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Sample records for na transporter responses

  1. Proximal tubule Na transporter responses are the same during acute and chronic hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyar, C E; Zhang, Y; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    2000-01-01

    Acute hypertension in Sprague-Dawley rats (SD) provokes a decrease in renal proximal tubule (PT) salt and fluid reabsorption, redistribution of apical Na/H exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and Na-P(i) cotransporter type 2 (NaPi2) out of the brush border into higher density membranes, and inhibition...... to persistent adaptive changes in NHE3 and NaPi2 distribution and/or NKA activity. Renal cortex Na transporter protein density distributions and activities were compared by subcellular fractionation in 1) adult SHR with an acute increase or decrease in arterial pressure and 2) young SD (YSD) and young SHR (YSHR......) vs. adult SD and SHR. In adult hypertensive SHR NHE3 was shifted to membranes of higher densities, analogous to SD with acute hypertension, and there were no further changes with a further increase or decrease in arterial pressure. There was no change in total pool size of NHE3 in cortex in YSHR vs...

  2. Benzocaína sobre respostas ao estresse do matrinxã submetido ao transporte em sacos plásticos Benzocaine on the stress response of matrinxã subjected to transport in plastic bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Hackbarth

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O transporte é uma prática de manejo necessária em todas as estações de piscicultura. Entretanto, tal evento é um estímulo adverso e agudo, que interrompe o equilíbrio dos animais com o ambiente, de forma a promover o estresse. Alguns peixes de importância comercial, como o matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus, apresentam movimentação excessiva durante o manejo em geral, o que pode ocasionar consequências indesejáveis como perda de muco, de escamas, ferimentos e mortalidade. No presente trabalho, foi testado o anestésico benzocaína adicionado à água de transporte, como forma de reduzir estresse. Foram testadas duas concentrações de benzocaína, 10 e 15mg/L. Os resultados não mostraram efeitos de diminuição de estresse, apesar de a utilização da benzocaína ter reduzido a movimentação dos animais durante o transporte. As concentrações testadas podem ter aumentado o estresse por sofrimento respiratório, entretanto, o equilíbrio hidroeletrolítico não foi alterado, com sugestão de ação do anestésico sobre a liberação de catecolaminas.Transport is a necessary procedure in fish farming. However, it is an adverse and acute stimulus that breaks the balance between fish and environment, starting the stress condition. Some economic relevant species, as “matrinxã” (Brycon amazonicus, present excessive movements in handling, which may result in the unwanted consequences as loss of mucus, scales, injuries and death. In this work, the addition of the anesthetic benzocaine to the transport water was evaluated in juvenile “matrinxã”, in order to still the fish and possibly reducing stress. Two concentrations of benzocaine (10 and 15mg/L were tested. The results did not show any diminution of indices related to stress, notwithstanding the use of benzocaine during transport. Concentrations tested increased the stress responses by respiratory affliction, however, hydro-electrolytic balance was unaltered, being suggested some

  3. Active transport of Na+ by reconstituted Na,K-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldyrev, A.A.; Svinukhova, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of ATP, CTP, ITP, GTP, and UTP to support ouabain-sensitive accumulation of Na + by proteoliposomes with a reconstituted Na/K-pump was investigated. At a low [Na + ]/[K + ] ratio in the medium (20 mM/50 mM), a correlation is observed between the proton-accepting capacity of the nucleotide and its effectiveness as a substrate of active transport. To test the hypothesis of the importance of the presence of a negative charge in the 1-position of the purine (3-pyrimidine) base of the nucleotide for mutual transitions between the Na- and K-conformations of Na,K-ATPase they used two analogs of ATP: N 1 -hydroxy-ATP, possessing proton acceptor capacity, and N 1 -methoxy-ATP, in the molecule of which the negative charge is quenched by a methyl group. The first substrate supports active accumulation of Na + in proteoliposomes at the same rate as ATP, whereas the second substrate is relatively ineffective

  4. Close Association of Carbonic Anhydrase (CA2a and CA15a), Na+/H+ Exchanger (Nhe3b), and Ammonia Transporter Rhcg1 in Zebrafish Ionocytes Responsible for Na+ Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Sayako; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Miyagi, Hisako; Esaki, Masahiro; Hoshijima, Kazuyuki; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater (FW) fishes actively absorb salt from their environment to tolerate low salinities. We previously reported that vacuolar-type H+-ATPase/mitochondrion-rich cells (H-MRCs) on the skin epithelium of zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) are primary sites for Na+ uptake. In this study, in an attempt to clarify the mechanism for the Na+ uptake, we performed a systematic analysis of gene expression patterns of zebrafish carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoforms and found that, of 12 CA isoforms, CA2a and CA15a are highly expressed in H-MRCs at larval stages. The ca2a and ca15a mRNA expression were salinity-dependent; they were upregulated in 0.03 mM Na+ water whereas ca15a but not ca2a was down-regulated in 70 mM Na+ water. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated cytoplasmic distribution of CA2a and apical membrane localization of CA15a. Furthermore, cell surface immunofluorescence staining revealed external surface localization of CA15a. Depletion of either CA2a or CA15a expression by Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides resulted in a significant decrease in Na+ accumulation in H-MRCs. An in situ proximity ligation assay demonstrated a very close association of CA2a, CA15a, Na+/H+ exchanger 3b (Nhe3b), and Rhcg1 ammonia transporter in H-MRC. Our findings suggest that CA2a, CA15a, and Rhcg1 play a key role in Na+uptake under FW conditions by forming a transport metabolon with Nhe3b. PMID:23565095

  5. Water transport by the renal Na(+)-dicarboxylate cotransporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinild, A K; Loo, D D; Pajor, A M

    2000-01-01

    . This solute-coupled influx of water took place in the absence of, and even against, osmotic gradients. There was a strict stoichiometric relationship between Na(+), substrate, and water transport of 3 Na(+), 1 dicarboxylate, and 176 water molecules/transport cycle. These results indicate that the renal Na......This study investigated the ability of the renal Na(+)-dicarboxylate cotransporter, NaDC-1, to transport water. Rabbit NaDC-1 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, cotransporter activity was measured as the inward current generated by substrate (citrate or succinate), and water transport...... was monitored by the changes in oocyte volume. In the absence of substrates, oocytes expressing NaDC-1 showed an increase in osmotic water permeability, which was directly correlated with the expression level of NaDC-1. When NaDC-1 was transporting substrates, there was a concomitant increase in oocyte volume...

  6. Na+ Recirculation and Isosmotic Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Møbjerg, N

    2006-01-01

    of the absorbate. Mathematical modeling reproducing bioelectric and hydrosmotic properties of small intestine and proximal tubule, respectively, predicts a significant range of observations such as isosmotic transport, hyposmotic transport, solvent drag, anomalous solvent drag, the residual hydraulic permeability...... in proximal tubule of AQP1 (-/-) mice, and the inverse relationship between hydraulic permeability and the concentration difference needed to reverse transepithelial water flow. The model reproduces the volume responses of cells and lateral intercellular space (lis) following replacement of luminal Na...... external baths. Hyperosmolarity of lis is governed by the hydraulic permeability of the apical plasma membrane and tight junction with 6-7 mOsm in small intestine and

  7. Regulation of Epithelial Sodium Transport via Epithelial Na+ Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marunaka, Yoshinori; Niisato, Naomi; Taruno, Akiyuki; Ohta, Mariko; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Ashihara, Eishi; Nishio, Kyosuke; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Nakahari, Takashi; Kubota, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Renal epithelial Na+ transport plays an important role in homeostasis of our body fluid content and blood pressure. Further, the Na+ transport in alveolar epithelial cells essentially controls the amount of alveolar fluid that should be kept at an appropriate level for normal gas exchange. The epithelial Na+ transport is generally mediated through two steps: (1) the entry step of Na+ via epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) at the apical membrane and (2) the extrusion step of Na+ via the Na+, K+-ATPase at the basolateral membrane. In general, the Na+ entry via ENaC is the rate-limiting step. Therefore, the regulation of ENaC plays an essential role in control of blood pressure and normal gas exchange. In this paper, we discuss two major factors in ENaC regulation: (1) activity of individual ENaC and (2) number of ENaC located at the apical membrane. PMID:22028593

  8. Responses of slaughter pigs to transport and Lairage sounds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geverink, N.A.; Buhneman, A.; Burgwal, van J.A.; Lambooij, E.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Wiegant, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    Geverink, N.A., A. Bühnemann, J.A. van de Burgwal, E. Lambooij, H.J. Blokhuis and V.M. Wiegant. Responses of slaughter pigs to transport and lairage sounds. Physiol Behav 63(4) 667–673, 1998. The behavioral and physiological responses of pigs to transport and subsequent exposure to slaughterhouse

  9. Transport accident emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallette-Fontaine, M.; Frantz, P.

    1998-01-01

    To comply with the IAEA recommendations for the implementation of an Emergency Response Plan as described in Safety Series 87, Transnucleaire, a company deeply involved in the road and rail transports of the fuel cycle, masters means of Emergency Response in the event of a transport accident. This paper aims at analyzing the solutions adopted for the implementation of an Emergency Response Plan and the development of a technical support and adapted means for the recovery of heavy packagings. (authors)

  10. NaI(Tl) response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.; Ortiz R, J. M.; Benites R, J. L.; De Leon M, H. A.

    2015-09-01

    The response functions of a NaI(Tl) detector have been estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Response functions were calculated for monoenergetic photon sources (0.05 to 3 MeV). Responses were calculated for point-like sources and for sources distributed in Portland cement cylinders. The responses were used to calculate the efficiency functions in term of photon energy. Commonly, sources used for calibration are point-like, and eventually sources to be measured have different features. In order to use the calibrated sources corrections due to solid angle, self-absorption and scattering, must be carried out. However, some of these corrections are not easy to perform. In this work, the calculated responses were used to estimate the detector efficiency of point-like sources, and sources distributed in Portland type cement. Samples of Portland paste were prepared and were exposed to photoneutrons produced by a 15 MV linac. Some of the elements in the cement were activated producing γ-emitting radionuclides that were measured with a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer, that was calibrated with point-like sources. In order to determine the specific activity in the induced radioisotopes calculated efficiencies were used to make corrections due to the differences between the solid angle, photon absorption and photon scattering in the point-like calibration sources and the sources distributed in cement. During the interaction between photoneutrons and the cement samples three radioisotopes were induced: 56 Mn, 24 Na, and 28 Al. (Author)

  11. Na+-H+ exchange and Na+-dependent transport systems in streptozotocin diabetic rat kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Seifi, S.; Freiberg, J.M.; Kinsella, F.J.; Cheng, L.; Sacktor, B.

    1987-01-01

    The streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat was used to test the hypothesis that Na + -H + exchange activity in the proximal tubule luminal membrane would be increased in association with renal hypertrophy, altered glomerular hemodynamics, enhanced filtered load and tubular reabsorption of 22 Na + , and stimulated 22 Na= pump activity in the basolateral membrane, previously reported characteristics of this experimental animal model. Amiloride-sensitive H + gradient-dependent Na + uptake and Na + gradient-dependent H + flux were increased in brush-border membrane vesicles from the streptozotocin-treated animals. Na + gradient-dependent uptakes of phosphate, D-glucose, L-proline, and myoinositol were decreased in the drug-induced diabetic animals. These membrane transport alterations were not found when the streptozotocin-diabetic animals were treated with insulin

  12. The Na+ transporter, TaHKT1;5-D, limits shoot Na+ accumulation in bread wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Byrt, Caitlin Siobhan

    2014-10-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a major salt tolerance locus, Kna1, responsible for the maintenance of a high cytosolic K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves of salt stressed plants. The Kna1 locus encompasses a large DNA fragment, the distal 14% of chromosome 4DL. Limited recombination has been observed at this locus making it difficult to map genetically and identify the causal gene. Here, we decipher the function of TaHKT1;5-D, a candidate gene underlying the Kna1 locus. Transport studies using the heterologous expression systems Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is a Na+-selective transporter. Transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and in situ polymerase chain reaction indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is localised on the plasma membrane in the wheat root stele. RNA interference-induced silencing decreased the expression of TaHKT1;5-D in transgenic bread wheat lines which led to an increase in the Na+ concentration in the leaves. This indicates that TaHKT1;5-D retrieves Na+ from the xylem vessels in the root and has an important role in restricting the transport of Na+ from the root to the leaves in bread wheat. Thus, TaHKT1;5-D confers the essential salinity tolerance mechanism in bread wheat associated with the Kna1 locus via shoot Na+ exclusion and is critical in maintaining a high K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves. These findings show there is potential to increase the salinity tolerance of bread wheat by manipulation of HKT1;5 genes.

  13. The Na+ transporter, TaHKT1;5-D, limits shoot Na+ accumulation in bread wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Byrt, Caitlin Siobhan; Xu, Bo; Krishnan, Mahima; Lightfoot, Damien; Athman, Asmini; Jacobs, Andrew Keith; Watson-Haigh, Nathan S.; Plett, Darren; Munns, Rana; Tester, Mark A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a major salt tolerance locus, Kna1, responsible for the maintenance of a high cytosolic K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves of salt stressed plants. The Kna1 locus encompasses a large DNA fragment, the distal 14% of chromosome 4DL. Limited recombination has been observed at this locus making it difficult to map genetically and identify the causal gene. Here, we decipher the function of TaHKT1;5-D, a candidate gene underlying the Kna1 locus. Transport studies using the heterologous expression systems Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is a Na+-selective transporter. Transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and in situ polymerase chain reaction indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is localised on the plasma membrane in the wheat root stele. RNA interference-induced silencing decreased the expression of TaHKT1;5-D in transgenic bread wheat lines which led to an increase in the Na+ concentration in the leaves. This indicates that TaHKT1;5-D retrieves Na+ from the xylem vessels in the root and has an important role in restricting the transport of Na+ from the root to the leaves in bread wheat. Thus, TaHKT1;5-D confers the essential salinity tolerance mechanism in bread wheat associated with the Kna1 locus via shoot Na+ exclusion and is critical in maintaining a high K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves. These findings show there is potential to increase the salinity tolerance of bread wheat by manipulation of HKT1;5 genes.

  14. NaI(Tl) response functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R.; Ortiz R, J. M. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Benites R, J. L. [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Calz. de la Cruz 118 Sur, Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); De Leon M, H. A., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo Lopez Mateos 1801 Ote., 20155 Aguascalientes, Ags. (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The response functions of a NaI(Tl) detector have been estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Response functions were calculated for monoenergetic photon sources (0.05 to 3 MeV). Responses were calculated for point-like sources and for sources distributed in Portland cement cylinders. The responses were used to calculate the efficiency functions in term of photon energy. Commonly, sources used for calibration are point-like, and eventually sources to be measured have different features. In order to use the calibrated sources corrections due to solid angle, self-absorption and scattering, must be carried out. However, some of these corrections are not easy to perform. In this work, the calculated responses were used to estimate the detector efficiency of point-like sources, and sources distributed in Portland type cement. Samples of Portland paste were prepared and were exposed to photoneutrons produced by a 15 MV linac. Some of the elements in the cement were activated producing γ-emitting radionuclides that were measured with a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer, that was calibrated with point-like sources. In order to determine the specific activity in the induced radioisotopes calculated efficiencies were used to make corrections due to the differences between the solid angle, photon absorption and photon scattering in the point-like calibration sources and the sources distributed in cement. During the interaction between photoneutrons and the cement samples three radioisotopes were induced: {sup 56}Mn, {sup 24}Na, and {sup 28}Al. (Author)

  15. Stimulation of Na+/K+ ATPase activity and Na+ coupled glucose transport by β-catenin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopjani, Mentor; Alesutan, Ioana; Wilmes, Jan; Dermaku-Sopjani, Miribane; Lam, Rebecca S.; Koutsouki, Evgenia; Jakupi, Muharrem; Foeller, Michael; Lang, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The oncogenic transcription factor β-catenin stimulates the Na + /K + -ATPase. → β-Catenin stimulates SGLT1 dependent Na + , glucose cotransport. → The effects are independent of transcription. → β-Catenin sensitive transport may contribute to properties of proliferating cells. -- Abstract: β-Catenin is a multifunctional protein stimulating as oncogenic transcription factor several genes important for cell proliferation. β-Catenin-regulated genes include the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1, which is known to stimulate a variety of transport systems. The present study explored the possibility that β-catenin influences membrane transport. To this end, β-catenin was expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without SGLT1 and electrogenic transport determined by dual electrode voltage clamp. As a result, expression of β-catenin significantly enhanced the ouabain-sensitive current of the endogeneous Na + /K + -ATPase. Inhibition of vesicle trafficking by brefeldin A revealed that the stimulatory effect of β-catenin on the endogenous Na + /K + -ATPase was not due to enhanced stability of the pump protein in the cell membrane. Expression of β-catenin further enhanced glucose-induced current (Ig) in SGLT1-expressing oocytes. In the absence of SGLT1 Ig was negligible irrespective of β-catenin expression. The stimulating effect of β-catenin on both Na + /K + ATPase and SGLT1 activity was observed even in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. The experiments disclose a completely novel function of β-catenin, i.e. the regulation of transport.

  16. Quantification of Na+,K+ pumps and their transport rate in skeletal muscle: Functional significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    During excitation, muscle cells gain Na+ and lose K+, leading to a rise in extracellular K+ ([K+]o), depolarization, and loss of excitability. Recent studies support the idea that these events are important causes of muscle fatigue and that full use of the Na+,K+-ATPase (also known as the Na+,K+ pump) is often essential for adequate clearance of extracellular K+. As a result of their electrogenic action, Na+,K+ pumps also help reverse depolarization arising during excitation, hyperkalemia, and anoxia, or from cell damage resulting from exercise, rhabdomyolysis, or muscle diseases. The ability to evaluate Na+,K+-pump function and the capacity of the Na+,K+ pumps to fill these needs require quantification of the total content of Na+,K+ pumps in skeletal muscle. Inhibition of Na+,K+-pump activity, or a decrease in their content, reduces muscle contractility. Conversely, stimulation of the Na+,K+-pump transport rate or increasing the content of Na+,K+ pumps enhances muscle excitability and contractility. Measurements of [3H]ouabain binding to skeletal muscle in vivo or in vitro have enabled the reproducible quantification of the total content of Na+,K+ pumps in molar units in various animal species, and in both healthy people and individuals with various diseases. In contrast, measurements of 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase activity associated with the Na+,K+-ATPase may show inconsistent results. Measurements of Na+ and K+ fluxes in intact isolated muscles show that, after Na+ loading or intense excitation, all the Na+,K+ pumps are functional, allowing calculation of the maximum Na+,K+-pumping capacity, expressed in molar units/g muscle/min. The activity and content of Na+,K+ pumps are regulated by exercise, inactivity, K+ deficiency, fasting, age, and several hormones and pharmaceuticals. Studies on the α-subunit isoforms of the Na+,K+-ATPase have detected a relative increase in their number in response to exercise and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone but have not

  17. Quantification of Na+,K+ pumps and their transport rate in skeletal muscle: functional significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Torben

    2013-10-01

    During excitation, muscle cells gain Na(+) and lose K(+), leading to a rise in extracellular K(+) ([K(+)]o), depolarization, and loss of excitability. Recent studies support the idea that these events are important causes of muscle fatigue and that full use of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (also known as the Na(+),K(+) pump) is often essential for adequate clearance of extracellular K(+). As a result of their electrogenic action, Na(+),K(+) pumps also help reverse depolarization arising during excitation, hyperkalemia, and anoxia, or from cell damage resulting from exercise, rhabdomyolysis, or muscle diseases. The ability to evaluate Na(+),K(+)-pump function and the capacity of the Na(+),K(+) pumps to fill these needs require quantification of the total content of Na(+),K(+) pumps in skeletal muscle. Inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-pump activity, or a decrease in their content, reduces muscle contractility. Conversely, stimulation of the Na(+),K(+)-pump transport rate or increasing the content of Na(+),K(+) pumps enhances muscle excitability and contractility. Measurements of [(3)H]ouabain binding to skeletal muscle in vivo or in vitro have enabled the reproducible quantification of the total content of Na(+),K(+) pumps in molar units in various animal species, and in both healthy people and individuals with various diseases. In contrast, measurements of 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase activity associated with the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase may show inconsistent results. Measurements of Na(+) and K(+) fluxes in intact isolated muscles show that, after Na(+) loading or intense excitation, all the Na(+),K(+) pumps are functional, allowing calculation of the maximum Na(+),K(+)-pumping capacity, expressed in molar units/g muscle/min. The activity and content of Na(+),K(+) pumps are regulated by exercise, inactivity, K(+) deficiency, fasting, age, and several hormones and pharmaceuticals. Studies on the α-subunit isoforms of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase have detected a relative increase in their

  18. Ameloblast modulation and transport of Cl-, Na+, and K+ during amelogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Lyaruu, D.; Jalali, R.; Medina, J.F.; Zandieh-Doulabi, B.; DenBesten, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblasts express transmembrane proteins for transport of mineral ions and regulation of pH in the enamel space. Two major transporters recently identified in ameloblasts are the Na+K+-dependent calcium transporter NCKX4 and the Na+-dependent HPO42- (Pi) cotransporter NaPi-2b. To regulate pH,

  19. Active transport of Na/sup +/ by reconstituted Na,K-ATPase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldyrev, A.A.; Svinukhova, I.A.

    1987-02-20

    The ability of ATP, CTP, ITP, GTP, and UTP to support ouabain-sensitive accumulation of Na/sup +/ by proteoliposomes with a reconstituted Na/K-pump was investigated. At a low (Na/sup +/)/(K/sup +/) ratio in the medium (20 mM/50 mM), a correlation is observed between the proton-accepting capacity of the nucleotide and its effectiveness as a substrate of active transport. To test the hypothesis of the importance of the presence of a negative charge in the 1-position of the purine (3-pyrimidine) base of the nucleotide for mutual transitions between the Na- and K-conformations of Na,K-ATPase they used two analogs of ATP: N/sub 1/-hydroxy-ATP, possessing proton acceptor capacity, and N/sub 1/-methoxy-ATP, in the molecule of which the negative charge is quenched by a methyl group. The first substrate supports active accumulation of Na/sup +/ in proteoliposomes at the same rate as ATP, whereas the second substrate is relatively ineffective.

  20. Na+-dependent nucleoside transport in liver: two different isoforms from the same gene family are expressed in liver cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe, A; Valdes, R; Santo, B; Lloberas, J; Casado, J; Pastor-Anglada, M

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocytes show a Na+-dependent nucleoside transport activity that is kinetically heterogeneous and consistent with the expression of at least two independent concentrative Na+-coupled nucleoside transport systems (Mercader et al. Biochem. J. 317, 835-842, 1996). So far, only a single nucleoside carrier-related cDNA (SPNT) has been isolated from liver cells (Che et al. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 13596-13599, 1995). This cDNA presumably encodes a plasma membrane protein responsible for Na+-dependent...

  1. Emergency Response to Radioactive Material Transport Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-shinawy, R.M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Although transport regulations issued by IAEA is providing a high degree of safety during transport opertions,transport accidents involving packages containing radioactive material have occurred and will occur at any time. Whenever a transport accident involving radioactive material accurs, and many will pose no radiation safety problems, emergency respnose actioms are meeded to ensure that radiation safety is maintained. In case of transport accident that result in a significant relesae of radioactive material , loss of shielding or loss of criticality control , that consequences should be controlled or mitigated by proper emergency response actions safety guide, Emergency Response Plamming and Prepardness for transport accidents involving radioactive material, was published by IAEA. This guide reflected all requirememts of IAEA, regulations for safe transport of radioactive material this guide provide guidance to the publicauthorites and other interested organziation who are responsible for establishing such emergency arrangements

  2. Land Transport Emergency Response Technology Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOTSON, LORI J.; PIERCE, JIM D.

    2003-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) to provide assistance in developing an emergency response plan for radioactive material transportation activities. Those tasks included compiling radioactive materials (RAM) transportation accident data FR-om the open literature and databases, investigating emergency response plans for radioactive materials transport in the United States, and developing specific recommendations for the JNC' nuclear material transport emergency response plan, based on information gathered during the first two tasks. These recommendations include developing a RAM database, a public transparency Internet website, an emergency response inFR-astructure designed specifically for transportation needs, and a clear set of directives to provide authority in the case of transportation accidents or incidents involving RAM

  3. Cross sections and transport properties for Na+ in (DXE gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitović Željka D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we select most probable reactions of alkali metal ion Na+ with dimethoxyethane (DXE molecule. Appropriate gas phase enthalpies of formation for the products were used to calculate scattering cross section as a function of kinetic energy with Denpoh-Nanbu theory. Calculated cross sections were compared with existing experimental results obtained by guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry. Three body association reactions of ions with DXE is studied and compared to experimental results. Calculated cross sections were used to obtain transport parameters for alkali metal ion in DXE gas. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 171037 i br. III 410011

  4. Glutamate transporter activity promotes enhanced Na+/K+-ATPase -mediated extracellular K+ management during neuronal activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian R; Holm, Rikke; Vilsen, Bente

    2016-01-01

    , in addition, Na+ /K+ -ATPase-mediated K+ clearance could be governed by astrocytic [Na+ ]i . During most neuronal activity, glutamate is released in the synaptic cleft and is re-absorbed by astrocytic Na+ -coupled glutamate transporters, thereby elevating [Na+ ]i . It thus remains unresolved whether...... the different Na+ /K+ -ATPase isoforms are controlled by [K+ ]o or [Na+ ]i during neuronal activity. Hippocampal slice recordings of stimulus-induced [K+ ]o transients with ion-sensitive microelectrodes revealed reduced Na+ /K+ -ATPase-mediated K+ management upon parallel inhibition of the glutamate transporter......+ affinity to the α1 and α2 isoforms than the β2 isoform. In summary, enhanced astrocytic Na+ /K+ -ATPase-dependent K+ clearance was obtained with parallel glutamate transport activity. The astrocytic Na+ /K+ -ATPase isoform constellation α2β1 appeared to be specifically geared to respond to the [Na+ ]i...

  5. Physiological adjustment to salt stress in Jatropha curcas is associated with accumulation of salt ions, transport and selectivity of K+, osmotic adjustment and K+/Na+ homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E N; Silveira, J A G; Rodrigues, C R F; Viégas, R A

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the capacity of Jatropha curcas to physiologically adjust to salinity. Seedlings were exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 mm) for 15 days. Treatment without NaCl was adopted as control. Shoot dry weight was strongly reduced by NaCl, reaching values of 35% to 65% with 25 to 100 mm NaCl. The shoot/root ratio was only affected with 100 mm NaCl. Relative water content (RWC) increased only with 100 mm NaCl, while electrolyte leakage (EL) was much enhanced with 50 mm NaCl. The Na(+) transport rate to the shoot was more affected with 50 and 100 mm NaCl. In parallel, Cl(-) transport rate increased with 75 and 100 mm NaCl, while K(+) transport rate fell from 50 mm to 100 mm NaCl. In roots, Na(+) and Cl(-) transport rates fell slightly only in 50 mm (to Na(+)) and 50 and 100 mm (to Cl(-)) NaCl, while K(+) transport rate fell significantly with increasing NaCl. In general, our data demonstrate that J. curcas seedlings present changes in key physiological processes that allow this species to adjust to salinity. These responses are related to accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) in leaves and roots, K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis, transport of K(+) and selectivity (K-Na) in roots, and accumulation of organic solutes contributing to osmotic adjustment of the species. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. The two Na+ sites in the human serotonin transporter play distinct roles in the ion coupling and electrogenicity of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Bruce; Pramod, Akula Bala; Sandtner, Walter; Burbach, Nathan; Bulling, Simon; Sitte, Harald H; Henry, L Keith

    2014-01-17

    Neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6 family of proteins, including the human serotonin transporter (hSERT), utilize Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+) gradients to induce conformational changes necessary for substrate translocation. Dysregulation of ion movement through monoamine transporters has been shown to impact neuronal firing potentials and could play a role in pathophysiologies, such as depression and anxiety. Despite multiple crystal structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic SLC transporters indicating the location of both (or one) conserved Na(+)-binding sites (termed Na1 and Na2), much remains uncertain in regard to the movements and contributions of these cation-binding sites in the transport process. In this study, we utilize the unique properties of a mutation of hSERT at a single, highly conserved asparagine on TM1 (Asn-101) to provide several lines of evidence demonstrating mechanistically distinct roles for Na1 and Na2. Mutations at Asn-101 alter the cation dependence of the transporter, allowing Ca(2+) (but not other cations) to functionally replace Na(+) for driving transport and promoting 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-dependent conformational changes. Furthermore, in two-electrode voltage clamp studies in Xenopus oocytes, both Ca(2+) and Na(+) illicit 5-HT-induced currents in the Asn-101 mutants and reveal that, although Ca(2+) promotes substrate-induced current, it does not appear to be the charge carrier during 5-HT transport. These findings, in addition to functional evaluation of Na1 and Na2 site mutants, reveal separate roles for Na1 and Na2 and provide insight into initiation of the translocation process as well as a mechanism whereby the reported SERT stoichiometry can be obtained despite the presence of two putative Na(+)-binding sites.

  7. The Two Na+ Sites in the Human Serotonin Transporter Play Distinct Roles in the Ion Coupling and Electrogenicity of Transport*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Bruce; Pramod, Akula Bala; Sandtner, Walter; Burbach, Nathan; Bulling, Simon; Sitte, Harald H.; Henry, L. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6 family of proteins, including the human serotonin transporter (hSERT), utilize Na+, Cl−, and K+ gradients to induce conformational changes necessary for substrate translocation. Dysregulation of ion movement through monoamine transporters has been shown to impact neuronal firing potentials and could play a role in pathophysiologies, such as depression and anxiety. Despite multiple crystal structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic SLC transporters indicating the location of both (or one) conserved Na+-binding sites (termed Na1 and Na2), much remains uncertain in regard to the movements and contributions of these cation-binding sites in the transport process. In this study, we utilize the unique properties of a mutation of hSERT at a single, highly conserved asparagine on TM1 (Asn-101) to provide several lines of evidence demonstrating mechanistically distinct roles for Na1 and Na2. Mutations at Asn-101 alter the cation dependence of the transporter, allowing Ca2+ (but not other cations) to functionally replace Na+ for driving transport and promoting 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-dependent conformational changes. Furthermore, in two-electrode voltage clamp studies in Xenopus oocytes, both Ca2+ and Na+ illicit 5-HT-induced currents in the Asn-101 mutants and reveal that, although Ca2+ promotes substrate-induced current, it does not appear to be the charge carrier during 5-HT transport. These findings, in addition to functional evaluation of Na1 and Na2 site mutants, reveal separate roles for Na1 and Na2 and provide insight into initiation of the translocation process as well as a mechanism whereby the reported SERT stoichiometry can be obtained despite the presence of two putative Na+-binding sites. PMID:24293367

  8. Effects of insulin and epinephrine on Na+-K+ and glucose transport in soleus muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, T.; Flatman, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    To identify possible cause-effect relationships between changes in active Na + -K + transport, resting membrane potential, and glucose transport, the effects of insulin and epinephrine were compared in rat soleus muscle. Epinephrine, which produced twice as large a hyperpolarization as insulin, induced only a modest increase in 14 C-labeled sugar transport. Ouabain, at a concentration (10 -3 M) sufficient to block active Na + -K + transport and the hyperpolarization induced by the two hormones, did not interfere with sugar transport stimulation. After Na + loading in K + -free buffer, the return to K + -containing standard buffer caused marked stimulation of active 22 Na + - 42 K + transport, twice the hyperpolarization produced by insulin but no change in sugar transport. The insulin-induced activation of the 22 Na + - 42 K + pump leads to decreased intracellular 22 Na + concentration and hyperpolarization, but none of these events can account for the concomitant activation of the glucose transport system. The stimulating effect of insulin on active Na + -K + transport was not suppressed by amiloride, indicating that in intact skeletal muscle it is not elicited by a primary increase in Na + influx via the Na + /H + -exchange system

  9. Altered Na+ transport after an intracellular alpha-subunit deletion reveals strict external sequential release of Na+ from the Na/K pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaragatupalli, Siddhartha; Olivera, J Fernando; Gatto, Craig; Artigas, Pablo

    2009-09-08

    The Na/K pump actively exports 3 Na(+) in exchange for 2 K(+) across the plasmalemma of animal cells. As in other P-type ATPases, pump function is more effective when the relative affinity for transported ions is altered as the ion binding sites alternate between opposite sides of the membrane. Deletion of the five C-terminal residues from the alpha-subunit diminishes internal Na(+) (Na(i)(+)) affinity approximately 25-fold [Morth et al. (2007) Nature 450:1043-1049]. Because external Na(+) (Na(o)(+)) binding is voltage-dependent, we studied the reactions involving this process by using two-electrode and inside-out patch voltage clamp in normal and truncated (DeltaKESYY) Xenopus-alpha1 pumps expressed in oocytes. We observed that DeltaKESYY (i) decreased both Na(o)(+) and Na(i)(+) apparent affinities in the absence of K(o)(+), and (ii) did not affect apparent Na(o)(+) affinity at high K(o)(+). These results support a model of strict sequential external release of Na(+) ions, where the Na(+)-exclusive site releases Na(+) before the sites shared with K(+) and the DeltaKESYY deletion only reduces Na(o)(+) affinity at the shared sites. Moreover, at nonsaturating K(o)(+), DeltaKESYY induced an inward flow of Na(+) through Na/K pumps at negative potentials. Guanidinium(+) can also permeate truncated pumps, whereas N-methyl-D-glucamine cannot. Because guanidinium(o)(+) can also traverse normal Na/K pumps in the absence of both Na(o)(+) and K(o)(+) and can also inhibit Na/K pump currents in a Na(+)-like voltage-dependent manner, we conclude that the normal pathway transited by the first externally released Na(+) is large enough to accommodate guanidinium(+).

  10. Position of the third Na+ site in the aspartate transporter GltPh and the human glutamate transporter, EAAT1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Bastug

    Full Text Available Glutamate transport via the human excitatory amino acid transporters is coupled to the co-transport of three Na(+ ions, one H(+ and the counter-transport of one K(+ ion. Transport by an archaeal homologue of the human glutamate transporters, Glt(Ph, whose three dimensional structure is known is also coupled to three Na(+ ions but only two Na(+ ion binding sites have been observed in the crystal structure of Glt(Ph. In order to fully utilize the Glt(Ph structure in functional studies of the human glutamate transporters, it is essential to understand the transport mechanism of Glt(Ph and accurately determine the number and location of Na(+ ions coupled to transport. Several sites have been proposed for the binding of a third Na(+ ion from electrostatic calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. In this study, we have performed detailed free energy simulations for Glt(Ph and reveal a new site for the third Na(+ ion involving the side chains of Threonine 92, Serine 93, Asparagine 310, Aspartate 312, and the backbone of Tyrosine 89. We have also studied the transport properties of alanine mutants of the coordinating residues Threonine 92 and Serine 93 in Glt(Ph, and the corresponding residues in a human glutamate transporter, EAAT1. The mutant transporters have reduced affinity for Na(+ compared to their wild type counterparts. These results confirm that Threonine 92 and Serine 93 are involved in the coordination of the third Na(+ ion in Glt(Ph and EAAT1.

  11. Effect of growth in lithium on ouabain binding, Na-K-ATPase and Na and K transport in hela cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, L J; Hume, S P; Lamb, J F; Polson, J

    1975-01-01

    1. HeLa cells were grown for 24 hr in growth medium in which part of the Na was replaced with Li. Ion contents, cell volumes and numbers, Na-K-ATPase and specific ouabain binding were measured. In some experiments the Na efflux and net Na transport was also measured. 2. Growth in Li caused a rise in the specific ouabain binding and membrane Na-K-ATPase of these cells. The Li concentrations in the cells necessary to produce this effect ranged up to 50 mM. 3. It is suggested that Li, like Na, acts on the genetic material of the cells to cause the production of more Na pumps within the membrane. PMID:124350

  12. Perinatal Na+ Overload Programs Raised Renal Proximal Na+ Transport and Enalapril-Sensitive Alterations of Ang II Signaling Pathways during Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Edjair V.; Vieira-Filho, Leucio D.; Silva, Paulo A.; Nascimento, Williams S.; Aires, Regina S.; Oliveira, Fabiana S. T.; Luzardo, Ricardo; Vieyra, Adalberto; Paixão, Ana D. O.

    2012-01-01

    Background High Na+ intake is a reality in nowadays and is frequently accompanied by renal and cardiovascular alterations. In this study, renal mechanisms underlying perinatal Na+ overload-programmed alterations in Na+ transporters and the renin/angiotensin system (RAS) were investigated, together with effects of short-term treatment with enalapril in terms of reprogramming molecular alterations in kidney. Methodology/Principal Findings Male adult Wistar rats were obtained from dams maintained throughout pregnancy and lactation on a standard diet and drinking water (control) or 0.17 M NaCl (saline group). Enalapril (100 mg/l), an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, was administered for three weeks after weaning. Ninety day old offspring from dams that drank saline presented with proximal tubules exhibiting increased (Na++K+)ATPase expression and activity. Ouabain-insensitive Na+-ATPase activity remained unchanged but its response to angiotensin II (Ang II) was lost. PKC, PKA, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), macrophage infiltration and collagen deposition markedly increased, and AT2 receptor expression decreased while AT1 expression was unaltered. Early treatment with enalapril reduced expression and activity of (Na++K+)ATPase, partially recovered the response of Na+-ATPase to Ang II, and reduced PKC and PKA activities independently of whether offspring were exposed to high perinatal Na+ or not. In addition, treatment with enalapril per se reduced AT2 receptor expression, and increased TBARS, macrophage infiltration and collagen deposition. The perinatally Na+-overloaded offspring presented high numbers of Ang II-positive cortical cells, and significantly lower circulating Ang I, indicating that programming/reprogramming impacted systemic and local RAS. Conclusions/Significance Maternal Na+ overload programmed alterations in renal Na+ transporters and in its regulation, as well as severe structural lesions in adult offspring. Enalapril

  13. Identification of the key determinant of the transport promiscuity in Na+-translocating rhodopsins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, Adalyat M; Bertsova, Yulia V; Anashkin, Viktor A; Mamedov, Mahir D; Baykov, Alexander A; Bogachev, Alexander V

    2018-05-15

    Bacterial Na + -transporting rhodopsins convert solar energy into transmembrane ion potential difference. Typically, they are strictly specific for Na + , but some can additionally transport H + . To determine the structural basis of cation promiscuity in Na + -rhodopsins, we compared their primary structures and found a single position that harbors a cysteine in strictly specific Na + -rhodopsins and a serine in the promiscuous Krokinobacter eikastus Na + -rhodopsin (Kr2). A Cys253Ser variant of the strictly specific Dokdonia sp. PRO95 Na + -rhodopsin (NaR) was indeed found to transport both Na + and H + in a light-dependent manner when expressed in retinal-producing Escherichia coli cells. The dual specificity of the NaR variant was confirmed by analysis of its photocycle, which revealed an acceleration of the cation-capture step by comparison with the wild-type NaR in a Na + -deficient medium. The structural basis for the dependence of the Na + /H + specificity in Na + -rhodopsin on residue 253 remains to be determined. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of a 3rd Na+ Binding Site of the Glycine Transporter, GlyT2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandhitha Subramanian

    Full Text Available The Na+/Cl- dependent glycine transporters GlyT1 and GlyT2 regulate synaptic glycine concentrations. Glycine transport by GlyT2 is coupled to the co-transport of three Na+ ions, whereas transport by GlyT1 is coupled to the co-transport of only two Na+ ions. These differences in ion-flux coupling determine their respective concentrating capacities and have a direct bearing on their functional roles in synaptic transmission. The crystal structures of the closely related bacterial Na+-dependent leucine transporter, LeuTAa, and the Drosophila dopamine transporter, dDAT, have allowed prediction of two Na+ binding sites in GlyT2, but the physical location of the third Na+ site in GlyT2 is unknown. A bacterial betaine transporter, BetP, has also been crystallized and shows structural similarity to LeuTAa. Although betaine transport by BetP is coupled to the co-transport of two Na+ ions, the first Na+ site is not conserved between BetP and LeuTAa, the so called Na1' site. We hypothesized that the third Na+ binding site (Na3 site of GlyT2 corresponds to the BetP Na1' binding site. To identify the Na3 binding site of GlyT2, we performed molecular dynamics (MD simulations. Surprisingly, a Na+ placed at the location consistent with the Na1' site of BetP spontaneously dissociated from its initial location and bound instead to a novel Na3 site. Using a combination of MD simulations of a comparative model of GlyT2 together with an analysis of the functional properties of wild type and mutant GlyTs we have identified an electrostatically favorable novel third Na+ binding site in GlyT2 formed by Trp263 and Met276 in TM3, Ala481 in TM6 and Glu648 in TM10.

  15. Transport of Na48 Drift Chambers to Dubna

    CERN Multimedia

    GOLOVATYUK, V

    2010-01-01

    On 22 July, in the occasion of the departure of the Na48 Drift Chambers from CERN, Mikhail Itkis (acting Director of the JIINR) and Rolf Heuer (CERN Director General) visited the NA62 experimental area.

  16. Evidence for the involvement of Ala 166 in coupling Na(+) to sugar transport through the human Na(+)/glucose cotransporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinild, A K; Loo, D D; Hirayama, B A

    2001-01-01

    . The affinity for Na(+) was unchanged compared to that of hSGLT1, whereas the sugar affinity was reduced and sugar specificity was altered. There was a reduction in the turnover rate of the transporter, and in contrast to that of hSGLT1, the turnover rate depended on the sugar molecule. Exposure of A166C......We mutated residue 166, located in the putative Na(+) transport pathway between transmembrane segments 4 and 5 of human Na(+)/glucose cotransporter (hSGLT1), from alanine to cysteine (A166C). A166C was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and electrophysiological methods were used to assay function...... to MTSEA and MTSET, but not MTSES, abolished sugar transport. Accessibility of A166C to alkylating reagents was independent of protein conformation, indicating that the residue is always accessible from the extracellular surface. Sugar and phlorizin did not protect the residue from being alkylated...

  17. Radioactive materials transportation emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmali, N.

    1987-05-01

    Ontario Hydro transports radioactive material between its nuclear facilities, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at Chalk River Laboratories and Radiochemical Company in Kanata, on a regular basis. Ontario Hydro also occasionally transports to Whiteshell Laboratories, Hydro-Quebec and New Brunswick Electric Power Commission. Although there are stringent packaging and procedural requirements for these shipments, Ontario Hydro has developed a Radioactive Materials Transportation Emergency Response Plan in the event that there is an accident. The Transportation Emergency Response plan is based on six concepts: 1) the Province id divided into three response areas with each station (Pickering, Darlington, Bruce) having identified response areas; 2) response is activated via a toll-free number. A shift supervisor at Pickering will answer the call, determine the hazards involved from the central shipment log and provide on-line advice to the emergency worker. At the same time he will notify the nearest Ontario Hydro area office to provide initial corporate response, and will request the nearest nuclear station to provide response assistance; 3) all stations have capability in terms of trained personnel and equipment to respond to an accident; 4) all Ontario Hydro shipments are logged with Pickering NGS. Present capability is based on computerized logging with the computer located in the shift office at Pickering to allow quick access to information on the shipment; 5) there is a three tier structure for emergency public information. The local Area Manager is the first Ontario Hydro person at the scene of the accident. The responding facility technical spokesperson is the second line of Corporate presence and the Ontario Hydro Corporate spokesperson is notified in case the accident is a media event; and 6) Ontario Hydro will respond to non-Hydro shipments of radioactive materials in terms of providing assistance, guidance and capability. However, the shipper is responsible

  18. An emergency response plan for transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, M.V.; Guerel, E.

    2000-01-01

    Transnucleaire is involved in road and rail transport of nuclear fuel cycle materials. To comply with IAEA recommendations, Transnucleaire has to master methods of emergency response in the event of a transport accident. Considering the utmost severe situations, Transnucleaire has studied several cases and focused especially on an accident involving a heavy cask. In France, the sub-prefect of each department is in charge of the organisation of the emergency teams. The sub-prefect may request Transnucleaire to supply experts, organisation, equipment and technical support. The Transnucleaire Emergency Response Plan covers all possible scenarios of land transport accidents and relies on: (i) an organisation ready for emergency situations, (ii) equipment dedicated to intervention, and (iii) training of its own experts and specialised companies. (author)

  19. Down-Regulation of the Na+-Coupled Phosphate Transporter NaPi-IIa by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miribane Dërmaku-Sopjani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The Na+-coupled phosphate transporter NaPi-IIa is the main carrier accomplishing renal tubular phosphate reabsorption. It is driven by the electrochemical Na+ gradient across the apical cell membrane, which is maintained by Na+ extrusion across the basolateral cell membrane through the Na+/K+ ATPase. The operation of NaPi-IIa thus requires energy in order to avoid cellular Na+ accumulation and K+ loss with eventual decrease of cell membrane potential, Cl- entry and cell swelling. Upon energy depletion, early inhibition of Na+-coupled transport processes may delay cell swelling and thus foster cell survival. Energy depletion is sensed by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, a serine/threonine kinase stimulating several cellular mechanisms increasing energy production and limiting energy utilization. The present study explored whether AMPK influences the activity of NAPi-IIa. Methods: cRNA encoding NAPi-IIa was injected into Xenopus oocytes with or without additional expression of wild-type AMPK (AMPKα1-HA+AMPKβ1-Flag+AMPKγ1-HA, of inactive AMPKαK45R (AMPKα1K45R+AMPKβ1-Flag+AMPKγ1-HA or of constitutively active AMPKγR70Q (AMPKα1-HA+AMPKβ1-Flag+AMPKγ1R70Q. NaPi-IIa activity was estimated from phosphate-induced current in dual electrode voltage clamp experiments. Results: In NaPi-IIa-expressing, but not in water-injected Xenopus oocytes, the addition of phosphate (1 mM to the extracellular bath solution generated a current (Ip, which was significantly decreased by coexpression of wild-type AMPK and of AMPKγR70Q but not of AMPKαK45R. The phosphate-induced current in NaPi-IIa- and AMPK-expressing Xenopus ooocytes was significantly increased by AMPK inhibitor Compound C (20 µM. Kinetic analysis revealed that AMPK significantly decreased the maximal transport rate. Conclusion: The AMP-activated protein kinase AMPK is a powerful regulator of NaPi-IIa and thus of renal tubular phosphate transport.

  20. Transepithelial Na+ transport and the intracellular fluids: a computer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civan, M M; Bookman, R J

    1982-01-01

    Computer simulations of tight epithelia under three experimental conditions have been carried out, using the rheogenic nonlinear model of Lew, Ferreira and Moura (Proc. Roy. Soc. London. B 206:53-83, 1979) based largely on the formulation of Koefoed-Johnsen and Ussing (Acta Physiol. Scand. 42: 298-308. 1958). First, analysis of the transition between the short-circuited and open-circuited states has indicated that (i) apical Cl- permeability is a critical parameter requiring experimental definition in order to analyze cell volume regulation, and (ii) contrary to certain experimental reports, intracellular Na+ concentration (ccNa) is expected to be a strong function of transepithelial clamping voltage. Second, analysis of the effects of lowering serosal K+ concentration (csK) indicates that the basic model cannot simulate several well-documented observations; these defects can be overcome, at least qualitatively, by modifying the model to take account of the negative feedback interaction likely to exist between the apical Na+ permeability and ccNa. Third, analysis of the strongly supports the concept that osmotically induced permeability changes in the apical intercellular junctions play a physiological role in conserving the body's stores of NaCl. The analyses also demonstrate that the importance of Na+ entry across the basolateral membrane is strongly dependent upon transepithelial potential, cmNa and csK; under certain conditions, net Na+ entry could be appreciably greater across the basolateral than across the apical membrane.

  1. Unbiased simulations reveal the inward-facing conformation of the human serotonin transporter and Na(+ ion release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Koldsø

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Monoamine transporters are responsible for termination of synaptic signaling and are involved in depression, control of appetite, and anxiety amongst other neurological processes. Despite extensive efforts, the structures of the monoamine transporters and the transport mechanism of ions and substrates are still largely unknown. Structural knowledge of the human serotonin transporter (hSERT is much awaited for understanding the mechanistic details of substrate translocation and binding of antidepressants and drugs of abuse. The publication of the crystal structure of the homologous leucine transporter has resulted in homology models of the monoamine transporters. Here we present extended molecular dynamics simulations of an experimentally supported homology model of hSERT with and without the natural substrate yielding a total of more than 1.5 µs of simulation of the protein dimer. The simulations reveal a transition of hSERT from an outward-facing occluded conformation to an inward-facing conformation in a one-substrate-bound state. Simulations with a second substrate in the proposed symport effector site did not lead to conformational changes associated with translocation. The central substrate binding site becomes fully exposed to the cytoplasm leaving both the Na(+-ion in the Na2-site and the substrate in direct contact with the cytoplasm through water interactions. The simulations reveal how sodium is released and show indications of early events of substrate transport. The notion that ion dissociation from the Na2-site drives translocation is supported by experimental studies of a Na2-site mutant. Transmembrane helices (TMs 1 and 6 are identified as the helices involved in the largest movements during transport.

  2. Proteomic analysis of the response to NaCl stress of Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Li, Pei-Zhao; Sun, Jin-Wei; Huo, Gui-Cheng; Liu, Li-Bo

    2014-11-01

    Lactobacillus bulgaricus is commonly used in dairy products as a starter culture. Its viability during freeze-drying is of commercial interest. Here a significant (p bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was achieved during freeze-drying when it was prestressed with 2 % (w/v) NaCl for 2 h in the late growth phase. To understand the mechanism of this stress-related viability improvement in L. bulgaricus, protein synthesis was analyzed by 2D difference gel electrophoresis. Nine protein spots were significantly altered by NaCl and were subsequently identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. The functions of the proteins included stress-related protein synthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, nucleotide biosynthesis, sugar metabolism, transport systems, and vitamin biosynthesis. These findings provide a considerable background regarding the NaCl stress response of L. bulgaricus.

  3. Barodiffusion phenomena at active transport of na+ and K+ ions through the cell membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrapijchuk, G.V.; Chalyi, A.V.; Nurishchenko, N.Je.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of ultrasound as the significant motive force of barodiffusion phenomena at the processes of active transport of Na + and K + ions through the cell membrane is considered. The dependence of membrane potential is theoretically estimated at active transport of natrium and potassium ions on the ultrasound intensity and pressure overfall between external and internal medium of the cell.

  4. Response of saliva Na/K ratio to changing Na supply of lactating cows under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiangtum, Wandee; Schonewille, J Thomas; Verstegen, Martin Wa; Arsawakulsudhi, Supot; Rukkwamsuk, Theera; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2017-06-01

    Factorial determination of the sodium (Na) requirement of heat-stressed lactating cows is hindered by accurate estimates of the Na losses through sweat. Direct studies, therefore, may be needed requiring information on the time course of healthy animals to become Na depleted and the subsequent rate of repletion. The rate of Na depletion and subsequent rate of Na repletion with two levels of dietary Na to lactating dairy cows housed under tropical conditions were investigated using the salivary Na/K. The 12 lactating cows (salivary Na/K ratio 14.6) rapidly developed clinical signs of Na deficiency, including pica, polyuria and polydipsia, reduced body weight and reduced milk yield when fed a low-Na ration (0.33 g kg -1 dry matter (DM)) for 3 weeks. Deficiency symptoms were associated with a rapid decrease in salivary Na/K ratio to cows with NaCl to a ration concentration of 1.1 or 1.6 g Na kg -1 DM for 5 weeks did not restore salivary Na/K ratio to values of >6. A daily Na intake of heat-stressed lactating cows to a ration intake of 1.6 g Na kg -1 DM was insufficient to restore Na deficiency. One week was sufficient to deplete heat-stressed lactating cows of Na, allowing for rapid dose-response studies utilizing the salivary Na/K ratio as a parameter for Na status of cows under tropical conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Development of Na+-dependent hexose transport in cultured renal epithelial cells (LLC-PK1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, E.R.; Amsler, K.; Dawson, W.D.; Cook, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A number of factors were explored to analyze how they interact to yield the increasing transport capacity in differentiating cell populations. These factors include the number of functional transporters in the population, the distribution of these transporters among the individual cells, the Na + chemical gradient, the transmembrane potential, the pathways and activities of these pathways for efflux of glucoside, and cell-cell coupling between accumulating and non-accumulating cells. 35 references, 9 figures, 2 tables

  6. The Role of Na+ and K+ Transporters in Salt Stress Adaptation in Glycophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekoum V. M. Assaha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ionic stress is one of the most important components of salinity and is brought about by excess Na+ accumulation, especially in the aerial parts of plants. Since Na+ interferes with K+ homeostasis, and especially given its involvement in numerous metabolic processes, maintaining a balanced cytosolic Na+/K+ ratio has become a key salinity tolerance mechanism. Achieving this homeostatic balance requires the activity of Na+ and K+ transporters and/or channels. The mechanism of Na+ and K+ uptake and translocation in glycophytes and halophytes is essentially the same, but glycophytes are more susceptible to ionic stress than halophytes. The transport mechanisms involve Na+ and/or K+ transporters and channels as well as non-selective cation channels. Thus, the question arises of whether the difference in salt tolerance between glycophytes and halophytes could be the result of differences in the proteins or in the expression of genes coding the transporters. The aim of this review is to seek answers to this question by examining the role of major Na+ and K+ transporters and channels in Na+ and K+ uptake, translocation and intracellular homeostasis in glycophytes. It turns out that these transporters and channels are equally important for the adaptation of glycophytes as they are for halophytes, but differential gene expression, structural differences in the proteins (single nucleotide substitutions, impacting affinity and post-translational modifications (phosphorylation account for the differences in their activity and hence the differences in tolerance between the two groups. Furthermore, lack of the ability to maintain stable plasma membrane (PM potentials following Na+-induced depolarization is also crucial for salt stress tolerance. This stable membrane potential is sustained by the activity of Na+/H+ antiporters such as SOS1 at the PM. Moreover, novel regulators of Na+ and K+ transport pathways including the Nax1 and Nax2 loci regulation of SOS1

  7. Dynamic response analysis as a tool for investigating transport mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudok de Wit, Th.; Joye, B.; Lister, J.B.; Moret, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic response analysis provides an attractive method for studying transport mechanisms in tokamak plasmas. The analysis of the radial response has already been widely used for heat and particle transport studies. The frequency dependence of the dynamic response, which is often omitted, reveals further properties of the dominant transport mechanisms. Extended measurements of the soft X-ray emission were carried out on the TCA tokamak in order to determine the underlying transport processes. (author) 5 refs., 2 figs

  8. Cisterna magna microdialysis of 22Na to evaluate ion transport and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuckey, N.W.; Fowler, A.G.; Johanson, C.E.; Nashold, J.R.; Epstein, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Microdialysis is used in vivo for measuring compounds in brain interstitial fluid. The authors describe another application of this technique to the central nervous system, namely microprobe dialysis in the cisterna magna to study the dynamics of ion transport and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) formation in the rat. The choroid plexus is the major source of CSF, which is produced by active transport of Na from blood into the cerebral ventricles. Formation of CSF is directly proportional to the blood-to-CSF transport of Na. By injecting 22 Na into the systemic circulation and quantifying its movement into CSF by microdialysis, one can reliably estimate alterations in the rate of CSF formation. The sensitivity of this system was determined by administering acetazolamide, a standard inhibitor of CSF production. Because acetazolamide is known to decrease CSF formation by 40% to 50%, the cisternal microdialysis system in animals treated with this drug should detect a corresponding decrease in the amount of 22 Na dialyzed. This hypothesis is supported by the 22 Na uptake curves for control versus treated animals: that is, by the acetazolamide-induced average diminution of about 45% in both the rate and extent of tracer accession to dialysate. Bumetanide, a loop diuretic, reduced by 30% the 22 Na entry into dialysate. Microprobe dialysis of fluid in the cisterna magna is thus a minimally invasive and economical method for evaluating effects of drugs and hormones on the choroid plexus-CSF system

  9. Intracellular Requirements for Passive Proton Transport through the Na+,K+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Kevin S; Meyer, Dylan J; Gatto, Craig; Artigas, Pablo

    2016-12-06

    The Na + ,K + -ATPase (NKA or Na/K pump) hydrolyzes one ATP to exchange three intracellular Na+ (Na + i ) for two extracellular K+ (K + o ) across the plasma membrane by cycling through a set of reversible transitions between phosphorylated and dephosphorylated conformations, alternately opening ion-binding sites externally (E2) or internally (E1). With subsaturating [Na + ] o and [K + ] o , the phosphorylated E2P conformation passively imports protons generating an inward current (I H ), which may be exacerbated in NKA-subunit mutations associated with human disease. To elucidate the mechanisms of I H , we studied the effects of intracellular ligands (transported ions, nucleotides, and beryllium fluoride) on I H and, for comparison, on transient currents measured at normal Na + o (Q Na ). Utilizing inside-out patches from Xenopus oocytes heterologously expressing NKA, we observed that 1) in the presence of Na + i , I H and Q Na were both activated by ATP, but not ADP; 2) the [Na + ] i dependence of I H in saturating ATP showed K 0.5,Na  = 1.8 ± 0.2 mM and the [ATP] dependence at saturating [Na + ] i yielded K 0.5,ATP  = 48 ± 11 μM (in comparison, Na + i -dependent Q Na yields K 0.5,Na  = 0.8 ± 0.2 mM and K 0.5,ATP  = 0.43 ± 0.03 μM; 3) ATP activated I H in the presence of K + i (∼15% of the I H observed in Na + i ) only when Mg 2+ i was also present; and 4) beryllium fluoride induced maximal I H  even in the absence of nucleotide. These data indicate that I H occurs when NKA is in an externally open E2P state with nucleotide bound, a conformation that can be reached through forward Na/K pump phosphorylation of E1, with Na + i and ATP, or by backward binding of K + i to E1, which drives the pump to the occluded E2(2K), where free P i (at the micromolar levels found in millimolar ATP solutions) promotes external release of occluded K + by backdoor NKA phosphorylation. Maximal I H through beryllium-fluorinated NKA indicates that this complex mimics ATP

  10. Electrogenic Na+-independent Pi transport in canine renal basolateral membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, S.J.; Hammerman, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    To define the mechanism by which Pi exists from the renal proximal tubular cell across the basolateral membrane, we measured 32Pi uptake in basolateral membrane vesicles from dog kidney in the absence of Na+. Preloading of basolateral vesicles with 2 mM Pi transstimulated 32Pi uptake, which is consistent with counterflow. We used measurements of transstimulation to quantitate the transport component of 32Pi uptake. Transstimulation of 32Pi uptake was inhibited less than 30% by concentrations of probenecid as high as 50 mM. In contrast, transstimulation of 35SO4(2-) uptake by intravesicular SO4(2-) was inhibited 92% by 5 mM probenecid. Preloading basolateral vesicles with SO4(2-) did not result in transstimulation of 32Pi uptake. Accumulation of 32Pi in basolateral vesicles above steady state was driven by a membrane potential (intravesicular positive), consistent with Na+-independent Pi transport being accompanied by the net transfer of negative charge across the membrane. We conclude that carrier-mediated, electrogenic Na+-independent 32Pi transport can be demonstrated in basolateral vesicles from dog kidney. This process appears to be mediated, at least in part, via a mechanism different from that by which SO4(2-) is transported. Electrogenic Na+-independent Pi transport may reflect one means by which Pi reabsorbed across the luminal membrane exists from the proximal tubular cell down an electrochemical gradient

  11. Simulation of water movement and NaCl transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xun; Zheng Zhihong; Yang Zeping

    2008-01-01

    Modeling of water flow and solute transport in the near-field of a high-level radioactive waste repository with TOUGH2 is done. The results show that salt accumulation in buffer material is not so significant, precipitation does not occur throughout the period covered by our simualtions. Further more, the changeable law of volumetric water content, liquid velocity and dissolved concentration of sodium chloride with simulated time or distance are attained, which is the base of understanding evolvement of near-field. (authors)

  12. Sodium and Proton Effects on Inward Proton Transport through Na/K Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Travis J.; Zugarramurdi, Camila; Olivera, J. Fernando; Gatto, Craig; Artigas, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The Na/K pump hydrolyzes ATP to export three intracellular Na (Nai) as it imports two extracellular K (Ko) across animal plasma membranes. Within the protein, two ion-binding sites (sites I and II) can reciprocally bind Na or K, but a third site (site III) exclusively binds Na in a voltage-dependent fashion. In the absence of Nao and Ko, the pump passively imports protons, generating an inward current (IH). To elucidate the mechanisms of IH, we used voltage-clamp techniques to investigate the [H]o, [Na]o, and voltage dependence of IH in Na/K pumps from ventricular myocytes and in ouabain-resistant pumps expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Lowering pHo revealed that Ho both activates IH (in a voltage-dependent manner) and inhibits it (in a voltage-independent manner) by binding to different sites. Nao effects depend on pHo; at pHo where no Ho inhibition is observed, Nao inhibits IH at all concentrations, but when applied at pHo that inhibits pump-mediated current, low [Na]o activates IH and high [Na]o inhibits it. Our results demonstrate that IH is a property inherent to Na/K pumps, not linked to the oocyte expression environment, explains differences in the characteristics of IH previously reported in the literature, and supports a model in which 1), protons leak through site III; 2), binding of two Na or two protons to sites I and II inhibits proton transport; and 3), pumps with mixed Na/proton occupancy of sites I and II remain permeable to protons. PMID:24940773

  13. Response function study of a scintillator detector of NaI(Tl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, Marcelo Barros; Costa, Alessandro Martins da

    2014-01-01

    In measurements of gamma rays with Nai (Tl) scintillator, the detectors output data are pulse height spectra, that corresponding to distorted information about the radiation source due to various errors associated with the crystal scintillation process and electronics associated, instead of power spectra photons. Pulse height spectra are related to the real power spectra by means of scintillator detector response function NaI (Tl). In this work, the response function for a cylindrical crystal of Nal (Tl) of 7,62 x 7,62 cm (diameter x length) was studied, by Monte Carlo method, using the EGSnrc tool to model the transport of radiation, combined with experimental measurements. An inverse response matrix, even with the energy of the square root, which transforms the pulse height spectrum of photon energy spectrum was obtained. The results of this transformation of pulse height spectrum for photon energy spectrum is presented, showing that the methodology employed in this study is suitable

  14. Structure and elevator mechanism of the Na(+)-citrate transporter CitS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2016-01-01

    The recently determined crystal structure of the bacterial Na(+)-citrate symporter CitS provides unexpected structural and mechanistic insights. The protein has a fold that has not been seen in other proteins, but the oligomeric state, domain organization and proposed transport mechanism strongly

  15. Structural variations in wheat HKT1;5 underpin differences in Na+ transport capacity

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Bo

    2017-11-27

    An important trait associated with the salt tolerance of wheat is the exclusion of sodium ions (Na+) from the shoot. We have previously shown that the sodium transporters TmHKT1;5-A and TaHKT1;5-D, from Triticum monoccocum (Tm) and Triticum aestivum (Ta), are encoded by genes underlying the major shoot Na+-exclusion loci Nax1 and Kna1, respectively. Here, using heterologous expression, we show that the affinity (Km) for the Na+ transport of TmHKT1;5-A, at 2.66 mM, is higher than that of TaHKT1;5-D at 7.50 mM. Through 3D structural modelling, we identify residues D471/a gap and D474/G473 that contribute to this property. We identify four additional mutations in amino acid residues that inhibit the transport activity of TmHKT1;5-A, which are predicted to be the result of an occlusion of the pore. We propose that the underlying transport properties of TmHKT1;5-A and TaHKT1;5-D contribute to their unique ability to improve Na+ exclusion in wheat that leads to an improved salinity tolerance in the field.

  16. Structural variations in wheat HKT1;5 underpin differences in Na+ transport capacity

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Bo; Waters, Shane; Byrt, Caitlin S.; Plett, Darren; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Tester, Mark A.; Munns, Rana; Hrmova, Maria; Gilliham, Mathew

    2017-01-01

    An important trait associated with the salt tolerance of wheat is the exclusion of sodium ions (Na+) from the shoot. We have previously shown that the sodium transporters TmHKT1;5-A and TaHKT1;5-D, from Triticum monoccocum (Tm) and Triticum aestivum (Ta), are encoded by genes underlying the major shoot Na+-exclusion loci Nax1 and Kna1, respectively. Here, using heterologous expression, we show that the affinity (Km) for the Na+ transport of TmHKT1;5-A, at 2.66 mM, is higher than that of TaHKT1;5-D at 7.50 mM. Through 3D structural modelling, we identify residues D471/a gap and D474/G473 that contribute to this property. We identify four additional mutations in amino acid residues that inhibit the transport activity of TmHKT1;5-A, which are predicted to be the result of an occlusion of the pore. We propose that the underlying transport properties of TmHKT1;5-A and TaHKT1;5-D contribute to their unique ability to improve Na+ exclusion in wheat that leads to an improved salinity tolerance in the field.

  17. Regulation of Na+/K+ ATPase transport velocity by RNA editing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Colina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Because firing properties and metabolic rates vary widely, neurons require different transport rates from their Na(+/K(+ pumps in order to maintain ion homeostasis. In this study we show that Na(+/K(+ pump activity is tightly regulated by a novel process, RNA editing. Three codons within the squid Na(+/K(+ ATPase gene can be recoded at the RNA level, and the efficiency of conversion for each varies dramatically, and independently, between tissues. At one site, a highly conserved isoleucine in the seventh transmembrane span can be converted to a valine, a change that shifts the pump's intrinsic voltage dependence. Mechanistically, the removal of a single methyl group specifically targets the process of Na(+ release to the extracellular solution, causing a higher turnover rate at the resting membrane potential.

  18. Mucolipin 1 positively regulates TLR7 responses in dendritic cells by facilitating RNA transportation to lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobing; Saitoh, Shin-Ichiroh; Shibata, Takuma; Tanimura, Natsuko; Fukui, Ryutaro; Miyake, Kensuke

    2015-02-01

    Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR9 sense microbial single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) and ssDNA in endolysosomes. Nucleic acid (NA)-sensing in endolysosomes is thought to be important for avoiding TLR7/9 responses to self-derived NAs. Aberrant self-derived NA transportation to endolysosomes predisposes to autoimmune diseases. To restrict NA-sensing in endolysosomes, TLR7/9 trafficking is tightly controlled by a multiple transmembrane protein Unc93B1. In contrast to TLR7/9 trafficking, little is known about a mechanism underlying NA transportation. We here show that Mucolipin 1 (Mcoln1), a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel gene family, has an important role in ssRNA trafficking into lysosomes. Mcoln1(-/-) dendritic cells (DCs) showed impaired TLR7 responses to ssRNA. A mucolipin agonist specifically enhanced TLR7 responses to ssRNAs. The channel activity of Mcoln1 is activated by a phospholipid phosphatidylinositol (3,5) bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2), which is generated by a class III lipid kinase PIKfyve. A PIKfyve inhibitor completely inhibited TLR7 responses to ssRNA in DCs. Confocal analyses showed that ssRNA transportation to lysosomes in DCs was impaired by PIKfyve inhibitor as well as by the lack of Mcoln1. Transportation of TLR9 ligands was also impaired by the PIKfyve inhibitor. These results demonstrate that the PtdIns(3,5)P2-Mcoln1 axis has an important role in ssRNA transportation into lysosomes in DCs. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A radioactive waste transportation package monitoring system for normal transport and accident emergency response conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.S.; Cashwell, J.W.; Apple, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses spent fuel and high level waste transportation history and prospects, discusses accident histories of radioactive material transport, discusses emergency responder needs and provides a general description of the Transportation Intelligent Monitoring System (TRANSIMS) design. The key objectives of the monitoring system are twofold: (1) to facilitate effective emergency response to accidents involving a radioactive waste transportation package, while minimizing risk to the public and emergency first-response personnel, and (2) to allow remote monitoring of transportation vehicle and payload conditions to enable research into radioactive material transportation for normal and accident conditions. (J.P.N.)

  20. Inhibition of epithelial Na+ transport by atriopeptin, protein kinase c, and pertussis toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrmann, M.; Cantiello, H.F.; Ausiello, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have recently shown the selective inhibition of an amiloride-sensitive, conductive pathway for Na + by atrial natriuretic peptide and 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-BrcGMP) in the renal epithelial cell line, LLC-PK i . Using 22 Na + fluxes, they further investigated the modulation of Na + transport by atrial natriuretic peptide and by agents that increase cGMP production, activate protein kinase c, or modulate guanine nucleotide regulatory protein function. Sodium nitroprusside increases intracellular cGMP concentrations without affecting cAMP concentrations and completely inhibits amiloride-sensitive Na + uptake in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Oleoyl 2-acetylglycerol and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, activators of protein kinase c, inhibit Na + uptake by 93 ± 13 and 51 ± 10%, respectively. Prolonged incubation with phorbol ester results in the downregulation of protein kinase c activity and reduces the inhibitory effect of atrial natriuretic peptide, suggesting that the action of this peptide involves stimulation of protein kinase c. Pertussis toxin, which induces the ADP-ribosylation of a 41-kDa guanine nucleotide regulatory protein in LLC-PK i cells, inhibits 22 Na + influx to the same extent as amiloride. Thus, increasing cGMP, activating protein kinase c, and ADP-ribosylating a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein all inhibit Na + uptake. These events may be sequentially involved in the action of atrial natriuretic peptide

  1. Comprehensive transcriptional profiling of NaCl-stressed Arabidopsis roots reveals novel classes of responsive genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyholos Michael K

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Roots are an attractive system for genomic and post-genomic studies of NaCl responses, due to their primary importance to agriculture, and because of their relative structural and biochemical simplicity. Excellent genomic resources have been established for the study of Arabidopsis roots, however, a comprehensive microarray analysis of the root transcriptome following NaCl exposure is required to further understand plant responses to abiotic stress and facilitate future, systems-based analyses of the underlying regulatory networks. Results We used microarrays of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes representing 23,686 Arabidopsis genes to identify root transcripts that changed in relative abundance following 6 h, 24 h, or 48 h of hydroponic exposure to 150 mM NaCl. Enrichment analysis identified groups of structurally or functionally related genes whose members were statistically over-represented among up- or down-regulated transcripts. Our results are consistent with generally observed stress response themes, and highlight potentially important roles for underappreciated gene families, including: several groups of transporters (e.g. MATE, LeOPT1-like; signalling molecules (e.g. PERK kinases, MLO-like receptors, carbohydrate active enzymes (e.g. XTH18, transcription factors (e.g. members of ZIM, WRKY, NAC, and other proteins (e.g. 4CL-like, COMT-like, LOB-Class 1. We verified the NaCl-inducible expression of selected transcription factors and other genes by qRT-PCR. Conclusion Micorarray profiling of NaCl-treated Arabidopsis roots revealed dynamic changes in transcript abundance for at least 20% of the genome, including hundreds of transcription factors, kinases/phosphatases, hormone-related genes, and effectors of homeostasis, all of which highlight the complexity of this stress response. Our identification of these transcriptional responses, and groups of evolutionarily related genes with either similar or divergent

  2. Transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon area; Transporte de produtos perigosos na regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Wallace de Castro [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Elton; Nassi, Carlos David [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Amongst several exploratory sources of the subject 'hazardous materials transport', it is distinguished: 'the threat to the environment'. This paper presents an exploratory investigation of this subject line in the Amazon region. In view of the diversity of 'existing hazardous materials' and the raised dimension of the oil transport and its derivatives in this context, this paper focused in these products. Regarding to the geographic region, the approach was given to the State of Amazon, considering the amplitude of this State in the Amazon region and the availability of data. Therefore, this work explores and analyzes macro aspects inherent to the State of Amazon pertinent to the oil transport and its derivatives. In the macro context, it is observed the necessity of a higher control in the transport of hazardous materials in the region. The absence of registered data and the unfamiliarity on the risks related to the transport of hazardous materials by authorities and transporters indicate a relative absence of qualification in the region to deal with the monitoring of the transport of hazardous materials. So far, it is not possible up till now to make any evaluation of the environment threats of accidents with transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon region.(author)

  3. Transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon area; Transporte de produtos perigosos na regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Wallace de Castro [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Elton; Nassi, Carlos David [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Amongst several exploratory sources of the subject 'hazardous materials transport', it is distinguished: 'the threat to the environment'. This paper presents an exploratory investigation of this subject line in the Amazon region. In view of the diversity of 'existing hazardous materials' and the raised dimension of the oil transport and its derivatives in this context, this paper focused in these products. Regarding to the geographic region, the approach was given to the State of Amazon, considering the amplitude of this State in the Amazon region and the availability of data. Therefore, this work explores and analyzes macro aspects inherent to the State of Amazon pertinent to the oil transport and its derivatives. In the macro context, it is observed the necessity of a higher control in the transport of hazardous materials in the region. The absence of registered data and the unfamiliarity on the risks related to the transport of hazardous materials by authorities and transporters indicate a relative absence of qualification in the region to deal with the monitoring of the transport of hazardous materials. So far, it is not possible up till now to make any evaluation of the environment threats of accidents with transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon region.(author)

  4. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of a Na+-Insensitive K+ Transporter of Capsicum chinense Jacq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lau, Nancy; Bojórquez-Quintal, Emanuel; Benito, Begoña; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana; Sánchez-Cach, Lucila A.; Medina-Lara, María de Fátima; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    High-affinity K+ (HAK) transporters are encoded by a large family of genes and are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. These HAK-type transporters participate in low- and high-affinity potassium (K+) uptake and are crucial for the maintenance of K+ homeostasis under hostile conditions. In this study, the full-length cDNA of CcHAK1 gene was isolated from roots of the habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense). CcHAK1 expression was positively regulated by K+ starvation in roots and was not inhibited in the presence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis placed the CcHAK1 transporter in group I of the HAK K+ transporters, showing that it is closely related to Capsicum annuum CaHAK1 and Solanum lycopersicum LeHAK5. Characterization of the protein in a yeast mutant deficient in high-affinity K+ uptake (WΔ3) suggested that CcHAK1 function is associated with high-affinity K+ uptake, with Km and Vmax for Rb of 50 μM and 0.52 nmol mg−1 min−1, respectively. K+ uptake in yeast expressing the CcHAK1 transporter was inhibited by millimolar concentrations of the cations ammonium (NH4+) and cesium (Cs+) but not by sodium (Na+). The results presented in this study suggest that the CcHAK1 transporter may contribute to the maintenance of K+ homeostasis in root cells in C. chinense plants undergoing K+-deficiency and salt stress. PMID:28083010

  5. Salt Stress in Thellungiella halophila Activates Na+ Transport Mechanisms Required for Salinity Tolerance1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J.; García-Ramírez, Liliana; Pantoja, Omar

    2005-01-01

    Salinity is considered one of the major limiting factors for plant growth and agricultural productivity. We are using salt cress (Thellungiella halophila) to identify biochemical mechanisms that enable plants to grow in saline conditions. Under salt stress, the major site of Na+ accumulation occurred in old leaves, followed by young leaves and taproots, with the least accumulation occurring in lateral roots. Salt treatment increased both the H+ transport and hydrolytic activity of salt cress tonoplast (TP) and plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPases from leaves and roots. TP Na+/H+ exchange was greatly stimulated by growth of the plants in NaCl, both in leaves and roots. Expression of the PM H+-ATPase isoform AHA3, the Na+ transporter HKT1, and the Na+/H+ exchanger SOS1 were examined in PMs isolated from control and salt-treated salt cress roots and leaves. An increased expression of SOS1, but no changes in levels of AHA3 and HKT1, was observed. NHX1 was only detected in PM fractions of roots, and a salt-induced increase in protein expression was observed. Analysis of the levels of expression of vacuolar H+-translocating ATPase subunits showed no major changes in protein expression of subunits VHA-A or VHA-B with salt treatment; however, VHA-E showed an increased expression in leaf tissue, but not in roots, when the plants were treated with NaCl. Salt cress plants were able to distribute and store Na+ by a very strict control of ion movement across both the TP and PM. PMID:16244148

  6. Salt stress in Thellungiella halophila activates Na+ transport mechanisms required for salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J; García-Ramírez, Liliana; Pantoja, Omar

    2005-11-01

    Salinity is considered one of the major limiting factors for plant growth and agricultural productivity. We are using salt cress (Thellungiella halophila) to identify biochemical mechanisms that enable plants to grow in saline conditions. Under salt stress, the major site of Na+ accumulation occurred in old leaves, followed by young leaves and taproots, with the least accumulation occurring in lateral roots. Salt treatment increased both the H+ transport and hydrolytic activity of salt cress tonoplast (TP) and plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPases from leaves and roots. TP Na(+)/H+ exchange was greatly stimulated by growth of the plants in NaCl, both in leaves and roots. Expression of the PM H(+)-ATPase isoform AHA3, the Na+ transporter HKT1, and the Na(+)/H+ exchanger SOS1 were examined in PMs isolated from control and salt-treated salt cress roots and leaves. An increased expression of SOS1, but no changes in levels of AHA3 and HKT1, was observed. NHX1 was only detected in PM fractions of roots, and a salt-induced increase in protein expression was observed. Analysis of the levels of expression of vacuolar H(+)-translocating ATPase subunits showed no major changes in protein expression of subunits VHA-A or VHA-B with salt treatment; however, VHA-E showed an increased expression in leaf tissue, but not in roots, when the plants were treated with NaCl. Salt cress plants were able to distribute and store Na+ by a very strict control of ion movement across both the TP and PM.

  7. Pma1 is an alkali/alkaline earth metal cation ATPase that preferentially transports Na(+) and K(+) across the Mycobacterium smegmatis plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Torres, Carlos; Novoa-Aponte, Lorena; Soto, Carlos Y

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacterium smegmatis Pma1 is the orthologue of M. tuberculosis P-type ATPase cation transporter CtpF, which is activated under stress conditions, such as hypoxia, starvation and response to antituberculous and toxic substances. The function of Pma1 in the mycobacterial processes across the plasma membrane has not been characterised. In this work, bioinformatic analyses revealed that Pma1 likely contains potential sites for, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) binding and transport. Accordingly, RT-qPCR experiments showed that M. smegmatis pma1 transcription is stimulated by sub-lethal doses of Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+); in addition, the ATPase activity of plasma membrane vesicles in recombinant Pma1-expressing M. smegmatis cells is stimulated by treatment with these cations. In contrast, M. smegmatis cells homologously expressing Pma1 displayed tolerance to high doses of Na(+) and K(+) but not to Ca(2+) ions. Consistently, the recombinant protein Km embedded in plasma membrane demonstrated that Ca(2+) has more affinity for Pma1 than Na(+) and K(+) ions; furthermore, the estimation of Vmax/Km suggests that Na(+) and K(+) ions are more efficiently translocated than Ca(2+). Thus, these results strongly suggest that Pma1 is a promiscuous alkali/alkaline earth cation ATPase that preferentially transports Na(+) and/or K(+) across the mycobacterial plasma membrane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Responsive Multimodal Transportation Management Strategies And IVHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE NEW AND INNOVATIVE WAYS TO INCORPORATE IVHS TECHNOLOGIES INTO MULTIMODAL TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES. MUCH OF THE IVHS RESEARCH DONE TO DATE HAS ADDRESSED THE MODES INDIVIDUALLY. THIS PROJECT FOCU...

  9. Transportation needs assessment: Emergency response section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The transportation impacts of moving high level nuclear waste (HLNW) to a repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada are of concern to the residents of the State as well as to the residents of other states through which the nuclear wastes might be transported. The projected volume of the waste suggests that shipments will occur on a daily basis for some period of time. This will increase the risk of accidents, including a catastrophic incident. Furthermore, as the likelihood of repository construction and operation and waste shipments increase, so will the attention given by the national media. This document is not to be construed as a willingness to accept the HLNW repository on the part of the State. Rather it is an initial step in ensuring that the safety and well-being of Nevada residents and visitors and the State's economy will be adequately addressed in federal decision-making pertaining to the transportation of HLNW into and across Nevada for disposal in the proposed repository. The Preferred Transportation System Needs Assessment identifies critical system design elements and technical and social issues that must be considered in conducting a comprehensive transportation impact analysis. Development of the needs assessment and the impact analysis is especially complex because of the absence of information and experience with shipping HLNW and because of the ''low probability, high consequence'' aspect of the transportation risk

  10. Transportation needs assessment: Emergency response section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The transportation impacts of moving high level nuclear waste (HLNW) to a repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada are of concern to the residents of the State as well as to the residents of other states through which the nuclear wastes might be transported. The projected volume of the waste suggests that shipments will occur on a daily basis for some period of time. This will increase the risk of accidents, including a catastrophic incident. Furthermore, as the likelihood of repository construction and operation and waste shipments increase, so will the attention given by the national media. This document is not to be construed as a willingness to accept the HLNW repository on the part of the State. Rather it is an initial step in ensuring that the safety and well-being of Nevada residents and visitors and the State`s economy will be adequately addressed in federal decision-making pertaining to the transportation of HLNW into and across Nevada for disposal in the proposed repository. The Preferred Transportation System Needs Assessment identifies critical system design elements and technical and social issues that must be considered in conducting a comprehensive transportation impact analysis. Development of the needs assessment and the impact analysis is especially complex because of the absence of information and experience with shipping HLNW and because of the ``low probability, high consequence`` aspect of the transportation risk.

  11. Emergency response arrangements for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan-Warren, E.

    2004-01-01

    Response arrangements are required for the transport of radioactive materials, under both transport and health and safety legislation, to safeguard persons, property and the environment in the event of incidents and emergencies. Responsibilities fall on both government and industry: government is responsible for ensuring public safety and providing information and reassurance. This responsibility is discharged for each type of incident by a nominated ''lead department'', supported as appropriate by other government departments and agencies; for their part, operators are obliged to have arrangements in place for dealing with the practicalities of any reasonably foreseeable incident, including recovery and onward transport of a package, and any required clean-up or restoration of the environment. This paper outlines both the government and industry arrangements in Great Britain. The principles of response and intervention are discussed, together with the lead department concept, regulatory requirements, and the plans developed by the transport industry to ensure a nation-wide response capability

  12. Hepatic taurine transport: a Na+-dependent carrier on the basolateral plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucuvalas, J.C.; Goodrich, A.L.; Suchy, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    Highly purified rat basolateral liver plasma membrane vesicles were used examine the mechanism and the driving forces for hepatic uptake of the β-amino acid, taurine. An inwardly directed 100 mM NaCl gradient stimulated the initial rate of taurine uptake and energized a transient twofold accumulation of taurine above equilibrium (overshoot). In contrast, uptake was slower and no overshoot was detected in the presence of a KCl gradient. A negative intravesicular electrical potential generated by the presence of permeant anions or an outwardly directed K + gradient with valinomycin increased Na + -stimulated taurine uptake. External Cl - stimulated Na + -dependent taurine uptake independent of effects on the transmembrane electrical potential difference. Na + -dependent taurine uptake showed a sigmoidal dependence on extravesicular Na + concentration, suggesting multiple Na + ions are involved in the translocation of each taurine molecule. Na + -dependent taurine uptake demonstrated Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a maximum velocity of 0.537 nmol x mg protein -1 x min -1 and an apparent K/sub m/ of 174 μM. [ 3 H]taurine uptake was inhibited by the presence of excess unlabeled taurine, β-alanine, or hypotaurine but not by L-glutamine or L-alanine. In summary, using basolateral liver plasma membrane vesicles, the authors have shown that hepatic uptake of taurine occurs by a carrier-mediated, secondary active transport process specific for β-amino acids. Uptake is electrogenic, stimulated by external Cl - , and requires multiple Na + ions for the translocation of each taurine molecule

  13. Isotonic transport by the Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 from humans and rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, T; Meinild, A K; Loo, D D

    2001-01-01

    water transport was divided about equally between cotransport, osmosis across the SGLT1 and osmosis across the native oocyte membrane. 6. Coexpression of AQP1 with the SGLT1 increased the water permeability more than 10-fold and steady state isotonic transport was achieved after less than 2 s of sugar......1. In order to study its role in steady state water transport, the Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes; both the human and the rabbit clones were tested. The transport activity was monitored as a clamp current and the flux of water followed optically...... as the change in oocyte volume. 2. SGLT1 has two modes of water transport. First, it acts as a molecular water pump: for each 2 Na+ and 1 sugar molecule 264 water molecules were cotransported in the human SGLT1 (hSGLT1), 424 for the rabbit SGLT1 (rSGLT1). Second, it acts as a water channel. 3. The cotransport...

  14. Lens ion transport: from basic concepts to regulation of Na,K-ATPase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamere, Nicholas A.; Tamiya, Shigeo

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1960s, studies by George Duncan explained many of the basic principles that underlie lens ion homeostasis. The experiments pointed to a permeability barrier close to the surface of the lens and illustrated the requirement for continuous Na,K-ATPase-mediated active sodium extrusion. Without active sodium extrusion, lens sodium and calcium content increases resulting in lens swelling and deterioration of transparency. Later, Duncan's laboratory discovered functional muscarinic and purinergic receptors at the surface of the lens. Recent studies using intact lens suggest purinergic receptors might be involved in short-term regulation of Na,K-ATPase in the epithelium. Purinergic receptor agonists ATP and UTP selectively activate certain Src family tyrosine kinases and stimulate Na,K-ATPase activity. This might represent part of a control mechanism capable of adjusting, perhaps fine tuning, lens ion transport machinery. PMID:18614168

  15. Effects of chlorpromazine on Na+-K+-ATPase pumping and solute transport in rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyke, R.W.; Scharschmidt, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    Inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase and sodium-dependent bile acid transport has been suggested as a mechanism for the cholestasis produced by certain drugs such as chlorpromazine. We examined the effects of chlorpromazine (and in selected studies, two of its metabolites) on Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping (ouabain-suppressible 86 Rb uptake), exchangeable intracellular sodium content, membrane potential (assessed by 36 Cl- distribution), and sodium-dependent transport of taurocholate and alanine in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Chlorpromazine (10-300 microM), 7,8-dihydroxychlorpromazine (10-300 microM), and ouabain (0.1-2 mM), but not chlorpromazine sulfoxide, produced a concentration-dependent decrease in Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping and an increase in intracellular sodium content. Chlorpromazine (100 microM) and ouabain (0.75 mM) also modestly decreased hepatocyte membrane potential. In further studies, chlorpromazine (75 and 100 microM) and ouabain (0.1, 0.5, and 0.75 mM) decreased initial sodium-dependent uptake rates of taurocholate and alanine by 18-63%. Although the steady-state intracellular content of alanine was decreased 25-53% by both agents, chlorpromazine increased the steady-state content of taurocholate by 171% and decreased taurocholate efflux, apparently related to partitioning of taurocholate into a large, slowly turning over intracellular pool. These studies provide direct evidence that chlorpromazine inhibits Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping in intact cells and that partial inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping is associated with a reduction of both the electrochemical sodium gradient and sodium-dependent solute transport. These effects of chlorpromazine may contribute to chlorpromazine-induced cholestasis in animals and humans

  16. Effects of chlorpromazine on Na+-K+-ATPase pumping and solute transport in rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, R.W.; Scharschmidt, B.F.

    1987-11-01

    Inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase and sodium-dependent bile acid transport has been suggested as a mechanism for the cholestasis produced by certain drugs such as chlorpromazine. We examined the effects of chlorpromazine (and in selected studies, two of its metabolites) on Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping (ouabain-suppressible /sup 86/Rb uptake), exchangeable intracellular sodium content, membrane potential (assessed by /sup 36/Cl- distribution), and sodium-dependent transport of taurocholate and alanine in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Chlorpromazine (10-300 microM), 7,8-dihydroxychlorpromazine (10-300 microM), and ouabain (0.1-2 mM), but not chlorpromazine sulfoxide, produced a concentration-dependent decrease in Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping and an increase in intracellular sodium content. Chlorpromazine (100 microM) and ouabain (0.75 mM) also modestly decreased hepatocyte membrane potential. In further studies, chlorpromazine (75 and 100 microM) and ouabain (0.1, 0.5, and 0.75 mM) decreased initial sodium-dependent uptake rates of taurocholate and alanine by 18-63%. Although the steady-state intracellular content of alanine was decreased 25-53% by both agents, chlorpromazine increased the steady-state content of taurocholate by 171% and decreased taurocholate efflux, apparently related to partitioning of taurocholate into a large, slowly turning over intracellular pool. These studies provide direct evidence that chlorpromazine inhibits Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping in intact cells and that partial inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping is associated with a reduction of both the electrochemical sodium gradient and sodium-dependent solute transport. These effects of chlorpromazine may contribute to chlorpromazine-induced cholestasis in animals and humans.

  17. Na--dependent transport of basic, zwitterionic, and bicyclic amino acids by a broad-scope system in mouse blastocysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Winkle, L.J.; Christensen, H.N.; Campione, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Mouse blastocysts which had been activated from diapause in utero appeared to take up amino acids via a Na - -dependent transport system with novel characteristics. In contrast to other cell types, uptake of 3-aminoendobicyclo [3,2,1]octane-3-carboxylic acid (BCO) by blastocysts was largely Na - dependent. Moreover, L-alanine and BCO met standard criteria for mutual competitive inhibition of the Na - -dependent transport of each other. The Ki for each of these amino acids as an inhibitor of transport of the other had a value similar to the value of its Km for transport. In addition, both 2-aminoendobicyclo [2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid and L-valine appeared to inhibit Na - -dependent transport of alanine and BCO competitively. Finally, alanine and L-lysine appeared to compete for the same Na+-dependent transport sites in blastocysts. For these reasons, the authors conclude that lysine, alanine, and BCO are transported by a common Na+-dependent system in blastocysts. In addition, the apparent interaction of the system with other basic amino acids, such as 1-dimethylpiperidine-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid, which has a nondissociable positive charge on its side chain, and L-arginine and L-homoarginine, whose cationic forms are highly predominant at neutral pH, suggests that the cationic forms of basic amino acids are transported by the wide-scope system

  18. Methods for stable recording of short-circuit current in a Na+-transporting epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondzik, Veronika; Awayda, Mouhamed S

    2011-07-01

    Epithelial Na(+) transport as measured by a variety of techniques, including the short-circuit current technique, has been described to exhibit a "rundown" phenomenon. This phenomenon manifests as time-dependent decrease of current and resistance and precludes the ability to carry out prolonged experiments aimed at examining the regulation of this transport. We developed methods for prolonged stable recordings of epithelial Na(+) transport using modifications of the short-circuit current technique and commercial Ussing-type chambers. We utilize the polarized MDCK cell line expressing the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) to describe these methods. Briefly, existing commercial chambers were modified to allow continuous flow of Ringer solution and precise control of such flow. Chamber manifolds and associated plumbing were modified to allow precise temperature clamp preventing temperature oscillations. Recording electrodes were modified to eliminate the use of KCl and prevent membrane depolarization from KCl leakage. Solutions utilized standard bicarbonate-based buffers, but all gasses were prehydrated to clamp buffer osmolarity. We demonstrate that these modifications result in measurements of current and resistance that are stable for at least 2 h. We further demonstrate that drifts in osmolarity similar to those obtained before prior to our modifications can lead to a decrease of current and resistance similar to those attributed to rundown.

  19. p-aminohippurate transport in the airways: Role of Na sup + and HCO sub 3 -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloutier, M.M. (Univ. of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The role of Na{sup +} and HCO{sub 3}- in the transport of p-aminohippurate (PAH) across the canine tracheal epithelium was investigated using Ussing chamber techniques and radiolabeled PAH. Under control conditions, net PAH absorption or a tendency toward net PAH absorption was observed. Neither amiloride (10(-4) M), furosemide (10(-3) M), ouabain (2 x 10(-4) M), nor Na+ substitution of the Ringer solution with choline had any effect on unidirectional PAH fluxes. When the Ringer solution was replaced with a HCO{sub 3}(-)-free solution, net PAH absorption was consistently observed. In HCO{sub 3}(-)-free experiments, unidirectional PAH absorptive fluxes were inhibited by mucosal addition of either of the stilbene derivatives, 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS, 10(-4) M) or 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS, 10(-4) M). DIDS was more effective than SITS and was also effective in inhibiting PAH absorption in tissues bathed in Ringer solution. Submucosal DIDS or SITS had no effect on PAH fluxes either in HCO{sub 3}(-)-free or Ringer experiments. We conclude that PAH transport in canine tracheal epithelium occurs by a HCO{sub 3}(-)-PAH exchange process located on the luminal membrane. PAH transport is not Na{sup +} dependent but is inhibited by both DIDS and SITS.

  20. Na+ -K+ -2Cl- Cotransporter (NKCC) Physiological Function in Nonpolarized Cells and Transporting Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpire, Eric; Gagnon, Kenneth B

    2018-03-25

    Two genes encode the Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransporters, NKCC1 and NKCC2, that mediate the tightly coupled movement of 1Na + , 1K + , and 2Cl - across the plasma membrane of cells. Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransport is driven by the chemical gradient of the three ionic species across the membrane, two of them maintained by the action of the Na + /K + pump. In many cells, NKCC1 accumulates Cl - above its electrochemical potential equilibrium, thereby facilitating Cl - channel-mediated membrane depolarization. In smooth muscle cells, this depolarization facilitates the opening of voltage-sensitive Ca 2+ channels, leading to Ca 2+ influx, and cell contraction. In immature neurons, the depolarization due to a GABA-mediated Cl - conductance produces an excitatory rather than inhibitory response. In many cell types that have lost water, NKCC is activated to help the cells recover their volume. This is specially the case if the cells have also lost Cl - . In combination with the Na + /K + pump, the NKCC's move ions across various specialized epithelia. NKCC1 is involved in Cl - -driven fluid secretion in many exocrine glands, such as sweat, lacrimal, salivary, stomach, pancreas, and intestine. NKCC1 is also involved in K + -driven fluid secretion in inner ear, and possibly in Na + -driven fluid secretion in choroid plexus. In the thick ascending limb of Henle, NKCC2 activity in combination with the Na + /K + pump participates in reabsorbing 30% of the glomerular-filtered Na + . Overall, many critical physiological functions are maintained by the activity of the two Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransporters. In this overview article, we focus on the functional roles of the cotransporters in nonpolarized cells and in epithelia. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:871-901, 2018. Copyright © 2018 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Water transport by the Na+/glucose cotransporter under isotonic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, T; Meinild, A K; Klaerke, D A

    1997-01-01

    Solute cotransport in the Na+/glucose cotransporter is directly coupled to significant water fluxes. The water fluxes are energized by the downhill fluxes of the other substrates by a mechanism within the protein itself. In the present paper we investigate the Na+/glucose cotransporter expressed ...... of water molecules and the number of Na+ ions transported, equivalent to 390 water molecules per glucose molecule. Unstirred layer effects are ruled out on the basis of experiments on native oocytes incubated with the ionophores gramicidin D or nystatin.......Solute cotransport in the Na+/glucose cotransporter is directly coupled to significant water fluxes. The water fluxes are energized by the downhill fluxes of the other substrates by a mechanism within the protein itself. In the present paper we investigate the Na+/glucose cotransporter expressed...... in Xenopus oocytes. We present a method which allows short-term exposures to sugar under voltage clamp conditions. We demonstrate that water is cotransported with the solutes despite no osmotic differences between the external and intracellular solutions. There is a fixed ratio of 195:1 between the number...

  2. Evaluation criteria for emergency response plans in radiological transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Perry, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper identifies a set of general criteria which can be used as guides for evaluating emergency response plans prepared in connection with the transportation of radiological materials. The development of criteria takes the form of examining the meaning and role of emergency plans in general, reviewing the process as it is used in connection with natural disasters and other nonnuclear disasters, and explicitly considering unique aspects of the radiological transportation setting. Eight areas of critical importance for such response plans are isolated: notification procedures; accident assessment; public information; protection of the public at risk; other protective responses; radiological exposure control; responsibility for planning and operations; and emergency response training and exercises. (Auth.)

  3. Characterization of an AtCCX5 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana that involves in high-affinity K+ uptake and Na+ transport in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Zhang, Min; Takano, Tetsuo; Liu, Shenkui

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The AtCCX5 protein coding a putative cation calcium exchanger was characterized. → AtCCX5 expressed in yeast was localized in the plasma membrane and nuclear periphery. → AtCCX5 protein did not show the same transport properties as the CAXs. → AtCCX5 protein involves in mediating high-affinity K + uptake in yeast. → AtCCX5 protein also involves in Na + transport in yeast. -- Abstract: The gene for a putative cation calcium exchanger (CCX) from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtCCX5, was cloned and its function was analyzed in yeast. Green fluorescent protein-tagged AtCCX5 expressed in yeast was localized in the plasma membrane and nuclear periphery. The yeast transformants expressing AtCCX5 were created and their growth in the presence of various cations (K + , Na + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Fe 2+ , Cu 2+ , Co 2+ , Cd 2+ , Mn 2+ , Ba 2+ , Ni 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Li + ) were analyzed. AtCCX5 expression was found to affect the response to K + and Na + in yeast. The AtCCX5 transformant also showed a little better growth to Zn 2+ . The yeast mutant 9.3 expressing AtCCX5 restored growth of the mutant on medium with low K + (0.5 mM), and also suppressed its Na + sensitivity. Ion uptake experiments showed that AtCCX5 mediated relatively high-affinity K + uptake and was also involved in Na + transport in yeast. Taken together, these findings suggest that the AtCCX5 is a novel transport protein involves in mediating high-affinity K + uptake and Na + transport in yeast.

  4. Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporters in duodenum, collecting ducts and choroid plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetorius, Jeppe

    2010-01-01

    Epithelia cover the internal and external surfaces of the organism and form barriers between the various compartments. Some of these epithelia are specialized for effective transmembrane or even transepithelial movement of acid-base equivalents. Certain epithelia with a high rate of HCO3- transport express a few potent Na+-coupled acid-base transporters to gain a net HCO3- movement across the epithelium. Examples of such epithelia are renal proximal tubules and pancreatic ducts. In contrast, multiple Na+-coupled HCO3- transporters are expressed in other HCO3- secreting epithelia, such as the duodenal mucosa or the choroid plexus, which maintain suitable intracellular pH despite a variable demand for secreting HCO3-. In the duodenum, the epithelial cells must secrete HCO3- for neutralization of the gastric acid, and at the same time prevent cellular acidification. During the neutralization, large quantities of CO2 are formed in the duodenal lumen, which enter the epithelial cells. This would tend to lower intracellular pH and require effective counteracting mechanisms to avoid cell death and to maintain HCO3- secretion. The choroid plexus secretes the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and controls the pH of the otherwise poorly buffered CSF. The pCO2 of CSF fluctuates with plasma pCO2, and the choroid plexus must regulate the HCO3- secretion to minimize the effects of these fluctuations on CSF pH. This is done while maintaining pH neutrality in the epithelial cells. Thus, the Na+-HCO3- cotransporters appear to be involved in HCO3- import in more epithelia, where Na+/H+ exchangers were until recently thought to be sufficient for maintaining intracellular pH.

  5. Physiological responses of food animals to road transportation stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... transportation are numerous and the responses of the animal to them are complex, non-specific and ..... at 3 h after a 6 h journey in male Japanese goats. During ..... animals are subjected to concomitant action of transport- tation and heat stress .... those measured in moving vehicles (Warriss et al., 1993).

  6. Response function study of a scintillator detector of NaI(Tl); Estudo da funcao resposta de um detector cintilador de NaI(Tl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Marcelo Barros; Costa, Alessandro Martins da, E-mail: amcosta@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    In measurements of gamma rays with Nai (Tl) scintillator, the detectors output data are pulse height spectra, that corresponding to distorted information about the radiation source due to various errors associated with the crystal scintillation process and electronics associated, instead of power spectra photons. Pulse height spectra are related to the real power spectra by means of scintillator detector response function NaI (Tl). In this work, the response function for a cylindrical crystal of Nal (Tl) of 7,62 x 7,62 cm (diameter x length) was studied, by Monte Carlo method, using the EGSnrc tool to model the transport of radiation, combined with experimental measurements. An inverse response matrix, even with the energy of the square root, which transforms the pulse height spectrum of photon energy spectrum was obtained. The results of this transformation of pulse height spectrum for photon energy spectrum is presented, showing that the methodology employed in this study is suitable.

  7. Hazardous materials transportation and emergency response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Fore, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    This presentation consists of the following visual aids; (1) detailed routing capabilities of truck, rail, barge; (2) legislative data base for hazardous materials; and (3) emergency response of accident site Eddyville, Kentucky (airports in vicinity of Eddyville, KY)

  8. Emergency preparedness and response in transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takani, Michio

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power has been providing clean, affordable electricity in many parts of the world for nearly half a century. The national and international transport of nuclear fuel cycle materials is essential to support this activity. To sustain the nuclear power industry, fuel cycle materials have to be transported safely and efficiently. The nature of the industry is such that most countries with large-scale nuclear power industries cannot provide all the necessary fuel services themselves and consequently nuclear fuel cycle transport activities are international. The radioactive material transport industry has an outstanding safety record spanning over 45 years; however the transport of radioactive materials cannot and most not be taken for granted. Efficient emergency preparedness and response in the transport of radioactive material is an important element to ensure the maximum safety in accident conditions. The World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), founded by International Nuclear Services (INS) of the United Kingdom, AREVA of France an the Federation of Electric Power Companies (FEPC) of Japan, represents the collective interest of the radioactive material transport sector, and those who rely on safe, effective and reliable transport. As part of its activities, WNTI has conducted two surveys through its members on emergency preparedness and response in the transport of radioactive material and emergency exercises. After recalling the International Atomic Energy Agency approach on emergency response, this paper will be discussing the main conclusion of surveys, in particular the national variations in emergency response and preparedness on the national and local levels of regulations, the emergency preparedness in place, the emergency response organisation (who and how), communication and exercises. (author)

  9. Tokamak transport phenomenology and plasma dynamic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moret, J.M.; Association Euratom CEA, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance

    1991-07-01

    A system identification method is developed to estimate the transfer function of the system from the time evolution of its parameters to any excitation. The form of the identified transfer function is linked to a representation of the transport in terms of poles (eigenvalues) and eigenmodes. These eigenvalues and eigenvectors are thus directly deduced from the raw data with no restriction on the underlying processes and there is consequently no need to adjust any simplified transport model to the experimental data. This method is illustrated in this paper by analysing the injection of pellets on Tore Supra. The density and the temperature transfer functions were observed to share the same poles with the corresponding eigenmodes grouped in pairs with identical profiles. This implies the presence of a coupling between the particle and heat flow. A criterion is developed to select amongst the possible coupling mechanisms, based on compatibility with the observed transfer function. The selection suggests a model in which the particle diffusion coefficient depends on the density and on the temperature gradient

  10. Structure and elevator mechanism of the Na+-citrate transporter CitS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolkema, Juke S; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2017-08-01

    The recently determined crystal structure of the bacterial Na + -citrate symporter CitS provides unexpected structural and mechanistic insights. The protein has a fold that has not been seen in other proteins, but the oligomeric state, domain organization and proposed transport mechanism strongly resemble those of the sodium-dicarboxylate symporter vcINDY, and the putative exporters YdaH and MtrF, thus hinting at convergence in structure and function. CitS and the related proteins are predicted to translocate their substrates by an elevator-like mechanism, in which a compact transport domain slides up and down through the membrane while the dimerization domain is stably anchored. Here we review the large body of available biochemical data on CitS in the light of the new crystal structure. We show that the biochemical data are fully consistent with the proposed elevator mechanism, but also demonstrate that the current structural data cannot explain how strict coupling of citrate and Na + transport is achieved. We propose a testable model for the coupling mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Akt Substrate of 160 kD Regulates Na+,K+-ATPase Trafficking in Response to Energy Depletion and Renal Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Daiane S.; Thulin, Gunilla; Loffing, Johannes; Kashgarian, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Renal ischemia and reperfusion injury causes loss of renal epithelial cell polarity and perturbations in tubular solute and fluid transport. Na+,K+-ATPase, which is normally found at the basolateral plasma membrane of renal epithelial cells, is internalized and accumulates in intracellular compartments after renal ischemic injury. We previously reported that the subcellular distribution of Na+,K+-ATPase is modulated by direct binding to Akt substrate of 160 kD (AS160), a Rab GTPase-activating protein that regulates the trafficking of glucose transporter 4 in response to insulin and muscle contraction. Here, we investigated the effect of AS160 on Na+,K+-ATPase trafficking in response to energy depletion. We found that AS160 is required for the intracellular accumulation of Na+,K+-ATPase that occurs in response to energy depletion in cultured epithelial cells. Energy depletion led to dephosphorylation of AS160 at S588, which was required for the energy depletion–induced accumulation of Na,K-ATPase in intracellular compartments. In AS160-knockout mice, the effects of renal ischemia on the distribution of Na+,K+-ATPase were substantially reduced in the epithelial cells of distal segments of the renal tubules. These data demonstrate that AS160 has a direct role in linking the trafficking of Na+,K+-ATPase to the energy state of renal epithelial cells. PMID:25788531

  12. Akt Substrate of 160 kD Regulates Na+,K+-ATPase Trafficking in Response to Energy Depletion and Renal Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Daiane S; Thulin, Gunilla; Loffing, Johannes; Kashgarian, Michael; Caplan, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Renal ischemia and reperfusion injury causes loss of renal epithelial cell polarity and perturbations in tubular solute and fluid transport. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, which is normally found at the basolateral plasma membrane of renal epithelial cells, is internalized and accumulates in intracellular compartments after renal ischemic injury. We previously reported that the subcellular distribution of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is modulated by direct binding to Akt substrate of 160 kD (AS160), a Rab GTPase-activating protein that regulates the trafficking of glucose transporter 4 in response to insulin and muscle contraction. Here, we investigated the effect of AS160 on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase trafficking in response to energy depletion. We found that AS160 is required for the intracellular accumulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase that occurs in response to energy depletion in cultured epithelial cells. Energy depletion led to dephosphorylation of AS160 at S588, which was required for the energy depletion-induced accumulation of Na,K-ATPase in intracellular compartments. In AS160-knockout mice, the effects of renal ischemia on the distribution of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase were substantially reduced in the epithelial cells of distal segments of the renal tubules. These data demonstrate that AS160 has a direct role in linking the trafficking of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase to the energy state of renal epithelial cells. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. Plasma Membrane Na+-Coupled Citrate Transporter (SLC13A5 and Neonatal Epileptic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzom D. Bhutia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available SLC13A5 is a Na+-coupled transporter for citrate that is expressed in the plasma membrane of specific cell types in the liver, testis, and brain. It is an electrogenic transporter with a Na+:citrate3− stoichiometry of 4:1. In humans, the Michaelis constant for SLC13A5 to transport citrate is ~600 μM, which is physiologically relevant given that the normal concentration of citrate in plasma is in the range of 150–200 μM. Li+ stimulates the transport function of human SLC13A5 at concentrations that are in the therapeutic range in patients on lithium therapy. Human SLC13A5 differs from rodent Slc13a5 in two important aspects: the affinity of the human transporter for citrate is ~30-fold less than that of the rodent transporter, thus making human SLC13A5 a low-affinity/high-capacity transporter and the rodent Slc13a5 a high-affinity/low-capacity transporter. In the liver, SLC13A5 is expressed exclusively in the sinusoidal membrane of the hepatocytes, where it plays a role in the uptake of circulating citrate from the sinusoidal blood for metabolic use. In the testis, the transporter is expressed only in spermatozoa, which is also only in the mid piece where mitochondria are located; the likely function of the transporter in spermatozoa is to mediate the uptake of citrate present at high levels in the seminal fluid for subsequent metabolism in the sperm mitochondria to generate biological energy, thereby supporting sperm motility. In the brain, the transporter is expressed mostly in neurons. As astrocytes secrete citrate into extracellular medium, the potential function of SLC13A5 in neurons is to mediate the uptake of circulating citrate and astrocyte-released citrate for subsequent metabolism. Slc13a5-knockout mice have been generated; these mice do not have any overt phenotype but are resistant to experimentally induced metabolic syndrome. Recently however, loss-of-function mutations in human SLC13A5 have been found to cause severe epilepsy

  14. Morphological, Physiological, and Structural Responses of Two Species of Artemisia to NaCl Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of salt stress on Artemisia scoparia and A. vulgaris “Variegate” were examined. A. scoparia leaves became withered under NaCl treatment, whereas A. vulgaris “Variegate” leaves were not remarkably affected. Chlorophyll content decreased in both species, with a higher reduction in A. scoparia. Contents of proline, MDA, soluble carbohydrate, and Na+ increased in both species under salt stress, but A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher level of proline and soluble carbohydrate and lower level of MDA and Na+. The ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ in A. vulgaris “Variegate” under NaCl stress were higher. Moreover, A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher transport selectivity of K+/Na+ from root to stem, stem to middle mature leaves, and upper newly developed leaves than A. scoparia under NaCl stress. A. vulgaris “Variegate” chloroplast maintained its morphological integrity under NaCl stress, whereas A. scoparia chloroplast lost integrity. The results indicated that A. scoparia is more sensitive to salt stress than A. vulgaris “Variegate.” Salt tolerance is mainly related to the ability of regulating osmotic pressure through the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates and proline, and the gradient distribution of K+ between roots and leaves was also contributed to osmotic pressure adjustment and improvement of plant salt tolerance.

  15. Transporting spent reactor fuel: allegations and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1983-03-01

    A January 1982 monthly newsletter from the Council on Economic Priorities (CEP) was entirely devoted to the presentation of a broad-ranging series of allegations that the transportation of spent fuel in particular, and other high-level radioactive materials by inference is currently being conducted in this country in an unsafe manner. This newsletter preceded the release of a book authored by Marvin Resnikoff on the same subject by over a year. This book titled The Next Nuclear Gamble contained substantially the same allegations as the newsletter, although the book devoted space to a greatly increased number of specific examples. This paper reduces those allegations contained in the executive summary and the recommendations contained in the last chapter of the book to a manageable number by combining the many specific issues into a few topics. Each of these topics is then addressed. As such, this is an abbreviated analysis of The Next Nuclear Gamble and does not address much of the fine detail. In spite of that, it would be possible to address each of the details within the book on a similar basis. The intent of this document is to provide background information for those who are questioned on the validity of the allegations made by the CEp

  16. First-principles study of electron transport through monatomic Al and Na wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Brandbyge, Mads; Tsukada, Masaru

    2000-01-01

    We present first-principles calculations of electron transport, in particular, the conduction channels of monatomic Al and Na atom wires bridged between metallic jellium electrodes. The electronic structures are calculated by the first-principles recursion-transfer matrix method, and the conduction...... channels are investigated using the eigenchannel decomposition (ECD) of the conductance, the local density of states (LDOS), and the current density. The ECD is different from the conventional decomposition of atomic orbitals, and the study of decomposed electronic structures is shown to be effective...

  17. NaCl responsive taste cells in the mouse fungiform taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, R; Horio, N; Murata, Y; Yasumatsu, K; Shigemura, N; Ninomiya, Y

    2009-03-17

    Previous studies have demonstrated that rodents' chorda tympani (CT) nerve fibers responding to NaCl can be classified according to their sensitivities to the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) blocker amiloride into two groups: amiloride-sensitive (AS) and -insensitive (AI). The AS fibers were shown to respond specifically to NaCl, whereas AI fibers broadly respond to various electrolytes, including NaCl. These data suggest that salt taste transduction in taste cells may be composed of at least two different systems; AS and AI ones. To further address this issue, we investigated the responses to NaCl, KCl and HCl and the amiloride sensitivity of mouse fungiform papilla taste bud cells which are innervated by the CT nerve. Comparable with the CT data, the results indicated that 56 NaCl-responsive cells tested were classified into two groups; 25 cells ( approximately 44%) narrowly responded to NaCl and their NaCl response were inhibited by amiloride (AS cells), whereas the remaining 31 cells ( approximately 56%) responded not only to NaCl, but to KCl and/or HCl and showed no amiloride inhibition of NaCl responses (AI cells). Amiloride applied to the basolateral side of taste cells had no effect on NaCl responses in the AS and AI cells. Single cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) experiments indicated that ENaC subunit mRNA was expressed in a subset of AS cells. These findings suggest that the mouse fungiform taste bud is composed of AS and AI cells that can transmit taste information differently to their corresponding types of CT fibers, and apical ENaCs may be involved in the NaCl responses of AS cells.

  18. Urea transporters and sweat response to uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Raymond W; Bailey, James L; Wang, Yanhua; Klein, Janet D; Sands, Jeff M

    2016-06-01

    In humans, urea is excreted in sweat, largely through the eccrine sweat gland. The urea concentration in human sweat is elevated when compared to blood urea nitrogen. The sweat urea nitrogen (UN) of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESRD) is increased when compared with healthy humans. The ability to produce sweat is maintained in the overwhelming majority of ESRD patients. A comprehensive literature review found no reports of sweat UN neither in healthy rodents nor in rodent models of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, this study measured sweat UN concentrations in healthy and uremic rats. Uninephrectomy followed by renal artery ligation was used to remove 5/6 of renal function. Rats were then fed a high-protein diet to induce uremia. Pilocarpine was used to induce sweating. Sweat droplets were collected under oil. Sweat UN was measured with a urease assay. Serum UN was measured using a fluorescent ortho-pthalaldehyde reaction. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was accomplished with a horseradish peroxidase and diaminobenzidine technique. Sweat UN in uremic rats was elevated greater than two times compared to healthy pair-fed controls (220 ± 17 and 91 ± 15 mmol/L, respectively). Post hoc analysis showed a significant difference between male and female uremic sweat UN (279 ± 38 and 177 ± 11 mmol/L, respectively.) IHC shows, for the first time, the presence of the urea transporters UT-B and UT-A2 in both healthy and uremic rat cutaneous structures. Future studies will use this model to elucidate how rat sweat UN and other solute excretion is altered by commonly prescribed diuretics. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  19. Stimulation of Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity and Na{sup +} coupled glucose transport by {beta}-catenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopjani, Mentor [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Alesutan, Ioana; Wilmes, Jan [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Dermaku-Sopjani, Miribane [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Lam, Rebecca S. [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Molecular Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Koutsouki, Evgenia [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Jakupi, Muharrem [Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Foeller, Michael [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Lang, Florian, E-mail: florian.lang@uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} The oncogenic transcription factor {beta}-catenin stimulates the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase. {yields} {beta}-Catenin stimulates SGLT1 dependent Na{sup +}, glucose cotransport. {yields} The effects are independent of transcription. {yields} {beta}-Catenin sensitive transport may contribute to properties of proliferating cells. -- Abstract: {beta}-Catenin is a multifunctional protein stimulating as oncogenic transcription factor several genes important for cell proliferation. {beta}-Catenin-regulated genes include the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1, which is known to stimulate a variety of transport systems. The present study explored the possibility that {beta}-catenin influences membrane transport. To this end, {beta}-catenin was expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without SGLT1 and electrogenic transport determined by dual electrode voltage clamp. As a result, expression of {beta}-catenin significantly enhanced the ouabain-sensitive current of the endogeneous Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase. Inhibition of vesicle trafficking by brefeldin A revealed that the stimulatory effect of {beta}-catenin on the endogenous Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase was not due to enhanced stability of the pump protein in the cell membrane. Expression of {beta}-catenin further enhanced glucose-induced current (Ig) in SGLT1-expressing oocytes. In the absence of SGLT1 Ig was negligible irrespective of {beta}-catenin expression. The stimulating effect of {beta}-catenin on both Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase and SGLT1 activity was observed even in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. The experiments disclose a completely novel function of {beta}-catenin, i.e. the regulation of transport.

  20. Emergency response arrangements for the transport of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan-Warren, E. [Radioactive Materials Transport Div., Dept. for Transport, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Response arrangements are required for the transport of radioactive materials, under both transport and health and safety legislation, to safeguard persons, property and the environment in the event of incidents and emergencies. Responsibilities fall on both government and industry: government is responsible for ensuring public safety and providing information and reassurance. This responsibility is discharged for each type of incident by a nominated ''lead department'', supported as appropriate by other government departments and agencies; for their part, operators are obliged to have arrangements in place for dealing with the practicalities of any reasonably foreseeable incident, including recovery and onward transport of a package, and any required clean-up or restoration of the environment. This paper outlines both the government and industry arrangements in Great Britain. The principles of response and intervention are discussed, together with the lead department concept, regulatory requirements, and the plans developed by the transport industry to ensure a nation-wide response capability.

  1. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique and X-ray microanalysis provide direct evidence of contrasting Na+ transport ability from root to shoot in salt-sensitive cucumber and salt-tolerant pumpkin under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bo; Huang, Yuan; Sun, Jingyu; Xie, Junjun; Niu, Mengliang; Liu, Zhixiong; Fan, Molin; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-12-01

    Grafting onto salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock can increase cucumber salt tolerance. Previous studies have suggested that this can be attributed to pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. However, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the transport of Na(+) in salt-tolerant pumpkin and salt-sensitive cucumber plants under high (200 mM) or moderate (90 mM) NaCl stress. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique showed that pumpkin roots exhibited a higher capacity to extrude Na(+), and a correspondingly increased H(+) influx under 200 or 90 mM NaCl stress. The 200 mM NaCl induced Na(+)/H(+) exchange in the root was inhibited by amiloride (a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter inhibitor) or vanadate [a plasma membrane (PM) H(+) -ATPase inhibitor], indicating that Na(+) exclusion in salt stressed pumpkin and cucumber roots was the result of an active Na(+)/H(+) antiporter across the PM, and the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter system in salt stressed pumpkin roots was sufficient to exclude Na(+) X-ray microanalysis showed higher Na(+) in the cortex, but lower Na(+) in the stele of pumpkin roots than that in cucumber roots under 90 mM NaCl stress, suggesting that the highly vacuolated root cortical cells of pumpkin roots could sequester more Na(+), limit the radial transport of Na(+) to the stele and thus restrict the transport of Na(+) to the shoot. These results provide direct evidence for pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. 78 FR 33467 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency; Correction... allocation of $3.7 billion under the Public Transportation Emergency Relief Program to the four FTA...

  3. Variants in Pharmacokinetic Transporters and Glycaemic Response to Metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dujic, Tanja; Zhou, Kaixin; Yee, Sook Wah

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic response to metformin, a first-line drug for type 2 diabetes (T2D), is highly variable, in part likely due to genetic factors. To date, metformin pharmacogenetic studies have mainly focused on the impact of variants in metformin transporters genes, with inconsistent results. To clarif...

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of Na+/Cl--dependent neurotransmitter transporters in a membrane-aqueous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne Marie; Tagmose, L.; Jørgensen, A.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of a homology model of the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) in a membrane environment and in complex with either the natural substrate S-HT or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitaloprom. We have also included a transporter homologue......, the Aquifex aeolicus leucine transporter (LeuT), in our study to evaluate the applicability of a simple and computationally attractive membrane system. Fluctuations in LeuT extracted from simulations are in good agreement with crystal logrophic B factors. Furthermore, key interactions identified in the X....... Specific interactions responsible for ligand recognition, are identified in the hSERT-5HT and hSERT-escitaloprom complexes. Our finding5 are in good agreement with predictions from mutagenesis studies....

  5. Characteristics of injury and recovery of net NO3- transport of barley seedlings from treatments of NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobus, G.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The nature of the injury and recovery of nitrate uptake (net uptake) from NaCl stress in young barley (Hordeum vulgare L, var CM 72) seedlings was investigated. Nitrate uptake was inhibited rapidly by NaCl, within 1 minute after exposure to 200 millimolar NaCl. The duration of exposure to saline conditions determined the time of recovery of NO3- uptake from NaCl stress. Recovery was dependent on the presence of NO3- and was inhibited by cycloheximide, 6-methylpurine, and cerulenin, respective inhibitors of protein, RNA, and sterol/fatty acid synthesis. These inhibitors also prevented the induction of the NO3- uptake system in uninduced seedlings. Uninduced seedlings exhibited endogenous NO3- transport activity that appeared to be constitutive. This constitutive activity was also inhibited by NaCl. Recovery of constitutive NO3- uptake did not require the presence of NO3-.

  6. Active ion transport in the renal proximal tubule. II. Ionic dependence of the Na pump

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The dependence of Na pump activity on intracellular and extracellular Na+ and K+ was investigated using a suspension of rabbit cortical tubules that contained mostly (86%) proximal tubules. The ouabain- sensitive rate of respiration (QO2) was used to measure the Na pump activity of intact tubules, and the Na,K-ATPase hydrolytic activity was measured using lysed proximal tubule membranes. The dependence (K0.5) of the Na pump on intracellular Na+ was affected by the relative intracellular conce...

  7. Moderation of antidepressant response by the serotonin transporter gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huezo-Diaz, Patricia; Uher, Rudolf; Smith, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Background: There have been conflicting reports on whether the length polymorphism in the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderates the antidepressant effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). We hypothesised that the pharmacogenetic effect of 5-HTTLPR...... the serotonin transporter gene were genotyped in 795 adults with moderate-to-severe depression treated with escitalopram or nortriptyline in the Genome Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) project. Results: The 5-HTTLPR moderated the response to escitalopram, with long-allele carriers improving more...

  8. An Investigation of the Stoichiometry of Na+ Cotransport with Dopamine in Rat and Human Dopamine Transporters Expressed in Human Embryonic Kidney Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schumacher, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The neuronal membrane transporter for dopamine (DAT) is a member of the Na+ and Cl dependent family of transporters and concentrates dopamine intracellularly up to 106 fold over extracellular levels...

  9. Role of sodium ion transporters and osmotic adjustments in stress alleviation of Cynodon dactylon under NaCl treatment: a parallel investigation with rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Swarnendu; Chakraborty, Usha

    2018-01-01

    Comparative analyses of the responses to NaCl in Cynodon dactylon and a sensitive crop species like rice could effectively unravel the salt tolerance mechanism in the former. C. dactylon, a wild perennial chloridoid grass having a wide range of ecological distribution is generally adaptable to varying degrees of salinity stress. The role of salt exclusion mechanism present exclusively in the wild grass was one of the major factors contributing to its tolerance. Salt exclusion was found to be induced at 4 days when the plants were treated with a minimum conc. of 200 mM NaCl. The structural peculiarities of the salt exuding glands were elucidated by the SEM and TEM studies, which clearly revealed the presence of a bicellular salt gland actively functioning under NaCl stress to remove the excess amount of Na + ion from the mesophyll tissues. Moreover, the intracellular effect of NaCl on the photosynthetic apparatus was found to be lower in C. dactylon in comparison to rice; at the same time, the vacuolization process increased in the former. Accumulation of osmolytes like proline and glycine betaine also increased significantly in C. dactylon with a concurrent check on the H 2 O 2 levels, electrolyte leakage and membrane lipid peroxidation. This accounted for the proper functioning of the Na + ion transporters in the salt glands and also in the vacuoles for the exudation and loading of excess salts, respectively, to maintain the osmotic balance of the protoplasm. In real-time PCR analyses, CdSOS1 expression was found to increase by 2.5- and 5-fold, respectively, and CdNHX expression increased by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively, in plants subjected to 100 and 200 mM NaCl treatment for 72 h. Thus, the comparative analyses of the expression pattern of the plasma membrane and tonoplast Na + ion transporters, SOS1 and NHX in both the plants revealed the significant role of these two ion transporters in conferring salinity tolerance in Cynodon.

  10. Glial and Neuronal Glutamate Transporters Differ in the Na+ Requirements for Activation of the Substrate-Independent Anion Conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Divito

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs are secondary active transporters of L-glutamate and L- or D-aspartate. These carriers also mediate a thermodynamically uncoupled anion conductance that is gated by Na+ and substrate binding. The activation of the anion channel by binding of Na+ alone, however, has only been demonstrated for mammalian EAAC1 (EAAT3 and EAAT4. To date, no difference has been observed for the substrate dependence of anion channel gating between the glial, EAAT1 and EAAT2, and the neuronal isoforms EAAT3, EAAT4 and EAAT5. Here we describe a difference in the Na+-dependence of anion channel gating between glial and neuronal isoforms. Chloride flux through transporters without glutamate binding has previously been described as substrate-independent or “leak” channel activity. Choline or N-methyl-D-glucamine replacement of external Na+ ions significantly reduced or abolished substrate-independent EAAT channel activity in EAAT3 and EAAT4 yet has no effect on EAAT1 or EAAT2. The interaction of Na+ with the neuronal carrier isoforms was concentration dependent, consistent with previous data. The presence of substrate and Na+-independent open states in the glial EAAT isoforms is a novel finding in the field of EAAT function. Our results reveal an important divergence in anion channel function between glial and neuronal glutamate transporters and highlight new potential roles for the EAAT-associated anion channel activity based on transporter expression and localization in the central nervous system.

  11. Spent fuel transportation cask response to a tunnel fire scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajwa, C.S. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. (United States); Adkins, H.E.; Cuta, J.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    On July 18, 2001, a freight train carrying hazardous (non-nuclear) materials derailed and caught fire while passing through the Howard Street railroad tunnel in downtown Baltimore, Maryland. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), one of the agencies responsible for ensuring the safe transportation of radioactive materials in the United States, undertook an investigation of the train derailment and fire to determine the possible regulatory implications of this particular event for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel by railroad. Shortly after the accident occurred, the USNRC met with the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the U.S. agency responsible for determining the cause of transportation accidents, to discuss the details of the accident and the ensuing fire. Following these discussions, the USNRC assembled a team of experts from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine the thermal conditions that existed in the Howard Street tunnel fire and analyze the effects of this fire on various spent fuel transportation cask designs. The Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) code, developed by NIST, was used to determine the thermal environment present in the Howard Street tunnel during the fire. The FDS results were used as boundary conditions in the ANSYS {sup registered} and COBRA-SFS computer codes to evaluate the thermal performance of different cask designs. The staff concluded that the transportation casks analyzed would withstand a fire with thermal conditions similar to those that existed in the Baltimore tunnel fire event. No release of radioactive materials would result from exposure of the casks analyzed to such an event. This paper describes the methods and approach used for this assessment.

  12. Spent fuel transportation cask response to a tunnel fire scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajwa, C.S.; Adkins, H.E.; Cuta, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    On July 18, 2001, a freight train carrying hazardous (non-nuclear) materials derailed and caught fire while passing through the Howard Street railroad tunnel in downtown Baltimore, Maryland. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), one of the agencies responsible for ensuring the safe transportation of radioactive materials in the United States, undertook an investigation of the train derailment and fire to determine the possible regulatory implications of this particular event for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel by railroad. Shortly after the accident occurred, the USNRC met with the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the U.S. agency responsible for determining the cause of transportation accidents, to discuss the details of the accident and the ensuing fire. Following these discussions, the USNRC assembled a team of experts from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine the thermal conditions that existed in the Howard Street tunnel fire and analyze the effects of this fire on various spent fuel transportation cask designs. The Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) code, developed by NIST, was used to determine the thermal environment present in the Howard Street tunnel during the fire. The FDS results were used as boundary conditions in the ANSYS registered and COBRA-SFS computer codes to evaluate the thermal performance of different cask designs. The staff concluded that the transportation casks analyzed would withstand a fire with thermal conditions similar to those that existed in the Baltimore tunnel fire event. No release of radioactive materials would result from exposure of the casks analyzed to such an event. This paper describes the methods and approach used for this assessment

  13. Resveratrol Inhibits Porcine Intestinal Glucose and Alanine Transport: Potential Roles of Na+/K+-ATPase Activity, Protein Kinase A, AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and the Association of Selected Nutrient Transport Proteins with Detergent Resistant Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Klinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beneficial effects of Resveratrol (RSV have been demonstrated, including effects on transporters and channels. However, little is known about how RSV influences intestinal transport. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effects of RSV on intestinal transport and the respective mechanisms. Methods: Porcine jejunum and ileum were incubated with RSV (300 µM, 30 min in Ussing chambers (functional studies and tissue bathes (detection of protein expression, phosphorylation, association with detergent resistant membranes (DRMs. Results: RSV reduced alanine and glucose-induced short circuit currents (ΔIsc and influenced forskolin-induced ΔIsc. The phosphorylation of sodium–glucose-linked transporter 1 (SGLT1, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, protein kinase A substrates (PKA-S and liver kinase B1 (LKB1 increased but a causative relation to the inhibitory effects could not directly be established. The DRM association of SGLT1, peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1 and (phosphorylated Na+/H+-exchanger 3 (NHE3 did not change. Conclusion: RSV influences the intestinal transport of glucose, alanine and chloride and is likely to affect other transport processes. As the effects of protein kinase activation vary between the intestinal localizations, it would appear that increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP levels are part of the mechanism. Nonetheless, the physiological responses depend on cell type-specific structures.

  14. Intracellular Na+ concentration influences short-term plasticity of glutamate transporter-mediated currents in neocortical astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unichenko, Petr; Myakhar, Olga; Kirischuk, Sergei

    2012-04-01

    Fast synaptic transmission requires a rapid clearance of the released neurotransmitter from the extracellular space. Glial glutamate transporters (excitatory amino acid transporters, EAATs) strongly contribute to glutamate removal. In this work, we investigated the paired-pulse plasticity of synaptically activated, glutamate transporter-mediated currents (STCs) in cortical layer 2/3 astrocytes. STCs were elicited by local electrical stimulation in layer 4 in the presence of ionotropic glutamate (AMPA and NMDA), GABAA, and GABAB receptor antagonists. In experiments with low [Na(+)]i (5 mM) intrapipette solution, STCs elicited by paired-pulse stimulation demonstrated paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) at short (astrocytic [Na(+)]i, reduced the mean STC amplitude, decreased PPF at short ISIs, and slowed STC kinetics. All GABA-induced changes were blocked by NO-711 and SNAP-5114, GABA transporter (GATs) antagonists. In experiments with the low intrapipette solution, GAT blockade under control conditions decreased PPF at short ISIs both at room and at near physiological temperatures. Dialysis of single astrocyte with low [Na(+)]i solution increased the amplitude and reduced PPR of evoked field potentials recorded in the vicinity of the astrocyte. We conclude that (1) endogenous GABA via GATs may influence EAAT functioning and (2) astrocytic [Na(+)]i modulates the short-term plasticity of STCs and in turn the efficacy of glutamate removal. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. First response to transportation emergencies involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This FEMA/DOE/DOT videocourse describes the basis for procedures to be used by emergency first responders for transportation accidents which involve radioactive materials. Various commercial and government sector radioactive materials shipment programs will be described and will include information about hazards and the elements of safety, proper first response actions, notification procedures, and state or federal assistance during emergencies. Primary audience: fire service and emergency management personnel

  16. Emergency response planning for transport accidents involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The document presents a basic discussion of the various aspects and philosophies of emergency planning and preparedness along with a consideration of the problems which might be encountered in a transportation accident involving a release of radioactive materials. Readers who are responsible for preparing emergency plans and procedures will have to decide on how best to apply this guidance to their own organizational structures and will also have to decide on an emergency planning and preparedness philosophy suitable to their own situations

  17. Unbiased simulations reveal the inward-facing conformation of the human serotonin transporter and Na+ ion release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koldsø, Heidi; Noer, Pernille Rimmer; Grouleff, Julie

    2011-01-01

    transporter has resulted in homology models of the monoamine transporters. Here we present extended molecular dynamics simulations of an experimentally supported homology model of hSERT with and without the natural substrate yielding a total of more than 1.5 µs of simulation of the protein dimer....... The simulations reveal a transition of hSERT from an outward-facing occluded conformation to an inward-facing conformation in a one-substrate-bound state. Simulations with a second substrate in the proposed symport effector site did not lead to conformational changes associated with translocation. The central...... substrate binding site becomes fully exposed to the cytoplasm leaving both the Na+-ion in the Na2-site and the substrate in direct contact with the cytoplasm through water interactions. The simulations reveal how sodium is released and show indications of early events of substrate transport. The notion...

  18. Southern State Radiological Transportation Emergency Response Training Course Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is an interstate compact organization that serves 16 states and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico with information and analysis in energy and environmental matters. Nuclear waste management is a topic that has garnered considerable attention in the SSEB region in the last several years. Since 1985, SSEB has received support from the US Department of Energy for the regional analysis of high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. In the performance of its work in this area, SSEB formed the Advisory Committee on High-Level Radioactive Materials Transportation, which comprises representatives from impacted states and tribes. SSEB meets with the committee semi-annually to provide issue updates to members and to solicit their views on activities impacting their respective states. Among the waste transportation issues considered by SSEB and the committee are shipment routing, the impacts of monitored retrievable storage, state liability in the event of an accident and emergency preparedness and response. This document addresses the latter by describing the radiological emergency response training courses and programs of the southern states, as well as federal courses available outside the southern region

  19. SUSD, Sensitivity and Uncertainty in Neutron Transport and Detector Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Lazuo; Kondo, Shunsuke; Oka, Yoshika

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SUSD calculates sensitivity coefficients for one and two-dimensional transport problems. Variance and standard deviation of detector responses or design parameters can be obtained using cross-section covariance matrices. In neutron transport problems, this code is able to perform sensitivity-uncertainty analysis for secondary angular distribution (SAD) or secondary energy distribution (SED). 2 - Method of solution: The first-order perturbation theory is used to obtain sensitivity coefficients. The method described in the distributed report is employed to consider SAD/SED effect. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Variable dimension is used so that there is no limitation in each array size but the total core size

  20. Identification and Analysis of NaHCO3 Stress Responsive Genes in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Roots by RNA-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil alkalinity is a major abiotic constraint to crop productivity and quality. Wild soybean (Glycine soja is considered to be more stress-tolerant than cultivated soybean (G. max, and has considerable genetic variation for increasing alkalinity tolerance of soybean. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome profile in the roots of an alkalinity tolerant wild soybean variety N24852 at 12 and 24 h after 90 mM NaHCO3 stress by RNA-sequencing. Compared with the controls, a total of 449 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified, including 95 and 140 up-regulated genes, and 108 and 135 down-regulated genes at 12 and 24 h after NaHCO3 treatment, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of 14 DEGs showed a high consistency with their expression profiles by RNA-sequencing. Gene Ontology (GO terms related to transcription factors and transporters were significantly enriched in the up-regulated genes at 12 and 24 h after NaHCO3 stress, respectively. Nuclear Factor Y subunit A (NF-YA transcription factors were enriched at 12 h after NaHCO3 stress, and high percentages of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH, ethylene-responsive factor (ERF, Trihelix and zinc finger (C2H2, C3H transcription factors were found at both 12 and 24 h after NaHCO3 stress. Genes related to ion transporters such as ABC transporter, aluminum activated malate transporter (ALMT, glutamate receptor (GLR, nitrate transporter (NRT / proton dependent oligopeptide (POT family, and S-type anion channel (SLAH were enriched in up-regulated DEGs at 24 h after NaHCO3 treatment, implying their roles in maintaining ion homeostasis in soybean roots under alkalinity. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and phenylalanine metabolism pathways might participate in soybean response to alkalinity. This study provides a foundation to further investigate the functions of NaHCO3 stress-responsive genes and the molecular basis of soybean tolerance to alkalinity.

  1. Na+,K+-ATPase amino acids involved in transport of the 3rd sodium ion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Rikke; Einholm, Anja P.; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads Schak

    Available evidence indicates that two of the three Na+ ions bound in the E1 form occupy approximately the same positions as the K+ ions in E2, but the location of the third Na+ ion is unsolved. We have previously found a marked decrease in Na+ affinity for activation of phosphorylation in the hum...

  2. Cardiac glycoside activities link Na(+)/K(+) ATPase ion-transport to breast cancer cell migration via correlative SAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magpusao, Anniefer N; Omolloh, George; Johnson, Joshua; Gascón, José; Peczuh, Mark W; Fenteany, Gabriel

    2015-02-20

    The cardiac glycosides ouabain and digitoxin, established Na(+)/K(+) ATPase inhibitors, were found to inhibit MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration through an unbiased chemical genetics screen for cell motility. The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase acts both as an ion-transporter and as a receptor for cardiac glycosides. To delineate which function is related to breast cancer cell migration, structure-activity relationship (SAR) profiles of cardiac glycosides were established at the cellular (cell migration inhibition), molecular (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase inhibition), and atomic (computational docking) levels. The SAR of cardiac glycosides and their analogs revealed a similar profile, a decrease in potency when the parent cardiac glycoside structure was modified, for each activity investigated. Since assays were done at the cellular, molecular, and atomic levels, correlation of SAR profiles across these multiple assays established links between cellular activity and specific protein-small molecule interactions. The observed antimigratory effects in breast cancer cells are directly related to the inhibition of Na(+)/K(+) transport. Specifically, the orientation of cardiac glycosides at the putative cation permeation path formed by transmembrane helices αM1-M6 correlates with the Na(+) pump activity and cell migration. Other Na(+)/K(+) ATPase inhibitors that are structurally distinct from cardiac glycosides also exhibit antimigratory activity, corroborating the conclusion that the antiport function of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and not the receptor function is important for supporting the motility of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Correlative SAR can establish new relationships between specific biochemical functions and higher-level cellular processes, particularly for proteins with multiple functions and small molecules with unknown or various modes of action.

  3. Competition is the basis of the transport mechanism of the NhaB Na+/H+ exchanger from Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyer Patiño-Ruiz

    Full Text Available Na+/H+ exchange is essential for survival of all organisms, having a role in the regulation of the intracellular Na+ concentration, pH and cell volume. Furthermore, Na+/H+ exchangers were shown to be involved in the virulence of the bacterium Yersinia pestis, indicating they might be potential targets for novel antibiotic treatments. The model system for Na+/H+ exchangers is the NhaA transporter from Escherichia coli, EcNhaA. Therefore, the general transport mechanism of NhaA exchangers is currently well characterized. However, much less is known about NhaB exchangers, with only a limited number of studies available. The pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae, which is a major source of nosocomial infection, possesses three electrogenic Na+/H+ exchangers, KpNhaA1, KpNhaA2 and KpNhaB, none of which have been previously investigated. Our aim in this study was to functionally characterize KpNhaB using solid supported membrane-based electrophysiology as the main investigation technique, and thus provide the first electrophysiological investigation of an NhaB Na+/H+ exchanger. We found that NhaB can be described by the same competition-based mechanism that was shown to be valid for electrogenic NhaA and NapA, and for electroneutral NhaP Na+/H+ exchangers. For comparison we also characterized the activity of KpNhaA1 and KpNhaA2 and found that the three exchangers have complementary activity profiles, which is likely a survival advantage for K. pneumoniae when faced with environments of different salinity and pH. This underlines their importance as potential antibiotic drug targets.

  4. Serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphisms modify the association between paroxetine serotonin transporter occupancy and clinical response in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruhé, Henricus G.; Ooteman, Wendy; Booij, Jan; Michel, Martin C.; Moeton, Martina; Baas, Frank; Schene, Aart H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In major depressive disorder, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors target the serotonin transporter (SERT). Their response rates (30-50%) are modified by SERT promotor polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR). OBJECTIVES: To quantify the relationship between SERT occupancy and response, and whether

  5. Response of Eucalyptus occidentais to water stress induced by NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, C.

    1978-01-01

    Eucalyptus occidentalis plants were exposed to NaCl in their culture solution for various time. Determination of cytokinin, abscisic acid, /sup 14/C leucine incorporation of E. occidentalis, a xerophyte, does not differ from the response of mesophytes to such treatments. 13 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  6. Growth responses of NaCl stressed rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... Growth responses of NaCl stressed rice (Oryza sativa. L.) plants ... 2008), which is a real threat to human's food security. Existed situation may ..... content and composition of essential oil and minerals in black cumin. (Nigella ...

  7. Massively parallel performance of neutron transport response matrix algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanebutte, U.R.; Lewis, E.E.

    1993-01-01

    Massively parallel red/black response matrix algorithms for the solution of within-group neutron transport problems are implemented on the Connection Machines-2, 200 and 5. The response matrices are dericed from the diamond-differences and linear-linear nodal discrete ordinate and variational nodal P 3 approximations. The unaccelerated performance of the iterative procedure is examined relative to the maximum rated performances of the machines. The effects of processor partitions size, of virtual processor ratio and of problems size are examined in detail. For the red/black algorithm, the ratio of inter-node communication to computing times is found to be quite small, normally of the order of ten percent or less. Performance increases with problems size and with virtual processor ratio, within the memeory per physical processor limitation. Algorithm adaptation to courser grain machines is straight-forward, with total computing time being virtually inversely proportional to the number of physical processors. (orig.)

  8. Ontario Hydro's transportation of radioactive material and emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmali, N.

    1993-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has been transporting radioactive material for almost 30 years without any exposure to the public or release to the environment. However, there have been three accidents involving Hydro's shipments of radioactive material. In addition to the quality packaging and shipping program, Ontario Hydro has an Emergency Response Plan and capability to deal with an accident involving a shipment of radioactive material. The Corporation's ability to respond, to effectively control and contain the situation, site remediation, and to provide emergency public information in the event of a road accident minimizes the risk to the public and the environment. This emphasizes their commitment to worker safety, public safety and impact to the environment. Response capability is mandated under various legislation and regulations in Canada

  9. Plant Defensins NaD1 and NaD2 Induce Different Stress Response Pathways in Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Dracatos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicotiana alata defensins 1 and 2 (NaD1 and NaD2 are plant defensins from the ornamental tobacco that have antifungal activity against a variety of fungal pathogens. Some plant defensins interact with fungal cell wall O-glycosylated proteins. Therefore, we investigated if this was the case for NaD1 and NaD2, by assessing the sensitivity of the three Aspergillus nidulans (An O-mannosyltransferase (pmt knockout (KO mutants (An∆pmtA, An∆pmtB, and An∆pmtC. An∆pmtA was resistant to both defensins, while An∆pmtC was resistant to NaD2 only, suggesting NaD1 and NaD2 are unlikely to have a general interaction with O-linked side chains. Further evidence of this difference in the antifungal mechanism was provided by the dissimilarity of the NaD1 and NaD2 sensitivities of the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol signalling knockout mutants from the cell wall integrity (CWI and high osmolarity glycerol (HOG mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. HOG pathway mutants were sensitive to both NaD1 and NaD2, while CWI pathway mutants only displayed sensitivity to NaD2.

  10. Response of saliva Na/K ratio to changing Na supply of lactating cows under tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, Wandee; Schonewille, J Thomas; Verstegen, Martin Wa; Arsawakulsudhi, Supot; Rukkwamsuk, Theera; Hendriks, Wouter H

    BACKGROUND: Factorial determination of the sodium (Na) requirement of heat-stressed lactating cows is hindered by accurate estimates of the Na losses through sweat. Direct studies, therefore, may be needed requiring information on the time course of healthy animals to become Na depleted and the

  11. Response of saliva Na/K ratio to changing Na supply of lactating cows under tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, Wandee; Schonewille, Thomas J.; Verstegen, Martin W.A.; Arsawakulsudhi, Supot; Rukkwamsuk, Theera; Hendriks, Wouter H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factorial determination of the sodium (Na) requirement of heat-stressed lactating cows is hindered by accurate estimates of the Na losses through sweat. Direct studies, therefore, may be needed requiring information on the time course of healthy animals to become Na depleted and the

  12. A method for synthesizing response functions of NaI detectors to gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sie, S.H.

    1978-08-01

    A simple method of parametrizing the response function of NaI detectors to gamma rays is described, based on decomposition of the pulse-height spectrum into components associated with the actual detection processes. Smooth dependence of the derived parameters on the gamma-ray energy made it possible to generate a lineshape for any gamma-ray energy by suitable interpolation techniques. The method is applied in analysis of spectra measured with a 7.6 x 7.6 cm NaI detector in continuum gamma-ray study following (HI,xn) reaction

  13. Acute hypotension induced by aortic clamp vs. PTH provokes distinct proximal tubule Na+ transporter redistribution patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Patrick K K; Yang, Li E; Lin, Harrison W

    2004-01-01

    . This study aimed to determine the effects of acute hypotension, induced by aortic clamp or by high-dose PTH (100 microg PTH/kg), on renal hemodynamics and proximal tubule Na/H exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and type IIa Na-P(i) cotransporter protein (NaPi2) distribution. Subcellular distribution was analyzed...... clearance. There was, however, no significant change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or subcellular distribution of NHE3 and NaPi2. In contrast, high-dose PTH rapidly (

  14. Comparative sodium transport patterns provide clues for understanding salinity and metal responses in aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibener, S A; Richardi, V S; Buchwalter, D B

    2016-02-01

    The importance of insects in freshwater ecosystems has led to their extensive use in ecological monitoring programs. As freshwater systems are increasingly challenged by salinization and metal contamination, it is important to understand fundamental aspects of aquatic insect physiology (e.g., osmoregulatory processes) that contribute to insect responses to these stressors. Here we compared the uptake dynamics of Na as NaCl, NaHCO3 and Na2SO4 in the caddisfly Hydropsyche betteni across a range of Na concentrations (0.06-15.22 mM) encompassing the vast majority of North American freshwater ecosystems. Sulfate as the major anion resulted in decreased Na uptake rates relative to the chloride and bicarbonate salts. A comparison of Na (as NaHCO3) turnover rates in the caddisfly Hydropsyche sparna and the mayfly Maccaffertium sp. revealed different patterns in the 2 species. Both species appeared to tightly regulate their whole body sodium concentrations (at ∼47±1.8 μmol/g wet wt) across a range of Na concentrations (0.06-15.22 mM) over 7 days. However, at the highest Na concentration (15.22 mM), Na uptake rates in H. sparna (419.1 μM Na g(-1) hr(-1) wet wt) appeared close to saturation while Na uptake rates in Maccaffertium sp. were considerably faster (715 g μM Na g(-1) hr(-1) wet wt) and appeared to not be close to saturation. Na efflux studies in H. sparna revealed that loss rates are commensurate with uptake rates and are responsive to changes in water Na concentrations. A comparison of Na uptake rates (at 0.57 mM Na) across 9 species representing 4 major orders (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Diptera) demonstrated profound physiological differences across species after accounting for the influence of body weight. Faster Na uptake rates were associated with species described as being sensitive to salinization in field studies. The metals silver (Ag) and copper (Cu), known to be antagonistic to Na uptake in other aquatic taxa did not generally

  15. AtCCX1 transports Na + and K + in Pitch pastoris | Chen | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compartmentation of Na+ into vacuoles is an important way for cells to avoid the toxic effects of salt. Here, Arabidopsis AtCCX1 was studied in Pitch pastoris GS115. Yeast expressing AtCCX1 grew better in high H+ concentration medium and high salt medium than original strain and increased Na+ accumulation and ...

  16. AtCCX1 transports Na and K in Pitch pastoris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... in high H+ concentration medium and high salt medium than original strain and increased Na+ ... Na+ content in yeast cells; GAtCCX1, the Pitch pastoris GS115 .... To investigate substrates of AtCCX1, ICP-MS analysis.

  17. Cation Transport Coupled to ATP Hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase: An Integrated, Animated Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Francisco A.; Furriel, Rosa P. M.; McNamara, John C.; Horisberger, Jean D.; Borin, Ivana A.

    2010-01-01

    An Adobe[R] animation is presented for use in undergraduate Biochemistry courses, illustrating the mechanism of Na[superscript +] and K[superscript +] translocation coupled to ATP hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase, a P[subscript 2c]-type ATPase, or ATP-powered ion pump that actively translocates cations across plasma membranes. The enzyme is also…

  18. Cortisol awakening response in drug-naïve panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakuszkowiak-Wojten K

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Katarzyna Jakuszkowiak-Wojten, Jerzy Landowski, Mariusz S Wiglusz, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland Background: It is unclear whether hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis is involved in the pathophysiology of panic disorder (PD. The findings remain inconsistent. Cortisol awakening response (CAR is a noninvasive biomarker of stress system activity. We designed the study to assess CAR in drug-naïve PD patients.   Materials and methods: We assessed CAR in 14 psychotropic drug-naïve outpatients with PD and 14 healthy controls. The severity of PD was assessed with Panic and Agoraphobia Scale. The severity of anxiety and depression was screened with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.   Results: No significant difference in CAR between PD patients and control group was found. No correlations were observed between CAR and anxiety severity measures in PD patients and controls.   Limitations: The number of participating subjects was relatively small, and the study results apply to nonsuicidal drug-naïve PD patients without agoraphobia and with short-illness duration. There was a lack of control on subjects’ compliance with the sampling instructions.  Conclusion: The study provides no support for elevated CAR levels in drug-naïve PD patients without agoraphobia. Keywords: panic disorder, PD, CAR, cortisol awakening response, HPA axis, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

  19. Transport and microstructural phenomena in bentonite clay with respect to the behavior and influence of Na, Cu, and U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Karnland, O.; Muurinen, A.

    1989-12-01

    MX-80 Na smectite clay, essentially consisting of montmorillonite, was investigated with respect to major transport properties and rheological behavior. Duffison and percolation tests using sodium, copper, and uranium solutions were conducted both at room temperature and at 90deg C. The diffusion tests showed that Na migrates very rapidly by pore and surface diffusion. Cu appears to migrate at the same rate as many other cations, the major diffusion mechanism being surface diffusion. Cu tends to replace initially sorbed Na and exchangeable protons and charges the clay to yield 'Cu-bentonite' even on contacting the clay with rather dilute solutions (100 ppm Cu). Uranium was found to migrate approximately as Cu but precipitation of Na- or Ca U compounds forming a front zone appeared to be a rate-controlling mechanism. Thus, the diffusion profile had a very steep front, identified also by a SEM/EDX investigation. This indicates that the rate of advancement of the front is determined by the reaction rate. Although not being a true diffusion process, it can approximately be regarded as one, the coefficient of diffusion being 10-100 times lower than that of Cu. Behind the high concentration front, the clay becomes fully charged with U to form a 'U-bentonite' even at low concentration of the uranium solution (100 ppm U). The percolation and rheological investigations showed only moderate influence on the hydraulic conductivity and creep properties by an increased Na content (10000 ppm) or partial uptake by Cu or U. Considerable differences were found between samples investigated at room temperature and at 90deg C (effect of cementation). The microstructure was concluded to control a number of practically important physical properties. It determines the hydraulic conductivity and the rheological behaviour, and it has a very substantial influence on diffusive transport of ions in the porewater. (orig.)

  20. Stretch-dependent slow force response in isolated rabbit myocardium is Na+ dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lewinski, Dirk; Stumme, Burkhard; Maier, Lars S; Luers, Claus; Bers, Donald M; Pieske, Burkert

    2003-03-15

    Stretch induces functional and trophic effects in mammalian myocardium via various signal transduction pathways. We tested stretch signal transduction on immediate and slow force response (SFR) in rabbit myocardium. Experiments were performed in isolated right ventricular muscles from adult rabbit hearts (37 degrees C, 1 Hz stimulation rate, bicarbonate-buffer). Muscles were rapidly stretched from 88% of optimal length (L88) to near optimal length (L98) for functional analysis. The resulting immediate and slow increases in twitch force (first phase and SFR, respectively) were assessed at reduced [Na+]o or without and with blockade of stretch activated ion channels (SACs), angiotensin-II (AT1) receptors, endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptors, Na+/H+-exchange (NHE1), reverse mode Na+/Ca2+-exchange (NCX), or Na+/K+-ATPase. The effects of stretch on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-load were characterized using rapid cooling contractures (RCCs). Intracellular pH was measured in BCECF-AM loaded muscles, and action potential duration (APD) was assessed using floating electrodes. On average, force increased to 216+/-8% of the pre-stretch value during the immediate phase, followed by a further increase to 273+/-10% during the SFR (n=81). RCCs significantly increased during SFR, whereas pH and APD did not change. Neither inhibition of SACs, AT1, or ET(A) receptors affected the stretch-dependent immediate phase nor SFR. In contrast, SFR was reduced by NHE inhibition and almost completely abolished by reduced [Na+]o or inhibition of reverse-mode NCX, whereas increased SFR was seen after raising [Na+]i by Na+/K+-ATPase inhibition. The data demonstrate the existence of a delayed, Na+- and Ca2+-dependent but pH and APD independent SFR to stretch in rabbit myocardium. This inotropic response appears to be independent of autocrine/paracrine AT1 or ET(A) receptor activation, but mediated through stretch-induced activation of NHE and reverse mode NCX.

  1. Planning and Preparing for Emergency Response to Transport Accidents Involving Radioactive Material. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides guidance on various aspects of emergency planning and preparedness for dealing effectively and safely with transport accidents involving radioactive material, including the assignment of responsibilities. It reflects the requirements specified in Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, and those of Safety Series No. 115, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Framework for planning and preparing for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; 3. Responsibilities for planning and preparing for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; 4. Planning for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; 5. Preparing for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; Appendix I: Features of the transport regulations influencing emergency response to transport accidents; Appendix II: Preliminary emergency response reference matrix; Appendix III: Guide to suitable instrumentation; Appendix IV: Overview of emergency management for a transport accident involving radioactive material; Appendix V: Examples of response to transport accidents; Appendix VI: Example equipment kit for a radiation protection team; Annex I: Example of guidance on emergency response to carriers; Annex II: Emergency response guide.

  2. Characterization of sodium transport in Acholeplasma laidlawii B cells and in lipid vesicles containing purified A. laidlawii (Na+-Mg2+)-ATPase by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and 22Na tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, S.; Lewis, R.N.; George, R.; Sykes, B.D.; McElhaney, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    The active transport of sodium ions in live Acholeplasma laidlawii B cells and in lipid vesicles containing the (Na+-Mg2+)-ATPase from the plasma membrane of this microorganism was studied by 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and 22 Na tracer techniques, respectively. In live A. laidlawii B cells, the transport of sodium was an active process in which metabolic energy was harnessed for the extrusion of sodium ions against a concentration gradient. The process was inhibited by low temperatures and by the formation of gel state lipid in the plasma membrane of this organism. In reconstituted proteoliposomes containing the purified (Na+-Mg2+)-ATPase, the hydrolysis of ATP was accompanied by the transport of sodium ions into the lipid vesicles, and the transport process was impaired by reagents known to inhibit ATPase activity. At the normal growth temperature (37 degrees C), this transport process required a maximum of 1 mol of ATP per mol of sodium ion transported. Together, these results provide direct experimental evidence that the (Na+-Mg2+)-ATPase of the Acholeplasma laidlawii B membrane is the cation pump which maintains the low levels of intracellular sodium characteristic of this microorganism

  3. Plasmodesmos: transporte simplástico de herbicidas na planta Plasmodesmata: symplastic transport of herbicides within the plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Concenço

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodesmos são canais responsáveis pela conexão citoplasmática entre células vizinhas, possibilitando a troca de moléculas de informação, funcionais, estruturais ou ainda de xenobióticos entre as células pertencentes a um mesmo grupo. Células pertencentes ao mesmo conjunto (domínio constituem-se numa unidade funcional, e substâncias podem se mover entre estas células com velocidade muito superior à observada no transporte através de membranas. Os plasmodesmos podem atuar ainda no transporte a longa distância, tanto pela associação com o floema como pelo intercâmbio entre domínios simplásticos. Quando a planta se encontra sob estresse e as taxas de transporte via xilema e floema são mais reduzidas, os plasmodesmos podem ser mais efetivos no transporte a longa distância, das moléculas de herbicidas sistêmicos. Falta ainda esclarecer se existe afinidade entre moléculas de determinados herbicidas com as proteínas da superfície interna dos plasmodesmos, o que poderia facilitar o transporte desses herbicidas pela manipulação do Tamanho Limite de Exclusão do plasmodesmo, independentemente do tamanho da molécula, bem como determinar se a semelhança com algum composto natural da planta promove maior taxa de transporte simplástico. Pouca importância tem sido dada à participação dos plasmodesmos no transporte de herbicidas sistêmicos. No entanto, o avanço dos trabalhos com produtos marcados e a intensificação das pesquisas em fisiologia vegetal para melhor entendimento dos processos referentes à absorção, translocação, conjugação e/ou degradação de herbicidas podem esclarecer muitos aspectos ainda não definidos do transporte de herbicidas via xilema e floema e sua associação com o apoplasto e domínios simplásticos.Plasmodesmata are plasma channels connecting neighboring cells and allowing the exchange of informational, functional and structural molecules and xenobiotics among cells of the same

  4. Cell kinetics of differentiation of Na+-dependent hexose transport in a cultured renal epithelial cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.S.; Weiss, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    Fully differentiated cells of the renal proximal tubule have the capability of taking up hexoses across their apical borders by transport coupled to the Na + -electrochemical gradient. This property is also found in postconfluent cultures of the cloned cell line LLC-PK 1 , a morphologically polarized line of renal cells. Postconfluent cells develop the Na + -dependent capacity to transport hexoses at their apical surface. This function is not observable during the growth phase of the cultures. To analyze the developmental process at the cellular level a method has been derived to separate transporting cells, expressing the differentiated function, from nontransporting cells. The method is based on the swelling of the cells accompanying the uptake of the nonmetabolizable glucose analog alpha methylglucoside. The swollen cells have a lower buoyant density than the undifferentiated cells and may be separated from them on density gradients. Analysis of the distribution of cells on such gradients shows that after the cells reach confluence the undifferentiated subpopulation is recruited onto the differentiation pathway with a rate constant of 0.2 per day, that 5 to 7 days are required for a cell to traverse this pathway to the fully differentiated state, and that once the maximum uptake capacity is achieved the cells do not develop further

  5. Proteomic and Physiological Analyses Reveal Putrescine Responses in Roots of Cucumber Stressed by NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major environmental constraint that threatens agricultural productivity. Different strategies have been developed to improve crop salt tolerance, among which the effects of polyamines have been well reported. To gain a better understanding of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. responses to NaCl and unravel the underlying mechanism of exogenous putrescine (Put alleviating salt-induced damage, comparative proteomic analysis was conducted on cucumber roots treated with NaCl and/or Put for 7 days. The results showed that exogenous Put restored the root growth inhibited by NaCl. 62 differentially expressed proteins implicated in various biological processes were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The four largest categories included proteins involved in defense response (24.2%, protein metabolism (24.2%, carbohydrate metabolism (19.4% and amino acid metabolism (14.5%. Exogenous Put up-regulated most identified proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, implying an enhancement in energy generation. Proteins involved in defense response and protein metabolism were differently regulated by Put, which indicated the roles of Put in stress resistance and proteome rearrangement. Put also increased the abundance of proteins involved in amino acid metabolism. Meanwhile, physiological analysis showed that Put could further up-regulated the levels of free amino acids in salt stressed-roots. In addition, Put also improved endogenous polyamines contents by regulating the transcription levels of key enzymes in polyamine metabolism. Taken together, these results suggest that Put may alleviate NaCl-induced growth inhibition through degradation of misfolded/damaged proteins, activation of stress defense, and the promotion of carbohydrate metabolism to generate more energy.

  6. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid (System N/A) transporters of the SLC38 gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Bryan; Erickson, Jeffrey D

    2004-02-01

    The sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNAT) of the SLC38 gene family resemble the classically-described System A and System N transport activities in terms of their functional properties and patterns of regulation. Transport of small, aliphatic amino acids by System A subtypes (SNAT1, SNAT2, and SNAT4) is rheogenic and pH sensitive. The System N subtypes SNAT3 and SNAT5 also countertransport H(+), which may be key to their operation in reverse, and have narrower substrate profiles than do the System A subtypes. Glutamine emerges as a favored substrate throughout the family, except for SNAT4. The SLC38 transporters undoubtedly play many physiological roles including the transfer of glutamine from astrocyte to neuron in the CNS, ammonia detoxification and gluconeogenesis in the liver, and the renal response to acidosis. Probing their regulation has revealed additional roles, and recent work has considered SLC38 transporters as therapeutic targets in neoplasia.

  7. Effects of thyroid hormone on Na+-K+ transport in resting and stimulated rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everts, M.E.; Clausen, T.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of hypothyroidism and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ) treatment on passive Na + -K + fluxes and Na + -K + pump concentration were investigated in isolated rat muscle. Within 12 h after a single dose of T 3 (20 μg/100 g body wt), K + efflux had increased by 21% in soleus and by 20% in extensor digitorum longus muscle. In the presence of ouabain, even larger effects were observed. These changes were associated with a 12% rise in amiloride-suppressible Na + influx but no significant increase in [ 3 H]ouabain binding site concentration. After 3 days of T 3 treatment, the stimulating effect on K + efflux and Na + influx in soleus reached a plateau ∼80 and 40% above control levels, respectively, whereas the maximum increase in [ 3 H]ouabain binding site concentration (103%) was only fully developed after 8 days. Hypothyroidism decreased 86 Rb efflux by 30%. The efflux of K + and the influx of Na + per contraction (both ∼7 nmol/g wet wt) as well as the net loss of K + induced by electrical stimulation were unaffected by T 3 treatment. The rise in resting K + efflux after 12-24 h of T 3 treatment could be partly blocked by dantrolene or trifluoroperazine, indicating that an increase in the cytoplasmic Ca 2+ concentration may contribute to the early rise in K + efflux. It is concluded that the early rise in the resting passive leaks of Na + and K + induced by T 3 is a major driving force for Na + -K + pump synthesis

  8. Oregon Pupil Transportation Manual. Revised Regulations and Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Designed for use by Oregon school bus drivers and administrators, this manual answers common questions about school bus transportation in Oregon, including those about the laws governing pupil transportation, the regulations governing pupil transportation administration, and the laws on school bus operation. A chapter of advisory materials covers…

  9. Physiological responses of food animals to road transportation stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing demand in proteins to feed the ever-growing world population has necessitated the industrialization and transportation of livestock using different means of transportation across several ecological zones with different climatic conditions. The stress factors acting on animals during road transportation are ...

  10. Application of the Na+ recirculation theory to ion coupled water transport in low- and high resistance osmoregulatory epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Møbjerg, Nadja; Nielsen, Robert

    2007-01-01

    approaches: (i) An isotope tracer method in small intestine. Simultaneous measurement of water flow and ion transport in toad skin epithelium demonstrating, (ii) occasional hyposmotic absorbates, and (iii) reduced fluid absorption in the presence of serosal bumetanide. (iv) Studies of the metabolic cost......, the residual hydraulic permeability in proximal tubule of AQP1(-/-) mice, the adverse relationship between hydraulic permeability and the concentration difference needed to reverse transepithelial water flow, and in a non-contradictory way the wide range of metabolic efficiencies from above to below 18 Na+/O2...

  11. Análise de impactos socioambientais da infra-estrutura de transporte na Bacia do Purus-AM.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Leandro Gumiero Jaime

    2008-01-01

    A bacia do rio Purus, na Amazônia Ocidental, apesar de figurar como uma das menos antropizadas bacias da margem direita do complexo Solimões-Amazonas, já apresenta pontos de impacto antrópico associado à expansão da fronteira agropecuária. Tal impacto tem no estabelecimento da infra-estrutura de transportes seu principal eixo de avanço. Foi feita a simulação de alguns trechos de rodovias interligando municípios correspondente ao médio Purus (conforme designação proposta por SOUSA JÚNIOR et al...

  12. Regulation of renal Na+-K-ATPase in the rat: role of increased potassium transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujais, S.K.; Chekal, M.A.; Hayslett, J.P.; Katz, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the alterations in collecting tubule Na + -K + -ATPase activity produced by sustained increments in dietary potassium in the rat and to evaluate the role of aldosterone in their generation. In adrenal-intact animals, feeding a high-potassium diet or administration of a high physiological dose of aldosterone, which simulates the delivery rate of this hormone during potassium loading, caused marked increments in Na + -K + -ATPase activity in the cortical collecting tubule (CCT) but had no effect on the enzyme in the inner stripe of the medullary collecting tubule (MCT). A significant increase in enzyme activity was also observed after smaller dietary potassium increments and after 4 days of dietary potassium load. In adrenalectomized rats provided with physiological replacement doses of corticosterone and aldosterone, Na + -K + -ATPase activity in both CCT and MCT was similar to that of adrenal-intact controls but remained unchanged after 7 days on the potassium-enriched (10-fold) diet. In contrast, adrenalectomized animals receiving the high physiological dose of aldosterone displayed an increase in Na + -K + -ATPase activity of CCT comparable with that of adrenal-intact animals, whereas the enzyme activity in the MCT was unaffected. In conclusion, 1) following chronic potassium loading Na + -K + -ATPase activity increases significantly in the CCT with no change in its activity in the inner stripe of the MCT; 2) this increase in enzyme activity occurs in a time-dependent fashion and in proportion to the potassium load; and 3) the stimulation of Na + -K + -ATPase activity in adrenal-replaced rats is facilitated by augmented levels of aldosterone, such as those actually observed in adrenal-intact rats subjected to chronic potassium loading

  13. Regulation of renal Na -K-ATPase in the rat: role of increased potassium transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mujais, S.K.; Chekal, M.A.; Hayslett, J.P.; Katz, A.I.

    1986-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the alterations in collecting tubule Na -K -ATPase activity produced by sustained increments in dietary potassium in the rat and to evaluate the role of aldosterone in their generation. In adrenal-intact animals, feeding a high-potassium diet or administration of a high physiological dose of aldosterone, which simulates the delivery rate of this hormone during potassium loading, caused marked increments in Na -K -ATPase activity in the cortical collecting tubule (CCT) but had no effect on the enzyme in the inner stripe of the medullary collecting tubule (MCT). A significant increase in enzyme activity was also observed after smaller dietary potassium increments and after 4 days of dietary potassium load. In adrenalectomized rats provided with physiological replacement doses of corticosterone and aldosterone, Na -K -ATPase activity in both CCT and MCT was similar to that of adrenal-intact controls but remained unchanged after 7 days on the potassium-enriched (10-fold) diet. In contrast, adrenalectomized animals receiving the high physiological dose of aldosterone displayed an increase in Na -K -ATPase activity of CCT comparable with that of adrenal-intact animals, whereas the enzyme activity in the MCT was unaffected. In conclusion, 1) following chronic potassium loading Na -K -ATPase activity increases significantly in the CCT with no change in its activity in the inner stripe of the MCT; 2) this increase in enzyme activity occurs in a time-dependent fashion and in proportion to the potassium load; and 3) the stimulation of Na -K -ATPase activity in adrenal-replaced rats is facilitated by augmented levels of aldosterone, such as those actually observed in adrenal-intact rats subjected to chronic potassium loading.

  14. Norepinephrine transporter inhibition alters the hemodynamic response to hypergravitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strempel, Sebastian; Schroeder, Christoph; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Boese, Andrea; Tank, Jens; Diedrich, André; Heer, Martina; Luft, Friedrich C; Jordan, Jens

    2008-03-01

    Sympathetically mediated tachycardia and vasoconstriction maintain blood pressure during hypergravitational stress, thereby preventing gravitation-induced loss of consciousness. Norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibition prevents neurally mediated (pre)syncope during gravitational stress imposed by head-up tilt testing. Thus it seems reasonable that NET inhibition could increase tolerance to hypergravitational stress. We performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study in 11 healthy men (26 +/- 1 yr, body mass index 24 +/- 1 kg/m2), who ingested the selective NET inhibitor reboxetine (4 mg) or matching placebo 25, 13, and 1 h before testing on separate days. We monitored heart rate, blood pressure, and thoracic impedance in three different body positions (supine, seated, standing) and during a graded centrifuge run (incremental steps of 0.5 g for 3 min each, up to a maximal vertical acceleration load of 3 g). NET inhibition increased supine blood pressure and heart rate. With placebo, blood pressure increased in the seated position and was well maintained during standing. However, with NET inhibition, blood pressure decreased in the seated and standing position. During hypergravitation, blood pressure increased in a graded fashion with placebo. With NET inhibition, the increase in blood pressure during hypergravitation was profoundly diminished. Conversely, the tachycardic responses to sitting, standing, and hypergravitation all were greatly increased with NET inhibition. In contrast to our expectation, short-term NET inhibition did not improve tolerance to hypergravitation. Redistribution of sympathetic activity to the heart or changes in baroreflex responses could explain the excessive tachycardia that we observed.

  15. Purinergic receptors stimulate Na+/Ca2+ exchange in pancreatic duct cells: possible role of proteins handling and transporting Ca2+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette R; Krabbe, Simon; Ankorina-Stark, Ieva

    2009-01-01

    ). Since NCX can also be connected with epithelial Ca(2+) transport, we also investigated expression of some Ca(2+)-handling/transporting proteins. Expression analysis revealed that pancreatic ducts of rat and human duct cell line CFPAC-1 (also PANC-1 and Capan-1) express the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (splice...

  16. Ion transport in Au doped/undoped KDP crystals with KI/NaI as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    information regarding the mobility and production of lattice defects in these materials. ... volume of tetra-auro chloric acid solution to the mixture of KDP and KI/NaI. .... two hydrogen at one end and an H bond with no hydro- gen at the other end.

  17. Tyrosine transport in winter flounder intestine: Interaction with Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musch, M.W.; McConnell, F.M.; Goldstein, L.; Field, M.

    1987-01-01

    Tyrosine absorption across the brush border of the intestinal epithelium of the winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus was studied in Ussing chambers modified to determine early rates of uptake. At 0.1 mM tyrosine, the 4-min rate of uptake (influx) of tyrosine across the brush border averaged 37.5 nmol·cm -2 ·h -1 . Omission of Na decreased influx by 60%, indicting that tyrosine influx occurs, at least in part, by a Na-coupled process. Ouabain inhibited influx by 80%. Inhibition of brush border Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransport by bumetanide, 8-bromo-cyclic GMP, or Cl replacement stimulated tyrosine influx 2.5- to 4-fold. However, atriopeptin III, which also inhibits Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransport, did not stimulate tyrosine influx. Cyclic AMP, which does not appear to inhibit ion cotransport, did not stimulate tyrosine influx. Both cyclic GMP and bumetanide also stimulated the net mucosa-to-serosa tyrosine flux (43 and 29%, respectively) and increased the cellular concentration of tyrosine by 50%. Thus tyrosine's influx is increased to a greater extent than is its transmural flux or its cellular concentration, suggesting that the main change occurs at the brush border and represents large increases in both influx and efflux of tyrosine across this membrane

  18. Interactions of [14C]phosphonoformic acid with renal cortical brush-border membranes. Relationship to the Na+-phosphate co-transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczepanska-Konkel, M.; Yusufi, A.N.; Dousa, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Since phosphonoformic acid (PFA) acts as a specific competitive inhibitor of Na+-Pi co-transport across renal brush-border membrane (BBM), we employed the [ 14 C]PFA as a probe to determine the mechanism of its interaction with rat renal BBM. The binding of [ 14 C]PFA to BBM vesicles (BBMV), with Na+ present in extravesicular medium (Na+o), was time- and temperature-dependent. The replacement of Na+o with other monovalent cations reduced the PFA binding by -80%. Cl- was the most effective accompanying monovalent anion as NaCl for maximum PFA binding. The Na+o increased the apparent affinity of BBMV for [ 14 C]PFA binding, but it did not change the maximum binding capacity. The maximum [ 14 C]PFA binding was achieved at Na+o approximately equal to 50 mM. The extent of Na+-dependent [ 14 C]PFA binding correlated with percent inhibition by an equimolar dose of PFA of the dependent BBMV uptake of 32Pi. Intravesicular Na+ (Na+i) decreased [ 14 C]PFA binding, on BBMV, and this inhibition by Na+i was dependent on the presence of Na+o. The increase in Na+i, at constant [Na+]o, decreased the Vmax, but not the Km, for [ 14 C]PFA binding on BBMV. Bound [ 14 C]PFA was displaced from BBMV by phosphonocarboxylic acids proportionally to their ability to inhibit gradient-dependent Pi transport, whereas other monophosphonates, diphosphonates, L-proline, or D-glucose did not influence the [ 14 C]PFA binding. The Na+-dependent binding of [ 14 C]PFA and of [ 3 H]phlorizin by BBMV was 10 times higher than binding of these ligands to renal basolateral membranes and to mitochondria. [ 14 C]PFA probably binds onto the same locus on the luminal surface of BBM, where Pi and Na+ form a ternary complex with the Na+-Pi co-transporter

  19. Analysis of Indicators of Corporate Responsibility in Road Freight Transport: Results of Transport Companies and FMCG Retailers in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Đuranović

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the analysis of indicators of corporate responsibility in road freight transport, with special emphasis on freight transport and delivery to Fast Moving Consumers Goods (FMCG retailers and final consumer. The main task is to rank the importance of corporate responsibility indicators in freight transport from the perspective of the management of transport companies, as well as management of retail stores. In this context, empirical research was conducted on a sample of 124 managers of transport enterprises and 181 managers of FMCG retailers in Serbia. The results showed that the impact of indicators does not depend on the region, transport company and retail store. The indicators show a statistically significant dependence on FMCG type that is being transported. The conducted analysis and achieved results are important in practice as they show to the management of transport companies which indicators should be developed, so that customers (retailers, and thus the users of final products are satisfied. Disadvantages of the existing research and suggestions for future studies are provided in the paper.

  20. Inhibition of K+ transport through Na+, K+-ATPase by capsazepine: role of membrane span 10 of the α-subunit in the modulation of ion gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmoud, Yasser A; Shattock, Michael; Cornelius, Flemming; Pavlovic, Davor

    2014-01-01

    Capsazepine (CPZ) inhibits Na+,K+-ATPase-mediated K+-dependent ATP hydrolysis with no effect on Na+-ATPase activity. In this study we have investigated the functional effects of CPZ on Na+,K+-ATPase in intact cells. We have also used well established biochemical and biophysical techniques to understand how CPZ modifies the catalytic subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase. In isolated rat cardiomyocytes, CPZ abolished Na+,K+-ATPase current in the presence of extracellular K+. In contrast, CPZ stimulated pump current in the absence of extracellular K+. Similar conclusions were attained using HEK293 cells loaded with the Na+ sensitive dye Asante NaTRIUM green. Proteolytic cleavage of pig kidney Na+,K+-ATPase indicated that CPZ stabilizes ion interaction with the K+ sites. The distal part of membrane span 10 (M10) of the α-subunit was exposed to trypsin cleavage in the presence of guanidinum ions, which function as Na+ congener at the Na+ specific site. This effect of guanidinium was amplified by treatment with CPZ. Fluorescence of the membrane potential sensitive dye, oxonol VI, was measured following addition of substrates to reconstituted inside-out Na+,K+-ATPase. CPZ increased oxonol VI fluorescence in the absence of K+, reflecting increased Na+ efflux through the pump. Surprisingly, CPZ induced an ATP-independent increase in fluorescence in the presence of high extravesicular K+, likely indicating opening of an intracellular pathway selective for K+. As revealed by the recent crystal structure of the E1.AlF4-.ADP.3Na+ form of the pig kidney Na+,K+-ATPase, movements of M5 of the α-subunit, which regulate ion selectivity, are controlled by the C-terminal tail that extends from M10. We propose that movements of M10 and its cytoplasmic extension is affected by CPZ, thereby regulating ion selectivity and transport through the K+ sites in Na+,K+-ATPase.

  1. Inhibition of K+ transport through Na+, K+-ATPase by capsazepine: role of membrane span 10 of the α-subunit in the modulation of ion gating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A Mahmmoud

    Full Text Available Capsazepine (CPZ inhibits Na+,K+-ATPase-mediated K+-dependent ATP hydrolysis with no effect on Na+-ATPase activity. In this study we have investigated the functional effects of CPZ on Na+,K+-ATPase in intact cells. We have also used well established biochemical and biophysical techniques to understand how CPZ modifies the catalytic subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase. In isolated rat cardiomyocytes, CPZ abolished Na+,K+-ATPase current in the presence of extracellular K+. In contrast, CPZ stimulated pump current in the absence of extracellular K+. Similar conclusions were attained using HEK293 cells loaded with the Na+ sensitive dye Asante NaTRIUM green. Proteolytic cleavage of pig kidney Na+,K+-ATPase indicated that CPZ stabilizes ion interaction with the K+ sites. The distal part of membrane span 10 (M10 of the α-subunit was exposed to trypsin cleavage in the presence of guanidinum ions, which function as Na+ congener at the Na+ specific site. This effect of guanidinium was amplified by treatment with CPZ. Fluorescence of the membrane potential sensitive dye, oxonol VI, was measured following addition of substrates to reconstituted inside-out Na+,K+-ATPase. CPZ increased oxonol VI fluorescence in the absence of K+, reflecting increased Na+ efflux through the pump. Surprisingly, CPZ induced an ATP-independent increase in fluorescence in the presence of high extravesicular K+, likely indicating opening of an intracellular pathway selective for K+. As revealed by the recent crystal structure of the E1.AlF4-.ADP.3Na+ form of the pig kidney Na+,K+-ATPase, movements of M5 of the α-subunit, which regulate ion selectivity, are controlled by the C-terminal tail that extends from M10. We propose that movements of M10 and its cytoplasmic extension is affected by CPZ, thereby regulating ion selectivity and transport through the K+ sites in Na+,K+-ATPase.

  2. Amino acids and carbohydrates absorption by Na+-dependent transporters in the pyloric ceca of Hoplias malabaricus (Erythrinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Vania Lucia Pimentel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about amino acids and carbohydrate absorption in fish is important to formulate an adequate diet to obtain optimal growth. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate if Na+-dependent transporters are involved on the absorption of glycine, L-glutamine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-proline, L-alanine, and the carbohydrates fructose and glucose in the pyloric ceca of Hoplias malabaricus. The pyloric ceca were mounted in a system of continuous perfusion "in vitro". Amino acids and carbohydrates were placed on the mucosal side at concentrations of 10, 20, and 40mM. The serosal side of the pyloric ceca was positive in relation to the mucosal side. The addition of glycine, L-glutamine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-proline (all tested concentrations, and glucose (at concentrations of 20 and 40mM increased the positivity of the serosal side, indicating the presence of Na+-dependent transporters in the absorption of these substances. L-alanine and fructose did not change the positivity of the serosal side. The pyloric ceca seem to be the main site of nutrient absorption in the digestive tract of H. malabaricus.

  3. Major involvement of Na(+) -dependent multivitamin transporter (SLC5A6/SMVT) in uptake of biotin and pantothenic acid by human brain capillary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yasuo; Ito, Katsuaki; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Takashi; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the expression of Na(+) -dependent multivitamin transporter (SLC5A6/SMVT) and its contribution to the supply of biotin and pantothenic acid to the human brain via the blood-brain barrier. DNA microarray and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed that SLC5A6 is expressed in microvessels of human brain. The absolute expression levels of SLC5A6 protein in isolated human and monkey brain microvessels were 1.19 and 0.597 fmol/μg protein, respectively, as determined by a quantitative targeted absolute proteomics technique. Using an antibody-free method established by Kubo et al. (2015), we found that SLC5A6 was preferentially localized at the luminal membrane of brain capillary endothelium. Knock-down analysis using SLC5A6 siRNA showed that SLC5A6 accounts for 88.7% and 98.6% of total [(3) H]biotin and [(3) H]pantothenic acid uptakes, respectively, by human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. SLC5A6-mediated transport in hCMEC/D3 was markedly inhibited not only by biotin and pantothenic acid, but also by prostaglandin E2, lipoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, indomethacin, ketoprofen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, phenylbutazone, and flurbiprofen. This study is the first to confirm expression of SLC5A6 in human brain microvessels and to provide evidence that SLC5A6 is a major contributor to luminal uptake of biotin and pantothenic acid at the human blood-brain barrier. In humans, it was unclear (not concluded) about what transport system at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is responsible for the brain uptakes of two vitamins, biotin and pantothenic acid, which are necessary for brain proper function. This study clarified for the first time that the solute carrier 5A6/Na(+) -dependent multivitamin transporter SLC5A6/SMVT is responsible for the supplies of biotin and pantothenic acid into brain across the BBB in humans. DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; PGE2, prostaglandin E2. © 2015

  4. Zymosan-induced immune challenge modifies the stress response of hypoxic air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus Bloch): Evidence for reversed patterns of cortisol and thyroid hormone interaction, differential ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simi, S; Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

    2017-09-15

    Fishes have evolved physiological mechanisms to exhibit stress response, where hormonal signals interact with an array of ion transporters and regulate homeostasis. As major ion transport regulators in fish, cortisol and thyroid hormones have been shown to interact and fine-tune the stress response. Likewise, in fishes many interactions have been identified between stress and immune components, but the physiological basis of such interaction has not yet delineated particularly in air-breathing fish. We, therefore, investigated the responses of thyroid hormones and cortisol, ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response of an obligate air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch to zymosan treatment or hypoxia stress or both, to understand how immune challenge modifies the pattern of stress response in this fish. Induction of experimental peritonitis in these fish by zymosan treatment (200ngg -1 ) for 24h produced rise in respiratory burst and lysozomal activities in head kidney phagocytes. In contrast, hypoxia stress for 30min in immune-challenged fish reversed these non-specific responses of head kidney phagocytes. The decline in plasma cortisol in zymosan-treated fish and its further suppression by hypoxia stress indicate that immune challenge suppresses the cortisol-driven stress response of this fish. Likewise, the decline in plasma T 3 and T 4 after zymosan-treatment and the rise in plasma T 4 after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish indicate a critical role for thyroid hormone in immune-stress response due to its differential sensitivity to both immune and stress challenges. Further, analysis of the activity pattern of ion-dependent ATPases viz. Na + /K + -ATPase, H + /K + -ATPase and Na + /NH 4 + -ATPase indicates a functional interaction of ion transport system with the immune response as evident in its differential and spatial modifications after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish. The immune-challenge that produced differential

  5. Internet-marketing v mezhdunarodnoi torgovle i na transporte = Internet marketing in the international trade and transport international transport corridors / Vladimir Zaitsev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zaitsev, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne 3.-4. detsembrini 2003 Tallinnas toimunud rahvusvahelisel konverents-näitusel "Logistics and transport in international trade" käsitleb Interneti rolli ja võimalusi rahvusvaheliste transporditeenuste turunduses

  6. Generation of response functions of a NaI detector by using an interpolation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Shoji

    1983-01-01

    A computer method is developed for generating response functions of a NaI detector to monoenergetic γ-rays. The method is based on an interpolation between measured response curves by a detector. The computer programs are constructed for Heath's response spectral library. The principle of the basic mathematics used for interpolation, which was reported previously by the author, et al., is that response curves can be decomposed into a linear combination of intrinsic-component patterns, and thereby the interpolation of curves is reduced to a simple interpolation of weighting coefficients needed to combine the component patterns. This technique has some advantages of data compression, reduction in computation time, and stability of the solution, in comparison with the usual functional fitting method. The processing method of segmentation of a spectrum is devised to generate useful and precise response curves. A spectral curve, obtained for each γ-ray source, is divided into some regions defined by the physical processes, such as the photopeak area, the Compton continuum area, the backscatter peak area, and so on. Each segment curve then is processed separately for interpolation. Lastly the estimated curves to the respective areas are connected on one channel scale. The generation programs are explained briefly. It is shown that the generated curve represents the overall shape of a response spectrum including not only its photopeak but also the corresponding Compton area, with a sufficient accuracy. (author)

  7. Determination of the response of a NaI(Tl) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E.; Hernandez D, V.M.; Chacon R, A.

    2006-01-01

    By means of Monte Carlo calculations it was determined the response of a scintillator of NaI (Tl) of 7.62 Φ x 7.62 cm to monoenergetic gamma rays of 0.2 to 3.5 MeV. The response allows to determine the spectra of height of pulses of the monoenergetic photons. This type of calculations was also carried out for photons emitted by sources of Cs-137, Co-60, Na-22, Na-24 and 239 PuBe, with the purpose of reproducing the gamma spectra obtained with this type of detecting. In the calculations the detector was modelled as a NaI cylinder with Al cover and the base of lucite; due to the absence of reliable information on the quantity of thallium in the calculations this information was omitted: for photons whose energy is greater to 1.022 MeV the presence of the gamma peak of the simple escape and twice is observed. The source was modelled as punctual and was located to 5 cm along the axial axis of the detector. To verify the calculations its were carried out measurements with a spectrometer with a scintillator of 7.62 Φ x 7.62 cm. In the measured spectra the sum peak is observed, while in those calculated it doesn't appear; because the simultaneous detection of photons of different energy doesn't happen each photon since, in single form, it is followed until its complete absorption in the scintillator or when it escapes from the volume of the detector. To reproduce the sum peak and to obtain height spectra of pulses similar to those measured, the sum photons were introduced in the calculations. With the purpose of that Monte Carlo calculation it reproduces the scattering around the photopeak it was used a gaussian function in each photopeak whose characteristics were obtained starting from the experimental data. The calculation of the response of a scintillator allows to establish the capacity of the measurement of the gamma radiation as well as to distinguish the real events of those that appear by the limitations of the detection process. (Author)

  8. Modeling and dynamics of the inward-facing state of a Na+/Cl- dependent neurotransmitter transporter homologue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher Afshan Shaikh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The leucine transporter (LeuT has recently commanded exceptional attention due mainly to two distinctions; it provides the only crystal structures available for a protein homologous to the pharmacologically relevant neurotransmitter: sodium symporters (NSS, and, it exhibits a hallmark 5-TM inverted repeat ("LeuT-fold", a fold recently discovered to also exist in several secondary transporter families, underscoring its general role in transporter function. Constructing the transport cycle of "LeuT-fold" transporters requires detailed structural and dynamic descriptions of the outward-facing (OF and inward-facing (IF states, as well as the intermediate states. To this end, we have modeled the structurally unknown IF state of LeuT, based on the known crystal structures of the OF state of LeuT and the IF state of vSGLT, a "LeuT-fold" transporter. The detailed methodology developed for the study combines structure-based alignment, threading, targeted MD and equilibrium MD, and can be applied to other proteins. The resulting IF-state models maintain the secondary structural features of LeuT. Water penetration and solvent accessibility calculations show that TM1, TM3, TM6 and TM8 line the substrate binding/unbinding pathway with TM10 and its pseudosymmetric partner, TM5, participating in the extracellular and intracellular halves of the lumen, respectively. We report conformational hotspots where notable changes in interactions occur between the IF and OF states. We observe Na2 exiting the LeuT-substrate- complex in the IF state, mainly due to TM1 bending. Inducing a transition in only one of the two pseudosymmetric domains, while allowing the second to respond dynamically, is found to be sufficient to induce the formation of the IF state. We also propose that TM2 and TM7 may be facilitators of TM1 and TM6 motion. Thus, this study not only presents a novel modeling methodology applied to obtain the IF state of LeuT, but also describes structural

  9. Particle transport simulation for spaceborne, NaI gamma-ray spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, C.S.; Truscott, P.R.; Sims, A.J.; Comber, C.; Hammond, N.D.A.

    1988-11-01

    Radioactivity induced in detectors by protons and secondary neutrons limits the sensitivity of spaceborne gamma-ray spectrometers. Three dimensional Monte Carlo transport codes have been employed to simulate particle transport of cosmic rays and inner-belt protons in various representations of the Gamma Ray Observatory Spacecraft and the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment. Results are used to accurately quantify the contributions to the radioactive background, assess shielding options and examine the effect of detector and space-craft orientation in anisotropic trapped proton fluxes. (author)

  10. Textured Na x CoO2 Ceramics Sintered from Hydrothermal Platelet Nanocrystals: Growth Mechanism and Transport Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Pengcheng; Wang, Yifeng; Zhu, Kongjun; Tai, Guoan; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Jing; Yan, Kang; Zhang, Jianhui

    2018-05-01

    Nanostructuring is an effective approach to improve thermoelectric (TE) performance, which is caused by the interface and quantum effects on electron and phonon transport. For a typical layered structure such as sodium cobalt (NCO), a highly textured ceramic with nanostructure is beneficial for the carrier transport properties due to the strong anisotropy. In this paper, we established a textured NCO ceramic with highly oriented single crystals in nanoscale. The Na0.6CoO2 platelet crystals were prepared by a one-step hydrothermal method. The growth mechanism was revealed to involve dissolution-recrystallization and exchange reactions. NCO TE ceramics fabricated by a press-aided spark plasma sintering method showed a high degree of texturing, with the platelet crystals basically lying along the in-plane direction perpendicular to the press direction. TE properties of the textured NCO ceramics showed a strong anisotropic behavior. The in-plane electrical conductivity was considerably larger than the out-of-plane data because of fewer grain boundaries and interfaces that existed in the in-plane direction. Moreover, the in-plane Seebeck coefficient was higher because of the anisotropic electronic nature of NCO. Although the in-plane thermal conductivity was high, a prior ZT value was enabled for these NCO ceramics along this direction because of the dominant electrical transport. This finding provides a new approach to prepare highly oriented ceramics.

  11. Time of gamma radiation transport in NaI(Tl) scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matarrita, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of time intervals in function of the energy, ocurred between the incidence of a gamma radiation in the face of a scintillation crystal and the arrival of the correspondent scintillation at photocathode, is calculated. The mean square fluctuation these time interval, relating to resolution of the detector system is determined. The calculations are done for NaI (Tl) cylindrical crystals with the radiation source placed in the symmetry axis, in two situations: para axial incidence and oblique incidence, indicating a good agreement with experimental data. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. The Na+ transport in gram-positive bacteria defect in the Mrp antiporter complex measured with 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Kamil; Hägerhäll, Cecilia; Drakenberg, Torbjörn

    2014-01-15

    (23)Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has previously been used to monitor Na(+) translocation across membranes in gram-negative bacteria and in various other organelles and liposomes using a membrane-impermeable shift reagent to resolve the signals resulting from internal and external Na(+). In this work, the (23)Na NMR method was adapted for measurements of internal Na(+) concentration in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, with the aim of assessing the Na(+) translocation activity of the Mrp (multiple resistance and pH) antiporter complex, a member of the cation proton antiporter-3 (CPA-3) family. The sodium-sensitive growth phenotype observed in a B. subtilis strain with the gene encoding MrpA deleted could indeed be correlated to the inability of this strain to maintain a lower internal Na(+) concentration than an external one. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. System response of a DOE Defense Program package in a transportation accident environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.F.; Hovingh, J.; Kimura, C.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The system response in a transportation accident environment is an element to be considered in an overall Transportation System Risk Assessment (TSRA) framework. The system response analysis uses the accident conditions and the subsequent accident progression analysis to develop the accident source term, which in turn, is used in the consequence analysis. This paper proposes a methodology for the preparation of the system response aspect of the TSRA

  14. Modelling plastic scintillator response to gamma rays using light transport incorporated FLUKA code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjbar Kohan, M. [Physics Department, Tafresh University, Tafresh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Etaati, G.R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amir Kabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghal-Eh, N., E-mail: ghal-eh@du.ac.ir [School of Physics, Damghan University, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safari, M.J. [Department of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afarideh, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amir Kabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadi, E. [Department of Physics, Payam-e-Noor University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The response function of NE102 plastic scintillator to gamma rays has been simulated using a joint FLUKA+PHOTRACK Monte Carlo code. The multi-purpose particle transport code, FLUKA, has been responsible for gamma transport whilst the light transport code, PHOTRACK, has simulated the transport of scintillation photons through scintillator and lightguide. The simulation results of plastic scintillator with/without light guides of different surface coverings have been successfully verified with experiments. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A multi-purpose code (FLUKA) and a light transport code (PHOTRACK) have been linked. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hybrid code has been used to generate the response function of an NE102 scintillator. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The simulated response functions exhibit a good agreement with experimental data.

  15. A radioactive waste transportation package monitoring system for normal transport and accident emergency response conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.S.; Cashwell, J.W.; Apple, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Shipments of radioactive material (RAM) constitute but a small fraction of the total hazardous materials shipped in the United States each year. Public perception, however, of the potential consequences of a release from a transportation package containing RAM has resulted in significant regulation of transport operations, both to ensure the integrity of a package in accident conditions and to place operational constraints on the shipper. Much of this attention has focused on shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high level wastes which, although comprising a very small number of total shipments, constitute a majority of the total curies transported on an annual basis. This report discusses the shipment of these highly radioactive materials

  16. Transporte electrogénico en el colon de ratas privadas de sodio : bloqueo de canales epiteliales versus inhibición de la NA, K-ATPASA

    OpenAIRE

    Carra, Graciela E.; Galella, Flavia; Widenberg, Johan; Ibáñez, Jorge E.; Saraví, Fernando D.

    2014-01-01

    La privación dietaria de sodio estimula la secreción de aldosterona. En el colon de rata, la aldosterona elevada aumenta la absorción de Na+, pero además torna electrogénico el mecanismo de absorción (normalmente electroneutro). Dicho transporte electrogénico puede suprimirse mediante el bloqueo de los canales epiteliales de Na+ en la membrana apical o la inhibición de la Na, KATPasa de la membrana basolateral. La absorción electrogénica de sodio está estrechamen...

  17. Emergency response preparedness analysis for radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parentela, E.M.; Burli, S.S.; Sathisan, S.K.; Vodrazka, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper evaluates the emergency response capabilities of first responders, specifically fire services, within the state of Nevada. It addresses issues relating to the available emergency responders such as general capabilities, jurisdictions, and response times. Graphical displays of the response units and attribute tables were created using GIS ARC/INFO. These coverages, plus the existing Census Bureau TIGER Files and highway network for the state of Nevada, were utilized to determine approximate service areas of each response unit, population density served by each response unit, population density served by each response unit and the areas that can be served by a response unit for 3, 5, 10, and 30 minutes response times. Results of the analysis enabled identification of the critical areas along the proposed highway route corridor

  18. Response function of NaI(Tl) detectors and multiple backscattering of gamma rays in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwal, Arvind D.; Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The response function, converting the observed pulse-height distribution of a NaI(Tl) detector to a true photon spectrum, is obtained experimentally with the help of an inverse matrix approach. The energy of gamma-ray photons continuously decreases as the number of scatterings increases in a sample having finite dimensions when one deals with the depth of the sample. The present experiments are undertaken to study the effect of target thickness on intensity distribution of gamma photons multiply backscattered from an aluminium target. A NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detector detects the photons backscattered from the aluminium target. The subtraction of analytically estimated singly scattered distribution from the observed intensity distribution (originating from interactions of primary gamma-ray photons with the target) results in multiply backscattered events. We observe that for each incident gamma photon energy, the number of multiply backscattered photons increases with increase in target thickness and then saturates at a particular target thickness called the saturation thickness (depth). Saturation thickness for multiply backscattering of gamma photons is found to decrease with increase in energy of incident gamma-ray photons

  19. Pupils' Response to a Model for Water Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, A. H.; Mahmoud, N. A.

    1981-01-01

    Described is a model, based on the physical sciences, designed to teach secondary students about water transport through the use of an animated film. Pupils (N=440) taught by this method developed a self-consistent, although reduced, picture and understanding of osmosis. (Author/DC)

  20. Primena SWOT analize na sistem integralnog transporta Vojske Srbije / SWOT analysis of the intermodal transportation system in the Army of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan S. Pamučar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available U radu je prikazana primena SWOT analize na sistem integralnog transporta Vojske Srbije. Kao rezultat analize predstavljeni su ciljevi daljeg usavršavanja integralnog transporta, kao i mogući problemi generisani strateškim upravljanjem. / This work presents the SWOT analysis application to the intermodal transportation system in the Army of Serbia. The analysis resulted in defining goals for the future development of intermodal transportation, as well as possible problems generated by strategic management.

  1. Efeito do ambiente pós-transporte na recuperação dos indicadores de estresse de pacus juvenis, Piaractus mesopotamicus = Effect of post-transport environment on the stress indicators recovery of pacu juveniles , Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Susumu Takahashi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a recuperação das respostas fisiológicas de estresse após transporte de pacus em diferentes condições de es tocagem. Após transporte por 2h30min, os peixes foram transferidos para tanque de terra ou para caixas de polietileno em laboratório. Houve significativa redução dos valores de cortisol observados na chegada 24 horas depois, nas duas condições de estocagem , enquanto a concentração de glicose caiu significativamente 72 horas depois nos peixes estocados no tanque de t 1erra e 120 horas nos peixes estocados no laboratório. A osmolalidade, sódio, potássio e cloreto suger em um retorno à homeostase durante o perío do de recuperação, principalmente nos peixes no tanque de terra. Os parâmetros hematológicos, sem efeito da condição de estocagem, não se caracterizaram indicadores sensíveis. Após o transporte, uma prática de manejo que causa estresse em peixes, o retorno às condições normais foi favorecido quando os pacus foram estocados em tanque de terra.The aim of this work was to evaluate the recovery of physiological stress responses after the transport of pacu juveniles in different stocking conditions. After being transported for 2 h30min, fish were transferred to earthen ponds or indoor polyethylene boxes. There was a significant reduction of cortisol values registered at fish arrival , 24 hours after, in both stocking conditions . The glucose concentration reduced significantly 72 hours after in fish stocked in earthen ponds , and 120 hours in fish stocked indoor. Osmolality, sodium, potassium and chloride behavior suggested the re-establishment of the homeostasis during the recovery period, mainly in fish kept in the earthen ponds. Concerning the hematological parameters, only hemoglobin concentration reduced significantly in the recovery period , without effect of stockingcondition, which does not characterize feasible indicators. After transport, a management

  2. Phosphorylation and transport in the Na-K-2Cl cotransporters, NKCC1 and NKCC2A, compared in HEK-293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Hannemann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Na-K-2Cl cotransporters help determine cell composition and volume. NKCC1 is widely distributed whilst NKCC2 is only found in the kidney where it plays a vital role reabsorbing 20% of filtered NaCl. NKCC2 regulation is poorly understood because of its restricted distribution and difficulties with its expression in mammalian cell cultures. Here we compare phosphorylation of the N-termini of the cotransporters, measured with phospho-specific antibodies, with bumetanide-sensitive transport of K(+ ((86Rb(+ (activity in HEK-293 cells stably expressing fNKCC1 or fNKCC2A which were cloned from ferret kidney. Activities of transfected transporters were distinguished from those of endogenous ones by working at 37 °C. fNKCC1 and fNKCC2A activities were highest after pre-incubation of cells in hypotonic low-[Cl(-] media to reduce cell [Cl(-] and volume during flux measurement. Phosphorylation of both transporters more than doubled. Pre-incubation with ouabain also strongly stimulated fNKCC1 and fNKCC2A and substantially increased phosphorylation, whereas pre-incubation in Na(+-free media maximally stimulated fNKCC1 and doubled its phosphorylation, but inhibited fNKCC2A, with a small increase in its phosphorylation. Kinase inhibitors halved phosphorylation and activity of both transporters whereas inhibition of phosphatases with calyculin A strongly increased phosphorylation of both transporters but only slightly stimulated fNKCC1 and inhibited fNCCC2A. Thus kinase inhibition reduced phosphorylation and transport, and transport stimulation was only seen when phosphorylation increased, but transport did not always increase with phosphorylation. This suggests phosphorylation of the N-termini determines the transporters' potential capacity to move ions, but final activity also depends on other factors. Transport cannot be reliably inferred solely using phospho-specific antibodies on whole-cell lysates.

  3. Phosphorylation and transport in the Na-K-2Cl cotransporters, NKCC1 and NKCC2A, compared in HEK-293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Anke; Flatman, Peter W

    2011-03-25

    Na-K-2Cl cotransporters help determine cell composition and volume. NKCC1 is widely distributed whilst NKCC2 is only found in the kidney where it plays a vital role reabsorbing 20% of filtered NaCl. NKCC2 regulation is poorly understood because of its restricted distribution and difficulties with its expression in mammalian cell cultures. Here we compare phosphorylation of the N-termini of the cotransporters, measured with phospho-specific antibodies, with bumetanide-sensitive transport of K(+) ((86)Rb(+)) (activity) in HEK-293 cells stably expressing fNKCC1 or fNKCC2A which were cloned from ferret kidney. Activities of transfected transporters were distinguished from those of endogenous ones by working at 37 °C. fNKCC1 and fNKCC2A activities were highest after pre-incubation of cells in hypotonic low-[Cl(-)] media to reduce cell [Cl(-)] and volume during flux measurement. Phosphorylation of both transporters more than doubled. Pre-incubation with ouabain also strongly stimulated fNKCC1 and fNKCC2A and substantially increased phosphorylation, whereas pre-incubation in Na(+)-free media maximally stimulated fNKCC1 and doubled its phosphorylation, but inhibited fNKCC2A, with a small increase in its phosphorylation. Kinase inhibitors halved phosphorylation and activity of both transporters whereas inhibition of phosphatases with calyculin A strongly increased phosphorylation of both transporters but only slightly stimulated fNKCC1 and inhibited fNCCC2A. Thus kinase inhibition reduced phosphorylation and transport, and transport stimulation was only seen when phosphorylation increased, but transport did not always increase with phosphorylation. This suggests phosphorylation of the N-termini determines the transporters' potential capacity to move ions, but final activity also depends on other factors. Transport cannot be reliably inferred solely using phospho-specific antibodies on whole-cell lysates.

  4. Electron transport in liquid Na, K and Rb: t-matrix formalism revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Abdellah, A. [Equipe de Mecanique Materiaux et Metallurgie (EMMM), Universite Abdelmalek Essaadi, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de Tanger, B.P. 416 Tanger (Morocco); Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Denses, Institut de Chimie, Physique et Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, 1, Bd Arago 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France); Bouziane, K. [Physics Department, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Postal Code 123, Al-Khod, Muscat (Oman); Grosdidier, B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Denses, Institut de Chimie, Physique et Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, 1, Bd Arago 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France); Mujibur Rahman, S.M., E-mail: mujib@squ.edu.o [Physics Department, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Postal Code 123, Al-Khod, Muscat (Oman); Gasser, J.G. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Denses, Institut de Chimie, Physique et Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, 1, Bd Arago 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France)

    2010-12-15

    We have performed ab initio calculations based on t-matrix formalism in the framework of the nearly free electron [NFE] theory to determine the electrical resistivity {rho} and the thermoelectric power S of three liquid alkali metals, namely, Na, K and Rb. The present approach is primarily based on the Dreirach model that considers a shift E{sub B} between the bottom of the free electrons density-of-states (DOS) and the muffin tin zero (V{sub MTZ}). Concurrently the second model initiated by Esposito et al. that takes into account the nearly free electrons (NFE) without any gap between NFE-DOS and V{sub MTZ} has also been tested. The results {rho} and S obtained from the Esposito et al. model are not consistent with experimental counterparts. A substantial improvement of {rho} and S values is obtained from Dreirach model provided the temperature dependence of {rho} versus energy is considered in order to reproduce the correct sign for S. This observation is presumably related to the fact that in the range between 0 and E{sub F} on the energy scale, the DOS for these metals fairly resemble those of free electrons yielding their effective valence N{sub c} to be very close to the valence number Z but with a shift of the bottom of the band which cannot be neglected.

  5. Influence of norepinephrine transporter inhibition on hemodynamic response to hypergravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Strempel, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sympathetically-mediated tachycardia and vasoconstriction maintain blood pressure during hypergravitational stress, thereby preventing gravitation-induced loss of consciousness (g-LOC). Norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibition prevents neurally-mediated (pre)syncope during gravitational stress imposed by head-up tilt testing. Thus, it seems reasonable that NET inhibition could increase tolerance to hypergravitational stress. Methods. We performed a double-blind, randomized...

  6. Na+-Dependent High-Affinity Nitrate, Phosphate and Amino Acids Transport in Leaf Cells of the Seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Rubio

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile is a seagrass, the only group of vascular plants to colonize the marine environment. Seawater is an extreme yet stable environment characterized by high salinity, alkaline pH and low availability of essential nutrients, such as nitrate and phosphate. Classical depletion experiments, membrane potential and cytosolic sodium measurements were used to characterize the high-affinity NO3−, Pi and amino acids uptake mechanisms in this species. Net uptake rates of both NO3− and Pi were reduced by more than 70% in the absence of Na+. Micromolar concentrations of NO3− depolarized mesophyll leaf cells plasma membrane. Depolarizations showed saturation kinetics (Km = 8.7 ± 1 μM NO3−, which were not observed in the absence of Na+. NO3− induced depolarizations at increasing Na+ also showed saturation kinetics (Km = 7.2 ± 2 mM Na+. Cytosolic Na+ measured in P. oceanica leaf cells (17 ± 2 mM Na+ increased by 0.4 ± 0.2 mM Na+ upon the addition of 100 μM NO3−. Na+-dependence was also observed for high-affinity l-ala and l-cys uptake and high-affinity Pi transport. All together, these results strongly suggest that NO3−, amino acids and Pi uptake in P. oceanica leaf cells are mediated by high-affinity Na+-dependent transport systems. This mechanism seems to be a key step in the process of adaptation of seagrasses to the marine environment.

  7. Marine spill response planning for the non-persistent oil transportation industry in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.; Egland, L.

    1998-01-01

    The unique difficulties that face oil spill response planning for the oil transportation industry in Alaska were discussed. Three levels of response strategies and actions proposed by the Alaska Petroleum Distributors and Transporters (APD and T) member companies were reviewed. They were: (1) immediate response (on-board resources), (2) in-region response (caches in Subareas), and (3) out-of-region cascaded resources (from Anchorage and other sources). The strategies and levels of capability were proposed as emergency measures in addition to the more important prevention measures already instituted to prevent discharges of non-persistent oil. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  8. Renal sympathetic nerve, blood flow, and epithelial transport responses to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thad E

    2017-05-01

    Thermal stress is a profound sympathetic stress in humans; kidney responses involve altered renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), renal blood flow, and renal epithelial transport. During mild cold stress, RSNA spectral power but not total activity is altered, renal blood flow is maintained or decreased, and epithelial transport is altered consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with central volume loaded state. Hypothermia decreases RSNA, renal blood flow, and epithelial transport. During mild heat stress, RSNA is increased, renal blood flow is decreased, and epithelial transport is increased consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with a central volume unloaded state. Hyperthermia extends these directional changes, until heat illness results. Because kidney responses are very difficult to study in humans in vivo, this review describes and qualitatively evaluates an in vivo human skin model of sympathetically regulated epithelial tissue compared to that of the nephron. This model utilizes skin responses to thermal stress, involving 1) increased skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), decreased skin blood flow, and suppressed eccrine epithelial transport during cold stress; and 2) increased SSNA, skin blood flow, and eccrine epithelial transport during heat stress. This model appears to mimic aspects of the renal responses. Investigations of skin responses, which parallel certain renal responses, may aid understanding of epithelial-sympathetic nervous system interactions during cold and heat stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Recovery Of Chromium Metal (VI) Using Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) Method, A study of Influence of NaCl and pH in Receiving Phase on Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholid Djunaidi, Muhammad; Lusiana, Retno A.; Rahayu, Maya D.

    2017-06-01

    Chromium metal(VI) is a valuable metal but in contrary has high toxicity, so the separation and recovery from waste are very important. One method that can be used for the separation and recovery of chromium (VI) is a Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM). SLM system contains of three main components: a supporting membrane, organic solvents and carrier compounds. The supported Membrane used in this research is Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), organic solvent is kerosene, and the carrier compound used is aliquat 336. The supported liquid membrane is placed between two phases, namely, feed phase as the source of analyte (Cr(VI)) and the receiving phase as the result of separation. Feed phase is the electroplating waste which contains of chromium metal with pH variation about 4, 6 and 9. Whereas the receiving phase are the solution of HCl, NaOH, HCl-NaCl and NaOH-NaCl with pH variation about 1, 3, 5 and 7. The efficiency separation is determined by measurement of chromium in the feed and the receiving phase using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry). The experiment results show that transport of Chrom (VI) by Supported Liquid membrane (SLM) is influenced by pH solution in feed phase and receiving phase as well as NaCl in receiving phase. The highest chromium metal is transported from feed phase about 97,78%, whereas in receiving phase shows about 58,09%. The highest chromium metal transport happens on pH 6 in feed phase, pH 7 in receiving phase with the mixture of NaOH and NaCl using carrier compound aliquat 336.

  10. Knockout of Na-glucose transporter SGLT2 attenuates hyperglycemia and glomerular hyperfiltration but not kidney growth or injury in diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Michael; Gerasimova, Maria; Satriano, Joseph; Platt, Kenneth A.; Koepsell, Hermann; Cunard, Robyn; Sharma, Kumar; Thomson, Scott C.; Rieg, Timo

    2013-01-01

    The Na-glucose cotransporter SGLT2 mediates high-capacity glucose uptake in the early proximal tubule and SGLT2 inhibitors are developed as new antidiabetic drugs. We used gene-targeted Sglt2 knockout (Sglt2−/−) mice to elucidate the contribution of SGLT2 to blood glucose control, glomerular hyperfiltration, kidney growth, and markers of renal growth and injury at 5 wk and 4.5 mo after induction of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) diabetes. The absence of SGLT2 did not affect renal mRNA expression of glucose transporters SGLT1, NaGLT1, GLUT1, or GLUT2 in response to STZ. Application of STZ increased blood glucose levels to a lesser extent in Sglt2−/− vs. wild-type (WT) mice (∼300 vs. 470 mg/dl) but increased glucosuria and food and fluid intake to similar levels in both genotypes. Lack of SGLT2 prevented STZ-induced glomerular hyperfiltration but not the increase in kidney weight. Knockout of SGLT2 attenuated the STZ-induced renal accumulation of p62/sequestosome, an indicator of impaired autophagy, but did not attenuate the rise in renal expression of markers of kidney growth (p27 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen), oxidative stress (NADPH oxidases 2 and 4 and heme oxygenase-1), inflammation (interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), fibrosis (fibronectin and Sirius red-sensitive tubulointerstitial collagen accumulation), or injury (renal/urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin). SGLT2 deficiency did not induce ascending urinary tract infection in nondiabetic or diabetic mice. The results indicate that SGLT2 is a determinant of hyperglycemia and glomerular hyperfiltration in STZ-induced diabetes mellitus but is not critical for the induction of renal growth and markers of renal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. PMID:23152292

  11. Molecular simulation of thermodynamic and transport properties for the H{sub 2}O+NaCl system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco, Gustavo A.; Jiang, Hao; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z., E-mail: azp@princeton.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Moultos, Othonas A.; Economou, Ioannis G. [Chemical Engineering Program, Texas A and M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar)

    2014-12-21

    Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out to obtain thermodynamic and transport properties of the binary mixture H{sub 2}O+NaCl at temperatures from T = 298 to 473 K. In particular, vapor pressures, liquid densities, viscosities, and vapor-liquid interfacial tensions have been obtained as functions of pressure and salt concentration. Several previously proposed fixed-point-charge models that include either Lennard-Jones (LJ) 12-6 or exponential-6 (Exp6) functional forms to describe non-Coulombic interactions were studied. In particular, for water we used the SPC and SPC/E (LJ) models in their rigid forms, a semiflexible version of the SPC/E (LJ) model, and the Errington-Panagiotopoulos Exp6 model; for NaCl, we used the Smith-Dang and Joung-Cheatham (LJ) parameterizations as well as the Tosi-Fumi (Exp6) model. While none of the model combinations are able to reproduce simultaneously all target properties, vapor pressures are well represented using the SPC plus Joung-Cheathem model combination, and all LJ models do well for the liquid density, with the semiflexible SPC/E plus Joung-Cheatham combination being the most accurate. For viscosities, the combination of rigid SPC/E plus Smith-Dang is the best alternative. For interfacial tensions, the combination of the semiflexible SPC/E plus Smith-Dang or Joung-Cheatham gives the best results. Inclusion of water flexibility improves the mixture densities and interfacial tensions, at the cost of larger deviations for the vapor pressures and viscosities. The Exp6 water plus Tosi-Fumi salt model combination was found to perform poorly for most of the properties of interest, in particular being unable to describe the experimental trend for the vapor pressure as a function of salt concentration.

  12. Transport of NaYF4:Er3+, Yb3+ up-converting nanoparticles into HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikora, Bożena; Fronc, Krzysztof; Kamińska, Izabela; Wojciechowski, Tomasz; Sobczak, Kamil; Minikayev, Roman; Paszkowicz, Wojciech; Elbaum, Danek; Koper, Kamil; Stępień, Piotr; Szewczyk, Sebastian; Paterczyk, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    An effective, simple and practically useful method to incorporate fluorescent nanoparticles inside live biological cells was developed. The internalization time and concentration dependence of a frequently used liposomal transfection factor (Lipofectamine 2000) was studied. A user friendly, one-step technique to obtain water and organic solvent soluble Er 3+ and Yb 3+ doped NaYF 4 nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone was obtained. Structural analysis of the nanoparticles confirmed the formation of nanocrystals of the desired sizes and spectral properties. The internalization of NaYF 4 nanoparticles in HeLa cervical cancer cells was determined at different nanoparticle concentrations and for incubation periods from 3 to 24 h. The images revealed a redistribution of nanoparticles inside the cell, which increases with incubation time and concentration levels, and depends on the presence of the transfection factor. The study identifies, for the first time, factors responsible for an effective endocytosis of the up-converting nanoparticles to HeLa cells. Thus, the method could be applied to investigate a wide range of future ‘smart’ theranostic agents. Nanoparticles incorporated into the liposomes appear to be very promising fluorescent probes for imaging real-time cellular dynamics. (paper)

  13. Transport of NaYF4:Er3+, Yb3+ up-converting nanoparticles into HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Bożena; Fronc, Krzysztof; Kamińska, Izabela; Koper, Kamil; Szewczyk, Sebastian; Paterczyk, Bohdan; Wojciechowski, Tomasz; Sobczak, Kamil; Minikayev, Roman; Paszkowicz, Wojciech; Stępień, Piotr; Elbaum, Danek

    2013-06-01

    An effective, simple and practically useful method to incorporate fluorescent nanoparticles inside live biological cells was developed. The internalization time and concentration dependence of a frequently used liposomal transfection factor (Lipofectamine 2000) was studied. A user friendly, one-step technique to obtain water and organic solvent soluble Er3+ and Yb3+ doped NaYF4 nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone was obtained. Structural analysis of the nanoparticles confirmed the formation of nanocrystals of the desired sizes and spectral properties. The internalization of NaYF4 nanoparticles in HeLa cervical cancer cells was determined at different nanoparticle concentrations and for incubation periods from 3 to 24 h. The images revealed a redistribution of nanoparticles inside the cell, which increases with incubation time and concentration levels, and depends on the presence of the transfection factor. The study identifies, for the first time, factors responsible for an effective endocytosis of the up-converting nanoparticles to HeLa cells. Thus, the method could be applied to investigate a wide range of future ‘smart’ theranostic agents. Nanoparticles incorporated into the liposomes appear to be very promising fluorescent probes for imaging real-time cellular dynamics.

  14. Mobilidade e transporte público na região metropolitana de Londrina-PR: Entre a institucionalidade e a espacialidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Polzin Druciaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A mobilidade urbano-regional tem merecido destaque nos espaços em processo de metropolização. Na Região Metropolitana de Londrina-RML, o único modo vigente de transporte público que atende a essa mobilidade é o Transporte Rodoviário Metropolitano do Interior-TRM. Fatores como a falta de efetivação da região metropolitana, e a ausência de planejamento nessa escala, comprometem a mobilidade pelo transporte público, distoando daquilo que foi preconizado na criação do recorte espacial institucional. Diante disso, problemas pontuais vivenciados pelos usuários do sistema são reflexos de questões estruturais de ordem política, técnica e econômica.

  15. Expression of Na+/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) is enhanced by supplementation of the diet of weaning piglets with artificial sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Andrew W; Al-Rammahi, Miran A; Arora, Daleep K; Batchelor, Daniel J; Coulter, Erin A; Daly, Kristian; Ionescu, Catherine; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2010-09-01

    In an intensive livestock production, a shorter suckling period allows more piglets to be born. However, this practice leads to a number of disorders including nutrient malabsorption, resulting in diarrhoea, malnutrition and dehydration. A number of strategies have been proposed to overcome weaning problems. Artificial sweeteners, routinely included in piglets' diet, were thought to enhance feed palatability. However, it is shown in rodent models that when included in the diet, they enhance the expression of Na+/glucose co-transporter (SGLT1) and the capacity of the gut to absorb glucose. Here, we show that supplementation of piglets' feed with a combination of artificial sweeteners saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone enhances the expression of SGLT1 and intestinal glucose transport function. Artificial sweeteners are known to act on the intestinal sweet taste receptor T1R2/T1R3 and its partner G-protein, gustducin, to activate pathways leading to SGLT1 up-regulation. Here, we demonstrate that T1R2, T1R3 and gustducin are expressed together in the enteroendocrine cells of piglet intestine. Furthermore, gut hormones secreted by the endocrine cells in response to dietary carbohydrates, glucagon-like peptides (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic peptide (GIP), are co-expressed with type 1 G-protein-coupled receptors (T1R) and gustducin, indicating that L- and K-enteroendocrine cells express these taste elements. In a fewer endocrine cells, T1R are also co-expressed with serotonin. Lactisole, an inhibitor of human T1R3, had no inhibitory effect on sweetener-induced SGLT1 up-regulation in piglet intestine. A better understanding of the mechanism(s) involved in sweetener up-regulation of SGLT1 will allow the identification of nutritional targets with implications for the prevention of weaning-related malabsorption.

  16. Defective enamel and bone development in sodium-dependent citrate transporter (NaCT Slc13a5 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando R Irizarry

    Full Text Available There has been growing recognition of the essential roles of citrate in biomechanical properties of mineralized tissues, including teeth and bone. However, the sources of citrate in these tissues have not been well defined, and the contribution of citrate to the regulation of odontogenesis and osteogenesis has not been examined. Here, tooth and bone phenotypes were examined in sodium-dependent citrate transporter (NaCT Slc13a5 deficient C57BL/6 mice at 13 and 32 weeks of age. Slc13a5 deficiency led to defective tooth development, characterized by absence of mature enamel, formation of aberrant enamel matrix, and dysplasia and hyperplasia of the enamel organ epithelium that progressed with age. These abnormalities were associated with fragile teeth with a possible predisposition to tooth abscesses. The lack of mature enamel was consistent with amelogenesis imperfecta. Furthermore, Slc13a5 deficiency led to decreased bone mineral density and impaired bone formation in 13-week-old mice but not in older mice. The findings revealed the potentially important role of citrate and Slc13a5 in the development and function of teeth and bone.

  17. Short-term responses of Dutch vacationers to a sharp increase in transport costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cranenburgh, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates vacationers’ short-term responses to a sharp increase in transport costs. It aims to (1) acquire an understanding of the relative popularity of the different types of responses among vacationers and (2) explore whether there are distinct market segments of vacationers that

  18. Effects of surface functionalization of hydrophilic NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Eu3+ on glutamate and GABA transport in brain synaptosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, Bartlomiej; Kociołek, Daria; Banski, Mateusz; Borisova, Tatiana; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Pastukhov, Artem; Borysov, Arsenii; Dudarenko, Marina; Podhorodecki, Artur

    2017-08-01

    Specific rare earth doped nanocrystals (NCs), a recent class of nanoparticles with fluorescent features, have great bioanalytical potential. Neuroactive properties of NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Eu3+ were assessed based on the analysis of their effects on glutamate- and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport process in nerve terminals isolated from rat brain (synaptosomes). Two types of hydrophilic NCs were examined in this work: (i) coated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and (ii) with OH groups at the surface. It was found that NaYF4:Eu3+-PEG and NaYF4:Eu3+-OH within the concentration range of 0.5-3.5 and 0.5-1.5 mg/ml, respectively, did not influence Na+-dependent transporter-dependent l-[14C]glutamate and [3H]GABA uptake and the ambient level of the neurotransmitters in the synaptosomes. An increase in NaYF4:Eu3+-PEG and NaYF4:Eu3+-OH concentrations up to 7.5 and 3.5 mg/ml, respectively, led to the (1) attenuation of the initial velocity of uptake of l-[14C]glutamate and [3H]GABA and (2) elevation of ambient neurotransmitters in the suspension of nerve terminals. In the mentioned concentrations, nanocrystals did not influence acidification of synaptic vesicles that was shown with pH-sensitive fluorescent dye acridine orange, however, decreased the potential of the plasma membrane of synaptosomes. In comparison with other nanoparticles studied with similar methodological approach, NCs start to exhibit their effects on neurotransmitter transport at concentrations several times higher than those shown for carbon dots, detonation nanodiamonds and an iron storage protein ferritin, whose activity can be registered at 0.08, 0.5 and 0.08 mg/ml, respectively. Therefore, NCs can be considered lesser neurotoxic as compared to above nanoparticles.

  19. Determination of the response of a NaI(Tl) detector; Determinacion de la respuesta de un detector de NaI(Tl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E.; Hernandez D, V.M.; Chacon R, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)]. e-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    By means of Monte Carlo calculations it was determined the response of a scintillator of NaI (Tl) of 7.62 {phi} x 7.62 cm to monoenergetic gamma rays of 0.2 to 3.5 MeV. The response allows to determine the spectra of height of pulses of the monoenergetic photons. This type of calculations was also carried out for photons emitted by sources of Cs-137, Co-60, Na-22, Na-24 and {sup 239} PuBe, with the purpose of reproducing the gamma spectra obtained with this type of detecting. In the calculations the detector was modelled as a NaI cylinder with Al cover and the base of lucite; due to the absence of reliable information on the quantity of thallium in the calculations this information was omitted: for photons whose energy is greater to 1.022 MeV the presence of the gamma peak of the simple escape and twice is observed. The source was modelled as punctual and was located to 5 cm along the axial axis of the detector. To verify the calculations its were carried out measurements with a spectrometer with a scintillator of 7.62 {phi} x 7.62 cm. In the measured spectra the sum peak is observed, while in those calculated it doesn't appear; because the simultaneous detection of photons of different energy doesn't happen each photon since, in single form, it is followed until its complete absorption in the scintillator or when it escapes from the volume of the detector. To reproduce the sum peak and to obtain height spectra of pulses similar to those measured, the sum photons were introduced in the calculations. With the purpose of that Monte Carlo calculation it reproduces the scattering around the photopeak it was used a gaussian function in each photopeak whose characteristics were obtained starting from the experimental data. The calculation of the response of a scintillator allows to establish the capacity of the measurement of the gamma radiation as well as to distinguish the real events of those that appear by the limitations of the detection process. (Author)

  20. Análise de eficiência na gestão do transporte urbano por ônibus em municípios brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Azambuja, Ana Maria Volkmer de

    2002-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Este estudo é um conjunto de procedimentos que tem como objetivo medir a eficiência na gestão do transporte público por ônibus, em municípios brasileiros, e subsidiar, assim, a Administração Pública na tomada de decisões. Para tanto, foram avaliados os principais métodos utilizados para medir eficiência, identificando aquele mais adequado para a solução do pro...

  1. Na+-independent, nifedipine-resistant rat afferent arteriolar Ca2+ responses to noradrenaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsson, Max; Braunstein, Thomas Hartig; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim: In rat afferent arterioles we investigated the role of Na(+) entry in noradrenaline (NA)-induced depolarization and voltage-dependent Ca(2+) entry together with the importance of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) subfamily for non-voltage-dependent Ca(2+) entry. Methods...

  2. 41 CFR 102-118.80 - Who is responsible for keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records? 102-118.80 Section 102-118.80... Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.80 Who is responsible for keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records? Your agency's internal financial regulations will identify...

  3. Characteristics of Effective Collaboration in Response to Diversified Transportation Planning Authority

    OpenAIRE

    John S. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Advantages of decentralized transportation planning responsibilities may include reduced project delivery cost, the integration of comprehensive long-range planning with regional land use, and greater accountability regarding local concerns. Yet disadvantages may include a tendency for operations to dominate longer-term planning, inconsistent operational standards, and difficulty in achieving network benefits, since some transportation links may provide benefits to the entire system but not ...

  4. Acidic pH and short-chain fatty acids activate Na+ transport but differentially modulate expression of Na+/H+ exchanger isoforms 1, 2, and 3 in omasal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyan; Yao, Lei; Jiang, Zhengqian; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Martens, Holger; Shen, Zanming

    2016-01-01

    Low sodium content in feed and large amounts of salivary sodium secretion are essential requirements to efficient sodium reabsorption in the dairy cow. It is already known that Na(+)/H(+) exchange (NHE) of the ruminal epithelium plays a key role in Na(+) absorption, and its function is influenced by the presence of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and mucosal pH. By contrast, the functional role and regulation of NHE in omasal epithelium have not been completely understood. In the present study, we used model studies in small ruminants (sheep and goats) to investigate NHE-mediated Na(+) transport and the effects of pH and SCFA on NHE activity in omasal epithelium and on the expression of NHE isoform in omasal epithelial cells. Conventional Ussing chamber technique, primary cell culture, quantitative PCR, and Western blot were used. In native omasal epithelium of sheep, the Na(+) transport was electroneutral, and it was inhibited by the specific NHE3 inhibitor 3-[2-(3-guanidino-2-methyl-3-oxo-propenyl)-5-methyl-phenyl]-N-isopropylidene-2-methyl-acrylamide dihydrochloride, which decreased mucosal-to-serosal, serosal-to-mucosal, and net flux rates of Na(+) by 80% each. The application of low mucosal pH (6.4 or 5.8) in the presence of SCFA activated the Na(+) transport across omasal epithelium of sheep compared with that at pH 7.4. In cultured omasal epithelial cells of goats, mRNA and protein of NHE1, NHE2, and NHE3 were detected. The application of SCFA increased NHE1 mRNA and protein expression, which was most prominent when the culture medium pH decreased from 7.4 to 6.8. At variance, the mRNA and protein expression of NHE2 and NHE3 were decreased with low pH and SCFA, which was contrary to the published data from ruminal epithelial studies. In conclusion, this paper shows that (1) NHE1, NHE2, and NHE3 are expressed in omasal epithelium; (2) NHE3 mediates the major portion of transepithelial Na(+) transport in omasal epithelium; and (3) SCFA and acidic pH acutely

  5. Role of H2O2 on the kinetics of low-affinity high-capacity Na+-dependent alanine transport in SHR proximal tubular epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Vanda; Pinho, Maria Joao; Jose, Pedro A.; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → H 2 O 2 in excess is required for the presence of a low-affinity high-capacity component for the Na + -dependent [ 14 C]-L-alanine uptake in SHR PTE cells only. → It is suggested that Na + binding in renal ASCT2 may be regulated by ROS in SHR PTE cells. -- Abstract: The presence of high and low sodium affinity states for the Na + -dependent [ 14 C]-L-alanine uptake in immortalized renal proximal tubular epithelial (PTE) cells was previously reported (Am. J. Physiol. 293 (2007) R538-R547). This study evaluated the role of H 2 O 2 on the Na + -dependent [ 14 C]-L-alanine uptake of ASCT2 in immortalized renal PTE cells from Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Na + dependence of [ 14 C]-L-alanine uptake was investigated replacing NaCl with an equimolar concentration of choline chloride in vehicle- and apocynin-treated cells. Na + removal from the uptake solution abolished transport activity in both WKY and SHR PTE cells. Decreases in H 2 O 2 levels in the extracellular medium significantly reduced Na + -K m and V max values of the low-affinity high-capacity component in SHR PTE cells, with no effect on the high-affinity low-capacity state of the Na + -dependent [ 14 C]-L-alanine uptake. After removal of apocynin from the culture medium, H 2 O 2 levels returned to basal values within 1 to 3 h in both WKY and SHR PTE cells and these were found stable for the next 24 h. Under these experimental conditions, the Na + -K m and V max of the high-affinity low-capacity state were unaffected and the low-affinity high-capacity component remained significantly decreased 1 day but not 4 days after apocynin removal. In conclusion, H 2 O 2 in excess is required for the presence of a low-affinity high-capacity component for the Na + -dependent [ 14 C]-L-alanine uptake in SHR PTE cells only. It is suggested that Na + binding in renal ASCT2 may be regulated by ROS in SHR PTE cells.

  6. Water transport by Na+-coupled cotransporters of glucose (SGLT1) and of iodide (NIS). The dependence of substrate size studied at high resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas; Belhage, Bo; Zeuthen, Emil

    2005-01-01

    and osmosis at the membrane with diffusion in the cytoplasm. The combination of high resolution measurements and precise modelling showed that water transport across the membrane can be explained by cotransport of water in the membrane proteins and that intracellular unstirred layers effects are minute.......The relation between substrate and water transport was studied in Na+-coupled cotransporters of glucose (SGLT1) and of iodide (NIS) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The water transport was monitored from changes in oocyte volume at a resolution of 20 pl, more than one order of magnitude better than...... previous investigations. The rate of cotransport was monitored as the clamp current obtained from two-electrode voltage clamp. The high resolution data demonstrated a fixed ratio between the turn-over of the cotransporter and the rate of water transport. This applied to experiments in which the rate...

  7. Immunological, clinical, haematological and oxidative responses to long distance transportation in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, Barbara; Raidal, Sharanne Lee; Carter, Nicole; Celi, Pietro; Muscatello, Gary; Jeffcott, Leo; de Silva, Kumudika

    2017-12-01

    Horses are transported frequently and often over long distances. Transportation may represent a physiological stressor with consequential health and welfare implications. This study reports the effects of a long distance journey on immunological, clinical, haematological, inflammatory and oxidative parameters in an Experimental Group (EG) of ten horses, comparing them with six horses of similar age and breed used as a non-transported Control Group (CG). Clinical examination and blood sampling were performed twice on all horses: immediately after unloading for the EG, and at rest on the same day for the CG (day 1); at rest on the same day one week later for both groups (day 7). On day 1 EG horses showed increased heart and respiratory rates (Ptransportation induced an acute phase response impairing the cell-mediated immune response. Clinical examinations, including assessing CRT and body weight loss, and the monitoring of redox balance may be useful in evaluating the impact of extensive transport events on horses. A better understanding of the link between transportation stress, the immune system and the acute phase response is likely to inform strategies for enhancing the welfare of transported horses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Corporate Social Responsibility to Employees: The Best Labour Practices in Transport and Logistics Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Turoń

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on corporate social responsibility to employees in the context of transportation and logistics companies. It raises the issues related to the good practices of CSR in relation to labour practices. The study also discusses the approach to employees as stakeholders of the company. The transport and logistics branch is selected for analysis, due to its importance for the economy and the necessity of implementation the corporate social responsibility policy. The aim of the paper is to identify and assess ethics and labour practices in the context of logistics companies. It is achieved through the analysis of practices included in the companies’ CSR reports and reports ‘Responsible business in Poland’ issued by the Responsible Business Forum. The analysis is realized on the case of the two top companies that received the “CSR leaf” – a prestigious award for responsible business.

  9. Emergency response planning and preparedness for transport accidents involving radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this Guide is to provide assistance to public authorities and others (including consignors and carriers of radioactive materials) who are responsible for ensuring safety in establishing and developing emergency response arrangements for responding effectively to transport accidents involving radioactive materials. This Guide is concerned mainly with the preparation of emergency response plans. It provides information which will assist those countries whose involvement with radioactive materials is just beginning and those which have already developed their industries involving radioactive materials and attendant emergency plans, but may need to review and improve these plans. The need for emergency response plans and the ways in which they are implemented vary from country to country. In each country, the responsible authorities must decide how best to apply this Guide, taking into account the actual shipments and associated hazards. In this Guide the emergency response planning and response philosophy are outlined, including identification of emergency response organizations and emergency services that would be required during a transport accident. General consequences which could prevail during an accident are described taking into account the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 43 refs, figs and tabs

  10. Acute Responses of Microorganisms from Membrane Bioreactors in the Presence of NaOCl: Protective Mechanisms of Extracellular Polymeric Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaomeng; Wang, Zhiwei; Chen, Mei; Zhang, Xingran; Tang, Chuyang Y; Wu, Zhichao

    2017-03-21

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are key foulants in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). However, their positive functions of protecting microorganisms from environmental stresses, e.g., during in situ hypochlorite chemical cleaning of membranes, have not been adequately elucidated. In this work, we investigated the response of microorganisms in an MBR to various dosages of NaOCl, with a particular emphasis on the mechanistic roles of EPS. Results showed that functional groups in EPS such as the hydroxyl and amino groups were attacked by NaOCl, causing the oxidation of polysaccharides, denaturation of amino acids, damage to protein secondary structure, and transformation of tryptophan protein-like substances to condensed aromatic ring substances. The presence of EPS alleviated the negative impacts on catalase and superoxide dismutase, which in turn reduced the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in microbial cells. The direct extracellular reaction and the mitigated intracellular oxidative responses facilitated the maintenance of microbial metabolism, as indicated by the quantity of adenosine triphosphate and the activity of dehydrogenase. The reaction with NaOCl also led to the changes of cell integrity and adhesion properties of EPS, which promoted the release of organic matter into bulk solution. Our results systematically demonstrate the protective roles of EPS and the underlying mechanisms in resisting the environmental stress caused by NaOCl, which provides important implications for in situ chemical cleaning in MBRs.

  11. Thermal ionization and plasma state of high temperature vapor of UO2, Cs, and Na: Effect on the heat and radiation transport properties of the vapor phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karow, H.U.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with the question how far the thermophysical state and the convective and radiative heat transport properties of vaporized reactor core materials are affected by the thermal ionization existing in the actual vapor state. The materials under consideration here are: nuclear oxide fuel (UO 2 ), Na (as the LMFBR coolant material), and Cs (alkaline fission product, partly retained in the fuel of the core zone). (orig./RW) [de

  12. Supporting system in emergency response plan for nuclear material transport accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagome, Y.; Aoki, S.

    1993-01-01

    As aiming to provide the detailed information concerning nuclear material transport accidents and to supply it to the concerned organizations by an online computer, the Emergency Response Supporting System has been constructed in the Nuclear Safety Technology Center, Japan. The system consists of four subsystems and four data bases. By inputting initial information such as name of package and date of accident, one can obtain the appropriate initial response procedures and related information for the accident immediately. The system must be useful for protecting the public safety from nuclear material transport accidents. But, it is not expected that the system shall be used in future. (J.P.N.)

  13. Planning and preparing for emergency response to transport accidents involving radioactive material. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance to the public authorities and others (including consignors, carriers and emergency response authorities) who are responsible for developing and establishing emergency arrangements for dealing effectively and safely with transport accidents involving radioactive material. It may assist those concerned with establishing the capability to respond to such transport emergencies. It provides guidance for those Member States whose involvement with radioactive material is just beginning. It also provides guidance for those Member States that have already developed their radioactive material industries and the attendant emergency plans but that may need to review and improve these plans

  14. Postirradiation changes in the systems of active ion transport. Na,K-ATPase of neurons in neuroglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shainskaya, A.M.; Dvoretskij, A.I.; Valetova, Yu.O.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of X-radiation (0.31 C/kg and 3.875 C/kg) on Na,K-ATPase in fractions enriched with neurons and neuroglia. The results show the impairment of the neuronal-glial relationship in Na,K-ATPase activity. The most important differences in the pattern of changes in Na,K-ATPase system of brain cells were followed up after irradiaion with lethal and sublethal doses

  15. The early and late effects of digoxin treatment on the sodium transport, sodium content and Na+K+- ATPase or erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, M; Zareian, K; Davidson, C; Morgan, D B; Swaminathan, R

    1981-01-01

    1 Erythrocyte sodium content, sodium transport (ouabain sensitive sodium flux Eos, and ouabain sensitive efflux rate constant ERCos) sodium, potassium activated ouabain sensitive adenosine triphosphatase (Na+K+ATPase) and plasma digoxin were measured in patients during acute digitalisation and in patients who were on long-term digoxin treatment. 2 In the six patients who were studied during digitalisation, the ERCos and Na+K+ATPase activity decreased and erythrocyte sodium content increased during days 2-4 treatment, but there was no change in Eos. 3 In 39 patients on long term digoxin therapy (2-119 months) the erythrocyte sodium content was normal, but the erythrocyte Na+K+ATPase activity was higher than the control group. When the results from these 39 patients were divided according to the duration of treatment it was found that the erythrocyte sodium content was higher in patients treated for 2-4 months than in patients treated for longer periods and the erythrocyte Na+K+ATPase activity increased with duration of treatment. In eight patients (duration of treatment greater than 29 months) in whom ERCos and Eos were measured, ERCos and Eos were higher than the control group. 4 The results suggest that the effects of digoxin on erythrocytes which occur during acute digoxin treatment do not persist in the long term. 5 The possible explanation for the higher ERCos, Eos and Na+K+ATPase activity in patients treated with digoxin for more than 2 months is discussed. PMID:6268133

  16. Induction of system A amino acid transport activity through long-term treatment with ouabain: possible correlation with enhanced (Na/sup +//K/sup +/)ATPase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenerman, M.A.; Leister, K.J.; Wang, S.Y.; Racker, E.

    1987-05-01

    Mouse embryo fibroblast cells (C3H-10T1/2) and the methylcholanthrene-transformed derivative (MCA-10T1/2) were treated with basal modified Eagles medium at varying ouabain concentrations ranging from 0.05 mM to 0.5 mM for 16 h in culture. After replacing the ouabain-containing medium with BME, System A (/sup 3/H-AlB uptake) and the (Na/sup +//K/sup +/)ATPase pump activity (ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ uptake) was increased 10-fold and 3-fold, respectively (at 0.4 mM ouabain) in confluent C3H-10T1/2 cells. System A and the (Na/sup +//K/sup +/)ATPase activity was increased 15-fold and 5-fold, respectively in confluent MCA-10T1/2 cells but the increase was maximal at 0.2 mM ouabain. This treatment with ouabain increased the (Na/sup +/)/sub i//(K/sup +/)/sub i/ as measured by atomic absorption, and thereby decreased the Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ electrochemical gradients. Their data show that the transformed cells were more sensitive to the internal ion inversion by ouabain than the C3H-10T1/2 cells. It appears, from data on hypertonicity and lipophilic cations that neither the chemical Na/sup +/ gradient nor the negative membrane potential are the primary driving forces of System A transport.

  17. Induction of system A amino acid transport activity through long-term treatment with ouabain: possible correlation with enhanced (Na+/K+)ATPase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenerman, M.A.; Leister, K.J.; Wang, S.Y.; Racker, E.

    1987-01-01

    Mouse embryo fibroblast cells (C3H-10T1/2) and the methylcholanthrene-transformed derivative (MCA-10T1/2) were treated with basal modified Eagles medium at varying ouabain concentrations ranging from 0.05 mM to 0.5 mM for 16 h in culture. After replacing the ouabain-containing medium with BME, System A ( 3 H-AlB uptake) and the (Na + /K + )ATPase pump activity (ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake) was increased 10-fold and 3-fold, respectively (at 0.4 mM ouabain) in confluent C3H-10T1/2 cells. System A and the (Na + /K + )ATPase activity was increased 15-fold and 5-fold, respectively in confluent MCA-10T1/2 cells but the increase was maximal at 0.2 mM ouabain. This treatment with ouabain increased the [Na + ]/sub i//[K + ]/sub i/ as measured by atomic absorption, and thereby decreased the Na + and K + electrochemical gradients. Their data show that the transformed cells were more sensitive to the internal ion inversion by ouabain than the C3H-10T1/2 cells. It appears, from data on hypertonicity and lipophilic cations that neither the chemical Na + gradient nor the negative membrane potential are the primary driving forces of System A transport

  18. Review and assessment of package requirements (yellowcake) and emergency response to transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    As a consequence of an accident involving a truck shipment of yellowcake, a joint NRC--DOT study was undertaken to review and assess the regulations and practices related to package integrity and to emergency response to transportation accidents involving low specific activity radioactive materials. Recommendations are made regarding the responsibilities of state and local agencies, carriers, and shippers, and the DOT and NRC regulations

  19. Heat transport as torsional responses and Keldysh formalism in a curved spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Shitade, Atsuo

    2013-01-01

    We revisit a theory of heat transport in the light of a gauge theory of gravity and find the proper heat current with a corresponding gauge field, which yields the natural definitions of the heat magnetization and the Kubo-formula contribution to the thermal conductivity as torsional responses. We also develop a general framework for calculating gravitational responses by combining the Keldysh and Cartan formalisms. By using this framework, we explicitly calculate these two quantities and rep...

  20. Response matrix method for neutron transport in reactor lattices using group symmetry properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mund, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a response matrix method for the approximate solution of one-velocity, multi-dimensional transport problems in reactor lattices, with isotropic neutron scattering. The transport equation is solved on a homogeneous cell by using a Petrov-Galerkin technique based on a set of trial and test functions (including polynomials and exponential functions) closely related to transport problems in infinite media. The number of non-zero elements of the response matrices reduces to a minimum when the symmetry properties of the cell are included ab initio in the span of the basis functions. To include these properties, use is made of projection operations which are performed very efficiently on symbolic manipulation programs. Numerical results of model problems in square geometry show a good agreement with reference solutions

  1. Costs for insurance of civil responsibility for nuclear damage during transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelina, M.E.; Arsent'ev, S.V.; Molchanov, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The article considers the method of calculation of rates for insurance of civil responsibility for nuclear damage during transportation of nuclear materials, which can minimize the insurer's costs for this type of insurance in situation when there is no statistics available and it is not possible to calculate the insurance rate by the traditional means using the probability theory

  2. Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1) ortholog in the marine skate Leucoraja erinacea is not a physiological bile salt transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongke; Zhang, Han; Lionarons, Daniel A; Boyer, James L; Cai, Shi-Ying

    2017-04-01

    The Na + -dependent taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1) is a hepatocyte-specific solute carrier, which plays an important role in maintaining bile salt homeostasis in mammals. The absence of a hepatic Na + -dependent bile salt transport system in marine skate and rainbow trout raises a question regarding the function of the Slc10a1 gene in these species. Here, we have characterized the Slc10a1 gene in the marine skate, Leucoraja erinacea The transcript of skate Slc10a1 (skSlc10a1) encodes 319 amino acids and shares 46% identity to human NTCP (hNTCP) with similar topology to mammalian NTCP. SkSlc10a1 mRNA was mostly confined to the brain and testes with minimal expression in the liver. An FXR-bile salt reporter assay indicated that skSlc10a1 transported taurocholic acid (TCA) and scymnol sulfate, but not as effectively as hNTCP. An [ 3 H]TCA uptake assay revealed that skSlc10a1 functioned as a Na + -dependent transporter, but with low affinity for TCA ( K m = 92.4 µM) and scymnol sulfate ( K i = 31 µM), compared with hNTCP (TCA, K m = 5.4 µM; Scymnol sulfate, K i = 3.5 µM). In contrast, the bile salt concentration in skate plasma was 2 µM, similar to levels seen in mammals. Interestingly, skSlc10a1 demonstrated transport activity for the neurosteroids dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and estrone-3-sulfate at physiological concentration, similar to hNTCP. Together, our findings indicate that skSlc10a1 is not a physiological bile salt transporter, providing a molecular explanation for the absence of a hepatic Na + -dependent bile salt uptake system in skate. We speculate that Slc10a1 is a neurosteroid transporter in skate that gained its substrate specificity for bile salts later in vertebrate evolution. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. In vitro studies of theophylline-induced changes in Na, K and Cl transport in hen (Gallus domesticus) colon suggesting bidirectional, basolateral NaK2Cl cotransport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Munck, B G; Munck, L K

    1990-01-01

    1. In isolated mucosa from a NaCl-loaded hen theophylline stimulates both unidirectional chloride fluxes (JmsCl and JsmCl). Conductive and electroneutral exchange processes, besides a bumetanide-sensitive, rheogenic process contribute. 2. The bumetanide-sensitive fraction of the theophylline......-induced delta JcmCl is sodium-dependent. 3. Incubation in nominally K(+)-free solutions reduces the bumetanide-sensitive fraction delta JsmCl more than treatment with ouabain. 4. With respect to chloride the bumetanide-sensitive fraction of delta JsmCl has a Hill coefficient of 1.93 +/- 0.03, a Jmax of 12...

  4. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  5. Stimulation of Na{sup +} transport by stress protein and by its inhibitors by sheep maw epithelium; Stimulacia transportu Na{sup +} stresovym proteinom a jeho inhibitormi cez epitel bachora oviec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dano, M; Galambos, M; Rosskopfova, O [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra jadrovej chemie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    Stress proteins - 'Heat shock proteins' (Hsp) are formed during sublethal stress and other impulses, and can play an important role in protecting the functions of sheep maw epithelium, such as transport of minerals and development of the epithelium itself. The paper is aimed at assessing the protective mechanism of Hsp originated during returning to the original state from temporary acidosis of sheep maw epithelium. The aim was to determine the activity of the Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger, which was affected by the expression of Hsp70 in ruminal acidosis by the method of radioactive indication. (authors)

  6. Ionizing radiation action of transport systems of Na+ and K+ of neutronal membranes. Potassium ions reaccumulation with brain slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvoretsky, A.I.; Shainskaya, A.M.; Ananyeva, T.V.; Kulikova, I.A.

    1990-01-01

    The biological effect of ionizing radiation (IR) on the Na,K pump of the surviving brain cortex slices was investigated. It was shown that IR leads to marked disturbances in the Na,K pump activity and causes essential phasic changes in potassium ion reaccumulation by brain slices in different time after exposure. The possibility of modelling the radiation effect with the help of phospholipase A2 and decylenic acid was shown. The mechanisms of the functional disturbance of Na-K pump of nerve cells after irradiation are under discussion. (author)

  7. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  8. Stress Response to Long Distance Transportation of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dobšíková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress responses and changes in biochemical and haematological indices were investigated in three-year-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. during a long-distance transportation in special truck tanks. Twelve-hour transportation caused a significant increase in ammonia (p < 0.01, mean corpuscular volume MCV (p < 0.01, metamyelocytes ( p < 0.05 and band neutrophils (p < 0.01, and a significant decrease in Cl- (p < 0.05, lactate (p < 0.05, ALT (p < 0.05 and ALP (p < 0.01 levels. The values of LDH (p < 0.01, AST (p < 0.05, CK (p < 0.01 and haematocrit PCV (p < 0.05 were also significantly influenced by the transportation, but no time-dependent relation was found. On the contrary, the levels of cortisol, glucose and total protein in the biochemical profile, and the values of erythrocyte count (RBC, haemoglobin (Hb, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte counts (WBC and leukogram (except for metamyelocytes and band neutrophils in the haematological profile were not significantly influenced by the transportation. Results showed that pre-transport fish manipulation (hauling, netting, handling, loading was found to be an important stressor for fish. Long-distance transportation itself was relatively considerate for the common carp tested.

  9. Trasax '90: An integrated transportation emergency response exercise program involving transuranic waste shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouba, S.; Everitt, J.

    1991-01-01

    Over the last five years, the US Department of Energy (DOE), and several states and numerous local governments have been preparing for the transportation of transuranic (TRU) waste to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico, near Carlsbad. Seven western states, represented by the Western Governors' Association (WGA), submitted a report to the US Congress that discussed the concerns of their constituents related to the transportation of TRU waste through their communities. One of the three major concerns identified was emergency preparedness. Initial funding to resolve concerns identified in the WGA report to Congress was provided by the US Department of Transportation. Upon receiving funding, lead states were assigned responsibilities to devise programs aimed at increasing public confidence in the areas of most concern. The responsibility for emergency response readiness, as demonstrated through a program of training and responding to simulated accident scenarios, was accepted by the state of Colorado. The state of Colorado laid out an exercise program which expanded upon the DOE training programs already offered to emergency responders along Colorado's designated TRU-waste transportation corridor. The ongoing program included a full-scale field exercise staged in Colorado Springs and dubbed, ''TRANSAX '90.''

  10. The orphan transporter v7-3 (slc6a15) is a Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporter (B0AT2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bröer, Angelika; Tietze, Nadine; Kowalczuk, Sonja

    2006-01-01

    . The transporter is functionally and sequence related to B(0)AT1 (slc6a19) and was hence named B(0)AT2. Leucine, isoleucine, valine, proline and methionine were recognized by the transporter, with values of K(0.5) (half-saturation constant) ranging from 40 to 200 microM. Alanine, glutamine and phenylalanine were...

  11. The effect of transport time, season and position on the truck on stress response in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Liste, M.G; María, G. A.; García-Belenguer, S.; Chacón, G.; Gazzola, P.; Villarroel, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study analyzed the effect of transport time, season and position on the truck on physiological stress response of commercial rabbits in Aragón (Spain). A total of 156 animals were sampled in a 2x2x3 factorial design testing two transport times: short, 1 hour (1hT) and long, 7 hours (7hT), in two different seasons: hot, during summer (HT) and cold during winter (CT), and three different positions on the truck: upper, middle or lower decks in multi-floor cages on rolling stands (MFR...

  12. Mental models or methodological artefacts? Adults' 'naïve' responses to a test of children's conceptions of the earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia

    2009-05-01

    Vosniadou and Brewer (1992) claim that children's drawings and answers to questions show that they have naive, theory-like 'mental models' of the earth; for example, they believe it to be flat, or hollow with people inside. However, recent studies that have used different methods have found little or no evidence of these misconceptions. The contrasting accounts, and possible reasons for the inconsistent findings, were tested by giving adults (N = 484) either the original task (designed for 5-year olds) or a new version in which the same drawing instructions and questions were rephrased and clarified. Many adults' responses to the original version were identical to children's 'naïve' drawings and answers. The new version elicited substantially fewer non-scientific responses. These findings indicate that even adults find the original instructions and questions ambiguous and confusing, and that this is the principal reason for their non-scientific drawings and answers. Since children must find the task even more confusing than adults, this explanation very probably applies to many of their non-scientific responses, too, and therefore accounts for the discrepant findings of previous research. 'Naïve' responses result largely from misinterpretation of Vosniadou and Brewer's apparently simple task, rather than from mental models of the earth.

  13. Crystal structure and transport properties of gamma-Na sub x CoO sub 2 (x=0.67 approx 0.75)

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Y; Miyazaki, Y; Kajitani, T; Ishii, Y

    2003-01-01

    Crystal structure and transport properties of gamma-Na sub x CoO sub 2 have been studied in the range of x=0.67-0.75. Single-phase samples were prepared by sintering mixture of raw materials, Na sub 2 CO sub 3 (99.5%) and Co sub 3 O sub 4 (99.9%). Na/Co composition ratio (x) was determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. The crystal structure parameters were refined by Rietveld analysis of powder neutron diffraction intensities, assuming P6 sub 3 /mmc type space symmetry. Little changes in the crystal structure are noticed, except for Na contents. Electric resistivity rho and Seebeck coefficient S were measured at temperatures between 380 K and 1000 K by the standard four-probe method and temperature gradient method, respectively. The rho-T curves exhibit the thermal hysteresis in the initial measurement. But, in the following measurement, the thermal hysteresis is significantly suppressed. The S was slightly higher in the sample with x = 0.75 than in the others at any temperatures. Power factor...

  14. Diversity in growth and expression pattern of PoHKT1 and PoVHA transporter genes under NaCl stress in Portulaca oleracea taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Bakatoushi R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth and the expression of two transporter genes; PoHKT1 and PoVHA transcripts in root and shoot tissues were studied under salt stress of three Portulaca oleracea s.l. taxa. The study showed no significant differences in ratios between root lengths in saline and non-saline treatments of the three taxa, which was correlated with a clear down-regulation of the PoHKT1 transcripts in the root after 150mM NaCl. All measured growth parameters except root length increased in P. oleraceae, decreased in P. granulatostellulata and remain unchanged after 100mM NaCl in P. nitida compared to control under saline conditions. The result was consistent with the type of taxon which had significant effect on the shoot length, number of leaves and dry weight (P< 0.05. All measured growth parameters except root length showed a significant negative correlation with the shoot fold change of PoHKT1 transcripts (r = -0.607, -0.693 and -0.657 respectively. The regulation of PoVHA in root and shoot tissues in the three taxa are significantly different. Under salt stress, both decreased uptake of Na+ into the cytosol by decreasing the expression of PoHKT1 and increased vascular compartmentalization ability of Na+ by inducing the expression of PoVHA seem to work more efficiently in P. oleraceae and P. nitida than in P. granulato-stellulata.

  15. Efect of verminosis on goat immune response/ Efeito da verminose na resposta imune em caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Garcia

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the immune response in goats with different degrees of gastrintestinal nematode infection. Ninety adult animals naturally infected were grouped according to the total egg count per feces gram (EPG: group I from zero to 500 EPG, group II from 501 to 2000 and group III above 2000. The parameters studied were serum total protein (STP, evaluated by biuret method; globulin (Glob, calculated by the difference between STP and serum albumin; gammaglobulin (Gglob, estimated throughout electrophoresis; immunoglobulin (Ig, estimated by turbidometry test with ZnSO4 and absolute lymphocyte count (Lymp / ml. It was found statistically decrease in three parameters (STP, Ig and Lymp / ml for group III. For Glob and Gglob, the decrease found was not statistically significant. These results show a depressor effect of nematode infection on humoral immune system. The intense dispersion of Glob and Gglob data can explain the not significant decrease found in those parameters. It was concluded that goats with intense nematode infection (above 2000 EPG can show immunedepression, with impairment of lymphocyte count and serum antibody level.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a resposta imunológica em caprinos com vários graus de verminose gastrintestinal. Foram utilizados 90 animais adultos, naturalmente infectados, divididos em três grupos de 30 animais cada e separados segundo a contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG: grupo I de zero a 500 OPG; grupo II de 501 a 2.000 OPG e o grupo III maior que 2.000 OPG. As variáveis estudadas foram: a dosagem de proteínas séricas totais (PST, avaliada pelo método do biureto; globulinas (Glob, calculada pela diferença entre a proteína total e a albumina sérica; gamaglobulinas (Gglob, medidas pela eletroforese; imunoglobulinas (Ig, dosadas pelo teste da turbidimetria com ZnSO4 e a contagem absoluta de linfócitos (Linfo/mL. Observou-se que em três destes parâmetros (PST, Ig e

  16. Interplay between structure and transport properties of molten salt mixtures of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl: A molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Venkateswara Rao; Swinteck, Nichlas; Bringuier, Stefan; Lucas, Pierre; Deymier, Pierre; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2016-03-07

    Molten mixtures of network-forming covalently bonded ZnCl2 and network-modifying ionically bonded NaCl and KCl salts are investigated as high-temperature heat transfer fluids for concentrating solar power plants. Specifically, using molecular dynamics simulations, the interplay between the extent of the network structure, composition, and the transport properties (viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion) of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl molten salts is characterized. The Stokes-Einstein/Eyring relationship is found to break down in these network-forming liquids at high concentrations of ZnCl2 (>63 mol. %), while the Eyring relationship is seen with increasing KCl concentration. Further, the network modification due to the addition of K ions leads to formation of non-bridging terminal Cl ions, which in turn lead to a positive temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in these melts. This new understanding of transport in these ternary liquids enables the identification of appropriate concentrations of the network formers and network modifiers to design heat transfer fluids with desired transport properties for concentrating solar power plants.

  17. Interaction between serotonin transporter gene variants and life events predicts response to antidepressants in the GENDEP project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keers, R.; Uher, R.; Huezo-Diaz, P.

    2011-01-01

    , and several polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) have been genotyped including the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Stressful life events were shown to predict a significantly better response to escitalopram but had no effect on response to nortriptyline...

  18. Effects of thyroid hormone on Na sup + -K sup + transport in resting and stimulated rat skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everts, M.E.; Clausen, T. (Aarhus Univ. (Denmark))

    1988-11-01

    The effects of hypothyroidism and 3,5,3{prime}-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) treatment on passive Na{sup +}-K{sup +} fluxes and Na{sup +}-K{sup +} pump concentration were investigated in isolated rat muscle. Within 12 h after a single dose of T{sub 3} (20 {mu}g/100 g body wt), K{sup +} efflux had increased by 21% in soleus and by 20% in extensor digitorum longus muscle. In the presence of ouabain, even larger effects were observed. These changes were associated with a 12% rise in amiloride-suppressible Na{sup +} influx but no significant increase in ({sup 3}H)ouabain binding site concentration. After 3 days of T{sub 3} treatment, the stimulating effect on K{sup +} efflux and Na{sup +} influx in soleus reached a plateau {approximately}80 and 40% above control levels, respectively, whereas the maximum increase in ({sup 3}H)ouabain binding site concentration (103%) was only fully developed after 8 days. Hypothyroidism decreased {sup 86}Rb efflux by 30%. The efflux of K{sup +} and the influx of Na{sup +} per contraction (both {approximately}7 nmol/g wet wt) as well as the net loss of K{sup +} induced by electrical stimulation were unaffected by T{sub 3} treatment. The rise in resting K{sup +} efflux after 12-24 h of T{sub 3} treatment could be partly blocked by dantrolene or trifluoroperazine, indicating that an increase in the cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} concentration may contribute to the early rise in K{sup +} efflux. It is concluded that the early rise in the resting passive leaks of Na{sup +} and K{sup +} induced by T{sub 3} is a major driving force for Na{sup +}-K{sup +} pump synthesis.

  19. Transporting TMI-2 core debris to INEL: Public safety and public response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Reno, H.W.; Young, W.R.; Hamric, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the approach taken by the US Department of Energy to ensure that public safety is maintained during transport of core debris from the Unit-2 reactor at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station near Harrisburg, PA, to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, ID. It provides up-to-date information about public response to the transport action and discusses DOE's position on several institutional issues. The authors advise that planners of future transport operations be prepared for a multitude of comments from all levels of federal, state, and local governments, special interest groups, and private citizens. They also advise planners to keep meticulous records concerning all informational transactions. 3 figs

  20. The adenosine-triphosphatase system responsible for cation transport in electric organ: exclusion of phospholipids as intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, I. M.; Slayman, Carolyn W.; Eichberg, J.; Dawson, R. M. C.

    1965-01-01

    1. Subcellular fractions were prepared from the electric organs of Electrophorus and Torpedo and assayed for adenosine-triphosphatase activity. 2. Treatment of the `low-speed' fraction from Torpedo with m-urea gave an adenosine-triphosphatase preparation that was almost completely (98%) inhibited by ouabain (0·1mg./ml.) and dependent on the simultaneous presence of Na+ and K+. 3. The adenosine-triphosphatase preparations were exposed to [γ-32P]ATP for 30sec. in the presence of (i) Na+, (ii) K+, (iii) Na++K+ and (iv) Na++K++ouabain. No significant labelling of phosphatidic acid, triphosphoinositide or any other phospholipid was observed. 4. The results suggest that phospholipids do not act as phosphorylated intermediates in the `transport adenosine-triphosphatase' system of electric organ. PMID:14340060

  1. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  2. Road transport and diet affect metabolic response to exercise in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connysson, M; Muhonen, S; Jansson, A

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of transport and diet on metabolic response during a subsequent race-like test in Standardbred horses in training fed a forage-only diet and a 50:50 forage:oats diet. Six trained and raced Standardbred trotter mares were used. Two diets, 1 forage-only diet (FONLY) and 1 diet with 50% of DM intake from forage and 50% from oats (FOATS), were fed for two 29-d periods in a crossover design. At Day 21, the horses were subjected to transport for 100 km before and after they performed an exercise test (transport test [TT]). At Day 26, the horses performed a control test (CT), in which they were kept in their stall before and after the exercise test. Blood samples were collected throughout the study, and heart rate and water intake were recorded. Heart rate and plasma cortisol, glucose, and NEFA concentrations were greater for the TT than for the CT ( = 0.008, = 0.020, = 0.010, and = 0.0002, respectively) but were not affected by diet. Plasma acetate concentration was lower during the TT than during the CT ( = 0.034) and greater for the FONLY than for the FOATS ( = 0.003). There were no overall effects of the TT compared with the CT on total plasma protein concentration (TPP), but TPP was lower with the FONLY than with the FOATS ( = 0.016). There was no overall effect of the TT compared with the CT on water intake, but water intake was greater with the FONLY than the FOATS ( = 0.011). There were no overall effects of transport or diet on BW, plasma lactate, or plasma urea concentration. It was concluded that both transport and diet affect metabolic response during exercise in horses. Aerobic energy supply was most likely elevated by transportation and by the FONLY. The FONLY also decreased exercise-induced effects on extracellular fluid regulation. These results highlight the importance of experimental design in nutrition studies. If the aim is to examine how a diet affects exercise response in competition horses, transport should

  3. A 19-kDa C-terminal tryptic fragment of the α chain of Na/K-ATPase is essential for occlusion and transport of cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlish, S.J.D.; Goldshleger, R.; Stein, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    Tryptic digestion of pig renal Na/K-ATPase in the presence of Rb and absence of Ca ions removes about half of the protein but leaves a stable 19-kDa membrane-embedded fragment derived from the α chain, a largely intact β chain, and essentially normal Rb- and Na-occlusion capacity. Subsequent digestion with trypsin in the presence of Ca or absence of Rb ions leads to rapid loss of the 19-kDa fragment and a parallel loss of Rb occlusion, demonstrating that the fragment is essential for occlusion. The N-terminal sequence of the 19-kDa fragment is Asn-Pro-Lys-Thr-Asp-Lys-Leu-Val-Asn-Glu-Arg-Leu-Ile-Ser-Met-Ala, beginning at residue 830 and extending toward the C terminus. Membranes containing the 19-kDa fragment have the following functional properties. (i) ATP-dependent functions are absent. (ii) The apparent affinity for occluding Rb is unchanged, the affinity for Na is lower than in the control enzyme, and activation is now strongly sigmoidal rather than hyperbolic. (iii) Membranes containing the 19-kDa fragment can be reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles and sustain slow Rb-Rb exchange. Thus the transport pathway is retained. The authors conclude that cation occlusion sites and the transport pathway within transmembrane segments are quite separate from the ATP binding sites, located on the cytoplasmic domain of the α chain. Interactions between cation and ATP sites, the heart of active transport, must be indirect - mediated, presumably, by conformational changes of the protein

  4. A 19-kDa C-terminal tryptic fragment of the. alpha. chain of Na/K-ATPase is essential for occlusion and transport of cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlish, S.J.D.; Goldshleger, R. (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)); Stein, W.D. (Hebrew Univ. Jerusalem (Israel))

    1990-06-01

    Tryptic digestion of pig renal Na/K-ATPase in the presence of Rb and absence of Ca ions removes about half of the protein but leaves a stable 19-kDa membrane-embedded fragment derived from the {alpha} chain, a largely intact {beta} chain, and essentially normal Rb- and Na-occlusion capacity. Subsequent digestion with trypsin in the presence of Ca or absence of Rb ions leads to rapid loss of the 19-kDa fragment and a parallel loss of Rb occlusion, demonstrating that the fragment is essential for occlusion. The N-terminal sequence of the 19-kDa fragment is Asn-Pro-Lys-Thr-Asp-Lys-Leu-Val-Asn-Glu-Arg-Leu-Ile-Ser-Met-Ala, beginning at residue 830 and extending toward the C terminus. Membranes containing the 19-kDa fragment have the following functional properties. (i) ATP-dependent functions are absent. (ii) The apparent affinity for occluding Rb is unchanged, the affinity for Na is lower than in the control enzyme, and activation is now strongly sigmoidal rather than hyperbolic. (iii) Membranes containing the 19-kDa fragment can be reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles and sustain slow Rb-Rb exchange. Thus the transport pathway is retained. The authors conclude that cation occlusion sites and the transport pathway within transmembrane segments are quite separate from the ATP binding sites, located on the cytoplasmic domain of the {alpha} chain. Interactions between cation and ATP sites, the heart of active transport, must be indirect - mediated, presumably, by conformational changes of the protein.

  5. Validation and uncertainty quantification of detector response functions for a 1″×2″ NaI collimated detector intended for inverse radioisotope source mapping applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, N.; Azmy, Y.; Gardner, R. P.; Mattingly, J.; Smith, R.; Worrall, L. G.; Dewji, S.

    2017-11-01

    Detector response functions (DRFs) are often used for inverse analysis. We compute the DRF of a sodium iodide (NaI) nuclear material holdup field detector using the code named g03 developed by the Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR) at NC State University. Three measurement campaigns were performed in order to validate the DRF's constructed by g03: on-axis detection of calibration sources, off-axis measurements of a highly enriched uranium (HEU) disk, and on-axis measurements of the HEU disk with steel plates inserted between the source and the detector to provide attenuation. Furthermore, this work quantifies the uncertainty of the Monte Carlo simulations used in and with g03, as well as the uncertainties associated with each semi-empirical model employed in the full DRF representation. Overall, for the calibration source measurements, the response computed by the DRF for the prediction of the full-energy peak region of responses was good, i.e. within two standard deviations of the experimental response. In contrast, the DRF tended to overestimate the Compton continuum by about 45-65% due to inadequate tuning of the electron range multiplier fit variable that empirically represents physics associated with electron transport that is not modeled explicitly in g03. For the HEU disk measurements, computed DRF responses tended to significantly underestimate (more than 20%) the secondary full-energy peaks (any peak of lower energy than the highest-energy peak computed) due to scattering in the detector collimator and aluminum can, which is not included in the g03 model. We ran a sufficiently large number of histories to ensure for all of the Monte Carlo simulations that the statistical uncertainties were lower than their experimental counterpart's Poisson uncertainties. The uncertainties associated with least-squares fits to the experimental data tended to have parameter relative standard deviations lower than the peak channel relative standard

  6. Responses of Withdrawal Interneurons to Serotonin Applications in Naïve and Learned Snails Are Different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana K. Bogodvid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term changes in membrane potential after associative training were described previously in identified premotor interneurons for withdrawal of the terrestrial snail Helix. Serotonin was shown to be a major transmitter involved in triggering the long-term changes in mollusks. In the present study we compared the changes in electrophysiological characteristics of identifiable premotor interneurons for withdrawal in response to bath applications of serotonin (5-HT or serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP in preparations from naïve, neurotoxin-injected or associatively trained snails. It was found that 5-HT or 5-HTP applications caused a significant decrease of membrane potential in premotor interneurons of naïve snails, associatively trained snails and snails with impaired serotonergic system by injection of a selective neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT 1 week before the experiments. Applications of 5-HT or 5-HTP did not cause significant changes in the action potential (AP threshold potential of these neurons in naïve snails. Conversely, applications of 5-HT or 5-HTP to the premotor interneurons of previously trained or 5,7-DHT-injected snails caused a significant increase in the firing threshold potential in spite of a depolarizing shift of the resting membrane potential. Results demonstrate that responsiveness of premotor interneurons to extracellularly applied 5-HT or 5-HTP changes for days after the associative training or serotonin depletion. Similarity of the effects in trained and 5,7-DHT-injected animals may be due to massive release of serotonin elicited by 5,7-DHT injection. Our results suggest that serotonin release due to aversive conditionining or elicited by the neurotoxin administration triggers similar changes in resting membrane potential and AP threshold in response to bath applications of 5-HT or its precursor 5-HTP.

  7. Photopeak efficiency response function of an underwater gamma-ray NaI(Tl) detector using MCNP-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, William L.; Silva, Ademir X.; Salgado, Cesar M.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a study to calculate the response function of a 1.5″ x 1″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector when it is used in the marine environment in the energy range from 20 keV to 662 keV. The method takes into account both the scattering of photons in the water and the detection mechanism of the detector. In addition, the calculation of the response function of the whole system is essential for suppressing the background of the measurement and for estimating the concentration of the involved radionuclides, especially given the greater probability of primary gamma photons undergoing multiple scattering events before they interact with the detector. The experimental photopeak efficiency measurements for point sources were compared with the simulated results under the same conditions of the experimental setup to validate the simulation of the detector. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the MCNP-X code for the investigation of gamma-ray absorption in water in different brines. The energy resolution curve was used to improve the response of the mathematical simulation of the detector. The detector’s simulation was based on information obtained from the gammagraphy technique. Both dimensions and materials were used for the calculation with the MCNP-X code. The photopeak efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector for different radionuclides in the aquatic environment with different salinities was calculated. (author)

  8. A study of the effect of Al2O3 reflector on response function of NaI(Tl) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, Hoang Duc; Chuong, Huynh Dinh; Thanh, Tran Thien; Van Tao, Chau

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of Al 2 O 3 reflector surrounding the NaI(Tl) crystal on the detector response function, based on Monte Carlo simulation, which can verify the precise model of the NaI(Tl) detector. The method used in determining the suitable thickness of Al 2 O 3 reflector is to compare the calculated and experimental values of full-energy peak efficiency. The results show that the Al 2 O 3 reflector should have a thickness of 0.8–1.2 mm for the maximum deviation between the experimental and simulated efficiency of 3.2% at all concerning energies. In addition, the obtained results are in good agreement with the response function of simulation and experimental spectra. - Highlights: • The study was conducted to verify the model of Monte Carlo simulation. • The effect of Al 2 O 3 reflector on the detector response function was investigated. • The optimum thickness of Al 2 O 3 reflector is suggested.

  9. Transport properties of molten-salt reactor fuel mixtures: the case of Na, Li, Be/F and Li, Be, Th/F salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.; Merzlyakov, A.; Afonichkin, V.; Khokhlov, V.; Salyulev, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we have compiled transport properties information, available, on two types of FLiBe based salt mixtures (Na,Li,Be/F and Li,Be,Th/F) that are presently of importance in the design of innovative molten-salt burner reactors. Estimated and/or experimental values measured (particularly, from prior US and Russian studies, as well our recent studies) are given for the following properties: viscosity, thermal conductivity, phase transition behaviour, heat capacity, density and thermal expansion. (author)

  10. Increased NBCn1 expression, Na+/ HCO 3 ? co-transport and intracellular pH in human vascular smooth muscle cells with a risk allele for hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Fu Liang; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Witkowska, Kate; Ren, Meixia; Zhang, Ruoxin; Tucker, Arthur; Aalkj?r, Christian; Caulfield, Mark J.; Ye, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Genome-wide association studies have revealed an association between variation at the SLC4A7 locus and blood pressure. SLC4A7 encodes the electroneutral Na+/ HCO 3 ? co-transporter NBCn1 which regulates intracellular pH (pH i ). We conducted a functional study of variants at this locus in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. In both cell types, we found genotype-dependent differences for rs13082711 in DNA-nuclear protein interactions, where the risk allel...

  11. Transport properties of molten-salt reactor fuel mixtures: the case of Na, Li, Be/F and Li, Be, Th/F salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, V; Merzlyakov, A [Kurchatov Institute - KI (Russian Federation); Afonichkin, V; Khokhlov, V; Salyulev, A [Institute of High Temperature Electrochemisty (IHTE), RF Yuri Golovatov, Konstantin Grebenkine, Vladimir Subbotin Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF) (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    In this paper we have compiled transport properties information, available, on two types of FLiBe based salt mixtures (Na,Li,Be/F and Li,Be,Th/F) that are presently of importance in the design of innovative molten-salt burner reactors. Estimated and/or experimental values measured (particularly, from prior US and Russian studies, as well our recent studies) are given for the following properties: viscosity, thermal conductivity, phase transition behaviour, heat capacity, density and thermal expansion. (author)

  12. EXAMINATION OF THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL RESPONSE SYSTEM IN KOREA AND SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENTS RELATING TO TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sei-Chang OH, Ph.D.

    2004-01-01

    This research focuses on the examination of current emergency medical response system related to the transport of emergency vehicles and suggests some transport-related ideas to improve the system in Korea. The study aimed to investigate the present emergency medical response system and identify problems, questionnaire survey and literature review were carried. The ideas include the improvement of emergency information flow and the development of preferential treatment methods for emergency vehicles. To improve the emergency information flow, this research studied the bridge between emergency medical information center and traffic information center and proposed the efficient utilization of traffic information for the better treatment of an emergency. When it comes to the movement of emergency vehicles, various preferential treatment methods were suggested.

  13. Mechanism and significance of P4 ATPase-catalyzed lipid transport: lessons from a Na+/K+-pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puts, C.F.; Holthuis, J.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are believed to catalyze phospholipid transport across membrane bilayers, a process influencing a host of cellular functions. Atomic structures and functional analysis of P-type ATPases that pump small cations and metal ions revealed a transport

  14. Development of supporting system for emergency response to maritime transport accidents involving radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, N.; Matsuoka, T.; Suzuki, H.

    2004-01-01

    National Maritime Research Institute has developed a supporting system for emergency response of competent authority to maritime transport accidents involving radioactive material. The supporting system for emergency response has functions of radiation shielding calculation, marine diffusion simulation, air diffusion simulation and radiological impact evaluation to grasp potential hazard of radiation. Loss of shielding performance accident and loss of sealing ability accident were postulated and impact of the accidents was evaluated based on the postulated accident scenario. Procedures for responding to emergency were examined by the present simulation results

  15. Spin response in LiFeAs and NaFeAs iron-pnictides superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochner, Felix; Ahn, Felix; Eremin, Ilya [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the spin susceptibility in LiFeAs and NaFeAs by using the ten-orbital tight-binding model that we fitted to the electronic band structure measured by recent ARPES experiments. We identify an effective five-band model for a weak k{sub z}-dependence. Besides we present the bare and RPA-susceptibility and its q{sub z} dependencies to study the magnetic instabilities and estimate the strength of intra-orbital and inter-orbital nesting.

  16. Humoral immune responses to a single allele PfAMA1 vaccine in healthy malaria-naïve adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond J Remarque

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum: apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1 is a candidate malaria vaccine antigen expressed on merozoites and sporozoites. The polymorphic nature of AMA1 may compromise vaccine induced protection. The humoral response induced by two dosages (10 and 50 µg of a single allele AMA1 antigen (FVO formulated with Alhydrogel, Montanide ISA 720 or AS02 was investigated in 47 malaria-naïve adult volunteers. Volunteers were vaccinated 3 times at 4 weekly intervals and serum samples obtained four weeks after the third immunization were analysed for (i Antibody responses to various allelic variants, (ii Domain specificity, (iii Avidity, (iv IgG subclass levels, by ELISA and (v functionality of antibody responses by Growth Inhibition Assay (GIA. About half of the antibodies induced by vaccination cross reacted with heterologous AMA1 alleles. The choice of adjuvant determined the magnitude of the antibody response, but had only a marginal influence on specificity, avidity, domain recognition or subclass responses. The highest antibody responses were observed for AMA1 formulated with AS02. The Growth Inhibition Assay activity of the antibodies was proportional to the amount of antigen specific IgG and the functional capacity of the antibodies was similar for heterologous AMA1-expressing laboratory strains.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00730782.

  17. Response of parylene-coated NaI(Tl scintillators at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coron Noël

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite that it is widely used as a scintillator at room temperature, the hygroscopicity of NaI complicates its handling and limits its application for many purposes, for example as a cryogenic detector. To overcome this problem we study coating materials that can act as humidity barriers, in particular parylene, a polymer that can be deposited in very radiopure, thin and conformal layers. In this work, several NaI(Tl samples coated with 2-5 µm parylene-C were tested at low temperature. Luminescence spectra under X-ray excitation are presented at several temperatures as well as the light output vs temperature at 1.5-300 K. Several thermoluminescence peaks were observed at around 60, 95 and 150 K during warm up to room temperature. The mechanical resistance of the coating under thermal cycles was also investigated, and we observed a degradation of the optical appearance and the light output after cooling down to about 100 mK, which compromises the reusability of the samples.

  18. APLICAÇÃO DO METODO DE ANÁLISE HIERARQUICA (MAH NA ANALISE E AVALIAÇÃO DE IMPACTOS AMBIENTAIS DOS SISTEMAS DE TRANSPORTES URBANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Mouette

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    O estudo de impacto ambiental envolve uma grande quantidade de critérios e parâmetros, sendo necessário o trabalho conjunto de uma equipe multidisciplinar. A complexidade dos impactos decorrentes dos sistemas de transporte urbanos que possuem características e magnitudes muito diferentes, somada a não obrigatoriedade do estudo, fizeram com que poucos estudos fossem efetuados e tornou evidente a necessidade de metodologias de avaliação dos mesmos. Este estudo aborda a utilização do Método de Analise Hierárquica, um procedimento multicriterial na analise e avaliação dos impactos ambientais dos sistemas de transportes urbanos.

    ABSTRACT

    The study of environmental impacts involves a large amount of criteria and parameters being necessary to work with a multisciplinary team. The impacts due to urban transportation are very complex having different characteristics and magnitude, besides that, in Brazil, these studies are not obliged by law. These facts leads to few studies of the environmental impacts and evidences the necessity of developing methodologies which makes possible the impact's evaluation. This study refers to the utilization of the Analytical Hierarchy Process, a multicriteria procedure in the evaluation and analysis of environmental impacts in urban transportation.

  19. Vectorial transport of bile salts across MDCK cells expressing both rat Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and rat bile salt export pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Sachiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Akita, Hidetaka; Stieger, Bruno; Meier, Peter J; Hofmann, Alan F; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2005-01-01

    Bile salts are predominantly taken up by hepatocytes via the basolateral Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1) and secreted into the bile by the bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11). In the present study, we transfected rat Ntcp and rat Bsep into polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and characterized the transport properties of these cells for eight bile salts. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that Ntcp was expressed at the basolateral domains, whereas Bsep was expressed at the apical domains. Basal-to-apical transport of taurocholate across the monolayer expressing only Ntcp and that coexpressing Ntcp/Bsep was observed, whereas the flux across the monolayer of control and Bsep-expressing cells was symmetrical. Basal-to-apical transport of taurocholate across Ntcp/Bsep-coexpressing monolayers was significantly higher than that across monolayers expressing only Ntcp. Kinetic analysis of this vectorial transport of taurocholate gave an apparent K(m) value of 13.9 +/- 4.7 microM for cells expressing Ntcp alone, which is comparable with 22.2 +/- 4.5 microM for cells expressing both Ntcp and Bsep and V(max) values of 15.8 +/- 4.2 and 60.8 +/- 9.0 pmol.min(-1).mg protein(-1) for Ntcp alone and Ntcp and Bsep-coexpressing cells, respectively. Transcellular transport of cholate, glycocholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, chenodeoxycholate, glycochenodeoxycholate, tauroursodeoxycholate, ursodeoxycholate, and glycoursodeoxycholate, but not that of lithocholate was also observed across the double transfectant. This double-expressing system can be used as a model to clarify vectorial transport of bile salts across hepatocytes under physiological conditions.

  20. A GEOGRAFIA DOS TRANSPORTES NA ORGANIZAÇÃO DO ESPAÇO URBANO: mobilidade e acidentes de trânsito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Andrei Gonçalves Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Geografia trabalha várias temáticas, e dentre elas, os meios de transportes, que são responsáveis pela organização da estrutura espacial das redes e dos fluxos de mercadorias, pessoas e informações pelos diversos territórios. Nesse sentido, o objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar as políticas de mobilidade na organização do espaço urbano, sob a perspectiva da Geografia dos Transportes, tendo os acidentes de trânsito como uma externalidade no processo de planejamento urbano e um grave problema socioeconômico na cidade de Uberlândia. Assim, na operacionalização do mesmo, foram realizados alguns procedimentos metodológicos, tais como estudos bibliográficos e coleta dos dados em fontes secundárias de instituições governamentais para análise dos acidentes, no período de 2006 a 2009. Na organização do espaço urbano, a Geografia dos Transportes é uma disciplina importante para a compreensão da política de mobilidade urbana. O Estatuto da Cidade regulamentou os artigos 182 e 183 da Constituição Federal e estabeleceu diretrizes gerais para a política urbana brasileira e o Plano Diretor é um instrumento que traça as diretrizes gerais para o planejamento municipal. Os acidentes de trânsito podem ser considerados externalidades negativas nesse espaço urbano organizado, uma vez que extrapolam a política de planejamento e resultam em problemas econômicos e sociais para a população uberlandense. Em suma, as estatísticas dos acidentes de trânsito ainda assustam, e por esse motivo, o Brasil, Minas Gerais e Uberlândia precisam urgente de uma política de mobilidade inclusiva e sustentável, que garanta qualidade de vida à população, principalmente nas áreas urbanas.

  1. NaCl and osmolarity produce different responses in organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis neurons, sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, Brian J; Browning, Kirsteen N; Stocker, Sean D

    2017-09-15

    Changes in extracellular osmolarity stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion through a central osmoreceptor; however, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater sympathoexcitatory and pressor response than infusion of hypertonic mannitol/sorbitol. Neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) sense changes in extracellular osmolarity and NaCl. In this study, we discovered that intracerebroventricular infusion or local OVLT injection of hypertonic NaCl increases lumbar sympathetic nerve activity, adrenal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure whereas equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol did not alter any variable. In vitro whole-cell recordings demonstrate the majority of OVLT neurons are responsive to hypertonic NaCl or mannitol. However, hypertonic NaCl stimulates a greater increase in discharge frequency than equi-osmotic mannitol. Intracarotid or intracerebroventricular infusion of hypertonic NaCl evokes a greater increase in OVLT neuronal discharge frequency than equi-osmotic sorbitol. Collectively, these novel data suggest that subsets of OVLT neurons respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity and subsequently regulate body fluid homeostasis. These responses probably reflect distinct cellular mechanisms underlying NaCl- versus osmo-sensing. Systemic or central infusion of hypertonic NaCl and other osmolytes readily stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion. In contrast, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) than equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol. Although these responses depend on neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), these observations suggest OVLT neurons may sense or respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in Sprague-Dawley rats. First, intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion (5 μl/10 min) of 1.0 m NaCl produced a significantly greater

  2. Analysis of community response to transportation noise a quarter century after Schultz (1978)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidell, Sanford

    2003-10-01

    Transportation noise is a vexing and intrinsically controversial problem that has plagued societies since the beginnings of urban civilization. A function relating cumulative noise exposure to the prevalence of noise-induced annoyance [T. J. Schultz, ``Synthesis of social surveys on noise annoyance,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 377-405 (1978)] is the foundation for contemporary analyses of transportation noise effects on communities. The expenditures of billions of dollars in airplane ticket and fuel taxes for the construction of an airport infrastructure and for the mitigation of noise impacts in the United States are governed by policies ostensibly supported by a successor to Schultz's original ``synthesis'' curve. Many have grown so comfortable with the last quarter century's paradigm for transportation noise assessment and regulation, however, that they have lost sight of its underpinnings and limitations. A review of the historical and modern states of the art identifies persistent unresolved problems in the prediction and explanation of community response to transportation noise that are not fully addressed by descriptive dosage-effect analysis.

  3. Regulation of branchial V-H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and NHE2 in response to acid and base infusions in the Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin; Katoh, Fumi; Fenton, Heather; Jasinska, Edyta; Goss, Greg G

    2005-01-01

    To study the mechanisms of branchial acid-base regulation, Pacific spiny dogfish were infused intravenously for 24 h with either HCl (495+/- 79 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)) or NaHCO(3) (981+/-235 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)). Infusion of HCl produced a transient reduction in blood pH. Despite continued infusion of acid, pH returned to normal by 12 h. Infusion of NaHCO(3) resulted in a new steady-state acid-base status at approximately 0.3 pH units higher than the controls. Immunostained serial sections of gill revealed the presence of separate vacuolar proton ATPase (V-H(+)-ATPase)-rich or sodium-potassium ATPase (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase)-rich cells in all fish examined. A minority of the cells also labeled positive for both transporters. Gill cell membranes prepared from NaHCO(3)-infused fish showed significant increases in both V-H(+)-ATPase abundance (300+/-81%) and activity. In addition, we found that V-H(+)-ATPase subcellular localization was mainly cytoplasmic in control and HCl-infused fish, while NaHCO(3)-infused fish demonstrated a distinctly basolateral staining pattern. Western analysis in gill membranes from HCl-infused fish also revealed increased abundance of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 2 (213+/-5%) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (315+/-88%) compared to the control.

  4. Emergency response network design for hazardous materials transportation with uncertain demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Shahanaghi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of hazardous materials play an essential role on keeping a friendly environment. Every day, a substantial amount of hazardous materials (hazmats, such as flammable liquids and poisonous gases, need to be transferred prior to consumption or disposal. Such transportation may result in unsuitable events for people and environment. Emergency response network is designed for this reason where specialist responding teams resolve any issue as quickly as possible. This study proposes a new multi-objective model to locate emergency response centers for transporting the hazardous materials. Since many real-world applications are faced with uncertainty in input parameters, the proposed model of this paper also assumes that reference and demand to such centre is subject to uncertainty, where demand is fuzzy random. The resulted problem formulation is modelled as nonlinear non-convex mixed integer programming and we used NSGAII method to solve the resulted problem. The performance of the proposed model is examined with several examples using various probability distribution and they are compared with the performance of other existing method.

  5. Sulfate transporters in the plant’s response to drought and salinity: regulation and possible functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine eGallardo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought and salinity are two frequently combined abiotic stresses that affect plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Sulfate, and molecules derived from this anion such as glutathione, play important roles in the intrinsic responses of plants to such abiotic stresses. Therefore, understanding how plants facing environmental constraints re-equilibrate the flux of sulfate between and within different tissues might uncover perspectives for improving tolerance against abiotic stresses. In this review, we took advantage of genomics and post-genomics resources available in Arabidopsis thaliana and in the model legume species Medicago truncatula to highlight and compare the regulation of sulfate transporter genes under drought and salt stress. We also discuss their possible function in the plant’s response and adaptation to abiotic stresses and present prospects about the potential benefits of mycorrhizal associations, which by facilitating sulfate uptake may assist plants to cope with abiotic stresses. Several transporters are highlighted in this review that appear promising targets for improving sulfate transport capacities of crops under fluctuating environmental conditions.

  6. Root plasma membrane transporters controlling K+/Na+ homeostasis in salt-stressed bBarley1[C][W

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhonghua; Pottosin, Igor I.; Cuin, Tracey A.

    2007-01-01

    are well combined to withstand saline conditions. These mechanisms include: (1) better control of membrane voltage so retaining a more negative membrane potential; (2) intrinsically higher H1 pump activity; (3) better ability of root cells to pump Na1 from the cytosol to the external medium; and (4) higher......Plant salinity tolerance is a polygenic trait with contributions from genetic, developmental, and physiological interactions, in addition to interactions between the plant and its environment. In this study, we show that in salt-tolerant genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare), multiple mechanisms...... of the cytosolic K1-to-Na1 ratio being a key determinant of plant salinity tolerance, and suggest multiple pathways of controlling that important feature in salt-tolerant plants....

  7. H+ and Na+ Ion Transport Properties of Sulfonated Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenyleneoxide)Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouzek, K.; Moravcová, S.; Samec, Zdeněk; Schauer, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 6 (2003), s. E329-E336 ISSN 0013-4651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/0575; GA ČR GA104/02/0664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : H+ and Na+ ion * sulfonated * membranes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.361, year: 2003

  8. Efeitos na taxa de transporte de elétrons de plantas daninhas após aplicação de amicarbazone Effects on the electron transport rate of weeds after amicarbazone application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Araldi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre os herbicidas registrados para cana-de-açúcar, o amicarbazone é um dos mais importantes para o controle das plantas daninhas, sendo preciso que o herbicida seja absorvido, translocado e que ele alcance os cloroplastos das células das folhas para atuar em seu sítio de ligação no fotossistema II. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da aplicação do amicarbazone na taxa de transporte de elétrons (ETR de Ipomoea grandifolia, Brachiaria decumbens e Digitaria horizontalis. Foi verificada a resposta dessas plantas daninhas, em relação à ETR, quando submetidas ao amicarbazone em solução e na sequência à solução sem herbicida, por meio de leituras da ETR, realizadas em folhas novas e adultas com o uso de um fluorômetro portátil. Verificou-se também o consumo de água das plantas daninhas pela pesagem diária dos recipientes contendo a solução e as plantas. Assim, verificou-se por meio do experimento que a redução dos valores da ETR pode ser utilizada para indicar o nível de intoxicação nas plantas daninhas em estudo. As plantas daninhas I. grandifolia, B. decumbens e D. horizontalis apresentaram respostas diferenciadas quando submetidas a solução sem herbicida após solução com amicarbazone. I. grandifolia apresentou-se mais sensível ao amicarbazone devido à maior dificuldade em recuperar os níveis iniciais de ETR, além de apresentar alterações nas folhas novas após o termino de fornecimento do herbicida. O consumo de água pode explicar esse comportamento em I. grandifolia, visto tratar-se da espécie que mais consumiu água e, consequentemente, mais absorveu o amicarbazone. Já para B. decumbens e D. horizontalis ocorreram menores níveis de absorção de água e, por conseguinte, as folhas velhas tiveram melhor recuperação do transporte de elétrons e não houve intoxicação em folhas novas.Amicarbazone is one of the most important herbicides registered for weed control in sugarcane. It must

  9. Energy, enterprises and transports: how conciliate competitiveness and responsibility; Energie, entreprises et transports: comment concilier competitivite et responsabilite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    The meeting on the enterprises and transports competitiveness in a context of energy conservation, organized in Nice the 15 april 2003, took place three topics: are the competitiveness of enterprises and the energy consumptions mastership reconcilable? What are the solutions to answer the market demands with a decrease of the energy consumption? Concerning the goods transport, must we leave the road transport? The whole texts of the round tables and the open and exit allocution are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  10. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  11. Aplicação de crowdsourcing na gestão e no planejamento de transportes: conceitos, potencialidades e parcerias do Waze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa realizar um levantamento bibliográfico sobre a aplicação do crowdsourcing na gestão e no planejamento urbano, mais especificamente em transportes e mobilidade urbana. Inicialmente, apresenta-se os conceitos de neocartografia e crowdsourcing, e, então, a técnica derivada desses, o mapeamento colaborativo. Para ilustrar, lista-se exemplos de plataformas colaborativas que utilizam dados espaciais para geração de mapas sobre diversos temas e com diferentes objetivos e públicos-alvo. De forma mais detalhada, apresenta-se os princípios de funcionamento do aplicativo Waze e seu programa de parceria com o poder público em diversas cidades do mundo. Em seguida, descreve-se as contribuições já observadas desses sistemas geocolaborativos para a gestão de cidades, bem como as potencialidades percebidas dadas as ferramentas de que dispõem, com ênfase nas questões relacionadas aos sistemas de transportes. Por fim, conclui-se que o mapeamento colaborativo representa um avanço na ciência da cartografia, podendo ser utilizado pelo poder público como ferramenta para democratização dos processos de gestão e planejamento urbano. Sem negligenciar o uso dos formatos tradicionais de coleta de informações, as autoridades podem ser subsidiadas complementarmente por esses dados espaciais gerados colaborativamente para tomada de decisões em perspectiva mais ampla e consistente no âmbito de transportes, assim como de outros setores.

  12. 41 CFR 302-10.206 - May my agency assume direct responsibility for the costs of preparing and transporting my mobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... direct responsibility for the costs of preparing and transporting my mobile home? 302-10.206 Section 302... ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 10-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION OF MOBILE HOMES AND BOATS... responsibility for the costs of preparing and transporting my mobile home? Yes, your agency may assume direct...

  13. 78 FR 19357 - Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Allocation of Public Transportation...) announces the allocation of $2,000,000,000 under the Public Transportation Emergency Relief Program... after an emergency or major disaster that affects public transportation systems. The Appropriations Act...

  14. NA{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase, histopathological, and genetic responses of Corbicula fluminea to sediment-associated copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S. [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Time-dependent responses to sediment-associated copper were studies at hierarchical levels of biological organization along an extreme concentration gradient (40 to 40,000 mg/kg total Cu). Laboratory and in situ estimates of molecular to tissue-level responses (Na/K-ATPase activity, DNA content, histopathology) were monitored in Corbicula fluminea (Asiatic clam), and compared with laboratory and field based survival of Corbicula and Elimia teres (an indigenous Gastropoda). Mollusc survival was, in turn, compared with effects on macrobenthic community composition along the stream/[Cu] gradient. Relationships between selected sediment characteristics and the bioavailability and toxicity of sediment associated copper were also investigated. Sediment-associated copper depressed Na/K-ATPase activity and led to histopathological damage of renal and gill epithelia (vacuolization, degeneration), indicating that impaired ion regulation was an important mechanism of toxicity. Concurrent reductions in DNA content were believed to be secondary effects due to cell death, not an indication of genotoxicity. Sublethal responses were significantly correlated with survival in both species; however, while survival in situ was indicative of differences in community structure, laboratory-based survival was not. Copper levels in tissues were indicative of exposure, but were not significantly correlated with adverse effects. Copper levels in sediments, interstitial water, and overlying water varied independently of sediment characteristics except pH. Cu/AVS ratios were predictive of Corbicula and Elimia survival, but were not significantly related to differences in community structure. Instead, macrobenthic community structure was influenced by other sediment factors (grain size, Eh, pH).

  15. Reducing uncertainty in dust monitoring to detect aeolian sediment transport responses to land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, N.; Chappell, A.; Van Zee, J.; Toledo, D.; Duniway, M.; Billings, B.; Tedela, N.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic land use and land cover change (LULCC) influence global rates of wind erosion and dust emission, yet our understanding of the magnitude of the responses remains poor. Field measurements and monitoring provide essential data to resolve aeolian sediment transport patterns and assess the impacts of human land use and management intensity. Data collected in the field are also required for dust model calibration and testing, as models have become the primary tool for assessing LULCC-dust cycle interactions. However, there is considerable uncertainty in estimates of dust emission due to the spatial variability of sediment transport. Field sampling designs are currently rudimentary and considerable opportunities are available to reduce the uncertainty. Establishing the minimum detectable change is critical for measuring spatial and temporal patterns of sediment transport, detecting potential impacts of LULCC and land management, and for quantifying the uncertainty of dust model estimates. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of common sampling designs (e.g., simple random sampling, systematic sampling) used to measure and monitor aeolian sediment transport rates. Using data from the US National Wind Erosion Research Network across diverse rangeland and cropland cover types, we demonstrate how only large changes in sediment mass flux (of the order 200% to 800%) can be detected when small sample sizes are used, crude sampling designs are implemented, or when the spatial variation is large. We then show how statistical rigour and the straightforward application of a sampling design can reduce the uncertainty and detect change in sediment transport over time and between land use and land cover types.

  16. Reflexions on the heavy load transportation in the Sao Paulo - Brazil metropolitan area and technologies consistent with the Agenda 21; Reflexoes sobre o transporte de grandes cargas na RMSP e tecnologias compativeis com a Agenda 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondani, M.; Faga, Murilo W. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia

    1998-12-31

    Looking for the optimization of the commercial transportation system in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo, it is necessary to develop some reflexions about the relations between the transportation matrix and energy matrix, taking into account the minimization up economical, social and environmental cost and responsible use of existing and viable technologies. This paper develops a simplified analysis about the managing of commercial transportation systems in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo. We discuss important topics such as the inter-modal transportation concept and the sustainability of cities. We also suggest other researches that should be explored in the future such as the use of electrical train system in metropolitan areas. (author) 13 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Enfermeiras do Exército Brasileiro no transporte aéreo de feridos: um desafio enfrentado na 2a. Gerra Mundial Enfermeras del Ejercito Brasilero en el transporte aereo de heridos: un desafío enfrentado en la 2a. Gerra Mundial Brazilian Army Nurses and transportation of the wounded: a challenge faced during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Maria Rocha Bernardes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudo histórico-social objetiva analisar os desafios enfrentados pelas Enfermeiras que pertenceram ao Transporte Aéreo do Exército Brasileiro, inseridas na FEB, no Teatro de Operações da 2ª Guerra Mundial. Fonte primária: uma fotografia da época articulada aos depoimentos de nove enfermeiras que estiveram no conflito. Essa modalidade de obtenção de dados possibilitou criar um método de pesquisa que denominamos Analítico Fotográfico Oral. Fontes secundárias: referências sobre o assunto. Os conceitos do sociólogo Pierre Bourdieu apoiaram a discussão. Os resultados evidenciaram que as enfermeiras brasileiras transportaram feridos sem acompanhamento médico. Concluímos que o desafio de cumprir com a tarefa imposta deu-lhes autonomia e confiança, propiciando tomada de decisões independentes, já que o transporte aéreo dos feridos era sua responsabilidade.Estudio histórico-social objetiva el análisis de los desafíos enfrentados por las Enfermeras del Transporte Aéreo del Ejercito Brasilero, inseridas en la FEB, en el Teatro de Operaciones de la 2ª Guerra Mundial. Fuentes Primarias: Una fotografía de la época articulada a las declaraciones de nueve enfermeras que estuvieron en el conflicto. Esa modalidad de obtención de datos posibilitó la creación de un método de pesquisa que llamamos Analítico Fotográfico Oral. Fuentes Secundarias: referencias sobre el asunto. Los conceptos del Sociólogo Pierre Bourdieu apoyaron la discusión. Los resultados evidenciaron que las enfermeras brasileñas, fueron desafiadas a transportar heridos sin acompañamiento medico. Concluimos que el desafío de cumplir esta tarea que les fue impuesta, les dio autonomía y confianza, propiciando toma de decisiones independientes, ya que eran responsables por el transporte aéreo de los heridos.This historic-sociologic study aims to analyse the challenges faced by the Brazilian Expeditionary Force´s Air Transportation Nurses of the Army with the

  18. Investigation of the energy transport mechanism in the TCA tokamak by studying the plasma dynamical response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudok de Wit, Th.; Duval, B.P.; Joye, B.; Lister, J.B.; Moret, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The energy transport mechanisms that govern the electron temperature behaviour of a tokamak remain very badly understood and up to now no proper model has been proposed that can explain experimental observations such as profile consistency or the influence of the density profile. One approach to this problem, extensively used on TCA, is to study the dynamical response of the plasma due to externally imposed modifications of parameters which have an influence on the plasma energy content. The temporal evolution of the electron temperature will closely depend on the type and the characteristics of the implied mechanisms. Thus a detailed measurement of the dynamical response would reveal experimentally the dominant properties that would have to be taken into account in the elaboration of a model of the transport processes. Most of the results presented here were obtained by analysing the electron temperature response inferred from soft X-ray emissivity during modification of the plasma density due to either gas puffing, laser impurity ablation or alfven wave heating on TCA (a = 0.18 m, R = 0.61 m, B Φ = 1.52 T). 4 refs., 3 figs

  19. Slc5a8, a Na+-coupled high-affinity transporter for short-chain fatty acids, is a conditional tumour suppressor in colon that protects against colitis and colon cancer under low-fibre dietary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Ashish; Sivaprakasam, Sathish; Bhutia, Yangzom D; Boettger, Thomas; Singh, Nagendra; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2015-07-15

    Mammalian colon harbours trillions of bacteria under physiological conditions; this symbiosis is made possible because of a tolerized response from the mucosal immune system. The mechanisms underlying this tolerogenic phenomenon remain poorly understood. In the present study we show that Slc5a8 (solute carrier gene family 5a, member 8), a Na(+)-coupled high-affinity transporter in colon for the bacterial fermentation product butyrate, plays a critical role in this process. Among various immune cells in colon, dendritic cells (DCs) are unique not only in their accessibility to luminal contents but also in their ability to induce tolerogenic phenotype in T-cells. We found that DCs exposed to butyrate express the immunosuppressive enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A2 (Aldh1A2), promote conversion of naive T-cells into immunosuppressive forkhead box P3(+) (FoxP3(+)) Tregs (regulatory T-cells) and suppress conversion of naive T-cells into pro-inflammatory interferon (IFN)-γ-producing cells. Slc5a8-null DCs do not induce IDO1 and Aldh1A2 and do not generate Tregs or suppress IFN-γ-producing T-cells in response to butyrate. We also provide in vivo evidence for an obligatory role for Slc5a8 in suppression of IFN-γ-producing T-cells. Furthermore, Slc5a8 protects against colitis and colon cancer under conditions of low-fibre intake but not when dietary fibre intake is optimal. This agrees with the high-affinity nature of the transporter to mediate butyrate entry into cells. We conclude that Slc5a8 is an obligatory link between dietary fibre and mucosal immune system via the bacterial metabolite butyrate and that this transporter is a conditional tumour suppressor in colon linked to dietary fibre content. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  20. Rb2Na(NO33: A Congruently Melting UV-NLO Crystal with a Very Strong Second-Harmonic Generation Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Zou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crystals of congruently melting noncentrosymmetric (NCS mixed alkali metal nitrate, Rb2Na(NO33, have been grown through solid state reactions. The material possesses layers with NaO8 hexagonal bipyramids and NO3 triangular units. Rb+ cations are residing in the interlayer space. Each NaO8 hexagonal bipyramid shares its corners and edges with two and three NO3 units, respectively, in order to fulfill a highly dense stacking in the unit cell. The NaO8 groups share their six oxygen atoms in equatorial positions with three different NO3 groups to generate a NaO6-NO3 layer with a parallel alignment. The optimized arrangement of the NO3 groups and their high density in the structure together produce a strong second-harmonic generation (SHG response. Powder SHG measurements indicate that Rb2Na(NO33 has a strong SHG efficiency of five times that of KH2PO4 (KDP and is type I phase-matchable. The calculated average nonlinear optical (NLO susceptibility of Rb2Na(NO33 turns out to be the largest value among the NLO materials composed of only [NO3]− anion. In addition, Rb2Na(NO33 exhibits a wide transparency region ranging from UV to near IR, which suggests that the compound is a promising NLO material.

  1. Electrochemical corrosion response of a low carbon heat treated steel in a NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, W.R.; Peixoto, L.C.; Garcia, L.R.; Garcia, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, State University of Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    Dual-phase (DP) steels are produced from a specific heat treatment procedure and have recently emerged as a potential class of engineering materials for a number of structural and automobile applications. Such steels have high strength-to-weight ratio and reasonable formability. The present study aims to investigate the effects of four different and conventional heat treatments (i.e., hot rolling, normalizing, annealing, and intercritical annealing) on the resulting microstructural patterns and on the electrochemical corrosion behavior. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel plots were carried out on heat treated steel samples in a 0.5 M NaCl solution at 25 C with neutral pH. An equivalent circuit analysis was also used to provide quantitative support for the discussions. The normalizing and the annealing heat treatments have provided the highest and the lowest corrosion resistances, respectively. The intercritical annealing and as-received (hot rolled) low carbon steel samples have shown similar corrosion behavior. Although a deleterious effect on the corrosion resistance has been verified for DP steel due to the residual stress from the martensite formation, it combines good mechanical properties with intermediate electrochemical corrosion resistance. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Avaliação das condições de segurança do trabalho na colheita e transporte florestal em propriedades rurais fomentadas no Estado do Espírito Santo Evaluation of work safety conditions of timber harvesting and transport in fomented farms of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lorensi do Canto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com informações obtidas de 70 proprietários rurais fomentados, responsáveis por 90 contratos de fomento florestal, com o objetivo de caracterizar as condições de segurança do trabalho na colheita e transporte florestal, em propriedades rurais fomentadas no Estado do Espírito Santo. A área fomentada por contrato variava entre 1,5 e 100,0 ha, sendo de até 30 ha em 86,7% dos contratos e com relevo montanhoso em 61,2%. A colheita e transporte florestais foram terceirizados em 70 e 80% dos contratos amostrados, respectivamente, e realizados por conta dos proprietários nos demais. A maioria dos prestadores de serviço terceirizados era contratada informalmente. Foi empregada a mão-de-obra contratada na maioria dos contratos com colheita própria, sendo a maior parte não qualificada e contratada informalmente. Grande parte dos trabalhadores deslocava-se por conta própria até o local de colheita. Ocorreram acidentes de trabalho em 16,3% dos contratos, sendo 60% na colheita e transporte florestal próprios. A maioria dos acidentes aconteceu na atividade de corte e atingiu, principalmente, os membros inferiores e superiores do trabalhador acidentado. Os trabalhadores não utilizavam equipamentos de proteção individual em 62,1% dos contratos com colheita própria e em 23,0% dos terceirizados. Observou-se carência de material de primeiros socorros, bem como falta de instrução para o socorro de trabalhadores acidentados na colheita florestal.This research was developed with data obtained from 70 fomented farm owners in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, who were responsible for 90 forest contracts distributed in 22 cities of the State. The area fomented per contract ranged from 1.5 to 100 hectares, being 84.8% of contracts up to 30 ha and 59.8% with mountainous relief. Timber harvesting and log transport were outsourced and carried out by a subcontractor in 70% and 80% of the contracts respectively

  3. Compartmental analysis of roots in intact rapidly-growing Spergularia marina and Lactuca sativa: partial characterization of the symplasms functional in the radial transport of Na+ and K+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazof, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques of compartmental analysis were adapted to the study of intact roots of rapidly-growing Spergularia marine and Lactuca sativa. Using large numbers of plants short time-courses of uptake and chase, 42 K + and 22 Na + transport could be resolved, even during a chase following a brief 10 minute labeling period. The use of intact plant systems allowed distinction of that portion of the isotope flux into the root, associated with the ion-conducting symplasms. A small compartment, which rapidly (t/sub .5/ + , accounting for the observed obtention of linear translocation rates within minutes of transferring to labeled solution. The ion contents of this compartment varied in proportion to the external ion concentration. When K + was at a high external concentration, labeled K + exchanged into this same symplasm, but chasing a short pulse indicated that K + transport to the xylem was not through a rapidly-exchanging compartment. At physiological concentrations of K + the evidence indicated that transport of K + across the root proceeded through a compartment which was not exchanging rapidly with the external medium. The rise to a linear rate of isotope translocation was gradual and translocation during a chase, following a brief pulse,was prolonged, indicating that this compartment retained its specific activity for a considerable period

  4. Plasmon response in K, Na and Li clusters: systematics using the separable random-phase approximation with pseudo-Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinig, W.; Nesterenko, V.O.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Serra, Ll.

    1998-01-01

    The systematics of the plasmon response in spherical K, Na and Li clusters in a wide size region (8≤N≤440) is studied. We have considered two simplifying approximations whose validity has been established previously. First, a separable approach to the random-phase approximation is used. This involves an expansion of the residual interaction into a sum of separable terms until convergence is reached. Second, the electron-ion interaction is modelled by using the pseudo-Hamiltonian jellium model (MHJM) which includes nonlocal effects by means of realistic atomic pseudo-Hamiltonians. In cases where nonlocal effects are negligible the Structure Averaged Jellium Model (SAJM) has been used. Good agreement with available experimental data is achieved for K, Na (using the SAJM) and small Li clusters (invoking the PHJM). The trends for peak position and width are generally well reproduced, even up to details of the Landau fragmentation in several clusters. Less good agreement, however, is found for large Li clusters. This remains an open question

  5. Plasma turbulence. Structure formation, selection rule, dynamic response and dynamics transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Sanae I.

    2010-01-01

    The five-year project of Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research entitled general research on the structure formation and selection rule in plasma turbulence had brought many outcomes. Based on these outcomes, the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) program entitled general research on dynamic response and dynamic transport in plasma turbulence has started. In the present paper, the state-of-the-art of the research activities on the structure formation, selection rule and dynamics in plasma turbulence are reviewed with reference to outcomes of these projects. (author)

  6. Pharmacogenomics of Methotrexate Membrane Transport Pathway: Can Clinical Response to Methotrexate in Rheumatoid Arthritis Be Predicted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Lima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methotrexate (MTX is widely used for rheumatoid arthritis (RA treatment. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs could be used as predictors of patients’ therapeutic outcome variability. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the influence of SNPs in genes encoding for MTX membrane transport proteins in order to predict clinical response to MTX. Methods: Clinicopathological data from 233 RA patients treated with MTX were collected, clinical response defined, and patients genotyped for 23 SNPs. Genotype and haplotype analyses were performed using multivariate methods and a genetic risk index (GRI for non-response was created. Results: Increased risk for non-response was associated to SLC22A11 rs11231809 T carriers; ABCC1 rs246240 G carriers; ABCC1 rs3784864 G carriers; CGG haplotype for ABCC1 rs35592, rs2074087 and rs3784864; and CGG haplotype for ABCC1 rs35592, rs246240 and rs3784864. GRI demonstrated that patients with Index 3 were 16-fold more likely to be non-responders than those with Index 1. Conclusions: This study revealed that SLC22A11 and ABCC1 may be important to identify those patients who will not benefit from MTX treatment, highlighting the relevance in translating these results to clinical practice. However, further validation by independent studies is needed to develop the field of personalized medicine to predict clinical response to MTX treatment.

  7. Membrane transporters mediating root signalling and adaptive responses to oxygen deprivation and soil flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Sergey; Shabala, Lana; Barcelo, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    This review provides a comprehensive assessment of a previously unexplored topic: elucidating the role that plasma- and organelle-based membrane transporters play in plant-adaptive responses to flooding. We show that energy availability and metabolic shifts under hypoxia and anoxia are critical in regulating membrane-transport activity. We illustrate the high tissue and time dependence of this regulation, reveal the molecular identity of transporters involved and discuss the modes of their regulation. We show that both reduced oxygen availability and accumulation of transition metals in flooded roots result in a reduction in the cytosolic K(+) pool, ultimately determining the cell's fate and transition to programmed cell death (PCD). This process can be strongly affected by hypoxia-induced changes in the amino acid pool profile and, specifically, ϒ-amino butyric acid (GABA) accumulation. It is suggested that GABA plays an important regulatory role, allowing plants to proceed with H2 O2 signalling to activate a cascade of genes that mediate plant adaptation to flooding while at the same time, preventing the cell from entering a 'suicide program'. We conclude that progress in crop breeding for flooding tolerance can only be achieved by pyramiding the numerous physiological traits that confer efficient energy maintenance, cytosolic ion homeostasis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) control and detoxification. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Fabrication of high responsivity deep UV photo-detector based on Na doped ZnO nanocolumns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Jitesh; Dixit, Tejendra; Palani, I. A.; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.; Singh, Vipul

    2018-05-01

    We report a variety of the hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanostructures with a significant suppression in defect-related emission and huge enhancement in the photo-current to the dark current ratio (approximately six orders of magnitude) upon UV light illumination. Interestingly, the photo-detector shows lower dark current of 1.6 nA with high responsivity of 507 A W‑1 at 254 nm. Here, a systematic analysis of the growth process as well as the physical, chemical and electrical properties of as-grown ZnO nanostructures has been performed. We have utilized the duo effect of both the inorganic (KMnO4) and organic (Na3C6H5O7) additives, which has facilitated the precise tuning of the morphology and intrinsic defects in nanostructures that have made an impact on the photo-responsivity, photoluminescence (PL) and adhesivity of the film on to the underlying substrate. PL analysis of as-grown ZnO nanostructures has suggested 11 times improvement in the near band emission (NBE) to defect level emission (DLE) ratio. Interestingly, thermal annealing of the samples has shown a dramatic change in the morphology with significant improvement in the crystallinity. Notably, the band gap was observed to be modulated from 3.3 eV to 3.1 eV after annealing. In addition to UV photo-detector based applications, the work presented here has provided a subtle solution towards the rectification of various problems pertaining to hydrothermal processes like poor adhesivity, feeble UV emission and problem in precise tuning of the morphology along with the bandgap in one go. Therefore, these investigations assume critical significance towards the development of next-generation optoelectronic devices.

  9. Relationship between NaCl- and H2O2-induced cytosolic Ca2+ increases in response to stress in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghao Jiang

    Full Text Available Salinity is among the environmental factors that affect plant growth and development and constrain agricultural productivity. Salinity stress triggers increases in cytosolic free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+]i via Ca(2+ influx across the plasma membrane. Salinity stress, as well as other stresses, induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. It is well established that ROS also triggers increases in [Ca(2+]i. However, the relationship and interaction between salinity stress-induced [Ca(2+]i increases and ROS-induced [Ca(2+]i increases remain poorly understood. Using an aequorin-based Ca(2+ imaging assay we have analyzed [Ca(2+]i changes in response to NaCl and H2O2 treatments in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that NaCl and H2O2 together induced larger increases in [Ca(2+]i in Arabidopsis seedlings than either NaCl or H2O2 alone, suggesting an additive effect on [Ca(2+]i increases. Following a pre-treatment with either NaCl or H2O2, the subsequent elevation of [Ca(2+]i in response to a second treatment with either NaCl or H2O2 was significantly reduced. Furthermore, the NaCl pre-treatment suppressed the elevation of [Ca(2+]i seen with a second NaCl treatment more than that seen with a second treatment of H2O2. A similar response was seen when the initial treatment was with H2O2; subsequent addition of H2O2 led to less of an increase in [Ca(2+]i than did addition of NaCl. These results imply that NaCl-gated Ca(2+ channels and H2O2-gated Ca(2+ channels may differ, and also suggest that NaCl- and H2O2-evoked [Ca(2+]i may reduce the potency of both NaCl and H2O2 in triggering [Ca(2+]i increases, highlighting a feedback mechanism. Alternatively, NaCl and H2O2 may activate the same Ca(2+ permeable channel, which is expressed in different types of cells and/or activated via different signaling pathways.

  10. X-ray transport and radiation response assessment (XTRRA) experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, K. B., E-mail: fournier2@llnl.gov; Brown, C. G.; Yeoman, M. F.; Compton, S.; Holdener, F. R.; Kemp, G. E.; Blue, B. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Fisher, J. H.; Newlander, C. D.; Gilliam, R. P.; Froula, N. [Fifth Gait Technologies, Inc., 14040 Camden Circle, Huntsville, Alabama 35803 (United States); Seiler, S. W.; Davis, J. F.; Lerch, MAJ. A. [Defense Threat Reduction Agency, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir, Virginia 22060-6201 (United States); Hinshelwood, D. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Lilly, M. [Dynasen, Inc., 20 Arnold Pl., Goleta, California 93117 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Our team has developed an experimental platform to evaluate the x-ray-generated stress and impulse in materials. Experimental activities include x-ray source development, design of the sample mounting hardware and sensors interfaced to the National Ignition Facility’s diagnostics insertion system, and system integration into the facility. This paper focuses on the X-ray Transport and Radiation Response Assessment (XTRRA) test cassettes built for these experiments. The test cassette is designed to position six samples at three predetermined distances from the source, each known to within ±1% accuracy. Built-in calorimeters give in situ measurements of the x-ray environment along the sample lines of sight. The measured accuracy of sample responses as well as planned modifications to the XTRRA cassette is discussed.

  11. A massively parallel discrete ordinates response matrix method for neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanebutte, U.R.; Lewis, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a discrete ordinates response matrix method is formulated with anisotropic scattering for the solution of neutron transport problems on massively parallel computers. The response matrix formulation eliminates iteration on the scattering source. The nodal matrices that result from the diamond-differenced equations are utilized in a factored form that minimizes memory requirements and significantly reduces the number of arithmetic operations required per node. The red-black solution algorithm utilizes massive parallelism by assigning each spatial node to one or more processors. The algorithm is accelerated by a synthetic method in which the low-order diffusion equations are also solved by massively parallel red-black iterations. The method is implemented on a 16K Connection Machine-2, and S 8 and S 16 solutions are obtained for fixed-source benchmark problems in x-y geometry

  12. Development of a virtual reality training system. An application to emergency response in radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Naohito

    2003-01-01

    A virtual reality (VR) training system was developed for the purpose of confirming the applicability of virtual reality on training systems for emergency response of radioactive materials transport. This system has following features; 1) Accident scenarios were derived from an event tree analysis. 2) Instructors can edit the training scenario. 3) Three VR scenes were prepared: vehicle and equipment checks, vehicle travel on an expressway, and emergency response in a tunnel fire accident. 4) every action by users is recorded automatically. 5) Instructors and users hold briefing session after the training, and they can review and confirm the results with VR animation. 6) A support database is provided for the convenience of users. The applicability of the system was validated through some trial applications and demonstrations. (author)

  13. Experimental response function of NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for gamma photons and tomographic measurements for defect detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Amandeep; Singh, Karamjit; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    The response function of gamma detector is an important factor for spectrum analysis because some photons and secondary electrons may escape the detector volume before fully depositing their energy, of course destroys the ideal delta function response. An inverse matrix approach, for unfolding of observed pulse-height distribution to a true photon spectrum, is used for construction of experimental response function by formulating a 40 x 40 matrix with bin mesh (E 1/2 ) of 0.025 (MeV) 1/2 for the present measurements. A tomographic scanner system, operating in a non-destructive and non-invasive way, is also presented for inspection of density variation in any object. The incoherent scattered intensity of 662 keV gamma photons, obtained by unfolding (deconvolution) the experimental pulse-height distribution of NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, provides the desired information. The method is quite sensitive, for showing inclusion of medium Z (atomic number) material (iron) in low Z material (aluminium) and detecting a void of ∼2 mm in size for iron block, to investigate the inhomogeneities in the object. Also, the grey scale images (using 'MATLAB') are shown to visualise the presence of defects/inclusion in metal samples.

  14. Effect of various Na/K ratios in low-salinity well water on growth performance and physiological response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Tan, Beiping; Yang, Jinfang; Lin, Yingbo; Chi, Shuyan; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of sodium to potassium (Na/K) ratios on the growth performance and physiological response of the Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vananmei), various concentrations of KCl were added to low-salinity well water (salinity 4) in an 8-week culture trial. Six treatments with Na/K ratios of 60:1, 42:1, 33:1, 23:1, 17:1, and 14:1 were replicated in triplicate. The highest weight-gain rate (3 506±48)% and survival rate (89.38±0.88)% was observed in well water with Na/K ratios of 23:1 and 42:1, respectively, while the feed conversion ratio (1.02±0.01), oxygen consumption, and ammonia-N excretion rate was the lowest in the medium with a Na/K ratio of 23:1. Gill Na+-K+-ATPase activity, as an indicator of osmoregulation, peaked in the treatment where the Na/K ratio was 17:1. The total hemocyte count, respiratory burst, and immune-related enzyme activities (ALP, LSZ, PO, and SOD) of L. vananmei were affected significantly by Na/K ratios ( Pshrimp reared in a Na/K ratio of 23:1 (30±14.14)% was significantly lower than the control (75±7.07)%. In conclusion, the addition of K+ to low-salinity well water in L. vannamei cultures is feasible. Na/K ratios ranging from 23:1 to 33:1 might improve survival and growth. Immunity and disease resistance are also closely related to the Na/K ratio of the low-salinity well water. The findings may contribute to the development of more efficient K + remediation strategies for L. vananmei culture in low-salinity well water.

  15. The putative Na+/Cl−-dependent neurotransmitter/osmolyte transporter inebriated in the Drosophila hindgut is essential for the maintenance of systemic water homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Zhuo; Quigley, Caitlin; Li, Hong-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Most organisms are able to maintain systemic water homeostasis over a wide range of external or dietary osmolarities. The excretory system, composed of the kidneys in mammals and the Malpighian tubules and hindgut in insects, can increase water conservation and absorption to maintain systemic water homeostasis, which enables organisms to tolerate external hypertonicity or desiccation. However, the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of systemic water homeostasis by the excretory system have not been fully characterized. In the present study, we found that the putative Na+/Cl−-dependent neurotransmitter/osmolyte transporter inebriated (ine) is expressed in the basolateral membrane of anterior hindgut epithelial cells. This was confirmed by comparison with a known basolateral localized protein, the α subunit of Na+-K+ ATPase (ATPα). Under external hypertonicity, loss of ine in the hindgut epithelium results in severe dehydration without damage to the hindgut epithelial cells, implicating a physiological failure of water conservation/absorption. We also found that hindgut expression of ine is required for water conservation under desiccating conditions. Importantly, specific expression of ine in the hindgut epithelium can completely restore disrupted systemic water homeostasis in ine mutants under both conditions. Therefore, ine in the Drosophila hindgut is essential for the maintenance of systemic water homeostasis. PMID:25613130

  16. Response of mouse foetus to radiation from Na sup(99m)TcO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.A.; Gloria, I.V.; Harper, P.V.

    1976-01-01

    Technetium has assumed ecological importance as a source of law-level radiation, with the use of sup(99m)Tc in nuclear medicine and production of sup(99m)Tc in power generation reactions. Technetium introduced as pertechnetate into the bloodstream of pregnant females is transported across the placental barrier to the foetus, where a portion appears to be incorporated into biomolecules. When combined as biomolecules, radionuclides that decay by electron capture or isomeric transition show a lethality greater than that predicted in cell cultures and radiation therapy. The decay of sup(99m)Tc by isomeric transition, together with the above considerations, places a high priority on the investigation of its radiation effects due to clinical doses of up to 25 mCi. Female mice were given daily intravenous injections of 0, 5, 50 and 500 μCi of sup(99m)Tc as pertechnetate in isotonic saline throughout gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation. At two months of age, the progeny were mated with randomly selected litter mates to produce a second generation; the process was repeated for production of the third generation. Only the first generation was irradiated. An injection of 5 μCi/mouse and 10 mCi/human both approximately equal 0.2 μCi/g of body weight; however, the mouse foetus receives an estimated radiation dose of 0.05 rad, and the human 1 rad. Throughout the gestation period, a mouse at the 5 μCi level receives about 100 μCi of sup(99m)Tc, resulting in approximately 1 rad to the foetus. Significant reduction of body weight was noted in all experimental groups. The greatest effects were seen in the progeny of mothers treated during gestation only. These preliminary results reinforce the existing concern about use of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate in pregnant or potentially pregnant subjects

  17. Survey of state and tribal emergency response capabilities for radiological transportation incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilardo, F J; Mitter, E L; Palmer, J A; Briggs, H C; Fesenmaier, J [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

    1990-05-01

    This publication is the final report of a project to survey the fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and selected Indian Tribal jurisdictions to ascertain their emergency-preparedness planning and capabilities for responding to transportation incidents involving radioactive materials. The survey was conducted to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and other federal agencies with information concerning the current level of emergency-response preparedness of the states and selected tribes and an assessment of the changes that have occurred since 1980. There have been no major changes in the states' emergency-response planning strategies and field tactics. The changes noted included an increased availability of dedicated emergency-response vehicles, wider availability of specialized radiation-detection instruments, and higher proportions of police and fire personnel with training in the handling of suspected radiation threats. Most Indian tribes have no capability to evaluate suspected radiation threats and have no formal relations with emergency-response personnel in adjacent states. For the nation as a whole, the incidence of suspected radiation threats declined substantially from 1980 to 1988. 58 tabs.

  18. 78 FR 32296 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Second Allocation of Public... disaster that affects public transportation systems. The Disaster Relief Appropriations Act provides $10.9... projected total recovery costs for the four most severely affected public transportation systems, not...

  19. Comparison of the response of a NaI scintillation crystal with a pressurized ionization chamber as a function of altitude, radiation level and Ra-226 concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provencher, R.; Smith, G.; Borak, T.B.; Kearney, P.

    1986-01-01

    The Grand Junction Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action-Radiological Survey Activities Group (UMTRA-RASA) program employs a screening method in which external exposure rates are used to determine if a property contaminated with uranium mill tailings is eligible for remedial action. Portable NaI detectors are used by survey technicians to locate contaminated areas and determine exposure rates. The exposure rate is calculated using a regression equation derived from paired measurements made with a pressurized ionization chamber (PIC) and a NaI detector. During July of 1985 extensive measurements were taken using a PIC and a NaI scintillator with both analogue and digital readout for a wide range of exposure rates and at a variety of elevations. The surface soil was sampled at most of these locations and analyzed for 226 Ra. The response of the NaI detectors was shown to be highly correlated to radiation level but not to 226 Ra concentration or elevation

  20. Riscos Ambientais Associados ao Transporte de Produtos Perigosos na Área de Influência da ETA Guandu.

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Japiassú Viana

    2009-01-01

    No Estado do Rio de Janeiro, a atividade de transporte rodoviário de produtos perigosos foi responsável por aproximadamente 40% dos atendimentos a emergências realizados pela FEEMA (hoje INEA) nos últimos anos. Dentre as diversas rotas de tráfego desses produtos, destaca-se a rodovia Presidente Dutra que percorre as imediações dos rios Paraíba do Sul e Guandu, e seus principais afluentes. A exposição a riscos ambientais da ETA Guandu é, portanto, bastante alta, pois compreende ...

  1. Affective neural responses modulated by serotonin transporter genotype in clinical anxiety and depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond J Oathes

    Full Text Available Serotonin transporter gene variants are known to interact with stressful life experiences to increase chances of developing affective symptoms, and these same variants have been shown to influence amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli in non-psychiatric populations. The impact of these gene variants on affective neurocircuitry in anxiety and mood disorders has been studied less extensively. Utilizing a triallelic assay (5-HTTLPR and rs25531 to assess genetic variation linked with altered serotonin signaling, this fMRI study investigated genetic influences on amygdala and anterior insula activity in 50 generalized anxiety disorder patients, 26 of whom also met DSM-IV criteria for social anxiety disorder and/or major depressive disorder, and 39 healthy comparison subjects. A Group x Genotype interaction was observed for both the amygdala and anterior insula in a paradigm designed to elicit responses in these brain areas during the anticipation of and response to aversive pictures. Patients who are S/L(G carriers showed less activity than their L(A/L(A counterparts in both regions and less activity than S/L(G healthy comparison subjects in the amygdala. Moreover, patients with greater insula responses reported higher levels of intolerance of uncertainty, an association that was particularly pronounced for patients with two LA alleles. A genotype effect was not established in healthy controls. These findings link the serotonin transporter gene to affective circuitry findings in anxiety and depression psychopathology and further suggest that its impact on patients may be different from effects typically observed in healthy populations.

  2. Changes in growth, carbon and nitrogen enzyme activity and mRNA accumulation in the halophilic microalga Dunaliella viridis in response to NaCl stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Nianjun; Sun, Xue

    2016-12-01

    Many species of microalga Dunaliella exhibit a remarkable tolerance to salinity and are therefore ideal for probing the effects of salinity. In this work, we assessed the effects of NaCl stress on the growth, activity and mRNA level of carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes of D. viridis. The alga could grow over a salinity range of 0.44 mol L-1 to 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, but the most rapid growth was observed at 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl, followed by 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl. Paralleling these growth patterns, the highest initial and total Rubisco activities were detected in the presence of 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl, decreasing to 37.33% and 26.39% of those values, respectively, in the presence of 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, respectively. However, the highest extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity was measured in the presence of 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl, followed by 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl. Different from the two carbon enzymes, nitrate reductase (NR) activity showed a slight change under different NaCl concentrations. At the transcriptional level, the mRNAs of Rubisco large subunit ( rbcL), and small subunit ( rbcS), attained their highest abundances in the presence of 1.00 and 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl, respectively. The CA mRNA accumulation was induced from 0.44 mol L-1 to 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, but the NR mRNA showed the decreasing tendency with the increasing salinity. In conclusion, the growth and carbon fixation enzyme of Rubisco displayed similar tendency in response to NaCl stress, CA was proved be salt-inducible within a certain salinity range and NR showed the least effect by NaCl in D. viridis.

  3. SU-F-J-06: Optimized Patient Inclusion for NaF PET Response-Based Biopsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, A; Harmon, S; Perk, T; Jeraj, R [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: A method to guide mid-treatment biopsies using quantitative [F-18]NaF PET/CT response is being investigated in a clinical trial. This study aims to develop methodology to identify patients amenable to mid-treatment biopsy based on pre-treatment imaging characteristics. Methods: 35 metastatic prostate cancer patients had NaF PET/CT scans taken prior to the start of treatment and 9–12 weeks into treatment. For mid-treatment biopsy targeting, lesions must be at least 1.5 cm{sup 3} and located in a clinically feasible region (lumbar/sacral spine, pelvis, humerus, or femur). Three methods were developed based on number of lesions present prior to treatment: a feasibility-restricted method, a location-restricted method, and an unrestricted method. The feasibility restricted method only utilizes information from lesions meeting biopsy requirements in the pre-treatment scan. The unrestricted method accounts for all lesions present in the pre-treatment scan. For each method, optimized classification cutoffs for candidate patients were determined. Results: 13 of the 35 patients had enough lesions at the mid-treatment for biopsy candidacy. Of 1749 lesions identified in all 35 patients at mid-treatment, only 9.8% were amenable to biopsy. Optimizing the feasibility-restricted method required 4 lesions at pre-treatment meeting volume and region requirements for biopsy, resulting patient identification sensitivity of 0.8 and specificity of 0.7. Of 6 false positive patients, only one patient lacked lesions for biopsy. Restricting for location alone showed poor results (sensitivity 0.2 and specificity 0.3). The optimized unrestricted method required patients have at least 37 lesions in pretreatment scan, resulting in a sensitivity of 0.8 and specificity of 0.8. There were 5 false positives, only one lacked lesions for biopsy. Conclusion: Incorporating the overall pre-treatment number of NaF PET/CT identified lesions provided best prediction for identifying candidate

  4. SU-F-J-06: Optimized Patient Inclusion for NaF PET Response-Based Biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A; Harmon, S; Perk, T; Jeraj, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A method to guide mid-treatment biopsies using quantitative [F-18]NaF PET/CT response is being investigated in a clinical trial. This study aims to develop methodology to identify patients amenable to mid-treatment biopsy based on pre-treatment imaging characteristics. Methods: 35 metastatic prostate cancer patients had NaF PET/CT scans taken prior to the start of treatment and 9–12 weeks into treatment. For mid-treatment biopsy targeting, lesions must be at least 1.5 cm 3 and located in a clinically feasible region (lumbar/sacral spine, pelvis, humerus, or femur). Three methods were developed based on number of lesions present prior to treatment: a feasibility-restricted method, a location-restricted method, and an unrestricted method. The feasibility restricted method only utilizes information from lesions meeting biopsy requirements in the pre-treatment scan. The unrestricted method accounts for all lesions present in the pre-treatment scan. For each method, optimized classification cutoffs for candidate patients were determined. Results: 13 of the 35 patients had enough lesions at the mid-treatment for biopsy candidacy. Of 1749 lesions identified in all 35 patients at mid-treatment, only 9.8% were amenable to biopsy. Optimizing the feasibility-restricted method required 4 lesions at pre-treatment meeting volume and region requirements for biopsy, resulting patient identification sensitivity of 0.8 and specificity of 0.7. Of 6 false positive patients, only one patient lacked lesions for biopsy. Restricting for location alone showed poor results (sensitivity 0.2 and specificity 0.3). The optimized unrestricted method required patients have at least 37 lesions in pretreatment scan, resulting in a sensitivity of 0.8 and specificity of 0.8. There were 5 false positives, only one lacked lesions for biopsy. Conclusion: Incorporating the overall pre-treatment number of NaF PET/CT identified lesions provided best prediction for identifying candidate patients

  5. Conserved ABC Transport System Regulated by the General Stress Response Pathways of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrou, Julien; Willett, Jonathan W.; Czy; #380; , Daniel M.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Kim, Youngchang; Crosson, Sean (UC)

    2016-12-19

    ABSTRACT

    Brucella abortusσE1is an EcfG family sigma factor that regulates the transcription of dozens of genes in response to diverse stress conditions and is required for maintenance of chronic infection in a mouse model. A putative ATP-binding cassette transporter operon,bab1_0223-bab1_0226, is among the most highly activated gene sets in the σE1regulon. The proteins encoded by the operon resemble quaternary ammonium-compatible solute importers but are most similar in sequence to the broadly conserved YehZYXW system, which remains largely uncharacterized. Transcription ofyehZYXWis activated by the general stress sigma factor σSinEnterobacteriaceae, which suggests a functional role for this transport system in bacterial stress response across the classesAlphaproteobacteriaandGammaproteobacteria. We present evidence thatB. abortusYehZYXW does not function as an importer of known compatible solutes under physiological conditions and does not contribute to the virulence defect of a σE1-null strain. The solein vitrophenotype associated with genetic disruption of this putative transport system is reduced growth in the presence of high Li+ion concentrations. A crystal structure ofB. abortusYehZ revealed a class II periplasmic binding protein fold with significant structural homology toArchaeoglobus fulgidusProX, which binds glycine betaine. However, the structure

  6. A research of virtual reality engineering for emergency response in radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Naoto; Hagiwara, Yutaka; Nakajima, Chikahito; Itoh, Norihiko

    2000-01-01

    As the result of typical nuclear accidents in last few years, people began to pay attention to the emergency response in nuclear accidents. CRIEPI developed the concept of support system for all of normal condition, emergency condition and education during transport, using Virtual Reality technique and other up-to-date engineering. This system consist of three subsystems, namely 'on-site' for normal condition, 'on-site support system' for emergency condition and 'education system' for transport workers training. Each subsystem contains computer, communication devices, display, video camera, various sensors, data base and control or analysis programs. This system needs the following characteristics; 1) Using Virtual Reality technique, it is practicable for users to produce the hypothetical accident scenes and to show data, graphs and text messages on a see-through type head-mounted display. 2) Each subsystem refers the common data bases for route soundings, accident probability estimation and environment impact assessment and so on. 3) In the case of accident, it can smoothly transfer from 'on-site support system' for normal condition to 'on-site support system' for emergency condition. 4) It is capable to communicate by digital full duplex communication between on-site and the control center. 5) Movie from video camera and observed data from on-site monitoring posts are transmitted to the control center, analyzed with the central computer, then returned to on-site transportation team for visualization on each head mounted displays of crew. Some technology, mainly in the field for communication, have been developed up to now, but the others are expected to realize in near future. CRIEPI will constantly make efforts for those development. (author)

  7. Na(+) dependent acid-base transporters in the choroid plexus; insights from slc4 and slc9 gene deletion studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henriette L; Nguyen, An T; Pedersen, Fredrik D

    2013-01-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is located in the ventricular system of the brain, where it secretes the majority of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fills the ventricular system and surrounds the central nervous system. The CPE is a highly vascularized single layer of cuboidal cells....... Genetically modified mice targeting slc4a2, slc4a5, slc4a7, slc4a10, and slc9a1 have been generated. Deletion of slc4a5, 7 or 10, or slc9a1 has numerous impacts on CP function and structure in these mice. Removal of the transporters affects brain ventricle size (slc4a5 and slc4a10) and intracellular p...

  8. Processo de transporte de órgãos para transplante na Cidade de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Roberta Lira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho da Polícia Militar do Estado de São Paulo, em favor da sociedade completa 185 anos de existência. É um trabalho amplo e digno. Uma parcela desse trabalho apoia-se no Grupamento Aéreo da Polícia Militar do Estado de São Paulo, guarnição direcionada especificamente à atividade de transportar órgãos para transplante. Nesse sentido, o presente artigo, objetiva avaliar essa atividade, baseando-se em pesquisa realizada junto às Instituições e profissionais responsáveis pela captação e o transporte de órgãos para transplante, e sugere também ações de melhorias no planejamento dessa complexa operação.

  9. Limits of civil and environmental responsibility in transport through pipelines; Limites da responsabilidade civil e ambiental no transporte por dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Andreia Carneiro [EnviroCompliance Assessoria Ambiental (Brazil); Guilherme Samico, Natalizim Luiz [Webler e Advogados Associados, Macae, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Throughout the historic evolution of the Brazilian legislation, including a brief analysis of the prevailing laws regarding the subject, this paper provides an ample vision of the civil and environmental liability in transport contracts, and, especially, in the transport of oil and gas through pipelines, discussing the present influence of environmental norms and the New Brazilian Civil Code. And what was brought to a conclusion is, if on one hand were kept the liability of the Sender (user company of the transportation service contracted with the Carrier) and Carrier (personal entity operator of the pipeline system), who respond jointly and regardless of fault for damages to third parties and the environment (extendible also to the owner of the product and to financial institutions that participate in some form in the contract), on the other hand the New Civil Code authorizes the National Petroleum Agency - ANP to rule the liabilities between the parties to the transport contract, providing greater safety to the system operators. (author)

  10. Radiological transportation emergency response training course funding and timing in the southern states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The following is a review of the enabling statutes of 16 southern states regarding training for personnel preparing for or responding to a transportation-related emergency involving highway route-controlled quantities of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report outlines the funding sources and procedures for administering funds for programs attended by state and local officials. Additionally, the report outlines the views of emergency response officials in the southem states concerning the timing and administration of future federal assistance to be provided under section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act. Under section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is required to provide technical assistance and funds to states for training public safety officials of appropriate units of local government and Indian tribes when spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste is transported through their jurisdictions. The Comprehensive Cooperative Agreement (CCA) is the primary funding mechanism for federal assistance to states for the development of their overall emergency management capabilities. FEMA supports 12 separate emergency management programs including the Emergency Management Training program (EMT). This program provides funds for emergency management training and technical assistance to states for unique state training needs. Funds may be used for instructors, students and other related costs

  11. Response matrix Monte Carlo based on a general geometry local calculation for electron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, C.T.; Rathkopf, J.A.; Martin, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    A Response Matrix Monte Carlo (RMMC) method has been developed for solving electron transport problems. This method was born of the need to have a reliable, computationally efficient transport method for low energy electrons (below a few hundred keV) in all materials. Today, condensed history methods are used which reduce the computation time by modeling the combined effect of many collisions but fail at low energy because of the assumptions required to characterize the electron scattering. Analog Monte Carlo simulations are prohibitively expensive since electrons undergo coulombic scattering with little state change after a collision. The RMMC method attempts to combine the accuracy of an analog Monte Carlo simulation with the speed of the condensed history methods. Like condensed history, the RMMC method uses probability distributions functions (PDFs) to describe the energy and direction of the electron after several collisions. However, unlike the condensed history method the PDFs are based on an analog Monte Carlo simulation over a small region. Condensed history theories require assumptions about the electron scattering to derive the PDFs for direction and energy. Thus the RMMC method samples from PDFs which more accurately represent the electron random walk. Results show good agreement between the RMMC method and analog Monte Carlo. 13 refs., 8 figs

  12. The zinc transporter ZIP12 regulates the pulmonary vascular response to chronic hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lan; Oliver, Eduardo; Maratou, Klio; Atanur, Santosh S; Dubois, Olivier D; Cotroneo, Emanuele; Chen, Chien-Nien; Wang, Lei; Arce, Cristina; Chabosseau, Pauline L; Ponsa-Cobas, Joan; Frid, Maria G; Moyon, Benjamin; Webster, Zoe; Aldashev, Almaz; Ferrer, Jorge; Rutter, Guy A; Stenmark, Kurt R; Aitman, Timothy J; Wilkins, Martin R

    2015-08-20

    The typical response of the adult mammalian pulmonary circulation to a low oxygen environment is vasoconstriction and structural remodelling of pulmonary arterioles, leading to chronic elevation of pulmonary artery pressure (pulmonary hypertension) and right ventricular hypertrophy. Some mammals, however, exhibit genetic resistance to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. We used a congenic breeding program and comparative genomics to exploit this variation in the rat and identified the gene Slc39a12 as a major regulator of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodelling. Slc39a12 encodes the zinc transporter ZIP12. Here we report that ZIP12 expression is increased in many cell types, including endothelial, smooth muscle and interstitial cells, in the remodelled pulmonary arterioles of rats, cows and humans susceptible to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. We show that ZIP12 expression in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells is hypoxia dependent and that targeted inhibition of ZIP12 inhibits the rise in intracellular labile zinc in hypoxia-exposed pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells and their proliferation in culture. We demonstrate that genetic disruption of ZIP12 expression attenuates the development of pulmonary hypertension in rats housed in a hypoxic atmosphere. This new and unexpected insight into the fundamental role of a zinc transporter in mammalian pulmonary vascular homeostasis suggests a new drug target for the pharmacological management of pulmonary hypertension.

  13. Characteristics of Effective Collaboration in Response to Diversified Transportation Planning Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advantages of decentralized transportation planning responsibilities may include reduced project delivery cost, the integration of comprehensive long-range planning with regional land use, and greater accountability regarding local concerns. Yet disadvantages may include a tendency for operations to dominate longer-term planning, inconsistent operational standards, and difficulty in achieving network benefits, since some transportation links may provide benefits to the entire system but not to the immediate area where the link is located. To surmount these challenges in a decentralized environment, agencies need to cooperate effectively. Characteristics of effective collaboration include (1 experienced personnel, (2 credibility of the deciding entity, (3 transparency of decision-making processes, (4 an authority with sufficient power and/or funding to encourage implementation of key initiatives, (5 clear incentives for cooperation, and, of special importance given limited resources, and (6 an ability to evaluate tradeoffs. An access management case study demonstrates how agencies may use these characteristics to advance challenging projects in a decentralized environment.

  14. Alteration in DNA structure, molecular responses and Na+ -K+ -ATPase activities in the gill of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in response to sub-lethal verapamil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajima, Malachy N O; Pandey, Pramod K; Kumar, Kundan; Poojary, Nalini

    2018-01-01

    The ecotoxicological consequences of residues from pharmaceutical drugs on aquatic biota have necessitated the development of sensitive and reliable techniques to assess the impact of these xenobiotics on aquatic organisms. This study investigated the alteration in DNA structure, molecular responses and the activities of Na + -K + -ATPase and antioxidant enzymes in the gill of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, exposed to long-term effects at the concentrations (0.14, 0.28 and 0.57mgL -1 ) of verapamil in static renewal system for 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Evaluation of DNA structure, using single cell gel electrophoresis, revealed certain degree of DNA damages in the gill in a time and concentration-dependent relationship. Transcription of mRNA of superoxide dismutase (sod), catalase (cat) and heat shock protein (hsp70) genes in the gill of the fish showed the genes were up-regulated. Na + -K + -ATPase activity was inhibited in a concentration and time dependent manner. The indices of oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation and carbonyl protein) as well as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase were elevated in the treated fish in comparison to the control. Further, the level of reduced glutathione and catalase activity were inhibited at 0.28mgL -1 after day 30. Long-term exposure to sub-lethal concentration of verapamil can cause DNA damages, molecular effects and oxidative stress in O. niloticus. The biomarkers analysed can be used as early warning signals in environmental biomonitoring and assessment of drug contamination in aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2015-01-01

    .6 ± 2.2) and at follow-up (16.2 ± 2.6 days after intervention start). RESULTS: Sex hormone manipulation with GnRHa significantly triggered subclinical depressive symptoms within-group (p = .003) and relative to placebo (p = .02), which were positively associated with net decreases in estradiol levels (p......BACKGROUND: An adverse response to acute and pronounced changes in sex-hormone levels during, for example, the perimenopausal or postpartum period appears to heighten risk for major depression in women. The underlying risk mechanisms remain elusive but may include transiently compromised...... serotonergic brain signaling. Here, we modeled a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and evaluated if emergence of depressive symptoms was associated with change in cerebral serotonin transporter (SERT) binding following intervention. METHODS...

  16. Transport coefficients and mechanical response in hard-disk colloidal suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bo-Kai; Ma Yu-Qiang; Li Jian; Chen Kang; Tian Wen-De

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the transport properties and mechanical response of glassy hard disks using nonlinear Langevin equation theory. We derive expressions for the elastic shear modulus and viscosity in two dimensions on the basis of thermal-activated barrier-hopping dynamics and mechanically accelerated motion. Dense hard disks exhibit phenomena such as softening elasticity, shear-thinning of viscosity, and yielding upon deformation, which are qualitatively similar to dense hard-sphere colloidal suspensions in three dimensions. These phenomena can be ascribed to stress-induced “landscape tilting”. Quantitative comparisons of these phenomena between hard disks and hard spheres are presented. Interestingly, we find that the density dependence of yield stress in hard disks is much more significant than in hard spheres. Our work provides a foundation for further generalizing the nonlinear Langevin equation theory to address slow dynamics and rheological behavior in binary or polydisperse mixtures of hard or soft disks. (rapid communication)

  17. Impact of transportation duration on stress responses in day-old chicks from young and old breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Leonie; Delezie, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Ampe, Bart; Buyse, Johan; Tuyttens, Frank Andre Maurice

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the interaction effect of transportation duration and parental age on physiological stress responses and quality in day-old chicks. After hatch, 3240 chicks from either 29-week old (young) or 60-week old (old) broiler breeders were transported for 1.5h (short) or 11h (long). Thereafter, 228 chicks were assessed for quality and blood plasma was assayed for corticosterone (CORT), lactate, glucose, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, increased concentrations can indicate oxidative stress). No interaction effects of parental age and transportation duration were found (all P>0.10). Chicks from young breeders showed higher CORT levels (P=0.007) and were of higher quality (Tona method, Ptransportation, chicks showed increased CORT (Ptransportation. No evidence was provided that long transportation differently affected the quality or stress responses of chicks from breeder flocks of two ages. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Financial assistance to States and tribes to support emergency preparedness and response and the safe transportation of hazardous shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.A.; Jones, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report identifies and summarizes existing sources of financial assistance to States and Indian tribes in preparing and responding to transportation emergencies and ensuring the safe transportation of hazardous shipments through their jurisdictions. The report has been prepared as an information resource for the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Office of Transportation, Emergency Management and Analytical Services. The report discusses funding programs administered by the following Federal agencies: Federal Emergency Management Agency; Department of Transportation; the Environmental Protection Agency; and the Department of Energy. Also included is a summary of fees assessed by some States on carriers of hazardous materials and hazardous waste. The discussion of programs is supplemented by an Appendix that provides a series of tables summarizing funding sources and amounts. The report includes several conclusions concerning the level of funding provided to Indian tribes, the relative ranking of funding sources and the variation among States in overall revenues for emergency response and safe transportation

  19. The serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and personality: response style as a new endophenotype for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plieger, Thomas; Montag, Christian; Felten, Andrea; Reuter, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Although the serotonin transporter length polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism is an extensively-investigated genetic marker of anxiety related personality traits (neuroticism and harm avoidance) and affective disorders, effect sizes in meta-analyses are small, if present at all, and all available primary studies to date lack mandatory statistical power. Moreover, questionnaire data is prone to confounding by variables such as social desirability. Therefore, extreme response style (ERS) is suggested as a new approach to elucidate the relationship between 5-HTTLPR and negative emotionality, as it is more implicit and of high reliability. N = 1075 healthy subjects were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR and a flanking polymorphism (rs25531) and filled out the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Temperament Character Inventory. As dependent variable the number of extreme responses across all items was calculated. Using the common genotype or the triallelic approach (including rs25531) the meta-analytic findings could not be replicated. However, there was a significant association between 5-HTTLPR and extreme response style. Carriers of the L-allele or the L'-allele, respectively, had a significantly higher number of extreme responses than homozygous SS carriers across all items of the NEO Five Factor Inventory. This finding could be replicated in an alternative personality questionnaire (Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales, ANPS). There is a long tradition in psychological assessment indicating that ERS is an implicit measure of personality. Given the positive findings of the present study, ERS qualifies as a promising endophenotype in future genetic association studies on personality and affective disorders.

  20. From myth to science in urban and transport planning: from uncontrolled to controlled and responsible urban development in transport planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoflacher, Hermann

    2009-03-01

    Fossil energy use for mechanical transport modes enhanced travel speed far above human evolutionary experience, which is walking speed. Transport became faster and more convenient for people and industry. But planning had to be done without knowing the effects of these new modes. Individual experiences were extrapolated to the system and myths were created, like 'growth of mobility', 'time saving by speed' and 'freedom of modal choice'. Scientific based analysis show that these are real myths. These effects do not exist in the system. The number of trips is constant, travel time can not be saved in the system; speed lengthens distances and freedom of choice is limited by human evolution. Benefits from time saving can not be calculated any more and car traffic flow is only the effect of mistakes in parking organisation.

  1. Receptores de estrógenos (ER E ER) e proteínas envolvidas no transporte transepitelial de cálcio na litíase epididimária de galos domésticos

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Gustavo de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    A litíase epididimária é uma anomalia caracterizada pela presença de cálculos ricos em cálcio na região epididimária de galos. Esta disfunção causa redução na fertilidade, tendo impacto negativo na avicultura. A causa da litíase não é conhecida, mas sabe-se que a formação de cálculos acomete principalmente os dúctulos eferentes, responsáveis pela reabsorção do fluido testicular e de cálcio. O transporte transepitelial de cálcio ocorre em etapas distintas que envolvem a entrada de cálcio na cé...

  2. Two-week inhalation of budesonide increases muscle Na,K ATPase content but not endurance in response to terbutaline in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostrup, M; Jessen, S; Onslev, J; Clausen, T; Porsbjerg, C

    2017-07-01

    While chronic systemic administration of glucocorticoids increases muscle Na + ,K + ATPase content, such effect is unexplored after therapeutic inhalation. We investigated the effect of therapeutic inhalation of the glucocorticoid budesonide on Na + ,K + ATPase content of skeletal muscle in men. Ten healthy trained subjects, aged 23 ± 4 years (mean ± 95% CI), participated in the study. Before and after 2 weeks of daily inhalation of budesonide (1.6 mg/day), a biopsy was taken from the vastus lateralis muscle for measurement of Na + ,K + ATPase content and blood samples were drawn for determination of plasma budesonide, cortisol, and K + . Subjects' performance during cycling to fatigue at 90% of incremental peak power output (iPPO) was measured in response to 4 mg inhaled terbutaline to maximally stimulate Na + ,K + ATPase activity. Plasma concentrations of budesonide rose to 5.0 ± 1.6 nM with the intervention, whereas no changes were observed in plasma cortisol. Muscle Na + ,K + ATPase content increased (P ≤ 0.01) by 46 ± 34 pmol/(g wet wt) (17% increase) with the intervention. Cycling performance at 90% of iPPO did not change (P = 0.21) with the intervention (203 vs 214 s) in response to terbutaline. The present observations show that therapeutic inhalation of glucocorticoids increases muscle Na + ,K + ATPase content, but does not enhance high-intensity cycling endurance in response to terbutaline. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Example of a single national regulator responsible for both transport safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karhu, P.; Lahkola, A.; Markkanen, M.; Hellstén, S.

    2016-01-01

    Safety and security in the use of nuclear energy and in the use of radiation, including the transport of nuclear and other radioactive material, share a common objective: to protect people, society, environment, and future generations from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Some measures for safety contribute to those for security, and vice versa, while some requirements of one conflict with those of the other. The differences in the requirements arise from the difference in the threat against which the measures are designed: accident vs. intent. A coordinated approach endeavours to take advantage of the similarities and to avoid the problems caused by the differences. One way to implement it is to have one competent authority responsible for the regulatory control of safety and security. It is the experience in Finland that this enables an efficient regulatory system. From the operators’ point of view, a one-stop shop regulatory authority ensures that requirements for safety and security are consistent. Both safety and security require the involvement of and cooperation between several authorities—regulatory, rescue, law enforcement—and operators. The approach in Finland is built on cooperation and a clear division of competences and responsibilities. One regulatory authority provides a fixed point of contact within the professional cooperation network as well as for the public. The one regulatory authority is also easily identifiable, as appropriate, as a point of contact in international cooperation in implementing nuclear and radiation safety and security. Whatever the national regulatory framework and the assignment of responsibilities between authorities, cooperation is essential in house, nationally, and internationally. (author)

  4. A crosstalk between Na⁺ channels, Na⁺/K⁺ pump and mitochondrial Na⁺ transporters controls glucose-dependent cytosolic and mitochondrial Na⁺ signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, Iulia I; Hershfinkel, Michal; Lewis, Eli C; Sekler, Israel

    2015-02-01

    Glucose-dependent cytosolic Na(+) influx in pancreatic islet β cells is mediated by TTX-sensitive Na(+) channels and is propagated into the mitochondria through the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, NCLX. Mitochondrial Na(+) transients are also controlled by the mitochondrial Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, NHE, while cytosolic Na(+) changes are governed by Na(+)/K(+) ATPase pump. The functional interaction between the Na(+) channels, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase pump and mitochondrial Na(+) transporters, NCLX and NHE, in mediating Na(+) signaling is poorly understood. Here, we combine fluorescent Na(+) imaging, pharmacological inhibition by TTX, ouabain and EIPA, with molecular control of NCLX expression, so as to investigate the crosstalk between Na(+) transporters on both the plasma membrane and the mitochondria. According to our results, glucose-dependent cytosolic Na(+) response was enhanced by ouabain and was followed by a rise in mitochondrial Na(+) signal. Silencing of NCLX expression using siNCLX, did not affect the glucose- or ouabain-dependent cytosolic rise in Na(+). In contrast, the ouabain-dependent rise in mitochondrial Na(+) was strongly suppressed by siNCLX. Furthermore, mitochondrial Na(+) influx rates were accelerated in cells treated with the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibitor, EIPA or by combination of EIPA and ouabain. Similarly, TTX blocked the cytosolic and mitochondrial Na(+) responses, which were enhanced by ouabain or EIPA, respectively. Our results suggest that Na(+)/K(+) ATPase pump controls cytosolic glucose-dependent Na(+) rise, in a manner that is mediated by TTX-sensitive Na(+) channels and subsequent mitochondrial Na(+) uptake via NCLX. Furthermore, these results indicate that mitochondrial Na(+) influx via NCLX is antagonized by Na(+) efflux, which is mediated by the mitochondrial NHE; thus, the duration of mitochondrial Na(+) transients is set by the interplay between these pivotal transporters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression, purification, and functional characterization of the insulin-responsive facilitative glucose transporter GLUT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E; Hresko, Richard C; Hruz, Paul W

    2015-12-01

    The insulin-responsive facilitative glucose transporter GLUT4 is of fundamental importance for maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Despite intensive effort, the ability to express and purify sufficient quantities of structurally and functionally intact protein for biophysical analysis has previously been exceedingly difficult. We report here the development of novel methods to express, purify, and functionally reconstitute GLUT4 into detergent micelles and proteoliposomes. Rat GLUT4 containing FLAG and His tags at the amino and carboxy termini, respectively, was engineered and stably transfected into HEK-293 cells. Overexpression in suspension culture yielded over 1.5 mg of protein per liter of culture. Systematic screening of detergent solubilized GLUT4-GFP fusion protein via fluorescent-detection size exclusion chromatography identified lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol (LMNG) as highly effective for isolating monomeric GLUT4 micelles. Preservation of structural integrity and ligand binding was demonstrated via quenching of tryptophan fluorescence and competition of ATB-BMPA photolabeling by cytochalasin B. GLUT4 was reconstituted into lipid nanodiscs and proper folding was confirmed. Reconstitution of purified GLUT4 with amphipol A8-35 stabilized the transporter at elevated temperatures for extended periods of time. Functional activity of purified GLUT4 was confirmed by reconstitution of LMNG-purified GLUT4 into proteoliposomes and measurement of saturable uptake of D-glucose over L-glucose. Taken together, these data validate the development of an efficient means to generate milligram quantities of stable and functionally intact GLUT4 that is suitable for a wide array of biochemical and biophysical analyses. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  6. Poder simbólico no reajuste tarifário do transporte metropolitano de passageiros de Porto Alegre na crise de 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte de Souza Rosa Filho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Em julho de 2004 ocorreu uma crise no transporte coletivo metropolitano de passageiros da Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RMPA, quando foram queimados ônibus em protestos contra o aumento das tarifas. O presente trabalho visa analisar o exercício do poder simbólico nos discursos pronunciados na elaboração dos estudos do reajuste das tarifas, ou seja, poder da linguagem, como "o poder de constituir o dado pela enunciação, de fazer ver e fazer crer, de confirmar ou de transformar a visão do mundo" (Bourdieu, 2004a:14-15. A fim de potencializar a análise do poder simbólico, foram utilizados os conceitos da análise crítica do discurso (ACD. De acordo com a definição de Fairclough (2001:90, discurso é "o uso de linguagem como forma de prática social". Para Fairclough e colaboradores (2000, baseados nas afirmações de Lemke (1995, a linguagem matemática também é usada para atender a objetivos ideológicos. O trabalho conclui que os discursos pronunciados utilizam a condensação temática para incluir apenas aqueles atores sociais que dispõem de recursos de poder, oriundos do acervo de conhecimentos sobre o processo de produção dos serviços de transportes e do cálculo dos seus custos operacionais, que utilizam formalização matemática.

  7. Efeito do ambiente pós-transporte na recuperação dos indicadores de estresse de pacus juvenis, Piaractus mesopotamicus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.610 Effect of post-transport environment on the stress indicators recovery of pacu juveniles , Piaractus mesopotamicus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.610

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Dalbello Biller

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a recuperação das respostas fisiológicas de estresse após transporte de pacus em diferentes condições de es tocagem. Após transporte por 2h30min, os peixes foram transferidos para tanque de terra ou para caixas de polietileno em laboratório. Houve significativa redução dos valores de cortisol observados na chegada 24 horas depois, nas duas condições de estocagem , enquanto a concentração de glicose caiu significativamente 72 horas depois nos peixes estocados no tanque de t 1erra e 120 horas nos peixes estocados no laboratório. A osmolalidade, sódio, potássio e cloreto suger em um retorno à homeostase durante o perío do de recuperação, principalmente nos peixes no tanque de terra. Os parâmetros hematológicos, sem efeito da condição de estocagem, não se caracterizaram indicadores sensíveis. Após o transporte, uma prática de manejo que causa estresse em peixes, o retorno às condições normais foi favorecido quando os pacus foram estocados em tanque de terra.The aim of this work was to evaluate the recovery of physiological stress responses after the transport of pacu juveniles in different stocking conditions. After being transported for 2 h30min, fish were transferred to earthen ponds or indoor polyethylene boxes. There was a significant reduction of cortisol values registered at fish arrival , 24 hours after, in both stocking conditions . The glucose concentration reduced significantly 72 hours after in fish stocked in earthen ponds , and 120 hours in fish stocked indoor. Osmolality, sodium, potassium and chloride behavior suggested the re-establishment of the homeostasis during the recovery period, mainly in fish kept in the earthen ponds. Concerning the hematological parameters, only hemoglobin concentration reduced significantly in the recovery period , without effect of stocking condition, which does not characterize feasible indicators. After transport, a management

  8. Identification of Rice Accessions Associated with K+/Na+ Ratio and Salt Tolerance Based on Physiological and Molecular Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inja Naga Bheema Lingeswara Reddy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The key for rice plant survival under NaCl salt stress is maintaining a high K+/Na+ ratio in its cells. Selection for salt tolerance rice genotypes based on phenotypic performance alone will delay in progress in breeding. Use of molecular markers in tandem with physiological studies will help in better identification of salt tolerant rice accessions. Eight rice accessions along with the check Dongjin were screened using 1/2 Yoshida solution with 50 mmol/L NaCl at the seedling stage. The accessions IT001158, IT246674, IT260533 and IT291341 were classified as salt tolerant based on their K+/Na+ ratios. Seventeen SSR markers reported to be associated with K+/Na+ ratio were used to screen the accessions. Five SSR markers (RM8053, RM345, RM318, RM253 and RM7075 could differentiate accessions classified based on their K+/Na+ ratios. Banding pattern of the accessions was scored compared to the banding pattern of Dongjin. The study differentiated accessions based on their association of K+/Na+ ratio with molecular markers which are very reliable. These markers can play a significant role in screening large set of rice germplasms for salt tolerance and also help in identification of high-yielding varieties with better salt tolerance. The salt tolerant accessions can be taken forward into developing better varieties by conventional breeding and exploring genes for salt tolerance.

  9. Phosphorylation states of the (Na+ + K+)-transporting ATPase in preparations from lamb kidney and electric-eel (Electophorus electricus) electric organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, W E; Stahl, W L

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorylation states of the (Na+ + K+)-transporting ATPase were studied in highly purified preparations isolated from electric-eel electric organ and from lamb kidney. The steady-state level of phosphorylated lamb kidney enzyme, obtained by reaction with [gamma-32P]ATP, was not appreciably reduced in the presence of ADP unless oligomycin was present. The phosphorylated form of the electric-eel electric-organ enzyme was reduced by at least 95% under the same conditions, suggesting that the E1P state in the kidney enzyme is more transitory than that in electric organ. The level of phosphorylation from [32P]Pi was higher in the lamb kidney preparation than in the electric-organ preparation, and the difference in stimulation of phosphorylation by ouabain in the two preparations was striking. Ouabain increased the level of phosphorylation by 35% in the kidney preparation and 734% in the electric-organ preparation. The E2P state seems to be stabilized by ouabain in the latter preparation. These findings, as well as the different reactivities of the thiol groups to blocking reagents in these preparations, suggest that the tertiary structure in the enzyme isolated from these two sources is different. PMID:6324756

  10. A minimization procedure for estimating the power deposition and heat transport from the temperature response to auxiliary power modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eester, Dirk van

    2004-01-01

    A method commonly used for determining where externally launched power is absorbed inside a tokamak plasma is to examine the temperature response to modulation of the launched power. Strictly speaking, this response merely provides a first good guess of the actual power deposition rather than the deposition profile itself: not only local heat sources but also heat losses and heat wave propagation affect the temperature response at a given position. Making use of this, at first sight non-desirable, effect modulation becomes a useful tool for conducting transport studies. In this paper a minimization method based on a simple conduction-convection model is proposed for deducing the power deposition and transport characteristics from the experimentally measured (electron) energy density response to a modulation of the auxiliary heating power. An L-mode JET example illustrates the potential of the technique

  11. Effect of low irradiation temperature on the thermoluminescent response of doped crystal NaCl:XCl2 :MnCl2(X=Ca, Cd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz M, A.; Cruz Z, E.; Furetta, C.; Kitis, G.

    2009-10-01

    Production of crystalline materials suitable thermoluminescent properties over a wide range of doses is becoming more important to evaluate different radiation fields. However, the thermoluminescence response and the structure of the glow curves may be modified by the participation of defects to low irradiation temperature. In this work it is analyzed the effect of the irradiation temperature, 77 and 200 K on the thermoluminescence response of crystal NaCl:XCl 2 :MnCl 2 (X=Ca, Cd) doubly doped. The glow curves obtained were analyzed using a deconvolution program of CGCD, and the response linearity was analyzed by supra linearity index. (Author)

  12. Enhanced Lithium Ion Transport by Superionic Pathways Formed on the Surface of Two-dimensional Structured Li0.85Na0.15V3O8 for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xuena; Shang, Yu; Zhang, Sen; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 nanosheet with superionic conductive layer was constructed. • Li x V 2 O 5 surface layer provides facile pathways for lithium migration. • Li x V 2 O 5 -Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 composite displays good high rate capability. - Abstract: Poor ion transport and rate capability are the main challenges for LiV 3 O 8 as cathode material for lithium ion batteries. Here we report a novel strategy for enhancing lithium ion transport by building superionic pathways on the surface of Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 nanosheet. The two-dimensional Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 nanoparticle with an ion conductive layer of Li x V 2 O 5 on its surface is constructed by a modified sol–gel strategy with carefully controlled sodium incorporation and elements stoichiometry. Ultrathin Li x V 2 O 5 surface layer not only provides facile pathways for lithium migration, but also increases the structure stability during cycling. The Li x V 2 O 5 -Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 composite displays good high rate capability of 172.3 mAh g −1 at 5C and excellent cycling stability of 98.9% over fifty cycles. This superior electrochemical property is attributed to the occupation of lithium site by Na + in LiV 3 O 8 host crystals and the surface superionic pathways of Li x V 2 O 5 phase. Therefore, the advantages of both high ion transport and the structure stabilization in present study put forward a new strategy for achieving high-performance LiV 3 O 8 electrode material with tailored nanoarchitecture

  13. Optimization of formulation of cmc-na, xanthan gum and carrageenan affecting the physicochemical properties of papaya-wolfberry beverage using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geo, J.Z.H.; Zong, G.L.P.

    2013-01-01

    CMC-Na, xanthan gum and carrageenan are widely employed in food industry. They were used for its thickening properties of aqueous solutions or emulsifying abilities. The present work aims to optimize the formula of the three stabilizers in the process of papaya-wolfberry beverage by response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the models were significantly (p<0.05) fitted for describing the viscosity and cloudiness of papaya-wolfberry beverage. The results also indicated that the linear terms of CMC-Na and xanthan gum were the most significant (p<0.05) variables affecting the viscosity, while xanthan gum and carrageenan were the most significant (p<0.05) variable affecting the cloudiness. The interaction of CMC-Na and xanthan gum behaved extremely significant for viscosity. From the optimization procedure, the best formula for viscosity was obtained at the combined level of 0.0652% (w/w) CMC-Na, 0.1070% (w/w) xanthan gum and 0.1485% (w/w) carrageenan, and the other group of 0.0623% (w/w) CMC-Na, 0.1375% (w/w) xanthan gum and 0.1461% (w/w) carrageenan for cloudiness. The results of our study would be used to improve the quality of papaya-wolfberry beverage and increase its economic efficiency. (author)

  14. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  15. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  16. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  17. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  18. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  19. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-03-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  20. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  1. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  2. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  3. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  4. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  5. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  6. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  7. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  8. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  9. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no. 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-02-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  10. Regulation of cation transporter genes by the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in rice plants subjected to salinity suggests improved salt tolerance due to reduced Na(+) root-to-shoot distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, Rosa; Aroca, Ricardo; Azcon, Rosario; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Rice is a salt-sensitive crop whose productivity is strongly reduced by salinity around the world. Plants growing in saline soils are subjected to the toxicity of specific ions such as sodium, which damage cell organelles and disrupt metabolism. Plants have evolved biochemical and molecular mechanisms to cope with the negative effects of salinity. These include the regulation of genes with a role in the uptake, transport or compartmentation of Na(+) and/or K(+). Studies have shown that the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis alleviates salt stress in several host plant species. However, despite the abundant literature showing mitigation of ionic imbalance by the AM symbiosis, the molecular mechanisms involved are barely explored. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of the AM symbiosis on the expression of several well-known rice transporters involved in Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis and measure Na(+) and K(+) contents and their ratios in different plant tissues. Results showed that OsNHX3, OsSOS1, OsHKT2;1 and OsHKT1;5 genes were considerably upregulated in AM plants under saline conditions as compared to non-AM plants. Results suggest that the AM symbiosis favours Na(+) extrusion from the cytoplasm, its sequestration into the vacuole, the unloading of Na(+) from the xylem and its recirculation from photosynthetic organs to roots. As a result, there is a decrease of Na(+) root-to-shoot distribution and an increase of Na(+) accumulation in rice roots which seems to enhance the plant tolerance to salinity and allows AM rice plants to maintain their growing processes under salt conditions.

  11. Effect of rearing conditions on behavioural and physiological responses of pigs to preslaughter handling and mixing at transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Prelle, I.T.; Burgwal, van de J.A.; Lambooij, E.; Korte, S.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Koolhaas, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The physiological and behavioural responses of slaughter pigs reared in either a barren environment or in an enriched environment (larger pens with straw bedding) to preslaughter handling and mixing at transport were studied. Enriched-reared pigs had higher salivary cortisol concentrations in the

  12. Effects of rearing conditions on behavioural and physiological responses of pigs to preslaughter handling and mixing at transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, I.C; Prelle, I.T.; Lambooij, E.; Korte, S.M.; Blokhuis, H.J; Koolhaas, J.M.

    The physiological and behavioural responses of slaughter pigs reared in either a barren environment or in an enriched environment (larger pens with straw bedding) to preslaughter handling and mixing at transport were studied. Enriched-reared pigs had higher salivary cortisol concentrations in the

  13. The relationship between the hypokalaemic response to adrenaline, beta-adrenoceptors, and Na(+)-K+ pumps in skeletal and cardiac muscle membranes in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfellah, M.S.; Reid, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The hypokalaemic response to adrenaline and the involvement of beta-adrenoceptors and Na(+)-K+ pumps were investigated in control rabbits and animals chronically pretreated with adrenaline. The hypokalaemic response to acute intravenous infusion of adrenaline was significantly reduced when rabbits were chronically pretreated with adrenaline for 10 days. Chronic pretreatment of rabbits with adrenaline significantly reduced the densities for [125I]cyanopindolol and [3H]ouabain binding sites in skeletal muscle and heart. Furthermore, there was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.97, p less than 0.001) between the Bmax for ICYP and [3H]ouabain, in the rabbit heart. Ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake and the activity of 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphate phosphatase were used to assess the function of the Na(+)-K+ pump in skeletal and cardiac muscle. There was no significant difference in these functional indices of the Na(+)-K+ pump between the control and adrenaline-pretreated animals, in skeletal or cardiac muscle. Thus, downregulation of the [3H]ouabain binding sites did not appear to be accompanied by reduced function of the Na(+)-K+ pump. Additional investigations are required to confirm further the dissociation between the function of the pump and the ouabain binding sites

  14. Microscopic Linear Response Theory of Spin Relaxation and Relativistic Transport Phenomena in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Offidani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a unified theoretical framework for the study of spin dynamics and relativistic transport phenomena in disordered two-dimensional Dirac systems with pseudospin-spin coupling. The formalism is applied to the paradigmatic case of graphene with uniform Bychkov-Rashba interaction and shown to capture spin relaxation processes and associated charge-to-spin interconversion phenomena in response to generic external perturbations, including spin density fluctuations and electric fields. A controlled diagrammatic evaluation of the generalized spin susceptibility in the diffusive regime of weak spin-orbit interaction allows us to show that the spin and momentum lifetimes satisfy the standard Dyakonov-Perel relation for both weak (Gaussian and resonant (unitary nonmagnetic disorder. Finally, we demonstrate that the spin relaxation rate can be derived in the zero-frequency limit by exploiting the SU(2 covariant conservation laws for the spin observables. Our results set the stage for a fully quantum-mechanical description of spin relaxation in both pristine graphene samples with weak spin-orbit fields and in graphene heterostructures with enhanced spin-orbital effects currently attracting much attention.

  15. Transport coefficients and mechanical response in hard-disk colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo-Kai; Li, Jian; Chen, Kang; Tian, Wen-De; Ma, Yu-Qiang

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the transport properties and mechanical response of glassy hard disks using nonlinear Langevin equation theory. We derive expressions for the elastic shear modulus and viscosity in two dimensions on the basis of thermal-activated barrier-hopping dynamics and mechanically accelerated motion. Dense hard disks exhibit phenomena such as softening elasticity, shear-thinning of viscosity, and yielding upon deformation, which are qualitatively similar to dense hard-sphere colloidal suspensions in three dimensions. These phenomena can be ascribed to stress-induced “landscape tilting”. Quantitative comparisons of these phenomena between hard disks and hard spheres are presented. Interestingly, we find that the density dependence of yield stress in hard disks is much more significant than in hard spheres. Our work provides a foundation for further generalizing the nonlinear Langevin equation theory to address slow dynamics and rheological behavior in binary or polydisperse mixtures of hard or soft disks. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB821500) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21374073 and, 21574096).

  16. Avaliação multicriterial de desempenho: um estudo de caso na indústria de transporte coletivo de passageiros Multicriterial performance assessment: a case study in the urban passenger transportation sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Afonso Sellitto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma proposta de estrutura multicriterial de avaliação de desempenho em organizações. O trabalho inicia descrevendo e contextualizando conceitos relativos aos sistemas de medição de desempenho em organizações. Também descreve modelos de gestão baseados nos critérios de excelência do prêmio Malcolm Baldridge e na teoria da mentalidade enxuta. A seguir propõe um método para a construção de uma estrutura flexível de avaliação de desempenho e descreve um caso de aplicação que a exemplifica: a avaliação do desempenho de aspectos da mentalidade enxuta inseridos em uma operação de transporte coletivo. Ao final discutem-se os resultados do caso, comparam-se estes com o método de avaliação vigente em duas empresas da indústria e encaminha-se a continuidade da pesquisa.This paper proposes a multicriterial framework for strategic performance assessment, beginning with a presentation of concepts of performance measurement, and a description of management models based on the Malcolm Baldridge Quality Award and lean thinking. A method is then outlined for building a flexible framework for performance assessment and a case study is described: an evaluation of the performance of aspects of lean thinking in an urban passenger transportation operation. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings of the case study using the proposed method, comparing it with the evaluation method currently used by two companies in the sector under study.

  17. Inhibition of K+ Transport through Na+, K+-ATPase by Capsazepine: Role of Membrane Span 10 of the α-Subunit in the Modulation of Ion Gating

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmmoud, Yasser A.; Shattock, Michael; Cornelius, Flemming; Pavlovic, Davor

    2014-01-01

    Capsazepine (CPZ) inhibits Na+,K+-ATPase-mediated K+-dependent ATP hydrolysis with no effect on Na+-ATPase activity. In this study we have investigated the functional effects of CPZ on Na+,K+-ATPase in intact cells. We have also used well established biochemical and biophysical techniques to understand how CPZ modifies the catalytic subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase. In isolated rat cardiomyocytes, CPZ abolished Na+,K+-ATPase current in the presence of extracellular K+. In contrast, CPZ stimulated pum...

  18. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates subgenual response to fearful faces using an incidental task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Nions, Elizabeth J P; Dolan, Raymond J; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2011-11-01

    This study assessed the impact of serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) on regional responses to emotional faces in the amygdala and subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), while subjects performed a gender discrimination task. Although we found no evidence for greater amygdala reactivity or reduced amygdala-sgACC coupling in short variant 5-HTTLPR homozygotes (s/s), we observed an interaction between genotype and emotion in sgACC. Only long variant homozygotes (la/la) exhibited subgenual deactivation to fearful versus neutral faces, whereas the effect in s/s subjects was in the other direction. This absence of subgenual deactivation in s/s subjects parallels a recent finding in depressed subjects [Grimm, S., Boesiger, P., Beck, J., Schuepbach, D., Bermpohl, F., Walter, M., et al. Altered negative BOLD responses in the default-mode network during emotion processing in depressed subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34, 932-943, 2009]. Taken together, the findings suggest that subgenual cingulate activity may play an important role in regulating the impact of aversive stimuli, potentially conferring greater resilience to the effects of aversive stimuli in la/la subjects. Using dynamic causal modeling of functional magnetic resonance imaging data, we explored the effects of genotype on effective connectivity and emotion-specific changes in coupling across a network of regions implicated in social processing. Viewing fearful faces enhanced bidirectional excitatory coupling between the amygdala and the fusiform gyrus, and increased the inhibitory influence of the amygdala over the sgACC, although this modulation of coupling did not differ between the genotype groups. The findings are discussed in relation to the role of sgACC and serotonin in moderating responses to aversive stimuli [Dayan, P., & Huys, Q. J., Serotonin, inhibition, and negative mood. PLoS Comput Biol, 4, e4, 2008; Mayberg, H. S., Liotti, M., Brannan, S. K., McGinnis, S., Mahurin, R. K., Jerabek, P. A., et

  19. Disorder Effects in Charge Transport and Spin Response of Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lukas Zhonghua

    Topological insulators are a class of solids in which the non-trivial inverted bulk band structure gives rise to metallic surface states that are robust against impurity backscattering. First principle calculations predicted Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3 and Bi2Se3 to be three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators with a single Dirac cone on the surface. The topological surface states were subsequently observed by angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The investigations of charge transport through topological surfaces of 3D topological insulators, however, have faced a major challenge due to large charge carrier densities in the bulk donated by randomly distributed defects such as vacancies and antisites. This bulk disorder intermixes surface and bulk conduction channels, thereby complicating access to the low-energy (Dirac point) charge transport or magnetic response and resulting in the relatively low measured carrier mobilities. Moreover, charge inhomogeneity arising from bulk disorder can result in pronounced nanoscale spatial fluctuations of energy on the surface, leading to the formation of surface `puddles' of different carrier types. Great efforts have been made to combat the undesirable effects of disorder in 3D topological insulators and to reduce bulk carriers through chemical doping, nanostructure fabrication, and electric gating. In this work we have developed a new way to reduce bulk carrier densities using high-energy electron irradiation, thereby allowing us access to the topological surface quantum channels. We also found that disorder in 3D topological insulators can be beneficial. It can play an important part in enabling detection of unusual magnetic response from Dirac fermions and in uncovering new excitations, namely surface superconductivity in Dirac `puddles'. In Chapter 3 we show how by using differential magnetometry we could probe spin rotation in the 3D topological material family (Bi2Se 3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3

  20. Two-week inhalation of budesonide increases muscle Na,K ATPase content but not endurance in response to terbutaline in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Hostrup; Onslev, Johan; Jessen, Søren Kaare

    2017-01-01

    of plasma budesonide, cortisol, and K+ . Subjects' performance during cycling to fatigue at 90% of incremental peak power output (iPPO) was measured in response to 4 mg inhaled terbutaline to maximally stimulate Na+ ,K+ ATPase activity. Plasma concentrations of budesonide rose to 5.0 ± 1.6 n......M with the intervention, whereas no changes were observed in plasma cortisol. Muscle Na+ ,K+ ATPase content increased (P ≤ 0.01) by 46 ± 34 pmol/(g wet wt) (17% increase) with the intervention. Cycling performance at 90% of iPPO did not change (P = 0.21) with the intervention (203 vs 214 s) in response to terbutaline...

  1. Two-week inhalation of budesonide increases muscle Na,K ATPase content but not endurance in response to terbutaline in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, M.; Jessen, S.; Onslev, J.

    2017-01-01

    of plasma budesonide, cortisol, and K+. Subjects' performance during cycling to fatigue at 90% of incremental peak power output (iPPO) was measured in response to 4 mg inhaled terbutaline to maximally stimulate Na+,K+ ATPase activity. Plasma concentrations of budesonide rose to 5.0 ± 1.6 n......M with the intervention, whereas no changes were observed in plasma cortisol. Muscle Na+,K+ ATPase content increased (P ≤ 0.01) by 46 ± 34 pmol/(g wet wt) (17% increase) with the intervention. Cycling performance at 90% of iPPO did not change (P = 0.21) with the intervention (203 vs 214 s) in response to terbutaline...

  2. Calibration of angle response of a NaI(Tl) airborne spectrometer to 137Cs and 60Co point sources on the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinhua; Zhang Yongxing; Gu Renkang; Shen Ensheng

    1998-01-01

    The angle response function F(φ,θ) is a basic calibration of airborne spectrometers in airborne surveying for nuclear emergency monitoring. The author describes the method and results of angle response function calibration of a NaI(Tl) airborne spectrometer for 137 Cs and 60 Co point sources on the ground, with less than 20% uncertainty. By using the results, the calibration factors of the NaI(Tl) airborne spectrometer fixed in Yun-5 plane at different flying heights are calculated by numerical integral method for 137 Cs uniform area source on ground surface, with less than 25% uncertainty. The minimum detection limits (L D ) are calculated at 90 m and 120 m flying heights in the range of over Shijiazhuang airborne surveying for 137 Cs uniform area source on ground surface to be 3.83 and 5.62 kBq/m 2 , respectively

  3. Rapid release of 42K or 86Rb from two distinct transport sites on the Na,K-pump in the presence of Pi or vanadate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbush, B. III

    1987-01-01

    The rate of 86Rb or 42 K release from an occluded form of the phosphorylated Na+ pump has been studied using a rapid filtration apparatus described previously. The rate constant of release is 5-15 s-1, and 42 K and 86Rb dissociate at approximately the same rate. Mg2+ is required for deocclusion in the presence of Pi at a site which has the same affinity as the site involved in stabilization of E2(K) with ATP; we propose that Na,K-ATPase has only one site for Mg2+, that the affinity of this site for Mg2+ is increased by Pi binding and decreased by ATP binding, and that Mg2+ is bound and released in the normal transport cycle. In the presence of K+, Cs+, Rb+, or Tl+, the release of two distinct 86Rb ions can be observed, the slow release from one site (''s'' site) being blocked by occupancy of the site vacated by the other (''f'', fast site). By a sequence of incubations, labeled 86Rb can be placed at either site, and the rate of dissociation monitored individually; in the absence of K+, dissociation from the s site proceeds after a lag in which the f site is vacated. The results are consistent with a ''flickering-gate'' model of deocclusion to the extracellular pump face, in which the site is exposed to the medium only long enough for a single ion to be released. When deocclusion to the intracellular face is promoted with ATP, ions are released from both sites at the same rate, presumably because the E2----E1 conformational change is rate-limiting. Unlabeled ions co-occluded with 86Rb increase the ATP-stimulated rate of release in the order Rb+ less than Tl+ less than Cs+ less than K+; since the same rank order is observed when dissociation from the s site is monitored in the presence of these ions and MgPi we propose that the latter process proceeds toward the intracellular pump face

  4. Time-dependent quantum many-body systems. Linear response, electronic transport, and reduced density matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, H.

    2007-05-01

    In part I of this work we present a double-pole approximation (DPA) to the response equations of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The double-pole approximation provides an exact description of systems with two strongly coupled excitations which are isolated from the rest of the spectrum. In contrast to the traditional single-pole approximation of TDDFT the DPA also yields corrections to the Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths. We also demonstrate how to invert the double-pole solution which allows us to predict matrix elements of the exchange-correlation kernel f xc from experimental input. We attempt some first steps towards a time-dependent generalization of reduced density matrix functional theory (RDMFT). In part II we derive equations of motion for natural orbitals and occupation numbers. Using the equation of motion for the occupation numbers we show that an adiabatic extension of presently known ground-state functionals of static RDMFT always leads to occupation numbers which are constant in time. From the stationary conditions of the equations of motion for the N-body correlations (correlated parts of the N-body matrices) we derive a new class of ground-state functionals which can be used in static RDMFT. Applications are presented for a one-dimensional model system where the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation can be propagated numerically. We use optimal control theory to find optimized laser pulses for transitions in a model for atomic Helium. From the numerically exact correlated wavefunction we extract the exact time evolution of natural orbitals and occupation numbers for (i) laser-driven Helium and (ii) electron-ion scattering. Part III of this work considers time-dependent quantum transport within TDDFT. We present an algorithm for the calculation of extended eigenstates of single-particle Hamiltonians which is especially tailored to a finite-difference discretization of the Schroedinger equation. We consider the propagation

  5. Simulating charge transport to understand the spectral response of Swept Charge Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athiray, P. S.; Sreekumar, P.; Narendranath, S.; Gow, J. P. D.

    2015-11-01

    Context. Swept Charge Devices (SCD) are novel X-ray detectors optimized for improved spectral performance without any demand for active cooling. The Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) experiment onboard the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft used an array of SCDs to map the global surface elemental abundances on the Moon using the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique. The successful demonstration of SCDs in C1XS spurred an enhanced version of the spectrometer on Chandrayaan-2 using the next-generation SCD sensors. Aims: The objective of this paper is to demonstrate validation of a physical model developed to simulate X-ray photon interaction and charge transportation in a SCD. The model helps to understand and identify the origin of individual components that collectively contribute to the energy-dependent spectral response of the SCD. Furthermore, the model provides completeness to various calibration tasks, such as generating spectral matrices (RMFs - redistribution matrix files), estimating efficiency, optimizing event selection logic, and maximizing event recovery to improve photon-collection efficiency in SCDs. Methods: Charge generation and transportation in the SCD at different layers related to channel stops, field zones, and field-free zones due to photon interaction were computed using standard drift and diffusion equations. Charge collected in the buried channel due to photon interaction in different volumes of the detector was computed by assuming a Gaussian radial profile of the charge cloud. The collected charge was processed further to simulate both diagonal clocking read-out, which is a novel design exclusive for SCDs, and event selection logic to construct the energy spectrum. Results: We compare simulation results of the SCD CCD54 with measurements obtained during the ground calibration of C1XS and clearly demonstrate that our model reproduces all the major spectral features seen in calibration data. We also describe our understanding of interactions at

  6. Time-dependent quantum many-body systems. Linear response, electronic transport, and reduced density matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, H.

    2007-05-15

    In part I of this work we present a double-pole approximation (DPA) to the response equations of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The double-pole approximation provides an exact description of systems with two strongly coupled excitations which are isolated from the rest of the spectrum. In contrast to the traditional single-pole approximation of TDDFT the DPA also yields corrections to the Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths. We also demonstrate how to invert the double-pole solution which allows us to predict matrix elements of the exchange-correlation kernel f{sub xc} from experimental input. We attempt some first steps towards a time-dependent generalization of reduced density matrix functional theory (RDMFT). In part II we derive equations of motion for natural orbitals and occupation numbers. Using the equation of motion for the occupation numbers we show that an adiabatic extension of presently known ground-state functionals of static RDMFT always leads to occupation numbers which are constant in time. From the stationary conditions of the equations of motion for the N-body correlations (correlated parts of the N-body matrices) we derive a new class of ground-state functionals which can be used in static RDMFT. Applications are presented for a one-dimensional model system where the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation can be propagated numerically. We use optimal control theory to find optimized laser pulses for transitions in a model for atomic Helium. From the numerically exact correlated wavefunction we extract the exact time evolution of natural orbitals and occupation numbers for (i) laser-driven Helium and (ii) electron-ion scattering. Part III of this work considers time-dependent quantum transport within TDDFT. We present an algorithm for the calculation of extended eigenstates of single-particle Hamiltonians which is especially tailored to a finite-difference discretization of the Schroedinger equation. We consider the

  7. Regulator of G protein signaling-12 modulates the dopamine transporter in ventral striatum and locomotor responses to psychostimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Joshua D; Kaski, Shane W; Schroer, Adam B; Wix, Kimberley A; Siderovski, David P; Setola, Vincent

    2018-02-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling are proteins that accelerate the termination of effector stimulation after G protein-coupled receptor activation. Many regulators of G protein signaling proteins are highly expressed in the brain and therefore considered potential drug discovery targets for central nervous system pathologies; for example, here we show that RGS12 is highly expressed in microdissected mouse ventral striatum. Given a role for the ventral striatum in psychostimulant-induced locomotor activity, we tested whether Rgs12 genetic ablation affected behavioral responses to amphetamine and cocaine. RGS12 loss significantly decreased hyperlocomotion to lower doses of both amphetamine and cocaine; however, other outcomes of administration (sensitization and conditioned place preference) were unaffected, suggesting that RGS12 does not function in support of the rewarding properties of these psychostimulants. To test whether observed response changes upon RGS12 loss were caused by changes to dopamine transporter expression and/or function, we prepared crude membranes from the brains of wild-type and RGS12-null mice and measured dopamine transporter-selective [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding, revealing an increase in dopamine transporter levels in the ventral-but not dorsal-striatum of RGS12-null mice. To address dopamine transporter function, we prepared striatal synaptosomes and measured [ 3 H]dopamine uptake. Consistent with increased [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding, dopamine transporter-specific [ 3 H]dopamine uptake in RGS12-null ventral striatal synaptosomes was found to be increased. Decreased amphetamine-induced locomotor activity and increased [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding were recapitulated with an independent RGS12-null mouse strain. Thus, we propose that RGS12 regulates dopamine transporter expression and function in the ventral striatum, affecting amphetamine- and cocaine-induced increases in dopamine levels that specifically elicit acute hyperlocomotor responses.

  8. Effect of lithium and of other drugs used in the treatment of manic illness on the cation-transporting properties of Na+,K+-ATPase in mouse brain synaptosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, A J; Elphick, M; Grahame-Smith, D G

    1989-04-01

    We have developed and used a novel technique to investigate the effects of lithium and other psychotropic drugs on the cation-transporting properties of the sodium- and potassium-activated ATPase enzyme (Na+,K+-ATPase) in intact synaptosomes. Rubidium-86 uptake into intact synaptosomes is an active process and is inhibited by approximately 75% in the presence of the Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor acetylstrophanthidin. In vitro addition of lithium to synaptosomes prepared from untreated mice causes a progressive inhibition of acetylstrophanthidin-sensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake, but only at concentrations higher than the clinical therapeutic range. However, pretreatment of mice for 14 days in vivo with lithium, carbamazepine, and haloperidol, but not phenytoin, causes a significant stimulation of /sup 86/Rb uptake into synaptosomes via Na+,K+-ATPase.

  9. Transport fuel demand responses to fuel price and income projections : Comparison of integrated assessment models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, O. Y.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Bertram, C.; Carrara, S.; Emmerling, J.; Daly, H.; Kitous, A.; McCollum, D. L.; Saadi Failali, N.

    Income and fuel price pathways are key determinants in projections of the energy system in integrated assessment models. In recent years, more details have been added to the transport sector representation in these models. To better understand the model dynamics, this manuscript analyses transport

  10. Workshop on the first response in a radiological emergency. Radiopharmaceuticals transport. Tabletop exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exercise is that the participants can apply their knowledge in a transport accident. A lorry that was transporting radiopharmaceuticals collided with other vehicles and a fire occurs. The first responders have to know who are the actors involved in the radiological emergency

  11. UPTRANS: an incremental transport model with feedback for quick-response strategy evaluation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the development of a prototype transport model to be used for high-level evaluation of a potentially large number of alternative land use-transport scenarios. It uses advanced logit modelling to capture travel behaviour change...

  12. Cloreto de sódio, benzocaína e óleo de cravo-da-índia na água de transporte de tilápia-do-nilo Sodium chloride, benzocaine and clove oil in tilapia transport water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Testou-se a ação de diferentes concentrações de cloreto de sódio, benzocaína e óleo de cravo-da-índia na sobrevivência de alevinos e juvenis de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, linhagem chitralada, por 5 horas visando ao transporte. Utilizaram-se 1.350 alevinos (9,74 ± 0,04 g e 6,79 ± 0,01 cm e 270 juvenis (29,6 ± 0,06 g e 11,52 ± 0,01. Os peixes foram mantidos em jejum por 24 horas em quatro caixas de amianto (500 L com aeração constante. Em seguida, os peixes foram distribuídos em 54 sacos plásticos, capacidade para 5 L e mantidos em soluções de: cloreto de sódio nas concentrações de (0; 4; ou 8 g/L, benzocaína (0; 20; ou 40 mg/L e óleo de cravo (0; 2; ou 5 mg/L. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em arranjo multifatorial, com três fatores: substâncias, peixes e concentrações de cada substância em estudo. Mensuraram-se, no início, os parâmetros oxigênio dissolvido, temperatura, pH, salinidade e amônia e, ao final do experimento, a glicose dos peixes. Maiores níveis de glicose foram registrados nos juvenis mantidos na água com óleo de cravo e cloreto de sódio. Não foi observada diferença significativa na sobrevivência entre os tipos de peixes e as substâncias. Entretanto, as dosagens de cloreto de sódio e benzocaína ocasionaram diferenças significativas na taxa de sobrevivência. A sobrevivência foi baixa nos alevinos com 0 g/L de cloreto de sódio e diferiu das dosagens 4 e 8 g/L. O óleo de cravo promoveu resultados similares, em todas as dosagens e substâncias, de taxas de glicose. Ao final do experimento, a sobrevivência foi satisfatória, com média geral de 97,26%, comprovando que as três substâncias podem ser usadas no transporte de alevinos e juvenis durante 5 horas. Sugere-se o cloreto de sódio por seu melhor custo-benefício.The action of different concentrations of sodium chloride, benzocaine and clove oil in the survival of fingerling and juvenile

  13. High-resolution array CGH profiling identifies Na/K transporting ATPase interacting 2 (NKAIN2) as a predisposing candidate gene in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romania, Paolo; Castellano, Aurora; Surace, Cecilia; Citti, Arianna; De Ioris, Maria Antonietta; Sirleto, Pietro; De Mariano, Marilena; Longo, Luca; Boldrini, Renata; Angioni, Adriano; Locatelli, Franco; Fruci, Doriana

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB), the most common solid cancer in early childhood, usually occurs sporadically but also its familial occurance is known in 1-2% of NB patients. Germline mutations in the ALK and PHOX2B genes have been found in a subset of familial NBs. However, because some individuals harbouring mutations in these genes do not develop this tumor, additional genetic alterations appear to be required for NB pathogenesis. Herein, we studied an Italian family with three NB patients, two siblings and a first cousin, carrying an ALK germline-activating mutation R1192P, that was inherited from their unaffected mothers and with no mutations in the PHOX2B gene. A comparison between somatic and germline DNA copy number changes in the two affected siblings by a high resolution array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) analysis revealed a germline gain at NKAIN2 (Na/K transporting ATPase interacting 2) locus in one of the sibling, that was inherited from the parent who does not carry the ALK mutation. Surprisingly, NKAIN2 was expressed at high levels also in the affected sibling that lacks the genomic gain at this locus, clearly suggesting the existance of other regulatory mechanisms. High levels of NKAIN2 were detected in the MYCN-amplified NB cell lines and in the most aggressive NB lesions as well as in the peripheral blood of a large cohort of NB patients. Consistent with a role of NKAIN2 in NB development, NKAIN2 was down-regulated during all-trans retinoic acid differentiation in two NB cell lines. Taken together, these data indicate a potential role of NKAIN2 gene in NB growth and differentiation.

  14. High-resolution array CGH profiling identifies Na/K transporting ATPase interacting 2 (NKAIN2 as a predisposing candidate gene in neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Romania

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB, the most common solid cancer in early childhood, usually occurs sporadically but also its familial occurance is known in 1-2% of NB patients. Germline mutations in the ALK and PHOX2B genes have been found in a subset of familial NBs. However, because some individuals harbouring mutations in these genes do not develop this tumor, additional genetic alterations appear to be required for NB pathogenesis. Herein, we studied an Italian family with three NB patients, two siblings and a first cousin, carrying an ALK germline-activating mutation R1192P, that was inherited from their unaffected mothers and with no mutations in the PHOX2B gene. A comparison between somatic and germline DNA copy number changes in the two affected siblings by a high resolution array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH analysis revealed a germline gain at NKAIN2 (Na/K transporting ATPase interacting 2 locus in one of the sibling, that was inherited from the parent who does not carry the ALK mutation. Surprisingly, NKAIN2 was expressed at high levels also in the affected sibling that lacks the genomic gain at this locus, clearly suggesting the existance of other regulatory mechanisms. High levels of NKAIN2 were detected in the MYCN-amplified NB cell lines and in the most aggressive NB lesions as well as in the peripheral blood of a large cohort of NB patients. Consistent with a role of NKAIN2 in NB development, NKAIN2 was down-regulated during all-trans retinoic acid differentiation in two NB cell lines. Taken together, these data indicate a potential role of NKAIN2 gene in NB growth and differentiation.

  15. Comparative endocrinological responses to short transportation of Equidae (Equus asinus and Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Esterina; Medica, Pietro; Cravana, Cristina; Aveni, Francesca; Ferlazzo, Adriana

    2013-03-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of short transportation on β-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol changes, 12 healthy stallions of Equidae (Equus asinus and Equus caballus) were studied before and after transportation of 50 km. Blood samples were collected 1 week before transportation in basal conditions, immediately before loading and after transportation and unloading, on their arrival at the breeding station. Compared to basal and before values, donkeys showed an increase in circulating ACTH (P donkeys. Horses facing forward (direction of travel) showed higher (P donkeys; horses facing backward (the opposite direction of travel) showed lower (P donkeys and only of cortisol in horses, suggesting that transportation for donkeys may be more stressful than horses. © 2012 The Authors Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Molecular basis for interaction of Na+/K+-ATPase with other transporters in membrane microdomains of vascular smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Kirstine; Matchkov, Vladimir; Bouzinova, Elena

    2008-01-01

    Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na+/K+-pump, has previously been shown to interfere with intercellular communication. We have recently demonstrated a mechanism of this action of ouabain (1). We have showed that gap junctions between vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are regulated through...... an interaction between the Na+/K+-pump and the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger leading to an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in discrete areas near the plasma membrane. This regulation suggests a close association of the proteins in microdomains. We have also suggested that this Na...

  17. Transporting TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Unit 2] core debris to INEL: Public safety and public response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Reno, H.W.; Young, W.R.; Hamric, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the approach taken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to ensure that public safety is maintained during transport of core debris from the Unit-2 reactor at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station near Harrisburg, PA, to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, ID. It provides up-to-date information about public response to the transport action and discusses DOE's position on several institutional issues. The authors advise that planners of future transport operations be prepared for a multitude of comments from all levels of federal, state, and local governments, special interest groups, and private citizens. They also advise planners to keep meticulous records concerning all informational transactions

  18. Evaluation of the angular response of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) and NaI(Tl) radiological identifiers for emergency situations attendance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izidório, Ana C.A.C.; Cardoso, Domingos D’O.; Oliveira, Luciano S.R.; Balthar, Mario C.V.; Amorim, Aneuri S. de; Santos, Avelino dos; Guimarães Junior, Walter J.; Arbach, Mayara N., E-mail: carolizidorio@hotmail.com, E-mail: domingos.oliveiralvr71@gmail.com, E-mail: walter_guimaraes@ime.eb.br, E-mail: lucianosantarita@gmail.com, E-mail: mariobalthar@gmail.com, E-mail: aneurideamorim@gmail.com, E-mail: hiperav@gmail.com, E-mail: mayaraarbach@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Defesa Química, Biológica, Radiológica e Nuclear (IDQBRN/CTEx), Barra de Guaratiba, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (IDQBRN) of the Brazilian Army has been developing activities aimed at characterizing radiological detectors for use during emergency situations and radiological incidents and also for research and academic activities. This work describes the experiments performed in order to evaluate the angular response of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) and NaI(Tl) portable radiological identifiers (PRI) with scintillator crystal detectors measuring 1.5” x 1.5” and 3.0” x 1.5”, respectively. A {sup 137}Cs source with corrected activity of 2.623 GBq (July 29, 2017) supplied the beam for the experiments. It was positioned at a distance of 1.00 m from the PRIs, together with attenuators, in order to yield different ambient dose equivalent rate, H⁎(10), thus allowing the adjustment of the counting statistics and the analysis of the responses obtained. The objective of this work was to evaluate the angular dependence of the response of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) and NaI(Tl) PRIs exposed to a {sup 137}Cs source by azimuthally varying the angle of incidence of the primary beam within the 0° ± 30° range, measured from the center of the sensitive volume of the scintillators. The PRIs were programmed to reach a maximum count of 10{sup 6} in order to ensure that the relative uncertainty of the measured data would be negligible which led to improved angular response data, in addition to higher correlation factors and greater reliability in the responses obtained with LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) and NaI(T1) portable radiological identifiers. (author)

  19. Effect of fasting time at farm and transport conditions of slaughter pigs on lairage resting behaviour and skin injuries EFEITO DO JEJUM NA GRANJA E CONDIÇÕES DE TRANSPORTE SOBRE O COMPORTAMENTO DOS SUÍNOS DE ABATE NAS BAIAS DE DESCANSO E LESÕES NA PELE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Vicente Peloso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was evaluate the effect of pig fasting time at farm (TJG= 9, 12, 15 or 18 hours and the pen position into the lorry’s livestock compartment (PBO= anterior, middle or rear, deck (PPI= lower or upper and side (PLA= left or right on swine and carcass skin bruises occurrence and swine resting behaviour on lairage pens at abattoir. One hundred ninety two females weighing 133.1±10.9 kg from two finishing pig farms were evaluated. A high percentage of pigs with skin bruises were observed at the farm (53.7%, before loading (80.7%, after unloading (91.2% and before slaughtering (95.8%. Pigs submitted to a TJG of 15 hours presented lower incidence of skin injuries at loading and higher incidence of injuries at downloading and the carcasses had higher incidence of lesions generated by fights when compared to pigs submitted to TGJ of 12 hours. Pigs transported in anterior lorry’s compartment had lower incidence of skin damage on carcass due to density that those transported in the middle position. It is concluded that pigs submitted to 15 hours of fasting time at farm present higher incidence of skin bruises. Pigs transported in anterior lorry’s compartment had lower incidence of skin damage than pigs hold in middle lorry’s compartment. The fasting time at farm had no effect on pigs resting behaviour in abattoir lairage pens.

    KEY WORDS: Carcass evaluation, heavy-weight slaughter pigs, pig skin injuries index, pig slaughter conditions, pre-slaughter management.

     

    Key wordsImpact of the plasma response in three-dimensional edge plasma transport modelling for RMP ELM control scenarios at ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Oliver

    2014-10-01

    The constrains used in magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modeling of the plasma response to external resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields have a profound impact on the three-dimensional (3-D) shape of the plasma boundary induced by RMP fields. In this contribution, the consequences of the plasma response on the actual 3D boundary structure and transport during RMP application at ITER are investigated. The 3D fluid plasma and kinetic neutral transport code EMC3-Eirene is used for edge transport modeling. Plasma response modeling is conducted with the M3D-C1 code using a single fluid, non-linear and a two fluid, linear MHD constrain. These approaches are compared to results with an ideal MHD like plasma response. A 3D plasma boundary is formed for all cases consisting of magnetic finger structures at the X-point intersecting the divertor surface in a helical footprint pattern. The width of the helical footprint pattern is largely reduced compared to vacuum magnetic fields when using the ideal MHD like screening model. This yields increasing peak heat fluxes in contrast to a beneficial heat flux spreading seen with vacuum fields. The particle pump out as well as loss of thermal energy is reduced by a factor of two compared to vacuum fields. In contrast, the impact of the plasma response obtained from both MHD constrains in M3D-C1 is nearly negligible at the plasma boundary and only a small modification of the magnetic footprint topology is detected. Accordingly, heat and particle fluxes on the target plates as well as the edge transport characteristics are comparable to the vacuum solution. This span of modeling results with different plasma response models highlights the importance of thoroughly validating both, plasma response and 3D edge transport models for a robust extrapolation towards ITER. Supported by ITER Grant IO/CT/11/4300000497 and F4E Grant GRT-055 (PMS-PE) and by Start-Up Funds of the University of Wisconsin - Madison.

  1. An inorganic carbon transport system responsible for acclimation specific to air levels of CO2 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingjun; Spalding, Martin H

    2006-06-27

    Many photosynthetic microorganisms acclimate to CO(2) limited environments by induction and operation of CO(2)-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). Despite their central role in CCM function, inorganic carbon (Ci) transport systems never have been identified in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a mutant, pmp1, was described in 1983 with deficiencies in Ci transport, and a Pmp1 protein-associated Ci uptake system has been proposed to be responsible for Ci uptake in low CO(2) (air level)-acclimated cells. However, even though pmp1 represents the only clear genetic link to Ci transport in microalgae and is one of only a very few mutants directly affecting the CCM itself, the identity of Pmp1 has remained unknown. Physiological analyses indicate that C. reinhardtii possesses multiple Ci transport systems responsible for acclimation to different levels of limiting CO(2) and that the Pmp1-associated transport system is required specifically for low (air level) CO(2) acclimation. In the current study, we identified and characterized a pmp1 allelic mutant, air dier 1 (ad1) that, like pmp1, cannot grow in low CO(2) (350 ppm) but can grow either in high CO(2) (5% CO(2)) or in very low CO(2) (<200 ppm). Molecular analyses revealed that the Ad1/Pmp1 protein is encoded by LciB, a gene previously identified as a CO(2)-responsive gene. LciB and three related genes in C. reinhardtii compose a unique gene family that encode four closely related, apparently soluble plastid proteins with no clearly identifiable conserved motifs.

  2. Crystal growth and thermoluminescence response of NaZr2(PO4)3 at high gamma radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordóñez-Regil, E.; Contreras-Ramírez, A.; Fernández-Valverde, S.M.; González-Martínez, P.R.; Carrasco-Ábrego, H.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 exposed to gamma doses of 10, 30 and 50 MGy. •Gamma radiation produced growth of the crystal size of the NZP. •Morphology changes were reversible by heating. •Linear relationship between the thermoluminescence and the applied gamma dose. •This property could be useful for high-level gamma dosimetry. -- Abstract: This work describes the synthesis and characterization of NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 . The stability of this material under high doses of gamma radiation was investigated in the range of 10–50 MGy. Samples of unaltered and gamma irradiated NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermoluminescence. The results showed that while functional groups were not affected by the gamma irradiation, morphology changes were observed with increasing doses of gamma irradiation. The morphology of the non-irradiated compound is agglomerated flakes; however, irradiation at 10 MGy splits the flakes inducing the formation of well-defined cubes. Gamma irradiation induced the crystal size of the NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 to grow. The heat treatment (973 K) of samples irradiated at 50 MGy resulted in the recovery of the original morphology. Furthermore, the thermoluminescence analysis of the irradiated compound is reported

  3. Estudo das propriedades físicas e de transporte na secagem de cebola (Allium cepa L. em camada delgada Study of the physical and transport properties in the onion (Allium cepa L. drying in thin layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Corrêa Martins

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se a cinética de secagem da cebola em camada delgada, comparando os valores da difusividade efetiva média baseados nas espessuras inicial e média das amostras. Estes resultados foram utilizados para a estimativa da temperatura das amostras através de um modelo térmico simplificado. Foram analisadas também as propriedades físicas e de transporte das amostras em função da umidade ao longo da operação. Os ensaios de secagem foram realizados em um secador com escoamento de ar perpendicular à área de seção transversal do leito de amostras de cebola, operando com Tar=60ºC e v ar=1,5m/s. A determinação da umidade de equilíbrio foi obtida através das isotermas de dessorção e a temperatura das amostras foi determinada por meio de um termopar inserido no centro da partícula. As massas específicas das amostras aparente e absoluta foram determinadas através dos métodos indireto e destrutivo, respectivamente. Os valores da difusividade efetiva variável de umidade foram obtidos através do método das tangentes. O modelo térmico simplificado apresentou melhor ajuste com os valores da difusividade efetiva média de secagem, baseados na espessura média. Os valores das massas específicas das amostras de cebola aparente e absoluta foram ajustados em função da umidade através da equação de LOZANO, ROTSTEIN & URBICAIN [10], apresentando coeficientes de correlação maiores que 96%. A redução de espessura do material foi de 80% em relação a da amostra inicial. Os resultados da difusividade efetiva média de umidade, baseados na espessura média das amostras, foram semelhantes aos valores médios da difusividade efetiva variável de umidade para a primeira etapa de secagem.In this work it was studied the onion drying kinetics in thin layer comparing the values of the drying difusivity effective average based on the initial and average thickness of the samples. These results were fitted to a simplified

  4. Transporte de ortofosfato e de nitrato na microbacia do Ribeirão Fortuna, SC Transportation of orthophosphate and nitrate in Ribeirão Fortuna microbasin, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Pinheiro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi a base primeira para se determinar o transporte de ortofosfato e nitrato no escoamento da microbacia do Ribeirão Fortuna, situada no município de Timbó, SC, como parte do Projeto Microbacias desenvolvido pela EPAGRI, em Santa Catarina. As coletas foram realizadas em quatro seções fluviométricas do curso de água principal e analisadas as concentrações das substâncias de interesse. Utilizou-se o modelo hidrológico IPHS1 para simulação do processo de transformação da precipitação em vazão, enquanto os parâmetros do modelo foram calibrados para uma estação fluviométrica, localizada nas proximidades e que possui série histórica de vazões médias diárias. Calcularam-se as cargas transportadas e se estabeleceram correlações entre as vazões escoadas e as cargas de ortofosfatos e nitratos. Constatou-se que as cargas específicas de ortofosfato são superiores às de nitrato e a área ocupada pelas culturas anuais e campo/pastagem na bacia explica as cargas anuais específicas estimadas de ortofosfato, porém, o uso do solo agrícola nas sub-bacias não está relacionado com o transporte de nitratos na rede de drenagem.The objective of this work was to determine the orthophosphate and nitrate loads in runoff at the Ribeirão Fortuna micro-basin, located in the municipality of Timbó, in Itajaí basin. This micro-basin was monitored by the Micro-basin Project, developed by EPAGRI, in the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. Samples were collected in four fluviometric sections along the main water course and substance concentrations were analysed. The IPHS1 hydrologic model was used for simulating the transformation process of precipitation in discharge. Model parameters were calibrated for a fluviometric station located nearby, which has a historical series of daily average discharge. The annual loads were calculated and correlations were established between the runoff discharge and orthophosphate and

  5. Wheeled mobility device transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive public transit vehicles within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Karen L; van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina; Cross, Douglas J

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current status of wheelchair transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive, non-rail, public transportation vehicles within the US is presented. A description of each mode of transportation is provided, followed by a discussion of the primary issues affecting safety, accessibility, and usability. Technologies such as lifts, ramps, securement systems, and occupant restraint systems, along with regulations and voluntary industry standards have been implemented with the intent of improving safety and accessibility for individuals who travel while seated in their wheeled mobility device (e.g., wheelchair or scooter). However, across both fixed route and demand-responsive transit systems a myriad of factors such as nonuse and misuse of safety systems, oversized wheeled mobility devices, vehicle space constraints, and inadequate vehicle operator training may place wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users at risk of injury even under non-impact driving conditions. Since WhMD-related incidents also often occur during the boarding and alighting process, the frequency of these events, along with factors associated with these events are described for each transit mode. Recommendations for improving WhMD transportation are discussed given the current state of

  6. Reciclagem de Precipitação na Bacia Amazônica: O Papel do Transporte de Umidade e da Evapotranspiração da Superfície

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Machado Rocha

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo desse trabalho é avaliar a distribuição dos componentes do balanço de água e da reciclagem de precipitação na bacia amazônica, abordando os mecanismos físicos associados ao processo de reciclagem. De forma geral, a bacia amazônica se comporta como um sumidouro de umidade da atmosfera, recebendo vapor d'água tanto do transporte de origem oceânica quanto da evaportranspiração da floresta por meio do processo de reciclagem de precipitação. Em escala regional, a Amazônia representa uma importante fonte de umidade para outras regiões da América do Sul, contribuindo para o regime da precipitação em outras áreas do continente. Na média, a reciclagem de precipitação é da ordem de 20% na bacia amazônica, com valores variando entre 15% na porção norte e 40% na porção sul. Dessa forma, do total da precipitação na bacia, aproximadamente, 20% é decorrente do processo de evapotranspiração local; indicando que, a contribuição local para a precipitação total representa um percentual significativo no balanço de água regional e desempenha um importante papel no ciclo hidrológico amazônico. Entretanto, as variabilidades e mudanças no sistema climático devido tanto às variações naturais quanto antropogênicas (aumento na emissão de gases estufa e desflorestamento podem afetar a reciclagem e o ciclo hdrológico regional.

  7. Molecular characterization of ABC transporters in marine ciliate, Euplotes crassus: Identification and response to cadmium and benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hokyun; Yim, Bora; Kim, Jisoo; Kim, Haeyeon; Lee, Young-Mi

    2017-11-30

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters participate in transporting various substances, including xenobiotics, in or out of cells. However, their genetic information and function in ciliates remain still unclear. In this study, we sequenced and characterized two ABC transporter genes (EcABCB and EcABCC), and investigated the effect of cadmium (Cd) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) on their function and gene expression, using efflux assay and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively, in the marine ciliate, Euplotes crassus. Sequencing analysis and efflux assay showed that EcABCB and EcABCC are typical ABC transporters, possessing conserved function. Exposure to Cd (≥5mg/L) and B[a]P (≥50.5μg/L) enhanced accumulation of a substrate. A significant increase in the expression of EcABCB and EcABC mRNA was observed at lower concentration in response to Cd and B[a]P. Our findings indicate that Cd and B[a]P could inhibit the efflux function of ABC transporters, leading to cellular toxicity in the ciliate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of farm management practices and transport duration on stress response and meat quality traits of suckling goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, M J; Suárez, M D; Rodero, E; Álvarez, R; Sáez, M I; Martínez, T F

    2017-09-01

    Studies aimed to assess up to what extent farming and transport previous to slaughtering might affect physiology and meat quality in young goat kids are needed, with the ultimate purpose of promoting practices that minimize stress in these animals. In this regard the effects of on-farm management and transport duration on some physiological responses and meat quality parameters in goat kids were assessed. Two farms representing 'high' and 'low' welfare-friendly management practices were selected. In total, 32 suckling kids were withdrawn from each farm, transported by road for 2 or 6 h, and then slaughtered. Blood samples were collected both on-farm and in the slaughterhouse, and biochemistry, cell counts and haematocrit were determined. After slaughtering, carcass quality parameters were measured. Longissimus dorsi muscle was dissected and pH, colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force were measured throughout 8-day ageing period. Results indicate that, regardless its duration, transport caused significant effects on some blood parameters suggesting stress in live animals, like glucose, cortisol or creatine kinase. Despite the marked stress status in animals, this condition was not decisively reflected on L. dorsi quality parameters, but some effects were observed regarding fat cover in carcasses and colour parameters. The results suggest that postmortem changes throughout ageing were more decisive in terms of meat quality than stressful management either on-farm or during transport.

  9. A measurement of hydrogen transport in deuterium discharges using the dynamic response of the effective mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudok de Wit, T.; Duval, B.P.; Joye, B.; Lister, J.B.

    1992-02-01

    Particle tagging in a tokamak provides an attractive method for studying transport mechanisms. The injection of test particles at the plasma edge and the subsequent measurement of the evolution of their concentration at the centre can be used to quantify the underlying transport mechanisms. This has been carried out on the TCA tokamak by injecting hydrogen into a deuterium discharge, and simultaneously measuring the temporal evolution of the effective mass and the edge ionisation rate. (author) 3 figs., 9 refs

  10. The emergence of rural transport strategies in response to rising fuel costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, Dana; Pearlmutter, David; Schwartz, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Rising and sometimes volatile fuel prices pose a challenge for rural organizations reliant on long distance transport. To understand the coping mechanisms used by such organizations, we survey rural business strategies in Israel, where fuel prices are high and urban development is concentrated in the country's geographic center. The businesses surveyed are operated by kibbutzim, historically collective communities that are now in various stages of privatization. Analysis of the ‘transport strategies’ employed by nearly 100 organizations in three regions of varying remoteness and isolation shows that firms rely on distinct strategies such as localization and high value density. Localization was found to be prevalent in all regions, as it requires little capital investment. Strategies exploiting high value density, including information-based services, were prevalent in remote and isolated regions where sensitivity to transport costs is acute. Non-remote firms were less inclined toward strategic adaptation, preferring non-disruptive changes such as cheaper shipping modes. The development implications of these transport strategies are consistent with rural economic trends observed throughout the developed world. If transport costs continue to rise, rural firms may shrink the radius of their sales and labor pools, or search for more lucrative products to reduce their relative transport costs. - Highlights: ► We survey transport strategies used by rural businesses in Israeli kibbutzim. ► The seven distinct strategies identified include localization and value density. ► Localization is used in all regions and value density in remote and isolated regions. ► Development implications are consistent with economic trends in other rural regions. ► Rural firms will likely respond to high fuel costs by strategic transport adaptation.

  11. Response of soil microflora to impact of heavy metals in zones of influence of railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bobryk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring research on the areas intensively and continuously affected by technogenic loading has remained topical until nowadays. The soil as a basic component of many ecosystems, including the structure of its microbial cenoses, remains an informative index of a system’s overall stability. The areas affected by railway transport have been scarcely studied. Due to the above, the aim of this work has been to establish the transformation regularities of soil microbial cenoses of territories close to railways and to establish the groups of microorganisms that are a sensitive criterion of technogenic vehicular influence. For the purpose of microbiological research, soil samples were taken at different distances from the railway track (0, 25, 50, 100 and250 m within five monitoring sections of the Tchop – Uzhhorod – Sambor railway (in the territory of Zakarpatska oblast. The number of ecological trophic groups was identified by means of inoculation on nutrient media using the method of serial dilution of soil suspensions. The research showed that in all types of soils that were adjacent to railway tracks, the number of ammonifiers and spore microbiota was high due to the high content of heavy metals (beyond the background levels. Besides, the bacterial microflora on beef-extract agar was characterized by homogeneity with domination of enteric bacteria and spore bacteria. Simultaneously, the numbers of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, micromycetes, oligonitrophils, amylolytic and pedotrophic microflorae were shown to be low compared to the control. Farther from the railway track, pigmental species of bacteria appeared in the soil samples, attesting to the activity of self-purification processes. Correlation analysis of the data showed that the soil microbiota of the railway-side areas was undergoing changes as affected by heightened contents of heavy metals. Existence of medium and close connections was established between the number of

  12. Emergency response arrangements for the transport of irradiated nuclear fuel from Japan to Europe in Japanese territorial waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, T.; Inada, T.; Narahara, S.; Cheshire, R.D.; Lee, G.

    1993-01-01

    About 90 % of nuclear fuel irradiated in Japanese nuclear power stations is transported to UK and France for reprocessing. Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd (PNTL), a subsidiary of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), owns and operates its own fleet of 5 purpose built ships specially designed for the transport of flasks containing irradiated fuel from Japan to Europe. These vessels sail to Japan on 8 to 10 voyages per year from the BNFL's Marine Terminal at Barrow in UK via Cherbourg Port in France. On arrival in Japan empty flasks are delivered to Japanese nuclear power stations, and full flasks are collected for the return journey to Europe. Whilst the probability of a serious flask incident involving the release of radioactivity is very small, it is nevertheless important to plan for such an emergency. In the case of an incident BNFL will provide an emergency response. If an incident occurs in Japanese territorial waters, the initial response will be provided by Nuclear Services Company (NSC), who are based in Japan (the head office in Tokyo, Tokai Office in Ibaraki Prefecture and Tsuruga Office in Fukui Prefecture) and contracted to BNFL to provide a similar response to that available from UK. This paper describes the communication links which have been established between UK and Japan and the internal communication within Japan. It also describes the emergency equipent held in Japan, the training of teams and the results of exercises jointly carried out with BNFL. (J.P.N.)

  13. The physiological and biochemical responses of a medicinal plant (Salvia miltiorrhiza L. to stress caused by various concentrations of NaCl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Gengmao

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is commonly known as Danshen, is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. To illustrate its physiological and biochemical responses to salt stress and to evaluate the feasibility of cultivating this plant in saline coastal soils, a factorial experiment under hydroponic conditions was arranged on the basis of a completely randomised design with three replications. Five salinity treatments (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl were employed in this experiment. The results showed that salinity treatments of <100 mM NaCl did not affect the growth of Salvia miltiorrhiza in a morphological sense, but significantly inhibit the accumulation of dry matter. Salinity treatments significantly decreased the Chl-b content but caused a negligible change in the Chl-a content, leading to a conspicuous overall decrease in the T-Chl content. The Na(+ content significantly increased with increasing hydroponic salinity but the K(+ and Ca(2+ contents were reversed, indicating that a high level of external Na(+ resulted in a decrease in both K(+ and Ca(2+ concentrations in the organs of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Salt stress significantly decreased the superoxide dismutase (SOD activity of Salvia miltiorrhiza leaves in comparison with that of the control. On the contrary, the catalase (CAT activity in the leaves markedly increased with the increasing salinity of the hydroponic solution. Moreover, the soluble sugar and protein contents in Salvia miltiorrhiza leaves dramatically increased with the increasing salinity of the hydroponic solution. These results suggested that antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes are partially involved in the adaptive response to salt stress in Salvia miltiorrhiza, thereby maintaining better plant growth under saline conditions.

  14. Secretory NaCl and volume flow in renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyenbach, K W

    1986-05-01

    This review attempts to give a retrospective survey of the available evidence concerning the secretion of NaCl and fluid in renal tubules of the vertebrate kidney. In the absence of glomerular filtration, epithelial secretory mechanisms, which to this date have not been elucidated, are responsible for the renal excretion of NaCl and water in aglomerular fish. However, proximal tubules isolated from glomerular fish kidneys of the flounder, killifish, and the shark also have the capacity to secrete NaCl and fluid. In shark proximal tubules, fluid secretion appears to be driven via secondary active transport of Cl. In another marine vertebrate, the sea snake, secretion of Na (presumably NaCl) and fluid is observed in freshwater-adapted and water-loaded animals. Proximal tubules of mammals can be made to secrete NaCl in vitro together with secretion of aryl acids. An epithelial cell line derived from dog kidney exhibits secondary active secretion of Cl when stimulated with catecholamines. Tubular secretion of NaCl and fluid may serve a variety of renal functions, all of which are considered here. The occurrence of NaCl and fluid secretion in glomerular proximal tubules of teleosts, elasmobranchs, and reptiles and in mammalian renal tissue cultures suggests that the genetic potential for NaCl secretion is present in every vertebrate kidney.

  15. Evaluating the involvement of cerebral microvascular endothelial Na+/K+-ATPase and Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter in electrolyte fluxes in an in vitro blood-brain barrier model of dehydration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Kasper; Assentoft, Mette; Hørlyck, Sofie

    2018-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is involved in brain water and salt homeostasis. Blood osmolarity increases during dehydration and water is osmotically extracted from the brain. The loss of water is less than expected from pure osmotic forces, due to brain electrolyte accumulation. Although...... dehydration, we employed a tight in vitro co-culture BBB model with primary cultures of brain endothelial cells and astrocytes. The Na+/K+-ATPase and the NKCC1 were both functionally dominant in the abluminal membrane. Exposure of the in vitro BBB model to conditions mimicking systemic dehydration, i...... isozymes. Abluminally expressed endothelial Na+/K+-ATPase, and not NKCC1, may therefore counteract osmotic brain water loss during systemic dehydration by promoting brain Na+ accumulation....

  16. Modulatory effect of ascorbic acid on physiological responses of transported ostrich chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minka N. Salka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the modulating role of ascorbic acid (AA on rectal temperature (RT, heterophil to lymphocyte (H to L ratio and aberrant behaviours of ostrich chicks transported by road for 4 h during hot-dry conditions. Twenty ostrich chicks aged 2.5 months, of both sexes and belonging to the Red Neck breed, served as subjects of the study. The chicks were assigned randomly to AA-treated and control groups, consisting of 10 chicks each. The AA-treated group was administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of AA dissolved in 5 mL of sterile water 30 min before transportation, whilst the control group was given the equivalent of sterile water only. The thermal load (TL experienced in the vehicle during transportation fluctuated between 31 °C and 89 °C, as calculated from the ambient temperature and relative humidity. Transportation induced hyperthermia, lymphopenia, heterophilia and aberrant behaviours of pecking, wing fluffing and panting, which were ameliorated by AA administration. The relationships between the TL, journey duration and physiological variables of RT, H to L ratio and aberrant behaviours recorded during transportation were significantly and positively correlated in the control group. In AA-treated group the relationships were not significantly correlated. In conclusion, the results showed for the first time that AA ameliorated the adverse effects of stress caused by road transportation on the aberrant behaviours, RT and H to L ratio of ostrich chicks during the hot-dry season.

  17. Response of the global surface ozone distribution to Northern Hemisphere sea surface temperature changes: implications for long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kan; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George; Zhang, Jiachen; Tao, Wei; Cheng, Yanli; Tao, Shu

    2017-07-01

    The response of surface ozone (O3) concentrations to basin-scale warming and cooling of Northern Hemisphere oceans is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Idealized, spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of ±1 °C are individually superimposed onto the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and North Indian oceans. Our simulations suggest large seasonal and regional variability in surface O3 in response to SST anomalies, especially in the boreal summer. The responses of surface O3 associated with basin-scale SST warming and cooling have similar magnitude but are opposite in sign. Increasing the SST by 1 °C in one of the oceans generally decreases the surface O3 concentrations from 1 to 5 ppbv. With fixed emissions, SST increases in a specific ocean basin in the Northern Hemisphere tend to increase the summertime surface O3 concentrations over upwind regions, accompanied by a widespread reduction over downwind continents. We implement the integrated process rate (IPR) analysis in CESM and find that meteorological O3 transport in response to SST changes is the key process causing surface O3 perturbations in most cases. During the boreal summer, basin-scale SST warming facilitates the vertical transport of O3 to the surface over upwind regions while significantly reducing the vertical transport over downwind continents. This process, as confirmed by tagged CO-like tracers, indicates a considerable suppression of intercontinental O3 transport due to increased tropospheric stability at lower midlatitudes induced by SST changes. Conversely, the responses of chemical O3 production to regional SST warming can exert positive effects on surface O3 levels over highly polluted continents, except South Asia, where intensified cloud loading in response to North Indian SST warming depresses both the surface air temperature and solar radiation, and thus photochemical O3 production. Our findings indicate a robust linkage between basin-scale SST

  18. Response of the global surface ozone distribution to Northern Hemisphere sea surface temperature changes: implications for long-range transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of surface ozone (O3 concentrations to basin-scale warming and cooling of Northern Hemisphere oceans is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM. Idealized, spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST anomalies of ±1 °C are individually superimposed onto the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and North Indian oceans. Our simulations suggest large seasonal and regional variability in surface O3 in response to SST anomalies, especially in the boreal summer. The responses of surface O3 associated with basin-scale SST warming and cooling have similar magnitude but are opposite in sign. Increasing the SST by 1 °C in one of the oceans generally decreases the surface O3 concentrations from 1 to 5 ppbv. With fixed emissions, SST increases in a specific ocean basin in the Northern Hemisphere tend to increase the summertime surface O3 concentrations over upwind regions, accompanied by a widespread reduction over downwind continents. We implement the integrated process rate (IPR analysis in CESM and find that meteorological O3 transport in response to SST changes is the key process causing surface O3 perturbations in most cases. During the boreal summer, basin-scale SST warming facilitates the vertical transport of O3 to the surface over upwind regions while significantly reducing the vertical transport over downwind continents. This process, as confirmed by tagged CO-like tracers, indicates a considerable suppression of intercontinental O3 transport due to increased tropospheric stability at lower midlatitudes induced by SST changes. Conversely, the responses of chemical O3 production to regional SST warming can exert positive effects on surface O3 levels over highly polluted continents, except South Asia, where intensified cloud loading in response to North Indian SST warming depresses both the surface air temperature and solar radiation, and thus photochemical O3 production. Our findings indicate a robust linkage

  19. Características histomorfométricas do intestino de juvenis de tambaqui após uso de probiótico na dieta e durante transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celma M. Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se neste trabalho as características histomorfométricas da mucosa intestinal de tambaqui após uso de probiótico a base de Bacillus spp., veiculado na ração e dissolvido na água durante transporte. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e sete repetições, sendo comparado um tratamento controle (peixes alimentados com ração comercial sem probiótico a dois outros tratamentos envolvendo o uso de probiótico comercial, veiculado na ração ou na água de transporte. Um total de 510 juvenis de tambaqui (peso e comprimento total médio inicial de 83,26±28,14g e 17,39±1,90cm, respectivamente foi distribuído em três tanques de alvenaria. Durante 60 dias, os peixes de dois tanques foram alimentados com ração comercial e os do terceiro tanque com ração comercial suplementada com probiótico. Após este período, os peixes de cada tanque foram divididos em sacos plásticos e transportados por 4 horas de acordo com os seguintes tratamentos: T1 = alimentação com ração comercial (controle; T2 = alimentação com ração comercial e probiótico adicionado na água durante o transporte (20mg/L; T3 = alimentação com ração comercial suplementada com probiótico (1,0g/kg de ração. Antes do transporte (basal, 24 e 96 horas após o transporte, oito peixes de cada tratamento foram submetidos a eutanásia e o intestino retirado para pesagem e mensuração do comprimento para estabelecimento da relação comprimento corporal/ intestino. Em seguida, foi realizada coleta da porção anterior e posterior do intestino, para avaliação das características morfo-histológicas da mucosa intestinal. O uso de probiótico durante o transporte não afetou o peso do intestino de juvenis de tambaqui. O comprimento do intestino do tambaqui não foi alterado pelo tratamento, sendo observada somente relação linear entre o comprimento intestinal e o comprimento corporal (CC dos peixes. A suplementação com

  20. Bed topography and sand transport responses to a step change in discharge and water depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephemeral streams with sand and gravel beds may inherit bed topography caused by previous flow events, resulting in bed topography that is not in equilibrium with flow conditions, complicating the modeling of flow and sediment transport. Major flow events, resulting from rainfall with high intensity...

  1. Reversible Dopamine Transporter Modifications in Response to Methylphenidate Treatment of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was used to monitor the dopamine transporter activity in 5 males, ages 8 to 10, with ADHD, after cessation of methylphenidate (MPH treatment, in a study at the University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands.

  2. Incorporating traveler response to pricing policies in comprehensive activity-based models of transport demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khademi, E.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The growing number of studies and continued policy interest in road pricing strategies and technologies represent new challenges to transportation researchers in their attempt to better understand and predict the impact of various pricing strategies on travel behavior. We contend that these policies

  3. Dopamine Transporter Gene Moderates Response to Behavioral Parent Training in Children With ADHD : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Nauta, Maaike H.; van der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; Sytema, Sjoerd; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    There is great variability in the degree to which children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) improve through behavioral treatments. This study investigates the influence of the dopamine transporter gene (SCL6A3/DAT1) on outcome of behavioral parent training (BPT). Study subjects

  4. Dopamine transporter gene moderates response to behavioral parent training in children with ADHD: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoofdakker, B.J.; Nauta, M.H.; Dijck-Brouwer, D.A.J.; van der Veen-Mulders, L.; Sytema, S.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    There is great variability in the degree to which children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) improve through behavioral treatments. This study investigates the influence of the dopamine transporter gene (SCL6A3/DAT1) on outcome of behavioral parent training (BPT). Study subjects

  5. Influência do tempo de aclimatação na resposta do cajueiro à salinidade Influence of acclimatization time on response of cashew plant to salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C. A. Brilhante

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A resposta das plantas à salinidade depende de fatores fisiológicos, bioquímicos e genéticos. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o impacto do tempo de aclimatação à solução nutritiva sobre a resposta do cajueiro à salinidade. Plantas de Anarcadium occidentale L., CCP06, cultivadas em vermiculita durante 28 dias, foram transferidas para solução nutritiva de Hoagland com 1/10 de sua força iônica, onde permaneceram por 1 e 7 dias. Ao final dos dois tempos, a solução nutritiva foi suplementada com 200 mM de NaCl, condições em que as plantas foram cultivadas por 0, 12, 24, 48 e 72 h. As plantas aclimatadas por 7 dias á solução de Hoagland apresentaram sinais fisiológicos mais compatíveis com a tolerância ao NaCl, como menor acumulação de Na+ e, também, menores danos nas membranas, peroxidação dos lipídeos, degradação de proteínas, acumulação de aminoácidos livres e acumulação de prolina. A amônia livre foi o melhor indicador da intensidade do estresse salino. Os danos de membranas aumentaram com a acumulação de Na+ nas folhas. Os resultados evidenciam que o tempo de aclimatação das raízes à solução nutritiva influencia a expressão de fatores capazes de atenuar os efeitos do estresse salino.The plant response to salinity depends on physiological, biochemical and genetic factors and on their interaction with external environment. This work aimed to study the impact of adaptation time in nutrient solution on the cashew response to salinity. Seedlings of Anacardium occidentale L (CCP06 grown in vermiculite, for 28 days, were placed to grow in 1/10 ionic strength Hoagland solution for 1 and 7 days. At the end of each time the solution was supplemented with 200 mM NaCl, and under this condition the plants were monitored for 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. The 7 days Hoagland solution acclimated plants had physiological index more compatible to tolerance to NaCl such as low Na+ accumulation and also low membrane

  6. Changes in zinc status and zinc transporters expression in whole blood of patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Daniela; Molina-López, Jorge; Hogstrand, Christer; Lengyel, Imre; de la Cruz, Antonio Pérez; Rodríguez-Elvira, Manuel; Planells, Elena

    2018-09-01

    Critically ill patients develop severe stress, inflammation and a clinical state that may raise the utilization and metabolic replacement of many nutrients and especially zinc, depleting their body reserves. This study was designed to assess the zinc status in critical care patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), comparing them with a group of healthy people, and studying the association with expression of zinc transporters. This investigation was a prospective, multicentre, comparative, observational and analytic study. Twelve critically ill patients from different hospitals and 12 healthy subjects from Granada, Spain, all with informed consent were recruited. Data on daily nutritional assessment, ICU severity scores, inflammation, clinical and nutritional parameters, plasma and blood cell zinc concentrations, and levels of transcripts for zinc transporters in whole blood were taken at admission and at the seventh day of the ICU stay. Zinc levels on critical ill patient are diminish comparing with the healthy control (HS: 0.94 ± 0.19; CIPF: 0.67 ± 0.16 mg/dL). The 58% of critical ill patients showed zinc plasma deficiency at beginning of study while 50.0% of critical ill after 7 days of ICU stay. ZnT7, ZIP4 and ZIP9 were the zinc transporters with highest expression in whole blood. In general, all zinc transporters were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05) in the critical ill population at admission in comparison with healthy subjects. Severity scores and inflammation were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with zinc plasma levels, and zinc transporters ZIP3, ZIP4, ZIP8, ZnT6, ZnT7. Expression of 11 out of 24 zinc transporters was analysed, and ZnT1, ZnT4, ZnT5 and ZIP4, which were downregulated by more than 3-fold in whole blood of patients. In summary, in our study an alteration of zinc status was related with the severity-of-illness scores and inflammation in critical ill patients since admission in ICU stay. SIRS

  7. Behavioural Responses in Pigs administered with Ascorbic acid and Transported by Road for Eight Hours during the Harmattan Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Adeshina Adenkola

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out with the aim of investigating the modulatory role of ascorbic acid (AA on responses to 8-h road transportation, covering a distance of 260 km at a speed of 40 - 50 km/h, during the harmattan season. Twentynine adult local pigs aged 9 - 12 months served as subjects. Seventeen pigs administered with AA, prior to the transportation, at the dose of 250 mg/kg orally and individually served as experimental animals, and 12 others administered orally with sterile water were used as control animals. The behavioural activities of pigs which included resting (that is, either lying down or standing idle, defaecating, urinating, sniffing, threats of attack (fight, attempts to escape, mounting on one another, hurdling together and routing the floor were monitored with the aid of a video camera without the pigs knowing that they were being observed. Recordings were done based on the number of pigs found performing each activity within 30 min of direct observation, alternated by 30 min of rest and this continued for a period of 4 h. The tape was later watched, analysed and the number of pigs exhibiting each behavioural activity was recorded. Post-transportation, the behavioural activities of standing (94.1 ± 5.8 %, aggressiveness indicated by the percentage of pigs involved in fighting (23.5 ± 6.00 % and attempts to escape (66.67 ± 14.21 % were higher in experimental pigs (P< 0.05 post-transportation than control pigs with the corresponding values of 25.00 ± 3.00 %; 0.00 % and 35.29 ± 11.95 %, respectively. The results showed that road transportation induced considerable behavioural stress resulting in depression of the central nervous system. AA administration pre-transportation reduced the manifestation of stressful behavioural activities in experimental pigs following road transportation. In conclusion, long-term road transportation of pigs during the harmattan season induces behavioural stress, alleviated by AA

  8. Physiological response of invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae submitted to transport and experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. S. Cordeiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Successful animal rearing under laboratory conditions for commercial processes or laboratory experiments is a complex chain that includes several stressors (e.g., sampling and transport and incurs, as a consequence, the reduction of natural animal conditions, economic losses and inconsistent and unreliable biological results. Since the invasion of the bivalve Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857 in South America, several studies have been performed to help control and manage this fouling pest in industrial plants that use raw water. Relatively little attention has been given to the laboratory rearing procedure of L. fortunei, its condition when exposed to a stressor or its acclimation into laboratory conditions. Considering this issue, the aims of this study are to (i investigate L. fortunei physiological responses when submitted to the depuration process and subsequent air transport (without water/dry condition at two temperatures, based on glycogen concentrations, and (ii monitor the glycogen concentrations in different groups when maintained for 28 days under laboratory conditions. Based on the obtained results, depuration did not affect either of the groups when they were submitted to approximately eight hours of transport. The variation in glycogen concentration among the specimens that were obtained from the field under depurated and non-depurated conditions was significant only in the first week of laboratory growth for the non-depurated group and in the second week for the depurated group. In addition, the tested temperature did not affect either of the groups that were submitted to transport. The glycogen concentrations were similar to those of the specimens that were obtained from the field in third week, which suggests that the specimens acclimated to laboratory conditions during this period of time. Thus, the results indicate that the air transport and acclimation time can be successfully incorporated into experimental studies

  9. Nutrient digestibility response to sugarcane bagasse addition and corn particle size in normal and high Na diets for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheravii, S K; Swick, R A; Choct, M; Wu, S-B

    2018-04-01

    Improving diet digestibility is important to the broiler industry. Therefore, this study focused on optimizing the physical structure of feed ingredients and addition of dietary fiber as strategies to improve nutrient digestibility in low and high sodium diets. A total of 672 day-old Ross 308 male broilers was allocated to 48 pens using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 particle sizes of corn (coarse 3,576 μm or fine 1,113 μm geometric mean diameter), 2 levels of sugarcane bagasse (SB) (0 or 2%), and 2 levels of Na (0.16 or 0.4%). Protein digestibility coefficient was measured using pooled distal ileal digesta of 3 birds per pen on d 24. Meanwhile, starch and gross energy digestibility coefficients were measured using pooled duodenal, distal jejunal, and distal ileal digesta of 3 birds per pen on d 24. Coarsely ground corn (CC) resulted in improved ileal protein digestibility (P digestibility in the duodenum (P digestibility in distal ileum (P digestibility (P digestibility only in birds fed the diet with finely ground corn (FC) and 0.16% Na. These findings demonstrate that SB and CC are able to improve nutrient digestibility. It can be recommended for the poultry industry to use SB and coarsely ground corn in feed to improve the utilization of nutrients.

  10. Response of soil microflora to impact of heavy metals in zones of influence of railway transport

    OpenAIRE

    BOBRYK N.; KRYVTSOVA M.; NIKOLAJCHUK V.; VOLOSHCHUK I.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring research on the areas intensively and continuously affected by technogenic loading has remained topical until nowadays. The soil as a basic component of many ecosystems, including the structure of its microbial cenoses, remains an informative index of a system’s overall stability. The areas affected by railway transport have been scarcely studied. Due to the above, the aim of this work has been to establish the transformation regularities of soil microbial cenoses of territories cl...

  11. Summary of Federal Aviation Administration Responses to National Transportation Safety Board Safety Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    i It: Wo. r (A’I) upr,;cl. ’ Vih t_’o a . hc pre-.ntal, i c ould (1lay a pilot’s t ;f,L..ion to a suit.bl, ba-ckup approach in th- event of radar or...analysis and your recommendation. Since y) ,anigh.ne Bond Admin ist rator 2 Enclosures NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. ISSUED: October

  12. Partial characterization and response under hyperregulating conditions of Na+-K+ ATPase and levamisole-sensitive alkaline phosphatase activities in chela muscle of the euryhaline crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Andrea Pinoni

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence, characteristics and response to changes in environmental salinity of Na+-K+ ATPase and levamisole-sensitive alkaline phosphatase (AP activities were studied in chela muscle of the euryhaline crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus. Chela muscle exhibited an Na+-K+ ATPase activity which was strongly dependent on ATP concentration, pH and temperature of the reaction mixture. Maximal activity was found at 1 mM ATP, 30-37°C and pH 7.4. Levamisole-sensitive AP activity was characterised at physiological pH 7.4 and at pH 8.0. I50 for levamisole-sensitive AP activity was 8.8 mM and 8.0 mM at pH 7.4 and 8.0, respectively. At both pH levels, levamisole-sensitive AP activity exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Km=3.451 mM and 6.906 mM at pH 7.4 and 8.0, respectively. Levamisole-sensitive AP activities were strongly affected by temperature, exhibiting a peak at 37ºC. In crabs acclimated to low salinity (10; hyperegulating conditions, Na+-K+ ATPase activity and levamisole-sensitive AP activity at the physiological pH were higher than in 35 psu (osmoconforming conditions. The response to low salinity suggests that both activities could be components of muscle regulatory mechanisms at the biochemical level secondary to hyperegulation of C. angulatus. The study of these activities under hyperegulating conditions contributes to a better understanding of the complexity of biochemical mechanisms underlying the adaptive process of euryhaline crabs.

  13. Transport of rare earth element-tagged soil particles in response to thunderstorm runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisoff, G; Ketterer, M E; Wilson, C G; Layman, R; Whiting, P J

    2001-08-15

    The downslope transport of rare earth element-tagged soil particles remobilized during a spring thunderstorm was studied on both a natural prairie and an agricultural field in southwestern Iowa (U.S.A.). A technique was developed for tagging natural soils with the rare earth elements Eu, Tb, and Ho to approximately 1,000 ppm via coprecipitation with MnO2. Tagged material was replaced in target locations; surficial soil samples were collected following precipitation and runoff; and rare earth element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Diffusion and exponential models were applied to the concentration-distance data to determine particle transport distances. The results indicate that the concentration-distance data are well described by the diffusion model, butthe exponential model does not simulate the rapid drop-off in concentrations near the tagged source. Using the diffusion model, calculated particle transport distances at all hillside locations and at both the cultivated and natural prairie sites were short, ranging from 3 to 73 cm during this single runoff event. This study successfully demonstrates a new tool for studying soil erosion.

  14. Assessment of respiratory and ion transport potential of Penaeus japonicus gills in response to environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. ABDEL-MOHSEN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to pinpoint the respiratory and ion transport potential of gills of Penaeus japonicus living in Abu-Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt. Our results revealed clear histological impairments in gill structure. These alterations were mainly represented by the presence of large vacuoles in gill axis and gill lamellae. In addition, narrow, disrupted gill lamellae with wavy cuticle and shrunk pillar cells were detected. Moreover, some cells clearly showed pyknosis. Gill ultrastructure also showed abnormal chromatin condensation inside the nucleus. Obvious alterations in the typical shape and structure of mitochondria were observed. Noticeably, the main characteristics of ion regulating gill epithelium were absent thus suggesting a low ion transport activity of P. japonicus gills. Statistically, this was further proved by the significantly higher activity levels of respiratory enzymes, namely, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH compared to those of the ion transport enzymes, namely, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA in gills and haemolymph. SDH activity levels were higher than the corresponding levels of LDH in gills and its own level in haemolymph, indicating a contradictory effect of pollution on respiratory enzyme activity levels.

  15. Integral transport computation of gamma detector response with the CPM2 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.B.

    1989-12-01

    CPM-2 Version 3 is an enhanced version of the CPM-2 lattice physics computer code which supports the capabilities to (1) perform a two-dimensional gamma flux calculation and (2) perform Restart/Data file maintenance operations. The Gamma Calculation Module implemented in CPM-2 was first developed for EPRI in the CASMO-1 computer code by Studsvik Energiteknik under EPRI Agreement RP2352-01. The gamma transport calculation uses the CPM-HET code module to calculate the transport of gamma rays in two dimensions in a mixed cylindrical-rectangular geometry, where the basic fuel assembly and component regions are maintained in a rectangular geometry, but the fuel pins are represented as cylinders within a square pin cell mesh. Such a capability is needed to represent gamma transport in an essentially transparent medium containing spatially distributed ''black'' cylindrical pins. Under a subcontract to RP2352-01, RPI developed the gamma production and gamma interaction library used for gamma calculation. The CPM-2 gamma calculation was verified against reference results generated by Studsvik using the CASMO-1 program. The CPM-2 Restart/Data file maintenance capabilities provide the user with options to copy files between Restart/Data tapes and to purge files from the Restart/Data tapes

  16. Response to Dietary Supplementation of Glutamine in Broiler Chickens Subjected to Transportation Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid SHAKERI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine effects of glutamine supplementation on performance and blood parameters including Hsp70 and acute phase protein when chicken were subjected to transportation stress. A total of four hundred day-old-male cobb-500 chicks were obtained directly from a local hatchery. The chicks were allotted to two groups as: immediate placement (1 hour after hatching with access to feed and water and placement after 24h transportation without access to feed and water. The experiment consisted of a factorial arrangement of 2 different diets and 2 different time of placement. Chicks from each placement group were fed either basal diet or basal diet + 1% glutamine from 1 to 21 days of age. The results indicated that dietary glutamine improved the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio significantly when chicks were subjected to delayed or immediate placement. In conclusion, supplementing chicken with glutamine in diet can reduce negative effects of delayed access to feed and water during transportation. Moreover, APP concentration and HSP70 level were positively affected when chicks supplemented with glutamine in the diet.

  17. Cortisol responses to chronic stress in adult macaques: moderation by a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dongdong; Rizak, Joshua; Feng, Xiaoli; Yang, Shangchuan; Yang, Lichuan; Fan, Xiaona; Lü, Longbao; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xintian

    2015-02-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderates the association between stress and depressive symptoms. However, the exact etiologies underlying this moderation are not well understood. Here it is reported that among adult female rhesus macaques, an orthologous polymorphism (rh5-HTTLPR) exerted an influence on cortisol responses to chronic stress. It was found that females with two copies of the short allele were associated with increased cortisol responses to chronic stress in comparison to their counterparts who have one or two copies of the long allele. In the absence of stress, no differences related to genotype were observed in these females. This genetic moderation was found without a genetic influence on exposure to stressful situations. Rather it was found to be a genetic modulation of cortisol responses to chronic stress. These findings indicate that the rh5-HTTLPR polymorphism is closely related to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, which may increase susceptibility to depression in females with low serotonin transporter efficiency and a history of stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Heterogeneity of demand responses in modelling the distributional consequences of tradable carbon permits in the road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadud, Zia; Noland, Robert B.; Graham, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Personal road transport sector is one of the largest and fastest growing sources of CO 2 emissions. This paper investigates a tradable permit policy for mitigating carbon emissions from personal road transport and discusses various issues of permit allocation. As tradable permits will effectively raise the price of fuel, the policy has important distributional implications. The distribution of burden depends on permit allocation strategies and on the consumer response to an increase in price. The behavioural response may vary among different segments of the population depending on their travel needs, which in turn are contingent upon their income, location of residence and other factors. Consumer Expenditure Survey micro dataset from 1997 to 2002 has been used to econometrically model the possible variation of price elasticity for different socio-economic groups in the USA. Results indicate that the response of gasoline demand to a change in price does depend on income level or location of the household. Distributional impacts of the tradable permit policy are then evaluated using the micro dataset for year 2002. In this regard, different permit allocation schemes are considered in the analysis. Impacts on households owning a vehicle and households with no vehicles have been evaluated as well

  19. A Dualistic Conformational Response to Substrate Binding in the Human Serotonin Transporter Reveals a High Affinity State for Serotonin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Henriette; Severinsen, Kasper; Said, Saida; Wiborg, Ove; Sinning, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission is modulated by the membrane-embedded serotonin transporter (SERT). SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neurons. Conformational changes in SERT occur upon binding of ions and substrate and are crucial for translocation of serotonin across the membrane. Our understanding of these conformational changes is mainly based on crystal structures of a bacterial homolog in various conformations, derived homology models of eukaryotic neurotransmitter transporters, and substituted cysteine accessibility method of SERT. However, the dynamic changes that occur in the human SERT upon binding of ions, the translocation of substrate, and the role of cholesterol in this interplay are not fully elucidated. Here we show that serotonin induces a dualistic conformational response in SERT. We exploited the substituted cysteine scanning method under conditions that were sensitized to detect a more outward-facing conformation of SERT. We found a novel high affinity outward-facing conformational state of the human SERT induced by serotonin. The ionic requirements for this new conformational response to serotonin mirror the ionic requirements for translocation. Furthermore, we found that membrane cholesterol plays a role in the dualistic conformational response in SERT induced by serotonin. Our results indicate the existence of a subpopulation of SERT responding differently to serotonin binding than hitherto believed and that membrane cholesterol plays a role in this subpopulation of SERT. PMID:25614630

  20. Passive water and ion transport by cotransporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, D D; Hirayama, B A; Meinild, A K

    1999-01-01

    the Lp of control oocytes. Passive Na+ transport (Na+ leak) was obtained from the blocker-sensitive Na+ currents in the absence of substrates (glucose and GABA). 2. Passive Na+ and water transport through SGLT1 were blocked by phlorizin with the same sensitivity (inhibitory constant (Ki), 3-5 micro......1. The rabbit Na+-glucose (SGLT1) and the human Na+-Cl--GABA (GAT1) cotransporters were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and passive Na+ and water transport were studied using electrical and optical techniques. Passive water permeabilities (Lp) of the cotransporters were determined from......M). When Na+ was replaced with Li+, phlorizin also inhibited Li+ and water transport, but with a lower affinity (Ki, 100 microM). When Na+ was replaced by choline, which is not transported, the SGLT1 Lp was indistinguishable from that in Na+ or Li+, but in this case water transport was less sensitive...

  1. Beam monitoring at NA2

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    Claus Goessling working on the beam Cerenkov counter of NA2. The muon beam enters from left the hall EHN2 and the last element of the beam transport. On background is the access door on the Jura side.

  2. Awake at the wheel : Bogota's response to the transportation challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, O.E.

    2001-03-01

    The domination of private automobiles in cities like Bogota, Colombia, has resulted in vehicle chaos and increasingly high levels of atmospheric pollution that will poison urban populations. Eighty per cent of the people of Bogota ota use public transportation on a daily basis, but private vehicles occupy 95 per cent of the roads. Local authorities have indicated that the solution to the excessive use of the private automobile is to curtail its use. Bogota City Hall is working on developing the Bogota Project, a sustainable system of urban mobility which takes into account both supply and demand factors. The project includes the development of mass and alternative means of transportation such as the TransMilenio high-capacity mass transportation system consisting of articulated buses. By 2015, TransMilenio will have 22 lines and 6000 articulated buses. In addition, a network of cycle paths is being developed to encourage the use of bicycles as a means of transportation. The construction of sidewalks and shaded walks is also advancing throughout the city. Several measures are being implemented in order to stimulate the demand for public transportation and to restrict private car use. These include fees for public parking, increased gasoline taxes, and tolls at the city entrances. The peak and licence plate program is a measure that restricts 40 per cent of vehicles from travelling during peak hours in the entire urban area. Cycleway is a program which leaves the city's highways clear for 7 hours on Sundays for cycling, skating or walking. A referendum was held in October 2000 in which a proposal was put forward to restrict the use of private vehicles during the six hours of major traffic congestion beginning January 1, 2015. The 51 per cent support for the proposal means that no private vehicles, except taxis, will be allowed to circulate during rush hours. Sixty three per cent of the people of Bogota also supported the annual celebration of a car-free day on

  3. Transport properties of Na doped La sub 1 sub - sub x Ca sub x sub - sub y Na sub y MnO sub 3 measured in a pulsed magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, S; Pal, S; Chatterjee, P; Mukherjee, R K; Chaudhuri, B K

    2002-01-01

    Temperature-dependent magnetization and magnetoresistance of the Na doped La sub 1 sub - sub x Ca sub x sub sub - sub y Na sub y MnO sub 3 type samples with x=0.3 and 0 T sub p up to 320 K) conductivity data satisfy the variable range hopping (VRH) model. For T > 320 the small polaron hopping model is more appropriate than the VRH model. Even with a very small change of y, the density of states at the Fermi level N(E sub F) changes considerably. The resistivity of these materials measured under pulsed and continuous DC magnetic fields behaves in an identical fashion. The relaxation time (decay time of the magnetic pulse within the sample) varies with field strength, which indicates that, with a change of magnetic field, the ordering of spin in the ferromagnetic regime changes.

  4. Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred J. Molz, III

    2010-05-28

    To better understand longer-term vadose zone transport in southeastern soils, field lysimeter experiments were conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC, in the 1980s. Each of the three lysimeters analyzed herein contained a filter paper spiked with different Pu solutions, and they were left exposed to natural environmental conditions (including the growth of annual weed grasses) for 11 years. The resulting Pu activity measurements from each lysimeter core showed anomalous activity distributions below the source, with significant migration of Pu above the source. Such results are not explainable by adsorption phenomena alone. A transient variably saturated flow model with root water uptake was developed and coupled to a soil reactive transport model. Somewhat surprisingly, the fully transient analysis showed results nearly identical to those of a much simpler steady flow analysis performed previously. However, all phenomena studied were unable to produce the upward Pu transport observed in the data. This result suggests another transport mechanism such as Pu uptake by roots and upward transport due to transpiration. Thus, the variably saturated flow and reactive transport model was extended to include uptake and transport of Pu within the root xylem, along with computational methodology and results. In the extended model, flow velocity in the soil was driven by precipitation input along with transpiration and drainage. Water uptake by the roots determined the flow velocity in the root xylem, and this along with uptake of Pu in the transpiration stream drove advection and dispersion of the two Pu species in the xylem. During wet periods with high potential evapotranspiration, maximum flow velocities through the xylem would approached 600 cm/hr, orders of magnitude larger that flow velocities in the soil. Values for parameters and the correct conceptual viewpoint for Pu transport in plant xylem was uncertain. This motivated further experiments devoted

  5. Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molz, Fred J. III

    2010-01-01

    To better understand longer-term vadose zone transport in southeastern soils, field lysimeter experiments were conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC, in the 1980s. Each of the three lysimeters analyzed herein contained a filter paper spiked with different Pu solutions, and they were left exposed to natural environmental conditions (including the growth of annual weed grasses) for 11 years. The resulting Pu activity measurements from each lysimeter core showed anomalous activity distributions below the source, with significant migration of Pu above the source. Such results are not explainable by adsorption phenomena alone. A transient variably saturated flow model with root water uptake was developed and coupled to a soil reactive transport model. Somewhat surprisingly, the fully transient analysis showed results nearly identical to those of a much simpler steady flow analysis performed previously. However, all phenomena studied were unable to produce the upward Pu transport observed in the data. This result suggests another transport mechanism such as Pu uptake by roots and upward transport due to transpiration. Thus, the variably saturated flow and reactive transport model was extended to include uptake and transport of Pu within the root xylem, along with computational methodology and results. In the extended model, flow velocity in the soil was driven by precipitation input along with transpiration and drainage. Water uptake by the roots determined the flow velocity in the root xylem, and this along with uptake of Pu in the transpiration stream drove advection and dispersion of the two Pu species in the xylem. During wet periods with high potential evapotranspiration, maximum flow velocities through the xylem would approached 600 cm/hr, orders of magnitude larger that flow velocities in the soil. Values for parameters and the correct conceptual viewpoint for Pu transport in plant xylem was uncertain. This motivated further experiments devoted

  6. Transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirczenow, G.; Marro, J.

    1974-01-01

    Some simple remarks on the basis of transport theory. - Entropy, dynamics and scattering theory. - Response, relaxation and fluctuation. - Fluctuating hydrodynamics and renormalization of susceptibilities and transport coefficients. - Irreversibility of the transport equations. - Ergodic theory and statistical mechanics. - Correlation functions in Heisenberg magnets. - On the Enskog hard-sphere kinetic eqquation and the transport phenomena of dense simple gases. - What can one learn from Lorentz models. - Conductivity in a magnetic field. - Transport properties in gases in presence of external fields. - Transport properties of dilute gases with internal structure. (orig.) [de

  7. National competent authorities responsible for approvals and authorizations in respect of the transport of radioactive material. List no 28. 1997 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    To assist Member States in implementing IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA maintains an updated list of national competent authorities designated for this purpose

  8. Caracterização hidráulica, hidrológica e de transporte sólido do evento de 20 de fevereiro de 2010 na Ribeira de João Gomes - Ilha da Madeira

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, João Nélio Remêsso

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho surge em resultado do evento de 20 de Fevereiro de 2010, com o objectivo de caracterizar a bacia hidrográfica da Ribeira de João Gomes, nas suas vertentes hidráulicas, hidrológicas e de transporte sólido. Inicialmente este trabalho relata as condições climáticas, geológicas e hidrológicas da ilha da Madeira, inclusive nos recursos hídricos e nas situações hidrológicas extremas. Em seguida é apresentado uma breve cronologia dos eventos aluviais presentes na ilha da Madei...

  9. ROCKING. A computer program for seismic response analysis of radioactive materials transport AND/OR storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takeshi

    1995-11-01

    The computer program ROCKING has been developed for seismic response analysis, which includes rocking and sliding behavior, of radioactive materials transport and/or storage casks. Main features of ROCKING are as follows; (1) Cask is treated as a rigid body. (2) Rocking and sliding behavior are considered. (3) Impact forces are represented by the spring dashpot model located at impact points. (4) Friction force is calculated at interface between a cask and a floor. (5) Forces of wire ropes against tip-over work only as tensile loads. In the paper, the calculation model, the calculation equations, validity calculations and user's manual are shown. (author)

  10. Identification of electric-field-dependent steps in the Na(+),K(+)-pump cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Laura J; Garcia, Alvaro; Rasmussen, Helge H; Cornelius, Flemming; Mahmmoud, Yasser A; Berlin, Joshua R; Lev, Bogdan; Allen, Toby W; Clarke, Ronald J

    2014-09-16

    The charge-transporting activity of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase depends on its surrounding electric field. To isolate which steps of the enzyme's reaction cycle involve charge movement, we have investigated the response of the voltage-sensitive fluorescent probe RH421 to interaction of the protein with BTEA (benzyltriethylammonium), which binds from the extracellular medium to the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase's transport sites in competition with Na(+) and K(+), but is not occluded within the protein. We find that only the occludable ions Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) cause a drop in RH421 fluorescence. We conclude that RH421 detects intramembrane electric field strength changes arising from charge transport associated with conformational changes occluding the transported ions within the protein, not the electric fields of the bound ions themselves. This appears at first to conflict with electrophysiological studies suggesting extracellular Na(+) or K(+) binding in a high field access channel is a major electrogenic reaction of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. All results can be explained consistently if ion occlusion involves local deformations in the lipid membrane surrounding the protein occurring simultaneously with conformational changes necessary for ion occlusion. The most likely origin of the RH421 fluorescence response is a change in membrane dipole potential caused by membrane deformation. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. BARRAGEM DE PORTO PRIMAVERA E O TRANSPORTE FLUVIAL NA SEÇÃO DE PORTO SÃO JOSÉ, RIO PARANÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvard Elias Souza Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Porto Primavera Dam caused the decrease of the concentration of suspended load and reduction of the size of the bed forms of Paraná River, but the effects of the construction on fluvial transport have not yet been quantified. In order to do that, this paper aims to evaluate the influence of the dam on the sediment transport in the section of Porto São José. Thus, data of Porto São José Fluviometric Station, field and or - bital images information available in literature were used. The data were analyzed by linear regression to obtain significant correlation between sediment transport and river discharge. The equations with significant coefficient of determination were used to estimate the annual average transport for different time periods. The suspended transport before construction was 214.1 kg/s, increased to 222.2 kg/s during construction and decreased to 56.4 kg/s after completion of the dam. The bed load transport was 99.7 kg/s during the construction, decreased to 86.2 kg/s during 1999 and 2000 and to 41.2 kg/s after 2001. In the same period the total transport decreased from 321.9 kg/s to 177.8 and finally to 91.2 kg/s. These results indicated that the Porto Primavera Dam reduced 74.6% of the suspended transport, 58.7% of the bed load transport, 71.7% of the total transport and increased the proportion of the bed load of 33, 9% to 44.5% of total.

  12. Color response and color transport in a quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Using color kinetic theory, we discuss color conduction and color response in a quark-gluon plasma. Collective color oscillations and their damping rates are investigated. An instability of the thermal equilibrium state in high T QCD is discovered

  13. South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) regional traveler information system for weather responsive traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    FHWAs Road Weather Management Program partnered : with the South Dakota DOT to develop and implement a : Weather Responsive Traffic Management (WRTM) : strategy that involves mobile data collection and traveler : information dissemination during w...

  14. Prefrontal serotonin transporter availability is positively associated with the cortisol awakening response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Erritzoe, David; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2013-01-01

    higher cortisol responses when exposed to psychosocial stressors relative to high expressing 5-HTTLPR variants. However, it is not clear how the relation between SERT and cortisol output is reflected in the adult brain. We investigated the relation between cortisol response to awakening (CAR) and SERT...... binding in brain regions considered relevant to modify the cortisol awakening response. Methods: thirty-two healthy volunteers underwent in vivo SERT imaging with [11C]DASB-Positron Emission Tomography (PET), genotyping, and performed home-sampling of saliva to assess CAR. Results: CAR, defined...... between CAR and prefrontal SERT binding as tested by an interaction analysis (genotype×CAR). Conclusion: prefrontal SERT binding is positively associated with cortisol response to awakening. We speculate that in mentally healthy individuals prefrontal serotonergic neurotransmission may exert an inhibitory...

  15. Color response and color transport in a quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Using color kinetic theory, the authors discuss color conduction and color response in a quark-gluon plasma. Collective color oscillations and their damping rates are investigated. An instability of the thermal equilibrium state in high T QCD is discovered

  16. Emergency response capabilities developed in the United States to deal with nuclear materials transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevender, S.G.; Reese, R.T.; Schilling, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    The non-existence of emergency response programs is frequently stated as a reason for restricting the movement of radioactive materials through states or local jurisdictions. Yet, studies discussed here indicate that emergency response capability, while not in the best condition, is getting more money, interest and attention, and in most states response networks exist which could be effective in responding to radiological emergencies. Awareness of such capabilities by the public is an important feature in increasing the public's confidence in the ability of federal, state and local officials in controlling hazards. One aspect of this awareness program could be in broader availability of radioactive emergency techniques for possible first responders to emergencies. This training, public awareness and more emphasis on workable emergency plans will help to assure reliable and workable emergency response plans

  17. Cocaine Self-Administration Produces Long-Lasting Alterations in Dopamine Transporter Responses to Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Cody A.; Fordahl, Steve C.

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by uncontrolled cocaine intake, which is thought to be driven, at least in part, by cocaine-induced deficits in dopamine system function. A decreased ability of cocaine to elevate dopamine levels has been repeatedly observed as a consequence of cocaine use in humans, and preclinical work has highlighted tolerance to cocaine's effects as a primary determinant in the development of aberrant cocaine taking behaviors. Here we determined that cocaine self-administration in rats produced tolerance to the dopamine transporter-inhibiting effects of cocaine in the nucleus accumbens core, which was normalized following a 14 or 60 d abstinence period; however, although these rats appeared to be similar to controls, a single self-administered infusion of cocaine at the end of abstinence, even after 60 d, fully reinstated tolerance to cocaine's effects. A single cocaine infusion in a naive rat had no effect on cocaine potency, demonstrating that cocaine self-administration leaves the dopamine transporter in a “primed” state, which allows for cocaine-induced plasticity to be reinstated by a subthreshold cocaine exposure. Further, reinstatement of cocaine tolerance was accompanied by decreased cocaine-induced locomotion and escalated cocaine intake despite extended abstinence from cocaine. These data demonstrate that cocaine leaves a long-lasting imprint on the dopamine system that is activated by re-exposure to cocaine. Further, these results provide a potential mechanism for severe cocaine binge episodes, which occur even after sustained abstinence from cocaine, and suggest that treatments aimed at transporter sites may be efficacious in promoting binge termination following relapse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tolerance is a DSM-V criterion for substance abuse disorders. Abusers consistently show reduced subjective effects of cocaine concomitant with reduced effects of cocaine at its main site of action

  18. Spermine modulates the expression of two probable polyamine transporter genes and determines growth responses to cadaverine in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagor, G H M; Berberich, Thomas; Kojima, Seiji; Niitsu, Masaru; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2016-06-01

    Two genes, LAT1 and OCT1 , are likely to be involved in polyamine transport in Arabidopsis. Endogenous spermine levels modulate their expression and determine the sensitivity to cadaverine. Arabidopsis spermine (Spm) synthase (SPMS) gene-deficient mutant was previously shown to be rather resistant to the diamine cadaverine (Cad). Furthermore, a mutant deficient in polyamine oxidase 4 gene, accumulating about twofold more of Spm than wild type plants, showed increased sensitivity to Cad. It suggests that endogenous Spm content determines growth responses to Cad in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we showed that Arabidopsis seedlings pretreated with Spm absorbs more Cad and has shorter root growth, and that the transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the SPMS gene are hypersensitive to Cad, further supporting the above idea. The transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing L-Amino acid Transporter 1 (LAT1) absorbed more Cad and showed increased Cad sensitivity, suggesting that LAT1 functions as a Cad importer. Recently, other research group reported that Organic Cation Transporter 1 (OCT1) is a causal gene which determines the Cad sensitivity of various Arabidopsis accessions. Furthermore, their results suggested that OCT1 is involved in Cad efflux. Thus we monitored the expression of OCT1 and LAT1 during the above experiments. Based on the results, we proposed a model in which the level of Spm content modulates the expression of OCT1 and LAT1, and determines Cad sensitivity of Arabidopsis.

  19. Study of the response of a lithium yttrium borate scintillator based neutron rem counter by Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, C.; Tyagi, Mohit; Biju, K.; Shanbhag, A. A.; Bandyopadhyay, T.

    2015-12-01

    The scarcity and the high cost of 3He has spurred the use of various detectors for neutron monitoring. A new lithium yttrium borate scintillator developed in BARC has been studied for its use in a neutron rem counter. The scintillator is made of natural lithium and boron, and the yield of reaction products that will generate a signal in a real time detector has been studied by FLUKA Monte Carlo radiation transport code. A 2 cm lead introduced to enhance the gamma rejection shows no appreciable change in the shape of the fluence response or in the yield of reaction products. The fluence response when normalized at the average energy of an Am-Be neutron source shows promise of being used as rem counter.

  20. Study of the response of a lithium yttrium borate scintillator based neutron rem counter by Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunil, C., E-mail: csunil11@gmail.com [Accelerator Radiation Safety Section, Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tyagi, Mohit [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Biju, K.; Shanbhag, A.A.; Bandyopadhyay, T. [Accelerator Radiation Safety Section, Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-12-11

    The scarcity and the high cost of {sup 3}He has spurred the use of various detectors for neutron monitoring. A new lithium yttrium borate scintillator developed in BARC has been studied for its use in a neutron rem counter. The scintillator is made of natural lithium and boron, and the yield of reaction products that will generate a signal in a real time detector has been studied by FLUKA Monte Carlo radiation transport code. A 2 cm lead introduced to enhance the gamma rejection shows no appreciable change in the shape of the fluence response or in the yield of reaction products. The fluence response when normalized at the average energy of an Am–Be neutron source shows promise of being used as rem counter.

  1. Development of an advanced atmospheric/transport model for emergency response purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, J.D.; O'Steen, B.L.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed for real-time calculations of the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These models are based Gaussian distributions and have been incorporated into an automated menu-driven program called the WIND (Weather INformation and Display) system. The WIND system atmospheric models employ certain assumptions that allow the computations of the ground-level concentration of toxic or radioactive materials to be made quickly. Gaussian models, such as PF/PL and 2DPUF, suffer from serious limitations including the inability to represent recirculation of pollutants in complex terrain, the use of one stability class at a given time to represent turbulent mixing over heterogeneous terrain, and the use of a wind field computed at only one height in the atmosphere. These limitations arise because the fundamental conservation relations of the atmosphere have been grossly simplified. Three-dimensional coupled atmospheric-dispersion models are not limited by the over-simplifications of the Gaussian assumption and have been used in the past to predict the transport of pollutants in a variety of atmospheric circulations. The disadvantage of these models is that they require large amounts of computational time; however, technology has progressed enough so that real-time simulations of dispersion may be made. These complex models can be run in an operational mode so that routine forecasts of the wind field and particulate concentration can be made

  2. Possible association of norepinephrine transporter -3081(A/T polymorphism with methylphenidate response in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Min-Sup

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a heritable disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Methylphenidate (MPH has been shown to block the norepinephrine transporter (NET, and genetic investigations have demonstrated that the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2 is associated with ADHD. The aims of this study were to examine the association of the SLC6A2 -3081(A/T and G1287A polymorphisms with MPH response in ADHD. Methods This study enrolled 112 children and adolescents with ADHD. A response criterion was defined based on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I score, and the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ARS score was also assessed at baseline and 8 weeks after MPH treatment. Results We found that the subjects who had the T allele as one of the alleles (A/T or T/T genotypes at the -3081(A/T polymorphism showed a better response to MPH treatment than those with the A/A genotype as measured by the CGI-I. We also found a trend towards a difference in the change of the total ARS scores and hyperactivity/impulsivity subscores between subjects with and without the T allele. No significant association was found between the genotypes of the SLC6A2 G1287A polymorphism and response to ADHD treatment. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence for the involvement of the -3081(A/T polymorphism of SLC6A2 in the modulation of the effectiveness of MPH treatment in ADHD.

  3. Water-transporting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water...... transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support...... to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity...

  4. Identification of conserved prolyl residue important for transport activity and the substrate specificity range of yeast plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zimmermannová, Olga; Zavřel, Martin; Sychrová, Hana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 34 (2005), s. 30638-30647 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP204/02/D092 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : yeast * Na+/H+ antiporter * substrate specificity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.854, year: 2005

  5. Uticaj amfibijskog transportera PTS-M na životnu sredinu/Influence of the amphibious transporter STM-M on environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad V. Kovačević

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vojska Srbije je jedina institucija društvenog sistema Republike Srbije koja poseduje i namenski koristi amfibijska sredstva. Cilj članka jeste sagledavanje uticaja amfibijskih sredstava na tri, po mnogim ekolozima i najbitnija indikatora životne sredine: zemljištu, vazduhu i vodi. U članku su, pored uticaja amfibijskih sredstava na indikatore životne sredine, obrađene i mere za unapređenje i poboljšanje sistema zaštite životne sredine sa aspekta promene načina upotrebe i rekonstrukcije samih sredstava. Članak je nastao prevashodno na osnovu kombinacije iskustava autora u radu sa amfibijskim sredstvima, kao i na osnovu elementarnih teoretskih odredbi vezanih za sistem zaštite životne sredine. Prikazano je koliko samo jedan tip sredstava koje Vojska Srbije trenutno koristi može štetno da deluje na životnu sredinu. Treba uzeti u obzir činjenicu da u radu nisu obuhvaćeni svi štetni efekti rada amfibijskih sredstava, već samo negativni uticaji na osnovne indikatore životne sredine. / The Serbian Army is the only institution of the social system in the Republic of Serbia which posesses amphibious vehicles and uses them for their designated purpose. The goal of this paper is to draw conclusions regarding the influence of amphibious vehicles on the three parts of the environment many scientists find the most important: land, air and water. The paper processes the influence of amphibious military vehicles on the basic parts of environment, as well as the measures for the improvement of safety and environmental management systems regarding the change in the usage and reconstruction of the vehicles. This paper is based on the authors' own experience in work with amphibious vehicles combined with the basic theoretical postulates of the safety and environmental management systems. It also shows how many negative consequences on the environment can be caused by just one type of the military vehicles. It is very important to emphasize

  6. Synthesis, crystal structure, electrical properties, and sodium transport pathways of the new arsenate Na{sub 4}Co{sub 7}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Smida, Youssef; Marzouki, Riadh [Université de Tunis El Manar, Laboratoire de Matériaux et Cristallochimie, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 2092 Manar II, Tunis (Tunisia); Georges, Samuel [Université Grenoble Alpes, Laboratoire d’Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Matériaux et des Interfaces LEPMI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Kutteh, Ramzi [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Avdeev, Maxim [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Guesmi, Abderrahmen; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi [Université de Tunis El Manar, Laboratoire de Matériaux et Cristallochimie, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 2092 Manar II, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2016-07-15

    A new sodium cobalt (II) arsenate Na{sub 4}Co{sub 7}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 6} has been synthesized by a solid-state reaction and its crystal structure determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group C2/m, with a=10.7098(9) Å, b=14.7837(9) Å, c=6.6845(7) Å, and β=105.545(9)°. The structure is described as a three-dimensional framework built up of corner-edge sharing CoO{sub 6}, CoO{sub 4} and AsO{sub 4} polyhedra, with interconnecting channels along [100] in which the Na{sup +} cations are located. The densest ceramics with relative density of 94% was obtained by ball milling and optimization of sintering temperature, and its microstructure characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties of the ceramics were studied over a temperature interval from 280 °C to 560 °C using the complex impedance spectroscopy over the range of 13 MHz–5 Hz. The ionic bulk conductivity value of the sample at 360 °C is 2.51 10{sup −5} S cm{sup −1} and the measured activation energy is Ea=1 eV. The sodium migration pathways in the crystal structure were investigated computationally using the bond valence site energy (BVSE) model and classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. - Graphical abstract: Correlation between crystal structure, microstructure and ionic conductivity . Display Omitted - Highlights: • A new arsenate Na{sub 4}Co{sub 7}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 6} was prepared by solid state reaction. • Its crystal structure was determined by powder X-ray diffraction. • Na{sup +} ionic conductivity was probed by complex impedance spectroscopy. • Na{sup +} conduction pathways were modeled by bond-valence method and molecular dynamics.

  7. Basolateral P2X receptors mediate inhibition of NaCl transport in mouse medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Rita D; de Bruijn, Pauline I.A.; Sørensen, Mads Vaarby

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides regulate epithelial transport via luminal and basolateral P2 receptors. Renal epithelia express multiple P2 receptors, which mediate significant inhibition of solute absorption. Recently, we identified several P2 receptors in the medullary thick ascending limb (m...

  8. Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome with carbohydrate-responsive symptoms but without epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koy, Anne; Assmann, Birgit; Klepper, Joerg; Mayatepek, Ertan

    2011-12-01

    Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is caused by a defect in glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier. The main symptoms are epilepsy, developmental delay, movement disorders, and deceleration of head circumference. A ketogenic diet has been shown to be effective in controlling epilepsy in GLUT1-DS. We report a female child (3 y 4 mo) who presented with delayed psychomotor development and frequent episodes of staggering, impaired vigilance, and vomiting that resolved promptly after food intake. Electroencephalography was normal. The cerebrospinal fluid-blood glucose ratio was 0.42 (normal ≥ 0.45). GLUT1-DS was confirmed by molecular genetic testing, which showed a novel de novo heterozygous mutation in the SLC2A1 gene (c.497_499delTCG, p.VAL166del). Before starting a ketogenic diet, the child's cognitive development was tested using the Snijders-Oomen Non-Verbal Intelligence Test, which revealed a heterogeneous intelligence profile with deficits in her visuomotor skills and spatial awareness. Her motor development was delayed. Three months after introducing a ketogenic diet, she showed marked improvement in speech and motor development, as tested by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (manual dexterity 16th centile, ball skills 1st centile, static and dynamic balance 5th centile). This case demonstrates that GLUT1-DS should be investigated in individuals with unexplained developmental delay. Epilepsy is not a mandatory symptom. The ketogenic diet is also beneficial for non-epileptic symptoms in GLUT1-DS. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.

  9. Physiological responses of newly hatched broiler chicks to increasing journey distance during road transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmatollah Khosravinia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects on weight loss (WL, residual yolk (RY utilization and serum biochemical parameters of transport distance (TD in newly hatched broiler chicks. Just after hatching, 200 Ross 308 broiler chicks were traveled over 1000 km. At hatchery and after 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 km journey, a random sample of 20 birds were killed for blood collection, WL and yolk weight assessment. Live weight decreased linearly by 0.42 and 0.48 g per 100 km of journey in males and female chicks, respectively. Yolk sac residual utilized by 0.071 and 0.069 g per 100 km of travel in males and females chicks, respectively, over journey distances up to 800 km. Extended journey from 800 to 1000 km caused a great decline of 0.51 and 0.58 g per 100 km in yolk weight in male and female chicks, respectively. Serum Ca concentration reduced in TDs up to 400 km, then increased for longer journeys (P<0.05. Over 1000 km journey, serum GLU level of 196.24 mg/dL at hatchery was decreased to 117.31 mg/dL at the end of journey. Serum urea, uric acid and cholesterol concentrations were increased with the extended TDs (P<0.05. In conclusion increasing transportation distance causes intensified physiological stress in broiler chicks with varying effect on different stress indicators. Stress indicators in newly hatched chicks in transit may differ from those proposed for replaced chicks and the broiler chicken at later ages.

  10. Introduction to the determination of transport numbers in electrolytic solutions. Effect of the activity coefficient in the coupled scattering and self-scattering processes. Electric mobility of the Na+ ion in water-THF mixture - Measurements of transport numbers by means of radio-tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M'Malla

    1976-01-01

    Within the frame of a study of ion preferential solvation in hydro-organic media, the author reports some measurements of ionic conductivities of the Na + ion in mixtures of different proportions of water and THF (tetrahydrofuran), and more specifically the use of a recently developed method of transport number measurement. The author explains the general definition of the transport number, recalls usual measurement methods (Hittorf method, moving boundary method), describes the method principle, the measurement process, reports the assessment of corrective terms in the calculation of the transport number, and presents and comments the obtained results. A second part addresses the influence of activity coefficient gradient on the couple scattering and self-scattering phenomenon: self-scattering measurement with a tracer, theoretical aspects of coupled scattering, experimental results and discussion

  11. Effects of Li and Na intercalation on electronic, bonding and thermoelectric transport properties of MX{sub 2} (M = Ta; X = S or Se) dichalcogenides – Ab initio investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meziane, Souheyr; Feraoun, Houda [Unité de Recherche Matériaux et Energies Renouvelables – URMER, Université de Tlemcen (Algeria); Ouahrani, Tarik [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Ecole Préparatoire en Sciences et Techniques, B.P. 230, 13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); Esling, Claude, E-mail: claude.esling@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire d’Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux, LEM3 UMR CNRS 7239, Université de Lorraine UL, Metz 57045 (France); Laboratoire d’Excellence “DAMAS”: Design of Metal Alloys for low-mAss Structures, Université de Lorraine – Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex 01 (France)

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •Topological method is used to analyze the chemical bonding in Li(Na)TaX{sub 2} dichalcogenide compounds. •For the first time, Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity were estimated. •The best figure of merit is established for 2H-LiTaS{sub 2}. •Some new thermoelectric compounds are found. -- Abstract: Using the pseudo-potential method and semi-classical Boltzmann theory, electronic, chemical bonding and thermoelectric transport properties of sample and Li or Na intercalated Ta(S, Se){sub 2} dichalcogenides have been reported. The chemical bonding is studied using the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM). Then, the Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and figure of merit have been calculated in the temperature range 100–700 K. It was shown that the thermoelectric transport properties strongly depend on the Alkali metals doping and the two main structures 1T- or 2H- as well as the temperature. 2H-LiTaS{sub 2} have been selected as the best candidate for thermoelectrical applications with zT = 1.1.

  12. Differential Kolaviron Attenuated Contractile Responses to Agonists on Isolated Rabbit Aorta in Na+-K+ Pump Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uche, O K; Ofeimun, J O

    2017-12-30

    The mechanism of kolaviron-induced vascular smooth muscles (VSMs) responses has not been fullycharacterised. The present study investigated the effect and mode of action of kolaviron a biflavanoid-complex and majorcomponent of Garcinia Kola-fraction on differential contractile responses to agonists-[phenylephrine (PHE) and histamine(HIST)] on VSMs of rabbit isolated aortic rings in K+-free physiological salt solution (KFPSS). Cumulative concentrationresponses to PHE and HIST were examined on 2 mm ring segments of the thoracic aortae which were suspended in 20 mlorgan baths containing physiological salt solution (PSS) for measurement of isometric contractions, at 370C and pH 7.4. Themedium was bubbled with 95% O2, 5% CO2, and rings were given an initial load of 1g. Cumulative contractile responses tothe agonists were studied in normal PSS (control) and following 30 minutes exposure to K+-free PSS and/or 800µg/mLkolaviron. Contractile responses were expressed as percentage of 80 mM K+ contractions in normal PSS. Maximalcontractions (Emax) induced by PHE and HIST compared with high K+ contraction in the various preparations weredifferentially altered following exposure to K+-free or 800µg/mL kolaviron in both intact (+E) and endotheliumdenuded (-E) rings. Based on the efficacy (Emax) and potency (EC50) values for the dose-response curves of the agonists, it isconcluded that enhanced differential contractile responses elicited by agonists in K+-free PSS were significantly attenuatedby kolaviron concentration-dependently. This observation probably suggests the existence of another pathway of kolavironmode of action in vascular smooth muscle reactivity.

  13. Demand responsive transport as a social innovation - the case of Skewiel mobiel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotman, H.; Ludden, Geke Dina Simone; Salamanca, Juan; Desmet, Pieter; Burbano, Andrés; Ludden, Geke; Maya, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    People are increasingly growing older. Growing older is likely to come with, for example, decreasing mobility and therefore increasing dependency. This can reduce the social connectedness of older people. As an effect, a social challenge is growing: loneliness. In response to this challenge, local

  14. Evaluation of the Neutron Detector Response for Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum by Monte Carlo Transport Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazianotto, Mauricio T.; Carlson, Brett V.; Federico, Claudio A.; Gonzalez, Odair L.

    2011-01-01

    Neutrons generated by the interaction of cosmic rays with the atmosphere make an important contribution to the dose accumulated in electronic circuits and aircraft crew members at flight altitude. High-energy neutrons are produced in spallation reactions and intranuclear cascade processes by primary cosmic-ray particle interactions with atoms in the atmosphere. These neutrons can produce secondary neutrons and also undergo a moderation process due to atmosphere interactions, resulting in a wider energy spectrum, ranging from thermal energies (0.025 eV) to energies of several hundreds of MeV. The Long-Counter (LC) detector is a widely used neutron detector designed to measure the directional flux of neutrons with about constant response over a wide energy range (thermal to 20 MeV). ). Its calibration process and the determination of its energy response for the wide-energy of cosmic ray induced neutron spectrum is a very difficult process due to the lack of installations with these capabilities. The goal of this study is to assess the behavior of the response of a Long Counter using the Monte Carlo (MC) computational code MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended). The dependence of the Long Counter response on the angle of incidence, as well as on the neutron energy, will be carefully investigated, compared with the experimental data previously obtained with 241 Am-Be and 252 Cf neutron sources and extended to the neutron spectrum produced by cosmic rays. (Author)

  15. Response of CR-39 to 0.9–2.5 MeV protons for KOH and NaOH etching solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrami, F. [Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mianji, F., E-mail: fmianji@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Iran Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faghihi, R. [Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taheri, M. [Iran Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ansarinejad, A. [Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-21

    In some circumstances passive detecting methods are the only or preferable measuring approaches. For instance, defining particles' energy profile inside the objects being irradiated with heavy ions and measuring fluence of neutrons or heavy particles in space missions are the cases covered by these methods. In this paper the ability of polyallyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) track detector (commercially known as CR-39) for passive spectrometry of proton particles is studied. Furthermore, the effect of KOH and NaOH as commonly used chemical etching solutions on the response of the detector is investigated. The experiments were carried out with protons in the energy range of 0.94–2.5 MeV generated by a Van de Graaff accelerator. Then, the exposed track dosimeters were etched in the two aforementioned etchants through similar procedure with the same normality of 6.25 N and the same temperature of 85 °C. Formation of the tracks was precisely investigated and the track diameters were recorded following every etching step for each solution using a multistage etching process. The results showed that the proposed method can be efficiently used for the spectrometry of protons over a wider dynamic range and with a reasonable accuracy. Moreover, NaOH and KOH outperformed each other over different regions of the proton energy range. The detection efficiency of both etchants was approximately 100%.

  16. Response of CR-39 to 0.9-2.5 MeV protons for KOH and NaOH etching solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, F.; Mianji, F.; Faghihi, R.; Taheri, M.; Ansarinejad, A.

    2016-03-01

    In some circumstances passive detecting methods are the only or preferable measuring approaches. For instance, defining particles' energy profile inside the objects being irradiated with heavy ions and measuring fluence of neutrons or heavy particles in space missions are the cases covered by these methods. In this paper the ability of polyallyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) track detector (commercially known as CR-39) for passive spectrometry of proton particles is studied. Furthermore, the effect of KOH and NaOH as commonly used chemical etching solutions on the response of the detector is investigated. The experiments were carried out with protons in the energy range of 0.94-2.5 MeV generated by a Van de Graaff accelerator. Then, the exposed track dosimeters were etched in the two aforementioned etchants through similar procedure with the same normality of 6.25 N and the same temperature of 85 °C. Formation of the tracks was precisely investigated and the track diameters were recorded following every etching step for each solution using a multistage etching process. The results showed that the proposed method can be efficiently used for the spectrometry of protons over a wider dynamic range and with a reasonable accuracy. Moreover, NaOH and KOH outperformed each other over different regions of the proton energy range. The detection efficiency of both etchants was approximately 100%.

  17. Predicting and monitoring response to chemotherapy by 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea in subcutaneously implanted 9L glioma using the apparent diffusion coefficient of water and 23Na MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babsky, Andriy M; Hekmatyar, S K; Zhang, Hong; Solomon, James L; Bansal, Navin

    2006-07-01

    To examine the effects of the alkylating anticancer drug 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) on (23)Na MRI and the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in subcutaneously- (sc-) implanted 9L glioma in rats. (23)Na MRI and (1)H water ADC measurements were performed on sham-treated control (N = 6) and BCNU-treated (N = 15) Fisher rats one day before BCNU injection and then one, three, and five days after BCNU injection. The BCNU-treated tumors were divided into BCNU-responsive (R(BCNU)) and BCNU-nonresponsive (NR(BCNU)) groups depending on the tumor volume changes that occurred after therapy. The pretreatment (23)Na MRI signal intensity (SI) and water ADC values were higher in R(BCNU) tumors compared to NR(BCNU) tumors. (23)Na MRI SI and water ADC increased with tumor growth in control and NR(BCNU) groups, but these changes were interrupted by BCNU therapy in R(BCNU) group. (23)Na MRI and water ADC measurements may be useful for predicting and monitoring response to chemotherapy in some tumors. However, the changes that occurred in (23)Na MRI SI and water ADC in sc-implanted 9L tumors are in contrast to previously published results for BCNU therapy of orthotopic 9L tumors. This may have important implications for monitoring therapy response in tumors. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Gibberellins regulate iron deficiency-response by influencing iron transport and translocation in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baolan; Wei, Haifang; Xue, Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2017-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of plant hormones with diverse functions. However, there has been little information on the role of GAs in response to plant nutrient deficiency. To evaluate the roles of GAs in regulation of Fe homeostasis, the effects of GA on Fe accumulation and Fe translocation in rice seedlings were investigated using wild-type, a rice mutant ( eui1 ) displaying enhnaced endogenous GA concentrations due to a defect in GA deactivation, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsEUI . Exposure to Fe-deficient medium significantly reduced biomass of rice plants. Both exogenous application of GA and an endogenous increase of bioactive GA enhanced Fe-deficiency response by exaggerating foliar chlorosis and reducing growth. Iron deficiency significantly suppressed production of GA 1 and GA 4 , the biologically active GAs in rice. Exogenous application of GA significantly decreased leaf Fe concentration regardless of Fe supply. Iron concentration in shoot of eui1 mutants was lower than that of WT plants under both Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient conditions. Paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, alleviated Fe-deficiency responses, and overexpression of EUI significantly increased Fe concentration in shoots and roots. Furthermore, both exogenous application of GA and endogenous increase in GA resulting from EUI mutation inhibited Fe translocation within shoots by suppressing OsYSL2 expression, which is involved in Fe transport and translocation. The novel findings provide compelling evidence to support the involvement of GA in mediation of Fe homeostasis in strategy II rice plants by negatively regulating Fe transport and translocation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Zinc transporter ZIP14 functions in hepatic zinc, iron and glucose homeostasis during the innate immune response (endotoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolunay Beker Aydemir

    Full Text Available ZIP14 (slc39A14 is a zinc transporter induced in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. ZIP14 induction accompanies the reduction in serum zinc (hypozincemia of acute inflammation. ZIP14 can transport Zn(2+ and non-transferrin-bound Fe(2+ in vitro. Using a Zip14(-/- mouse model we demonstrated that ZIP14 was essential for control of phosphatase PTP1B activity and phosphorylation of c-Met during liver regeneration. In the current studies, a global screening of ZIP transporter gene expression in response to LPS-induced endotoxemia was conducted. Following LPS, Zip14 was the most highly up-regulated Zip transcript in liver, but also in white adipose tissue and muscle. Using ZIP14(-/- mice we show that ZIP14 contributes to zinc absorption from the gastrointestinal tract directly or indirectly as zinc absorption was decreased in the KOs. In contrast, Zip14(-/- mice absorbed more iron. The Zip14 KO mice did not exhibit hypozincemia following LPS, but do have hypoferremia. Livers of Zip14-/- mice had increased transcript abundance for hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1, ferritin and transferrin receptor-1 and greater accumulation of iron. The Zip14(-/- phenotype included greater body fat, hypoglycemia and higher insulin levels, as well as increased liver glucose and greater phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and increased GLUT2, SREBP-1c and FASN expression. The Zip14 KO mice exhibited decreased circulating IL-6 with increased hepatic SOCS-3 following LPS, suggesting SOCS-3 inhibited insulin signaling which produced the hypoglycemia in this genotype. The results are consistent with ZIP14 ablation yielding abnormal labile zinc pools which lead to increased SOCS-3 production through G-coupled receptor activation and increased cAMP production as well as signaled by increased pSTAT3 via the IL-6 receptor, which inhibits IRS 1/2 phosphorylation. Our data show the role of ZIP14 in the hepatocyte is multi-functional since zinc and iron trafficking are

  20. Analiza štetnog uticaja vibracija na posadu u transportnim sredstvima vojske Srbije / Analysis of risks from crew exposure to vibrations in military transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana B. Jovanović

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available U radu je prikazana metoda za procenu rizika nastalog usled izloženosti čoveka vibracijama. Merenja vibracija koje se prenose na celo telo i na sistem šaka-ruka izvršena su za posadu helikoptera, rečnog broda i terenskog vozila. Izmerene vibracije ocenjene su prema kriterijumima 'štetnosti po zdravlje' i 'kvaliteta komfora'. / This paper presents test methods for assessing risks arising from human exposure to vibrations. The measuring of vibrations transmitted to the 'whole-body' and human 'hand-arm' system is carried out for helicopter, river boat and off-road vehicle crews. The measured vibrations are assessed according to the criteria of the 'health quality' level and the 'comfort quality' level.

  1. Light-mediated polarization of the PIN3 auxin transporter for the phototropic response in Arabidopsis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Zhaojun; Galván-Ampudia Carlos S; Demarsy Emilie; Langowski Lukasz; Kleine-Vehn Jürgen; Fan Yuanwei; Morita Miyo T; Tasaka Masao; Fankhauser Christian; Offringa Remko; Friml Jirí

    2011-01-01

    Phototropism is an adaptation response through which plants grow towards the light. It involves light perception and asymmetric distribution of the plant hormone auxin. Here we identify a crucial part of the mechanism for phototropism revealing how light perception initiates auxin redistribution that leads to directional growth. We show that light polarizes the cellular localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN3 in hypocotyl endodermis cells resulting in changes in auxin distribution and d...

  2. Coupling External Radiation Transport Code Results to the GADRAS Detector Response Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Thoreson, Gregory G.; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Simulating gamma spectra is useful for analyzing special nuclear materials. Gamma spectra are influenced not only by the source and the detector, but also by the external, and potentially complex, scattering environment. The scattering environment can make accurate representations of gamma spectra difficult to obtain. By coupling the Monte Carlo Nuclear Particle (MCNP) code with the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) detector response function, gamma spectrum simulations can be computed with a high degree of fidelity even in the presence of a complex scattering environment. Traditionally, GADRAS represents the external scattering environment with empirically derived scattering parameters. By modeling the external scattering environment in MCNP and using the results as input for the GADRAS detector response function, gamma spectra can be obtained with a high degree of fidelity. This method was verified with experimental data obtained in an environment with a significant amount of scattering material. The experiment used both gamma-emitting sources and moderated and bare neutron-emitting sources. The sources were modeled using GADRAS and MCNP in the presence of the external scattering environment, producing accurate representations of the experimental data.

  3. Rice Na+/H+- antiporter Nhx1 partially complements the alkali-metal-cation sensitivity of yeast strains lacking three sodium transporters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kinclová-Zimmermannová, Olga; Flegelová, Hana; Sychrová, Hana

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 5 (2004), s. 519-525 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/02/1240; GA AV ČR IAA5011407 Grant - others:EU(XE) QLK3-CT-2001-00533 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : alkali metal cations * Na/H antiporter * yeast Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.034, year: 2004

  4. Vulnerabilidade ambiental, social e viária em acidentes com transporte de produtos perigosos: estudo de caso na BR-101 entre Osório e Torres, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Cannarozzo Tinoco

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente estudo objetiva avaliar a vulnerabilidade ambiental e social e identificar trechos críticos, na ocorrência de acidentes com o transporte de produtos perigosos na BR-101, entre os municípios de Osório e Torres, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A abordagem proposta e aplicada neste trabalho consiste de uma análise multicriterial que integra metodologias de análise de segurança viária, análise de vulnerabilidade ambiental e social na ocorrência de acidentes com produtos perigosos, e técnicas de análise de mapas. Os resultados apontaram que 38 quilômetros da rodovia apresentam vulnerabilidade elevada, sendo 8 quilômetros com vulnerabilidade crítica, vinculada à presença de pontes sobre rios, pontos de captação de água, túnel, áreas de preservação ambiental e zona urbana. Esses trechos devem ser priorizados no desenvolvimento de planos de ação para a mitigação de acidentes e definição de políticas públicas na rodovia em estudo. A abordagem utilizada constitui um enfoque inédito em relação aos estudos existentes e uma ferramenta que pode auxiliar no processo de tomada de decisões em operações de emergência.

  5. Tissue kinetics, ion transport, and recruitment of mitochondria-rich cells in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo) in response to exposure to distilled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz, Poul Egede; Christoffersen, Betina C.; Johansen, Jesper S.

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondria-rich cells (MRC) of the amphibian epidermis are responsible for active chloride uptake at low external salinity, and new MRCs are recruited in response to exposure to distilled (deionized) water. The time-course of this recruitment, the tissue kinetics and ion transport have been...

  6. Enxertia e água de irrigação carbonatada no transporte de 15N e na produção do tomateiro Grafting and carbonated irrigation water in transport of 15N and in the tomato production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto B. F. Branco

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos da aplicação de CO2, via água de irrigação, e da enxertia do tomateiro no transporte de 15N e na produção do tomateiro. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso no esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (com e sem CO2 na água de irrigação e tomateiro enxertado e pé-franco. A injeção do CO2 na água iniciou-se aos 34 dias após o transplante das mudas (DAT e se prolongou em todas as irrigações. A aplicação do sulfato de amônio com abundância em átomos de 15N de 3,13% nas plantas destinadas à análise foi feita aos 45 DAT quando as plantas estavam em plena frutificação. Após 14 dias da aplicação do fertilizante (15N as plantas foram colhidas, lavadas, secadas e enviadas ao laboratório, para análise do 15N nos seus tecidos. Os resultados demonstraram que o CO2 e a enxertia não alteraram o transporte de 15N na planta. A produção de frutos comerciais foi maior quando se aplicou CO2 na água.The effects of CO2 application through irrigation water, and of grafting in transport of 15N and in the tomato production, were studied. These treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme (with and without CO2 in irrigation water and grafted and non-grafted tomato, in a completely randomized design, with four replications. The injection of CO2 into the water began at 34 days after transplant of seedlings (DAT and continued for all irrigations. The application of the sulfate of ammonium with abundance in atoms of 15N of 3.13% in plants destined to analysis was done at 45 DAT when the plants were in the middle of fructification. After 14 days of fertilizer (15N application the plants were harvested, washed, dried and sent for analysis of 15N in plant tissue. The results demonstrated that CO2 and the grafting did not alter the transport of 15N in the plant. The production of commercial fruits was larger when CO2 was applied in water.

  7. Perception of volatiles produced by UVC-irradiated plants alters the response to viral infection in naïve neighboring plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Youli; Danna, Cristian H; Ausubel, Frederick M; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2012-07-01

    Interplant communication of stress via volatile signals is a well-known phenomenon. It has been shown that plants undergoing stress caused by pathogenic bacteria or insects generate volatile signals that elicit defense response in neighboring naïve plants. Similarly, we have recently shown that naïve plants sharing the same gaseous environment with UVC-exposed plants exhibit similar changes in genome instability as UVC-exposed plants. We found that methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) serve as volatile signals communicating genome instability (as measured by an increase in the homologous recombination frequency). UVC-exposed plants produce high levels of MeSA and MeJA, a response that is missing in an npr1 mutant. Concomitantly, npr1 mutants are impaired in communicating the signal leading to genome instability, presumably because this mutant does not develop new necrotic lesion after UVC irradiation as observed in wt plants. To analyze the potential biological significance of such plant-plant communication, we have now determined whether bystander plants that receive volatile signals from UVC-irradiated plants, become more resistant to UVC irradiation or infection with oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV). Specifically, we analyzed the number of UVC-elicited necrotic lesions, the level of anthocyanin pigments, and the mRNA levels corresponding to ORMV coat protein and the NPR1-regulated pathogenesis-related protein PR1 in the irradiated or virus-infected bystander plants that have been previously exposed to volatiles produced by UVC-irradiated plants. These experiments showed that the bystander plants responded similarly to control plants following UVC irradiation. Interestingly, however, the bystander plants appeared to be more susceptible to ORMV infection, even though PR1 mRNA levels in systemic tissue were significantly higher than in the control plants, which indicates that bystander plants could be primed to strongly respond to bacterial

  8. Risk factors for increased immune reconstitution in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in tuberculosis HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Tatiana Pereira; Giacoia-Gripp, Carmem Beatriz Wagner; Schmaltz, Carolina A; Sant'Anna, Flavia Marinho; Saad, Maria Helena; Matos, Juliana Arruda de; de Lima E Silva, Julio Castro Alves; Rolla, Valeria Cavalcanti; Morgado, Mariza Gonçalves

    2017-09-06

    Little is known regarding the restoration of the specific immune response after combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and anti-tuberculosis (TB) therapy introduction among TB-HIV patients. In this study, we examined the immune response of TB-HIV patients to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens to evaluate the response dynamics to different antigens over time. Moreover, we also evaluated the influence of two different doses of efavirenz and the factors associated with immune reconstitution. This is a longitudinal study nested in a clinical trial, where cART was initiated during the baseline visit (D0), which occurred 30 ± 10 days after the introduction of anti-TB therapy. Follow-up visits were performed at 30, 60, 90 and 180 days after cART initiation. The production of IFN-γ upon in vitro stimulation with Mtb antigens purified protein derivative (PPD), ESAT-6 and 38 kDa/CFP-10 using ELISpot was examined at baseline and follow-up visits. Sixty-one patients, all ART-naïve, were selected and included in the immune reconstitution analysis; seven (11.5%) developed Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS). The Mtb specific immune response was higher for the PPD antigen followed by 38 kDa/CFP-10 and increased in the first 60 days after cART initiation. In multivariate analysis, the variables independently associated with increased IFN-γ production in response to PPD antigen were CD4 + T cell counts tuberculosis, 800 mg efavirenz dose and follow-up CD4 + T cell counts. Moreover, the factors associated with the production of IFN-γ in response to 38 kDa/CFP-10 were detectable HIV viral load (VL) and CD4 + T cell counts at follow-up visits of ≥200 cells/mm 3 . These findings highlight the differences in immune response according to the specificity of the Mtb antigen, which contributes to a better understanding of TB-HIV immunopathogenesis. IFN-γ production elicited by PPD and 38 kDa/CFP-10 antigens have a greater magnitude compared to ESAT-6

  9. Photoelectrochemical response and corrosion behavior of CdS/TiO2 nanocomposite films in an aerated 0.5 M NaCl solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonserm, Aleena; Kruehong, Chaiyaput; Seithtanabutara, Varinrumpai; Artnaseaw, Apichart; Kwakhong, Panomkorn

    2017-10-01

    This research aimed to investigate the photoelectrochemical response and corrosion behavior of CdS/TiO2 nanocomposite films using electrochemical measurements in an aerated 0.5 M NaCl solution under white light illumination. The CdS/TiO2 nanocomposite films were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique in a solution of cadmium and sulfide ions. The high resolution images of CdS/TiO2 nanocomposite films were provided by field emission scanning electron microscope. Theirs chemical identification and quantitative compositional information, crystallinity and actual chemical compounds formed were determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results indicated that the photoelectrochemical activity of the films depended strongly on CdS content. From the preparation of CdS/TiO2 nanocomposite films by 5, 10 and 15 dipping cycles in the chemical solutions, the best photoelectrochemical response was revealed by the 10 dipping cycles-prepared film. Galvanic couple testing demonstrated that the photoelectrochemical response of the film decreased continuously compared to that of anodized nanoporous TiO2 substrate which described by photocorrosion of CdS nanoparticles. In addition, chloride-ion attack also induced pitting corrosion leading to fluctuation and deterioration of photoelectrochemical response. CdO2 and Cd(OH)2 depositions were found as the main photocorrosion products on collapsed nanostructured-surface. The relevance between photoelectrochemical response and corrosion behavior of CdS/TiO2 nanocomposite film was discussed in detail.

  10. Response of the mouse fetus to radiation from Na/sup 99m/TcO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.A.; Gloria, I.V.; Harper, P.V.

    1975-01-01

    The element technetium has recently assumed ecological importance as a source of low-level radiation, with the use of /sup 99m/Tc in nuclear medicine and production of /sup 99m/Tc during generation of electricity by nuclear reaction. When technetium is introduced as pertechnetate into the blood stream of pregnant females, it is transported across the placental barrier to the fetus, where a portion appears to be incorporated into biomolecules. When combined as biomolecules, radionuclides that decay by electron capture or isomeric transition show a lethality greater than that predicted in cell cultures and radiation therapy. The decay of /sup 99m/Tc by isomeric transition, together with the other considerations, places a high priority on the investigation of its radiation effects due to clinical doses of up to 25 mCi. Female mice were given daily i.v. injections of 0, 5, 50, and 500 μ Ci of /sup 99m/Tc as pertechnetate in isotonic saline throughout gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation. At two months of age, the progeny were mated with randomly selected litter mates to produce a second generation; the process was repeated with their progeny for production of the third generation.Preliminary results reinforce the existing concern about use of /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate in pregnant or potentially pregnant subjects

  11. Treatment response evaluation with 18F-FDG PET/CT and 18F-NaF PET/CT in multiple myeloma patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachpekidis, Christos; Hillengass, J; Goldschmidt, H; Wagner, B; Haberkorn, U; Kopka, K; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the combined use of the radiotracers 18 F-FDG and 18 F-NaF in treatment response evaluation of a group of multiple myeloma (MM) patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy (HDT) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) by means of static (whole-body) and dynamic PET/CT (dPET/CT). Thirty-four patients with primary, previously untreated MM scheduled for treatment with HDT followed by ASCT were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent PET/CT scanning with 18 F-FDG and 18 F-NaF before and after therapy. Treatment response by means of PET/CT was assessed according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 1999 criteria. The evaluation of dPET/CT studies was based on qualitative evaluation, semi-quantitative (SUV) calculation, and quantitative analysis based on two-tissue compartment modelling and a non-compartmental approach leading to the extraction of fractal dimension (FD). An analysis was possible in 29 patients: three with clinical complete response (CR) and 26 with non-CR (13 patients near complete response-nCR, four patients very good partial response-VGPR, nine patients partial response-PR). After treatment, 18 F-FDG PET/CT was negative in 14/29 patients and positive in 15/29 patients, showing a sensitivity of 57.5 % and a specificity of 100 %. According to the EORTC 1999 criteria, 18 F-FDG PET/CT-based treatment response revealed CR in 14 patients ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT CR), PR in 11 patients ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT PR) and progressive disease in four patients ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT PD). In terms of 18 F-NaF PET/CT, 4/29 patients (13.8 %) had a negative baseline scan, thus failed to depict MM. Regarding the patients for which a direct lesion-to-lesion comparison was feasible, 18 F-NaF PET/CT depicted 56 of the 129 18 F-FDG positive lesions (43 %). Follow-up 18 F-NaF PET/CT showed persistence of 81.5 % of the baseline 18 F-NaF positive MM lesions after treatment, despite the fact that 64

  12. Impacto da Implantação do Custo do Pedágio na BR-163 em Relação ao Transporte de Soja do Estado de Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Torres

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo tem por objetivo a análise da concessão da rodovia BR-163, considerando as possíveis implicações sobre a competitividade no transporte da soja do estado de Mato Grosso. Esta proposição se justifica, sobretudo, porque o pedágio, a priori, representa custo ao transporte rodoviário, qualquer gasto acrescido a ela poderá comprometer a margem de lucro. Esta pesquisa foi subsidiada por revisão bibliográfica e documental, utilizando de pesquisa do tipo descritiva. Buscou-se identificar os principais componentes do custo do transporte rodoviário e o impacto da rodovia concedida na competitividade do setor. Assim, foi feita uma análise comparativa do custo do transporte de soja em rodovias pagas (concedidas e as economias com custos que são inerentes a esta modalidade de transporte, decorrente da ótima condição da pavimentação asfáltica. Para perpetrar essa verificação e contrapor os custos com pedágio, foram elencadas três variáveis, são elas: (i a economia com o combustível, (ii a economia com o custo operacional dos caminhões e (iii a economia que se faz em menor perdas de grãos de soja. O resultado encontrado após a quantificação das variáveis econômicas apontou impacto positivo, com benefícios econômicos para o estado de Mato Grosso.

  13. Arabidopsis copper transport protein COPT2 participates in the cross talk between iron deficiency responses and low-phosphate signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea-García, Ana; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Andrés-Colás, Nuria; Vera-Sirera, Francisco; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2013-05-01

    Copper and iron are essential micronutrients for most living organisms because they participate as cofactors in biological processes, including respiration, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress protection. In many eukaryotic organisms, including yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammals, copper and iron homeostases are highly interconnected; yet, such interdependence is not well established in higher plants. Here, we propose that COPT2, a high-affinity copper transport protein, functions under copper and iron deficiencies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). COPT2 is a plasma membrane protein that functions in copper acquisition and distribution. Characterization of the COPT2 expression pattern indicates a synergic response to copper and iron limitation in roots. We characterized a knockout of COPT2, copt2-1, that leads to increased resistance to simultaneous copper and iron deficiencies, measured as reduced leaf chlorosis and improved maintenance of the photosynthetic apparatus. We propose that COPT2 could play a dual role under iron deficiency. First, COPT2 participates in the attenuation of copper deficiency responses driven by iron limitation, possibly to minimize further iron consumption. Second, global expression analyses of copt2-1 versus wild-type Arabidopsis plants indicate that low-phosphate responses increase in the mutant. These results open up new biotechnological approaches to fight iron deficiency in crops.

  14. Alternative splice variant of the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutakhel, Omar A Z; Jeleń, Sabina; Valdez-Flores, Marco

    2016-01-01

    in comparison to NCC3. Mimicking a constitutively active phosphorylation site at residue 811 (S811D) in NCC1 further augmented Na(+) transport, while a non-phosphorylatable variant (S811A) of NCC1 prevented this enhanced response. Analysis of human urinary exosomes demonstrated that water loading in human...

  15. Kappa Group: The initial guess. A proposal in response to a commercial air transportation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Kappa Aerospace presents their Aeroworld Aircraft, the Initial Guess (IG). This aircraft is designed to generate profit in the market which is currently controlled by the train and boat industry. The main priority of the design team was to develop an extremely efficient aircraft that could be sold at a reasonable price. The IG offers a quick and safe alternative to the existing means of transportation at a competitive price. The cruise velocity of 28 ft/sec. allows all flights to be between 20 and 45 minutes, which is a remarkable savings in time compared to travel by boat or train. The IG is propelled by a single Astro-05 engine with a Zinger 10-6 propeller. The Astro-05 is not an extremely powerful engine; however, it provides enough thrust to meet the design and safety requirements. The major advantage of the Astro-05 is that it is the most efficient engine available. The fuel efficiency of the Astro-05 is what puts the aircraft ahead of the competition. The money saved on an efficient engine can be passed on as lower ticket prices or increased revenue. The IG has a payload of 56 passengers and a wingspan of 7 ft. The 7 ft. wingspan allows the aircraft to fit into the gates of all of the cities that are targeted. Future endeavors of Kappa Aerospace will include fitting a stretch version of the IG with a larger propulsion system. This derivative aircraft will be able to carry more passengers and will be placed on the routes which have the greatest demand for travel. The fuselage and empennage are made of a wooden truss configuration, while the wing is made of a rib/spare configuration. The stress carrying elements are made of spruce, the nonstress carrying elements are made of balsa. The wing is removable for easy access into the fuselage. The easy access to the batteries will keep maintenance costs down.

  16. Predictors of technical adoption and behavioural change to transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aini, M.S.; Chan, S.C.; Syuhaily, O.

    2013-01-01

    Energy conservation can be achieved through the adoption of technical measures or the changing of one's behaviour. A survey of 201 Malaysian public personnel was conducted to examine the predictors of these two types of transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the relative acceptability of both behavioural measures with respect to gender, level of education, income, knowledge of climate change and attitude. Gender, knowledge of causes of climate change and personal norm were predictors for the acceptability of technical measures, while perceived efficacy and personal norm were the factors that influenced the acceptability of behavioural measures. The results also indicated that distinctions ought to be made between technology adoption and behaviour modifications that require lifestyle changes when assessing pro-environmental intent behaviour. The implications for theory and practice are discussed. - Highlights: • A survey was conducted to examine acceptability of transport energy-saving measures. • Gender, knowledge of causes, efficacy and personal norm are predictors of technical measures. • Personal norm and perceived efficacy influenced acceptability of behavioural change. • Both measures are strongly correlated to psychological factors than to socio-demographic variables

  17. CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response): A Generic Transportation Network Model for the Calculation of Evacuation Time Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, M. P.; Urbanik, II, T.; Desrosiers, A. E.

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the methodology and application of the computer model CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response) which estimates the time required for a specific population density and distribution to evacuate an area using a specific transportation network. The CLEAR model simulates vehicle departure and movement on a transportation network according to the conditions and consequences of traffic flow. These include handling vehicles at intersecting road segments, calculating the velocity of travel on a road segment as a function of its vehicle density, and accounting for the delay of vehicles in traffic queues. The program also models the distribution of times required by individuals to prepare for an evacuation. In order to test its accuracy, the CLEAR model was used to estimate evacuatlon tlmes for the emergency planning zone surrounding the Beaver Valley Nuclear Power Plant. The Beaver Valley site was selected because evacuation time estimates had previously been prepared by the licensee, Duquesne Light, as well as by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency. A lack of documentation prevented a detailed comparison of the estimates based on the CLEAR model and those obtained by Duquesne Light. However, the CLEAR model results compared favorably with the estimates prepared by the other two agencies.

  18. Strange metal from Gutzwiller correlations in infinite dimensions: Transverse transport, optical response, and rise of two relaxation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenxin; Žitko, Rok; Shastry, B. Sriram

    2017-09-01

    Using two approaches to strongly correlated systems, the extremely correlated Fermi liquid theory and the dynamical mean field theory, we compute the transverse transport coefficients, namely, the Hall constants RH and Hall angles θH, and the longitudinal and transverse optical response of the U =∞ Hubbard model in the limit of infinite dimensions. We focus on two successive low-temperature regimes, the Gutzwiller-correlated Fermi liquid (GCFL) and the Gutzwiller-correlated strange metal (GCSM). We find that the Hall angle cotθH is proportional to T2 in the GCFL regime, while upon warming into the GCSM regime it first passes through a downward bend and then continues as T2. Equivalently, RH is weakly temperature dependent in the GCFL regime, but becomes strongly temperature dependent in the GCSM regime. Drude peaks are found for both the longitudinal optical conductivity σx x(ω ) and the optical Hall angles tanθH(ω ) below certain characteristic energy scales. By comparing the relaxation rates extracted from fitting to the Drude formula, we find that in the GCFL regime there is a single relaxation rate controlling both longitudinal and transverse transport, while in the GCSM regime two different relaxation rates emerge. We trace the origin of this behavior to the dynamical particle-hole asymmetry of the Dyson self-energy, arguably a generic feature of doped Mott insulators.

  19. CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response): A generic transportation network model for the calculation of evacuation time estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, M.P.; Desrosiers, A.E.; Urbanik, T. II

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the methodology and application of the computer model CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response) which estimates the time required for a specific population density and distribution to evacuate an area using a specific transportation network. The CLEAR model simulates vehicle departure and movement on a transportati