. We have found that while IRF4 was essential for plasma cell survival, Blimp-1 was dispensable. Blimp-1-deficient plasma cells retained their transcriptional identity, but lost the ability to secrete antibody. Blimp-1 regulated many components of the unfolded protein response (UPR), including XBP-1 and ATF6. The overlap of Blimp-1 and XBP-1 function was restricted to the UPR, with Blimp-1 uniquely regulating mTOR activity and plasma cell size. Thus, Blimp-1 is required for the unique physiological capacity of plasma cells that enables the secretion of protective antibody. PMID:26779600

  17. Eosinophil cationic protein stimulates and major basic protein inhibits airway mucus secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, J D; Davey, R T; Lundgren, B

    1991-01-01

    . Crude extracts from isolated EO granules also stimulated RGC release, suggesting that a granular protein might be responsible. Three proteins derived from EO granules, EO-derived neurotoxin, EO cationic protein (ECP), and major basic protein (MBP) were separated by sequential sizing and affinity...

  18. pH sensitivity of type III secretion system tip proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Aaron P; Birket, Susan E; Picking, William D; Picking, Wendy L; Middaugh, C Russell

    2008-06-01

    Many pathogenic gram-negative bacteria employ type III secretion systems to transport proteins into the host cell membrane and cytoplasm to subvert normal cellular functions. The type III secretion apparatus consists of a basal body spanning the inner and outer bacterial membranes and a needle which extends away from the bacterium. Recent work has found that a special class of proteins localizes to the tip of the needle to control secretion of effector proteins. Five of these tip proteins are IpaD (Shigella flexneri), BipD (Burkholderia pseudomallei), SipD (Salmonella spp.), LcrV (Yersinia spp.), and PcrV (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). In this study, the conformational stability of these proteins was characterized as a function of pH and temperature. Understanding the stability of the proteins in different pH environments is particularly important since they are expected to encounter different pH environments in their passage through the gastrointestinal tract and are exposed to low pH microenvironments near the surface of target cell membranes. Secondary and tertiary structural changes were monitored using the spectroscopic techniques of far-UV circular dichroism, Trp fluorescence, ANS fluorescence, and ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. Optical density and right angle scattering measurements were also used to evaluate protein association/dissociation. Empirical phase diagrams were then applied to mathematically combine data from the various spectroscopic techniques to provide a global picture of the proteins' structural behavior in solution. The responses of the proteins to changes in temperature and pH conditions reveal two distinct subfamilies in terms of stability. The first is that of IpaD, BipD, and SipD whose corresponding phase diagrams show conformational differences at pH 5-6. The conserved pH dependence in this subfamily suggests possible common mechanistic function. In the second subfamily (LcrV and PcrV), conformational stability is directly related to p

  19. Systematic analysis and prediction of type IV secreted effector proteins by machine learning approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawei; Yang, Bingjiao; An, Yi; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana; Leier, André; Wilksch, Jonathan; Hong, Qingyang; Zhang, Yang; Hayashida, Morihiro; Akutsu, Tatsuya; Webb, Geoffrey I; Strugnell, Richard A; Song, Jiangning; Lithgow, Trevor

    2017-11-27

    In the course of infecting their hosts, pathogenic bacteria secrete numerous effectors, namely, bacterial proteins that pervert host cell biology. Many Gram-negative bacteria, including context-dependent human pathogens, use a type IV secretion system (T4SS) to translocate effectors directly into the cytosol of host cells. Various type IV secreted effectors (T4SEs) have been experimentally validated to play crucial roles in virulence by manipulating host cell gene expression and other processes. Consequently, the identification of novel effector proteins is an important step in increasing our understanding of host-pathogen interactions and bacterial pathogenesis. Here, we train and compare six machine learning models, namely, Naïve Bayes (NB), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), logistic regression (LR), random forest (RF), support vector machines (SVMs) and multilayer perceptron (MLP), for the identification of T4SEs using 10 types of selected features and 5-fold cross-validation. Our study shows that: (1) including different but complementary features generally enhance the predictive performance of T4SEs; (2) ensemble models, obtained by integrating individual single-feature models, exhibit a significantly improved predictive performance and (3) the 'majority voting strategy' led to a more stable and accurate classification performance when applied to predicting an ensemble learning model with distinct single features. We further developed a new method to effectively predict T4SEs, Bastion4 (Bacterial secretion effector predictor for T4SS), and we show our ensemble classifier clearly outperforms two recent prediction tools. In summary, we developed a state-of-the-art T4SE predictor by conducting a comprehensive performance evaluation of different machine learning algorithms along with a detailed analysis of single- and multi-feature selections. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 protein is secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Brittany K; Voegel, Tanja; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a gram-negative, xylem-limited plant pathogenic bacterium that causes disease in a variety of economically important agricultural crops including Pierce's disease of grapevines. Xylella fastidiosa biofilms formed in the xylem vessels of plants play a key role in early colonization and pathogenicity by providing a protected niche and enhanced cell survival. Here we investigate the role of Xylella fastidiosa PD1063, the predicted ortholog of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968, which encodes an outer membrane protein. To assess the function of the Xylella fastidiosa ortholog, we created Xylella fastidiosa mutants deleted for PD1063 and then assessed biofilm formation, cell-cell aggregation and cell growth in vitro. We also assessed disease severity and pathogen titers in grapevines mechanically inoculated with the Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 mutant. We found a significant decrease in cell-cell aggregation among PD1063 mutants but no differences in cell growth, biofilm formation, disease severity or titers in planta. Based on the demonstration that Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968 encodes an outer membrane protein, secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles, we predicted that PD1063 would also be secreted in a similar manner. Using anti-PD1063 antibodies, we found PD1063 in the supernatant and secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles. PD1063 purified from the supernatant, outer membrane fractions and outer membrane vesicles was 19.2 kD, corresponding to the predicted size of the processed protein. Our findings suggest Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 is not essential for development of Pierce's disease in Vitis vinifera grapevines although further research is required to determine the function of the PD1063 outer membrane protein in Xylella fastidiosa.

  1. A Novel ESAT-6 Secretion System-Secreted Protein EsxX of Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus Lineage ST398 Contributes to Immune Evasion and Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yingxin; Wang, Yanan; Liu, Qian; Gao, Qianqian; Lu, Huiying; Meng, Hongwei; Qin, Juanxiu; Hu, Mo; Li, Min

    2017-01-01

    The ESAT-6 secretion system (ESS) has been reported to contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of several Staphylococcus aureus strains such as USA300 and Newman. However, the role of the ESS in community-associated S. aureus (CA-SA) lineage ST398 in China is not well understood. By comparing the ess locus of ST398 with the published S. aureus sequence in the NCBI database, we found one gene in the ess locus encoding a novel WXG superfamily protein that is highly conserved only in ST398. LC-MS/MS and Western blot analysis revealed that this protein is a novel secreted protein controlled by the ST398 ESS, and we named the protein EsxX. Although EsxX was not under the control of the accessory gene regulator like many other virulence factors and had no influence on several phenotypes of ST398, such as growth, hemolysis, and biofilm formation, it showed important impacts on immune evasion and virulence in ST398. An esxX deletion mutant led to significantly reduced resistance to neutrophil killing and decreased virulence in murine skin and blood infection models, indicating its essential contribution to the evasion of innate host defense and virulence to support the pathogenesis of ST398 infections. The function of this novel secreted protein EsxX might help us better understand the role of the ESS in the virulence and epidemic success of the CA-SA lineage ST398.

  2. A Novel ESAT-6 Secretion System-Secreted Protein EsxX of Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus Lineage ST398 Contributes to Immune Evasion and Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxin Dai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ESAT-6 secretion system (ESS has been reported to contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of several Staphylococcus aureus strains such as USA300 and Newman. However, the role of the ESS in community-associated S. aureus (CA-SA lineage ST398 in China is not well understood. By comparing the ess locus of ST398 with the published S. aureus sequence in the NCBI database, we found one gene in the ess locus encoding a novel WXG superfamily protein that is highly conserved only in ST398. LC-MS/MS and Western blot analysis revealed that this protein is a novel secreted protein controlled by the ST398 ESS, and we named the protein EsxX. Although EsxX was not under the control of the accessory gene regulator like many other virulence factors and had no influence on several phenotypes of ST398, such as growth, hemolysis, and biofilm formation, it showed important impacts on immune evasion and virulence in ST398. An esxX deletion mutant led to significantly reduced resistance to neutrophil killing and decreased virulence in murine skin and blood infection models, indicating its essential contribution to the evasion of innate host defense and virulence to support the pathogenesis of ST398 infections. The function of this novel secreted protein EsxX might help us better understand the role of the ESS in the virulence and epidemic success of the CA-SA lineage ST398.

  3. Inhibition of Plasmodium berghei Development in Mosquitoes by Effector Proteins Secreted from Asaia sp. Bacteria Using a Novel Native Secretion Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongio, Nicholas J; Lampe, David J

    2015-01-01

    Novel interventions are needed to prevent the transmission of the Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. One possible method is to supply mosquitoes with antiplasmodial effector proteins from bacteria by paratransgenesis. Mosquitoes have a diverse complement of midgut microbiota including the Gram-negative bacteria Asaia bogorensis. This study presents the first use of Asaia sp. bacteria for paratransgenesis against P. berghei. We identified putative secreted proteins from A. bogorensis by a genetic screen using alkaline phosphatase gene fusions. Two were secreted efficiently: a siderophore receptor protein and a YVTN beta-propeller repeat protein. The siderophore receptor gene was fused with antiplasmodial effector genes including the scorpine antimicrobial peptide and an anti-Pbs21 scFv-Shiva1 immunotoxin. Asaia SF2.1 secreting these fusion proteins were fed to mosquitoes and challenged with Plasmodium berghei-infected blood. With each of these effector constructs, significant inhibition of parasite development was observed. These results provide a novel and promising intervention against malaria transmission.

  4. Inhibition of Plasmodium berghei Development in Mosquitoes by Effector Proteins Secreted from Asaia sp. Bacteria Using a Novel Native Secretion Signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Bongio

    Full Text Available Novel interventions are needed to prevent the transmission of the Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. One possible method is to supply mosquitoes with antiplasmodial effector proteins from bacteria by paratransgenesis. Mosquitoes have a diverse complement of midgut microbiota including the Gram-negative bacteria Asaia bogorensis. This study presents the first use of Asaia sp. bacteria for paratransgenesis against P. berghei. We identified putative secreted proteins from A. bogorensis by a genetic screen using alkaline phosphatase gene fusions. Two were secreted efficiently: a siderophore receptor protein and a YVTN beta-propeller repeat protein. The siderophore receptor gene was fused with antiplasmodial effector genes including the scorpine antimicrobial peptide and an anti-Pbs21 scFv-Shiva1 immunotoxin. Asaia SF2.1 secreting these fusion proteins were fed to mosquitoes and challenged with Plasmodium berghei-infected blood. With each of these effector constructs, significant inhibition of parasite development was observed. These results provide a novel and promising intervention against malaria transmission.

  5. Interactions between flagellar and type III secretion proteins in Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahony James B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flagellar secretion systems are utilized by a wide variety of bacteria to construct the flagellum, a conserved apparatus that allows for migration towards non-hostile, nutrient rich environments. Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligate, intracellular pathogen whose genome contains at least three orthologs of flagellar proteins, namely FliI, FlhA and FliF, but the role of these proteins remains unknown. Results Full length FliI, and fragments of FlhA, FliF, and FliI, were cloned and expressed as either GST or His tagged proteins in E. coli. The GST-tagged full length FliI protein was shown to possess ATPase activity, hydrolyzing ATP at a rate of 0.15 ± .02 μmol min-1 mg-1 in a time- and dose-dependant manner. Using bacterial-2-hybrid and GST pull-down assays, the N-terminal domain of FliI was shown to interact with the cytoplasmic domain of FlhA, but not with FliF, and the cytoplasmic domain of FlhA was shown to interact with the C-terminus of FliF. The absence of other flagellar orthologs led us to explore cross-reaction of flagellar proteins with type III secretion proteins, and we found that FliI interacted with CdsL and CopN, while FlhA interacted with CdsL and Cpn0322 (YscU ortholog CdsU. Conclusions The specific interaction of the four orthologous flagellar proteins in C. pneumoniae suggests that they interact in vivo and, taken together with their conservation across members of the chlamydiae sps., and their interaction with T3S components, suggests a role in bacterial replication and/or intracellular survival.

  6. Efficient Secretion of Recombinant Proteins from Rice Suspension-Cultured Cells Modulated by the Choice of Signal Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Fen; Tan, Chia-Chun; Yeh, Ju-Fang; Liu, Hsin-Yi; Liu, Yu-Kuo; Ho, Shin-Lon; Lu, Chung-An

    2015-01-01

    Plant-based expression systems have emerged as a competitive platform in the large-scale production of recombinant proteins. By adding a signal peptide, αAmy3sp, the desired recombinant proteins can be secreted outside transgenic rice cells, making them easy to harvest. In this work, to improve the secretion efficiency of recombinant proteins in rice expression systems, various signal peptides including αAmy3sp, CIN1sp, and 33KDsp have been fused to the N-terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and introduced into rice cells to explore the efficiency of secretion of foreign proteins. 33KDsp had better efficiency than αAmy3sp and CIN1sp for the secretion of GFP from calli and suspension-cultured cells. 33KDsp was further applied for the secretion of mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) from transgenic rice suspension-cultured cells; approximately 76%–92% of total rice-derived mGM-CSF (rmGM-CSF) was detected in the culture medium. The rmGM-CSF was bioactive and could stimulate the proliferation of a murine myeloblastic leukemia cell line, NSF-60. The extracellular yield of rmGM-CSF reached 31.7 mg/L. Our study indicates that 33KDsp is better at promoting the secretion of recombinant proteins in rice suspension-cultured cell systems than the commonly used αAmy3sp. PMID:26473722

  7. Transfection of primary brain capillary endothelial cells for protein synthesis and secretion of recombinant erythropoietin: a strategy to enable protein delivery to the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkhart, Annette; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Aigner, Achim

    2017-01-01

    , as turning BCECs into recombinant protein factories by transfection could result in protein secretion further into the brain. The present study aims to investigate the possibility of transfecting primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBECs) for recombinant protein synthesis and secretion...... of the neuroprotective protein erythropoietin (EPO). We previously showed that 4% of RBECs with BBB properties can be transfected without disrupting the BBB integrity in vitro, but it can be questioned whether this is sufficient to enable protein secretion at therapeutic levels. The present study examined various...... transfection vectors, with regard to increasing the transfection efficiency without disrupting the BBB integrity. Lipofectamine 3000™ was the most potent vector compared to polyethylenimine (PEI) and Turbofect. When co-cultured with astrocytes, the genetically modified RBECs secreted recombinant EPO...

  8. A convenient and general expression platform for the production of secreted proteins from human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Halil; Azimi, Farshad C; Cook, Jonathan D; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2012-07-31

    Recombinant protein expression in bacteria, typically E. coli, has been the most successful strategy for milligram quantity expression of proteins. However, prokaryotic hosts are often not as appropriate for expression of human, viral or eukaryotic proteins due to toxicity of the foreign macromolecule, differences in the protein folding machinery, or due to the lack of particular co- or post-translational modifications in bacteria. Expression systems based on yeast (P. pastoris or S. cerevisiae) (1,2), baculovirus-infected insect (S. frugiperda or T. ni) cells (3), and cell-free in vitro translation systems (2,4) have been successfully used to produce mammalian proteins. Intuitively, the best match is to use a mammalian host to ensure the production of recombinant proteins that contain the proper post-translational modifications. A number of mammalian cell lines (Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) 293, CV-1 cells in Origin carrying the SV40 larget T-antigen (COS), Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), and others) have been successfully utilized to overexpress milligram quantities of a number of human proteins (5-9). However, the advantages of using mammalian cells are often countered by higher costs, requirement of specialized laboratory equipment, lower protein yields, and lengthy times to develop stable expression cell lines. Increasing yield and producing proteins faster, while keeping costs low, are major factors for many academic and commercial laboratories. Here, we describe a time- and cost-efficient, two-part procedure for the expression of secreted human proteins from adherent HEK 293T cells. This system is capable of producing microgram to milligram quantities of functional protein for structural, biophysical and biochemical studies. The first part, multiple constructs of the gene of interest are produced in parallel and transiently transfected into adherent HEK 293T cells in small scale. The detection and analysis of recombinant protein secreted into the cell culture

  9. Identification of novel proteins secreted by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG grown in de Mann-Rogosa-Sharpe broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, B; Schmitter, J-M; Urdaci, M C

    2009-05-01

    To identify novel proteins secreted by the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG after growth in de Mann-Rogosa-Sharpe broth (MRS), a complex medium often used for the culture of Lactobacillus. The proteins secreted by L. rhamnosus GG strain were precipitated using a trichloroacetic acid-based protocol, resolved by SDS-PAGE, and identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Among the proteins secreted by this bacterium, a leukocyte elastase inhibitor, already present in the MRS broth, was identified. Other proteins such as cell wall hydrolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoglycerate kinase, and an extracellular transcriptional regulator have been also identified. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG secretes several proteins during its growth in MRS, some of them with assigned functions in the prevention of the molecular mechanisms that lead to damage in the epithelial barrier (cell wall hydrolase) and in adhesion (GAPDH). The rest of the proteins require further genetic analysis in order to establish their precise roles. None of the proteins bound to mucin or fibronectin. Some of these secreted proteins could be involved in the probiotic effects exerted by L. rhamnosus GG strain, their identification being the first step towards in depth functional studies.

  10. Lactobacillus Proteins Are Associated with the Bactericidal Activity against E. coli of Female Genital Tract Secretions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyoussef, Sabah; Nieves, Edward; Dinerman, Ellen; Carpenter, Colleen; Shankar, Viswanathan; Oh, Jamie; Burd, Berta; Angeletti, Ruth H.; Buckheit, Karen W.; Fredricks, David N.; Madan, Rebecca P.; Keller, Marla J.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Female genital tract secretions are bactericidal for Escherichia (E.) coli ex vivo. However, the intersubject variability and molecules that contribute to this activity have not been defined. Methods The bactericidal activity and concentration of immune mediators in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) collected from 99 healthy women were determined. Results CVL reduced the number of E. coli colonies by 68% [−26, 100] (median [range]). CVL were active against laboratory and clinical isolates of E. coli, but were inactive against Lactobacillus species. Bactericidal activity correlated with the concentration of protein recovered (p90% inhibitory activity (active) and two withbactericidal for E. coli. Conclusion Both host and commensal microbiota proteins contribute to mucosal defense. Identification of these proteins will facilitate the development of strategies to maintain a healthy vaginal microbiome and prevent colonization with pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli that increase the risk for urinary tract infections, preterm labor and perinatal infection. PMID:23185346

  11. A proteomic approach for identification of secreted proteins during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kratchmarova, Irina; Kalume, Dario E; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2002-01-01

    cholinergic neurostimulating peptide, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and haptoglobin to be expressed highly by mature adipocytes. We also used liquid chromatography-based separation followed by automated tandem mass spectrometry to identify proteins secreted by mature adipocytes. Several......We have undertaken a systematic proteomic approach to purify and identify secreted factors that are differentially expressed in preadipocytes versus adipocytes. Using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry, proteins that were specifically...... secreted by 3T3-L1 preadipocytes or adipocytes were identified. In addition to a number of previously reported molecules that are up- or down-regulated during this differentiation process (adipsin, adipocyte complement-related protein 30 kDa, complement C3, and fibronectin), we identified four secreted...

  12. Heterogeneity in ess transcriptional organization and variable contribution of the Ess/Type VII protein secretion system to virulence across closely related Staphylocccus aureus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneuper, Holger; Cao, Zhen Ping; Twomey, Kate B; Zoltner, Martin; Jäger, Franziska; Cargill, James S; Chalmers, James; van der Kooi - Pol, Magda; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Ryan, Robert P; Hunter, William N; Palmer, Tracy

    The Type VII protein secretion system, found in Gram-positive bacteria, secretes small proteins, containing a conserved W-x-G amino acid sequence motif, to the growth medium. Staphylococcus aureus has a conserved Type VII secretion system, termed Ess, which is dispensable for laboratory growth but

  13. The major secreted protein Msp1/p75 is O-glycosylated in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebeer Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the occurrence, biosynthesis and possible functions of glycoproteins are increasingly documented for pathogens, glycoproteins are not yet widely described in probiotic bacteria. Nevertheless, knowledge of protein glycosylation holds important potential for better understanding specific glycan-mediated interactions of probiotics and for glycoengineering in food-grade microbes. Results Here, we provide evidence that the major secreted protein Msp1/p75 of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is glycosylated. Msp1 was shown to stain positive with periodic-acid Schiff staining, to be susceptible to chemical deglycosylation, and to bind with the mannose-specific Concanavalin A (ConA lectin. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli resulted in a significant reduction in molecular mass, loss of ConA reactivity and increased sensitivity towards pronase E and proteinase K. Mass spectrometry showed that Msp1 is O-glycosylated and identified a glycopeptide TVETPSSA (amino acids 101-108 bearing hexoses presumably linked to the serine residues. Interestingly, these serine residues are not present in the homologous protein of several Lactobacillus casei strains tested, which also did not bind to ConA. The role of the glycan substitutions in known functions of Msp1 was also investigated. Glycosylation did not seem to impact significantly on the peptidoglycan hydrolase activity of Msp1. In addition, the glycan chain appeared not to be required for the activation of Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells by Msp1. On the other hand, examination of different cell extracts showed that Msp1 is a glycosylated protein in the supernatant, but not in the cell wall and cytosol fraction, suggesting a link between glycosylation and secretion of this protein. Conclusions In this study we have provided the first evidence of protein O-glycosylation in the probiotic L rhamnosus GG. The major secreted protein Msp1 is glycosylated with Con

  14. Combining intracellular and secreted bioluminescent reporter proteins for multicolor cell-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Elisa; Cevenini, Luca; Mezzanotte, Laura; Ablamsky, Danielle; Southworth, Tara; Branchini, Bruce R; Roda, Aldo

    2008-02-01

    Bioluminescent (BL) proteins are a promising tool for diverse applications based on reporter gene technology thanks to their high sensitivity and range of linear response. Due to their widespread use in the environmental, medical and agro-food fields, there is a great need for new BL reporter proteins with improved characteristics to provide researches a wide range of suitable reporters. Few efforts have been made in this direction and further improvement of BL reporter features (e.g., thermostability, narrower emission bandwidth, emission at different wavelengths) tailored for specific applications would be a remarkable progress toward the development of ultrasensitive multiplexed assays either in vitro or in vivo. The suitability of using red- and green-emitting thermostable mutants of Photinus pyralis firefly luciferase and two click beetle luciferases in combination with a secreted luciferase from Gaussia princeps was evaluated to develop a triple-color mammalian assay. Two triple-reporter model mammalian systems were developed in a human hepatoblastoma cell line to monitor the transcriptional regulation of cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (cyp7a1), the enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of the main pathway responsible for cholesterol degradation in humans. These model systems allowed us to evaluate the feasibility of using two intracellular BL reporters and a secreted one in the same cell-based assay. The selection of reporter proteins characterized by similar expression levels was identified as a critical point for the development of a multicolor assay.

  15. Proteomic analysis of pH and strains dependent protein secretion of Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adav, Sunil S; Ravindran, Anita; Chao, Lim Tze; Tan, Lynette; Singh, Sunil; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2011-10-07

    Bioenergy, particularly biofuel, from lignocellulosic biomass has been considered as one of the most promising renewable and sustainable energies. The industrial productivity and efficiency of microbial lignocellulolytic enzymes for cellulosic biofuel applications are significantly affected by pH of culture condition. This study established and compared hydrolytic protein expression profiles of Trichoderma reesei QM6a, QM9414, RUT C30 and QM9414MG5 strains at different pH in cellulosic culture media. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of secretome of T. reesei cultured from pH 3.0-9.0 revealed significantly higher hydrolytic protein expressions at acidic pH. The Bray-Curtis similarity indices, clustering, and Shannon diversity index elucidated differences in protein secretion at different pHs in individuals and among the strains. This study demonstrated a comparative lignocellulolytic enzyme secretion profile of T. reesei and its mutants at different pHs and provides pH sensitive and resistance enzyme targets for industrial lignocellulose hydrolysis.

  16. Arabinogalactan-protein secretion is associated with the acquisition of stigmatic receptivity in the apple flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Juan M; Herrero, María

    2012-08-01

    Stigmatic receptivity plays a clear role in pollination dynamics; however, little is known about the factors that confer to a stigma the competence to be receptive for the germination of pollen grains. In this work, a developmental approach is used to evaluate the acquisition of stigmatic receptivity and its relationship with a possible change in arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs). Flowers of the domestic apple, Malus × domestica, were assessed for their capacity to support pollen germination at different developmental stages. Stigmas from these same stages were characterized morphologically and different AGP epitopes detected by immunocytochemistry. Acquisition of stigmatic receptivity and the secretion of classical AGPs from stigmatic cells occurred concurrently and following the same spatial distribution. While in unpollinated stigmas AGPs appeared unaltered, in cross-pollinated stigmas AGPs epitopes vanished as pollen tubes passed by. The concurrent secretion of AGPs with the acquisition of stigmatic receptivity, together with the differential response in unpollinated and cross-pollinated pistils point out a role of AGPs in supporting pollen tube germination and strongly suggest that secretion of AGPs is associated with the acquisition of stigma receptivity.

  17. Macroautophagy and Cell Responses Related to Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Lipid Metabolism and Unconventional Secretion of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demine, Stéphane; Michel, Sébastien; Vannuvel, Kayleen; Wanet, Anaïs; Renard, Patricia; Arnould, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Macroautophagy has important physiological roles and its cytoprotective or detrimental function is compromised in various diseases such as many cancers and metabolic diseases. However, the importance of autophagy for cell responses has also been demonstrated in many other physiological and pathological situations. In this review, we discuss some of the recently discovered mechanisms involved in specific and unspecific autophagy related to mitochondrial dysfunction and organelle degradation, lipid metabolism and lipophagy as well as recent findings and evidence that link autophagy to unconventional protein secretion. PMID:24710422

  18. Macroautophagy and Cell Responses Related to Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Lipid Metabolism and Unconventional Secretion of Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Arnould

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Macroautophagy has important physiological roles and its cytoprotective or detrimental function is compromised in various diseases such as many cancers and metabolic diseases. However, the importance of autophagy for cell responses has also been demonstrated in many other physiological and pathological situations. In this review, we discuss some of the recently discovered mechanisms involved in specific and unspecific autophagy related to mitochondrial dysfunction and organelle degradation, lipid metabolism and lipophagy as well as recent findings and evidence that link autophagy to unconventional protein secretion.

  19. Electrolyte and protein secretion by the perfused rabbit mandibular gland stimulated with acetylcholine or catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Conigrave, A D; Novak, I

    1980-01-01

    of stimulation, the secretory response began once more to decline, this time towards zero. If, before the second period of decline begins, stimulation is interrupted for about 30 min, the gland recovers its initial responsiveness to further stimulation with acetylcholine.5. The Na, K, Cl and HCO(3...... by acetylcholine.8. The alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine was without stimulatory effect on salivary fluid secretion and caused a reduction in the secretory response to acetylcholine. The drug had little or no effect on the electrolyte content of acetylcholine-evoked saliva and appeared to reduce its protein...

  20. Quantification of the physiochemical constraints on the export of spider silk proteins by Salmonella type III secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voigt Christopher A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The type III secretion system (T3SS is a molecular machine in gram negative bacteria that exports proteins through both membranes to the extracellular environment. It has been previously demonstrated that the T3SS encoded in Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1 can be harnessed to export recombinant proteins. Here, we demonstrate the secretion of a variety of unfolded spider silk proteins and use these data to quantify the constraints of this system with respect to the export of recombinant protein. Results To test how the timing and level of protein expression affects secretion, we designed a hybrid promoter that combines an IPTG-inducible system with a natural genetic circuit that controls effector expression in Salmonella (psicA. LacO operators are placed in various locations in the psicA promoter and the optimal induction occurs when a single operator is placed at the +5nt (234-fold and a lower basal level of expression is achieved when a second operator is placed at -63nt to take advantage of DNA looping. Using this tool, we find that the secretion efficiency (protein secreted divided by total expressed is constant as a function of total expressed. We also demonstrate that the secretion flux peaks at 8 hours. We then use whole gene DNA synthesis to construct codon optimized spider silk genes for full-length (3129 amino acids Latrodectus hesperus dragline silk, Bombyx mori cocoon silk, and Nephila clavipes flagelliform silk and PCR is used to create eight truncations of these genes. These proteins are all unfolded polypeptides and they encompass a variety of length, charge, and amino acid compositions. We find those proteins fewer than 550 amino acids reliably secrete and the probability declines significantly after ~700 amino acids. There also is a charge optimum at -2.4, and secretion efficiency declines for very positively or negatively charged proteins. There is no significant correlation with hydrophobicity

  1. A substrate-fusion protein is trapped inside the Type III Secretion System channel in Shigella flexneri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dohlich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Type III Secretion System (T3SS is a macromolecular complex used by Gram-negative bacteria to secrete effector proteins from the cytoplasm across the bacterial envelope in a single step. For many pathogens, the T3SS is an essential virulence factor that enables the bacteria to interact with and manipulate their respective host. A characteristic structural feature of the T3SS is the needle complex (NC. The NC resembles a syringe with a basal body spanning both bacterial membranes and a long needle-like structure that protrudes from the bacterium. Based on the paradigm of a syringe-like mechanism, it is generally assumed that effectors and translocators are unfolded and secreted from the bacterial cytoplasm through the basal body and needle channel. Despite extensive research on T3SS, this hypothesis lacks experimental evidence and the mechanism of secretion is not fully understood. In order to elucidate details of the T3SS secretion mechanism, we generated fusion proteins consisting of a T3SS substrate and a bulky protein containing a knotted motif. Because the knot cannot be unfolded, these fusions are accepted as T3SS substrates but remain inside the NC channel and obstruct the T3SS. To our knowledge, this is the first time substrate fusions have been visualized together with isolated NCs and we demonstrate that substrate proteins are secreted directly through the channel with their N-terminus first. The channel physically encloses the fusion protein and shields it from a protease and chemical modifications. Our results corroborate an elementary understanding of how the T3SS works and provide a powerful tool for in situ-structural investigations in the future. This approach might also be applicable to other protein secretion systems that require unfolding of their substrates prior to secretion.

  2. The calcium-binding protein ALG-2 regulates protein secretion and trafficking via interactions with MISSL and MAP1B proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Terunao; Inoue, Kuniko; Arai, Yumika; Kuwata, Keiko; Shibata, Hideki; Maki, Masatoshi

    2017-10-13

    Mobilization of intracellular calcium is essential for a wide range of cellular processes, including signal transduction, apoptosis, and vesicular trafficking. Several lines of evidence have suggested that apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2, also known as PDCD6 ), a calcium-binding protein, acts as a calcium sensor linking calcium levels with efficient vesicular trafficking, especially at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport step. However, how ALG-2 regulates these processes remains largely unclear. Here, we report that M APK1- i nteracting and s pindle- s tabilizing (MISS)- l ike (MISSL), a previously uncharacterized protein, interacts with ALG-2 in a calcium-dependent manner. Live-cell imaging revealed that upon a rise in intracellular calcium levels, GFP-tagged MISSL (GFP-MISSL) dynamically relocalizes in a punctate pattern and colocalizes with ALG-2. MISSL knockdown caused disorganization of the components of the ER exit site, the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, and Golgi. Importantly, knockdown of either MISSL or ALG-2 attenuated the secretion of se creted a lkaline p hosphatase (SEAP), a model secreted cargo protein, with similar reductions in secretion by single- and double-protein knockdowns, suggesting that MISSL and ALG-2 act in the same pathway to regulate the secretion process. Furthermore, ALG-2 or MISSL knockdown delayed ER-to-Golgi transport of procollagen type I. We also found that ALG-2 and MISSL interact with microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) and that MAP1B knockdown reverts the reduced secretion of SEAP caused by MISSL or ALG-2 depletion. These results suggest that a change in the intracellular calcium level plays a role in regulation of the secretory pathway via interaction of ALG-2 with MISSL and MAP1B. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Type III secretion as a generalizable strategy for the production of full-length biopolymer-forming proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Anum; Li, Cheng; Metcalf, Kevin J; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle

    2016-11-01

    Biopolymer-forming proteins are integral in the development of customizable biomaterials, but recombinant expression of these proteins is challenging. In particular, biopolymer-forming proteins have repetitive, glycine-rich domains and, like many heterologously expressed proteins, are prone to incomplete translation, aggregation, and proteolytic degradation in the production host. This necessitates tailored purification processes to isolate each full-length protein of interest from the truncated forms as well as other contaminating proteins; owing to the repetitive nature of these proteins, the truncated polypeptides can have very similar chemistry to the full-length form and are difficult to separate from the full-length protein. We hypothesized that bacterial expression and secretion would be a promising alternative option for biomaterials-forming proteins, simplifying isolation of the full-length target protein. By using a selective secretion system, truncated forms of the protein are not secreted and thus are not found in the culture harvest. We show that a synthetically upregulated type III secretion system leads to a general increase in secretion titer for each protein that we tested. Moreover, we observe a substantial enhancement in the homogeneity of full-length forms of pro-resilin, tropo-elastin crosslinking domains, and silk proteins produced in this manner, as compared with proteins purified from the cytosol. Secretion via the type III apparatus limits co-purification of truncated forms of the target protein and increases protein purity without extensive purification steps. Demonstrating the utility of such a system, we introduce several modifications to resilin-based peptides and use an un-optimized, single-column process to purify these proteins. The resulting materials are of sufficiently high quantity and yield for the production of antimicrobial hydrogels with highly reproducible rheological properties. The ease of this process and its

  4. Analysis of the role of the gene bipA, encoding the major endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein in the secretion of homologous and heterologous proteins in black Aspergilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, P.J.; Gemeren, I.A. van; Drint-Kuijvenhoven, J.; Hessing, J.G.M.; Muijlwijk van - Harteveld, G.M.; Beijersbergen, A.; Verrips, C.T.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    1998-01-01

    The function of the endoplasmic-reticulum-localized chaperone binding protein (BiP) in relation to protein secretion in filamentous fungi was studied. It was shown that the overproduction of several homologous and heterologous recombinant proteins by Aspergillus strains induces the expression of

  5. Secreted protein eco-corona mediates uptake and impacts of polystyrene nanoparticles on Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Fatima; Lynch, Iseult

    2016-03-30

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are defined as having at least one external dimension between 1 and 100 nm. Due to their small size, NPs have a large surface area to volume ratio giving them unique characteristics that differ from bulk material of the same chemical composition. As a result these novel materials have found numerous applications in medical and industrial fields with the result that environmental exposure to NPs is increasingly likely. Similarly, increased reliance on plastic, which degrades extremely slowly in the environment, is resulting in increased accumulation of micro-/nano-plastics in fresh and marine waters, whose ecotoxicological impacts are as yet poorly understood. Although NPs are well known to adsorb macromolecules from their environment, forming a biomolecule corona which changes the NP identity and how it interacts with organisms, significantly less research has been performed on the ecological corona (eco-corona). Secretion of biomolecules is a well established predator-prey response in aquatic food chains, raising the question of whether NPs interact with secreted proteins, and the impact of such interaction on NP uptake and ecotoxicity. We report here initial studies, including optimisation of protocols using carboxylic-acid and amino modified spherical polystyrene NPs, to assess interaction of NPs with biomolecules secreted by Daphnia magna and the impact of these interactions on NP uptake, retention and toxicity towards Daphnia magna. Daphnia magna are an important environmental indicator species who may be especially sensitive to nanoparticles (NPs) as a result of being filter-feeders. This paper demonstrates for the first time that proteins released by Daphnia magna create an eco-corona around polystyrene NPs which causes heightened uptake of the NPs and consequently increases toxicity. The secreted protein eco-corona also causes the NPs to be less efficiently removed from the gut of D. magna and NPs remaining in the gut of D. magna

  6. Control of Secreted Protein Gene Expression and the Mammalian Secretome by the Metabolic Regulator PGC-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsky, Neri; Roeder, Robert G

    2017-01-06

    Secreted proteins serve pivotal roles in the development of multicellular organisms, acting as structural matrix, extracellular enzymes, and signal molecules. However, how the secretome is regulated remains incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate, unexpectedly, that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α), a critical transcriptional co-activator of metabolic gene expression, functions to down-regulate the expression of diverse genes encoding secreted molecules and extracellular matrix components to modulate the secretome. Using cell lines, primary cells, and mice, we show that both endogenous and exogenous PGC-1α down-regulate the expression of numerous genes encoding secreted molecules. Mechanistically, results obtained using mRNA stability measurements as well as intronic RNA expression analysis are consistent with a transcriptional effect of PGC-1α on the expression of genes encoding secreted proteins. Interestingly, PGC-1α requires the central heat shock response regulator heat shock factor protein 1 (HSF1) to affect some of its targets, and both factors co-reside on several target genes encoding secreted molecules in cells. Finally, using a mass spectrometric analysis of secreted proteins, we demonstrate that PGC-1α modulates the secretome of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Our results define a link between a key pathway controlling metabolic regulation and the regulation of the mammalian secretome. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Enhanced detection of single-cell-secreted proteins using a fluorescent immunoassay on the protein-G-terminated glass substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yoon; Lee, Kwan Hong; Park, Hansoo; Choi, Jonghoon

    2015-01-01

    We present an evaluation of protein-G-terminated glass slides that may contain a suitable substrate for aligning the orientation of antibodies to obtain better binding moiety to the target antigen. The results of the protein-G-terminated slides were compared with those obtained with epoxy-based slides to evaluate signal enhancement for human immunoglobulin G (IgG) targets, and an increase in the average fluorescence intensity was observed for the lowest measurable amount of IgG target in the assay using protein-G-terminated slides. Applying this strategy for signal amplification to single-cell assays improves the limits of detection for human IgG protein and cytokines (interleukin-2 and interferon-γ) captured from hybridomas. Our data indicate that protein-G-terminated slides have a higher binding capacity for antigens and have better spot-to-spot consistency than that of traditional epoxy-based slides. These properties would be beneficial in the detection of fine amounts of single-cell-secreted proteins, which may provide key insights into cell-cell communication and immune responses.

  8. Distinct activities of Bartonella henselae type IV secretion effector proteins modulate capillary-like sprout formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, F; Ellner, Y; Guye, P; Rhomberg, T A; Weber, H; Augustin, H G; Dehio, C

    2009-07-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bh) can lead to vasoproliferative tumour lesions in the skin and inner organs known as bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis. The knowledge on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in this pathogen-triggered angiogenic process is confined by the lack of a suitable animal model and a physiologically relevant cell culture model of angiogenesis. Here we employed a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay of collagen gel-embedded endothelial cell (EC) spheroids to study the angiogenic properties of Bh. Spheroids generated from Bh-infected ECs displayed a high capacity to form sprouts, which represent capillary-like projections into the collagen gel. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system and a subset of its translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) were found to profoundly modulate this Bh-induced sprouting activity. BepA, known to protect ECs from apoptosis, strongly promoted sprout formation. In contrast, BepG, triggering cytoskeletal rearrangements, potently inhibited sprouting. Hence, the here established in vitro model of Bartonella- induced angiogenesis revealed distinct and opposing activities of type IV secretion system effector proteins, which together with a VirB/VirD4-independent effect may control the angiogenic activity of Bh during chronic infection of the vasculature.

  9. Control of type III protein secretion using a minimal genetic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Miryoung; Sukovich, David J; Ciccarelli, Luciano; Mayr, Julia; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Jesus; Mirsky, Ethan A; Tucker, Alex C; Gordon, D Benjamin; Marlovits, Thomas C; Voigt, Christopher A

    2017-05-09

    Gram-negative bacteria secrete proteins using a type III secretion system (T3SS), which functions as a needle-like molecular machine. The many proteins involved in T3SS construction are tightly regulated due to its role in pathogenesis and motility. Here, starting with the 35 kb Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), we eliminated internal regulation and simplified the genetics by removing or recoding genes, scrambling gene order and replacing all non-coding DNA with synthetic genetic parts. This process results in a 16 kb cluster that shares no sequence identity, regulation or organizational principles with SPI-1. Building this simplified system led to the discovery of essential roles for an internal start site (SpaO) and small RNA (InvR). Further, it can be controlled using synthetic regulatory circuits, including under SPI-1 repressing conditions. This work reveals an incredible post-transcriptional robustness in T3SS assembly and aids its control as a tool in biotechnology.

  10. A Secreted Ankyrin-Repeat Protein from Clinical Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Isolates Disrupts Actin Cytoskeletal Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Logan C; O'Keefe, Sean; Parnes, Mei-Fan; MacDonald, Hanlon; Stretz, Lindsey; Templer, Suzanne J; Wong, Emily L; Berger, Bryan W

    2016-01-08

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging, multidrug-resistant pathogen of increasing importance for the immunocompromised, including cystic fibrosis patients. Despite its significance as an emerging pathogen, relatively little is known regarding the specific factors and mechanisms that contribute to its pathogenicity. We identify and characterize a putative ankyrin-repeat protein (Smlt3054) unique to clinical S. maltophilia isolates that binds F-actin in vitro and co-localizes with actin in transfected HEK293a cells. Smlt3054 is endogenously expressed and secreted from clinical S. maltophilia isolates, but not an environmental isolate (R551-3). The in vitro binding of Smlt3054 to F-actin resulted in a thickening of the filaments as observed by TEM. Ectopic expression of Smlt3054-GFP exhibits strong co-localization with F-actin, with distinct, retrograde F-actin waves specifically associated with Smlt3054 in individual cells as well as formation of dense, internal inclusions at the expense of retrograde F-actin waves. Collectively, our results point to an interaction between Smlt3054 and F-actin. Furthermore, as a potentially secreted protein unique to clinical S. maltophilia isolates, Smlt3054 may serve as a starting point for understanding the mechanisms by which S. maltophilia has become an emergent pathogen.

  11. Fluorescence microscopy visualization of halomucin, a secreted 927 kDa protein surrounding Haloquadratum walsbyi cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eZenke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At the time of its first publication, halomucin from Haloquadratum walsbyi strain HBSQ001 was the largest archaeal protein known (9159 aa. It has a predicted signal sequence, making it likely to be an extracellular or secreted protein. Best BLAST matches were found to be mammalian mucins that protect tissues to dehydration and chemical stress. It was hypothesized that halomucin participates in protection against desiccation by retaining water in a hull around the halophilic organisms that live at the limits of water activity. We visualized Haloquadratum cells by staining their intracellular polyhydroxybutyrate granules using Nile Blue. Halomucin was stained by immunofluorescence with antibodies generated against synthetic peptides derived from the halomucin amino acid sequence. Polyhydroxybutyrate stained cells were reconstructed in 3D which highlights not only the highly regular square shape but also the extreme flatness of Haloquadratum. Double-staining proves halomucin to be extracellular but to be only loosely associated to cells in agreement with its hypothesized function.

  12. Protein SIC Secreted fromForms Complexes with Extracellular Histones That Boost Cytokine Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westman, Johannes; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Snäll, Johanna

    2018-01-01

    determine the amplitude of such responses and influence the outcome of the disease. Here, we report that protein SIC, Streptococcal Inhibitor of Complement, an abundant secreted protein fromStreptococcus pyogenes, binds to extracellular histones, a group of danger signals released during necrotizing tissue...... damage. This interaction leads to the formation of large aggregatesin vitro. Extracellular histones and SIC are abundantly expressed and seen colocalized in biopsies from patients with necrotizing soft-tissue infections caused byS. pyogenes. In addition, binding of SIC to histones neutralized...... their antimicrobial activity. Likewise, the ability of histones to induce hemolysis was inhibited in the presence of SIC. However, when added to whole blood, SIC was not able to block the pro-inflammatory effect of histones. Instead SIC boosted the histone-triggered release of a broad range of cytokines...

  13. Nuclear Engineering of Microalgae for High Yield Secretion of Recombinant Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos Martinez, Erick Miguel

    Photosynthetic microorganism like microalgae and cyanobacteria are considered as emerging biotechnology platforms for production of recombinant proteins and other high-value biomolecules with a wide range of applications. Moreover, microalgae offer significant advantages compared with other...... optimization of metabolic facilities towards enhanced product yields. We have shown that by permeabilizing cyanobacteria cells with a commercially available B-PER reagent, cells can be directly used for measurement of intracellular enzymes in an easy, efficient and scalable manner....... biotechnology hosts including safety, metabolic diversity, scalability, sustainability and low production cost. Over the past decades, considerable improvement has been made to express and secrete recombinant proteins in high levels: however current yields are still low. The first research project presented...

  14. Metabolic flux profiling of recombinant protein secreting Pichia pastoris growing on glucose:methanol mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has emerged as one of the most promising yeast hosts for the production of heterologous proteins. Mixed feeds of methanol and a multicarbon source instead of methanol as sole carbon source have been shown to improve product productivities and alleviate metabolic burden derived from protein production. Nevertheless, systematic quantitative studies on the relationships between the central metabolism and recombinant protein production in P. pastoris are still rather limited, particularly when growing this yeast on mixed carbon sources, thus hampering future metabolic network engineering strategies for improved protein production. Results The metabolic flux distribution in the central metabolism of P. pastoris growing on a mixed feed of glucose and methanol was analyzed by Metabolic Flux Analysis (MFA) using 13C-NMR-derived constraints. For this purpose, we defined new flux ratios for methanol assimilation pathways in P. pastoris cells growing on glucose:methanol mixtures. By using this experimental approach, the metabolic burden caused by the overexpression and secretion of a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (Rol) in P. pastoris was further analyzed. This protein has been previously shown to trigger the unfolded protein response in P. pastoris. A series of 13C-tracer experiments were performed on aerobic chemostat cultivations with a control and two different Rol producing strains growing at a dilution rate of 0.09 h−1 using a glucose:methanol 80:20 (w/w) mix as carbon source. The MFA performed in this study reveals a significant redistristribution of carbon fluxes in the central carbon metabolism when comparing the two recombinant strains vs the control strain, reflected in increased glycolytic, TCA cycle and NADH regeneration fluxes, as well as higher methanol dissimilation rates. Conclusions Overall, a further 13C-based MFA development to characterise the central metabolism of methylotrophic yeasts when growing on mixed

  15. Metabolic flux profiling of recombinant protein secreting Pichia pastoris growing on glucose:methanol mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordà Joel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has emerged as one of the most promising yeast hosts for the production of heterologous proteins. Mixed feeds of methanol and a multicarbon source instead of methanol as sole carbon source have been shown to improve product productivities and alleviate metabolic burden derived from protein production. Nevertheless, systematic quantitative studies on the relationships between the central metabolism and recombinant protein production in P. pastoris are still rather limited, particularly when growing this yeast on mixed carbon sources, thus hampering future metabolic network engineering strategies for improved protein production. Results The metabolic flux distribution in the central metabolism of P. pastoris growing on a mixed feed of glucose and methanol was analyzed by Metabolic Flux Analysis (MFA using 13C-NMR-derived constraints. For this purpose, we defined new flux ratios for methanol assimilation pathways in P. pastoris cells growing on glucose:methanol mixtures. By using this experimental approach, the metabolic burden caused by the overexpression and secretion of a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (Rol in P. pastoris was further analyzed. This protein has been previously shown to trigger the unfolded protein response in P. pastoris. A series of 13C-tracer experiments were performed on aerobic chemostat cultivations with a control and two different Rol producing strains growing at a dilution rate of 0.09 h−1 using a glucose:methanol 80:20 (w/w mix as carbon source. The MFA performed in this study reveals a significant redistristribution of carbon fluxes in the central carbon metabolism when comparing the two recombinant strains vs the control strain, reflected in increased glycolytic, TCA cycle and NADH regeneration fluxes, as well as higher methanol dissimilation rates. Conclusions Overall, a further 13C-based MFA development to characterise the central metabolism of methylotrophic

  16. Rhodococcus erythropolis as a host for expression, secretion and glycosylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillo, Antonio J; Parada, Cristina; Morales, Pedro; Espitia, Clara

    2017-01-19

    Glycosylation is one of the most abundant posttranslational polypeptide chain modification in nature. Although carbohydrate modification of protein antigens from many microbial pathogens constitutes important components of B cell epitopes, the role in T cell immunity is not completely understood. There is growing evidence about the importance of these modifications in host bacteria interactions in tuberculosis. It is known, that the sugars present in some Mycobacterium tuberculosis glycoproteins play an important role in both humoral and cellular immune response against the pathogen. Since this modification is lost in the recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli, it is fundamental to search for host bacteria with the capacity to modify the foreign proteins. Amongst the bacteria that are likely to have this possibility are some members of Rhodococcus genus which are Gram-positive bacteria, with high GC-content and genetically very close related to M. tuberculosis. In this work, apa, pstS1 and lprG genes that coding for M. tuberculosis glycoproteins were cloned and expressed in Rhodococcus erythropolis. All recombinant proteins were mannosylated as demonstrated by their interaction with mannose binding lectin Concanavalin A. In addition, as native proteins recombinants Apa and PstS1 were secreted to the culture medium in contrast with LprG that was retained in the cell wall. Together these results, point out R. erythropolis, as a new host for expression of M. tuberculosis glycoproteins.

  17. High-yield secretion of recombinant proteins expressed in tobacco cell culture with a designer glycopeptide tag: Process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Gonzalez, Maria; Savary, Brett; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    Low-yield protein production remains the most significant economic hurdle with plant cell culture technology. Fusions of recombinant proteins with hydroxyproline-O-glycosylated designer glycopeptide tags have consistently boosted secreted protein yields. This prompted us to study the process development of this technology aiming to achieve productivity levels necessary for commercial viability. We used a tobacco BY-2 cell culture expressing EGFP as fusion with a glycopeptide tag comprised of 32 repeat of "Ser-Pro" dipeptide, or (SP)32 , to study cell growth and protein secretion, culture scale-up, and establishment of perfusion cultures for continuous production. The BY-2 cells accumulated low levels of cell biomass (~7.5 g DW/L) in Schenk & Hildebrandt medium, but secreted high yields of (SP)32 -tagged EGFP (125 mg/L). Protein productivity of the cell culture has been stable for 6.0 years. The BY-2 cells cultured in a 5-L bioreactor similarly produced high secreted protein yield at 131 mg/L. Successful operation of a cell perfusion culture for 30 days was achieved under the perfusion rate of 0.25 and 0.5 day(-1) , generating a protein volumetric productivity of 17.6 and 28.9 mg/day/L, respectively. This research demonstrates the great potential of the designer glycopeptide technology for use in commercial production of valuable proteins with plant cell cultures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Enhanced resistance in Theobroma cacao against oomycete and fungal pathogens by secretion of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, Emily E; Vega-Arreguín, Julio; Shi, Zi; Bailey, Bryan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Maximova, Siela N; Tyler, Brett M; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2016-03-01

    The internalization of some oomycete and fungal pathogen effectors into host plant cells has been reported to be blocked by proteins that bind to the effectors' cell entry receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P). This finding suggested a novel strategy for disease control by engineering plants to secrete PI3P-binding proteins. In this study, we tested this strategy using the chocolate tree Theobroma cacao. Transient expression and secretion of four different PI3P-binding proteins in detached leaves of T. cacao greatly reduced infection by two oomycete pathogens, Phytophthora tropicalis and Phytophthora palmivora, which cause black pod disease. Lesion size and pathogen growth were reduced by up to 85%. Resistance was not conferred by proteins lacking a secretory leader, by proteins with mutations in their PI3P-binding site, or by a secreted PI4P-binding protein. Stably transformed, transgenic T. cacao plants expressing two different PI3P-binding proteins showed substantially enhanced resistance to both P. tropicalis and P. palmivora, as well as to the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum theobromicola. These results demonstrate that secretion of PI3P-binding proteins is an effective way to increase disease resistance in T. cacao, and potentially in other plants, against a broad spectrum of pathogens. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A bacterial type III secretion assay for delivery of fungal effector proteins into wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Mago, Rohit; Staskawicz, Brian J; Ayliffe, Michael A; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-03-01

    Large numbers of candidate effectors from fungal pathogens are being identified through whole-genome sequencing and in planta expression studies. Although Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression has enabled high-throughput functional analysis of effectors in dicot plants, this assay is not effective in cereal leaves. Here, we show that a nonpathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens engineered to express the type III secretion system (T3SS) of P. syringae and the wheat pathogen Xanthomonas translucens can deliver fusion proteins containing T3SS signals from P. syringae (AvrRpm1) and X. campestris (AvrBs2) avirulence (Avr) proteins, respectively, into wheat leaf cells. A calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase reporter protein was delivered effectively into wheat and barley by both bacteria. Absence of any disease symptoms with P. fluorescens makes it more suitable than X. translucens for detecting a hypersensitive response (HR) induced by an effector protein with avirulence activity. We further modified the delivery system by removal of the myristoylation site from the AvrRpm1 fusion to prevent its localization to the plasma membrane which could inhibit recognition of an Avr protein. Delivery of the flax rust AvrM protein by the modified delivery system into transgenic tobacco leaves expressing the corresponding M resistance protein induced a strong HR, indicating that the system is capable of delivering a functional rust Avr protein. In a preliminary screen of effectors from the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, we identified one effector that induced a host genotype-specific HR in wheat. Thus, the modified AvrRpm1:effector-Pseudomonas fluorescens system is an effective tool for large-scale screening of pathogen effectors for recognition in wheat.

  20. Cell invasion of poultry-associated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates is associated with pathogenicity, motility and proteins secreted by the type III secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Devendra H; Zhou, Xiaohui; Addwebi, Tarek; Davis, Margaret A; Orfe, Lisa; Call, Douglas R; Guard, Jean; Besser, Thomas E

    2011-05-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Poultry and poultry products are considered the major vehicles of transmission to humans. Using cell invasiveness as a surrogate marker for pathogenicity, we tested the invasiveness of 53 poultry-associated isolates of S. Enteritidis in a well-differentiated intestinal epithelial cell model (Caco-2). The method allowed classification of the isolates into low (n = 7), medium (n = 18) and high (n = 30) invasiveness categories. Cell invasiveness of the isolates did not correlate with the presence of the virulence-associated gene spvB or the ability of the isolates to form biofilms. Testing of representative isolates with high and low invasiveness in a mouse model revealed that the former were more invasive in vivo and caused more and earlier mortalities, whereas the latter were significantly less invasive in vivo, causing few or no mortalities. Further characterization of representative isolates with low and high invasiveness showed that most of the isolates with low invasiveness had impaired motility and impaired secretion of either flagella-associated proteins (FlgK, FljB and FlgL) or type III secretion system (TTSS)-secreted proteins (SipA and SipD) encoded on Salmonella pathogenicity island-1. In addition, isolates with low invasiveness had impaired ability to invade and/or survive within chicken macrophages. These data suggest that not all isolates of S. Enteritidis recovered from poultry may be equally pathogenic, and that the pathogenicity of S. Enteritidis isolates is associated, in part, with both motility and secretion of TTSS effector proteins.

  1. Engineering of protein folding and secretion-strategies to overcome bottlenecks for efficient production of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delic, Marizela; Göngrich, Rebecca; Mattanovich, Diethard; Gasser, Brigitte

    2014-07-20

    Recombinant protein production has developed into a huge market with enormous positive implications for human health and for the future direction of a biobased economy. Limitations in the economic and technical feasibility of production processes are often related to bottlenecks of in vivo protein folding. Based on cell biological knowledge, some major bottlenecks have been overcome by the overexpression of molecular chaperones and other folding related proteins, or by the deletion of deleterious pathways that may lead to misfolding, mistargeting, or degradation. While important success could be achieved by this strategy, the list of reported unsuccessful cases is disappointingly long and obviously dependent on the recombinant protein to be produced. Singular engineering of protein folding steps may not lead to desired results if the pathway suffers from several limitations. In particular, the connection between folding quality control and proteolytic degradation needs further attention. Based on recent understanding that multiple steps in the folding and secretion pathways limit productivity, synergistic combinations of the cell engineering approaches mentioned earlier need to be explored. In addition, systems biology-based whole cell analysis that also takes energy and redox metabolism into consideration will broaden the knowledge base for future rational engineering strategies.

  2. Unfolded Protein Response (UPR Regulator Cib1 Controls Expression of Genes Encoding Secreted Virulence Factors in Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hampel

    Full Text Available The unfolded protein response (UPR, a conserved eukaryotic signaling pathway to ensure protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, coordinates biotrophic development in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis. Exact timing of UPR activation is required for virulence and presumably connected to the elevated expression of secreted effector proteins during infection of the host plant Zea mays. In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of UPR target genes is induced upon binding of the central regulator Hac1 to unfolded protein response elements (UPREs in their promoters. While a role of the UPR in effector secretion has been described previously, we investigated a potential UPR-dependent regulation of genes encoding secreted effector proteins. In silico prediction of UPREs in promoter regions identified the previously characterized effector genes pit2 and tin1-1, as bona fide UPR target genes. Furthermore, direct binding of the Hac1-homolog Cib1 to the UPRE containing promoter fragments of both genes was confirmed by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (qChIP analysis. Targeted deletion of the UPRE abolished Cib1-dependent expression of pit2 and significantly affected virulence. Furthermore, ER stress strongly increased Pit2 expression and secretion. This study expands the role of the UPR as a signal hub in fungal virulence and illustrates, how biotrophic fungi can coordinate cellular physiology, development and regulation of secreted virulence factors.

  3. Common protein sequence signatures associate with Sclerotinia borealis lifestyle and secretion in fungal pathogens of the Sclerotiniaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badet, Thomas; Peyraud, Rémi; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Fungal plant pathogens produce secreted proteins adapted to function outside fungal cells to facilitate colonization of their hosts. In many cases such as for fungi from the Sclerotiniaceae family the repertoire and function of secreted proteins remains elusive. In the Sclerotiniaceae, whereas Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are cosmopolitan broad host-range plant pathogens, Sclerotinia borealis has a psychrophilic lifestyle with a low optimal growth temperature, a narrow host range and geographic distribution. To spread successfully, S. borealis must synthesize proteins adapted to function in its specific environment. The search for signatures of adaptation to S. borealis lifestyle may therefore help revealing proteins critical for colonization of the environment by Sclerotiniaceae fungi. Here, we analyzed amino acids usage and intrinsic protein disorder in alignments of groups of orthologous proteins from the three Sclerotiniaceae species. We found that enrichment in Thr, depletion in Glu and Lys, and low disorder frequency in hot loops are significantly associated with S. borealis proteins. We designed an index to report bias in these properties and found that high index proteins were enriched among secreted proteins in the three Sclerotiniaceae fungi. High index proteins were also enriched in function associated with plant colonization in S. borealis, and in in planta-induced genes in S. sclerotiorum. We highlight a novel putative antifreeze protein and a novel putative lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase identified through our pipeline as candidate proteins involved in colonization of the environment. Our findings suggest that similar protein signatures associate with S. borealis lifestyle and with secretion in the Sclerotiniaceae. These signatures may be useful for identifying proteins of interest as targets for the management of plant diseases.

  4. Common protein sequence signatures associate with Sclerotinia borealis lifestyle and secretion in fungal pathogens of the Sclerotiniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eBadet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal plant pathogens produce secreted proteins adapted to function outside fungal cells to facilitate colonization of their hosts. In many cases such as for fungi from the Sclerotiniaceae family the repertoire and function of secreted proteins remains elusive. In the Sclerotiniaceae, whereas Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are cosmopolitan broad host-range plant pathogens, Sclerotinia borealis has a psychrophilic lifestyle with a low optimal growth temperature, a narrow host range and geographic distribution. To spread successfully, S. borealis must synthesize proteins adapted to function in its specific environment. The search for signatures of adaptation to S. borealis lifestyle may therefore help revealing proteins critical for colonization of the environment by Sclerotiniaceae fungi. Here, we analyzed amino acids usage and intrinsic protein disorder in alignments of groups of orthologous proteins from the three Sclerotiniaceae species. We found that enrichment in Thr, depletion in Glu and Lys, and low disorder frequency in hot loops are significantly associated with S. borealis proteins. We designed an index to report bias in these properties and found that high index proteins were enriched among secreted proteins in the three Sclerotiniaceae fungi. High index proteins were also enriched in function associated with plant colonization in S. borealis, and in in planta-induced genes in S. sclerotiorum. We highlight a novel putative antifreeze protein and a novel putative lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase identified through our pipeline as candidate proteins involved in colonization of the environment. Our findings suggest that similar protein signatures associate with S. borealis lifestyle and with secretion in the Sclerotiniaceae. These signatures may be useful for identifying proteins of interest as targets for the management of plant diseases.

  5. Dissection of an old protein reveals a novel application: domain D of Staphylococcus aureus Protein A (sSpAD as a secretion - tag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paal Michael

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli as a frequently utilized host organism for recombinant protein production offers different cellular locations with distinct qualities. The periplasmic space is often favored for the production of complex proteins due to enhanced disulfide bond formation, increased target product stability and simplified downstream processing. To direct proteins to the periplasmic space rather small proteinaceus tags that can be used for affinity purification would be advantageous. Results We discovered that domain D of the Staphylococcus aureus protein A was sufficient for the secretion of various target proteins into the periplasmic space of E. coli. Our experiments indicated the Sec pathway as the mode of secretion, although N-terminal processing was not observed. Furthermore, the solubility of recombinant fusion proteins was improved for proteins prone to aggregation. The tag allowed a straightforward affinity purification of recombinant fusion protein via an IgG column, which was exemplified for the target protein human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD. Conclusions In this work we present a new secretion tag that combines several advantages for the production of recombinant proteins in E. coli. Domain D of S. aureus protein A protects the protein of interest against N-terminal degradation, increases target protein solubility and enables a straight-forward purification of the recombinant protein using of IgG columns.

  6. The Ruler Protein EscP of the Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System Is Involved in Calcium Sensing and Secretion Hierarchy Regulation by Interacting with the Gatekeeper Protein SepL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihi Shaulov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system (T3SS is a multiprotein complex that plays a central role in the virulence of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. To ensure that effector proteins are efficiently translocated into the host cell, bacteria must be able to sense their contact with the host cell. In this study, we found that EscP, which was previously shown to function as the ruler protein of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli T3SS, is also involved in the switch from the secretion of translocator proteins to the secretion of effector proteins. In addition, we demonstrated that EscP can interact with the gatekeeper protein SepL and that the EscP-SepL complex dissociates upon a calcium concentration drop. We suggest a model in which bacterial contact with the host cell is accompanied by a drop in the calcium concentration that causes SepL-EscP complex dissociation and triggers the secretion of effector proteins.

  7. Inducing hair follicle neogenesis with secreted proteins enriched in embryonic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Sabrina Mai-Yi; Tsai, Chia-Feng; Yen, Chien-Mei; Lin, Miao-Hsia; Wang, Wei-Hung; Chan, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Chih-Lung; Phua, Kyle K L; Pan, Szu-Hua; Plikus, Maksim V; Yu, Sung-Liang; Chen, Yu-Ju; Lin, Sung-Jan

    2018-03-13

    Organ development is a sophisticated process of self-organization. However, despite growing understanding of the developmental mechanisms, little is known about how to reactivate them postnatally for regeneration. We found that treatment of adult non-hair fibroblasts with cell-free extract from embryonic skin conferred upon them the competency to regenerate hair follicles. Proteomics analysis identified three secreted proteins enriched in the embryonic skin, apolipoprotein-A1, galectin-1 and lumican that together were essential and sufficient to induce new hair follicles. These 3 proteins show a stage-specific co-enrichment in the perifolliculogenetic embryonic dermis. Mechanistically, exposure to embryonic skin extract or to the combination of the 3 proteins altered the gene expression to an inductive hair follicle dermal papilla fibroblast-like profile and activated Igf and Wnt signaling, which are crucial for the regeneration process. Therefore, a cocktail of organ-specific extracellular proteins from the embryonic environment can render adult cells competent to re-engage in developmental interactions for organ neogenesis. Identification of factors that recreate the extracellular context of respective developing tissues can become an important strategy to promote regeneration in adult organs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Proteins of the lactococcin A secretion system : lcnD encodes two in-frame proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varcamonti, M; Nicastro, G; Venema, G; Kok, J

    2001-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies were raised against LcnC and LcnD proteins of the Lactococcus lactis bacteriocin lactococcin A secretory system to examine their cellular location and interaction. Two major reacting bands were detected by Western immunoblot with the anti-LcnD antibody: one of 52 kDa (LcnD) and

  9. The Yersinia enterocolitica type three secretion chaperone SycO is integrated into the Yop regulatory network and binds to the Yop secretion protein YscM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heesemann Jürgen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogenic yersiniae (Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica share a virulence plasmid encoding a type three secretion system (T3SS. This T3SS comprises more than 40 constituents. Among these are the transport substrates called Yops (Yersinia outer proteins, the specific Yop chaperones (Sycs, and the Ysc (Yop secretion proteins which form the transport machinery. The effectors YopO and YopP are encoded on an operon together with SycO, the chaperone of YopO. The characterization of SycO is the focus of this study. Results We have established the large-scale production of recombinant SycO in its outright form. We confirm that Y. enterocolitica SycO forms homodimers which is typical for Syc chaperones. SycO overproduction in Y. enterocolitica decreases secretion of Yops into the culture supernatant suggesting a regulatory role of SycO in type III secretion. We demonstrate that in vitro SycO interacts with YscM1, a negative regulator of Yop expression in Y. enterocolitica. However, the SycO overproduction phenotype was not mediated by YscM1, YscM2, YopO or YopP as revealed by analysis of isogenic deletion mutants. Conclusion We present evidence that SycO is integrated into the regulatory network of the Yersinia T3SS. Our picture of the Yersinia T3SS interactome is supplemented by identification of the SycO/YscM1 interaction. Further, our results suggest that at least one additional interaction partner of SycO has to be identified.

  10. Pore-forming Activity of the Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System Protein EspD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Caballero-Franco, Celia; Bakker, Dannika; Totten, Stephanie; Jardim, Armando

    2015-10-16

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is a causative agent of gastrointestinal and diarrheal diseases. Pathogenesis associated with enterohemorrhagic E. coli involves direct delivery of virulence factors from the bacteria into epithelial cell cytosol via a syringe-like organelle known as the type III secretion system. The type III secretion system protein EspD is a critical factor required for formation of a translocation pore on the host cell membrane. Here, we show that recombinant EspD spontaneously integrates into large unilamellar vesicle (LUV) lipid bilayers; however, pore formation required incorporation of anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine and an acidic pH. Leakage assays performed with fluorescent dextrans confirmed that EspD formed a structure with an inner diameter of ∼2.5 nm. Protease mapping indicated that the two transmembrane helical hairpin of EspD penetrated the lipid layer positioning the N- and C-terminal domains on the extralumenal surface of LUVs. Finally, a combination of glutaraldehyde cross-linking and rate zonal centrifugation suggested that EspD in LUV membranes forms an ∼280-320-kDa oligomeric structure consisting of ∼6-7 subunits. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide induces CF-like alteration of protein secretion by human tracheal gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammouni, W; Figarella, C; Baeza, N; Marchand, S; Merten, M D

    1997-12-18

    Human tracheal gland (HTG) serous cells are now believed to play a major role in the physiopathology of cystic fibrosis. Because of the persistent inflammation and the specific infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lung, we looked for the action of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of this bacteria on human tracheal gland cells in culture by studying the secretion of the secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) which is a specific serous secretory marker of these cells. Treatment with Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in the basal production of SLPI (+ 250 +/- 25%) whilst the SLPI transcript mRNA levels remained unchanged. This LPS-induced increase in secretion was inhibited by glucocorticoides. Furthermore, LPS treatment of HTG cells induces a loss of responsiveness to carbachol and isoproterenol but not to adenosine triphosphate. These findings indicate that HTG cells treated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS have the same behavior as those previously observed with CF-HTG cells. Exploration by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification showed that LPS downregulated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mRNA expression in HTG cells indicative of a link between CFTR function and consequent CF-like alteration in protein secretory process.

  12. Conformation of protein secreted across bacterial outer membranes: a study of enterotoxin translocation from Vibrio cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, T.R.; Holmgren, J.

    1987-01-01

    The secretion of enterotoxin by Vibrio cholerae is punctuated by the transient entry of the toxin subunits into the periplasm. In this paper, the authors show that the subunits oligomerize into an assembled holotoxin within the periplasm prior to their secretion across the outer membrane. The rate of toxin assembly was studied by pulse-labeling cells with [ 35 S]-methionine and then monitoring the turnover of radiolabeled subunits as they assembled within the periplasm. The subunits entered the periplasm as monomers and assembled into oligomers with a half-time of ≅ 1 min. Since assembly was a rapid event compared to the rate of toxin efflux from the periplasm, which had a half-time of ≅ 13 min, they conclude that all of the subunits that pass through the periplasm assemble before they traverse the outer membrane. The average concentration of subunit monomers and assembled holotoxin within the periplasm was calculated to be ≅ 20 and ≅ 260 μg/ml, respectively. This indicates that the periplasm is a suitably concentrated milieu where spontaneous toxin assembly can occur. These findings suggest that protein movement across bacterial outer membranes, in apparent contrast to export across other biological membranes, involves translocation of polypeptides that have already folded into tertiary and even quaternary conformations

  13. Characterization of the ectodomain of the envelope protein of dengue virus type 4: expression, membrane association, secretion and particle formation in the absence of precursor membrane protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Chia Hsieh

    Full Text Available The envelope (E of dengue virus (DENV is the major target of neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development. After biosynthesis E protein forms a heterodimer with precursor membrane (prM protein. Recent reports of infection enhancement by anti-prM monoclonal antibodies (mAbs suggest anti-prM responses could be potentially harmful. Previously, we studied a series of C-terminal truncation constructs expressing DENV type 4 prM/E or E proteins and found the ectodomain of E protein alone could be recognized by all 12 mAbs tested, suggesting E protein ectodomain as a potential subunit immunogen without inducing anti-prM response. The characteristics of DENV E protein ectodomain in the absence of prM protein remains largely unknown.In this study, we investigated the expression, membrane association, glycosylation pattern, secretion and particle formation of E protein ectodomain of DENV4 in the presence or absence of prM protein. E protein ectodomain associated with membrane in or beyond trans-Golgi and contained primarily complex glycans, whereas full-length E protein associated with ER membrane and contained high mannose glycans. In the absence of prM protein, E protein ectodomain can secrete as well as form particles of approximately 49 nm in diameter, as revealed by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation with or without detergent and electron microscopy. Mutational analysis revealed that the secretion of E protein ectodomain was affected by N-linked glycosylation and could be restored by treatment with ammonia chloride.Considering the enhancement of DENV infectivity by anti-prM antibodies, our findings provide new insights into the expression and secretion of E protein ectodomain in the absence of prM protein and contribute to future subunit vaccine design.

  14. Secretion of Rhoptry and Dense Granule Effector Proteins by Nonreplicating Toxoplasma gondii Uracil Auxotrophs Controls the Development of Antitumor Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Barbara A.; Sanders, Kiah L.; Rommereim, Leah M.; Bzik, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Nonreplicating type I uracil auxotrophic mutants of Toxoplasma gondii possess a potent ability to activate therapeutic immunity to established solid tumors by reversing immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Here we engineered targeted deletions of parasite secreted effector proteins using a genetically tractable Δku80 vaccine strain to show that the secretion of specific rhoptry (ROP) and dense granule (GRA) proteins by uracil auxotrophic mutants of T. gondii in conjunction with host cell invasion activates antitumor immunity through host responses involving CD8α+ dendritic cells, the IL-12/interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) TH1 axis, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Deletion of parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) associated proteins ROP5, ROP17, ROP18, ROP35 or ROP38, intravacuolar network associated dense granule proteins GRA2 or GRA12, and GRA24 which traffics past the PVM to the host cell nucleus severely abrogated the antitumor response. In contrast, deletion of other secreted effector molecules such as GRA15, GRA16, or ROP16 that manipulate host cell signaling and transcriptional pathways, or deletion of PVM associated ROP21 or GRA3 molecules did not affect the antitumor activity. Association of ROP18 with the PVM was found to be essential for the development of the antitumor responses. Surprisingly, the ROP18 kinase activity required for resistance to IFN-γ activated host innate immunity related GTPases and virulence was not essential for the antitumor response. These data show that PVM functions of parasite secreted effector molecules, including ROP18, manipulate host cell responses through ROP18 kinase virulence independent mechanisms to activate potent antitumor responses. Our results demonstrate that PVM associated rhoptry effector proteins secreted prior to host cell invasion and dense granule effector proteins localized to the intravacuolar network and host nucleus that are secreted after host cell invasion coordinately control the

  15. Reduced glucose-induced insulin secretion in low-protein-fed rats is associated with altered pancreatic islets redox status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Ana Paula G; Zoppi, Claudio C; Silveira, Leonardo R; Batista, Thiago M; Paula, Flávia M; da Silva, Priscilla M R; Rafacho, Alex; Barbosa-Sampaio, Helena C; Boschero, Antonio C; Carneiro, Everardo M

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between early life protein malnutrition-induced redox imbalance, and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. After weaning, male Wistar rats were submitted to a normal-protein-diet (17%-protein, NP) or to a low-protein-diet (6%-protein, LP) for 60 days. Pancreatic islets were isolated and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), oxidized (GSSG) and reduced (GSH) glutathione content, CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) and catalase (CAT) gene expression, as well as enzymatic antioxidant activities were quantified. Islets that were pre-incubated with H 2 O 2 and/or N-acetylcysteine, were subsequently incubated with glucose for insulin secretion measurement. Protein malnutrition increased CAT mRNA content by 100%. LP group SOD1 and CAT activities were 50% increased and reduced, respectively. H 2 O 2 production was more than 50% increased whereas GSH/GSSG ratio was near 60% lower in LP group. Insulin secretion was, in most conditions, approximately 50% lower in LP rat islets. When islets were pre-incubated with H 2 O 2 (100 μM), and incubated with glucose (33 mM), LP rats showed significant decrease of insulin secretion. This effect was attenuated when LP islets were exposed to N-acetylcysteine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Improved protein synthesis and secretion through medium enrichment in a stable recombinant yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Da Silva, N A

    1993-06-05

    Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were employed to investigate the effects of medium enrichment on the expression and secretion of a recombinant protein. One was a stable autoselection strain with mutations in the ura3, fur1, and urid-k genes. The combination of these three mutations blocks both the pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthetic and salvage pathways and is lethal to the cells. Retention of the plasmid, which carries a URA3 gene, was essential for cell viability. Therefore, all media were selective, allowing cultivation of the strain in complex medium. The second strain was a nonautoselection (control) strain and is isogenic to the first except for the fur1 and urid-k mutations. The plasmid utilized contains the yeast invertase gene under the control of the MFalpha1 promoter and leader sequence. The expression and secretion of invertase for the autoselection strain were examined in batch culture for three media: a minimal medium (SD), a semidefined medium (SDC), and a rich complex medium (YPD). Biomass yields and invertase productivity (volumetric activity) increased with the complexity of the medium; total invertase volumetric activity in YPD was 100% higher than in SDC and 180% higher than in SD. Specific activity, however, was lowest in the SDC medium. Secretion efficiency was extremely high in all three media; for the majority of the culture, 80-90% of the invertase was secreted into the periplasmic space and/or culture medium. A glucose pulse at the end of batch culture in YPD facilitated the transport of residual cytoplasmic invertase. For the nonautoselection strain, invertase productivity did not improve as the medium was enriched from SDC to YPD, and plasmid stability in the complex YPD medium dropped from 54% to 34% during one batch fermentation. During long-term sequential batch culture in YPD, invertase activity decreased by 90% and the plasmid-containing fraction dropped from 56% to 8.8% over 44 generations of growth. The expression level for

  17. Correlating levels of type III secretion and secreted proteins with fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V K; Sacco, R E; Kunkle, R A; Bearson, S M D; Palmquist, D E

    2012-04-01

    The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS) for secreting LEE-encoded and non-LEE-encoded virulence proteins that promote the adherence of O157 to intestinal epithelial cells and the persistence of this food-borne human pathogen in bovine intestines. In this study, we compared hha sepB and hha mutants of O157 for LEE transcription, T3SS activity, adherence to HEp-2 cells, persistence in bovine intestines, and the ability to induce changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. LEE transcription was upregulated in the hha sepB and hha mutant strains compared to that in the wild-type strain, but the secretion of virulence proteins in the hha sepB mutant was severely compromised. This reduced secretion resulted in reduced adherence of the hha sepB mutant to Hep-2 cells, correlating with a significantly shorter duration and lower magnitude of fecal shedding in feces of weaned (n = 4 per group) calves inoculated with this mutant strain. The levels of LEE transcription, T3SS activity, and adherence to HEp-2 cells were much lower in the wild-type strain than in the hha mutant, but no significant differences were observed in the duration or the magnitude of fecal shedding in calves inoculated with these strains. Examination of the rectoanal junction (RAJ) tissues from three groups of calves showed no adherent O157 bacteria and similar proinflammatory cytokine gene expression, irrespective of the inoculated strain, with the exception that interleukin-1β was upregulated in calves inoculated with the hha sepB mutant. These results indicate that the T3SS is essential for intestinal colonization and prolonged shedding, but increased secretion of virulence proteins did not enhance the duration and magnitude of fecal shedding of O157 in cattle or have any significant impact on the cytokine gene expression in RAJ tissue compared with that in small intestinal tissue from the same calves.

  18. Hepatic metabolism of 11C-methionine and secretion of 11C-protein measured by PET in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsager, Jacob; Lausten, Susanne Bach; Bender, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    -proteins in arterial plasma was measured during the experiment. There were no statistically significant differences between the laparotomy group and the pneumoperitoneum group in any of the calculated parameters. Average mean hepatic systemic metabolic clearance Kmet was 0.212 mL plasma/mL liver tissue/min, secretion...... and that of liver tissue 11C-concentration as output function in an extended Patlak analysis that accounted for irreversible metabolism of 11C-methionine (hepatic systemic metabolic clearance Kmet) and secretion of 11C-protein + 11C-metabolites into blood (rate constant kloss). Appearance of 11C...

  19. Efficient secretion of human lysozyme fused to the Sh ble phleomycin resistance protein by the fungus Tolypocladium geodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, M; Tiraby, G; Calmels, T; Parriche, M; Durand, H

    1992-07-01

    Tolypocladium geodes strain NC50 was transformed by different integrating vectors bearing both a synthetic gene encoding human lysozyme (HLz) and the Sh ble phleomycin resistance marker, either in separate expression cassettes or in transcriptional or translational fusion configurations. Clones derived from all vectors were able to secrete HLz. The highest productivities in shake flasks (up to 150 mg l-1 in 5 days) were obtained when HLz was fused at the C-terminal end of the Sh ble protein. The fusion protein is efficiently secreted and release of active lysozyme occurs by extracellular proteolytic cleavage in the junction peptide.

  20. Autoradiographic and cytochemical studies on the intracellular transport of secreted proteins in the lacrimal ducts (glandula extraorbitalis) of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.

    1982-01-01

    Azini was isolated from the glandula lacrimalis of the rat. Its vitality was proven by oxygen use measurements. In autoradiographic studies isolated Azini was marked with L-(4,5- 3 H)-leucine and fixed at various times thereafter. The light microscopic autoradiography showed a time dependent distribution of the silver grains whose association with membrane-enclosed compartments made the electron microscopic autoradiography possible. This distribution allows an analysis of the kinetics of the intracellular transport of secreted proteins. Because of its limited spatial resolution the autoradiographic research methods were combined with the cytochemical presentation of the peroxidase, a secreted protein, of the lacrimal duct. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Comparative analysis of twin-arginine (Tat)-dependent protein secretion of a heterologous model protein (GFP) in three different Gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Daniel; Vollstedt, Angela; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Freudl, Roland

    In contrast to the general protein secretion (Sec) system, the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) export pathway allows the translocation of proteins across the bacterial plasma membrane in a fully folded conformation. Due to this feature, the Tat pathway provides an attractive alternative to the

  2. Secreted frizzled-related protein 1 regulates adipose tissue expansion and is dysregulated in severe obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagathu, Claire; Christodoulides, Constantinos; Tan, Chong Yew; Virtue, Sam; Laudes, Matthias; Campbell, Mark; Ishikawa, Ko; Ortega, Francisco; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Fernández-Real, Jose-Manuel; Orešič, Matej; Sethi, Jaswinder K.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Aim The Wnt/β-catenin signalling network offers potential targets to diagnose and uncouple obesity from its metabolic complications. Here we investigate the role of the Wnt antagonist, secreted Frizzled related protein 1 (SFRP1) in promoting adipogenesis in vitro and adipose tissue expansion in vivo. Methods We use a combination of human and murine, in vivo and in vitro models of adipogenesis, adipose tissue expansion and obesity-related metabolic syndrome to profile the involvement of SFRP1. Results Secreted Frizzled related protein 1 (SFRP1) is expressed in both murine and human mature adipocytes. The expression of SFRP1 is induced during in vitro adipogenesis and SFRP1 is preferentially expressed in mature adipocytes in human adipose tissue. Constitutive ectopic expression of SFRP1 is proadipogenic and inhibits the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway. In vivo endogenous levels of adipose SFRP1 are regulated in line with proadipogenic states. However, in longitudinal studies of high fat diet-fed mice we observed a dynamic temporal but biphasic regulation of endogenous SFRP1. In agreement with this profile we observed that SFRP1 expression in human tissues peaks in patients with mild obesity and gradually falls in morbidly obese subjects. Conclusions Our results suggest that SFRP1 is an endogenous modulator of Wnt/β-catenin signalling and participates in the paracrine regulation of human adipogenesis. The reduced adipose expression of SFRP1 in morbid obesity and its knock-on effect to prevent further adipose tissue expansion may contribute to the development of metabolic complications in these individuals. PMID:20514047

  3. Chlamydial Type III Secretion System Needle Protein Induces Protective Immunity against Chlamydia muridarum Intravaginal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A. Koroleva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis imposes serious health problems and causes infertility. Because of asymptomatic onset, it often escapes antibiotic treatment. Therefore, vaccines offer a better option for the prevention of unwanted inflammatory sequelae. The existence of serologically distinct serovars of C. trachomatis suggests that a vaccine will need to provide protection against multiple serovars. Chlamydia spp. use a highly conserved type III secretion system (T3SS composed of structural and effector proteins which is an essential virulence factor. In this study, we expressed the T3SS needle protein of Chlamydia muridarum, TC_0037, an ortholog of C. trachomatis CdsF, in a replication-defective adenoviral vector (AdTC_0037 and evaluated its protective efficacy in an intravaginal Chlamydia muridarum model. For better immune responses, we employed a heterologous prime-boost immunization protocol in which mice were intranasally primed with AdTC_0037 and subcutaneously boosted with recombinant TC_0037 and Toll-like receptor 4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A mixed in a squalene nanoscale emulsion. We found that immunization with TC_0037 antigen induced specific humoral and T cell responses, decreased Chlamydia loads in the genital tract, and abrogated pathology of upper genital organs. Together, our results suggest that TC_0037, a highly conserved chlamydial T3SS protein, is a good candidate for inclusion in a Chlamydia vaccine.

  4. Lateral gene transfer of streptococcal ICE element RD2 (region of difference 2 encoding secreted proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mereghetti Laurent

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of serotype M28 group A Streptococcus (GAS strain MGAS6180 contains a novel genetic element named Region of Difference 2 (RD2 that encodes seven putative secreted extracellular proteins. RD2 is present in all serotype M28 strains and strains of several other GAS serotypes associated with female urogenital infections. We show here that the GAS RD2 element is present in strain MGAS6180 both as an integrative chromosomal form and a circular extrachromosomal element. RD2-like regions were identified in publicly available genome sequences of strains representing three of the five major group B streptococcal serotypes causing human disease. Ten RD2-encoded proteins have significant similarity to proteins involved in conjugative transfer of Streptococcus thermophilus integrative chromosomal elements (ICEs. Results We transferred RD2 from GAS strain MGAS6180 (serotype M28 to serotype M1 and M4 GAS strains by filter mating. The copy number of the RD2 element was rapidly and significantly increased following treatment of strain MGAS6180 with mitomycin C, a DNA damaging agent. Using a PCR-based method, we also identified RD2-like regions in multiple group C and G strains of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp.equisimilis cultured from invasive human infections. Conclusions Taken together, the data indicate that the RD2 element has disseminated by lateral gene transfer to genetically diverse strains of human-pathogenic streptococci.

  5. A Novel Secreted Protein, MYR1, Is Central to Toxoplasma’s Manipulation of Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Franco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii dramatically reprograms the transcriptome of host cells it infects, including substantially up-regulating the host oncogene c-myc. By applying a flow cytometry-based selection to infected mouse cells expressing green fluorescent protein fused to c-Myc (c-Myc–GFP, we isolated mutant tachyzoites defective in this host c-Myc up-regulation. Whole-genome sequencing of three such mutants led to the identification of MYR1 (Myc regulation 1; TGGT1_254470 as essential for c-Myc induction. MYR1 is a secreted protein that requires TgASP5 to be cleaved into two stable portions, both of which are ultimately found within the parasitophorous vacuole and at the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. Deletion of MYR1 revealed that in addition to its requirement for c-Myc up-regulation, the MYR1 protein is needed for the ability of Toxoplasma tachyzoites to modulate several other important host pathways, including those mediated by the dense granule effectors GRA16 and GRA24. This result, combined with its location at the parasitophorous vacuole membrane, suggested that MYR1 might be a component of the machinery that translocates Toxoplasma effectors from the parasitophorous vacuole into the host cytosol. Support for this possibility was obtained by showing that transit of GRA24 to the host nucleus is indeed MYR1-dependent. As predicted by this pleiotropic phenotype, parasites deficient in MYR1 were found to be severely attenuated in a mouse model of infection. We conclude, therefore, that MYR1 is a novel protein that plays a critical role in how Toxoplasma delivers effector proteins to the infected host cell and that this is crucial to virulence.

  6. EspZ of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli regulates type III secretion system protein translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Cedric N; Crepin, Valerie F; Baruch, Kobi; Mousnier, Aurelie; Rosenshine, Ilan; Frankel, Gad

    2012-01-01

    Translocation of effector proteins via a type III secretion system (T3SS) is a widespread infection strategy among Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Each pathogen translocates a particular set of effectors that subvert cell signaling in a way that suits its particular infection cycle. However, as effector unbalance might lead to cytotoxicity, the pathogens must employ mechanisms that regulate the intracellular effector concentration. We present evidence that the effector EspZ controls T3SS effector translocation from enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli. Consistently, an EPEC espZ mutant is highly cytotoxic. Following ectopic expression, we found that EspZ inhibited the formation of actin pedestals as it blocked the translocation of Tir, as well as other effectors, including Map and EspF. Moreover, during infection EspZ inhibited effector translocation following superinfection. Importantly, while EspZ of EHEC O157:H7 had a universal "translocation stop" activity, EspZ of EPEC inhibited effector translocation from typical EPEC strains but not from EHEC O157:H7 or its progenitor, atypical EPEC O55:H7. We found that the N and C termini of EspZ, which contains two transmembrane domains, face the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane at the site of bacterial attachment, while the extracellular loop of EspZ is responsible for its strain-specific activity. These results show that EPEC and EHEC acquired a sophisticated mechanism to regulate the effector translocation. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are important diarrheal pathogens responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries and the developed world, respectively. The virulence strategy of EPEC and EHEC revolves around a conserved type III secretion system (T3SS), which translocates bacterial proteins known as effectors directly into host cells. Previous studies have shown that when cells are infected in two

  7. Genes encoding novel secreted and transmembrane proteins are temporally and spatially regulated during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Mauricio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphogenetic events that shape the Drosophila melanogaster embryo are tightly controlled by a genetic program in which specific sets of genes are up-regulated. We used a suppressive subtractive hybridization procedure to identify a group of developmentally regulated genes during early stages of D. melanogaster embryogenesis. We studied the spatiotemporal activity of these genes in five different intervals covering 12 stages of embryogenesis. Results Microarrays were constructed to confirm induction of expression and to determine the temporal profile of isolated subtracted cDNAs during embryo development. We identified a set of 118 genes whose expression levels increased significantly in at least one developmental interval compared with a reference interval. Of these genes, 53% had a phenotype and/or molecular function reported in the literature, whereas 47% were essentially uncharacterized. Clustering analysis revealed demarcated transcript groups with maximum gene activity at distinct developmental intervals. In situ hybridization assays were carried out on 23 uncharacterized genes, 15 of which proved to have spatiotemporally restricted expression patterns. Among these 15 uncharacterized genes, 13 were found to encode putative secreted and transmembrane proteins. For three of them we validated our protein sequence predictions by expressing their cDNAs in Drosophila S2R+ cells and analyzed the subcellular distribution of recombinant proteins. We then focused on the functional characterization of the gene CG6234. Inhibition of CG6234 by RNA interference resulted in morphological defects in embryos, suggesting the involvement of this gene in germ band retraction. Conclusion Our data have yielded a list of developmentally regulated D. melanogaster genes and their expression profiles during embryogenesis and provide new information on the spatiotemporal expression patterns of several uncharacterized genes. In particular, we

  8. Genes encoding novel secreted and transmembrane proteins are temporally and spatially regulated during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Alejandro; Hödar, Christian; Hanna, Patricia; Ibáñez, Freddy; Moreno, Pablo; Pulgar, Rodrigo; Pastenes, Luis; González, Mauricio; Cambiazo, Verónica

    2009-09-22

    Morphogenetic events that shape the Drosophila melanogaster embryo are tightly controlled by a genetic program in which specific sets of genes are up-regulated. We used a suppressive subtractive hybridization procedure to identify a group of developmentally regulated genes during early stages of D. melanogaster embryogenesis. We studied the spatiotemporal activity of these genes in five different intervals covering 12 stages of embryogenesis. Microarrays were constructed to confirm induction of expression and to determine the temporal profile of isolated subtracted cDNAs during embryo development. We identified a set of 118 genes whose expression levels increased significantly in at least one developmental interval compared with a reference interval. Of these genes, 53% had a phenotype and/or molecular function reported in the literature, whereas 47% were essentially uncharacterized. Clustering analysis revealed demarcated transcript groups with maximum gene activity at distinct developmental intervals. In situ hybridization assays were carried out on 23 uncharacterized genes, 15 of which proved to have spatiotemporally restricted expression patterns. Among these 15 uncharacterized genes, 13 were found to encode putative secreted and transmembrane proteins. For three of them we validated our protein sequence predictions by expressing their cDNAs in Drosophila S2R+ cells and analyzed the subcellular distribution of recombinant proteins. We then focused on the functional characterization of the gene CG6234. Inhibition of CG6234 by RNA interference resulted in morphological defects in embryos, suggesting the involvement of this gene in germ band retraction. Our data have yielded a list of developmentally regulated D. melanogaster genes and their expression profiles during embryogenesis and provide new information on the spatiotemporal expression patterns of several uncharacterized genes. In particular, we recovered a substantial number of unknown genes encoding

  9. Generation and evaluation of mammalian secreted and membrane protein expression libraries for high-throughput target discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panavas, Tadas; Lu, Jin; Liu, Xuesong; Winkis, Ann-Marie; Powers, Gordon; Naso, Michael F; Amegadzie, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Expressed protein libraries are becoming a critical tool for new target discovery in the pharmaceutical industry. In order to get the most meaningful and comprehensive results from protein library screens, it is essential to have library proteins in their native conformation with proper post-translation modifications. This goal is achieved by expressing untagged human proteins in a human cell background. We optimized the transfection and cell culture conditions to maximize protein expression in a 96-well format so that the expression levels were comparable with the levels observed in shake flasks. For detection purposes, we engineered a 'tag after stop codon' system. Depending on the expression conditions, it was possible to express either native or tagged proteins from the same expression vector set. We created a human secretion protein library of 1432 candidates and a small plasma membrane protein set of about 500 candidates. Utilizing the optimized expression conditions, we expressed and analyzed both libraries by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. Two thirds of secreted proteins could be detected by Western-blot analyses; almost half of them were visible on Coomassie stained gels. In this paper, we describe protein expression libraries that can be easily produced in mammalian expression systems in a 96-well format, with one protein expressed per well. The libraries and methods described allow for the development of robust, high-throughput functional screens designed to assay for protein specific functions associated with a relevant disease-specific activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Secretion of the endoplasmic reticulum stress protein, GRP78, into the BALF is increased in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Mark O; Kim, Victor; Cornwell, William D; Rogers, Thomas J; Kosmider, Beata; Bahmed, Karim; Barrero, Carlos; Merali, Salim; Shetty, Neena; Kelsen, Steven G

    2017-05-02

    Identification of biomarkers of cigarette smoke -induced lung damage and early COPD is an area of intense interest. Glucose regulated protein of 78 kD (i.e., GRP78), a multi-functional protein which mediates cell responses to oxidant stress, is increased in the lungs of cigarette smokers and in the serum of subjects with COPD. We have suggested that secretion of GRP78 by lung cells may explain the increase in serum GRP78 in COPD. To assess GRP78 secretion by the lung, we assayed GRP78 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in chronic smokers and non-smokers. We also directly assessed the acute effect of cigarette smoke material on GRP78 secretion in isolated human airway epithelial cells (HAEC). GRP78 was measured in BALF of smokers (S; n = 13) and non-smokers (NS; n = 11) by Western blotting. GRP78 secretion by HAEC was assessed by comparing its concentration in cell culture medium and cell lysates. Cells were treated for 24 h with either the volatile phase of cigarette smoke (cigarette smoke extract (CSE) or the particulate phase (cigarette smoke condensate (CSC)). GRP78 was present in the BALF of both NS and S but levels were significantly greater in S (p = 0.04). GRP78 was secreted constitutively in HAEC. CSE 15% X 24 h increased GRP78 in cell-conditioned medium without affecting its intracellular concentration. In contrast, CSC X 24 h increased intracellular GRP78 expression but did not affect GRP78 secretion. Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of classical Golgi secretion pathways, did not inhibit GRP78 secretion indicating that non-classical pathways were involved. The present study indicates that GRP78 is increased in BALF in cigarette smokers; that HAEC secrete GRP78; and that GRP78 secretion by HAEC is augmented by cigarette smoke particulates. Enhanced secretion of GRP78 by lung cells makes it a potential biomarker of cigarette smoke-induced lung injury.

  11. Characterization of secreted proteins of 2-cell mouse embryos cultured in vitro to the blastocyst stage with and without protein supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Tanya; Yu, Liang; Nyalwidhe, Julius; Horcajadas, Jose A; Bocca, Silvina; Swanson, R James; Oehninger, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    To identify the secreted proteins of murine embryos grown in vitro. Two-cell mouse embryos (n=432) were randomly allocated to culture to the blastocyst stage in protein-free and in protein-supplemented (3 % BSA) media. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE; bands were visualized by coomassie staining, followed by in-gel trypsin digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RT-PCR and confocal microscopy were used to confirm gene/protein expression in blastocysts. Of all individually identified proteins, 34 and 23 were found in embryos cultured without and with BSA, respectively, and 20 were common. Identified proteins having an N-terminal secretory sequence or transmembrane domains located on the extracellular backbone were postulated as secreted proteins. Gene and protein expression for two selected molecules were confirmed. Functional analysis revealed over-represented processes related to lipid metabolism, cyclase activity, and cell adhesion/membrane functions. This study provided evidence to further characterize secreted proteins by mouse embryos grown from the 2-cell to the blastocyst stage in vitro. Because of homology between murine and human, these results may provide information to be translated to the clinical setting.

  12. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine is a matrix scavenger chaperone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Chlenski

    Full Text Available Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC is one of the major non-structural proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM in remodeling tissues. The functional significance of SPARC is emphasized by its origin in the first multicellular organisms and its high degree of evolutionary conservation. Although SPARC has been shown to act as a critical modulator of ECM remodeling with profound effects on tissue physiology and architecture, no plausible molecular mechanism of its action has been proposed. In the present study, we demonstrate that SPARC mediates the disassembly and degradation of ECM networks by functioning as a matricellular chaperone. While it has low affinity to its targets inside the cells where the Ca(2+ concentrations are low, high extracellular concentrations of Ca(2+ activate binding to multiple ECM proteins, including collagens. We demonstrated that in vitro, this leads to the inhibition of collagen I fibrillogenesis and disassembly of pre-formed collagen I fibrils by SPARC at high Ca(2+ concentrations. In cell culture, exogenous SPARC was internalized by the fibroblast cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Pulse-chase assay further revealed that internalized SPARC is quickly released outside the cell, demonstrating that SPARC shuttles between the cell and ECM. Fluorescently labeled collagen I, fibronectin, vitronectin, and laminin were co-internalized with SPARC by fibroblasts, and semi-quantitative Western blot showed that SPARC mediates internalization of collagen I. Using a novel 3-dimensional model of fluorescent ECM networks pre-deposited by live fibroblasts, we demonstrated that degradation of ECM depends on the chaperone activity of SPARC. These results indicate that SPARC may represent a new class of scavenger chaperones, which mediate ECM degradation, remodeling and repair by disassembling ECM networks and shuttling ECM proteins into the cell. Further understanding of this mechanism may provide

  13. New Cysteine-Rich Ice-Binding Protein Secreted from Antarctic Microalga, Chloromonas sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woongsic; Campbell, Robert L; Gwak, Yunho; Kim, Jong Im; Davies, Peter L; Jin, EonSeon

    2016-01-01

    Many microorganisms in Antarctica survive in the cold environment there by producing ice-binding proteins (IBPs) to control the growth of ice around them. An IBP from the Antarctic freshwater microalga, Chloromonas sp., was identified and characterized. The length of the Chloromonas sp. IBP (ChloroIBP) gene was 3.2 kb with 12 exons, and the molecular weight of the protein deduced from the ChloroIBP cDNA was 34.0 kDa. Expression of the ChloroIBP gene was up- and down-regulated by freezing and warming conditions, respectively. Western blot analysis revealed that native ChloroIBP was secreted into the culture medium. This protein has fifteen cysteines and is extensively disulfide bonded as shown by in-gel mobility shifts between oxidizing and reducing conditions. The open-reading frame of ChloroIBP was cloned and over-expressed in Escherichia coli to investigate the IBP's biochemical characteristics. Recombinant ChloroIBP produced as a fusion protein with thioredoxin was purified by affinity chromatography and formed single ice crystals of a dendritic shape with a thermal hysteresis activity of 0.4±0.02°C at a concentration of 5 mg/ml. In silico structural modeling indicated that the three-dimensional structure of ChloroIBP was that of a right-handed β-helix. Site-directed mutagenesis of ChloroIBP showed that a conserved region of six parallel T-X-T motifs on the β-2 face was the ice-binding region, as predicted from the model. In addition to disulfide bonding, hydrophobic interactions between inward-pointing residues on the β-1 and β-2 faces, in the region of ice-binding motifs, were crucial to maintaining the structural conformation of ice-binding site and the ice-binding activity of ChloroIBP.

  14. AUP1 (Ancient Ubiquitous Protein 1) Is a Key Determinant of Hepatic Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Assembly and Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zamani, Mostafa; Thiele, Christoph; Taher, Jennifer; Amir Alipour, Mohsen; Yao, Zemin; Adeli, Khosrow

    2017-04-01

    AUP1 (ancient ubiquitous protein 1) is an endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein that also localizes to the surface of lipid droplets (LDs), with dual role in protein quality control and LD regulation. Here, we investigated the role of AUP1 in hepatic lipid mobilization and demonstrate critical roles in intracellular biogenesis of apoB100 (apolipoprotein B-100), LD mobilization, and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly and secretion. APPROACH AND RESULTS: siRNA (short/small interfering RNA) knockdown of AUP1 significantly increased secretion of VLDL-sized apoB100-containing particles from HepG2 cells, correcting a key metabolic defect in these cells that normally do not secrete much VLDL. Secreted particles contained higher levels of metabolically labeled triglyceride, and AUP1-deficient cells displayed a larger average size of LDs, suggesting a role for AUP1 in lipid mobilization. Importantly, AUP1 was also found to directly interact with apoB100, and this interaction was enhanced with proteasomal inhibition. Knockdown of AUP1 reduced apoB100 ubiquitination, decreased intracellular degradation of newly synthesized apoB100, and enhanced extracellular apoB100 secretion. Interestingly, the stimulatory effect of AUP1 knockdown on VLDL assembly was reminiscent of the effect previously observed after MEK-ERK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase) inhibition; however, further studies indicated that the AUP1 effect was independent of MEK-ERK signaling. In summary, our findings reveal an important role for AUP1 as a regulator of apoB100 stability, hepatic LD metabolism, and intracellular lipidation of VLDL particles. AUP1 may be a crucial factor in apoB100 quality control, determining the rate at which apoB100 is degraded or lipidated to enable VLDL particle assembly and secretion. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Secretion of whey acidic protein and cystatin is down regulated at mid-lactation in the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K.R.; Fisher, J.A.; Muths, E.; Trott, J.; Janssens, P.A.; Reich, C.; Shaw, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    Milk collected from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) between day 100 and 260 of lactation showed major changes in milk composition at around day 200 of lactation, the time at which the pouch young begins to temporarily exit the pouch and eat herbage. The carbohydrate content of milk declined abruptly at this time and although there was only a small increase in total protein content, SDS PAGE analysis of milk revealed asynchrony in the secretory pattern of individual proteins. The levels of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, serum albumin and transferrin remain unchanged during lactation. In contrast, the protease inhibitor cystatin, and the putative protease inhibitor whey acidic protein (WAP) first appeared in milk at elevated concentrations after approximately 150 days of lactation and then ceased to be secreted at approximately 200 days. In addition, a major whey protein, late lactation protein, was first detected in milk around the time whey acidic protein and cystatin cease to be secreted and was present at least until day 260 of lactation. The co-ordinated, but asynchronous secretion of putative protease inhibitors in milk may have several roles during lactation including tissue remodelling in the mammary gland and protecting specific proteins in milk required for physiological development of the dependent young.

  16. The canonical twin-arginine translocase components are not required for secretion of folded green fluorescent protein from the ancestral strain of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Anthony J; Mukherjee, Sampriti; Glass, J Kyle; Kearns, Daniel B; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana

    2014-05-01

    Cellular processes, such as the digestion of macromolecules, phosphate acquisition, and cell motility, require bacterial secretion systems. In Bacillus subtilis, the predominant protein export pathways are Sec (generalized secretory pathway) and Tat (twin-arginine translocase). Unlike Sec, which secretes unfolded proteins, the Tat machinery secretes fully folded proteins across the plasma membrane and into the medium. Proteins are directed for Tat-dependent export by N-terminal signal peptides that contain a conserved twin-arginine motif. Thus, utilizing the Tat secretion system by fusing a Tat signal peptide is an attractive strategy for the production and export of heterologous proteins. As a proof of concept, we expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the PhoD Tat signal peptide in the laboratory and ancestral strains of B. subtilis. Secretion of the Tat-GFP construct, as well as secretion of proteins in general, was substantially increased in the ancestral strain. Furthermore, our results show that secreted, fluorescent GFP could be purified directly from the extracellular medium. Nonetheless, export was not dependent on the known Tat secretion components or the signal peptide twin-arginine motif. We propose that the ancestral strain contains additional Tat components and/or secretion regulators that were abrogated following domestication.

  17. Comparison of soy-protein and egg albumin on endogenously secreted zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberleas, D.; Smith, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Male albino rats (Charles River) were maintained on a basal soy-protein diet, unsupplemented with Zn and with 1.6% Ca for 4 weeks [Ca][Phy]/[Zn] = 9.4(molar). Animals were subdivided in 2 expts. between soy-protein 0.8% Ca, 11.24 mg Zn/Kg diet [4.2(molar)] or 1.6% Ca, 11.21 mg Zn/Kg [9.4(molar)] and egg albumin 0.8% Ca, 0.46 mg Zn/Kg diet and 1.6% Ca, 0.37 mg Zn/Kg diet at which time each animal was injected with 10 μCi 65 Zn. Daily fecal collections were made for 14 days and ratios of 65 Zn Soy:Egg alb. calculated. The very low concentration of Zn in the egg albumin diet restricted the pancreatic secretion of Zn and the differential effect of phytate on these diets was not apparent as shown earlier with soy and casein diets. This was also reflected in the growth rates of the exptl. groups in that the egg albumin fed rats gained -4.4 and -9.0 g/wk; soy fed rats gained 28.0 and 17.3 g/wk

  18. Aberrant expression and secretion of heat shock protein 90 in patients with bullous pemphigoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Tukaj

    Full Text Available The cell stress chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 has been implicated in inflammatory responses and its inhibition has proven successful in different mouse models of autoimmune diseases, including epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Here, we investigated expression levels and secretory responses of Hsp90 in patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, the most common subepidermal autoimmune blistering skin disease. In comparison to healthy controls, the following observations were made: (i Hsp90 was highly expressed in the skin of BP patients, whereas its serum levels were decreased and inversely associated with IgG autoantibody levels against the NC16A immunodominant region of the BP180 autoantigen, (ii in contrast, neither aberrant levels of circulating Hsp90 nor any correlation of this protein with serum autoantibodies was found in a control cohort of autoimmune bullous disease patients with pemphigus vulgaris, (iii Hsp90 was highly expressed in and restrictedly released from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of BP patients, and (iv Hsp90 was potently induced in and restrictedly secreted from human keratinocyte (HaCaT cells by BP serum and isolated anti-BP180 NC16A IgG autoantibodies, respectively. Our results reveal an upregulated Hsp90 expression at the site of inflammation and an autoantibody-mediated dysregulation of the intracellular and extracellular distribution of this chaperone in BP patients. These findings suggest that Hsp90 may play a pathophysiological role and represent a novel potential treatment target in BP.

  19. Actin Cytoskeleton Manipulation by Effector Proteins Secreted by Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Navarro-Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure necessary for cell and tissue organization, including the maintenance of epithelial barriers. Disruption of the epithelial barrier coincides with alterations of the actin cytoskeleton in several disease states. These disruptions primarily affect the paracellular space, which is normally regulated by tight junctions. Thereby, the actin cytoskeleton is a common and recurring target of bacterial virulence factors. In order to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton, bacteria secrete and inject toxins and effectors to hijack the host cell machinery, which interferes with host-cell pathways and with a number of actin binding proteins. An interesting model to study actin manipulation by bacterial effectors is Escherichia coli since due to its genome plasticity it has acquired diverse genetic mobile elements, which allow having different E. coli varieties in one bacterial species. These E. coli pathotypes, including intracellular and extracellular bacteria, interact with epithelial cells, and their interactions depend on a specific combination of virulence factors. In this paper we focus on E. coli effectors that mimic host cell proteins to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton. The study of bacterial effector-cytoskeleton interaction will contribute not only to the comprehension of the molecular causes of infectious diseases but also to increase our knowledge of cell biology.

  20. Actin Cytoskeleton Manipulation by Effector Proteins Secreted by Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Serapio-Palacios, Antonio; Ugalde-Silva, Paul; Tapia-Pastrana, Gabriela; Chavez-Dueñas, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure necessary for cell and tissue organization, including the maintenance of epithelial barriers. Disruption of the epithelial barrier coincides with alterations of the actin cytoskeleton in several disease states. These disruptions primarily affect the paracellular space, which is normally regulated by tight junctions. Thereby, the actin cytoskeleton is a common and recurring target of bacterial virulence factors. In order to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton, bacteria secrete and inject toxins and effectors to hijack the host cell machinery, which interferes with host-cell pathways and with a number of actin binding proteins. An interesting model to study actin manipulation by bacterial effectors is Escherichia coli since due to its genome plasticity it has acquired diverse genetic mobile elements, which allow having different E. coli varieties in one bacterial species. These E. coli pathotypes, including intracellular and extracellular bacteria, interact with epithelial cells, and their interactions depend on a specific combination of virulence factors. In this paper we focus on E. coli effectors that mimic host cell proteins to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton. The study of bacterial effector-cytoskeleton interaction will contribute not only to the comprehension of the molecular causes of infectious diseases but also to increase our knowledge of cell biology. PMID:23509714

  1. Gene delivery of the therapeutic polypeptide erythropoietin to primary brain capillary endothelial cells for protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Annette Burkhart; Moos, Torben

    2016-01-01

    The potential for treatment of chronic disorders affecting the CNS is complicated by the inability of several drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). None-viral gene therapy applied to brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) denotes a novel approach to overcome the restraints in this pass......The potential for treatment of chronic disorders affecting the CNS is complicated by the inability of several drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). None-viral gene therapy applied to brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) denotes a novel approach to overcome the restraints......, however, recently shown that non-viral gene therapy to non-mitotic BCECs cultured in an in-vitro BBB model was possible without disrupting the barrier properties of the BCECs, and that this was as effective as transfection of dividing BCECs. The transfection efficiency is, however, low, questioning...... for its neuroprotective potential, from the BCECs. Our study opens for knowledge on, how non-viral gene therapy to BCECs can lead to protein secretion with the perspective of enabling therapeutic proteins to target neurons inside the CNS otherwise inhibited to access due to the restraints of the BBB...

  2. Screening of protein kinase inhibitors identifies PKC inhibitors as inhibitors of osteoclastic acid secretion and bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette G; Karsdal, Morten A; Dziegiel, Morten H

    2010-01-01

    Bone resorption is initiated by osteoclastic acidification of the resorption lacunae. This process is mediated by secretion of protons through the V-ATPase and chloride through the chloride antiporter ClC-7. To shed light on the intracellular signalling controlling extracellular acidification, we...... screened a protein kinase inhibitor library in human osteoclasts....

  3. Venom allergen-like proteins in secretions of plant-parasitic nematodes activate and suppress extracellular plant immune receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano Torres, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic worms threaten human, animal and plant health by infecting people, livestock and crops worldwide. Animals and plants share an anciently evolved innate immune system. Parasites modulate this immune system by secreting proteins to maintain their parasitic lifestyle. This thesis

  4. Identification of a secreted fatty acid and retinol-binding protein (Hp-FAR-1) from Heligmosomoides polygyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Jennifer L; Robinson, Michael; Kennedy, Malcolm W; Agbasi, Chidimma; Linz, Lucas; Maetzold, Erin; Scheidt, Michael; Knox, Megan; Ram, Daniel; Hein, Jordan; Clark, Colin; Drees, Jeremy

    2009-09-01

    Hp-FAR-1 is a major, secreted antigen of the parasitic nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus, a laboratory mouse model frequently used to study the cellular mechanisms of chronic helminth infections. The DNA encoding Hp-FAR-1 was recovered by screening a fourth larval (L₄) H. polygyrus cDNA expression library using antibodies raised against L₄ stage excretory/secretory (E/S) proteins. Predictions of secondary structure based on the Hp-FAR-1 amino acid sequence indicated that an alpha-helix predominates in Hp-FAR-1, possibly with some coiled-coil conformation, with no beta-structure. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis confirmed that the recombinant Hp-FAR-1 (rHp-FAR-1) binds the fluorescent fatty acid analog 11-((5-[dimethylaminoaphthalene-1-sulfonyl)amino)undecanoic acid (DAUDA), and by competition oleic acid. RT-PCR amplification of the hp-far-1 gene indicated that the gene is transcribed in all parasitic stages of the organism's life cycle. The presence of a secreted FAR protein in the well-defined laboratory model of H. polygyrus provides an excellent model for the further study and analysis of the in vivo role of secreted FAR proteins in parasitism, and supports the mounting evidence that secreted FAR proteins play a major role in nematode parasitism.

  5. Suppression or activation of immune responses by predicted secreted proteins of the soybean rust pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust fungi, such as Phakopsora pachyrhizi, are major threats to crop production. They form specialized haustoria that are intimately associated with plant cells. These haustoria have roles in acquiring nutrients and secreting effector proteins that manipulate host immune systems. Functional characte...

  6. Venom allergen-like proteins in secretions of plant-parasitic nematodes activate and suppress extracellular plant immune receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano Torres, J.L.

    2014-01-01

      Parasitic worms threaten human, animal and plant health by infecting people, livestock and crops worldwide. Animals and plants share an anciently evolved innate immune system. Parasites modulate this immune system by secreting proteins to maintain their parasitic lifestyle. This thesis

  7. Identification of novel protein-protein interactions of Yersinia pestis type III secretion system by yeast two hybrid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Yang

    Full Text Available Type III secretion system (T3SS of the plague bacterium Y. pestis encodes a syringe-like structure consisting of more than 20 proteins, which can inject virulence effectors into host cells to modulate the cellular functions. Here in this report, interactions among the possible components in T3SS of Yersinia pestis were identified using yeast mating technique. A total of 57 genes, including all the pCD1-encoded genes except those involved in plasmid replication and partition, pseudogenes, and the putative transposase genes, were subjected to yeast mating analysis. 21 pairs of interaction proteins were identified, among which 9 pairs had been previously reported and 12 novel pairs were identified in this study. Six of them were tested by GST pull down assay, and interaction pairs of YscG-SycD, YscG-TyeA, YscI-YscF, and YopN-YpCD1.09c were successfully validated, suggesting that these interactions might play potential roles in function of Yersinia T3SS. Several potential new interactions among T3SS components could help to understand the assembly and regulation of Yersinia T3SS.

  8. Identification of Secreted Proteins Involved in Nonspecific dsRNA-Mediated Lutzomyia longipalpis LL5 Cell Antiviral Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Martins-da-Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous insects transmit infectious diseases. Sand flies are vectors of leishmaniasis, but can also transmit viruses. We have been studying immune responses of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. We identified a non-specific antiviral response in L. longipalpis LL5 embryonic cells when treated with non-specific double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs. This response is reminiscent of interferon response in mammals. We are investigating putative effectors for this antiviral response. Secreted molecules have been implicated in immune responses, including interferon-related responses. We conducted a mass spectrometry analysis of conditioned medium from LL5 cells 24 and 48 h after dsRNA or mock treatment. We identified 304 proteins. At 24 h, 19 proteins had an abundance equal or greater than 2-fold change, while the levels of 17 proteins were reduced when compared to control cells. At the 48 h time point, these numbers were 33 and 71, respectively. The two most abundant secreted peptides at 24 h in the dsRNA-transfected group were phospholipid scramblase, an interferon-inducible protein that mediates antiviral activity, and forskolin-binding protein (FKBP, a member of the immunophilin family, which mediates the effect of immunosuppressive drugs. The transcription profile of most candidates did not follow the pattern of secreted protein abundance.

  9. Comparative analysis of secreted protein evolution using expressed sequence tags from four poplar leaf rusts (Melampsora spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanguay Philippe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obligate biotrophs such as rust fungi are believed to establish long-term relationships by modulating plant defenses through a plethora of effector proteins, whose most recognizable feature is the presence of a signal peptide for secretion. Since the phenotypes of these effectors extend to host cells, their genes are expected to be under accelerated evolution stimulated by host-pathogen coevolutionary arms races. Recently, whole genome sequence data has allowed the prediction of secretomes, facilitating the identification of putative effectors. Results We generated cDNA libraries from four poplar leaf rust pathogens (Melampsora spp. and used computational approaches to identify and annotate putative secreted proteins with the aim of uncovering new knowledge about the nature and evolution of the rust secretome. While more than half of the predicted secretome members encoded lineage-specific proteins, similarities with experimentally characterized fungal effectors were also identified. A SAGE analysis indicated a strong stage-specific regulation of transcripts encoding secreted proteins. The average sequence identity of putative secreted proteins to their closest orthologs in the wheat stem rust Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici was dramatically reduced compared with non-secreted ones. A comparative genomics approach based on homologous gene groups unravelled positive selection in putative members of the secretome. Conclusion We uncovered robust evidence that different evolutionary constraints are acting on the rust secretome when compared to the rest of the genome. These results are consistent with the view that these genes are more likely to exhibit an effector activity and be involved in coevolutionary arms races with host factors.

  10. Comparative analysis of secreted protein evolution using expressed sequence tags from four poplar leaf rusts (Melampsora spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, David L; Feau, Nicolas; Tanguay, Philippe; Hamelin, Richard C

    2010-07-08

    Obligate biotrophs such as rust fungi are believed to establish long-term relationships by modulating plant defenses through a plethora of effector proteins, whose most recognizable feature is the presence of a signal peptide for secretion. Since the phenotypes of these effectors extend to host cells, their genes are expected to be under accelerated evolution stimulated by host-pathogen coevolutionary arms races. Recently, whole genome sequence data has allowed the prediction of secretomes, facilitating the identification of putative effectors. We generated cDNA libraries from four poplar leaf rust pathogens (Melampsora spp.) and used computational approaches to identify and annotate putative secreted proteins with the aim of uncovering new knowledge about the nature and evolution of the rust secretome. While more than half of the predicted secretome members encoded lineage-specific proteins, similarities with experimentally characterized fungal effectors were also identified. A SAGE analysis indicated a strong stage-specific regulation of transcripts encoding secreted proteins. The average sequence identity of putative secreted proteins to their closest orthologs in the wheat stem rust Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici was dramatically reduced compared with non-secreted ones. A comparative genomics approach based on homologous gene groups unravelled positive selection in putative members of the secretome. We uncovered robust evidence that different evolutionary constraints are acting on the rust secretome when compared to the rest of the genome. These results are consistent with the view that these genes are more likely to exhibit an effector activity and be involved in coevolutionary arms races with host factors.

  11. The secreted effector protein EspZ is essential for virulence of rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, John Scott; Byrd, Wyatt; Ramamurthy, Shylaja; Ledvina, Hannah E; Khirfan, Khaldoon; Riggs, Michael W; Boedeker, Edgar C; Vedantam, Gayatri; Viswanathan, V K

    2015-03-01

    Attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens adhere intimately to intestinal enterocytes and efface brush border microvilli. A key virulence strategy of A/E pathogens is the type III secretion system (T3SS)-mediated delivery of effector proteins into host cells. The secreted protein EspZ is postulated to promote enterocyte survival by regulating the T3SS and/or by modulating epithelial signaling pathways. To explore the role of EspZ in A/E pathogen virulence, we generated an isogenic espZ deletion strain (ΔespZ) and corresponding cis-complemented derivatives of rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and compared their abilities to regulate the T3SS and influence host cell survival in vitro. For virulence studies, rabbits infected with these strains were monitored for bacterial colonization, clinical signs, and intestinal tissue alterations. Consistent with data from previous reports, espZ-transfected epithelial cells were refractory to infection-dependent effector translocation. Also, the ΔespZ strain induced greater host cell death than did the parent and complemented strains. In rabbit infections, fecal ΔespZ strain levels were 10-fold lower than those of the parent strain at 1 day postinfection, while the complemented strain was recovered at intermediate levels. In contrast to the parent and complemented mutants, ΔespZ mutant fecal carriage progressively decreased on subsequent days. ΔespZ mutant-infected animals gained weight steadily over the infection period, failed to show characteristic disease symptoms, and displayed minimal infection-induced histological alterations. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining of intestinal sections revealed increased epithelial cell apoptosis on day 1 after infection with the ΔespZ strain compared to animals infected with the parent or complemented strains. Thus, EspZ-dependent host cell cytoprotection likely prevents epithelial cell death and sloughing and thereby

  12. Modeling and measuring intracellular fluxes of secreted recombinant protein in Pichia pastoris with a novel 34S labeling procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hann Stephan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The budding yeast Pichia pastoris is widely used for protein production. To determine the best suitable strategy for strain improvement, especially for high secretion, quantitative data of intracellular fluxes of recombinant protein are very important. Especially the balance between intracellular protein formation, degradation and secretion defines the major bottleneck of the production system. Because these parameters are different for unlimited growth (shake flask and carbon-limited growth (bioreactor conditions, they should be determined under "production like" conditions. Thus labeling procedures must be compatible with minimal production media and the usage of bioreactors. The inorganic and non-radioactive 34S labeled sodium sulfate meets both demands. Results We used a novel labeling method with the stable sulfur isotope 34S, administered as sodium sulfate, which is performed during chemostat culivations. The intra- and extracellular sulfur 32 to 34 ratios of purified recombinant protein, the antibody fragment Fab3H6, are measured by HPLC-ICP-MS. The kinetic model described here is necessary to calculate the kinetic parameters from sulfur ratios of consecutive samples as well as for sensitivity analysis. From the total amount of protein produced intracellularly (143.1 μg g-1 h-1 protein per yeast dry mass and time about 58% are degraded within the cell, 35% are secreted to the exterior and 7% are inherited to the daughter cells. Conclusions A novel 34S labeling procedure that enables in vivo quantification of intracellular fluxes of recombinant protein under "production like" conditions is described. Subsequent sensitivity analysis of the fluxes by using MATLAB, indicate the most promising approaches for strain improvement towards increased secretion.

  13. Structural models of intrinsically disordered and calcium-bound folded states of a protein adapted for secretion

    OpenAIRE

    O’Brien, Darragh P.; Hernandez, Belen; Durand, Dominique; Hourdel, Véronique; Sotomayor-Pérez, Ana-Cristina; Vachette, Patrice; Ghomi, Mahmoud; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Ladant, Daniel; Brier, Sébastien; Chenal, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Many Gram-negative bacteria use Type I secretion systems, T1SS, to secrete virulence factors that contain calcium-binding Repeat-in-ToXin (RTX) motifs. Here, we present structural models of an RTX protein, RD, in both its intrinsically disordered calcium-free Apo-state and its folded calcium-bound Holo-state. Apo-RD behaves as a disordered polymer chain comprising several statistical elements that exhibit local rigidity with residual secondary structure. Holo-RD is a f...

  14. Identification of the minimal region in lipase ABC transporter recognition domain of Pseudomonas fluorescens for secretion and fluorescence of green fluorescent protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Yeonwoo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TliA is a thermostable lipase secreted by the type 1 secretion system (T1SS of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The secretion is promoted by its secretion/chaperone domain located near the C-terminus, which is composed mainly of four Repeat-in-Toxin (RTX repeats. In order to identify the minimal region of TliA responsible for its secretion, five different copies of the secretion/chaperone domain, each involving truncated N-terminal residues and a common C-terminus, were acquired and named as lipase ABC transporter recognition domains (LARDs. Each LARD was fused to epidermal growth factor (EGF or green fluorescent protein (GFP, and the secretion of EGF-LARD or GFP-LARD fusion proteins was assessed in Escherichia coli with ABC transporter. Results Among the fusion proteins, GFP or EGF with 105-residue LARD3 was most efficiently secreted. In addition, GFP-LARD3 emitted wild type GFP fluorescence. Structurally, LARD3 had the 4 RTX repeats exposed at the N-terminus, while other LARDs had additional residues prior to them or missed some of the RTX repeats. LARD3 was both necessary and sufficient for efficient secretion and maintenance of GFP fluorescence in E. coli, which was also confirmed in P. fluorescens and P. fluorescens ▵tliA, a knock-out mutant of tliA. Conclusion LARD3 was a potent secretion signal in T1SS for its fusion flanking RTX motif, which enhanced secretion and preserved the fluorescence of GFP. LARD3-mediated secretion in E. coli or P. fluorescens will enable the development of enhanced protein manufacturing factory and recombinant microbe secreting protein of interest in situ.

  15. Evaluation of inducible promoters on the secretion of a ZZ-proinsulin fusion protein in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergulhão, Filipe J M; Monteiro, Gabriel A; Larsson, Gen; Bostrom, Maria; Farewell, Anne; Nyström, Thomas; Cabral, Joaquim M S; Taipa, M Angela

    2003-08-01

    Four inducible promoters, uspA, uspB, lacUV5 and malK, were evaluated in the expression of the fusion protein ZZ-proinsulin by Escherichia coli. The aim was to select for their effects on the most appropriate expression system (promoter and culture medium) for secretion of ZZ-proinsulin to the periplasmic space and culture medium. All the expression vectors contained the RNase III cleavage site to ensure that the mRNA translation rate remained independent of 5'-untranslated regions thus making promoter strength comparisons more accurate. The highest ZZ-proinsulin secretion yields were 6.2 mg/g of dry cell weight in the periplasmic space and 2.6 mg/g of dry cell weight in the culture medium using the malK promoter. It was also demonstrated that the use of M9 minimal medium favours secretion.

  16. Secreted calmodulin-like skin protein ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masaaki; Tajima, Hirohisa; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Matsuoka, Masaaki

    2014-06-18

    Humanin, a short bioactive peptide, inhibits cell death in a variety of cell-based death models through Humanin receptors in vitro. In vivo, Humanin ameliorates both muscarinic receptor antagonist-induced memory impairment in normal mice and memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-relevant mouse models including aged transgenic mice expressing a familial AD-linked gene. Recently, calmodulin-like skin protein (CLSP) has been shown to be secreted from skin tissues, contain a region minimally similar to the core region of Humanin, and inhibit AD-related neuronal death through the heterotrimeric Humanin receptor on the cell surface in vitro. As CLSP is much more potent than Humanin and efficiently transported through blood circulation across the blood-brain barrier to the central nervous system, CLSP is considered as a physiological agonist that binds to the heterotrimeric Humanin receptor and triggers the Humanin-induced signals in central nervous system. However, it remains unknown whether CLSP ameliorates memory impairment in mouse dementia models as Humanin does. In this study, we show that recombinant CLSP, administered intracerebroventricularly or intraperitoneally, ameliorates scopolamine-induced dementia in mice.

  17. The Drosophila secreted protein Argos regulates signal transduction in the Ras/MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamoto, K; Okabe, M; Tanimura, T; Mikoshiba, K; Nishida, Y; Okano, H

    1996-08-25

    The Drosophila argos gene encodes a secreted protein with an EGF motif which acts as an inhibitor of cellular differentiation in multiple developmental processes. To investigate the cellular pathways regulated by Argos, we screened for mutations which could modify the phenotype caused by overexpression of argos. We show that the effects of argos overexpression on the eye and wing vein development are suppressed by gain-of-function mutations of the MAPKK/D-MEK gene (Dsor1/D-mek) and the MAPK/ERK-A gene (rolled) and were enhanced by loss-of-function mutations of Star. Loss-of-function mutations in components of the Ras/MAPK signaling cascade act as dominant suppressors of the phenotype caused by the argos null mutations. A loss-of-function argos mutation enhanced the overproduction of R7 neurons caused by gain-of-function alleles of Son of sevenless and Dsor1. Conversely, overexpression of argos inhibited formation of the extra R7 cells that was caused by high-level MAPK/ERK-A activity. A phenotype of the sev; argos double mutants revealed that sev is epistatic to argos. These results provide evidence that Argos negatively regulates signal transduction events in the Ras/MAPK cascade.

  18. Inhibitory effect of totarol on exotoxin proteins hemolysin and enterotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ce; Zhao, Xingchen; Li, Wenli; Meng, Rizeng; Liu, Zonghui; Liu, Mingyuan; Guo, Na; Yu, Lu

    2015-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) causes a wide variety of infections, which are of major concern worldwide. S. aureus produces multiple virulence factors, resulting in food infection and poisoning. These virulence factors include hyaluronidases, proteases, coagulases, lipases, deoxyribonucleases and enterotoxins. Among the extracellular proteins produced by S. aureus that contribute to pathogenicity, the exotoxins α-hemolysin, staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) are thought to be of major significance. Totarol, a plant extract, has been revealed to inhibit the proliferation of several pathogens effectively. However, there are no reports on the effects of totarol on the production of α-hemolysin, SEA or SEB secreted by S. aureus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of totarol on these three exotoxins. Hemolysis assay, western blotting and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay were performed to identify the influence of graded subinhibitory concentrations of totarol on the production of α-hemolysin and the two major enterotoxins, SEA and SEB, by S. aureus in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed that the TNF-α production of RAW264.7 cells stimulated by S. aureus supernatants was inhibited by subinhibitory concentrations of totarol. Form the data, we propose that totarol could potentially be used as a promising natural compound in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  19. The role of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 expression in prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hurley, Gillian

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: Improved prostate cancer (PCa)-specific biomarkers are urgently required to distinguish between indolent and aggressive disease, in order to avoid overtreatment. In this study, we investigated the prostatic tissue expression of secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP)-2. METHODS AND RESULTS: Following immunohistochemical analysis on PCa tissue microarrays with samples from 216 patients, strong\\/moderate SFRP-2 expression was observed in epithelial cells of benign prostatic hyperplasia, and negative\\/weak SFRP-2 expression was observed in the majority of tumour epithelia. However, among Gleason grade 5 carcinomas, 40% showed strong\\/moderate SFRP-2 expression and 60% showed negative SFRP-2 expression in epithelial cells. Further microscopic evaluation of Gleason grade 5 tumours revealed different morphological patterns, corresponding with differential SFRP-2 expression. The first subgroup (referred to as Type A) appeared to have a morphologically solid growth pattern, whereas the second subgroup (referred to as Type B) appeared to have a more diffuse pattern. Furthermore, 100% (4\\/4) of Type A patients experienced biochemical recurrence, as compared with 0% (0\\/6) of Type B patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results imply: (i) that there is a loss of SFRP-2 expression from benign to malignant prostate glands; and (ii) differential SFRP-2 expression among two possible subgroups of Gleason grade 5 tumours.

  20. Secreted protein Del-1 regulates myelopoiesis in the hematopoietic stem cell niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroulis, Ioannis; Chen, Lan-Sun; Singh, Rashim Pal; Kourtzelis, Ioannis; Economopoulou, Matina; Kajikawa, Tetsuhiro; Troullinaki, Maria; Ziogas, Athanasios; Ruppova, Klara; Hosur, Kavita; Maekawa, Tomoki; Wang, Baomei; Subramanian, Pallavi; Tonn, Torsten; Verginis, Panayotis; von Bonin, Malte; Wobus, Manja; Bornhäuser, Martin; Grinenko, Tatyana; Di Scala, Marianna; Hidalgo, Andres; Wielockx, Ben; Hajishengallis, George; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2017-10-02

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remain mostly quiescent under steady-state conditions but switch to a proliferative state following hematopoietic stress, e.g., bone marrow (BM) injury, transplantation, or systemic infection and inflammation. The homeostatic balance between quiescence, self-renewal, and differentiation of HSCs is strongly dependent on their interactions with cells that constitute a specialized microanatomical environment in the BM known as the HSC niche. Here, we identified the secreted extracellular matrix protein Del-1 as a component and regulator of the HSC niche. Specifically, we found that Del-1 was expressed by several cellular components of the HSC niche, including arteriolar endothelial cells, CXCL12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells, and cells of the osteoblastic lineage. Del-1 promoted critical functions of the HSC niche, as it regulated long-term HSC (LT-HSC) proliferation and differentiation toward the myeloid lineage. Del-1 deficiency in mice resulted in reduced LT-HSC proliferation and infringed preferentially upon myelopoiesis under both steady-state and stressful conditions, such as hematopoietic cell transplantation and G-CSF- or inflammation-induced stress myelopoiesis. Del-1-induced HSC proliferation and myeloid lineage commitment were mediated by β3 integrin on hematopoietic progenitors. This hitherto unknown Del-1 function in the HSC niche represents a juxtacrine homeostatic adaptation of the hematopoietic system in stress myelopoiesis.

  1. Bacteroidales Secreted Antimicrobial Proteins Target Surface Molecules Necessary for Gut Colonization and Mediate Competition In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G. Roelofs

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that human gut Bacteroidales species secrete antimicrobial proteins (BSAPs, and we characterized in vitro the first such BSAP produced by Bacteroides fragilis. In this study, we identified a second potent BSAP produced by the ubiquitous and abundant human gut species Bacteroides uniformis. The two BSAPs contain a membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF domain but share very little sequence similarity. We identified the target molecules of BSAP-sensitive cells and showed that each BSAP targets a different class of surface molecule: BSAP-1 targets an outer membrane protein of sensitive B. fragilis strains, and BSAP-2 targets the O-antigen glycan of lipopolysaccharide (LPS of sensitive B. uniformis strains. Species-wide genomic and phenotypic analyses of B. fragilis and B. uniformis showed that BSAP-producing strains circumvent killing by synthesizing an orthologous nontargeted surface molecule. The BSAP genes are adjacent to the gene(s encoding their target replacements, suggesting coacquisition. Using a gnotobiotic mouse competitive-colonization model, we found that the BSAP surface targets are important for colonization of the mammalian gut, thereby explaining why they are maintained in sensitive strains and why they were replaced rather than deleted in BSAP-producing strains. Using isogenic BSAP-producing, -sensitive, and -resistant strains, we show that a BSAP-producing strain outcompetes a sensitive strain but not a resistant strain in the mammalian gut. Human gut metagenomic datasets reveal that BSAP-1-sensitive strains do not cooccur with BSAP-1-producing strains in human gut microbiotas, further supporting the idea that BSAPs are important competitive factors with relevance to the strain-level composition of the human gut microbiota.

  2. The Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath secreted protein, MopE*, binds both reduced and oxidized copper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ve

    Full Text Available Under copper limiting growth conditions the methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath secrets essentially only one protein, MopE*, to the medium. MopE* is a copper-binding protein whose structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure of MopE* revealed a unique high affinity copper binding site consisting of two histidine imidazoles and one kynurenine, the latter an oxidation product of Trp130. In this study, we demonstrate that the copper ion coordinated by this strong binding site is in the Cu(I state when MopE* is isolated from the growth medium of M. capsulatus. The conclusion is based on X-ray Near Edge Absorption spectroscopy (XANES, and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR studies. EPR analyses demonstrated that MopE*, in addition to the strong copper-binding site, also binds Cu(II at two weaker binding sites. Both Cu(II binding sites have properties typical of non-blue type II Cu (II centres, and the strongest of the two Cu(II sites is characterised by a relative high hyperfine coupling of copper (A(|| =20 mT. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography binding studies suggests that residues in the N-terminal part of MopE* are involved in forming binding site(s for Cu(II ions. Our results support the hypothesis that MopE plays an important role in copper uptake, possibly making use of both its high (Cu(I and low Cu(II affinity properties.

  3. Exercise, but not acute sleep loss, increases salivary antimicrobial protein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, Trevor L; Kuennen, Matthew R; Castillo, Micaela N; Williams, Nicole L; Jordan-Patterson, Alex T

    2015-05-01

    Sleep deficiencies may play a role in depressing immune parameters. Little is known about the impact of exercise after sleep deprivation on mucosal immunity. The purpose of this study was to quantify salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) in response to sleep loss before and after exercise. Four men and 4 women (age: 22.8 ± 2; : 49.1 ± 7.1 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) completed 2 exercise trials consisting of 45 minutes of running at 75% VO2peak after a normal night of sleep (CON) and after a night without sleep (WS). Exercise trials were separated by 10 ± 3 days. Saliva was collected before, immediately after, and 1 hour after exercise. LL-37, HNP1-3, Lactoferrin (Lac), and Lysozyme (Lys) were measured. Sleep loss did not affect the concentration or secretion rate of AMPs before or in response to exercise. However, exercise increased the concentration from pre- to post-exercise of LL-37 (pre: 15.5 ± 8.7; post: 22.3 ± 16.2 ng · ml(-1)), HNP1-3 (pre: 2.2 ± 2.3; post: 3.3 ± 2.5 µg · ml(-1)), Lac (pre: 5,234 ± 4,202; post: 12,283 ± 10,995 ng · ml(-1)), and Lys (pre: 5,831 ± 4,465; post: 12,542 ± 10,755 ng · ml(-1)), p exercise compared with before exercise for LL-37 (pre: 3.1 ± 2.1; post: 5.1 ± 3.7; +1: 6.9 ± 8.4 ng · min(-1)), HNP1-3 (pre: 0.38 ± 0.38; post: 0.80 ± 0.75; +1: 0.84 ± 0.67 µg · min(-1)), Lac (pre: 1,096 ± 829; post: 2,948 ± 2,923; +1: 2,464 ± 3,785 ng · min(-1)), and Lys (pre: 1,534 ± 1,790; post: 3,042 ± 2,773; +1: 1,916 ± 1,682 ng · min-(1)), p sleep loss and by exercise after acute sleep loss. Exercise increased the concentration and secretion rate of each AMP suggesting enhanced immunity and control of inflammation, despite limited sleep.

  4. Toxoplasma DJ-1 Regulates Organelle Secretion by a Direct Interaction with Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Matthew A; Garland, Megan; Foe, Ian; Madzelan, Peter; Treeck, Moritz; van der Linden, Wouter A; Oresic Bender, Kristina; Weerapana, Eranthie; Wilson, Mark A; Boothroyd, John C; Reese, Michael L; Bogyo, Matthew

    2017-02-28

    Human DJ-1 is a highly conserved and yet functionally enigmatic protein associated with a heritable form of Parkinson's disease. It has been suggested to be a redox-dependent regulatory scaffold, binding to proteins to modulate their function. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure of the Toxoplasma orthologue Toxoplasma gondii DJ-1 (TgDJ-1) at 2.1-Å resolution and show that it directly associates with calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1). The TgDJ-1 structure identifies an orthologously conserved arginine dyad that acts as a phospho-gatekeeper motif to control complex formation. We determined that the binding of TgDJ-1 to CDPK1 is sensitive to oxidation and calcium, and that this interaction potentiates CDPK1 kinase activity. Finally, we show that genetic deletion of TgDJ-1 results in upregulation of CDPK1 expression and that disruption of the CDPK1/TgDJ-1 complex in vivo prevents normal exocytosis of parasite virulence-associated organelles called micronemes. Overall, our data suggest that TgDJ-1 functions as a noncanonical kinase-regulatory scaffold that integrates multiple intracellular signals to tune microneme exocytosis in T. gondii IMPORTANCE Apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma and Plasmodium are obligate intracellular parasites that require the protective environment of a host cell in order to replicate and survive within a host organism. These parasites secrete effector proteins from specialized apical organelles to select and invade a chosen host cell. The secretion of these organelles is a tightly regulated process coordinated by endogenous small molecules and calcium-dependent protein kinases. We previously identified the Toxoplasma orthologue of the highly conserved protein DJ-1 as a regulator of microneme secretion, but the molecular basis for this was not known. We have now identified the molecular mechanism for how TgDJ-1 regulates microneme secretion. TgDJ-1 interacts with the kinase responsible for the secretion of these

  5. Proteomic screening of glucose-responsive and glucose non-reponsive MIN-6 beta cells reveals differential expression of protein involved in protein folding, secretion and oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, P.; O´Driscoll, L.; O´Sullivan, F.

    2006-01-01

    The glucose-sensitive insulin-secretion (GSIS) phenotype is relatively unstable in long-term culture of beta cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate relative changes in the proteome between glucose-responsive (low passage) and glucose non-responsive (high passage) murine MIN-6.......8%). From the differentially expressed proteins identified in this study, groups of proteins associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and proteins involved in oxidative stress were found to be significantly decreased in the high-passage (H passage) cells. These proteins included endoplasmic reticulum...... protein 29 (ERp29); 78-kDa glucose-related protein, (GRP78); 94-kDa glucose-related protein (GRP94); protein disulphide isomerase; carbonyl reductase 3; peroxidoxin 4 and superoxide dismutase 1. These results suggest that non-GSIS MIN-6 cells do not have the same ability/capacity of glucose-responsive MIN...

  6. p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase modulates exocrine secretion in rabbit lacrimal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Stina K; Gierow, J Peter

    2012-03-01

    The lacrimal gland (LG) is an exocrine gland important for secretion of the tear film. The kinase p38 has important signal transduction functions, e.g. in gene transcription, but has previously not been known to modulate exocrine secretion. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of p38 in carbachol (Cch)-induced LG secretion in LG acinar cells in vitro. Western blotting was used to determine the phosphorylation status of p38 and p42/44 and determine expression of p38 isoforms. To determine the effect of p38 inhibition on LG secretion, PD 169316, a general p38 inhibitor, and SB 239063, an inhibitor of p38α and β, were added to the cells prior to secretion measurements. The results revealed activation of p38 mediated by Cch stimulation and inhibition of Cch-induced secretion as a result of p38 inhibition. The inhibition was observed with PD 169316 isoforms, but not with SB 239063. The p38δ isoform was shown to have robust expression both by Western blotting of acinar cells and immunofluorescence of the whole gland. In conclusion, p38 activation mediates secretion in cholinergic stimulation of rabbit LG cells.

  7. Hepatic metabolism of 11C-methionine and secretion of 11C-protein measured by PET in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsager, Jacob; Lausten, Susanne Bach; Bender, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    -proteins in arterial plasma was measured during the experiment. There were no statistically significant differences between the laparotomy group and the pneumoperitoneum group in any of the calculated parameters. Average mean hepatic systemic metabolic clearance Kmet was 0.212 mL plasma/mL liver tissue/min, secretion...... allocated to either laparotomy or pneumoperitoneum. 24 hours after surgery a 70-min dynamic PET scanning of the liver with arterial blood sampling was performed immediately after intravenous injection of 11C-methionine. Time course of arterial plasma 11C-methionine concentration was used as input function...... and that of liver tissue 11C-concentration as output function in an extended Patlak analysis that accounted for irreversible metabolism of 11C-methionine (hepatic systemic metabolic clearance Kmet) and secretion of 11C-protein + 11C-metabolites into blood (rate constant kloss). Appearance of 11C...

  8. Characterization of the protein fraction of the temporary adhesive secreted by the tube feet of the sea star Asterias rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Elise; Wattiez, Ruddy; Waite, J Herbert; Flammang, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Sea stars are able to make firm but temporary attachments to various substrata by secretions released by their tube feet. After tube foot detachment, the adhesive secretions remain on the substratum as a footprint. Proteins presumably play a key role in sea star adhesion, as evidenced by the removal of footprints from surfaces after a treatment with trypsin. However, until now, characterisation was hampered by their high insolubility. In this study, a non-hydrolytic method was used to render most of the proteins constituting the adhesive footprints soluble. After analysis by SDS-PAGE, the proteins separated into about 25 bands, which ranged from 25 to 450 kDa in apparent molecular weight. Using mass spectrometry and a homology-database search, it was shown that several of the proteins are known intracellular proteins, presumably resulting from contamination of footprint material with tube foot epidermal cells. However, 11 protein bands, comprising the most abundant proteins, were not identified and might correspond to novel adhesive proteins. They were named 'Sea star footprint proteins' (Sfps). Tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the protein bands yielded 43 de novo-generated peptide sequences. Most of them were shared by several, if not all, Sfps. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against one of the peptides (HEASGEYYR from Sfp-115) and were used in immunoblotting. They specifically labelled Sfp-115 and other bands with lower apparent molecular weights. The different results suggest that all Sfps might belong to a single family of related proteins sharing similar motifs or, alternatively, they are the products of polymerization and/or degradation processes.

  9. Secreted Frizzled-related protein 2 as a target in antifibrotic therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastri, Michalis; Shah, Zaeem; Hsieh, Karin; Wang, Xiaowen; Wooldridge, Bailey; Martin, Sean; Suzuki, Gen; Lee, Techung

    2014-03-15

    Progressive fibrosis is a pathological hallmark of many chronic diseases responsible for organ failure. Although there is currently no therapy on the market that specifically targets fibrosis, the dynamic fibrogenic process is known to be regulated by multiple soluble mediators that may be therapeutically intervened. The failing hamster heart exhibits marked fibrosis and increased expression of secreted Frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) amenable to reversal by mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy. Given the previous demonstration that sFRP2-null mice subjected to myocardial infarction exhibited reduced fibrosis and improved function, we tested whether antibody-based sFRP2 blockade might counteract the fibrogenic pathway and repair cardiac injury. Cardiomyopathic hamsters were injected intraperitoneally twice a week each with 20 μg of sFRP2 antibody. Echocardiography, histology, and biochemical analyses were performed after 1 mo. sFRP2 antibody increased left ventricular ejection fraction from 40 ± 1.2 to 49 ± 6.5%, whereas saline and IgG control exhibited a further decline to 37 ± 0.9 and 31 ± 3.2%, respectively. Functional improvement is associated with a ∼ 50% reduction in myocardial fibrosis, ∼ 65% decrease in apoptosis, and ∼ 75% increase in wall thickness. Consistent with attenuated fibrosis, both MSC therapy and sFRP2 antibody administration significantly increased the activity of myocardial matrix metalloproteinase-2. Gene expression analysis of the hamster heart and cultured fibroblasts identified Axin2 as a downstream target, the expression of which was activated by sFRP2 but inhibited by therapeutic intervention. sFRP2 blockade also increased myocardial levels of VEGF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) along with increased angiogenesis. These findings highlight the pathogenic effect of dysregulated sFRP2, which may be specifically targeted for antifibrotic therapy.

  10. Generation of an immortalized mesenchymal stem cell line producing a secreted biosensor protein for glucose monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia K Siska

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by high levels of blood glucose. Diabetic patients should normalize these levels in order to avoid short and long term clinical complications. Presently, blood glucose monitoring is dependent on frequent finger pricking and enzyme based systems that analyze the drawn blood. Continuous blood glucose monitors are already on market but suffer from technical problems, inaccuracy and short operation time. A novel approach for continuous glucose monitoring is the development of implantable cell-based biosensors that emit light signals corresponding to glucose concentrations. Such devices use genetically modified cells expressing chimeric genes with glucose binding properties. MSCs are good candidates as carrier cells, as they can be genetically engineered and expanded into large numbers. They also possess immunomodulatory properties that, by reducing local inflammation, may assist long operation time. Here, we generated a novel immortalized human MSC line co-expressing hTERT and a secreted glucose biosensor transgene using the Sleeping Beauty transposon technology. Genetically modified hMSCs retained their mesenchymal characteristics. Stable transgene expression was validated biochemically. Increased activity of hTERT was accompanied by elevated and constant level of stem cell pluripotency markers and subsequently, by MSC immortalization. Furthermore, these cells efficiently suppressed PBMC proliferation in MLR transwell assays, indicating that they possess immunomodulatory properties. Finally, biosensor protein produced by MSCs was used to quantify glucose in cell-free assays. Our results indicate that our immortalized MSCs are suitable for measuring glucose concentrations in a physiological range. Thus, they are appropriate for incorporation into a cell-based, immune-privileged, glucose-monitoring medical device.

  11. Structural Basis of Chaperone Recognition of Type III Secretion System Minor Translocator Proteins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Viviana; Matteï, Pierre-Jean; Lemaire, David; Attree, Ina; Dessen, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a complex nanomachine employed by many Gram-negative pathogens, including the nosocomial agent Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to inject toxins directly into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. A key component of all T3SS is the translocon, a proteinaceous channel that is inserted into the target membrane, which allows passage of toxins into target cells. In most bacterial species, two distinct membrane proteins (the “translocators”) are involved in translocon formation, whereas in the bacterial cytoplasm, however, they remain associated to a common chaperone. To date, the strategy employed by a single chaperone to recognize two distinct translocators is unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of a complex between the Pseudomonas translocator chaperone PcrH and a short region from the minor translocator PopD. PcrH displays a 7-helical tetratricopeptide repeat fold that harbors the PopD peptide within its concave region, originally believed to be involved in recognition of the major translocator, PopB. Point mutations introduced into the PcrH-interacting region of PopD impede translocator-chaperone recognition in vitro and lead to impairment of bacterial cytotoxicity toward macrophages in vivo. These results indicate that T3SS translocator chaperones form binary complexes with their partner molecules, and the stability of their interaction regions must be strictly maintained to guarantee bacterial infectivity. The PcrH-PopD complex displays homologs among a number of pathogenic strains and could represent a novel, potential target for antibiotic development. PMID:20385547

  12. Ionizing energy effect on microbiology and proteins of snail secretion which is used to elaborate cosmetic products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarate, Herman; Aguirre, Paulina; Silva, Samy [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Aplicaciones Nucleares], e-mail: hzarate@cchen.cl; Manzano, Juan

    2009-07-01

    The snail (Helix aspersa mueller) secretion or its filtrating is an emerging raw material utilized to elaborate different cosmetics products in Chile. This secretion has properties such as regeneration and healing of tissues, elimination of spots in the body, among others. All of them are associated to some of its own components, like the glycolic acid and alantoine. However, working with the secretion has not been free of complications nor sanitary difficulties due to the great manipulation to which it is exposed to, making it vulnerable to microbiological contaminations and causing it not to qualify according to the sanitary criteria stated by cosmetics laboratories, resulting in the material loss for the producer. The ionizing energy from radioactive sources appears to be an efficient alternative to control and reduce the microorganisms of these raw materials destined to the cosmetology industry. The proposed study to determine irradiation benefits required cooled secretion samples obtained from a snail hatchery. The samples were irradiated with doses of 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 kGy, in order to verify the microbiological reduction and to establish a reduction probability of chemical components that are important in cosmetic products. Our results have allowed to determine that doses of 5.0 and 7.0 kGy reduce the total count of mesophyles in 4 and 5 logarithmic cycles, respectively, These reduction values allow the secretion to be accepted by the laboratories dedicated to process it and elaborate the cosmetic products. On the other hand, to evaluate the effects of chemical components, like total proteins, alantoine and glycolic acid, samples irradiated were used with doses of 7.0 and 10 kGy. The result values from the chemical analysis were not affected by the irradiation and these were similar to the ones which were not irradiate. The study shows the benefits that this technology could provide to reduce the microbiological burden without affecting the properties of the

  13. Ionizing energy effect on microbiology and proteins of snail secretion which is used to elaborate cosmetic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate, Herman; Aguirre, Paulina; Silva, Samy; Manzano, Juan

    2009-01-01

    The snail (Helix aspersa mueller) secretion or its filtrating is an emerging raw material utilized to elaborate different cosmetics products in Chile. This secretion has properties such as regeneration and healing of tissues, elimination of spots in the body, among others. All of them are associated to some of its own components, like the glycolic acid and alantoine. However, working with the secretion has not been free of complications nor sanitary difficulties due to the great manipulation to which it is exposed to, making it vulnerable to microbiological contaminations and causing it not to qualify according to the sanitary criteria stated by cosmetics laboratories, resulting in the material loss for the producer. The ionizing energy from radioactive sources appears to be an efficient alternative to control and reduce the microorganisms of these raw materials destined to the cosmetology industry. The proposed study to determine irradiation benefits required cooled secretion samples obtained from a snail hatchery. The samples were irradiated with doses of 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 kGy, in order to verify the microbiological reduction and to establish a reduction probability of chemical components that are important in cosmetic products. Our results have allowed to determine that doses of 5.0 and 7.0 kGy reduce the total count of mesophyles in 4 and 5 logarithmic cycles, respectively, These reduction values allow the secretion to be accepted by the laboratories dedicated to process it and elaborate the cosmetic products. On the other hand, to evaluate the effects of chemical components, like total proteins, alantoine and glycolic acid, samples irradiated were used with doses of 7.0 and 10 kGy. The result values from the chemical analysis were not affected by the irradiation and these were similar to the ones which were not irradiate. The study shows the benefits that this technology could provide to reduce the microbiological burden without affecting the properties of the

  14. Structural mapping of the ClpB ATPases of Plasmodium falciparum: Targeting protein folding and secretion for antimalarial drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AhYoung, Andrew P; Koehl, Antoine; Cascio, Duilio; Egea, Pascal F

    2015-09-01

    Caseinolytic chaperones and proteases (Clp) belong to the AAA+ protein superfamily and are part of the protein quality control machinery in cells. The eukaryotic parasite Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria, has evolved an elaborate network of Clp proteins including two distinct ClpB ATPases. ClpB1 and ClpB2 are involved in different aspects of parasitic proteostasis. ClpB1 is present in the apicoplast, a parasite-specific and plastid-like organelle hosting various metabolic pathways necessary for parasite growth. ClpB2 localizes to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane where it drives protein export as core subunit of a parasite-derived protein secretion complex, the Plasmodium Translocon of Exported proteins (PTEX); this process is central to parasite virulence and survival in the human host. The functional associations of these two chaperones with parasite-specific metabolism and protein secretion make them prime drug targets. ClpB proteins function as unfoldases and disaggregases and share a common architecture consisting of four domains-a variable N-terminal domain that binds different protein substrates, followed by two highly conserved catalytic ATPase domains, and a C-terminal domain. Here, we report and compare the first crystal structures of the N terminal domains of ClpB1 and ClpB2 from Plasmodium and analyze their molecular surfaces. Solution scattering analysis of the N domain of ClpB2 shows that the average solution conformation is similar to the crystalline structure. These structures represent the first step towards the characterization of these two malarial chaperones and the reconstitution of the entire PTEX to aid structure-based design of novel anti-malarial drugs. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  15. Secretion of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B requires the holin-like protein TcdE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathi Govind

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of Clostridium difficile, the major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, is mainly associated with the production and activities of two major toxins. In many bacteria, toxins are released into the extracellular environment via the general secretion pathways. C. difficile toxins A and B have no export signature and their secretion is not explainable by cell lysis, suggesting that they might be secreted by an unusual mechanism. The TcdE protein encoded within the C. difficile pathogenicity locus (PaLoc has predicted structural features similar to those of bacteriophage holin proteins. During many types of phage infection, host lysis is driven by an endolysin that crosses the cytoplasmic membrane through a pore formed by holin oligomerization. We demonstrated that TcdE has a holin-like activity by functionally complementing a λ phage deprived of its holin. Similar to λ holin, TcdE expressed in Escherichia coli and C. difficile formed oligomers in the cytoplamic membrane. A C. difficile tcdE mutant strain grew at the same rate as the wild-type strain, but accumulated a dramatically reduced amount of toxin proteins in the medium. However, the complemented tcdE mutant released the toxins efficiently. There was no difference in the abundance of tcdA and tcdB transcripts or of several cytoplasmic proteins in the mutant and the wild-type strains. In addition, TcdE did not overtly affect membrane integrity of C. difficile in the presence of TcdA/TcdB. Thus, TcdE acts as a holin-like protein to facilitate the release of C. difficile toxins to the extracellular environment, but, unlike the phage holins, does not cause the non-specific release of cytosolic contents. TcdE appears to be the first example of a bacterial protein that releases toxins into the environment by a phage-like system.

  16. Lack of the matricellular protein SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine attenuates liver fibrogenesis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Atorrasagasti

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC is a matricellular protein involved in many biological processes and found over-expressed in cirrhotic livers. By mean of a genetic approach we herein provide evidence from different in vivo liver disease models suggesting a profibrogenic role for SPARC. METHODS: Two in vivo models of liver fibrosis, based on TAA administration and bile duct ligation, were developed on SPARC wild-type (SPARC(+/+ and knock-out (SPARC(-/- mice. Hepatic SPARC expression was analyzed by qPCR. Fibrosis was assessed by Sirius Red staining, and the maturation state of collagen fibers was analyzed using polarized light. Necroinflammatory activity was evaluated by applying the Knodell score and liver inflammatory infiltration was characterized by immunohistochemistry. Hepatic stellate cell activation was assessed by α-SMA immunohistochemistry. In addition, pro-fibrogenic genes and inflammatory cytokines were measured by qPCR and/or ELISA. Liver gene expression profile was analyzed in SPARC(-/- and SPARC(+/+ mice using Affymetrix Mouse Gene ST 1.0 array. RESULTS: SPARC expression was found induced in fibrotic livers of mouse and human. SPARC(-/- mice showed a reduction in the degree of inflammation, mainly CD4+ cells, and fibrosis. Consistently, collagen deposits and mRNA expression levels were decreased in SPARC(-/- mice when compared to SPARC(+/+ mice; in addition, MMP-2 expression was increased in SPARC(-/- mice. A reduction in the number of activated myofibroblasts was observed. Moreover, TGF-β1 expression levels were down-regulated in the liver as well as in the serum of TAA-treated knock-out animals. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA analysis suggested several gene networks which might involve protective mechanisms of SPARC deficiency against liver fibrogenesis and a better established machinery to repair DNA and detoxify from external chemical stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: Overall our data suggest that

  17. Nasal secretions from patients with polyps and healthy individuals, collected with a new aspiration system: evaluation of total protein and immunoglobulin concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, J.; Stoop, A. E.; Baker, H. E.; Swart, S. J.; Nauta, J. J.; van Kamp, G. J.; van der Baan, S.

    1991-01-01

    This study was designed, first, to test a new system for aspiration of human nasal secretions and, secondly, to evaluate protein and immunoglobulin concentrations in these secretions at different levels of secretory activity. The direct aspiration system combines the advantages of minimal irritation

  18. Exposure to static magnetic fields increases insulin secretion in rat INS-1 cells by activating the transcription of the insulin gene and up-regulating the expression of vesicle-secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Libin; Wang, Huiqin; Ma, Fenghui; Guo, Zhixia; He, Hongpeng; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Nan

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of static magnetic fields (SMFs) on insulin secretion and explore the mechanisms underlying exposure to SMF-induced insulin secretion in rat insulinoma INS-1 cells. INS-1 cells were exposed to a 400 mT SMF for 72 h, and the proliferation of INS-1 cells was detected by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The secretion of insulin was measured with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), the expression of genes was detected by real-time PCR, and the expression of proteins was measured by Western blotting. Exposure to an SMF increased the expression and secretion of insulin by INS-1 cells but did not affect cell proliferation. Moreover, SMF exposure up-regulated the expression of several pancreas-specific transcriptional factors. Specifically, the activity of the rat insulin promoter was enhanced in INS-1 cells exposed to an SMF, and the expression levels of synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) and syntaxin-1A were up-regulated after exposure to an SMF. SMF exposure can promote insulin secretion in rat INS-1 cells by activating the transcription of the insulin gene and up-regulating the expression of vesicle-secreted proteins.

  19. Multi-genome identification and characterization of chlamydiae-specific type III secretion substrates: the Inc proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Guangming

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that multiply in a vacuolar compartment, the inclusion. Several chlamydial proteins containing a bilobal hydrophobic domain are translocated by a type III secretion (TTS mechanism into the inclusion membrane. They form the family of Inc proteins, which is specific to this phylum. Based on their localization, Inc proteins likely play important roles in the interactions between the microbe and the host. In this paper we sought to identify and analyze, using bioinformatics tools, all putative Inc proteins in published chlamydial genomes, including an environmental species. Results Inc proteins contain at least one bilobal hydrophobic domain made of two transmembrane helices separated by a loop of less than 30 amino acids. Using bioinformatics tools we identified 537 putative Inc proteins across seven chlamydial proteomes. The amino-terminal segment of the putative Inc proteins was recognized as a functional TTS signal in 90% of the C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae sequences tested, validating the data obtained in silico. We identified a macro domain in several putative Inc proteins, and observed that Inc proteins are enriched in segments predicted to form coiled coils. A surprisingly large proportion of the putative Inc proteins are not constitutively translocated to the inclusion membrane in culture conditions. Conclusions The Inc proteins represent 7 to 10% of each proteome and show a great degree of sequence diversity between species. The abundance of segments with a high probability for coiled coil conformation in Inc proteins support the hypothesis that they interact with host proteins. While the large majority of Inc proteins possess a functional TTS signal, less than half may be constitutively translocated to the inclusion surface in some species. This suggests the novel finding that translocation of Inc proteins may be regulated by as-yet undetermined mechanisms.

  20. A simple SDS-PAGE protein pattern from pitcher secretions as a new tool to distinguish Nepenthes species (Nepenthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biteau, Flore; Nisse, Estelle; Miguel, Sissi; Hannewald, Paul; Bazile, Vincent; Gaume, Laurence; Mignard, Benoit; Hehn, Alain; Bourgaud, Frederic

    2013-12-01

    Carnivorous plants have always fascinated scientists because these plants are able to attract, capture, and digest animal prey using their remarkable traps that contain digestive secretions. Nepenthes is one of the largest genera of carnivorous plants, with 120 species described thus far. Despite an outstanding diversity of trap designs, many species are often confused with each other and remain difficult to classify because they resemble pitchers or of the occurrence of interspecific hybrids. Here, we propose a new method to easily distinguish Nepenthes species based on a SDS PAGE protein pattern analysis of their pitcher secretions. Intraspecific comparisons were performed among specimens growing in different environmental conditions to ascertain the robustness of this method. Our results show that, at the juvenile stage and in the absence of prey in the pitcher, an examined species is characterized by a specific and stable profile, whatever the environmental conditions. The method we describe here can be used as a reliable tool to easily distinguish between Nepenthes species and to help with potential identification based on the species-specific protein pattern of their pitcher secretions, which is complementary to the monograph information.

  1. CNC-bZIP protein Nrf1-dependent regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongzhi; Fu, Jingqi; Xue, Peng; Zhao, Rui; Dong, Jian; Liu, Dianxin; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Tong, Qingchun; Teng, Weiping; Qu, Weidong; Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E; Pi, Jingbo

    2015-04-01

    The inability of pancreatic β-cells to secrete sufficient insulin in response to glucose stimulation is a major contributing factor to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated both the in vitro and in vivo effects of deficiency of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 1 (Nrf1) in β-cells on β-cell function and glucose homeostasis. Silencing of Nrf1 in β-cells leads to a pre-T2D phenotype with disrupted glucose metabolism and impaired insulin secretion. Specifically, MIN6 β-cells with stable knockdown of Nrf1 (Nrf1-KD) and isolated islets from β-cell-specific Nrf1-knockout [Nrf1(b)-KO] mice displayed impaired glucose responsiveness, including elevated basal insulin release and decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Nrf1(b)-KO mice exhibited severe fasting hyperinsulinemia, reduced GSIS, and glucose intolerance. Silencing of Nrf1 in MIN6 cells resulted in oxidative stress and altered glucose metabolism, with increases in both glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis, which is associated with the elevated basal insulin release and reduced glucose responsiveness. The elevated glycolysis and reduced glucose responsiveness due to Nrf1 silencing likely result from altered expression of glucose metabolic enzymes, with induction of high-affinity hexokinase 1 and suppression of low-affinity glucokinase. Our study demonstrated a novel role of Nrf1 in regulating glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in β-cells and characterized Nrf1 as a key transcription factor that regulates the coupling of glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism and GSIS. Nrf1 plays critical roles in regulating glucose metabolism, mitochondrial function, and insulin secretion, suggesting that Nrf1 may be a novel target to improve the function of insulin-secreting β-cells.

  2. Distribution of chitinases in the entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae and effect of N-acetylglucosamine in protein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Cristine Chaves; Staats, Charley Christian; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene Henning

    2004-02-01

    For a long time, fungi have been characterized by their ability to secrete enzymes, mostly hydrolytic in function, and thus are defined as extracellular degraders. Chitin and chitinolytic enzymes are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. Particularly, chitinases are used in agriculture to control plant pathogens. Metarhizium anisopliae produces an extracellular chitinase when grown on a medium containing chitin, indicating that synthesis is subject to induction by the substrate. Various sugar combinations were investigated for induction and repression of chitinase. N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) shows a special dual regulation on chitinase production. M. anisopliae has at least two distinct, cell-bound, chitinolytic enzymes when cultured with GlcNAc as one of the carbon sources, and we suggest that this carbohydrate has an important role in protein secretion.

  3. Purification and Characteriztion of the Type III Secretion System Protein from Burkholderia mallei

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    North America, glanders has been eradicated, but it persists in other areas. The two major bacterial virulence systems, the type III ( T3SS ) and type...major virulence systems, the type III secretion system ( T3SS ) and the type VI secretion system (T6SS). 3,4 The T3SS is found in many Gram-negative...bacteria including Yersinia, Salmonella, Shigella, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. 5–9 All pathogens that contain T3SS are of interest to the U.S

  4. A novel role of protein tyrosine kinase2 in mediating chloride secretion in human airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Liang

    Full Text Available Ca(2+ activated Cl(- channels (CaCC are up-regulated in cystic fibrosis (CF airway surface epithelia. The presence and functional properties of CaCC make it a possible therapeutic target to compensate for the deficiency of Cl(- secretion in CF epithelia. CaCC is activated by an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+, which not only activates epithelial CaCCs, but also inhibits epithelial Na(+ hyperabsorption, which may also be beneficial in CF. Our previous study has shown that spiperone, a known antipsychotic drug, activates CaCCs and stimulates Cl(- secretion in polarized human non-CF and CF airway epithelial cell monolayers in vitro, and in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR knockout mice in vivo. Spiperone activates CaCC not by acting in its well-known role as an antagonist of either 5-HT2 or D2 receptors, but through a protein tyrosine kinase-coupled phospholipase C-dependent pathway. Moreover, spiperone independently activates CFTR through a novel mechanism. Herein, we performed a mass spectrometry analysis and identified the signaling molecule that mediates the spiperone effect in activating chloride secretion through CaCC and CFTR. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2 is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, which belongs to the focal adhesion kinase family. The inhibition of PYK2 notably reduced the ability of spiperone to increase intracellular Ca(2+ and Cl(- secretion. In conclusion, we have identified the tyrosine kinase, PYK2, as the modulator, which plays a crucial role in the activation of CaCC and CFTR by spiperone. The identification of this novel role of PYK2 reveals a new signaling pathway in human airway epithelial cells.

  5. In vivo screening for secreted proteins that modulate glucose handling identifies interleukin-6 family members as potent hypoglycemic agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Amy Chen

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a disease of abnormal glucose homeostasis characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and a broad array of consequent organ damage. Because normal glucose homeostasis is maintained by a complex interaction between behavior (feeding and physical activity and metabolic activity that is modulated by inter-organ signaling through secreted factors, disease modeling in vitro is necessarily limited. In contrast, in vivo studies allow complex metabolic phenotypes to be studied but present a barrier to high throughput studies. Here we present the development of a novel in vivo screening platform that addresses this primary limitation of in vivo experimentation. Our platform leverages the large secretory capacity of the liver and the hepatocyte transfection technique of hydrodynamic tail vein injection to achieve supraphysiologic blood levels of secreted proteins. To date, the utility of hydrodynamic transfection has been limited by the deleterious impact of the variable transfection efficiency inherent to this technique. We overcome this constraint by co-transfection of a secreted luciferase cDNA whose product can be easily monitored in the blood of a living animal and used as a surrogate marker for transfection efficiency and gene expression levels. To demonstrate the utility of our strategy, we screened 248 secreted proteins for the ability to enhance glucose tolerance. Surprisingly, interleukin-6 and several of its family members but not other well-recognized insulin sensitizing agents were identified as potent hypoglycemic factors. We propose this experimental system as a powerful and flexible in vivo screening platform for identifying genes that modulate complex behavioral and metabolic phenotypes.

  6. Structural Analysis of the Essential Self-Cleaving Type III Secretion Proteins EscU And SpaS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarivach, R.; Deng, W.; Vuckovic, M.; Felise, H.B.; Nguyen, H.V.; Miller, S.I.; Finlay, B.B.; Strynadka, N.C.J.

    2009-05-28

    During infection by Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, the type III secretion system (T3SS) is assembled to allow for the direct transmission of bacterial virulence effectors into the host cell. The T3SS system is characterized by a series of prominent multi-component rings in the inner and outer bacterial membranes, as well as a translocation pore in the host cell membrane. These are all connected by a series of polymerized tubes that act as the direct conduit for the T3SS proteins to pass through to the host cell. During assembly of the T3SS, as well as the evolutionarily related flagellar apparatus, a post-translational cleavage event within the inner membrane proteins EscU/FlhB is required to promote a secretion-competent state. These proteins have long been proposed to act as a part of a molecular switch, which would regulate the appropriate chronological secretion of the various T3SS apparatus components during assembly and subsequently the transported virulence effectors. Here we show that a surface type II -turn in the Escherichia coli protein EscU undergoes auto-cleavage by a mechanism involving cyclization of a strictly conserved asparagine residue. Structural and in vivo analysis of point and deletion mutations illustrates the subtle conformational effects of auto-cleavage in modulating the molecular features of a highly conserved surface region of EscU, a potential point of interaction with other T3SS components at the inner membrane. In addition, this work provides new structural insight into the distinct conformational requirements for a large class of self-cleaving reactions involving asparagine cyclization.

  7. A yeast-based model system for cloning secreted and membrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO J. SURPILI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The targeting of proteins to cell organelles and membranes, or of proteins destined to secretion, is coordinated by signal sequences located at the 5´-end of their respective genes. A signal sequence trap system was envisaged in which a truncated version of the yeast acid phosphatase pho5 gene lacking the start codon and signal sequence could serve as a reporter gene. A fraction enriched in 5´-end fragments obtained by PCR from a potato guard-cell cDNA library was cloned in frame to the acid phosphatase gene and the acid phosphatase activity was assayed directly in yeast colonies grown on selective medium. Putative signal sequences targeting the acid phosphatase to the membrane or to the outside of the cell were used to screen the cDNA bank in order to recover the original full-size sequence which gave rise to the signal sequence. Two unknown sequences displaying marked tissue-specific expression were retrieved, one of them (YE139 with a higher expression level in green buds and stem cells, and the other one (YE290 with a higher expression level in androceum, gyneceum, and roots. The limitations of the system are further analyzed using other sequences as control.O direcionamento de proteínas a organelas e à membrana celular, ou de proteínas a serem secretadas, é coordenado por seqüências sinalizadoras localizadas na extremidade 5´ de seus respectivos genes que codificam peptídeos-sinal. Este trabalho analisa um sistema para seleção de seqüências sinalizadoras utilizando uma fosfatase ácida de levedura, enzima reconhecidamente secretada por estes organismos, desprovida de seu códon de iniciação e de sua seqüência sinalizadora, como gene repórter. Uma fração enriquecida em fragmentos provenientes da região 5´ de uma biblioteca de cDNA de células-guarda de batata foi inserida in frame ao gene truncado da fosfatase ácida em vetores apropriados. Após a transformação em leveduras, a atividade da fosfatase ácida foi

  8. NMR identification of the binding surfaces involved in the Salmonella and Shigella Type III secretion tip-translocon protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShan, Andrew C; Kaur, Kawaljit; Chatterjee, Srirupa; Knight, Kevin M; De Guzman, Roberto N

    2016-08-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is essential for the pathogenesis of many bacteria including Salmonella and Shigella, which together are responsible for millions of deaths worldwide each year. The structural component of the T3SS consists of the needle apparatus, which is assembled in part by the protein-protein interaction between the tip and the translocon. The atomic detail of the interaction between the tip and the translocon proteins is currently unknown. Here, we used NMR methods to identify that the N-terminal domain of the Salmonella SipB translocon protein interacts with the SipD tip protein at a surface at the distal region of the tip formed by the mixed α/β domain and a portion of its coiled-coil domain. Likewise, the Shigella IpaB translocon protein and the IpaD tip protein interact with each other using similar surfaces identified for the Salmonella homologs. Furthermore, removal of the extreme N-terminal residues of the translocon protein, previously thought to be important for the interaction, had little change on the binding surface. Finally, mutations at the binding surface of SipD reduced invasion of Salmonella into human intestinal epithelial cells. Together, these results reveal the binding surfaces involved in the tip-translocon protein-protein interaction and advance our understanding of the assembly of the T3SS needle apparatus. Proteins 2016; 84:1097-1107. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. BipC, a Predicted Burkholderia pseudomallei Type 3 Secretion System Translocator Protein with Actin Binding Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Vander Broek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe disease of humans and animals. Like other clinically important Gram-negative bacteria, fundamental to B. pseudomallei pathogenesis is the Bsa Type III Secretion System. The Bsa system injects bacterial effector proteins into the cytoplasm of target host cells subverting cellular pathways for the benefit of the bacteria. It is required for invasion of non-phagocytic host cells, escape from the endocytic compartment into the host cell cytoplasm, and for virulence in murine models of melioidosis. We have recently described the repertoire of effector proteins secreted by the B. pseudomallei Bsa system, however the functions of many of these effector proteins remain an enigma. One such protein is BipC, a homolog of the translocator/effector proteins SipC and IpaC from Salmonella spp. and Shigella flexneri respectively. SipC and IpaC each have separate and distinct roles acting both as translocators, involved in creating a pore in the eukaryotic cell membrane through which effector proteins can transit, and as effectors by interacting with and polymerizing host cell actin. In this study, pull-down assays demonstrate an interaction between BipC and actin. Furthermore, we show that BipC directly interacts with actin, preferentially with actin polymers (F-actin and has the ability to polymerize actin in a similar manner as that described for SipC. Yet unlike SipC, BipC does not stabilize F-actin filaments, indicating a functionally distinct interaction with actin. Expression of Myc-tagged BipC in HeLa cells induces the formation of pseudopodia similar to that seen for IpaC. This study explores the effector function of BipC and reveals that actin interaction is conserved within the BipC/SipC/IpaC family of translocator/effector proteins.

  10. Secreted and immunogenic proteins produced by the honey bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Foulbrood is a severe disease affecting larvae of honeybee Apis mellifera, causing significant decrease in the honeybee population, beekeeping industries and agricultural production. In spite of its importance, little is known about the virulence factors secreted by Paenibacillus larvae dur...

  11. Sensing of Bacterial Type IV Secretion via the Unfolded Protein Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maarten F.; Starr, Tregei; Winter, Maria G.; den Hartigh, Andreas B.; Child, Robert; Knodler, Leigh A.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Celli, Jean; Tsolis, Renee M.

    2013-01-01

    Host cytokine responses to Brucella abortus infection are elicited predominantly by the deployment of a type IV secretion system (T4SS). However, the mechanism by which the T4SS elicits inflammation remains unknown. Here we show that translocation of the T4SS substrate VceC into host cells induces

  12. Secretion of organic anions by hepatocytes : Involvement of homologues of the multidrug resistance protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M; Roelofsen, H; Jansen, PLM

    The canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT) is one of at least four ATP-dependent transport systems identified so far in the canalicular membrane domain. Using mutant rat strains that lack organic anion secretion, the substrate specificity of cMOAT has been characterized. cMOAT

  13. Transcriptomic analyses of the secreted proteins from the salivary glands of the wheat midge larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both the wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana) and the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) belong to a group of insects called gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and both are destructive pests of wheat. From Hessian fly larvae, a large number of genes have been identified to encode Secreted Salivary...

  14. A Small Secreted Virulence-Related Protein Is Essential for the Necrotrophic Interactions of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum with Its Host Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Lyu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Small, secreted proteins have been found to play crucial roles in interactions between biotrophic/hemi-biotrophic pathogens and plants. However, little is known about the roles of these proteins produced by broad host-range necrotrophic phytopathogens during infection. Here, we report that a cysteine-rich, small protein SsSSVP1 in the necrotrophic phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was experimentally confirmed to be a secreted protein, and the secretion of SsSSVP1 from hyphae was followed by internalization and cell-to-cell movement independent of a pathogen in host cells. SsSSVP1∆SP could induce significant plant cell death and targeted silencing of SsSSVP1 resulted in a significant reduction in virulence. Through yeast two-hybrid (Y2H, coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC assays, we demonstrated that SsSSVP1∆SP interacted with QCR8, a subunit of the cytochrome b-c1 complex of mitochondrial respiratory chain in plants. Double site-directed mutagenesis of two cysteine residues (C38 and C44 in SsSSVP1∆SP had significant effects on its homo-dimer formation, SsSSVP1∆SP-QCR8 interaction and plant cell death induction, indicating that partial cysteine residues surely play crucial roles in maintaining the structure and function of SsSSVP1. Co-localization and BiFC assays showed that SsSSVP1∆SP might hijack QCR8 to cytoplasm before QCR8 targeting into mitochondria, thereby disturbing its subcellular localization in plant cells. Furthermore, virus induced gene silencing (VIGS of QCR8 in tobacco caused plant abnormal development and cell death, indicating the cell death induced by SsSSVP1∆SP might be caused by the SsSSVP1∆SP-QCR8 interaction, which had disturbed the QCR8 subcellular localization and hence disabled its biological functions. These results suggest that SsSSVP1 is a potential effector which may manipulate plant energy metabolism to facilitate the infection of S. sclerotiorum. Our

  15. A Small Secreted Virulence-Related Protein Is Essential for the Necrotrophic Interactions of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum with Its Host Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Xueliang; Shen, Cuicui; Fu, Yanping; Xie, Jiatao; Jiang, Daohong; Li, Guoqing; Cheng, Jiasen

    2016-02-01

    Small, secreted proteins have been found to play crucial roles in interactions between biotrophic/hemi-biotrophic pathogens and plants. However, little is known about the roles of these proteins produced by broad host-range necrotrophic phytopathogens during infection. Here, we report that a cysteine-rich, small protein SsSSVP1 in the necrotrophic phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was experimentally confirmed to be a secreted protein, and the secretion of SsSSVP1 from hyphae was followed by internalization and cell-to-cell movement independent of a pathogen in host cells. SsSSVP1∆SP could induce significant plant cell death and targeted silencing of SsSSVP1 resulted in a significant reduction in virulence. Through yeast two-hybrid (Y2H), coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays, we demonstrated that SsSSVP1∆SP interacted with QCR8, a subunit of the cytochrome b-c1 complex of mitochondrial respiratory chain in plants. Double site-directed mutagenesis of two cysteine residues (C38 and C44) in SsSSVP1∆SP had significant effects on its homo-dimer formation, SsSSVP1∆SP-QCR8 interaction and plant cell death induction, indicating that partial cysteine residues surely play crucial roles in maintaining the structure and function of SsSSVP1. Co-localization and BiFC assays showed that SsSSVP1∆SP might hijack QCR8 to cytoplasm before QCR8 targeting into mitochondria, thereby disturbing its subcellular localization in plant cells. Furthermore, virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) of QCR8 in tobacco caused plant abnormal development and cell death, indicating the cell death induced by SsSSVP1∆SP might be caused by the SsSSVP1∆SP-QCR8 interaction, which had disturbed the QCR8 subcellular localization and hence disabled its biological functions. These results suggest that SsSSVP1 is a potential effector which may manipulate plant energy metabolism to facilitate the infection of S. sclerotiorum. Our findings

  16. JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase limits calcium-dependent chloride secretion across colonic epithelial cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnellan, Fergal

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimmune agonists induce epithelial Cl(-) secretion through elevations in intracellular Ca2+ or cAMP. Previously, we demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation and subsequent ERK MAPK activation limits secretory responses to Ca2+-dependent, but not cAMP-dependent, agonists. Although JNK MAPKs are also expressed in epithelial cells, their role in regulating transport function is unknown. Here, we investigated the potential role for JNK in regulating Cl(-) secretion in T(84) colonic epithelial cells. Western blot analysis revealed that a prototypical Ca2+-dependent secretagogue, carbachol (CCh; 100 microM), induced phosphorylation of both the 46-kDa and 54-kDa isoforms of JNK. This effect was mimicked by thapsigargin (TG), which specifically elevates intracellular Ca2+, but not by forskolin (FSK; 10 microM), which elevates cAMP. CCh-induced JNK phosphorylation was attenuated by the EGFR inhibitor, tyrphostin-AG1478 (1 microM). Pretreatment of voltage-clamped T(84) cells with SP600125 (2 microM), a specific JNK inhibitor, potentiated secretory responses to both CCh and TG but not to FSK. The effects of SP600125 on CCh-induced secretion were not additive with those of the ERK inhibitor, PD98059. Finally, in apically permeabilized T(84) cell monolayers, SP600125 potentiated CCh-induced K+ conductances but not Na+\\/K+ATPase activity. These data demonstrate a novel role for JNK MAPK in regulating Ca2+ but not cAMP-dependent epithelial Cl(-) secretion. JNK activation is mediated by EGFR transactivation and exerts its antisecretory effects through inhibition of basolateral K+ channels. These data further our understanding of mechanisms regulating epithelial secretion and underscore the potential for exploitation of MAPK-dependent signaling in treatment of intestinal transport disorders.

  17. Uteroglobin, an apically secreted protein of the uterine epithelium, is secreted non-polarized form MDCK cells and mainly basolaterally from Caco-2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, L K; Suske, G; Beato, M

    1993-01-01

    A complete cDNA encoding rabbit uteroglobin was constructed and expressed in MDCK and Caco-2 cells. The MDCK cells secrete uteroglobin in approximately equal amounts to the apical and the basolateral side, whereas the Caco-2 cells secrete uteroglobin mainly to the basolateral side. Both MDCK...... and Caco-2 cells thus secrete uteroglobin in a non-sorted manner. It has, however, previously been shown that uteroglobin is secreted exclusively at the apical membrane in primary cell culture of endometrial epithelial cells [S.K. Mani et al. (1991) Endocrinology 128, 1563-1573]. This suggests that either...... the endometrial epithelium has an apical default pathway or recognises a sorting signal not recognised by MDCK cells and Caco-2 cells. Our data thus show that a soluble molecule can be secreted at the apical, the basolateral or both membranes depending on the cell type....

  18. Proteomic analysis of secreted protein induced by a component of prey in pitcher fluid of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Naoya; Hamada, Tatsuro

    2012-08-03

    The Nepenthes species are carnivorous plants that have evolved a specialized leaf organ, the 'pitcher', to attract, capture, and digest insects. The digested insects provide nutrients for growth, allowing these plants to grow even in poor soil. Several proteins have been identified in the pitcher fluid, including aspartic proteases (nepenthesin I and II) and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins (β-1,3-glucanase, class IV chitinase, and thaumatin-like protein). In this study, we collected and concentrated pitcher fluid to identify minor proteins. In addition, we tried to identify the protein secreted in response to trapping the insect. To make a similar situation in which the insect falls into the pitcher, chitin which was a major component of the insect exoskeleton was added to the fluid in the pitcher. Three PR proteins, class III peroxidase (Prx), β-1,3-glucanase, and class III chitinase, were newly identified. Prx was induced after the addition of chitin to the pitcher fluid. Proteins in the pitcher fluid of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata probably have two roles in nutrient supply: digestion of prey and the antibacterial effect. These results suggest that the system for digesting prey has evolved from the defense system against pathogens in the carnivorous plant Nepenthes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Profile of Secreted Hydrolases, Associated Proteins, and SlpA in Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum during the Degradation of Hemicellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currie, Devin [Dartmouth College; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Herring, Christopher [Mascoma Corporation; Giannone, Richard J [ORNL; Johnson, Courtney M [ORNL; Lankford, Patricia K [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth

    2014-01-01

    Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum, a Gram-positive thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, grows robustly on insoluble hemicellulose, which requires a specialized suite of secreted and transmembrane proteins. We report here the characterization of proteins secreted by this organism. Cultures were grown on hemicellulose, glucose, xylose, starch, and xylan in pH-controlled bioreactors, and samples were analyzed via spotted microarrays and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Key hydrolases and transporters employed by T. saccharolyticum for growth on hemicellulose were, for the most part, hitherto uncharacterized and existed in two clusters (Tsac_1445 through Tsac_1464 for xylan/xylose and Tsac_1344 through Tsac_1349 for starch). A phosphotransferase system subunit, Tsac_0032, also appeared to be exclusive to growth on glucose. Previously identified hydrolases that showed strong conditional expression changes included XynA (Tsac_1459), XynC (Tsac_0897), and a pullulanase, Apu (Tsac_1342). An omnipresent transcript and protein making up a large percentage of the overall secretome, Tsac_0361, was tentatively identified as the primary S-layer component in T. saccharolyticum, and deletion of the Tsac_0361 gene resulted in gross morphological changes to the cells. The view of hemicellulose degradation revealed here will be enabling for metabolic engineering efforts in biofuel-producing organisms that degrade cellulose well but lack the ability to catabolize C5 sugars

  20. Evidence of Reversible Bradycardia and Arrhythmias Caused by Immunogenic Proteins Secreted by T. cruzi in Isolated Rat Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Angulo, Héctor O.; Toro-Mendoza, Jhoan; Marques, Juan A.; Concepción, Juan L.; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Higuerey, Yoliver; Thomas, Luz E.; Balzano-Nogueira, Leandro; López, José R.; Mijares, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Chagas cardiomyopathy, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is characterized by alterations in intracellular ion, heart failure and arrhythmias. Arrhythmias have been related to sudden death, even in asymptomatic patients, and their molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Objective The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effect of proteins secreted by T. cruzi on healthy, isolated beating rat heart model under a non-damage-inducing protocol. Methods and Results We established a non-damage-inducing recirculation-reoxygenation model where ultrafiltrate fractions of conditioned medium control or conditioned infected medium were perfused at a standard flow rate and under partial oxygenation. Western blotting with chagasic patient serum was performed to determine the antigenicity of the conditioned infected medium fractions. We observed bradycardia, ventricular fibrillation and complete atrioventricular block in hearts during perfusion with >50 kDa conditioned infected culture medium. The preincubation of conditioned infected medium with chagasic serum abolished the bradycardia and arrhythmias. The proteins present in the conditioned infected culture medium of >50 kDa fractions were recognized by the chagasic patient sera associated with arrhythmias. Conclusions These results suggest that proteins secreted by T. cruzi are involved in Chagas disease arrhythmias and may be a potential biomarker in chagasic patients. PMID:25647069

  1. Direct visualization by cryo-EM of the mycobacterial capsular layer: a labile structure containing ESX-1-secreted proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Sani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The cell envelope of mycobacteria, a group of Gram positive bacteria, is composed of a plasma membrane and a Gram-negative-like outer membrane containing mycolic acids. In addition, the surface of the mycobacteria is coated with an ill-characterized layer of extractable, non-covalently linked glycans, lipids and proteins, collectively known as the capsule, whose occurrence is a matter of debate. By using plunge freezing cryo-electron microscopy technique, we were able to show that pathogenic mycobacteria produce a thick capsule, only present when the cells were grown under unperturbed conditions and easily removed by mild detergents. This detergent-labile capsule layer contains arabinomannan, alpha-glucan and oligomannosyl-capped glycolipids. Further immunogenic and proteomic analyses revealed that Mycobacterium marinum capsule contains high amounts of proteins that are secreted via the ESX-1 pathway. Finally, cell infection experiments demonstrated the importance of the capsule for binding to cells and dampening of pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Together, these results show a direct visualization of the mycobacterial capsular layer as a labile structure that contains ESX-1-secreted proteins.

  2. Suppression or Activation of Immune Responses by Predicted Secreted Proteins of the Soybean Rust Pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Mingsheng; Grayczyk, James P; Seitz, Janina M; Lee, Youngsill; Link, Tobias I; Choi, Doil; Pedley, Kerry F; Voegele, Ralf T; Baum, Thomas J; Whitham, Steven A

    2018-01-01

    Rust fungi, such as the soybean rust pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi, are major threats to crop production. They form specialized haustoria that are hyphal structures intimately associated with host-plant cell membranes. These haustoria have roles in acquiring nutrients and secreting effector proteins that manipulate host immune systems. Functional characterization of effector proteins of rust fungi is important for understanding mechanisms that underlie their virulence and pathogenicity. Hundreds of candidate effector proteins have been predicted for rust pathogens, but it is not clear how to prioritize these effector candidates for further characterization. There is a need for high-throughput approaches for screening effector candidates to obtain experimental evidence for effector-like functions, such as the manipulation of host immune systems. We have focused on identifying effector candidates with immune-related functions in the soybean rust fungus P. pachyrhizi. To facilitate the screening of many P. pachyrhizi effector candidates (named PpECs), we used heterologous expression systems, including the bacterial type III secretion system, Agrobacterium infiltration, a plant virus, and a yeast strain, to establish an experimental pipeline for identifying PpECs with immune-related functions and establishing their subcellular localizations. Several PpECs were identified that could suppress or activate immune responses in nonhost Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum, Arabidopsis, tomato, or pepper plants.

  3. Brugia malayi excreted/secreted proteins at the host/parasite interface: stage- and gender-specific proteomic profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasisekhar Bennuru

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known about the filarial proteins that interact with the human host. Although the filarial genome has recently been completed, protein profiles have been limited to only a few recombinants or purified proteins of interest. Here, we describe a large-scale proteomic analysis using microcapillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry to identify the excretory-secretory (ES products of the L3, L3 to L4 molting ES, adult male, adult female, and microfilarial stages of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi. The analysis of the ES products from adult male, adult female, microfilariae (Mf, L3, and molting L3 larvae identified 852 proteins. Annotation suggests that the functional and component distribution was very similar across each of the stages studied; however, the Mf contributed a higher proportion to the total number of identified proteins than the other stages. Of the 852 proteins identified in the ES, only 229 had previous confirmatory expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the available databases. Moreover, this analysis was able to confirm the presence of 274 "hypothetical" proteins inferred from gene prediction algorithms applied to the B. malayi (Bm genome. Not surprisingly, the majority (160/274 of these "hypothetical" proteins were predicted to be secreted by Signal IP and/or SecretomeP 2.0 analysis. Of major interest is the abundance of previously characterized immunomodulatory proteins such as ES-62 (leucyl aminopeptidase, MIF-1, SERPIN, glutathione peroxidase, and galectin in the ES of microfilariae (and Mf-containing adult females compared to the adult males. In addition, searching the ES protein spectra against the Wolbachia database resulted in the identification of 90 Wolbachia-specific proteins, most of which were metabolic enzymes that have not been shown to be immunogenic. This proteomic analysis extends our knowledge of the ES and provides insight into the host-parasite interaction.

  4. CK2 phosphorylation of Schistosoma mansoni HMGB1 protein regulates its cellular traffic and secretion but not its DNA transactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caetano de Abreu da Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The helminth Schistosoma mansoni parasite resides in mesenteric veins where fecundated female worms lay hundred of eggs daily. Some of the egg antigens are trapped in the liver and induce a vigorous granulomatous response. High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1, a nuclear factor, can also be secreted and act as a cytokine. Schistosome HMGB1 (SmHMGB1 is secreted by the eggs and stimulate the production of key cytokines involved in the pathology of schistosomiasis. Thus, understanding the mechanism of SmHMGB1 release becomes mandatory. Here, we addressed the question of how the nuclear SmHMGB1 can reach the extracellular space. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We showed in vitro and in vivo that CK2 phosphorylation was involved in the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SmHMGB1. By site-directed mutagenesis we mapped the two serine residues of SmHMGB1 that were phosphorylated by CK2. By DNA bending and supercoiling assays we showed that CK2 phosphorylation of SmHMGB1 had no effect in the DNA binding activities of the protein. We showed by electron microscopy, as well as by cell transfection and fluorescence microscopy that SmHMGB1 was present in the nucleus and cytoplasm of adult schistosomes and mammalian cells. In addition, we showed that treatments of the cells with either a phosphatase or a CK2 inhibitor were able to enhance or block, respectively, the cellular traffic of SmHMGB1. Importantly, we showed by confocal microscopy and biochemically that SmHMGB1 is significantly secreted by S. mansoni eggs of infected animals and that SmHMGB1 that were localized in the periovular schistosomotic granuloma were phosphorylated. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that secretion of SmHMGB1 is regulated by phosphorylation. Moreover, our results suggest that egg-secreted SmHMGB1 may represent a new egg antigen. Therefore, the identification of drugs that specifically target phosphorylation of SmHMGB1 might block its secretion and interfere with the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis.

  5. Elicitation of strong immune responses by a DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of hepatitis C virus envelope protein E2 in murine and porcine animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Kang, H.N.; Babiuk, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    boosting with a recombinant E2 protein vaccine formulated with CpG ODN and 10% Emulsigen. The immunogenicity of HCV E2 vaccines was analyzed by ELISA for antibody responses, MTT assay for lymphocyte proliferation, ELISPOT for the number of interferon-gamma secreting cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte assays...... and shifted the immune response towards Th2-like ones in piglets. CONCLUSION: A DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of HCV E2 protein elicited E2-specific immune responses in mice and piglets. Recombinant E2 protein vaccination following DNA immunization significantly increased the antibody response......AIM: To characterize the immunogenicity of a hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 DNA vaccine alone or with a protein vaccine boost in murine and porcine animal models. METHODS: A DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of HCV E2 protein was constructed and used to vaccinate mice and piglets with or without...

  6. Proteins secreted by root-knot nematodes accumulate in the extracellular compartment during root infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Vieira, Paulo; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes are biotrophic parasites that invade the root apex of host plants and migrate towards the vascular cylinder where they induce the differentiation of root cells into hypertrophied multinucleated giant cells. Giant cells are part of the permanent feeding site required for nematode development into the adult stage. To date, a repertoire of candidate effectors potentially secreted by the nematode into the plant tissues to promote infection has been identified. However, the pre...

  7. Functional interaction between type III-secreted protein IncA of Chlamydophila psittaci and human G3BP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borth, Nicole; Litsche, Katrin; Franke, Claudia; Sachse, Konrad; Saluz, Hans Peter; Hänel, Frank

    2011-01-31

    Chlamydophila (Cp.) psittaci, the causative agent of psittacosis in birds and humans, is the most important zoonotic pathogen of the family Chlamydiaceae. These obligate intracellular bacteria are distinguished by a unique biphasic developmental cycle, which includes proliferation in a membrane-bound compartment termed inclusion. All Chlamydiaceae spp. possess a coding capacity for core components of a Type III secretion apparatus, which mediates specific delivery of anti-host effector proteins either into the chlamydial inclusion membrane or into the cytoplasm of target eukaryotic cells. Here we describe the interaction between Type III-secreted protein IncA of Cp. psittaci and host protein G3BP1 in a yeast two-hybrid system. In GST-pull down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments both in vitro and in vivo interaction between full-length IncA and G3BP1 were shown. Using fluorescence microscopy, the localization of G3BP1 near the inclusion membrane of Cp. psittaci-infected Hep-2 cells was demonstrated. Notably, infection of Hep-2 cells with Cp. psittaci and overexpression of IncA in HEK293 cells led to a decrease in c-Myc protein concentration. This effect could be ascribed to the interaction between IncA and G3BP1 since overexpression of an IncA mutant construct disabled to interact with G3BP1 failed to reduce c-Myc concentration. We hypothesize that lowering the host cell c-Myc protein concentration may be part of a strategy employed by Cp. psittaci to avoid apoptosis and scale down host cell proliferation.

  8. Comparing autotransporter β-domain configurations for their capacity to secrete heterologous proteins to the cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter S P Jong

    Full Text Available Monomeric autotransporters have been extensively used for export of recombinant proteins to the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria. A bottleneck in the biosynthesis of such constructs is the passage of the outer membrane, which is facilitated by the β-domain at the C terminus of an autotransporter in conjunction with the Bam complex in the outer membrane. We have evaluated eight β-domain constructs for their capacity to secrete fused proteins to the cell surface. These constructs derive from the monomeric autotransporters Hbp, IgA protease, Ag43 and EstA and the trimeric autotransporter Hia, which all were selected because they have been previously used for secretion of recombinant proteins. We fused three different protein domains to the eight β-domain constructs, being a Myc-tag, the Hbp passenger and a nanobody or VHH domain, and assessed expression, membrane insertion and surface exposure. Our results show that expression levels differed considerably between the constructs tested. The constructs that included the β-domains of Hbp and IgA protease appeared the most efficient and resulted in expression levels that were detectable on Coomassie-stained SDS-PAGE gels. The VHH domain appeared the most difficult fusion partner to export, probably due to its complex immunoglobulin-like structure with a tertiary structure stabilized by an intramolecular disulfide bond. Overall, the Hbp β-domain compared favorably in exporting the fused recombinant proteins, because it showed in every instance tested a good level of expression, stable membrane insertion and clear surface exposure.

  9. Identification of a secreted casein kinase 1 in Leishmania donovani: effect of protein over expression on parasite growth and virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Dan-Goor

    Full Text Available Casein kinase 1 (CK1 plays an important role in eukaryotic signaling pathways, and their substrates include key regulatory proteins involved in cell differentiation, proliferation and chromosome segregation. The Leishmania genome encodes six potential CK1 isoforms, of which five have orthologs in other trypanosomatidae. Leishmania donovani CK1 isoform 4 (Ldck1.4, orthologous to LmjF27.1780 is unique to Leishmania and contains a putative secretion signal peptide. The full-length gene and three shorter constructs were cloned and expressed in E. coli as His-tag proteins. Only the full-length 62.3 kDa protein showed protein kinase activity indicating that the N-terminal and C-terminal domains are essential for protein activity. LdCK1.4-FLAG was stably over expressed in L. donovani, and shown by immunofluorescence to be localized primarily in the cytosol. Western blotting using anti-FLAG and anti-CK1.4 antibodies showed that this CK1 isoform is expressed and secreted by promastigotes. Over expression of LdCK1.4 had a significant effect on promastigote growth in culture with these parasites growing to higher cell densities than the control parasites (wild-type or Ld:luciferase, P<0.001. Analysis by flow cytometry showed a higher percentage, ∼4-5-fold, of virulent metacyclic promastigotes on day 3 among the LdCK1.4 parasites. Finally, parasites over expressing LdCK1.4 gave significantly higher infections of mouse peritoneal macrophages compared to wild-type parasites, 28.6% versus 6.3%, respectively (p = 0.0005. These results suggest that LdCK1.4 plays an important role in parasite survival and virulence. Further studies are needed to validate CK1.4 as a therapeutic target in Leishmania.

  10. G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)40-dependent potentiation of insulin secretion in mouse islets is mediated by protein kinase D1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdaoussi, M; Bergeron, V; Zarrouki, B; Kolic, J; Cantley, J; Fielitz, J; Olson, E N; Prentki, M; Biden, T; MacDonald, P E; Poitout, V

    2012-10-01

    Activation of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)40 by long-chain fatty acids potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic beta cells, and GPR40 agonists are in clinical development for type 2 diabetes therapy. GPR40 couples to the G protein subunit Gα(q/11) but the signalling cascade activated downstream is unknown. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms of GPR40-dependent potentiation of GSIS by fatty acids. Insulin secretion in response to glucose, oleate or diacylglycerol (DAG) was assessed in dynamic perifusions and static incubations in islets from wild-type (WT) and Gpr40 (-/-) mice. Depolymerisation of filamentous actin (F-actin) was visualised by phalloidin staining and epifluorescence. Pharmacological and molecular approaches were used to ascertain the roles of protein kinase D (PKD) and protein kinase C delta in GPR40-mediated potentiation of GSIS. Oleate potentiates the second phase of GSIS, and this effect is largely dependent upon GPR40. Accordingly, oleate induces rapid F-actin remodelling in WT but not in Gpr40 (-/-) islets. Exogenous DAG potentiates GSIS in both WT and Gpr40 (-/-) islets. Oleate induces PKD phosphorylation at residues Ser-744/748 and Ser-916 in WT but not Gpr40 (-/-) islets. Importantly, oleate-induced F-actin depolymerisation and potentiation of GSIS are lost upon pharmacological inhibition of PKD1 or deletion of Prkd1. We conclude that the signalling cascade downstream of GPR40 activation by fatty acids involves activation of PKD1, F-actin depolymerisation and potentiation of second-phase insulin secretion. These results provide important information on the mechanisms of action of GPR40, a novel drug target for type 2 diabetes.

  11. Glucose triggers protein kinase A-dependent insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic islets through activation of the K+ATP channel-dependent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thams, Peter; Anwar, Mohammad R; Capito, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the significance of protein kinase A (PKA) in glucose triggering of ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(+)(ATP)) channel-dependent insulin secretion and in glucose amplification of K(+)(ATP) channel-independent insulin secretion. METHODS: Insulin release from cultured perifused mouse...... pancreatic islets was determined by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: In islets cultured at 5.5 mmol/l glucose, and then perifused in physiological Krebs-Ringer medium, the PKA inhibitors, H89 (10 micromol/l) and PKI 6-22 amide (30 micromol/l) did not inhibit glucose (16.7 mmol/l)-induced insulin secretion...... glucose amplification of K(+)(ATP) channel-independent insulin secretion. In the presence of 1 mmol/l ouabain and 250 micromol/l diazoxide, which cause modest Ca(2+) influx, glucose amplification of K(+)(ATP) channel-independent insulin secretion was observed without concomitant Ca(2+) stimulation of PKA...

  12. Secreted amyloid precursor protein β and secreted amyloid precursor protein α induce axon outgrowth in vitro through Egr1 signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Chasseigneaux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: sAPPα released after α secretase cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP has several functions including the stimulation of neurite outgrowth although detailed morphometric analysis has not been done. Two domains involved in this function have been described and are present in sAPPβ released at the first step of amyloid peptide cleavage, raising the possibility that sAPPβ could also stimulate neurite outgrowth. We investigated the morphological effects of sAPPα and sAPPβ on primary neurons and identified a key signaling event required for the changes observed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Final concentrations of 50 to 150 nM bacterial recombinant sAPPα or sAPPβ added to primary neuronal cultures after 1 day in vitro decreased cell adhesion 24 hours later and primary dendrite length 96 hours later. 150 nM sAPPα and sAPPβ induced a similar increase of axon outgrowth, although this increase was already significant at 100 nM sAPPα. These morphological changes induced by sAPPs were also observed when added to differentiated neurons at 5 days in vitro. Real time PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that sAPPα and sAPPβ stimulated Egr1 expression downstream of MAPK/ERK activation. Furthermore, in primary neurons from Egr1 -/- mice, sAPPs affected dendritic length but did not induce any increase of axon length. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: sAPPα and sAPPβ decrease cell adhesion and increase axon elongation. These morphological changes are similar to what has been observed in response to heparan sulfate. The sAPPα/sAPPβ stimulated increase in axon growth requires Egr1 signaling. These data suggest that sAPPβ is not deleterious per se. Since sAPPβ and sAPPα are present in the embryonic brain, these two APP metabolites might play a role in axon outgrowth during development and in response to brain damage.

  13. Proteomic analysis of pig (Sus scrofa olfactory soluble proteome reveals O-GlcNAcylation of secreted odorant-binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eNAGNAN-LE MEILLOUR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of olfactory binding proteins (OBPs is a key point to understand their role in molecular olfaction. Since only few different sequences were characterized in each mammalian species, they have been considered as passive carriers of odors and pheromones. We have explored the soluble proteome of pig nasal mucus, taking benefit of the powerful tools of proteomics. Combining two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and western-blot with specific antibodies, our analyses revealed for the first time that the pig nasal mucus is mainly composed of secreted OBP isoforms, some of them being potentially modified by O-GlcNAcylation. An ortholog gene of the glycosyltransferase responsible of the O-GlcNAc linking on extracellular proteins in Drosophila and Mouse (EOGT was amplified from tissues of pigs of different ages and sex. The sequence was used in a phylogenetic analysis, which evidenced conservation of EOGT in insect and mammalian models studied in molecular olfaction. Extracellular O-GlcNAcylation of secreted OBPs could finely modulate their binding specificities to odors and pheromones. This constitutes a new mechanism for extracellular signaling by OBPs, suggesting that they act as the first step of odor discrimination.

  14. Impact of neutrophil-secreted myeloid related proteins 8 and 14 (MRP 8/14) on leishmaniasis progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Irazú; Shio, Marina T; Cesaro, Annabelle; Tessier, Philippe A; Olivier, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The myeloid-related proteins (MRPs) 8/14 are small proteins mainly produced by neutrophils, which have been reported to induce NO production in macrophages. On the other hand, Leishmania survives and multiplies within phagocytes by inactivating several of their microbicidal functions. Whereas MRPs are rapidly released during the innate immune response, their role in the regulation of Leishmaniasis is still unknown. In vitro experiments revealed that Leishmania infection alters MRP-induced signaling, leading to inhibition of macrophage functions (NO, TNF-α). In contrast, MRP-primed cells showed normal signaling activation and NO production in response to Leishmania infection. Using a murine air-pouch model, we observed that infection with L. major induced leukocyte recruitment and MRP secretion comparable to LPS-treated mice. Depletion of MRPs significantly reduced these inflammatory events and augmented both parasite load and footpad swelling during the first 8 weeks post-infection, as also observed in MRP KO mice. On the contrary, mouse treatment with recombinant MRPs (rMRPs) had the opposite effect. Collectively, our results suggest that rapid secretion of MRPs by neutrophils at the site of infection may protect uninfected macrophages and favor a more efficient innate inflammatory response against Leishmania infection. In summary, our study reveals the critical role played by MRPs in the regulation of Leishmania infection and how this pathogen can subvert its action.

  15. The yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii: a new host for heterologous protein production, secretion and for metabolic engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branduardi, Paola; Valli, Minoska; Brambilla, Luca; Sauer, Michael; Alberghina, Lilia; Porro, Danilo

    2004-01-01

    Molecular tools for the production of heterologous proteins and metabolic engineering applications of the non-conventional yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii were developed. The combination of Z. bailii's resistance to relatively high temperature, osmotic pressure and low pH values, with a high specific growth rate renders this yeast potentially interesting for exploitation for biotechnological purposes as well as for the understanding of the biological phenomena and mechanisms underlying the respective resistances. Looking forward to these potential applications, here we present the tools required for the production and the secretion of different heterologous proteins, and one example of a metabolic engineering application of this non-conventional yeast, employing the newly developed molecular tools.

  16. Neudesin as a unique secreted protein with multi-functional roles in neural functions, energy metabolism, and tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroya eOhta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Neudesin was originally identified as a secreted protein with neurotrophic activity, and, thereafter, was also termed neuron-derived neurotrophic factor (NENF or the candidate oncogene GIG47. Neudesin with a conserved cytochrome 5-like heme/steroid-binding domain activates intracellular signaling pathways possibly through the activation of G protein-coupled receptors. In the brain, hypothalamic Neudesin decreases food intake. Neudesin knockout mice also exhibit anxiety-like behavior, indicating its roles in the hippocampal anxiety circuitry. Neudesin is also expressed in various peripheral tissues. Neudesin knockout mice are strongly resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity due to elevated systemic sympathetic activity, heat production, and adipocytic lipolysis. Neudesin, which is over-expressed or induced by DNA hypomethylation in multiple human cancers, also stimulates tumorigenesis. These findings indicate that Neudesin plays roles in neural functions, energy metabolism, and tumorigenesis and is expected to be a novel target for obesity and anti-cancer treatments.

  17. Synthesis and structural insight into ESX-1 Substrate Protein C, an immunodominant Mycobacterium tuberculosis-secreted antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Soo Jung; Harris, Paul W R; Squire, Chris J; Baker, Edward N; Brimble, Margaret A

    2016-05-01

    Tuberculosis, the second leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, is recognized as a major threat to human health due to a lack of practicable vaccines against the disease and the widespread occurrence of drug resistance. With a pressing need for a novel protein target as a platform for new vaccine development, ESX-1 Substrate Protein C (EspC) was recently identified as a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis-secreted antigen that is as immunodominant as the two specific immunodiagnostic T-cell antigens, CFP-10 and ESAT-6. Here, we present the first chemical total synthesis, folding conditions, and circular dichroism data of EspC. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 267-274, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-α regulates human follicular dendritic cell-secreted protein gene transcription in gingival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Yasunobu; Noda, Keisuke; Yamazaki, Mizuho; Kato, Ayako; Mezawa, Masaru; Takai, Hideki; Nakayama, Yohei; Ogata, Yorimasa

    2018-01-22

    Follicular dendritic cell-secreted protein (FDC-SP) is a secreted protein expressed in follicular dendritic cells, periodontal ligament and junctional epithelium. To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of the human FDC-SP gene by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), we conducted real-time PCR, Western blotting, transient transfection analyses with chimeric constructs of the FDC-SP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene, gel mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using Ca9-22 gingival epithelial cells. TNF-α (10 ng/ml) induced FDC-SP mRNA and protein levels at 3 hr and reached maximum at 12 hr. In transient transfection assays, TNF-α (12 hr) increased the LUC activities of constructs between -116FDCSP and -948FDCSP including the human FDC-SP gene promoter. Transcriptional stimulations by TNF-α were partially inhibited in the -345FDCSP constructs that included 3-bp mutations in the YY1, GATA, CCAAT enhancer-binding protein 2 (C/EBP2) and C/EBP3. Transcriptional activities induced by TNF-α were inhibited by tyrosine kinase, MEK1/2 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors. The results of ChIP assays showed that YY1, GATA and C/EBPβ transcription factors interacted with the YY1, GATA, C/EBP2 and C/EBP3 elements that were increased by TNF-α. These studies show that TNF-α stimulates human FDC-SP gene transcription by targeting YY1, GATA, C/EBP2 and C/EBP3 in the FDC-SP gene promoter. © 2018 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Functional characterization of the protein C A267T mutation: evidence for impaired secretion due to defective intracellular transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeldhorn Lena

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activated protein C (PC is a serine protease that regulates blood coagulation by inactivating coagulation factors Va and VIIIa. PC deficiency is an autosomally inherited disorder associated with a high risk of recurrent venous thrombosis. The aim of the study was to explore the mechanisms responsible for severe PC deficiency in a patient with the protein C A267T mutation by in-vitro expression studies. Results Huh7 and CHO-K1 cells were transiently transfected with expression vectors containing wild-type (WT PC and mutated PC (A267T PC cDNAs. PC mRNA levels were assessed by qRT-PCR and the PC protein levels were measured by ELISA. The mRNA levels of WT PC and A267T PC were similar, while the intracellular protein level of A267T PC was moderately decreased compared to WT PC. The secretion of A267T PC into the medium was severely impaired. No differences in molecular weights were observed between WT and A267T PC before and after treatment with endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase. Proteasomal and lysosomal degradations were examined using lactacystin and bafilomycin, respectively, and revealed that A267T PC was slightly more susceptible for proteasomal degradation than WT PC. Intracellular co-localization analysis indicated that A267T PC was mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, whereas WT PC was observed in both ER and Golgi. Conclusions In contrast to what has been reported for other PC mutants, intracellular degradation of A267T PC was not the main/dominant mechanism underlying the reduced intracellular and secretion levels of PC. Our results indicate that the A267T mutation most likely caused misfolding of PC, which might lead to increased retention of the mutated PC in ER.

  20. The Rab27a-binding protein, JFC1, regulates androgen-dependent secretion of prostate-specific antigen and prostatic-specific acid phosphatase1

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jennifer L.; Ellis, Beverly A.; Noack, Deborah; Seabra, Miguel C.; Catz, Sergio D.

    2005-01-01

    Two of the major proteins secreted by the prostate epithelium secretory cells are PSA (prostate-specific antigen) and PSAP (prostatic-specific acid phosphatase). The molecules involved in the secretory machinery of PSA and PSAP, and the regulation of this machinery, remain unknown. In the present paper, we provide evidence that JFC1 [synaptotagmin-like protein (slp1)], a Rab27a- and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-binding protein, regulates the androgen-dependent secretion of PSAP and PSA in human LNCaP pros...

  1. Extracytoplasmic proteases determining the cleavage and release of secreted proteins, lipoproteins, and membrane proteins in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnappa, Laxmi; Dreisbach, Annette; Otto, Andreas; Goosens, Vivianne J; Cranenburgh, Rocky M; Harwood, Colin R; Becher, Dörte; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are known to export many proteins to the cell wall and growth medium, and accordingly, many studies have addressed the respective protein export mechanisms. In contrast, very little is known about the subsequent fate of these proteins. The present studies were therefore aimed

  2. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibodies Against SpiC Protein Secreted by T3SS-2 of Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shizhong; Qian, Shanshan; Pan, Zhiming; Sun, Lin; Chen, Xiang; Jiao, Xinan

    2015-12-01

    SpiC protein, a member of Salmonella spp. type III secretion system (T3SS)-2, is necessary for the survival of Salmonella within macrophages, and it plays a vital role in Salmonella pathogenesis. To develop and test monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against SpiC protein, two recombinant proteins, rHis-SpiC and rGST-SpiC, were expressed in vitro in the prokaryotic expression vectors pET-30(a) and pGEX-6p-1, respectively, and rHis-SpiC protein used to immunize mice. Hybridomas were generated from the splenocytes of these mice and the monoclonal antibodies produced by these cells were assessed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with rGST-SpiC as the coating antigen. An immunoblotting analysis indicated that all seven of the MAbs developed in this study could specifically recognize the SpiC protein. These MAbs will be very useful in the study of SpiC function and for use in the immunodiagnosis of Salmonella infection.

  3. Genetic and biochemical characterization of the cell wall hydrolase activity of the major secreted protein of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar J J Claes

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG produces two major secreted proteins, designated here Msp1 (LGG_00324 or p75 and Msp2 (LGG_00031 or p40, which have been reported to promote the survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells. Intriguingly, although each of these proteins shares homology with cell wall hydrolases, a physiological function that correlates with such an enzymatic activity remained to be substantiated in LGG. To investigate the bacterial function, we constructed knock-out mutants in the corresponding genes aiming to establish a genotype to phenotype relation. Microscopic examination of the msp1 mutant showed the presence of rather long and overly extended cell chains, which suggests that normal daughter cell separation is hampered. Subsequent observation of the LGG wild-type cells by immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the Msp1 protein accumulates at the septum of exponential-phase cells. The cell wall hydrolyzing activity of the Msp1 protein was confirmed by zymogram analysis. Subsequent analysis by RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry of the digestion products of LGG peptidoglycan (PG by Msp1 indicated that the Msp1 protein has D-glutamyl-L-lysyl endopeptidase activity. Immunofluorescence microscopy and the failure to construct a knock-out mutant suggest an indispensable role for Msp2 in priming septum formation in LGG.

  4. The 2.5 Å structure of the enterococcus conjugation protein TraM resembles VirB8 type IV secretion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessweiner-Mohr, Nikolaus; Grumet, Lukas; Arends, Karsten; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Gruber, Christian C; Gruber, Karl; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Kropec-Huebner, Andrea; Huebner, Johannes; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Keller, Walter

    2013-01-18

    Conjugative plasmid transfer is the most important means of spreading antibiotic resistance and virulence genes among bacteria and therefore presents a serious threat to human health. The process requires direct cell-cell contact made possible by a multiprotein complex that spans cellular membranes and serves as a channel for macromolecular secretion. Thus far, well studied conjugative type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are of Gram-negative (G-) origin. Although many medically relevant pathogens (e.g., enterococci, staphylococci, and streptococci) are Gram-positive (G+), their conjugation systems have received little attention. This study provides structural information for the transfer protein TraM of the G+ broad host range Enterococcus conjugative plasmid pIP501. Immunolocalization demonstrated that the protein localizes to the cell wall. We then used opsonophagocytosis as a novel tool to verify that TraM was exposed on the cell surface. In these assays, antibodies generated to TraM recruited macrophages and enabled killing of pIP501 harboring Enteroccocus faecalis cells. The crystal structure of the C-terminal, surface-exposed domain of TraM was determined to 2.5 Å resolution. The structure, molecular dynamics, and cross-linking studies indicated that a TraM trimer acts as the biological unit. Despite the absence of sequence-based similarity, TraM unexpectedly displayed a fold similar to the T4SS VirB8 proteins from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Brucella suis (G-) and to the transfer protein TcpC from Clostridium perfringens plasmid pCW3 (G+). Based on the alignments of secondary structure elements of VirB8-like proteins from mobile genetic elements and chromosomally encoded T4SS from G+ and G- bacteria, we propose a new classification scheme of VirB8-like proteins.

  5. Gibberellic Acid-Induced Aleurone Layers Responding to Heat Shock or Tunicamycin Provide Insight into the N-Glycoproteome, Protein Secretion, and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Espin, Gregorio; Dedvisitsakul, Plaipol; Hägglund, Per

    2014-01-01

    The growing relevance of plants for the production of recombinant proteins makes understanding the secretory machinery, including the identification of glycosylation sites in secreted proteins, an important goal of plant proteomics. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone layers maintained in vitro...... effects on both the intracellular and secreted proteomes. Proteins in a total of 22 and 178 two-dimensional gel spots changing in intensity in extracellular and intracellular fractions, respectively, were identified by mass spectrometry. Among these are proteins with key roles in protein processing...... shock proteins, decreased in heat-shocked aleurone layers. Additionally, glycopeptide enrichment and N-glycosylation analysis identified 73 glycosylation sites in 65 aleurone layer proteins, with 53 of the glycoproteins found in extracellular fractions and 36 found in intracellular fractions...

  6. Fluorescent labeling in semi-solid medium for selection of mammalian cells secreting high-levels of recombinant proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garnier Alain

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the powerful impact in recent years of gene expression markers like the green fluorescent protein (GFP to link the expression of recombinant protein for selection of high producers, there is a strong incentive to develop rapid and efficient methods for isolating mammalian cell clones secreting high levels of marker-free recombinant proteins. Recently, a method combining cell colony growth in methylcellulose-based medium with detection by a fluorescently labeled secondary antibody or antigen has shown promise for the selection of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines secreting recombinant antibodies. Here we report an extension of this method referred to as fluorescent labeling in semi-solid medium (FLSSM to detect recombinant proteins significantly smaller than antibodies, such as IGF-E5, a 25 kDa insulin-like growth factor derivative. Results CHO cell clones, expressing 300 μg/ml IGF-E5 in batch culture, were isolated more easily and quickly compared to the classic limiting dilution method. The intensity of the detected fluorescent signal was found to be proportional to the amount of IGF-E5 secreted, thus allowing the highest producers in the population to be identified and picked. CHO clones producing up to 9.5 μg/ml of Tissue-Plasminogen Activator (tPA, 67 kDa were also generated using FLSSM. In addition, IGF-E5 high-producers were isolated from 293SF transfectants, showing that cell selection in semi-solid medium is not limited to CHO and lymphoid cells. The best positive clones were collected with a micromanipulator as well as with an automated colony picker, thus demonstrating the method's high throughput potential. Conclusion FLSSM allows rapid visualization of the high secretors from transfected pools prior to picking, thus eliminating the tedious task of screening a high number of cell isolates. Because of its rapidity and its simplicity, FLSSM is a versatile method for the screening of high producers for

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of extracellular secreted proteins expressed by two pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii clinical isolates and a non-pathogenic ATCC strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Ming; Lin, Wei-Chen; Li, Sung-Chou; Shih, Min-Hsiu; Chan, Wen-Ching; Shin, Jyh-Wei; Huang, Fu-Chin

    2016-07-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a serious ocular disease caused by pathogenic Acanthamoeba gaining entry through wounds in the corneal injury; generally, patients at risk for contracting AK wear contact lenses, usually over a long period of time. Moreover, pathogenic Acanthamoeba causes serious consequences: it makes the cornea turbid and difficult to operate on, including procedures such as enucleation of the eyeball. At present, diagnosis of this disease is not straightforward, and treatment is very demanding. We have established the comparative transcriptome and extracellular secreted proteomic database according to the non-pathogenic strain ATCC 30010 and the pathogenic strains NCKU_B and NCKU_D. We identified 44 secreted proteins successfully, 10 consensus secreted proteins and 34 strain-specific secreted proteins. These proteins may provide targets for therapy and immuno-diagnosis of Acanthamoeba infections. This study shows a suitable approach to identify secreted proteins in Acanthamoeba and provides new perspectives for the study of molecules potentially involved in the AK. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Proteins secreted by root-knot nematodes accumulate in the extracellular compartment during root infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Vieira, Paulo; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe

    2011-08-01

    Root-knot nematodes are biotrophic parasites that invade the root apex of host plants and migrate towards the vascular cylinder where they induce the differentiation of root cells into hypertrophied multinucleated giant cells. Giant cells are part of the permanent feeding site required for nematode development into the adult stage. To date, a repertoire of candidate effectors potentially secreted by the nematode into the plant tissues to promote infection has been identified. However, the precise role of these candidate effectors during root invasion or during giant cell induction and maintenance remains largely unknown. Primarily, the identification of the destination of nematode effectors within plant cell compartment(s) is crucial to decipher their actual functions. We analysed the fine localization in root tissues of five nematode effectors throughout the migratory and sedentary phases of parasitism using an adapted immunocytochemical method that preserves host and pathogen tissues.  We showed that secretion of effectors from the amphids or the oesophageal glands is tightly regulated during the course of infection. The analysed effectors accumulated in the root tissues along the nematode migratory path and along the cell wall of giant cells, showing the apoplasm as an important destination compartment for these effectors during migration and feeding cell formation.

  9. Structural Features Reminiscent of ATP-Driven Protein Translocases Are Essential for the Function of a Type III Secretion-Associated ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Junya; Lefebre, Matthew; Galán, Jorge E

    2015-09-01

    Many bacterial pathogens and symbionts utilize type III secretion systems to interact with their hosts. These machines have evolved to deliver bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic target cells to modulate a variety of cellular functions. One of the most conserved components of these systems is an ATPase, which plays an essential role in the recognition and unfolding of proteins destined for secretion by the type III pathway. Here we show that structural features reminiscent of other ATP-driven protein translocases are essential for the function of InvC, the ATPase associated with a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium type III secretion system. Mutational and functional analyses showed that a two-helix-finger motif and a conserved loop located at the entrance of and within the predicted pore formed by the hexameric ATPase are essential for InvC function. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the function of this highly conserved component of type III secretion machines. Type III secretion machines are essential for the virulence or symbiotic relationships of many bacteria. These machines have evolved to deliver bacterial effector proteins into host cells to modulate cellular functions, thus facilitating bacterial colonization and replication. An essential component of these machines is a highly conserved ATPase, which is necessary for the recognition and secretion of proteins destined to be delivered by the type III secretion pathway. Using modeling and structure and function analyses, we have identified structural features of one of these ATPases from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium that help to explain important aspects of its function. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. [Targeted tumor suppression by a secreted fusion protein consisting of anti- erbB2 antibody and reversed caspase-3 to SKBr3 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-hong; Jia, Lin-tao; Yu, Cui-juan; Qu, Ping; Dong, Hai-long; Zhao, Jing; Xu, Yan-ming; Wang, Cheng-Ji; Yang, An-gang

    2003-04-10

    To investigate the targeted killing effect to SKBr3 cells due to the expression of a secreted fusion protein consisting of anti-erbB2 antibody and reversed caspase-3. A recombinant plasmid pCMV-e23scFv-PEII-revcasp 3 was constructed by subcloning reversed caspase-3 gene to the downstream of anti-erbB2 antibody and transfected into Jurkat cells. The cell lines which secreted expressing fusion protein stably were selected. The fusion protein in media was detected by ELISA and the media was used to culture human breast cancer SKBr3 cells. The recombinant plasmids with liposomes was administrated to BALB/C nude mouses bearing SKBr3 tumor by intramuscular injection. The targetting effect of the recombinant fusion protein caspase-3 was detected by indirect immunofluorescence staining. Fusion protein can be expressed and secreted by Jurkat cells stably and kill SKBr3 cells. Significant prolonged survival time (prolonged by 72%) and inhibition of tumor growth in vivo (within inhibition ratio of 77%) were seen in the group administered with recombinant plasmids. Indirect immunofluorescence staining showed that the recombinant fusion protein caspase-3 has targetting effect. Secreted expression of the fusion protein consisting of anti-erbB2 antibody and reversed caspase-3 can targetedly induce SKBr3 cells to death.

  11. Microfluidic screening and whole-genome sequencing identifies mutations associated with improved protein secretion by yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Mingtao; Bai, Yunpeng; Sjostrom, Staffan L.

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for biotech-based production of recombinant proteins for use as pharmaceuticals in the food and feed industry and in industrial applications. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is among preferred cell factories for recombinant protein production, and there is increasing...

  12. Characterization of transgenic mice that secrete functional human protein C inhibitor into the circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, G. T.; van Vuuren, A. J.; Girma, M.; Tiekstra, M. J.; Kwast, L.; Koster, J. G.; Rijneveld, A. W.; Elisen, M. G.; van der Poll, T.; Meijers, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a heparin binding serine protease inhibitor in plasma, which exerts procoagulant activity by inhibiting thrombomodulin-bound thrombin or activated protein C (APC). Since the role of PCI in vivo is largely unknown we generated genetically modified mice with expression of

  13. RTX proteins: a highly diverse family secreted by a common mechanism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linhartová, Irena; Bumba, Ladislav; Mašín, Jiří; Basler, Marek; Osička, Radim; Kamanová, Jana; Procházková, Kateřina; Adkins, Irena; Hejnová-Holubová, Jana; Sadílková, Lenka; Morová, Jana; Šebo, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 6 (2010), s. 1076-1112 ISSN 0168-6445 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200914; GA MŠk 2B06161; GA MŠk 1M0506; GA AV ČR KAN200520702; GA ČR GA310/08/0447; GA ČR GP310/09/P582; GA ČR GP310/07/P115; GA ČR GP204/07/P105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : bacterial toxin * type I secretion system * RTX locus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 11.796, year: 2010

  14. The tandemly repeated NTPase (NTPDase) from Neospora caninum is a canonical dense granule protein whose RNA expression, protein secretion and phosphorylation coincides with the tachyzoite egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Fernández, Iván; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Álvarez-García, Gema; Marugán-Hernández, Virginia; García-Lunar, Paula; Hemphill, Andrew; Ortega-Mora, Luis M

    2016-06-21

    NTPases (also NTPDases) are enzymes with apyrase activity. They are widely distributed among eukaryotes, and also among members of the family Sarcocystidae. In Toxoplasma gondii, the TgNTPase accumulates in the dense granules, and has been commonly associated with the strain virulence. In the closely related Neospora caninum, the NcNTPase lacks nucleoside diphosphate hydrolase activity and appears to be more abundant in virulent isolates, indicating that it may contribute to the pathogenicity of neosporosis. However, so far no additional information on NcNTPase has been provided. Herein, the NcNTPase coding sequences were analysed by different in silico and de novo sequencing approaches. A comparative analysis of NcNTPase and NcGRA7 in terms of protein dynamics, secretion, phosphorylation, and mRNA expression profiles during the tachyzoite lytic cycle was also carried out. Moreover, NcNTPase immunolocalization was analysed by confocal microscopy techniques over a set number of time-points. We describe the presence of three different loci containing three copies of the NcNTPase within the Nc-Liv genome, and report the existence of up to four different NcNTPase alleles in Nc-Liv. We also provide evidence for the occurrence of diverse protein species of the NcNTPase by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Both NcNTPase and NcGRA7 were similarly up-regulated and secreted during the egress and/or early invasion phases, and were phosphorylated. However, its secretion was not affected by the addition of calcium modulators such as A23187 and ethanol. NcNTPase and NcGRA7 localized in dense granules and parasitophorous vacuole membrane throughout the lytic cycle, although differed in their inmunolocalization during early invasion and egress. The present study reveals the complexity of the NcNTPase loci in N. caninum. We hypothesize that the expression of different isoforms of the NcNTPase protein could contribute to parasite virulence. Our findings showed regulation of

  15. The role of secreted heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) in wound healing - how could it shape future therapeutics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiacong; Chang, Cheng; Li, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Defects in tissue repair or wound healing pose a clinical, economic and social problem worldwide. Despite decades of studies, there have been few effective therapeutic treatments. Areas covered: We discuss the possible reasons for why growth factor therapy did not succeed. We point out the lack of human disorder-relevant animal models as another blockade for therapeutic development. We summarize the recent discovery of secreted heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) as a novel wound healing agent. Expert commentary: Wound healing is a highly complex and multistep process that requires participations of many cell types, extracellular matrices and soluble molecules to work together in a spatial and temporal fashion within the wound microenvironment. The time that wounds remain open directly correlates with the clinical mortality associated with wounds. This time urgency makes the healing process impossible to regenerate back to the unwounded stage, rather forces it to take many shortcuts in order to protect life. Therefore, for therapeutic purpose, it is crucial to identify so-called 'driver genes' for the life-saving phase of wound closure. Keratinocyte-secreted Hsp90α was discovered in 2007 and has shown the promise by overcoming several key hurdles that have blocked the effectiveness of growth factors during wound healing.

  16. The V0-ATPase mediates apical secretion of exosomes containing Hedgehog-related proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Samuel; Benedetto, Alexandre; Garnier, Jean-Marie; Schwab, Yannick; Labouesse, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Polarized intracellular trafficking in epithelia is critical in development, immunity, and physiology to deliver morphogens, defensins, or ion pumps to the appropriate membrane domain. The mechanisms that control apical trafficking remain poorly defined. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, we characterize a novel apical secretion pathway involving multivesicularbodies and the release of exosomes at the apical plasma membrane. By means of two different genetic approaches, we show that the membrane-bound V0 sector of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) acts in this pathway, independent of its contribution to the V-ATPase proton pump activity. Specifically, we identified mutations in the V0 “a” subunit VHA-5 that affect either the V0-specific function or the V0+V1 function of the V-ATPase. These mutations allowed us to establish that the V0 sector mediates secretion of Hedgehog-related proteins. Our data raise the possibility that the V0 sector mediates exosome and morphogen release in mammals. PMID:16785323

  17. The Small GTPase MoSec4 Is Involved in Vegetative Development and Pathogenicity by Regulating the Extracellular Protein Secretion in Magnaporthe oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huakun Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Rab GTPase proteins play important roles in the membrane trafficking, and consequently protein secretion and development of eukaryotic organisms. However, little is known about the function of Rab GTPases in Magnaporthe oryzae. To further explore the function of Rab GTPases, we deleted the ortholog of the yeast Sec4p protein in M. oryzae, namely MoSEC4. The Mosec4 mutant is defective in polarized growth and conidiation, and it displays decreased appressorium turgor pressure and attenuated pathogenicity. Notably, the biotrophic invasive hyphae produced in rice cells are more bulbous and compressed in the Mosec4 mutant. Further studies showed that deletion of the MoSEC4 gene resulted in decreased secretion of extracellular enzymes and mislocalization of the cytoplasmic effector PWL2-mCherry-NLS. In accordance with its role in secretion, the GFP-MoSec4 fusion protein mainly accumulates at tips of growing vegetative hyphae. Our results suggest that the MoSec4 protein plays important roles in the secretion of extracellular proteins and consequently hyphal development and pathogenicity in the rice blast fungus.

  18. Amblyomma americanum salivary gland homolog of nSec1 is essential for saliva protein secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, Shahid; Ramakrishnan, Vijay G.; Tucker, James S.; Essenberg, Richard C.; Sauer, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor proteins assemble in tight core complexes which promote fusion of carrier vesicles with target compartments. Members of this class of proteins are expressed in all eukaryotic cells and distributed in distinct subcellular compartments. All vesicle transport mechanisms known to date have an essential requirement for a member of the Sec1 protein family, including the nSec1 in regulated exocytosis. A homolog of nSec1 was cloned and sequenced from the salivary glands of partially fed female ticks. Double-stranded RNA was used to specifically reduce the amount of nSec1 mRNA and protein in female adult tick salivary glands. This reduction was accompanied by a decrease in anticoagulant protein release by the glands and by abnormalities in feeding by dsRNA treated ticks. We report the efficacy of double-stranded RNA-mediated interference in 'knocking down' nSec1 both in vivo and in vitro in tick salivary glands and the applicability of this technique for studying the mechanism of exocytosis in tick salivary glands

  19. Construction of Lactococcus lactis expressing secreted and anchored Eimeria tenella 3-1E protein and comparison of protective immunity against homologous challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunli; Zhang, Lili; Gao, Mingyang; Ma, Dexing

    2017-07-01

    Two novel plasmids pTX8048-SP-Δ3-1E and pTX8048-SP-NAΔ3-1E-CWA were constructed. The plasmids were respectively electrotransformed into L. lactis NZ9000 to generate strain of L. lactis/pTX8048-SP-Δ3-1E in which 3-1E protein was expressed in secretion, and L. lactis/pTX8048-SP-NAΔ3-1E-CWA on which 3-1E protein was covalently anchored to the surface of bacteria cells. The expression of target proteins were examined by Western blot. The live lactococci expressing secreted 3-1E protein, anchored 3-1E protein, and cytoplasmic 3-1E protein was administered orally to chickens respectively, and the protective immunity and efficacy were compared by animal experiment. The results showed oral immunization to chickens with recombinant lactococci expressing anchored 3-1E protein elicited high 3-1E-specific serum IgG, increased high proportion of CD4 + and CD8α + cells in spleen, alleviated average lesion score in cecum, decreased the oocyst output per chicken compared to lactococci expressing cytoplasmic or secreted 3-1E protein. Taken together, these findings indicated the surface anchored Eimeria protein displayed by L. lacits can induce protective immunity and partial protection against homologous infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical evaluation of MPT-64 and MPT-59, two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for skin test reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T; Jensen, B N; Ravn, P

    1996-01-01

    SETTING: Department of Pulmonary Medicine P, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, MPT-64 and MPT-59 to induce delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions following intradermal administration. DESIGN...... of the experimental skin test antigens had properties superior to tuberculin PPD RT23 in humans. The failure of MPT-64 to induce delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in the majority of tuberculosis patients is discussed, in view of the potent reactivity to MPT-64 in tuberculous guinea pigs.......: In a small scale clinical investigation, skin reactions to these antigens were compared to reactions to tuberculin PPD RT23 in 1) patients with active tuberculosis, 2) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects with close contact with tuberculous patients, and 3) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects without contact...

  1. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kwon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD, and spontaneously detached (SD. The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%, protease inhibitors (7.4%, unknown function proteins (22%, immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%, lipocalin (3.1%, heme/iron binding (2.6%, extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%, oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%, transporter/ receptor related (3.2%, cytoskeletal (5.5%, and housekeeping-like (39.7%. Notable observations include: (i tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii 13% (76/582 of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick

  2. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Antônio F. M.; Moresco, James; Yates, John R.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%), lipocalin (3.1%), heme/iron binding (2.6%), extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%), oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%), transporter/ receptor related (3.2%), cytoskeletal (5.5%), and housekeeping-like (39.7%). Notable observations include: (i) tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii) 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii) 13% (76/582) of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv) ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick

  3. Comparative studies on the effect of a protein-synthesis inhibitor on aluminium-induced secretion of organic acids from Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and Cassia tora L. roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian; He, Yun Feng; You, Jiang Feng; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Xue Hui

    2006-02-01

    Aluminium (Al)-induced secretion of organic acids from plant roots is considered a mechanism of Al resistance, but the processes leading to the secretion of organic acids are still unknown. In the present study, a protein-synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHM), was used to investigate its effect on Al-induced organic acid secretion in a pattern I (rapid exudation of organic acids under Al stress) plant buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and a pattern II (exudation of organic acids was delayed by several hours under Al stress) plant Cassia tora L. A dose-response experiment showed that the secretion of oxalate by buckwheat roots was not affected by CHM when added in the range from 0 to 50 microM, with or without exposure to 100 microm Al, but the secretion of citrate was completely inhibited by 30 microM CHM in C. tora. A time-course experiment showed that even prolonged exposure to 20 microM CHM did not affect oxalate secretion in buckwheat, but significantly inhibited citrate secretion in C. tora. However, citrate synthase (CS) activity in C. tora was not affected during 12 h exposure to 100 microM Al when compared with that in control roots, although CHM can inhibit CS activity effectively. These results indicated that CS activity was not related to Al-regulated citrate efflux in C. tora. The total protein was decreased by 14.0% and 32.3% in C. tora and buckwheat root tip, respectively, after 3-h treatment with 20 microM CHM. A 3-h pulse with 20 microM CHM completely inhibited citrate efflux in C. tora during the next 6-h exposure to Al, although a small amount of citrate was exuded after 9-h exposure. However, oxalate efflux in buckwheat was not influenced by a similar treatment. In buckwheat, a 3-h pulse with 100 microM Al maintained oxalate secretion at a high level during the next 9 h, with or without CHM treatment. Conversely, in C. tora a 6-h pulse with 100 microM Al induced significant secretion of citrate which was inhibited by the CHM. Taken

  4. A multi-pronged search for a common structural motif in the secretion signal of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium type III effector proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchko, Garry W.; Niemann, George; Baker, Erin Shammel; Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred; Adkins, Joshua N.; McDermott, Jason E.

    2010-11-08

    Many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into the host cell where they reprogram host defenses and facilitate pathogenesis. While it has been determined that the first 20 - 30 N-terminal residues usually contain the ‘secretion signal’ that targets effector proteins for translocation, the molecular basis for recognition of this signal is not understood. Recent machine-learning approaches, such as SVM-based Identification and Evaluation of Virulence Effectors (SIEVE), have improved the ability to identify effector proteins from genomics sequence information. While these methods all suggest that the T3SS secretion signal has a characteristic amino acid composition bias, it is still unclear if the amino acid pattern is important and if there are any unifying structural properties that direct recognition. To address these issues a peptide corresponding to the secretion signal for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium effector SseJ was synthesized (residues 1-30, SseJ) along with scrambled peptides of the same amino acid composition that produced high (SseJ-H) and low (SseJ-L) SIEVE scores. The secretion properties of these three peptides were tested using a secretion signal-CyaA fusion assay and their structures systematically probed using circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance, and ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry. The signal-CyaA fusion assay showed that the native and SseJ-H fusion constructs were secreted into J774 macrophage at similar levels via the SPI-2 secretion pathway while secretion of the SseJ-L fusion construct was substantially retarded, suggesting that the SseJ secretion signal was sequence order dependent. The structural studies showed that the SseJ, SseJ-H, and SseJ-L peptides were intrinsically disordered in aqueous solution with only a small predisposition to adopt nascent helical structure in the presence of the powerful structure stabilizing agent, 1

  5. Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis alkaline phosphatase and use in identifying Streptococcus agalactiae secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M H; Nittayajarn, A; Ross, R P; Rothschild, C B; Parsonage, D; Claiborne, A; Rubens, C E

    1999-09-01

    We have identified and characterized an Enterococcus faecalis alkaline phosphatase (AP, encoded by phoZ). The predicted gene product shows homology with alkaline phosphatases from a variety of species; it has especially high similarity with two alkaline phosphatases from Bacillus subtilis. Expression of phoZ in Escherichia coli, E. faecalis, Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]), or Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) produces a blue-colony phenotype on plates containing a chromogenic substrate, 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolylphosphate (XP or BCIP). Two tests were made to determine if the activity of the enzyme is dependent upon the enzyme's subcellular location. First, elimination of the signal sequence reduced AP activity to 3% of the wild-type activity (or less) in three species of gram-positive bacteria. Restoration of export, using the signal sequence from C5a peptidase, restored AP activity to at least 50% of that of the wild type. Second, we engineered two chimeric proteins in which AP was fused to either a periplasmic domain or a cytoplasmic domain of lactose permease (a membrane protein). In E. coli, the periplasmic fusion had 17-fold-higher AP activity than the cytoplasmic fusion. We concluded that AP activity is export dependent. The signal sequence deletion mutant, phoZDeltass, was used to identify random genomic fragments from GBS that encode exported proteins or integral membrane proteins. Included in this set of fragments were genes that exhibited homology with the Rib protein (a cell wall protein from GBS) or with DppB (an integral membrane protein from GAS). AP acts as a reporter enzyme in GBS, GAS, and E. faecalis and is expected to be useful in a variety of gram-positive bacteria.

  6. Nuclear localization and secretion competence are conserved among henipavirus matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinton, Elisabeth C; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Lee, Alexander; Moseley, Gregory W; Marsh, Glenn A; Wang, Lin-Fa; Jans, David A; Lieu, Kim G; Netter, Hans J

    2017-04-01

    Viruses of the genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae are zoonotic pathogens, which have emerged in Southeast Asia, Australia and Africa. Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus are highly virulent pathogens transmitted from bats to animals and humans, while the henipavirus Cedar virus seems to be non-pathogenic in infection studies. The full replication cycle of the Paramyxoviridae occurs in the host cell's cytoplasm, where viral assembly is orchestrated by the matrix (M) protein. Unexpectedly, the NiV-M protein traffics through the nucleus as an essential step to engage the plasma membrane in preparation for viral budding/release. Comparative studies were performed to assess whether M protein nuclear localization is a common feature of the henipaviruses, including the recently sequenced (although not yet isolated) Ghanaian bat henipavirus (Kumasi virus, GH-M74a virus) and Mojiang virus. Live-cell confocal microscopy revealed that nuclear translocation of GFP-fused M protein is conserved between henipaviruses in both human- and bat-derived cell lines. However, the efficiency of M protein nuclear localization and virus-like particle budding competency varied. Additionally, Cedar virus-, Kumasi virus- and Mojiang virus-M proteins were mutated in a bipartite nuclear localization signal, indicating that a key lysine residue is essential for nuclear import, export and induction of budding events, as previously reported for NiV-M. The results of this study suggest that the M proteins of henipaviruses may utilize a similar nucleocytoplasmic trafficking pathway as an essential step during viral replication in both humans and bats.

  7. Association of Factor V Secretion with Protein Kinase B Signaling in Platelets from Horses with Atypical Equine Thrombasthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, J W; Pombo, M; Shirley, E; Blevins, G; Tablin, F

    2015-01-01

    Two congenital bleeding diatheses have been identified in Thoroughbred horses: Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) and a second, novel diathesis associated with abnormal platelet function in response to collagen and thrombin stimulation. Platelet dysfunction in horses with this second thrombasthenia results from a secretory defect. Two affected and 6 clinically normal horses. Ex vivo study. Washed platelets were examined for (1) expression of the αIIb-β3 integrin; (2) fibrinogen binding capacity in response to ADP and thrombin; (3) secretion of dense and α-granules; (4) activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway; and (5) cellular distribution of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-3-kinase, class 2B (PIK3C2B) and SH2 containing inositol-5'-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1). Platelets from affected horses expressed normal amounts of αIIb-β3 integrin and bound fibrinogen normally in response to ADP, but bound 80% less fibrinogen in response to thrombin. α-granules only released 50% as much Factor V as control platelets, but dense granules released their contents normally. Protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation was reduced after thrombin activation, but mTOR Complex 2 (mTORC2) and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) signaling were normal. SH2-containing inositol-5'-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) did not localize to the cytoskeleton of affected platelets and was decreased overall consistent with reduced AKT phosphorylation. Defects in fibrinogen binding, granule secretion, and signal transduction are unique to this thrombasthenia, which we designate as atypical equine thrombasthenia. Copyright © The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Overexpression of P53 protein and local hGH, IGF-I, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-2 and PRL secretion by human breast cancer explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewicz, Tomasz; Ryś, Janusz; Wójtowicz, Anna; Stochmal, Ewa; Jach, Robert; Krzysiek, Józef; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa; Huras, Hubert; Dziadek, Olivia

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in concert with insulin-like binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), insulin-like binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2), human growth hormone (GH) and P53 protein is involved in autocrine/paracrine growth signaling pathways as an adaptive response to environmental stimuli. The study evaluated the local secretion of PRL, hGH, IGF-I, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 by breast cancer tissue explants in relation to the overexpression of P53 protein in breast cancer tissue. Breast cancer explants were obtained during radical mastectomies. The overexpression of P53 protein was assessed immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibody (DAKO, Anti-Human P53 protein, clone DO-7); the results of the reaction were stratified into 5 groups. The lack of P53 protein overexpression was defined as 0% of cells that overexpressed P53 protein. IGF-I, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-2, and hGH levels were measured with RIA kits, and prolactin was measured with the MEIA kit. The local secretion of hGH by tumour explants - presenting a positive immunohistochemical reaction (IHCR) to the product of P53 gene - was twice as high as those with no IHCR to product of P53 gene; the opposite was noted in the case of IGF-I, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 secretion. In both cases, the level of hGH, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 secretion did not correlate with the ratio of cells overexpressing P53 protein. There was a significant decrease in local, basic IGFBP-2 secretion along with an increased ratio of cells with positive IHCR to product of P53 gene. Furthermore, local PRL secretion was not correlated with the ratio of cells overexpressing P53 protein in breast cancer tissue. Prolactin also exerts no influence on IGF-I secretion. Our results may suggest the presence of local hGH/IGF-I feedback in breast tissue as well as the possibility of P53/hGH/IGF-I/IGFBP-3 but not P53/PRL/IGF-I axis.

  9. Gastric emptying, gastric secretion and enterogastrone response after administration of milk proteins or their peptide hydrolysates in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, Jose A L; Holst, Jens Juul

    2004-01-01

    peptide hydrolysate (WHY) or casein hydrolysate (CAHY). All solutions were matched for volume (600 mL), nitrogen content (9.3 g/L), energy density (1069-1092 kJ/L), osmolality (288-306 mosmol/kg), pH (6.9-7.0) and temperature (37 degrees C). RESULTS: Solutions were emptied at similar rates, with mean half......BACKGROUND: The influence of protein fractionation on gastric emptying and rate of appearance of their constituent amino acids in peripheral blood remains unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: To examine the influence of the degree of protein fractionation on gastric emptying, gastric secretion, amino acid......-times of (mean +/- SEM) 21.4 +/- 1.3, 19.3 +/- 2.2, 18.0 +/- 2.5 and 19.4 +/- 2.8 min, for the WHY, CAHY, C and W, respectively. The rates of intestinal absorption of water and amino acids were similar with the exception of the casein protein solution, for which the speed of intestinal amino acid absorption...

  10. A secreted chitinase-like protein (OsCLP) supports root growth through calcium signaling in Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingni; Wang, Yiming; Kim, Sang Gon; Jung, Ki-Hong; Gupta, Ravi; Kim, Joonyup; Park, Younghoon; Kang, Kyu Young; Kim, Sun Tae

    2017-10-01

    Chitinases belong to a conserved protein family and play multiple roles in defense, development and growth regulation in plants. Here, we identified a secreted chitinase-like protein, OsCLP, which functions in rice growth. A T-DNA insertion mutant of OsCLP (osclp) showed significant retardation of root and shoot growth. A comparative proteomic analysis was carried out using root tissue of wild-type and the osclp mutant to understand the OsCLP-mediated rice growth retardation. Results obtained revealed that proteins related to glycolysis (phosphoglycerate kinase), stress adaption (chaperonin) and calcium signaling (calreticulin and CDPK1) were differentially regulated in osclp roots. Fura-2 molecular probe staining, which is an intracellular calcium indicator, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis suggested that the intracellular calcium content was significantly lower in roots of osclp as compared with the wild-type. Exogenous application of Ca 2+ resulted in successful recovery of both primary and lateral root growth in osclp. Moreover, overexpression of OsCLP resulted in improved growth with modified seed shape and starch structure; however, the overall yield remained unaffected. Taken together, our results highlight the involvement of OsCLP in rice growth by regulating the intracellular calcium concentrations. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  11. BcIEB1, a Botrytis cinerea secreted protein, elicits a defense response in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Marcos; González, Mario; González, Celedonio; Brito, Nélida

    2016-09-01

    BcIEB1 is a very abundant protein in the secretome of Botrytis cinerea but it has no known function and no similarity to any characterized protein family. Previous results suggested that this protein is an elicitor of the plant defense system. In this work we have generated loss-of-function B. cinerea mutants lacking BcIEB1 and we have expressed the protein in yeast to assay its activity on plants. Analysis of the Δbcieb1 mutants did not result in any observable phenotype, including no difference in the virulence on a variety of hosts. However, when BcIEB1 was applied to plant tissues it produced necrosis as well as a whole range of symptoms: inhibition of seedling growth in Arabidopsis and tobacco, ion leakage from tobacco leaf disks, a ROS burst, cell death and autofluorescence in onion epidermis, as well as the expression of defense genes in tobacco. Moreover, tobacco plants treated with BcIEB1 showed an increased systemic resistance to B. cinerea. A small 35-amino acids peptide derived from a conserved region of BcIEB1 is almost as active on plants as the whole protein. These results clearly indicate that BcIEB1 elicits plant defenses, probably as a consequence of its recognition as a pathogen associated molecular pattern. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Data-independent liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS(E)) detection and quantification of the secreted Apium graveolens pathogen defense protein mannitol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Kevin; Cheng, Fang-Yi; Williamson, John D; Goshe, Michael B

    2010-04-15

    Plant cells secrete a wide variety of defense-related proteins into the extracellular space or apoplast in response to pathogen attack. One of these, mannitol dehydrogenase (MTD), is normally a cytoplasmic enzyme whose primary role is the regulation of intracellular levels of the sugar alcohol mannitol in plants. Recent immunological and biochemical evidence, however, suggests that MTD is also secreted into the apoplast in response to pathogen attack, despite lacking a known peptide signal sequence for Golgi-mediated secretion. Because many plant pathogenic fungi secrete mannitol to overcome pathogen-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the plant, extracellular localization of MTD is hypothesized to have a defensive role of catabolizing pathogen-secreted mannitol. In the current study, LC/MS(E) was used to analyze proteins in the secretome of Apium graveolens (celery) following treatment with salicylic acid (SA), an endogenous elicitor of defense responses in plants. Levels of MTD in the secretome of SA-treated celery cell cultures were found to be induced at least 18-fold over secretome samples from cell cultures not exposed to SA. This value is in close agreement with published immunological and biochemical observations. Overall, this report provides the first mass spectrometry identification and quantification measurements supporting the hypothesis that MTD is secreted in response to simulated pathogen attack via a non-classical secretion mechanism. As demonstrated with MTD secretion, LC/MS(E) can be implemented as a discovery-driven MRM-based quantitative approach which can be used to reveal potential post-translational modifications, thus providing a new method in the area of gel-free and label-free proteomic analysis. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Gene delivery into primary brain capillary endothelial cells for protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Annette Burkhart; Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Lichota, Jacek

    model was established by co-culturing primary BCECs together with primary astrocytes, both of which were isolated from rats. This was done in order to study the possibility of using gene transfection in an environment closer to the in-vivo BBB situation. The in-vitro BBB barrier model showed trans......-endothelial electrical resistance above 200 ohm*cm2, indicating that the BCECs formed a tight polar monolayer with functional tight junctions. This was confirmed by immunostaining for the thigh junction protein ZO-1. Rat BCECs were transfected with a red fluorescence protein Hc-RED for 24 hours. Positive transfection...

  14. The signaling cascades of Ganoderma lucidum extracts in stimulating non-amyloidogenic protein secretion in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinweha, Sirinthorn; Wanikiat, Payong; Sanvarinda, Yupin; Supavilai, Porntip

    2008-12-19

    Ganoderma lucidum (GL) is a medicinal mushroom that possesses various pharmacological properties which are also documented in the ancient reports where GL is praised for its effects on the promotion of health and longevity. In this study, we have investigated the effect of GL mycelia extracts on the non-amyloidogenic protein secretion (sAPPalpha) and the amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In order to characterize the signaling pathway which mediates GL-enhanced sAPPalpha secretion, we used inhibitors of nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling pathways, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1), protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), to block GL-mediated sAPPalpha secretion as well as ERK1/2 and PKC activation by using Western blot analysis. Our results provided for the first time evidence that GL mycelia extracts increased APP expression and promoted sAPPalpha secretion. In addition, GL extracts activated ERK1/2 and PKC phosphorylation. The complex signaling cascades of PI3K and ERK may be responsible for GL-mediated sAPPalpha secretion.

  15. Characterization of venom (Duvernoy's secretion) from twelve species of colubrid snakes and partial sequence of four venom proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R E; Mackessy, S P

    2000-12-01

    R.E. Hill and S.P. Mackessy. Characterization of venom (Duvernoy's secretion) from twelve species of colubrid snakes and partial sequence of four venom proteins. Toxicon XX, xx-yy, 2000. - Venomous colubrids, which include more than 700 snake species worldwide, represent a vast potential source of novel biological compounds. The present study characterized venom (Duvernoy's gland secretion) collected from twelve species of opisthoglyphous (rear-fanged) colubrid snakes, an extremely diverse assemblage of non-venomous to highly venomous snakes. Most venoms displayed proteolytic activity (casein), though activity levels varied considerably. Low phosphodiesterase activity was detected in several venoms (Amphiesma stolata, Diadophis punctatus, Heterodon nasicus kennerlyi, H. n. nasicus and Thamnophis elegans vagrans), and acetylcholinesterase was found in Boiga irregularis saliva and venom, but no venoms displayed hyaluronidase, thrombin-like or kallikrein-like activities. High phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity was found in Trimorphodon biscutatus lambda venom, and moderate levels were detected in Boiga dendrophila and D. p. regalis venoms as well as B. dendrophila and H. n. nasicus salivas. Non-reducing SDS-PAGE revealed 7-20 protein bands (3.5 to over 200 kD, depending on species) for all venoms analyzed, and electrophoretic profiles of venoms were typically quite distinct from saliva profiles. Components from A. stolata, Hydrodynastes gigas, Tantilla nigriceps and T. e. vagrans venoms showed protease activity when run on gelatin zymogram gels. N-terminal protein sequences for three 26 kD venom components of three species (H. gigas, H. torquata, T. biscutatus) and one 3.5 kD component (T. nigriceps) were also obtained, and the 3.5 kD peptide showed apparent sequence homology with human vascular endothelial growth factor; these data represent the first sequences of colubrid venom components. Protease, phosphodiesterase and PLA(2) activities are also common to elapid

  16. RNA-seq based expression analysis of the CHO cell protein secretion pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne Mathilde; Kaas, Christian Schrøder; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup

    The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-line is the predominant mammalian industrial cell line being used to produce recombinant therapeutic proteins. Although CHO cells have been used for more than 25 years, the genome sequence was first published in 2011. So far there have been limited studies...

  17. Expression, secretion and antigenic variation of bacterial S-layer proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, H.J.; Pouwels, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    The function of the S-layer, a regularly arranged structure on the outside of numerous bacteria, appears to be different for bacteria living in different environments. Almost no similarity exists between the primary sequences of S-proteins, although their amino acid composition is comparable.

  18. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-infected cells secrete exosomes that contain Tax protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Elizabeth; Narayanan, Aarthi; Van Duyne, Rachel; Shabbeer-Meyering, Shabana; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Das, Ravi; Afonso, Philippe V; Sampey, Gavin C; Chung, Myung; Popratiloff, Anastas; Shrestha, Bindesh; Sehgal, Mohit; Jain, Pooja; Vertes, Akos; Mahieux, Renaud; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2014-08-08

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax controls many critical cellular pathways, including host cell DNA damage response mechanisms, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Extracellular vesicles called exosomes play critical roles during pathogenic viral infections as delivery vehicles for host and viral components, including proteins, mRNA, and microRNA. We hypothesized that exosomes derived from HTLV-1-infected cells contain unique host and viral proteins that may contribute to HTLV-1-induced pathogenesis. We found exosomes derived from infected cells to contain Tax protein and proinflammatory mediators as well as viral mRNA transcripts, including Tax, HBZ, and Env. Furthermore, we observed that exosomes released from HTLV-1-infected Tax-expressing cells contributed to enhanced survival of exosome-recipient cells when treated with Fas antibody. This survival was cFLIP-dependent, with Tax showing induction of NF-κB in exosome-recipient cells. Finally, IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cells that received Tax-containing exosomes were protected from apoptosis through activation of AKT. Similar experiments with primary cultures showed protection and survival of peripheral blood mononuclear cells even in the absence of phytohemagglutinin/IL-2. Surviving cells contained more phosphorylated Rb, consistent with the role of Tax in regulation of the cell cycle. Collectively, these results suggest that exosomes may play an important role in extracellular delivery of functional HTLV-1 proteins and mRNA to recipient cells. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1-infected Cells Secrete Exosomes That Contain Tax Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Elizabeth; Narayanan, Aarthi; Van Duyne, Rachel; Shabbeer-Meyering, Shabana; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Das, Ravi; Afonso, Philippe V.; Sampey, Gavin C.; Chung, Myung; Popratiloff, Anastas; Shrestha, Bindesh; Sehgal, Mohit; Jain, Pooja; Vertes, Akos; Mahieux, Renaud; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2014-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax controls many critical cellular pathways, including host cell DNA damage response mechanisms, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Extracellular vesicles called exosomes play critical roles during pathogenic viral infections as delivery vehicles for host and viral components, including proteins, mRNA, and microRNA. We hypothesized that exosomes derived from HTLV-1-infected cells contain unique host and viral proteins that may contribute to HTLV-1-induced pathogenesis. We found exosomes derived from infected cells to contain Tax protein and proinflammatory mediators as well as viral mRNA transcripts, including Tax, HBZ, and Env. Furthermore, we observed that exosomes released from HTLV-1-infected Tax-expressing cells contributed to enhanced survival of exosome-recipient cells when treated with Fas antibody. This survival was cFLIP-dependent, with Tax showing induction of NF-κB in exosome-recipient cells. Finally, IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cells that received Tax-containing exosomes were protected from apoptosis through activation of AKT. Similar experiments with primary cultures showed protection and survival of peripheral blood mononuclear cells even in the absence of phytohemagglutinin/IL-2. Surviving cells contained more phosphorylated Rb, consistent with the role of Tax in regulation of the cell cycle. Collectively, these results suggest that exosomes may play an important role in extracellular delivery of functional HTLV-1 proteins and mRNA to recipient cells. PMID:24939845

  20. Inhibition of cellular protein secretion by norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 requires a mimic of an endoplasmic reticulum export signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler M Sharp

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and Golgi apparatus is central to cellular homeostasis. ER export signals are utilized by a subset of proteins to rapidly exit the ER by direct uptake into COPII vesicles for transport to the Golgi. Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 contains a YXΦESDG motif that mimics a di-acidic ER export signal in both sequence and function. However, unlike normal ER export signals, the ER export signal mimic of p22 is necessary for apparent inhibition of normal COPII vesicle trafficking, which leads to Golgi disassembly and antagonism of Golgi-dependent cellular protein secretion. This is the first reported function for p22. Disassembly of the Golgi apparatus was also observed in cells replicating Norwalk virus, which may contribute to pathogenesis by interfering with cellular processes that are dependent on an intact secretory pathway. These results indicate that the ER export signal mimic is critical to the antagonistic function of p22, shown herein to be a novel antagonist of ER/Golgi trafficking. This unique and well-conserved human norovirus motif is therefore an appealing target for antiviral drug development.

  1. Phenolic Compounds from Fermented Berry Beverages Modulated Gene and Protein Expression To Increase Insulin Secretion from Pancreatic β-Cells in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michelle H; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2016-03-30

    Berries are a rich source of bioactive phenolic compounds that are able to bind and inhibit the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), a current target for type-2 diabetes therapy. The objectives were to determine the role of berry phenolic compounds to modulate incretin-cleaving DPP-IV and its substrate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, and genes and proteins involved in the insulin secretion pathway using cell culture. Anthocyanins (ANC) from 50% blueberry-50% blackberry (Blu-Bla) and 100% blackberry (Bla) fermented beverages at 50 μM cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents increased (p together, anthocyanins, predominantly delphinidin-3-arabinoside, from fermented berry beverages have the potential to modulate DPP-IV and its substrate GLP-1, to increase insulin secretion, and to upregulate expression of mRNA of insulin-receptor associated genes and proteins in pancreatic β-cells.

  2. Huntingtin-interacting protein 14 is a type 1 diabetes candidate protein regulating insulin secretion and β-cell apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berchtold, Lukas Adrian; Størling, Zenia Marian; Ortis, Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    genes in T1D, including the INS gene. An unexpected top-scoring candidate gene was huntingtin-interacting protein (HIP)-14/ZDHHC17. Immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic sections demonstrated that HIP14 is almost exclusively expressed in insulin-positive cells in islets of Langerhans. RNAi...

  3. Arabinogalactan-protein secretion is associated with the acquisition of stigmatic receptivity in the apple flower

    OpenAIRE

    Losada Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Herrero Romero, María

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Stigmatic receptivity plays a clear role in pollination dynamics; however, little is known about the factors that confer to a stigma the competence to be receptive for the germination of pollen grains. In this work, a developmental approach is used to evaluate the acquisition of stigmatic receptivity and its relationship with a possible change in arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs). Methods Flowers of the domestic apple, Malus × domestica, were assessed for their capacity ...

  4. An AIL family protein promotes type three secretion system-1-independent invasion and pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rimi; Mandal, Rahul S; Ta, Atri; Das, Santasabuj

    2015-04-01

    Adhesion and invasion of Intestinal Epithelial Cells (IECs) are critical for the pathogenesis of Salmonella Typhi, the aetiological agent of human typhoid fever. While type three secretion system-1 (T3SS-1) is a major invasion apparatus of Salmonella, independent invasion mechanisms were described for non-typhoidal Salmonellae. Here, we show that T2942, an AIL-like protein of S. Typhi Ty2 strain, is required for adhesion and invasion of cultured IECs. That invasion was T3SS-1 independent was proved by ectopic expression of T2942 in the non-invasive E. coli BL21 and double-mutant Ty2 (Ty2Δt2942ΔinvG) strains. Laminin and fibronectin were identified as the host-binding partners of T2942 with higher affinity for laminin. Standalone function of T2942 was confirmed by cell adhesion of the recombinant protein, while the protein or anti-T2942 antiserum blocked adhesion/invasion of S. Typhi, indicating specificity. A 20-amino acid extracellular loop was required for invasion, while several loop regions of T2942 contributed to adhesion. Further, T2942 cooperates with laminin-binding T2544 for adhesion and T3SS-1 for invasion. Finally, T2942 was required and synergistically worked with T3SS-1 for pathogenesis of S. Typhi in mice. Considering wide distribution of T2942 among clinical strains, the protein or the 20-mer peptide may be suitable for vaccine development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Crystal structure and self-interaction of the type VI secretion tail-tube protein from enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreddine Douzi

    Full Text Available The type VI secretion system (T6SS is a widespread machine used by bacteria to control their environment and kill or disable bacterial species or eukaryotes through toxin injection. The T6SS comprises a central tube formed of stacked hexamers of hemolysin co-regulated proteins (Hcp and terminated by a trimeric valine-glycine repeat protein G (VgrG component, the cell puncturing device. A contractile tail sheath, formed by the TssB and TssC proteins, surrounds this tube. This syringe-like machine has been compared to an inverted phage, as both Hcp and VgrG share structural homology with tail components of Caudovirales. Here we solved the crystal structure of a tryptophan-substituted double mutant of Hcp1 from enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and compared it to the structures of other Hcps. Interestingly, we observed that the purified Hcp native protein is unable to form tubes in vitro. To better understand the rationale for observation, we measured the affinity of Hcp1 hexamers with themselves by surface plasmon resonance. The intra-hexamer interaction is weak, with a KD value of 7.2 µM. However, by engineering double cysteine mutants at defined positions, tubes of Hcp1 gathering up to 15 stacked hexamers formed in oxidative conditions. These results, together with those available in the literature regarding TssB and TssC, suggest that assembly of the T6SS tube differs significantly from that of Sipho- or Myoviridae.

  6. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis and poor prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hai-Yun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to analyse the expression of Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC specimens, and to evaluate its correlation with clinicopathologic features, including survival of patients with NPC Methods NPC tissue microarrays (TMAs were constructed from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (SYSUCC, another three centers on mainland China, Singapore and Hong Kong. Using quantitative RT-PCR and Western-blotting techniques, we detected mRNA and protein expression of SPARC in NPC cell lines and immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NPECs induced by Bmi-1 (NPEC2 Bmi-1. The difference of SPARC expression in the cell lines was tested using a t-test method. The relationship between the SPARC expression and clinicopathological data was assessed by chi-square. Survival analysis was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier approach with log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses of clinical variables were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results The expression levels of SPARC mRNA and protein were markedly higher in NPC cell lines than in NPEC2 Bmi-1. Especially, the expression levels of SPARC mRNA and protein were much lower in the 6-10B than in the 5-8 F (P = 0.002, P = 0.001. SPARC immunostaining revealed cytoplasmic localization in NPC cells and no staining in the stroma and epithelium. In addition, high level of SPARC positively correlated with the status of distant metastasis (P = 0.001 and WHO histological classification (P = 0.023. NPC patients with high SPARC expression also had a significantly poorer prognosis than patients with low SPARC expression (log-rank test, P P P Conclusions SPARC expression is common in NPC patients. Our data shows that elevated SPARC expression is a potential unfavorable prognostic factor for patients with NPC.

  7. Calreticulin-mutant proteins induce megakaryocytic signaling to transform hematopoietic cells and undergo accelerated degradation and Golgi-mediated secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Han

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic calreticulin (CALR, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2, and thrombopoietin receptor (MPL mutations essentially show mutual exclusion in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN, suggesting that they activate common oncogenic pathways. Recent data have shown that MPL function is essential for CALR mutant-driven MPN. However, the exact role and the mechanisms of action of CALR mutants have not been fully elucidated. Methods The murine myeloid cell line 32D and human HL60 cells overexpressing the most frequent CALR type 1 and type 2 frameshift mutants were generated to analyze the first steps of cellular transformation, in the presence and absence of MPL expression. Furthermore, mutant CALR protein stability and secretion were examined using brefeldin A, MG132, spautin-1, and tunicamycin treatment. Results The present study demonstrates that the expression of endogenous Mpl, CD41, and the key megakaryocytic transcription factor NF-E2 is stimulated by type 1 and type 2 CALR mutants, even in the absence of exogenous MPL. Mutant CALR expressing 32D cells spontaneously acquired cytokine independence, and this was associated with increased Mpl mRNA expression, CD41, and NF-E2 protein as well as constitutive activation of downstream signaling and response to JAK inhibitor treatment. Exogenous expression of MPL led to constitutive activation of STAT3 and 5, ERK1/2, and AKT, cytokine-independent growth, and reduction of apoptosis similar to the effects seen in the spontaneously outgrown cells. We observed low CALR-mutant protein amounts in cellular lysates of stably transduced cells, and this was due to accelerated protein degradation that occurred independently from the ubiquitin-proteasome system as well as autophagy. CALR-mutant degradation was attenuated by MPL expression. Interestingly, we found high levels of mutated CALR and loss of downstream signaling after blockage of the secretory pathway and protein glycosylation. Conclusions These

  8. Supplementation with a fish protein hydrolysate (Micromesistius poutassou): effects on body weight, body composition, and CCK/GLP-1 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Duclos, Elisa; Michelotti, Angela; Bizzaro, Gioia; Negro, Massimo; Soisson, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) have been reported as a suitable source of proteins for human nutrition because of their balanced amino acid composition and positive effect on gastrointestinal absorption. Here, we investigated the effect of a FPH, Slimpro(®), obtained from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) muscle by enzymatic hydrolysis, on body composition and on stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. A randomized clinical study was carried out on 120, slightly overweight (25 kg/m(2) ≤ BMIBody composition (body weight; fat mass; extracellular water; and circumference of waist, thighs, and hips) and CCK/GLP-1 blood levels were measured at the beginning of the study and after 45 and 90 days of product use. CCK/GLP-1 levels were measured since they are involved in controlling food intake. Treated subjects reported an improvement of body weight composition and an increased blood concentration of both CCK and GLP-1. No differences were found between the 1.4 and 2.8 g FPH doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 1.4 g FPH. Both 1.4 and 2.8 g of FPH were effective in improving body composition and in increasing CCK and GLP-1 blood levels.

  9. Characterization of Small Molecule Scaffolds that Bind to the Shigella Type III Secretion System Protein IpaD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Supratim; Anbanandam, Asokan; Mumford, Ben E.; De Guzman, Roberto N.

    2017-01-01

    Many pathogens such as Shigella and other bacteria assemble the type III secretion system (T3SS) nanoinjector to inject virulence proteins into their target cells to cause infectious diseases in humans. The rise of drug resistance among pathogens that rely on the T3SS for infectivity, plus the dearth of new antibiotics require alternative strategies in developing new antibiotics. The Shigella T3SS tip protein IpaD is an attractive target for developing anti-infectives because of its essential role in virulence and its exposure on the bacterial surface. Currently, the only known small molecules that bind to IpaD are bile salts sterols. Here, we identified four new small molecule scaffolds that bind to IpaD based on the methylquinoline, pyrrolidin-aniline, hydroxyindole, and morpholinoaniline scaffolds. NMR mapping revealed potential hotspots in IpaD for binding small molecules. These scaffolds can be used as building blocks in developing small molecule inhibitors of IpaD that could lead to new anti-infectives. PMID:28750143

  10. Characterization of Small-Molecule Scaffolds That Bind to the Shigella Type III Secretion System Protein IpaD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Supratim; Anbanandam, Asokan; Mumford, Ben E; De Guzman, Roberto N

    2017-09-21

    Many pathogens such as Shigella and other bacteria assemble the type III secretion system (T3SS) nanoinjector to inject virulence proteins into their target cells to cause infectious diseases in humans. The rise of drug resistance among pathogens that rely on the T3SS for infectivity, plus the dearth of new antibiotics require alternative strategies in developing new antibiotics. The Shigella T3SS tip protein IpaD is an attractive target for developing anti-infectives because of its essential role in virulence and its exposure on the bacterial surface. Currently, the only known small molecules that bind to IpaD are bile salt sterols. In this study we identified four new small-molecule scaffolds that bind to IpaD, based on the methylquinoline, pyrrolidine-aniline, hydroxyindole, and morpholinoaniline scaffolds. NMR mapping revealed potential hotspots in IpaD for binding small molecules. These scaffolds can be used as building blocks in developing small-molecule inhibitors of IpaD that could lead to new anti-infectives. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Identification and characterization of in planta-expressed secreted effector proteins from Magnaporthe oryzae that induce cell death in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Songbiao; Songkumarn, Pattavipha; Venu, R C; Gowda, Malali; Bellizzi, Maria; Hu, Jinnan; Liu, Wende; Ebbole, Daniel; Meyers, Blake; Mitchell, Thomas; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2013-02-01

    Interactions between rice and Magnaporthe oryzae involve the recognition of cellular components and the exchange of complex molecular signals from both partners. How these interactions occur in rice cells is still elusive. We employed robust-long serial analysis of gene expression, massively parallel signature sequencing, and sequencing by synthesis to examine transcriptome profiles of infected rice leaves. A total of 6,413 in planta-expressed fungal genes, including 851 genes encoding predicted effector proteins, were identified. We used a protoplast transient expression system to assess 42 of the predicted effector proteins for the ability to induce plant cell death. Ectopic expression assays identified five novel effectors that induced host cell death only when they contained the signal peptide for secretion to the extracellular space. Four of them induced cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. Although the five effectors are highly diverse in their sequences, the physiological basis of cell death induced by each was similar. This study demonstrates that our integrative genomic approach is effective for the identification of in planta-expressed cell death-inducing effectors from M. oryzae that may play an important role facilitating colonization and fungal growth during infection.

  12. Impact of Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) Expression on Prognosis After Surgical Resection for Biliary Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Naru; Uemura, Kenichiro; Nakagawa, Naoya; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro

    2017-06-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein that influences chemotherapy effectiveness and prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SPARC expression correlates with the postoperative survival of patients treated with surgical resection for biliary carcinoma. SPARC expression in resected biliary carcinoma specimens was investigated immunohistochemically in 175 patients. The relationship between SPARC expression and prognosis after surgery was evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. High SPARC expression in peritumoral stroma was found in 61 (35%) patients. In all patients, stromal SPARC expression was significantly associated with overall survival (OS) (P = 0.006). Multivariate analysis revealed that high stromal SPARC expression was an independent risk factor for poor OS (HR 1.81, P = 0.006). Moreover, high stromal SPARC expression was independently associated with poor prognosis in a subset of 118 patients treated with gemcitabine-based adjuvant chemotherapy (HR 2.04, P = 0.010) but not in the 57 patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.21). Stromal SPARC expression correlated with the prognosis of patients with resectable biliary carcinoma, and its significance was enhanced in patients treated with adjuvant gemcitabine-based chemotherapy.

  13. Colonization of epidermal tissue by Staphylococcus aureus produces localized hypoxia and stimulates secretion of antioxidant and caspase-14 proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lone , Abdul G.; Atci, Erhan; Renslow, Ryan S.; Beyenal, Haluk; Noh, S.; Fransson, B.; Abu-Lail, Nehal; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gang, David R.; Call, Douglas R.

    2015-08-31

    A partial-thickness epidermal explant model was colonized with GFP-expressing S. aureus and the pattern of S. aureus biofilm growth was characterized using electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Oxygen concentration in explants was quantified using microelectrodes. The relative effective diffusivity and porosity of the epidermis were determined using magnetic resonance imaging, while hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in explant media was measured by using microelectrodes. Secreted proteins were identified and quantified using MSE mass spectrometry. We found that S. aureus biofilm grows predominantly in sebum-rich areas around hair follicles and associated skin folds. Dissolved oxygen was selectively depleted (2-3 fold) in these locations, but the relative effective diffusivity and porosity did not change between colonized and control epidermis. Histological analysis revealed keratinocyte damage across all the layers of colonized epidermis after four days of culture. The colonized explants released significantly (P< 0.01) more anti-oxidant proteins of both epidermal and S. aureus origin, consistent with elevated H2O2 concentration found in the media from the colonized explants (P< 0.001). Caspase-14 was also elevated significantly in media from infected explants. While H2O2 induces primary keratinocyte differentiation, caspase-14 is required for terminal keratinocyte differentiation and desquamation. These results are consistent with a localized biological impact from S. aureus in response to colonization of the skin surface.

  14. Tunnel Formation Inferred from the I-Form Structures of the Proton-Driven Protein Secretion Motor SecDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arata Furukawa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein secretion mediated by SecYEG translocon and SecA ATPase is enhanced by membrane-embedded SecDF by using proton motive force. A previous structural study of SecDF indicated that it comprises 12 transmembrane helices that can conduct protons and three periplasmic domains, which form at least two characterized transition states, termed the F and I forms. We report the structures of full-length SecDF in I form at 2.6- to 2.8-Å resolution. The structures revealed that SecDF in I form can generate a tunnel that penetrates the transmembrane region and functions as a proton pathway regulated by a conserved Asp residue of the transmembrane region. In one crystal structure, periplasmic cavity interacts with a molecule, potentially polyethylene glycol, which may mimic a substrate peptide. This study provides structural insights into the Sec protein translocation that allows future analyses to develop a more detailed working model for SecDF.

  15. Pep1, a secreted effector protein of Ustilago maydis, is required for successful invasion of plant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Doehlemann

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis causes smut disease in maize. Colonization of the host plant is initiated by direct penetration of cuticle and cell wall of maize epidermis cells. The invading hyphae are surrounded by the plant plasma membrane and proliferate within the plant tissue. We identified a novel secreted protein, termed Pep1, that is essential for penetration. Disruption mutants of pep1 are not affected in saprophytic growth and develop normal infection structures. However, Deltapep1 mutants arrest during penetration of the epidermal cell and elicit a strong plant defense response. Using Affymetrix maize arrays, we identified 116 plant genes which are differentially regulated in Deltapep1 compared to wild type infections. Most of these genes are related to plant defense. By in vivo immunolocalization, live-cell imaging and plasmolysis approaches, we detected Pep1 in the apoplastic space as well as its accumulation at sites of cell-to-cell passages. Site-directed mutagenesis identified two of the four cysteine residues in Pep1 as essential for function, suggesting that the formation of disulfide bridges is crucial for proper protein folding. The barley covered smut fungus Ustilago hordei contains an ortholog of pep1 which is needed for penetration of barley and which is able to complement the U. maydis Deltapep1 mutant. Based on these results, we conclude that Pep1 has a conserved function essential for establishing compatibility that is not restricted to the U. maydis / maize interaction.

  16. The conjugation protein TcpC from Clostridium perfringens is structurally related to the type IV secretion system protein VirB8 from Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Corrine J; Bantwal, Radhika; Bannam, Trudi L; Rosado, Carlos J; Pearce, Mary C; Adams, Vicki; Lyras, Dena; Whisstock, James C; Rood, Julian I

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation is important for the acquisition of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. We investigated the mechanism of conjugation in Gram-positive pathogens using a model plasmid pCW3 from Clostridium perfringens. pCW3 encodes tetracycline resistance and contains the tcp locus, which is essential for conjugation. We showed that the unique TcpC protein (359 amino acids, 41 kDa) was required for efficient conjugative transfer, localized to the cell membrane independently of other conjugation proteins, and that membrane localization was important for its function, oligomerization and interaction with the conjugation proteins TcpA, TcpH and TcpG. The crystal structure of the C-terminal component of TcpC (TcpC(99-359)) was determined to 1.8-Å resolution. TcpC(99-359) contained two NTF2-like domains separated by a short linker. Unexpectedly, comparative structural analysis showed that each of these domains was structurally homologous to the periplasmic region of VirB8, a component of the type IV secretion system from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Bacterial two-hybrid studies revealed that the C-terminal domain was critical for interactions with other conjugation proteins. The N-terminal region of TcpC was required for efficient conjugation, oligomerization and protein-protein interactions. We conclude that by forming oligomeric complexes, TcpC contributes to the stability and integrity of the conjugation apparatus, facilitating efficient pCW3 transfer. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. SNARE-encoding genes VdSec22 and VdSso1 mediate protein secretion required for full virulence in Verticillium dahliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteins that mediate cellular and subcellular membrane fusion are key factors in vesicular trafficking in all eukaryotic cells, including the secretion and transport of plant pathogen virulence factors. In this study, we identified vesicle fusion components that included 22 soluble N-ethylmaleimide...

  18. Human Secreted Ly-6/uPAR Related Protein-1 (SLURP-1) Is a Selective Allosteric Antagonist of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Kudryavtsev, Denis

    2016-01-01

    SLURP-1 is a secreted toxin-like Ly-6/uPAR protein found in epithelium, sensory neurons and immune cells. Point mutations in the slurp-1 gene cause the autosomal inflammation skin disease Mal de Meleda. SLURP-1 is considered an autocrine/paracrine hormone that regulates growth and differentiation...

  19. In vitro assay for the Bacillus subtilis signal peptidase SipS : systems for efficient in vitro transcription-translation and processing of precursors of secreted proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VEHMAANPERA, J; GORNER, A; VENEMA, G; BRON, S; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    1993-01-01

    The signal peptidase (SPase) SipS of Bacillus subtilis is responsible for the processing of precursors of secreted proteins. It differs from the SPases of Gram-negative bacteria in structure and specificity. To assay the activity of SipS in vitro, two efficient transcription-translation systems for

  20. ERK7 is a negative regulator of protein secretion in response to amino-acid starvation by modulating Sec16 membrane association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacharogianni, M.; Kondylis, V.; Tang, Y.; Farhan, H.; Xanthakis, D.; Fuchs, F.; Boutros, M.; Rabouille, C.

    2011-01-01

    RNAi screening for kinases regulating the functional organization of the early secretory pathway in Drosophila S2 cells has identified the atypical Mitotic-Associated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Extracellularly regulated kinase 7 (ERK7) as a new modulator. We found that ERK7 negatively regulates secretion

  1. Versatile modeling and optimization of fed batch processes for the production of secreted heterologous proteins with Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Brigitte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secretion of heterologous proteins depends both on biomass concentration and on the specific product secretion rate, which in turn is not constant at varying specific growth rates. As fed batch processes usually do not maintain a steady state throughout the feed phase, it is not trivial to model and optimize such a process by mathematical means. Results We have developed a model for product accumulation in fed batch based on iterative calculation in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, and used the Solver software to optimize the time course of the media feed in order to maximize the volumetric productivity. The optimum feed phase consisted of an exponential feed at maximum specific growth rate, followed by a phase with linearly increasing feed rate and consequently steadily decreasing specific growth rate. The latter phase could be modeled also by exact mathematical treatment by the calculus of variations, yielding the explicit shape of the growth function, however, with certain indeterminate parameters. To evaluate the latter, one needs a numerical optimum search algorithm. The explicit shape of the growth function provides additional evidence that the Excel model results in correct data. Experimental evaluation in two independent fed batch cultures resulted in a good correlation to the optimized model data, and a 2.2 fold improvement of the volumetric productivity. Conclusion The advantages of the procedure we describe here are the ease of use and the flexibility, applying software familiar to every scientist and engineer, and rapid calculation which makes predictions extremely easy, so that many options can be tested in silico quickly. Additional options like further biological and technological constraints or different functions for specific productivity and biomass yield can easily be integrated.

  2. Versatile modeling and optimization of fed batch processes for the production of secreted heterologous proteins with Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Michael; Kühleitner, Manfred; Gasser, Brigitte; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2006-12-11

    Secretion of heterologous proteins depends both on biomass concentration and on the specific product secretion rate, which in turn is not constant at varying specific growth rates. As fed batch processes usually do not maintain a steady state throughout the feed phase, it is not trivial to model and optimize such a process by mathematical means. We have developed a model for product accumulation in fed batch based on iterative calculation in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, and used the Solver software to optimize the time course of the media feed in order to maximize the volumetric productivity. The optimum feed phase consisted of an exponential feed at maximum specific growth rate, followed by a phase with linearly increasing feed rate and consequently steadily decreasing specific growth rate. The latter phase could be modeled also by exact mathematical treatment by the calculus of variations, yielding the explicit shape of the growth function, however, with certain indeterminate parameters. To evaluate the latter, one needs a numerical optimum search algorithm. The explicit shape of the growth function provides additional evidence that the Excel model results in correct data. Experimental evaluation in two independent fed batch cultures resulted in a good correlation to the optimized model data, and a 2.2 fold improvement of the volumetric productivity. The advantages of the procedure we describe here are the ease of use and the flexibility, applying software familiar to every scientist and engineer, and rapid calculation which makes predictions extremely easy, so that many options can be tested in silico quickly. Additional options like further biological and technological constraints or different functions for specific productivity and biomass yield can easily be integrated.

  3. Structural and functional similarity between the bacterial type III secretion system needle protein PrgI and the eukaryotic apoptosis Bcl-2 proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Shortridge

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional similarity is challenging to identify when global sequence and structure similarity is low. Active-sites or functionally relevant regions are evolutionarily more stable relative to the remainder of a protein structure and provide an alternative means to identify potential functional similarity between proteins. We recently developed the FAST-NMR methodology to discover biochemical functions or functional hypotheses of proteins of unknown function by experimentally identifying ligand binding sites. FAST-NMR utilizes our CPASS software and database to assign a function based on a similarity in the structure and sequence of ligand binding sites between proteins of known and unknown function.The PrgI protein from Salmonella typhimurium forms the needle complex in the type III secretion system (T3SS. A FAST-NMR screen identified a similarity between the ligand binding sites of PrgI and the Bcl-2 apoptosis protein Bcl-xL. These ligand binding sites correlate with known protein-protein binding interfaces required for oligomerization. Both proteins form membrane pores through this oligomerization to release effector proteins to stimulate cell death. Structural analysis indicates an overlap between the PrgI structure and the pore forming motif of Bcl-xL. A sequence alignment indicates conservation between the PrgI and Bcl-xL ligand binding sites and pore formation regions. This active-site similarity was then used to verify that chelerythrine, a known Bcl-xL inhibitor, also binds PrgI.A structural and functional relationship between the bacterial T3SS and eukaryotic apoptosis was identified using our FAST-NMR ligand affinity screen in combination with a bioinformatic analysis based on our CPASS program. A similarity between PrgI and Bcl-xL is not readily apparent using traditional global sequence and structure analysis, but was only identified because of conservation in ligand binding sites. These results demonstrate the unique opportunity

  4. Secreted heat shock protein 90 promotes prostate cancer stem cell heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, Krystal D.; Kaur, Jasmine; Isaacs, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a highly conserved molecular chaperone, is frequently upregulated in tumors, and remains an attractive anti-cancer target. Hsp90 is also found extracellularly, particularly in tumor models. Although extracellular Hsp90 (eHsp90) action is not well defined, eHsp90 targeting attenuates tumor invasion and metastasis, supporting its unique role in tumor progression. We herein investigated the potential role of eHsp90 as a modulator of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) in...

  5. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2: differential expression and secretion in human kidney tubule cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlet, David R.; Pastor-Soler, Nuria; Marciszyn, Allison; Wen, Xiaoyan; Gomez, Hernando; Humphries, William H.; Morrisroe, Seth; Volpe, Jacob K.

    2017-01-01

    We have characterized the expression and secretion of the acute kidney injury (AKI) biomarkers insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) in human kidney epithelial cells in primary cell culture and tissue. We established cell culture model systems of primary kidney cells of proximal and distal tubule origin and observed that both proteins are indeed expressed and secreted in both tubule cell types in vitro. However, TIMP-2 is both expressed and secreted preferentially by cells of distal tubule origin, while IGFBP7 is equally expressed across tubule cell types yet preferentially secreted by cells of proximal tubule origin. In human kidney tissue, strong staining of IGFBP7 was seen in the luminal brush-border region of a subset of proximal tubule cells, and TIMP-2 stained intracellularly in distal tubules. Additionally, while some tubular colocalization of both biomarkers was identified with the injury markers kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, both biomarkers could also be seen alone, suggesting the possibility for differential mechanistic and/or temporal profiles of regulation of these early AKI biomarkers from known markers of injury. Last, an in vitro model of ischemia-reperfusion demonstrated enhancement of secretion of both markers early after reperfusion. This work provides a rationale for further investigation of these markers for their potential role in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury. PMID:28003188

  6. Expression by Streptomyces lividans of the Rat α Integrin CD11b A-Domain as a Secreted and Soluble Recombinant Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorra Zouari Ayadi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We already reported the use of a long synthetic signal peptide (LSSP to secrete the Streptomyces sp. TO1 amylase by Streptomyces lividans strain. We herein report the expression and secretion of the rat CD11b A-domain using the same LSSP and S. lividans as host strain. We have used the Escherichia coli/Streptomyces shuttle vector pIJ699 for the cloning of the A-domain DNA sequence downstream of LSSP and under the control of the constitutive ermE-up promoter of Streptomyces erythraeus. Using this construct and S. lividans as a host strain, we achieved the expression of 8 mg/L of soluble secreted recombinant form of the A-domain of the rat leukocyte β2 integrin CD11/CD18 alpha M subunit (CD11b. This secreted recombinant CD11b A-domain reacted with a function blocking antibody showing that this protein is properly folded and probably functional. These data support the capability of Streptomyces to produce heterologous recombinant proteins as soluble secreted form using the “LSSP” synthetic signal peptide.

  7. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus α-hemolysin as a protein drug that is secreted by anticancer bacteria and rapidly kills cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swofford, Charles A; St Jean, Adam T; Panteli, Jan T; Brentzel, Zachary J; Forbes, Neil S

    2014-06-01

    Targeted bacterial delivery of anticancer proteins has the ability to overcome therapeutic resistance in tumors that limits the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. The ability of bacteria to specifically target tumors allows for delivery of aggressive proteins that directly kill cancer cells and cannot be administered systemically. However, few proteins have been tested for this purpose. To identify effective molecules, we systematically sorted proteins that have been shown to cause mammalian cell death. The genes for five proteins were selected and cloned into Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Supernatant from cultures of the transformed bacteria was applied to flasks of MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cells to identify proteins that (1) were expressed, (2) secreted, and (3) rapidly killed cancer cells. Time-lapse images were taken to visualize mammalian cell morphology. Of the investigated proteins, α-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus (SAH) was the most promising because it was secreted, caused trauma to cellular membranes, and induced oncosis in 18 min. After exposure for 6 h, SAH decreased cell viability by 90%. In comparison, the positive control, Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PEA), required 11 days to achieve a similar effect, when administered at 3,000 times its LC50 . The maximum death rate induced by SAH was calculated to be a reduction in cell viability of 7.1% per min, which was 200-fold faster than the PEA control. Two proteins, Dermonecrotic Toxin and Phospholipase C were active when extracted from the bacterial cytoplasm but were not secreted. This investigation revealed for the first time SAH as a potent anticancer drug for delivery by bacteria because of its ability to be secreted in a fully functional form and aggressively kill cancer cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mechanisms of estradiol-induced insulin secretion by the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30/GPER in pancreatic beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Geetanjali; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2011-08-01

    Sexual dimorphism and supplementation studies suggest an important role for estrogens in the amelioration of glucose intolerance and diabetes. Because little is known regarding the signaling mechanisms involved in estradiol-mediated insulin secretion, we investigated the role of the G protein-coupled receptor 30, now designated G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), in activating signal transduction cascades in β-cells, leading to secretion of insulin. GPER function in estradiol-induced signaling in the pancreatic β-cell line MIN6 was assessed using small interfering RNA and GPER-selective ligands (G-1 and G15) and in islets isolated from wild-type and GPER knockout mice. GPER is expressed in MIN6 cells, where estradiol and the GPER-selective agonist G-1 mediate calcium mobilization and activation of ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Both estradiol and G-1 induced insulin secretion under low- and high-glucose conditions, which was inhibited by pretreatment with GPER antagonist G15 as well as depletion of GPER by small interfering RNA. Insulin secretion in response to estradiol and G-1 was dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor and ERK activation and further modulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. In islets isolated from wild-type mice, the GPER antagonist G15 inhibited insulin secretion induced by estradiol and G-1, both of which failed to induce insulin secretion in islets obtained from GPER knockout mice. Our results indicate that GPER activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and ERK in response to estradiol treatment plays a critical role in the secretion of insulin from β-cells. The results of this study suggest that the activation of downstream signaling pathways by the GPER-selective ligand G-1 could represent a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of diabetes.

  9. Mechanisms of Estradiol-Induced Insulin Secretion by the G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor GPR30/GPER in Pancreatic β-Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Geetanjali

    2011-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism and supplementation studies suggest an important role for estrogens in the amelioration of glucose intolerance and diabetes. Because little is known regarding the signaling mechanisms involved in estradiol-mediated insulin secretion, we investigated the role of the G protein-coupled receptor 30, now designated G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), in activating signal transduction cascades in β-cells, leading to secretion of insulin. GPER function in estradiol-induced signaling in the pancreatic β-cell line MIN6 was assessed using small interfering RNA and GPER-selective ligands (G-1 and G15) and in islets isolated from wild-type and GPER knockout mice. GPER is expressed in MIN6 cells, where estradiol and the GPER-selective agonist G-1 mediate calcium mobilization and activation of ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Both estradiol and G-1 induced insulin secretion under low- and high-glucose conditions, which was inhibited by pretreatment with GPER antagonist G15 as well as depletion of GPER by small interfering RNA. Insulin secretion in response to estradiol and G-1 was dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor and ERK activation and further modulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. In islets isolated from wild-type mice, the GPER antagonist G15 inhibited insulin secretion induced by estradiol and G-1, both of which failed to induce insulin secretion in islets obtained from GPER knockout mice. Our results indicate that GPER activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and ERK in response to estradiol treatment plays a critical role in the secretion of insulin from β-cells. The results of this study suggest that the activation of downstream signaling pathways by the GPER-selective ligand G-1 could represent a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:21673097

  10. Synthesis and secretion of interstitial retinol-binding protein by the human retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollyfield, J.G.; Fliesler, S.J.; Rayborn, M.E.; Fong, S.L.; Landers, R.A.; Bridges, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    Interstitial retinol-binding protein (IRBP) is a soluble glycoprotein present between the retina and pigmented epithelium, which may function to shuttle vitamin A derivatives between these tissues. While previous studies have shown that the retina is solely responsible for IRBP synthesis, the specific retinal cell(s) in which this occurs has not been established. Since the carbohydrate moiety of IRBP contains fucose, the authors have analyzed the sites of incorporation of 3 H-fucose in the human retina in vitro, using autoradiography. Following a 30-min pulse incubation, all retinal layers exhibited incorporation of label; however, the rod photoreceptor inner segments contained one- to two-fold more radioactivity than was present in any other retinal compartment. In autoradiographs of retinas recovered following a 4 hr chase incubation, all retinal layers retained similar levels of radioactivity with the exception of the rod photoreceptors, cone photoreceptors and cells in the inner nuclear layer, which lost 75, 11, and 14 percent, respectively of the radioactivity present immediately following the 30-min pulse. Proteins present in the chase incubation medium were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. The principal labeled component in the chase medium was identified as IRBP by immunoprecipitation with antibovine-IRBP immunoglobulins

  11. Role of alpha-crystallin, early-secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein and culture filtrate protein 10 as novel diagnostic markers in osteoarticular tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Rizvi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarticular tuberculosis constitutes about 3% of all tuberculosis cases. Early and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis is a challenging problem especially in the case of osteoarticular tuberculosis owing to the lower number of bacilli. However, an accurate and timely diagnosis of the disease results in an improved efficacy of the given treatment. Besides the limitations of conventional methods, nowadays molecular diagnostic techniques have emerged as a major breakthrough for the early diagnosis of tuberculosis with high sensitivity and specificity. Alpha-crystallin is a dominantly expressed protein responsible for the long viability of the pathogen during the latent phase under certain stress conditions such as hypoxia and nitric oxide stress. Two other proteins—early secreted antigenic target-6 and culture filtrate protein-10—show high expression in the active infective phase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this article, we focus on the different proteins expressed dominantly in latent/active tuberculosis, and which may be further used as prognostic biomarkers for diagnosing tuberculosis, both in latent and active phases.

  12. Post-Translational Modification and Secretion of Azelaic Acid Induced 1 (AZI1, a Hybrid Proline-Rich Protein from Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pitzschke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis EARLI-type hybrid proline-rich proteins (HyPRPs consist of a putative N-terminal secretion signal, a proline-rich domain (PRD, and a characteristic eight-cysteine-motif (8-CM. They have been implicated in biotic and abiotic stress responses. AZI1 is required for systemic acquired resistance and it has recently been identified as a target of the stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK3. AZI1 gel migration properties strongly indicate AZI1 to undergo major post-translational modifications. These occur in a stress-independent manner and are unrelated to phosphorylation by MAPKs. As revealed by transient expression of AZI1 in Nicotiana benthamiana and Tropaeolum majus, the Arabidopsis protein is similarly modified in heterologous plant species. Proline-rich regions, resembling arabinogalactan proteins point to a possible proline hydroxylation and subsequent O-glycosylation of AZI1. Consistently, inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase reduces its apparent protein size. AZI1 secretion was examined using Arabidopsis protoplasts and seedling exudates. Employing Agrobacterium-mediated leaf infiltration of N. benthamiana, we attempted to assess long-distance movement of AZI1. In summary, the data point to AZI1 being a partially secreted protein and a likely new member of the group of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Its dual location suggests AZI1 to exert both intra- and extracellular functions.

  13. Post-Translational Modification and Secretion of Azelaic Acid Induced 1 (AZI1), a Hybrid Proline-Rich Protein from Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzschke, Andrea; Xue, Hui; Persak, Helene; Datta, Sneha; Seifert, Georg J

    2016-01-12

    Arabidopsis EARLI-type hybrid proline-rich proteins (HyPRPs) consist of a putative N-terminal secretion signal, a proline-rich domain (PRD), and a characteristic eight-cysteine-motif (8-CM). They have been implicated in biotic and abiotic stress responses. AZI1 is required for systemic acquired resistance and it has recently been identified as a target of the stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK3. AZI1 gel migration properties strongly indicate AZI1 to undergo major post-translational modifications. These occur in a stress-independent manner and are unrelated to phosphorylation by MAPKs. As revealed by transient expression of AZI1 in Nicotiana benthamiana and Tropaeolum majus, the Arabidopsis protein is similarly modified in heterologous plant species. Proline-rich regions, resembling arabinogalactan proteins point to a possible proline hydroxylation and subsequent O-glycosylation of AZI1. Consistently, inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase reduces its apparent protein size. AZI1 secretion was examined using Arabidopsis protoplasts and seedling exudates. Employing Agrobacterium-mediated leaf infiltration of N. benthamiana, we attempted to assess long-distance movement of AZI1. In summary, the data point to AZI1 being a partially secreted protein and a likely new member of the group of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Its dual location suggests AZI1 to exert both intra- and extracellular functions.

  14. [Investigation of the abundance of proteins secreted by Fasciola hepatica, which is exposed to environmental change in experimental studies, with an advanced proteomic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haçarız, Orçun; Baykal, Ahmet Tarık

    2014-06-01

    Investigation of the abundance of proteins secreted by Fasciola hepatica, which is exposed to environmental change after it is removed from the main host, with an advanced proteomic approach. Adult Fasciola hepatica parasites, obtained from the main host, were directly placed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, at room temperature) and incubated at 37°C for 2 hours (after arrival at the Institute within 1 hour). After this, without applying extra procedures, such as washing the parasites, secreted parasite proteins in PBS were investigated using an advanced proteomic method [a mass spectrometry system with electrospray ionization and quadrupole time-of-flight source coupled to ultra performance liquid chromatography, nano UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS] with a reviewed F. hepatica protein database (Universal Protein Resource; UniProt) and data-independent acquisition method. With the proteomic analysis of the PBS, after incubation with the parasites, cathepsin L protease 1, fatty acid-binding protein 1 and 2, thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), and kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor were identified. The abundance of Fasciola hepatica TPx was approximately 2-6 times higher than that of the other proteins identified in this study (p<0.01). The stress on the parasite stem from environmental change could be associated with the stimulation of the secretion of TPx. The application of advanced proteomic approaches could provide useful data in the development of effective protective methods against the parasite.

  15. A Novel Hydroxyproline-Deficient Arabinogalactan Protein Secreted by Suspension-Cultured Cells of Daucus carota (Purification and Partial Characterization).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, T. C.; McCann, M. C.; Roberts, K.

    1993-09-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are secreted or membrane-associated glycoproteins that have been operationally defined as binding to [beta]-glucosyl Yariv artificial antigen, being rich in arabinose and galactose, and containing high levels of alanine, serine, and hydroxyproline. Using an anti-AGP monoclonal antibody (MAC 207) bound to cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B, we have purified by immunoaffinity chromatography an extracellular AGP from the culture medium of suspension-cultured cells of carrot (Daucus carota). The apparent molecular mass of this highly glycosylated proteoglycan is 70 to 100 kD as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Although its sugar analysis, [beta]-glucosyl Yariv binding, and high alanine, serine, and proline content are consistent with it being an AGP, the amino acid composition unexpectedly revealed this molecule to have no detectable hydroxyproline. This suggests that this glycoprotein is not a "classical" AGP, but represents the first example of a new class of hydroxyproline-poor AGPs. Deglycosylation of the AGP with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride revealed that the purified proteoglycan contains probably a single core protein with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kD. Direct visualization of the native AGP in the electron microscope showed ellipsoidal putative AGP monomers, approximately 25 nm by 15 nm, that showed a strong tendency to self assemble into higher-order structures. Upon desiccation, the glycosylated AGP formed paracrystalline arrays visible in the light microscope. Polarized Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy of these arrays demonstrated a high degree of polarization of the sugar moieties under these conditions. These results put possible constraints on current models of AGP structure; a putative role for these novel AGPs as pectin-binding proteins is discussed.

  16. Characterization and quantification of proteins secreted by single human embryos prior to implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Maurizio; Ori, Alessandro; Child, Tim; Jaroudi, Souraya; Spath, Katharina; Beck, Martin; Wells, Dagan

    2015-11-01

    The use of in vitro fertilization (IVF) has revolutionized the treatment of infertility and is now responsible for 1-5% of all births in industrialized countries. During IVF, it is typical for patients to generate multiple embryos. However, only a small proportion of them possess the genetic and metabolic requirements needed in order to produce a healthy pregnancy. The identification of the embryo with the greatest developmental capacity represents a major challenge for fertility clinics. Current methods for the assessment of embryo competence are proven inefficient, and the inadvertent transfer of non-viable embryos is the principal reason why most IVF treatments (approximately two-thirds) end in failure. In this study, we investigate how the application of proteomic measurements could improve success rates in clinical embryology. We describe a procedure that allows the identification and quantification of proteins of embryonic origin, present in attomole concentrations in the blastocoel, the enclosed fluid-filled cavity that forms within 5-day-old human embryos. By using targeted proteomics, we demonstrate the feasibility of quantifying multiple proteins in samples derived from single blastocoels and that such measurements correlate with aspects of embryo viability, such as chromosomal (ploidy) status. This study illustrates the potential of high-sensitivity proteomics to measure clinically relevant biomarkers in minute samples and, more specifically, suggests that key aspects of embryo competence could be measured using a proteomic-based strategy, with negligible risk of harm to the living embryo. Our work paves the way for the development of "next-generation" embryo competence assessment strategies, based on functional proteomics. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus regulates secretion of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 through activation of nuclear factor kappaB signaling pathway in human osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rende Ning

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Activation of nuclear factor kappaB by diverse bacteria regulates the secretion of chemokines and cytokines. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus-infected osteoblasts can significantly increase the secretion of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. The aim of this study was to investigate whether S. aureus can activate nuclear factor kappaB in human osteoblasts, and whether the activation of nuclear factor kappaB by S. aureus regulates the secretion of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. METHODS: Immunoblot and electrophoretic mobility shift assay were used to detect the degradation of IκBa and activation of nuclear factor kappaB in human osteoblasts in response to S. aureus, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the secretion of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the supernatants. Lastly, carbobenzoxyl-l-leucinyl-l-leucinyl-l-leucinal, an inhibitor of the nuclear factor kappaB, was used to determine if activation of nuclear factor kappaB by S. aureus in human osteoblasts regulates the secretions of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. RESULTS: Our results for the first time demonstrated that S. aureus can induce the degradation of IκBa and activation of nuclear factor kappaB in human osteoblasts in a time and dose-dependent manner. In addition, inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB by carbobenzoxyl-l-leucinyl-l-leucinyl-l-leucinal suppressed the secretion of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the supernatants of S. aureus-infected human osteoblasts in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that S. aureus can activate nuclear factor kappaB in human osteoblasts, and subsequently regulate the secretion of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. The nuclear factor kappaB transcription factor regulates a number of genes involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Further study of

  18. Characterisation of SEQ0694 (PrsA/PrtM) of Streptococcus equi as a functional peptidyl-prolyl isomerase affecting multiple secreted protein substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikolo, Felicia; Zhang, Meng; Harrington, Dean J; Robinson, Carl; Waller, Andrew S; Sutcliffe, Iain C; Black, Gary W

    2015-12-01

    Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) lipoproteins have been shown to influence the virulence of a number of Gram-positive bacterial human and animal pathogens, most likely through facilitating the folding of cell envelope and secreted virulence factors. Here, we used a proteomic approach to demonstrate that the Streptococcus equi PPIase SEQ0694 alters the production of multiple secreted proteins, including at least two putative virulence factors (FNE and IdeE2). We demonstrate also that, despite some unusual sequence features, recombinant SEQ0694 and its central parvulin domain are functional PPIases. These data add to our knowledge of the mechanisms by which lipoprotein PPIases contribute to the virulence of streptococcal pathogens.

  19. Secreted Frizzled related protein-4 (sFRP4) promotes epidermal differentiation and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maganga, Richard; Giles, Natalie; Adcroft, Katharine; Unni, Ambili; Keeney, Diane; Wood, Fiona; Fear, Mark; Dharmarajan, Arunasalam

    2008-01-01

    The skin provides vital protection from infection and dehydration. Maintenance of the skin is through a constant program of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of epidermal cells, whereby proliferating cells in the basal layer differentiating to form the keratinized, anucleated stratum corneum. The WNT signalling pathway is known to be important in the skin. WNT signalling has been shown to be important both in epidermal development and in the maintenance and cycling of hair follicles and epidermal stem cells. However, the precise role for this pathway in epidermal differentiation remains unknown. We investigated the role of the WNT signalling inhibitor sFRP4 in epidermal differentiation. sFRP4 is expressed in both normal skin and keratinocytes in culture. Expression of sFRP4 mRNA and protein increases with keratinocyte differentiation and apoptosis, whilst exposure of keratinocytes to exogenous sFRP4 promotes apoptosis and expression of the terminal differentiation marker Involucrin. These data suggest sFRP4 promotes epidermal differentiation.

  20. The Apoplastic Secretome of Trichoderma virens During Interaction With Maize Roots Shows an Inhibition of Plant Defence and Scavenging Oxidative Stress Secreted Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Nogueira-Lopez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In Nature, almost every plant is colonized by fungi. Trichoderma virens is a biocontrol fungus which has the capacity to behave as an opportunistic plant endophyte. Even though many plants are colonized by this symbiont, the exact mechanisms by which Trichoderma masks its entrance into its plant host remain unknown, but likely involve the secretion of different families of proteins into the apoplast that may play crucial roles in the suppression of plant immune responses. In this study, we investigated T. virens colonization of maize roots under hydroponic conditions, evidencing inter- and intracellular colonization by the fungus and modifications in root morphology and coloration. Moreover, we show that upon host penetration, T. virens secretes into the apoplast an arsenal of proteins to facilitate inter- and intracellular colonization of maize root tissues. Using a gel-free shotgun proteomics approach, 95 and 43 secretory proteins were identified from maize and T. virens, respectively. A reduction in the maize secretome (36% was induced by T. virens, including two major groups, glycosyl hydrolases and peroxidases. Furthermore, T. virens secreted proteins were mainly involved in cell wall hydrolysis, scavenging of reactive oxygen species and secondary metabolism, as well as putative effector-like proteins. Levels of peroxidase activity were reduced in the inoculated roots, suggesting a strategy used by T. virens to manipulate host immune responses. The results provide an insight into the crosstalk in the apoplast which is essential to maintain the T. virens-plant interaction.

  1. Secreted Frizzled-related Protein 5 Diminishes Cardiac Inflammation and Protects the Heart from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuto; Sano, Soichi; Fuster, José J; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Shimizu, Ippei; Ohshima, Kousei; Katanasaka, Yasufumi; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Walsh, Kenneth

    2016-02-05

    Wnt signaling has diverse actions in cardiovascular development and disease processes. Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (Sfrp5) has been shown to function as an extracellular inhibitor of non-canonical Wnt signaling that is expressed at relatively high levels in white adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Sfrp5 in the heart under ischemic stress. Sfrp5 KO and WT mice were subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Although Sfrp5-KO mice exhibited no detectable phenotype when compared with WT control at baseline, they displayed larger infarct sizes, enhanced cardiac myocyte apoptosis, and diminished cardiac function following I/R. The ischemic lesions of Sfrp5-KO mice had greater infiltration of Wnt5a-positive macrophages and greater inflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression when compared with WT mice. In bone marrow-derived macrophages, Wnt5a promoted JNK activation and increased inflammatory gene expression, whereas treatment with Sfrp5 blocked these effects. These results indicate that Sfrp5 functions to antagonize inflammatory responses after I/R in the heart, possibly through a mechanism involving non-canonical Wnt5a/JNK signaling. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Rust secreted protein Ps87 is conserved in diverse fungal pathogens and contains a RXLR-like motif sufficient for translocation into plant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Gu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effector proteins of biotrophic plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes are delivered into host cells and play important roles in both disease development and disease resistance response. How obligate fungal pathogen effectors enter host cells is poorly understood. The Ps87 gene of Puccinia striiformis encodes a protein that is conserved in diverse fungal pathogens. Ps87 homologs from a clade containing rust fungi are predicted to be secreted. The aim of this study is to test whether Ps87 may act as an effector during Puccinia striiformis infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Yeast signal sequence trap assay showed that the rust protein Ps87 could be secreted from yeast cells, but a homolog from Magnaporthe oryzae that was not predicted to be secreted, could not. Cell re-entry and protein uptake assays showed that a region of Ps87 containing a conserved RXLR-like motif [K/R]RLTG was confirmed to be capable of delivering oomycete effector Avr1b into soybean leaf cells and carrying GFP into soybean root cells. Mutations in the Ps87 motif (KRLTG abolished the protein translocation ability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that Ps87 and its secreted homologs could utilize similar protein translocation machinery as those of oomycete and other fungal pathogens. Ps87 did not show direct suppression activity on plant defense responses. These results suggest Ps87 may represent an "emerging effector" that has recently acquired the ability to enter plant cells but has not yet acquired the ability to alter host physiology.

  3. Cultured fibroblast monolayers secrete a protein that alters the cellular binding of somatomedin-C/insulinlike growth factor I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmons, D.R.; Elgin, R.G.; Han, V.K.; Casella, S.J.; D'Ercole, A.J.; Van Wyk, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    We studied somatomedin-C/insulinlike growth factor (Sm-C/IGF-I) binding to human fibroblasts in both adherent monolayers and in suspension cultures. The addition of Sm-C/IGF-I in concentrations between 0.5 and 10 ng/ml to monolayers cultures resulted in a paradoxical increase in 125 I-Sm-C/IGF-I binding and concentrations between 25 and 300 ng/ml were required to displace the labeled peptide. The addition of unlabeled insulin resulted in no displacement of labeled Sm-C/IGF-I from the adherent cells. When fibroblast suspensions were used Sm-C/IGF-I concentrations between 1 and 10 ng/ml caused displacement, the paradoxical increase in 125 I-Sm-C/IGF-I binding was not detected, and insulin displaced 60% of the labeled peptide. Affinity cross-linking to fibroblast monolayers revealed a 43,000-mol wt 125 I-Sm-C-binding-protein complex that was not detected after cross-linking to suspended cells. The 43,000-mol wt complex was not detected after cross-linking to smooth muscle cell monolayers, and binding studies showed that 125 I-Sm-C/IGF-I was displaced greater than 90% by Sm-C/IGF-I using concentrations between 0.5 and 10 ng/ml. Because fibroblast-conditioned medium contains the 43,000-mol wt complex, smooth muscle cells were incubated with conditioned medium for 24 h prior to initiation of the binding studies. 125 I-Sm-C/IGF-I-binding increased 1.6-fold compared to control cultures and after cross-linking the 43,000-mol wt complex could be detected on the smooth muscle cell surface. Human fibroblast monolayers secrete a protein that binds 125 I-Sm-C/IGF-I which can be transferred to the smooth muscle cell surface and alters 125I-Sm-C/IGF-I binding

  4. Overcoming the Refractory Expression of Secreted Recombinant Proteins in Mammalian Cells through Modification of the Signal Peptide and Adjacent Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler-Gane, Gülin; Kidd, Sara; Sridharan, Sudharsan; Vaughan, Tristan J; Wilkinson, Trevor C I; Tigue, Natalie J

    2016-01-01

    The expression and subsequent purification of mammalian recombinant proteins is of critical importance to many areas of biological science. To maintain the appropriate tertiary structure and post-translational modifications of such proteins, transient mammalian expression systems are often adopted. The successful utilisation of these systems is, however, not always forthcoming and some recombinant proteins prove refractory to expression in mammalian hosts. In this study we focussed on the role of different N-terminal signal peptides and residues immediately downstream, in influencing the level of secreted recombinant protein obtained from suspension HEK293 cells. Using secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) as a model protein, we identified that the +1/+2 downstream residues flanking a heterologous signal peptide significantly affect secreted levels. By incorporating these findings we conducted a comparison of different signal peptide sequences and identified the most productive as secrecon, a computationally-designed sequence. Importantly, in the context of the secrecon signal peptide and SEAP, we also demonstrated a clear preference for specific amino acid residues at the +1 position (e.g. alanine), and a detrimental effect of others (cysteine, proline, tyrosine and glutamine). When proteins that naturally contain these "undesirable" residues at the +1 position were expressed with their native signal peptide, the heterologous secrecon signal peptide, or secrecon with an additional alanine at the +1 or +1 and +2 position, the level of expression differed significantly and in an unpredictable manner. For each protein, however, at least one of the panel of signal peptide/adjacent amino acid combinations enabled successful recombinant expression. In this study, we highlight the important interplay between a signal peptide and its adjacent amino acids in enabling protein expression, and we describe a strategy that could enable recombinant proteins that have so far

  5. Overcoming the Refractory Expression of Secreted Recombinant Proteins in Mammalian Cells through Modification of the Signal Peptide and Adjacent Amino Acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülin Güler-Gane

    Full Text Available The expression and subsequent purification of mammalian recombinant proteins is of critical importance to many areas of biological science. To maintain the appropriate tertiary structure and post-translational modifications of such proteins, transient mammalian expression systems are often adopted. The successful utilisation of these systems is, however, not always forthcoming and some recombinant proteins prove refractory to expression in mammalian hosts. In this study we focussed on the role of different N-terminal signal peptides and residues immediately downstream, in influencing the level of secreted recombinant protein obtained from suspension HEK293 cells. Using secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP as a model protein, we identified that the +1/+2 downstream residues flanking a heterologous signal peptide significantly affect secreted levels. By incorporating these findings we conducted a comparison of different signal peptide sequences and identified the most productive as secrecon, a computationally-designed sequence. Importantly, in the context of the secrecon signal peptide and SEAP, we also demonstrated a clear preference for specific amino acid residues at the +1 position (e.g. alanine, and a detrimental effect of others (cysteine, proline, tyrosine and glutamine. When proteins that naturally contain these "undesirable" residues at the +1 position were expressed with their native signal peptide, the heterologous secrecon signal peptide, or secrecon with an additional alanine at the +1 or +1 and +2 position, the level of expression differed significantly and in an unpredictable manner. For each protein, however, at least one of the panel of signal peptide/adjacent amino acid combinations enabled successful recombinant expression. In this study, we highlight the important interplay between a signal peptide and its adjacent amino acids in enabling protein expression, and we describe a strategy that could enable recombinant proteins that

  6. Characterization of virulence profile, protein secretion and immunogenicity of different Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto isolates compared with S. globosa and S. brasiliensis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; dos Santos, Priscila Oliveira; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Sasaki, Alexandre Augusto; Burger, Eva; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-04-01

    A comparative study about protein secretion, immunogenicity and virulence was performed in order to characterize and to compare eight Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto isolates. For virulence characterization, a murine model, based on survival assay and CFU counting was used. S. brasiliensis and S. globosa, a highly virulent and a non-virulent isolates, respectively were used as external controls. Exoantigen profiles showed different secreted molecules; the 46- and 60-kDa molecules were commonly secreted by all three species. The S. schenckii s. str. isolates could be classified as non-virulent or presenting low, medium or high virulence, based on survival times after infection and recovery of viable fungi. The humoral response profiles of mice infected with S. schenckii s. str., S. globosa and S. brasiliensis were heterogeneous; five virulent isolates (S. schenckii s. str., n = 4 and S. brasiliensis, n = 1) had in common the recognition of the 60-kDa molecule by their respective antisera, suggesting that this antigen may be involved in virulence. Furthermore, the 110-kDa molecule was secreted and recognized by antisera from four virulent isolates (S. schenckii s. str., n = 3 and S. brasiliensis, n = 1), so there is a possibility that this molecule is also related to virulence. Our findings reveal different degrees of virulence in S. schenckii s. str. isolates and suggest the correlation of protein secretion and immunogenicity with virulence of S. schenckii complex. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of S. schenckii s. str. and improve the knowledge about immunogenicity and protein profiles in S. schenckii complex.

  7. Impact of alg3 gene deletion on growth, development, pigment production, protein secretion, and functions of recombinant Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases in Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu; Aryal, Uma K.; Shukla, Anil; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Adney, William S.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.; Ju, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiao; Baker, Scott E.

    2013-12-01

    ALG3 is a Family 58 glycosyltransferase enzyme involved in early N-linked glycan synthesis. Here, we investigated the effect of the alg3 gene disruption on growth, development, metabolism, and protein secretion in Aspergillus niger. The alg3 gene deletion resulted in a significant reduction of growth on complete (CM) and potato dextrose agar (PDA) media and a substantial reduction of spore production on CM. It also delayed spore germination in the liquid cultures of both CM and PDA media, but led to a significant accumulation of red pigment on both CM and liquid modified minimal medium (MM) supplemented with yeast extract. The relative abundance of 55 proteins of the total 190 proteins identified in the secretome was significantly different as a result of alg3 gene deletion. Comparison of a Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase (Cel7A) heterologously expressed in A. niger parental and Δalg3 strains showed that the recombinant Cel7A expressed in the mutant background was smaller in size than that from the parental strains. This study suggests that ALG3 is critical for growth and development, pigment production, and protein secretion in A. niger. Functional analysis of recombinant Cel7A with aberrant glycosylation demonstrates the feasibility of this alternative approach to evaluate the role of N-linked glycosylation in glycoprotein secretion and function.

  8. Regulation of Type III Secretion of Translocon and Effector Proteins by the EsaB/EsaL/EsaM Complex in Edwardsiella tarda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu Yi; Nie, Pin; Yu, Hong Bing; Xie, Hai Xia

    2017-09-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria, including Edwardsiella tarda , an important fish pathogen. Within the E. tarda T3SS, there are three proteins (EsaB/EsaL/EsaM) that are homologous to proteins present in many other bacteria, including SpiC/SsaL/SsaM in Salmonella , SepD/SepL/CesL in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and YscB/YopN/SycN in Yersinia EsaL was found to interact with both EsaB and EsaM within the bacterial cell, as revealed by a coimmunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, EsaM is required for EsaB stability, and the two proteins interact with each other. EsaB, EsaL, and EsaM are all indispensable for the secretion of the T3SS translocon protein EseC into supernatants under pH 5.5 and pH 7.2 conditions. Unlike EseC, EseG is a T3SS effector whose secretion is suppressed by EsaL at pH 7.2 while it is promoted at pH 5.5 condition. Despite this finding, mutant strains lacking EsaB, EsaL, or EsaM (i.e., the Δ esaB , Δ esaL , or Δ esaM strain, respectively) were all outcompeted by wild-type E. tarda during a coinfection model. These results demonstrate that EsaB/EsaL/EsaM form a ternary complex controlling the secretion of T3SS translocon and effector proteins and contributing to E. tarda pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Collagen and Stretch Modulate Autocrine Secretion of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins from Differentiated Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Carmen E.; Fenwick-Smith, Daniela; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1995-01-01

    Stretch-induced skeletal muscle growth may involve increased autocrine secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) since IGF-1 is a potent growth factor for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and stretch elevates IGF-1 mRNA levels in vivo. In tissue cultures of differentiated avian pectoralis skeletal muscle cells, nanomolar concentrations of exogenous IGF-1 stimulated growth in mechanically stretched but not static cultures. These cultures released up to 100 pg of endogenously produced IGF-1/micro-g of protein/day, as well as three major IGF binding proteins of 31, 36, and 43 kilodaltons (kDa). IGF-1 was secreted from both myofibers and fibroblasts coexisting in the muscle cultures. Repetitive stretch/relaxation of the differentiated skeletal muscle cells stimulated the acute release of IGF-1 during the first 4 h after initiating mechanical activity, but caused no increase in the long-term secretion over 24-72 h of IGF-1, or its binding proteins. Varying the intensity and frequency of stretch had no effect on the long-term efflux of IGF-1. In contrast to stretch, embedding the differentiated muscle cells in a three-dimensional collagen (Type I) matrix resulted in a 2-5-fold increase in long-term IGF-1 efflux over 24-72 h. Collagen also caused a 2-5-fold increase in the release of the IGF binding proteins. Thus, both the extracellular matrix protein type I collagen and stretch stimulate the autocrine secretion of IGF-1, but with different time kinetics. This endogenously produced growth factor may be important for the growth response of skeletal myofibers to both types of external stimuli.

  10. Differential Expression and Roles of Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein 5 and the Wingless Homolog Wnt5a in Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, T; Kulwattanaporn, P; Hosur, K; Domon, H; Oda, M; Terao, Y; Maeda, T; Hajishengallis, G

    2017-05-01

    The Wingless/integrase-1 (Wnt) family of protein ligands and their functional antagonists, secreted frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs), regulate various biological processes ranging from embryonic development to immunity and inflammation. Wnt5a and sFRP5 comprise a typical ligand/antagonist pair, and the former molecule was recently detected at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level in human periodontitis. The main objective of this study was to investigate the interrelationship of expression of Wnt5a and sFRP5 in human periodontitis (as compared to health) and to determine their roles in inflammation and bone loss in an animal model. We detected both Wnt5a and sFRP5 mRNA in human gingiva, with Wnt5a dominating in diseased and sFRP5 in healthy tissue. Wnt5a and sFRP5 protein colocalized in the gingival epithelium, suggesting epithelial cell expression, which was confirmed in cultured human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs). The HGEC expression of Wnt5a and sFRP5 was differentially regulated by a proinflammatory stimulus (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] from Porphyromonas gingivalis) in a manner consistent with the clinical observations (i.e., LPS upregulated Wnt5a and downregulated sFRP5). In HGECs, exogenously added Wnt5a enhanced whereas sFRP5 inhibited LPS-induced inflammation, as monitored by interleukin 8 production. Consistent with this, local treatment with sFRP5 in mice subjected to ligature-induced periodontitis inhibited inflammation and bone loss, correlating with decreased numbers of osteoclasts in bone tissue sections. As in humans, mouse periodontitis was associated with high expression of Wnt5a and low expression of sFRP5, although this profile was reversed after treatment with sFRP5. In conclusion, we demonstrated a novel reciprocal relationship between sFRP5 and Wnt5a expression in periodontal health and disease, paving the way to clinical investigation of the possibility of using the Wnt5a/sFRP5 ratio as a periodontitis biomarker. Moreover, we showed that sFRP5

  11. A quantitative ELISA for monitoring the secretion of ZZ-fusion proteins using SpA domain as immunodetection reporter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergulhão, F J; Monteiro, G A; Cabral, J M; Taipa, M A

    2001-11-01

    A sandwich-type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established for monitoring the secretion of ZZ-fusion proteins. Two antibodies, a monoclonal mouse anti-human proinsulin and a rabbit anti-bovine IgG (strongly binding to the ZZ-domain), were used to quantify the secretion of recombinant human ZZ-proinsulin to the growth medium of Escherichia coli cultures. The method here reported conjugates the advantages of sandwich-type ELISA assays, namely, high sensitivity, specificity, and throughput, with the possibility of quantifying small protein molecules (e.g., peptides). A further advantage of gene fusion techniques integrating both downstream processing and product detection and quantitation is highlighted. The method is capable of detecting levels of 0.05 ng of ZZ-proinsulin.

  12. Preferential production of IgM-secreting hybridomas by immunization with DNA vaccines coding for Ebola virus glycoprotein: use of protein boosting for IgG-secreting hybridoma production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate the utility of DNA vaccines encoding Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) as a vaccine type for the production of GP-specific hybridomas and antibodies. Materials and Methods DNA vaccines were constructed to express Ebola virus GP. Mice were injected with GP DNA vaccines and their splenocytes were used for hybridoma production. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), limiting dilution subcloning, antibody purification methods, and Western blot assays were used to select GP-specific hybridomas and purify monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from the hybridoma cells. Results Twelve hybridomas, the cell supernatants of which displayed GP-binding activity, were selected by ELISA. When purified MAbs from 12 hybridomas were tested for their reactivity to GP, 11 MAbs, except for 1 MAb (from the A6-9 hybridoma) displaying an IgG2a type, were identified as IgM isotypes. Those 11 MAbs failed to recognize GP. However, the MAb from A6-9 recognized the mucin-like region of GP and remained reactive to the antigen at the lowest tested concentration (1.95 ng/mL). This result suggests that IgM-secreting hybridomas are predominantly generated by DNA vaccination. However, boosting with GP resulted in greater production of IgG-secreting hybridomas than GP DNA vaccination alone. Conclusion DNA vaccination may preferentially generate IgM-secreting hybridomas, but boosting with the protein antigen can reverse this propensity. Thus, this protein boosting approach may have implications for the production of IgG-specific hybridomas in the context of the DNA vaccination platform. In addition, the purified monoclonal IgG antibodies may be useful as therapeutic antibodies for controlling Ebola virus infection. PMID:28775978

  13. The subcommissural organ of the rat secretes Reissner's fiber glycoproteins and CSF-soluble proteins reaching the internal and external CSF compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vio, Karin; Rodríguez, Sara; Yulis, Carlos R; Oliver, Cristian; Rodríguez, Esteban M

    2008-01-24

    The subcommissural organ (SCO) is a highly conserved brain gland present throughout the vertebrate phylum; it secretes glycoproteins into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), where they aggregate to form Reissner's fiber (RF). SCO-spondin is the major constituent protein of RF. Evidence exists that the SCO also secretes proteins that remain soluble in the CSF. The aims of the present investigation were: (i) to identify and partially characterize the SCO-secretory compounds present in the SCO gland itself and in the RF of the Sprague-Dawley rat and non-hydrocephalic hyh mouse, and in the CSF of rat; (ii) to make a comparative analysis of the proteins present in these three compartments; (iii) to identify the proteins secreted by the SCO into the CSF at different developmental periods. The proteins of the SCO secreted into the CSF were studied (i) by injecting specific antibodies into ventricular CSF in vivo; (ii) by immunoblots of SCO, RF and CSF samples, using specific antibodies against the SCO secretory proteins (AFRU and anti-P15). In addition, the glycosylated nature of SCO-compounds was analysed by concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin binding. To analyse RF-glycoproteins, RF was extracted from the central canal of juvenile rats and mice; to investigate the CSF-soluble proteins secreted by the SCO, CSF samples were collected from the cisterna magna of rats at different stages of development (from E18 to PN30). Five glycoproteins were identified in the rat SCO with apparent molecular weights of 630, 450, 390, 320 and 200 kDa. With the exception of the 200-kDa compound, all other compounds present in the rat SCO were also present in the mouse SCO. The 630 and 390 kDa compounds of the rat SCO have affinity for concanavalin A but not for wheat germ agglutinin, suggesting that they correspond to precursor forms. Four of the AFRU-immunoreactive compounds present in the SCO (630, 450, 390, 320 kDa) were absent from the RF and CSF. These may be precursor and/or partially

  14. The subcommissural organ of the rat secretes Reissner's fiber glycoproteins and CSF-soluble proteins reaching the internal and external CSF compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Esteban M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subcommissural organ (SCO is a highly conserved brain gland present throughout the vertebrate phylum; it secretes glycoproteins into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, where they aggregate to form Reissner's fiber (RF. SCO-spondin is the major constituent protein of RF. Evidence exists that the SCO also secretes proteins that remain soluble in the CSF. The aims of the present investigation were: (i to identify and partially characterize the SCO-secretory compounds present in the SCO gland itself and in the RF of the Sprague-Dawley rat and non-hydrocephalic hyh mouse, and in the CSF of rat; (ii to make a comparative analysis of the proteins present in these three compartments; (iii to identify the proteins secreted by the SCO into the CSF at different developmental periods. Methods The proteins of the SCO secreted into the CSF were studied (i by injecting specific antibodies into ventricular CSF in vivo; (ii by immunoblots of SCO, RF and CSF samples, using specific antibodies against the SCO secretory proteins (AFRU and anti-P15. In addition, the glycosylated nature of SCO-compounds was analysed by concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin binding. To analyse RF-glycoproteins, RF was extracted from the central canal of juvenile rats and mice; to investigate the CSF-soluble proteins secreted by the SCO, CSF samples were collected from the cisterna magna of rats at different stages of development (from E18 to PN30. Results Five glycoproteins were identified in the rat SCO with apparent molecular weights of 630, 450, 390, 320 and 200 kDa. With the exception of the 200-kDa compound, all other compounds present in the rat SCO were also present in the mouse SCO. The 630 and 390 kDa compounds of the rat SCO have affinity for concanavalin A but not for wheat germ agglutinin, suggesting that they correspond to precursor forms. Four of the AFRU-immunoreactive compounds present in the SCO (630, 450, 390, 320 kDa were absent from the RF and

  15. Secreted Frizzled-related protein-2 (sFRP2) augments canonical Wnt3a-induced signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschall, Zofia von; Fisher, Larry W.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → sFRP2 enhances the Wnt3a-induced β-catenin stabilization and its nuclear translocation. → sFRP2 enhances LRP6 phosphorylation and Wnt3a/β-catenin transcriptional reporter activity. → Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) fully antagonizes both Wnt3a/sFRP2-induced LRP6 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity. → sFRP2 enhances expression of genes known to be regulated by Wnt3a signaling. -- Abstract: Secreted Frizzled-related proteins (sFRP) are involved in embryonic development as well as pathological conditions including bone and myocardial disorders and cancer. Because of their sequence homology with the Wnt-binding domain of Frizzled, they have generally been considered antagonists of canonical Wnt signaling. However, additional activities of various sFRPs including both synergism and mimicry of Wnt signaling as well as functions other than modulation of Wnt signaling have been reported. Using human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293A), we found that sFRP2 enhanced Wnt3a-dependent phosphorylation of LRP6 as well as both cytosolic β-catenin levels and its nuclear translocation. While addition of recombinant sFRP2 had no activity by itself, Top/Fop luciferase reporter assays showed a dose-dependent increase of Wnt3a-mediated transcriptional activity. sFRP2 enhancement of Wnt3a signaling was abolished by treatment with the Wnt antagonist, Dickkopf-1 (DKK1). Wnt-signaling pathway qPCR arrays showed that sFRP2 enhanced the Wnt3a-mediated transcriptional up-regulation of several genes regulated by Wnt3a including its antagonists, DKK1, and Naked cuticle-1 homolog (NKD1). These results support sFRP2's role as an enhancer of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a result with biological impact for both normal development and diverse pathologies such as tumorigenesis.

  16. Secreted Frizzled-related protein-2 (sFRP2) augments canonical Wnt3a-induced signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschall, Zofia von [Craniofacial and Skeletal Diseases Branch, NIDCR, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD (United States); Fisher, Larry W., E-mail: lfisher@dir.nidcr.nih.gov [Craniofacial and Skeletal Diseases Branch, NIDCR, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} sFRP2 enhances the Wnt3a-induced {beta}-catenin stabilization and its nuclear translocation. {yields} sFRP2 enhances LRP6 phosphorylation and Wnt3a/{beta}-catenin transcriptional reporter activity. {yields} Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) fully antagonizes both Wnt3a/sFRP2-induced LRP6 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity. {yields} sFRP2 enhances expression of genes known to be regulated by Wnt3a signaling. -- Abstract: Secreted Frizzled-related proteins (sFRP) are involved in embryonic development as well as pathological conditions including bone and myocardial disorders and cancer. Because of their sequence homology with the Wnt-binding domain of Frizzled, they have generally been considered antagonists of canonical Wnt signaling. However, additional activities of various sFRPs including both synergism and mimicry of Wnt signaling as well as functions other than modulation of Wnt signaling have been reported. Using human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293A), we found that sFRP2 enhanced Wnt3a-dependent phosphorylation of LRP6 as well as both cytosolic {beta}-catenin levels and its nuclear translocation. While addition of recombinant sFRP2 had no activity by itself, Top/Fop luciferase reporter assays showed a dose-dependent increase of Wnt3a-mediated transcriptional activity. sFRP2 enhancement of Wnt3a signaling was abolished by treatment with the Wnt antagonist, Dickkopf-1 (DKK1). Wnt-signaling pathway qPCR arrays showed that sFRP2 enhanced the Wnt3a-mediated transcriptional up-regulation of several genes regulated by Wnt3a including its antagonists, DKK1, and Naked cuticle-1 homolog (NKD1). These results support sFRP2's role as an enhancer of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling, a result with biological impact for both normal development and diverse pathologies such as tumorigenesis.

  17. Intranasal Vaccination with a Secreted Chlamydial Protein Enhances Resolution of Genital Chlamydia muridarum Infection, Protects against Oviduct Pathology, and Is Highly Dependent upon Endogenous Gamma Interferon Production▿

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Chambers, James P.; Meier, Patricia A.; Zhong, Guangming; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    There is currently no licensed vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading cause of sexually transmitted bacterial disease worldwide. Conventional vaccination attempts using surface-exposed chlamydial antigens have achieved only partial success. We have employed a novel vaccination strategy using a secreted protein, chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF), which has been shown to degrade host major histocompatibility complex transcription factors and keratin-8 and therefore may...

  18. Comparative transcriptome analysis of a Trichoplusia ni cell line reveals distinct host responses to intracellular and secreted protein products expressed by recombinant baculoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczka, Krisztina; Peters, Philipp; Ernst, Wolfgang; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Nika, Lisa; Grabherr, Reingard

    2018-03-20

    The baculovirus insect cell expression system has become a firmly established production platform in biotechnology. Various complex proteins, multi-subunit particles including veterinary and human vaccines are manufactured with this system on a commercial scale. Apart from baculovirus infected Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells, the Trichoplusia ni (HighFive) cell line is alternatively used as host organism. In this study, we explored the protein production capabilities of Tnms42 insect cells, a new derivative of HighFive, which is free of latent nodavirus infection. As a model system, a cytosolic (mCherry) and a secreted (hemagglutinin) protein were overexpressed in Tnms42 cells. The response of the host cells was followed in a time course experiment over the infection cycle by comparative transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq). As expected, the baculovirus infection per se had a massive impact on the host cell transcriptome, which was observed by the huge total number of differentially expressed transcripts (>14,000). Despite this severe overall cellular reaction, a specific response could be clearly attributed to the overexpression of secreted hemagglutinin, revealing limits in the secretory capacity of the host cell. About 400 significantly regulated transcripts were identified and assigned to biochemical pathways and gene ontology (GO) categories, all related to protein processing, folding and response to unfolded protein. The identification of relevant target genes will serve to design specific virus engineering concepts for improving the yield of proteins that are dependent on the secretory pathway. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Protein malnutrition blunts the increment of taurine transporter expression by a high-fat diet and impairs taurine reestablishment of insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Renato Chaves Souto; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Batista, Thiago Martins; Vettorazzi, Jean Franciesco; Borck, Patrícia Cristine; Dos Santos-Silva, Junia Carolina Rebelo; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Zoppi, Cláudio Cesar; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães

    2017-09-01

    Taurine (Tau) restores β-cell function in obesity; however, its action is lost in malnourished obese rodents. Here, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the lack of effects of Tau in this model. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet (CD) (14% protein) or a protein-restricted diet (RD) (6% protein) for 6 wk. Afterward, mice received a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 wk [CD + HFD (CH) and RD + HFD (RH)] with or without 5% Tau supplementation after weaning on their drinking water [CH + Tau (CHT) and RH + Tau (RHT)]. The HFD increased insulin secretion through mitochondrial metabolism in CH and RH. Tau prevented all those alterations in CHT only. The expression of the taurine transporter (Tau-T), as well as Tau content in pancreatic islets, was increased in CH but had no effect on RH. Protein malnutrition programs β cells and impairs Tau-induced restoration of mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis. This may be associated with modulation of the expression of Tau-T in pancreatic islets, which may be responsible for the absence of effect of Tau in protein-malnourished obese mice.-Branco, R. C. S., Camargo, R. L., Batista, T. M., Vettorazzi, J. F., Borck, P. C., dos Santos-Silva, J. C. R., Boschero, A. C., Zoppi, C. C., Carneiro, E. M. Protein malnutrition blunts the increment of taurine transporter expression by a high-fat diet and impairs taurine reestablishment of insulin secretion. © FASEB.

  20. A putative three-dimensional targeting motif of polygalacturonase (PehA), a protein secreted through the type II (GSP) pathway in Erwinia carotovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Tiina; Pickersgill, Richard; Riekki, Ruusu; Romantschuk, Martin; Saarilahti, Hannu T

    2002-02-01

    Intramolecular information specifying protein secretion through the type II (GSP) pathway of Gram-negative bacteria was investigated. Two regions of the polygalacturonase (PehA) of Erwinia carotovora containing residues proposed to be included in a targeting motif were located, one close to the C-terminus between residues 342 and 369 and another between residues 84 and 135 in the large central loops. The regions were required together to promote secretion. Further residues in the middle of the protein were required for proper positioning of the regions, suggesting that they were both involved in interaction with the GSP. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a possible three-dimensional targeting motif has been defined. At least one of the motifs comprises a cluster on the surface of the protein. The two motifs are structurally dissimilar, suggesting that there are two distinct recognition regions in the GSP apparatus. Finally, we propose that the targeting motifs are of a complex conformational nature with some variability accommodated, as illustrated by the observation that many mutations exhibited no clear phenotype individually but, in combination, severely compromised secretion.

  1. ICGA-PSO-ELM approach for accurate multiclass cancer classification resulting in reduced gene sets in which genes encoding secreted proteins are highly represented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, Saras; Sundaram, Suresh; Sundararajan, Narasimhan; Zimmermann, Michael; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2011-01-01

    A combination of Integer-Coded Genetic Algorithm (ICGA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), coupled with the neural-network-based Extreme Learning Machine (ELM), is used for gene selection and cancer classification. ICGA is used with PSO-ELM to select an optimal set of genes, which is then used to build a classifier to develop an algorithm (ICGA_PSO_ELM) that can handle sparse data and sample imbalance. We evaluate the performance of ICGA-PSO-ELM and compare our results with existing methods in the literature. An investigation into the functions of the selected genes, using a systems biology approach, revealed that many of the identified genes are involved in cell signaling and proliferation. An analysis of these gene sets shows a larger representation of genes that encode secreted proteins than found in randomly selected gene sets. Secreted proteins constitute a major means by which cells interact with their surroundings. Mounting biological evidence has identified the tumor microenvironment as a critical factor that determines tumor survival and growth. Thus, the genes identified by this study that encode secreted proteins might provide important insights to the nature of the critical biological features in the microenvironment of each tumor type that allow these cells to thrive and proliferate.

  2. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic exploration of the human immune system: focus on the inflammasome, global protein secretion, and T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Tuula A; Lorey, Martina B; Cypryk, Wojciech; Matikainen, Sampsa

    2017-05-01

    The immune system is our defense system against microbial infections and tissue injury, and understanding how it works in detail is essential for developing drugs for different diseases. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics can provide in-depth information on the molecular mechanisms involved in immune responses. Areas covered: Summarized are the key immunology findings obtained with MS-based proteomics in the past five years, with a focus on inflammasome activation, global protein secretion, mucosal immunology, immunopeptidome and T cells. Special focus is on extracellular vesicle-mediated protein secretion and its role in immune responses. Expert commentary: Proteomics is an essential part of modern omics-scale immunology research. To date, MS-based proteomics has been used in immunology to study protein expression levels, their subcellular localization, secretion, post-translational modifications, and interactions in immune cells upon activation by different stimuli. These studies have made major contributions to understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. New developments in proteomics offer constantly novel possibilities for exploring the immune system. Examples of these techniques include mass cytometry and different MS-based imaging approaches which can be widely used in immunology.

  3. Transcriptional profiling of arbuscular mycorrhizal roots exposed to high levels of phosphate reveals the repression of cell cycle-related genes and secreted protein genes in Rhizophagus irregularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Yusaku; Saito, Katsuharu

    2017-02-01

    The development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is strongly suppressed under high-phosphate (Pi) conditions. To investigate AM fungal responses during the suppression of AM by high Pi, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of Rhizophagus irregularis colonizing Lotus japonicus roots at different levels of Pi (20, 100, 300, and 500 μM). AM fungal colonization decreased markedly under high-Pi conditions. In total, 163 fungal genes were differentially expressed among the four Pi treatments. Among these genes, a cell cycle-regulatory gene, cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1, and several DNA replication- and mitosis-related genes were repressed under high-Pi conditions. More than 20 genes encoding secreted proteins were also downregulated by high-Pi conditions, including the strigolactone-induced putative secreted protein 1 gene that enhances AM fungal colonization. In contrast, the expression of genes related to aerobic respiration and transport in R. irregularis were largely unaffected. Our data suggest that high Pi suppresses the expression of genes associated with fungal cell cycle progression or that encode secreted proteins that may be required for intercellular hyphal growth and arbuscule formation. However, high Pi has little effect on the transcriptional regulation of the primary metabolism or transport in preformed fungal structures.

  4. EseE of Edwardsiella tarda Augments Secretion of Translocon Protein EseC and Expression of the escC-eseE Operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jia; Xiao, Shui Bing; Zeng, Zhi Xiong; Lu, Jin Fang; Liu, Lu Yi; Laghari, Zubair Ahmed; Nie, Pin; Yu, Hong Bing; Xie, Hai Xia

    2016-08-01

    Edwardsiella tarda is an important Gram-negative pathogen that employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effectors into host cells to facilitate bacterial survival and replication. These effectors are translocated into host cells through a translocon complex composed of three secreted proteins, namely, EseB, EseC, and EseD. The secretion of EseB and EseD requires a chaperone protein called EscC, whereas the secretion of EseC requires the chaperone EscA. In this study, we identified a novel protein (EseE) that also regulates the secretion of EseC. An eseE deletion mutant secreted much less EseC into supernatants, accompanied by increased EseC levels within bacterial cells. We also demonstrated that EseE interacted directly with EseC in a pulldown assay. Interestingly, EseC, EseE, and EscA were able to form a ternary complex, as revealed by pulldown and gel filtration assays. Of particular importance, the deletion of eseE resulted in decreased levels of EseB and EseD proteins in both the bacterial pellet and supernatant fraction. Furthermore, real-time PCR assays showed that EseE positively regulated the transcription of the translocon operon escC-eseE, comprising escC, eseB, escA, eseC, eseD, and eseE These effects of EseE on the translocon components/operon appeared to have a functional consequence, since the ΔeseE strain was outcompeted by wild-type E. tarda in a mixed infection in blue gourami fish. Collectively, our results demonstrate that EseE not only functions as a chaperone for EseC but also acts as a positive regulator controlling the expression of the translocon operon escC-eseE, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of E. tarda in fish. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. The RNA binding protein Tudor-SN is essential for stress tolerance and stabilizes levels of stress-responsive mRNAs encoding secreted proteins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei dit Frey, Nicolas; Muller, Philippe; Jammes, Fabien; Kizis, Dimosthenis; Leung, Jeffrey; Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine; Bianchi, Michele Wolfe

    2010-05-01

    Tudor-SN (TSN) copurifies with the RNA-induced silencing complex in animal cells where, among other functions, it is thought to act on mRNA stability via the degradation of specific dsRNA templates. In plants, TSN has been identified biochemically as a cytoskeleton-associated RNA binding activity. In eukaryotes, it has recently been identified as a conserved primary target of programmed cell death-associated proteolysis. We have investigated the physiological role of TSN by isolating null mutations for two homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. The double mutant tsn1 tsn2 displays only mild growth phenotypes under nonstress conditions, but germination, growth, and survival are severely affected under high salinity stress. Either TSN1 or TSN2 alone can complement the double mutant, indicating their functional redundancy. TSN accumulates heterogeneously in the cytosol and relocates transiently to a diffuse pattern in response to salt stress. Unexpectedly, stress-regulated mRNAs encoding secreted proteins are significantly enriched among the transcripts that are underrepresented in tsn1 tsn2. Our data also reveal that TSN is important for RNA stability of its targets. These findings show that TSN is essential for stress tolerance in plants and implicate TSN in new, potentially conserved mechanisms acting on mRNAs entering the secretory pathway.

  6. Updating the salivary gland transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi (Tunisian strain): the search for sand fly-secreted immunogenic proteins for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeladhim, Maha; Jochim, Ryan C; Ben Ahmed, Melika; Zhioua, Elyes; Chelbi, Ifhem; Cherni, Saifedine; Louzir, Hechmi; Ribeiro, José M C; Valenzuela, Jesus G

    2012-01-01

    Sand fly saliva plays an important role in both blood feeding and outcome of Leishmania infection. A cellular immune response against a Phlebotomus papatasi salivary protein was shown to protect rodents against Leishmania major infection. In humans, P. papatasi salivary proteins induce a systemic cellular immune response as well as a specific antisaliva humoral immune response, making these salivary proteins attractive targets as markers of exposure for this Leishmania vector. Surprisingly, the repertoire of salivary proteins reported for P. papatasi-a model sand fly for Leishmania-vector-host molecular interactions-is very limited compared with other sand fly species. We hypothesize that a more comprehensive study of the transcripts present in the salivary glands of P. papatasi will provide better knowledge of the repertoire of proteins of this important vector and will aid in selection of potential immunogenic proteins for humans and of those proteins that are highly conserved between different sand fly strains. A cDNA library from P. papatasi (Tunisian strain) salivary glands was constructed, and randomly selected transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. The most abundant transcripts encoding secreted proteins were identified and compared with previously reported sequences. Importantly, we identified salivary proteins not described before in this sand fly species. Comparative analysis between the salivary proteins of P. papatasi from Tunisia and Israel strains shows a high level of identity, suggesting these proteins as potential common targets for markers of vector exposure or inducers of cellular immune responses in humans for different geographic areas.

  7. Updating the salivary gland transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi (Tunisian strain: the search for sand fly-secreted immunogenic proteins for humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Abdeladhim

    Full Text Available Sand fly saliva plays an important role in both blood feeding and outcome of Leishmania infection. A cellular immune response against a Phlebotomus papatasi salivary protein was shown to protect rodents against Leishmania major infection. In humans, P. papatasi salivary proteins induce a systemic cellular immune response as well as a specific antisaliva humoral immune response, making these salivary proteins attractive targets as markers of exposure for this Leishmania vector. Surprisingly, the repertoire of salivary proteins reported for P. papatasi-a model sand fly for Leishmania-vector-host molecular interactions-is very limited compared with other sand fly species. We hypothesize that a more comprehensive study of the transcripts present in the salivary glands of P. papatasi will provide better knowledge of the repertoire of proteins of this important vector and will aid in selection of potential immunogenic proteins for humans and of those proteins that are highly conserved between different sand fly strains.A cDNA library from P. papatasi (Tunisian strain salivary glands was constructed, and randomly selected transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. The most abundant transcripts encoding secreted proteins were identified and compared with previously reported sequences. Importantly, we identified salivary proteins not described before in this sand fly species.Comparative analysis between the salivary proteins of P. papatasi from Tunisia and Israel strains shows a high level of identity, suggesting these proteins as potential common targets for markers of vector exposure or inducers of cellular immune responses in humans for different geographic areas.

  8. On the Role of Protein Disulfide Isomerase in the Retrograde Cell Transport of Secreted Phospholipases A2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Adrijana; Dolinar, Klemen; Pucer Janež, Anja; Križaj, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Following the finding that ammodytoxin (Atx), a neurotoxic secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) in snake venom, binds specifically to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) in vitro we show that these proteins also interact in living rat PC12 cells that are able to internalize this group IIA (GIIA) sPLA2. Atx and PDI co-localize in both differentiated and non-differentiated PC12 cells, as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Based on a model of the complex between Atx and yeast PDI (yPDI), a three-dimensional model of the complex between Atx and human PDI (hPDI) was constructed. The Atx binding site on hPDI is situated between domains b and b’. Atx interacts hPDI with an extensive area on its interfacial binding surface. The mammalian GIB, GIIA, GV and GX sPLA2s have the same fold as Atx. The first three sPLA2s have been detected intracellularly but not the last one. The models of their complexes with hPDI were constructed by replacement of Atx with the respective mammalian sPLA2 in the Atx—hPDI complex and molecular docking of the structures. According to the generated models, mammalian GIB, GIIA and GV sPLA2s form complexes with hPDI very similar to that with Atx. The contact area between GX sPLA2 and hPDI is however different from that of the other sPLA2s. Heterologous competition of Atx binding to hPDI with GV and GX sPLA2s confirmed the model-based expectation that GV sPLA2 was a more effective inhibitor than GX sPLA2, thus validating our model. The results suggest a role of hPDI in the (patho)physiology of some snake venom and mammalian sPLA2s by assisting the retrograde transport of these molecules from the cell surface. The sPLA2–hPDI model constitutes a valuable tool to facilitate further insights into this process and into the (patho)physiology of sPLA2s in relation to their action intracellularly. PMID:25763817

  9. On the role of protein disulfide isomerase in the retrograde cell transport of secreted phospholipases A2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Oberčkal

    Full Text Available Following the finding that ammodytoxin (Atx, a neurotoxic secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 in snake venom, binds specifically to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI in vitro we show that these proteins also interact in living rat PC12 cells that are able to internalize this group IIA (GIIA sPLA2. Atx and PDI co-localize in both differentiated and non-differentiated PC12 cells, as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Based on a model of the complex between Atx and yeast PDI (yPDI, a three-dimensional model of the complex between Atx and human PDI (hPDI was constructed. The Atx binding site on hPDI is situated between domains b and b'. Atx interacts hPDI with an extensive area on its interfacial binding surface. The mammalian GIB, GIIA, GV and GX sPLA2s have the same fold as Atx. The first three sPLA2s have been detected intracellularly but not the last one. The models of their complexes with hPDI were constructed by replacement of Atx with the respective mammalian sPLA2 in the Atx-hPDI complex and molecular docking of the structures. According to the generated models, mammalian GIB, GIIA and GV sPLA2s form complexes with hPDI very similar to that with Atx. The contact area between GX sPLA2 and hPDI is however different from that of the other sPLA2s. Heterologous competition of Atx binding to hPDI with GV and GX sPLA2s confirmed the model-based expectation that GV sPLA2 was a more effective inhibitor than GX sPLA2, thus validating our model. The results suggest a role of hPDI in the (pathophysiology of some snake venom and mammalian sPLA2s by assisting the retrograde transport of these molecules from the cell surface. The sPLA2-hPDI model constitutes a valuable tool to facilitate further insights into this process and into the (pathophysiology of sPLA2s in relation to their action intracellularly.

  10. Measurement of backbone hydrogen-deuterium exchange in the type III secretion system needle protein PrgI by solid-state NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevelkov, Veniamin; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2017-10-01

    In this report we present site-specific measurements of amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange rates in a protein in the solid state phase by MAS NMR. Employing perdeuteration, proton detection and a high external magnetic field we could adopt the highly efficient Relax-EXSY protocol previously developed for liquid state NMR. According to this method, we measured the contribution of hydrogen exchange on apparent 15N longitudinal relaxation rates in samples with differing D2O buffer content. Differences in the apparent T1 times allowed us to derive exchange rates for multiple residues in the type III secretion system needle protein.

  11. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase motif is lacking in PmpA, the PrsA-like protein involved in the secretion machinery of Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouault, Sophie; Anba, Jamila; Bonneau, Sophie; Bolotin, Alexander; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Renault, Pierre

    2002-08-01

    The prsA-like gene from Lactococcus lactis encoding its single homologue to PrsA, an essential protein triggering the folding of secreted proteins in Bacillus subtilis, was characterized. This gene, annotated pmpA, encodes a lipoprotein of 309 residues whose expression is increased 7- to 10-fold when the source of nitrogen is limited. A slight increase in the expression of the PrsA-like protein (PLP) in L. lactis removed the degradation products previously observed with the Staphylococcus hyicus lipase used as a model secreted protein. This shows that PmpA either triggers the folding of the secreted lipase or activates its degradation by the cell surface protease HtrA. Unlike the case for B. subtilis, the inactivation of the gene encoding PmpA reduced only slightly the growth rate of L. lactis in standard conditions. However, it almost stopped its growth when the lipase was overexpressed in the presence of salt in the medium. Like PrsA of B. subtilis and PrtM of L. lactis, the L. lactis PmpA protein could thus have a foldase activity that facilitates protein secretion. These proteins belong to the third family of peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerases (PPIases) for which parvulin is the prototype. Almost all PLP from gram-positive bacteria contain a domain with the PPIase signature. An exception to this situation was found only in Streptococcaceae, the family to which L. lactis belongs. PLP from Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterococcus faecalis possess this signature, but those of L. lactis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus mutans do not. However, secondary structure predictions suggest that the folding of PLP is conserved over the entire length of the proteins, including the unconserved signature region. The activity associated with the expression of PmpA in L. lactis and these genomic data show that either the PPIase motif is not necessary for PPIase activity or, more likely, PmpA foldase activity does not necessarily require PPIase activity.

  12. Delineation of polar localization domains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens type IV secretion apparatus proteins VirB4 and VirB11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aditi; Das, Anath

    2014-10-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers DNA and proteins to a plant cell through a type IV secretion apparatus assembled by the VirB proteins. All VirB proteins localized to a cell pole, although these conclusions are in dispute. To study subcellular location of the VirB proteins and to identify determinants of their subcellular location, we tagged two proteins, VirB4 and VirB11, with the visual marker green fluorescent protein (GFP) and studied localization of the fusion proteins by epifluorescence microscopy. Both GFP-VirB4 and GFP-VirB11 fusions localized to a single cell pole. GFP-VirB11 was also functional in DNA transfer. To identify the polar localization domains (PLDs) of VirB4 and VirB11, we analyzed fusions of GFP with smaller segments of the two proteins. Two noncontiguous regions in VirB4, residues 236-470 and 592-789, contain PLDs. The VirB11 PLD mapped to a 69 amino acid segment, residues 149-217, in the central region of the protein. These domains are probably involved in interactions that target the two proteins to a cell pole. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Whey proteins have beneficial effects on intestinal enteroendocrine cells stimulating cell growth and increasing the production and secretion of incretin hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Anna L; Calderwood, Danielle; Hobson, Laura; Green, Brian D

    2015-12-15

    Whey protein has been indicated to curb diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here the effects of intact crude whey, intact individual whey proteins and beta-lactoglobulin hydrolysates on an enteroendocrine (EE) cell model were examined. STC-1 pGIP/neo cells were incubated with several concentrations of yogurt whey (YW), cheese whey (CW), beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), alpha-lactalbumin (ALA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The findings demonstrate that BLG stimulates EE cell proliferation, and also GLP-1 secretion (an effect which is lost following hydrolysis with chymotrypsin or trypsin). ALA is a highly potent GLP-1 secretagogue which also increases the intracellular levels of GLP-1. Conversely, whey proteins and hydrolysates had little impact on GIP secretion. This appears to be the first investigation of the effects of the three major proteins of YW and CW on EE cells. The anti-diabetic potential of whey proteins should be further investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative proteomics of exosomes secreted by tumoral Jurkat T cells and normal human T cell blasts unravels a potential tumorigenic role for valosin-containing protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque, Alberto; Dietz, Lisa; Gallego-Lleyda, Ana; Sanclemente, Manuel; Iturralde, María; Naval, Javier; Alava, María Angeles; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Thierse, Hermann-Josef; Anel, Alberto

    2016-05-17

    We have previously characterized that FasL and Apo2L/TRAIL are stored in their bioactive form inside human T cell blasts in intraluminal vesicles present in multivesicular bodies. These vesicles are rapidly released to the supernatant in the form of exosomes upon re-activation of T cells. In this study we have compared for the first time proteomics of exosomes produced by normal human T cell blasts with those produced by tumoral Jurkat cells, with the objective of identify proteins associated with tumoral exosomes that could have a previously unrecognized role in malignancy. We have identified 359 and 418 proteins in exosomes from T cell blasts and Jurkat cells, respectively. Interestingly, only 145 (around a 40%) are common. The major proteins in both cases are actin and tubulin isoforms and the common interaction nodes correspond to these cytoskeleton and related proteins, as well as to ribosomal and mRNA granule proteins. We detected 14 membrane proteins that were especially enriched in exosomes from Jurkat cells as compared with T cell blasts. The most abundant of these proteins was valosin-containing protein (VCP), a membrane ATPase involved in ER homeostasis and ubiquitination. In this work, we also show that leukemic cells are more sensitive to cell death induced by the VCP inhibitor DBeQ than normal T cells. Furthermore, VCP inhibition prevents functional exosome secretion only in Jurkat cells, but not in T cell blasts. These results suggest VCP targeting as a new selective pathway to exploit in cancer treatment to prevent tumoral exosome secretion.

  15. The antitoxin protein of a toxin-antitoxin system from Xylella fastidiosa is secreted via outer membrane vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Santiago

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Xylella fastidiosa subsp pauca strain 9a5c is a Gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterium that is able to form a biofilm and affects citrus crops in Brazil. Some genes are considered to be involved in biofilm formation, but the specific mechanisms involved in this process remain unknown. This limited understanding of how some bacteria form biofilms is a major barrier to our comprehension of the progression of diseases caused by biofilm-producing bacteria. Several investigations have shown that the toxin-antitoxin (TA operon is related to biofilm formation. This operon is composed of a toxin with RNAse activity and its cognate antitoxin. Previous reports have indicated that the antitoxin is able to inhibit toxin activity and modulate the expression of the operon as well as other target genes involved in oxidative stress and mobility. In this study, we characterize a toxin-antitoxin system consisting of XfMqsR and XfYgiT, respectively, from X. fastidiosa subsp pauca strain 9a5c. These proteins display a high similarity to their homologues in X. fastidiosa strain Temecula and a predicted tridimensional structure that is similar to MqsR-YgiT from Escherichia coli. The characterization was performed using in vitro assays such as analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC, size exclusion chromatography, isothermal titration calorimetry and western blotting. Using a fluorometric assay to detect RNAses, we demonstrated that XfMqsR is thermostable and can degrade RNA. XfMqsR is inhibited by XfYgiT, which interacts with its own promoter. XfYgiT is known to be localized in the intracellular compartment; however, we provide strong evidence that X. fastidiosa secretes wild-type XfYgiT into the extracellular environment via outer membrane vesicles, as confirmed by western blotting and specific immunofluorescence labeling visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Taken together, our results characterize the TA system from X. fastidiosa strain 9a5c, and we also discuss

  16. The Antitoxin Protein of a Toxin-Antitoxin System fromXylella fastidiosaIs Secreted via Outer Membrane Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, André da Silva; Mendes, Juliano S; Dos Santos, Clelton A; de Toledo, Marcelo A S; Beloti, Lilian L; Crucello, Aline; Horta, Maria A C; Favaro, Marianna T de Pinho; Munar, Duber M M; de Souza, Alessandra A; Cotta, Mônica A; de Souza, Anete P

    2016-01-01

    The Xylella fastidiosa subsp pauca strain 9a5c is a Gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterium that is able to form a biofilm and affects citrus crops in Brazil. Some genes are considered to be involved in biofilm formation, but the specific mechanisms involved in this process remain unknown. This limited understanding of how some bacteria form biofilms is a major barrier to our comprehension of the progression of diseases caused by biofilm-producing bacteria. Several investigations have shown that the toxin-antitoxin (TA) operon is related to biofilm formation. This operon is composed of a toxin with RNAse activity and its cognate antitoxin. Previous reports have indicated that the antitoxin is able to inhibit toxin activity and modulate the expression of the operon as well as other target genes involved in oxidative stress and mobility. In this study, we characterize a toxin-antitoxin system consisting of XfMqsR and XfYgiT, respectively, from X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain 9a5c. These proteins display a high similarity to their homologs in X. fastidiosa strain Temecula and a predicted tridimensional structure that is similar to MqsR-YgiT from Escherichia coli . The characterization was performed using in vitro assays such as analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC), size exclusion chromatography, isothermal titration calorimetry, and Western blotting. Using a fluorometric assay to detect RNAses, we demonstrated that XfMqsR is thermostable and can degrade RNA. XfMqsR is inhibited by XfYgiT, which interacts with its own promoter. XfYgiT is known to be localized in the intracellular compartment; however, we provide strong evidence that X. fastidiosa secretes wild-type XfYgiT into the extracellular environment via outer membrane vesicles, as confirmed by Western blotting and specific immunofluorescence labeling visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Taken together, our results characterize the TA system from X. fastidiosa strain 9a5c, and we also discuss the possible

  17. A Catalog of Proteins Expressed in the AG Secreted Fluid during the Mature Phase of the Chinese Mitten Crabs (Eriocheir sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin; Li, Qing; Liu, Lihua; Wang, Yuanli; Xie, Jing; Yang, Hongdan; Wang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The accessory gland (AG) is an important component of the male reproductive system of arthropods, its secretions enhance fertility, some AG proteins bind to the spermatozoa and affect its function and properties. Here we report the first comprehensive catalog of the AG secreted fluid during the mature phase of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). AG proteins were separated by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Altogether, the mass spectra of 1173 peptides were detected (1067 without decoy and contaminants) which allowed for the identification of 486 different proteins annotated upon the NCBI database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and our transcritptome dataset. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited at the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000700. An extensive description of the AG proteome will help provide the basis for a better understanding of a number of reproductive mechanisms, including potentially spermatophore breakdown, dynamic functional and morphological changes in sperm cells and sperm acrosin enzyme vitality. Thus, the comprehensive catalog of proteins presented here can serve as a valuable reference for future studies of sperm maturation and regulatory mechanisms involved in crustacean reproduction.

  18. Orientia tsutsugamushi ankyrin repeat-containing protein family members are Type 1 secretion system substrates that traffic to the host cell endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VieBrock, Lauren; Evans, Sean M; Beyer, Andrea R; Larson, Charles L; Beare, Paul A; Ge, Hong; Singh, Smita; Rodino, Kyle G; Heinzen, Robert A; Richards, Allen L; Carlyon, Jason A

    2014-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an understudied, potentially fatal infection that threatens one billion persons in the Asia-Pacific region. How the causative obligate intracellular bacterium, Orientia tsutsugamushi, facilitates its intracellular survival and pathogenesis is poorly understood. Many intracellular bacterial pathogens utilize the Type 1 (T1SS) or Type 4 secretion system (T4SS) to translocate ankyrin repeat-containing proteins (Anks) that traffic to distinct subcellular locations and modulate host cell processes. The O. tsutsugamushi genome encodes one of the largest known bacterial Ank repertoires plus T1SS and T4SS components. Whether these potential virulence factors are expressed during infection, how the Anks are potentially secreted, and to where they localize in the host cell are not known. We determined that O. tsutsugamushi transcriptionally expresses 20 unique ank genes as well as genes for both T1SS and T4SS during infection of mammalian host cells. Examination of the Anks' C-termini revealed that the majority of them resemble T1SS substrates. Escherichia coli expressing a functional T1SS was able to secrete chimeric hemolysin proteins bearing the C-termini of 19 of 20 O. tsutsugamushi Anks in an HlyBD-dependent manner. Thus, O. tsutsugamushi Anks C-termini are T1SS-compatible. Conversely, Coxiella burnetii could not secrete heterologously expressed Anks in a T4SS-dependent manner. Analysis of the subcellular distribution patterns of 20 ectopically expressed Anks revealed that, while 6 remained cytosolic or trafficked to the nucleus, 14 localized to, and in some cases, altered the morphology of the endoplasmic reticulum. This study identifies O. tsutsugamushi Anks as T1SS substrates and indicates that many display a tropism for the host cell secretory pathway.

  19. An abundantly secreted glycoprotein from Drosophila melanogaster is related to mammalian secretory proteins produced in rheumatoid tissues and by activated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, R B; Matico, R E; McNulty, D E; Strickler, J E; Rosenberg, M

    1995-02-14

    An abundantly secreted 47-kDa glycoprotein, DS47, was purified from Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) Schneider line-2 cells, a line exhibiting macrophage-like properties. DS47 is also secreted from several Dm cell lines resembling S2 but not from lines that are morphologically distinct. A cDNA cline was isolated from an S2 cell cDNA library using oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes based on the DS47 amino acid (aa) sequence and found to encode a novel secretory glycoprotein of 452 aa. Analysis of DS47 protein production and mRNA expression during fly development indicates that both are present throughout the entire Dm life cycle, suggesting that DS47 may be important at all developmental stages. In larvae, the DS47 message is made in the fat body and by hemocytes, and secreted into the hemolymph. DS47 is related to a human cartilage glycoprotein, HC gp-39, that is secreted from cell types associated with the arthritic joint, such as synovial cells and activated macrophages. Interestingly, the HC gp-39 message is most readily detected in the human liver, an organ that is somewhat analogous to the Dm fat body. DS47 also shares homology to a mouse secretory glycoprotein, YM-1, identified in activated macrophages. These homologies extend to the chitinase gene family and include a conserved cysteine aa motif, as well as two blocks of aa within the enzymatic active site, although neither DS-47 nor HC gp-39 exhibit chitinase activity. Potential functions of this conserved protein family are discussed.

  20. Involvement of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) in the secretion of danofloxacin into milk: interaction with ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, R; Egido, E; Pérez, M; González-Lobato, L; Barrera, B; Prieto, J G; Alvarez, A I; Merino, G

    2011-08-01

    Danofloxacin, a veterinary fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drug, is actively secreted into milk by an as yet unknown mechanism. One of the main determinants of active drug secretion into milk is the transporter (BCRP/ABCG2). The main purpose was to determine whether danofloxacin is an in vitro substrate for Bcrp1/BCRP and to assess its involvement in danofloxacin secretion into milk. In addition, the role of potential drug-drug interactions in this process was assessed using ivermectin. Danofloxacin was transported in vitro by Bcrp1/BCRP, and ivermectin efficiently blocked this transport. Experiments with Bcrp1(-/-) mice showed no evidence of the involvement of Bcrp1 in plasma pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin. However, the milk concentration and milk-to-plasma ratio of danofloxacin were almost twofold higher in wild-type compared with Bcrp1(-/-) mice. The in vivo interaction with ivermectin was studied in sheep after co-administration of danofloxacin (1.25 mg/kg, i.m.) and ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg, s.c.). Ivermectin had no significant effect on the plasma levels of danofloxacin but significantly decreased danofloxacin concentrations in milk by almost 40%. Concomitant administration of multiple drugs, often used in veterinary therapy, may not only affect their pharmacological activity but also their secretion into milk, because of potential drug-drug interactions mediated by BCRP. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Intraspecies Competition in Serratia marcescens Is Mediated by Type VI-Secreted Rhs Effectors and a Conserved Effector-Associated Accessory Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoforado Diniz, Juliana; Coulthurst, Sarah J

    2015-07-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and can deliver toxic effector proteins into eukaryotic cells or competitor bacteria. Antibacterial T6SSs are increasingly recognized as key mediators of interbacterial competition and may contribute to the outcome of many polymicrobial infections. Multiple antibacterial effectors can be delivered by these systems, with diverse activities against target cells and distinct modes of secretion. Polymorphic toxins containing Rhs repeat domains represent a recently identified and as-yet poorly characterized class of T6SS-dependent effectors. Previous work had revealed that the potent antibacterial T6SS of the opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens promotes intraspecies as well as interspecies competition (S. L. Murdoch, K. Trunk, G. English, M. J. Fritsch, E. Pourkarimi, and S. J. Coulthurst, J Bacteriol 193:6057-6069, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.05671-11). In this study, two new Rhs family antibacterial effectors delivered by this T6SS have been identified. One of these was shown to act as a DNase toxin, while the other contains a novel, cytoplasmic-acting toxin domain. Importantly, using S. marcescens, it has been demonstrated for the first time that Rhs proteins, rather than other T6SS-secreted effectors, can be the primary determinant of intraspecies competition. Furthermore, a new family of accessory proteins associated with T6SS effectors has been identified, exemplified by S. marcescens EagR1, which is specifically required for deployment of its associated Rhs effector. Together, these findings provide new insight into how bacteria can use the T6SS to deploy Rhs-family effectors and mediate different types of interbacterial interactions. Infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens represent a continuing threat to health and economic prosperity. To counter this threat, we must understand how such organisms survive and prosper. The type VI secretion system is a weapon that

  2. The N-terminus of IpaB provides a potential anchor to the Shigella type III secretion system tip complex protein IpaD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Nicholas E.; Arizmendi, Olivia; Patil, Mrinalini K.; Toth, Ronald T.; Middaugh, C. Russell; Picking, William D.; Picking, Wendy L.

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an essential virulence factor for Shigella flexneri, providing a condui