WorldWideScience

Sample records for n-n scattering experiment

  1. Unified theory of N-N and. pi. -d scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afnan, I.R.; Blankleider, B.

    1980-10-01

    Using a time ordered diagrammatic method, we derive a set of linear integral equations that couple the N-N to the ..pi..-d channel and satisfy two- and three-body unitarity. The resultant equations have dressed propagators for the nucleons, and dressed form factors for the ..pi..NN vertex. The inclusion of the full ..pi..-N amplitude in the P/sub 11/ channel leads to a dressing of both the ..pi..NN vertex and N-N propagator without changing the basic structure of the equations.

  2. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...

  3. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...

  4. Unified theory of N-N and π-d scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, I. R.; Blankleider, B.

    1980-10-01

    Using a time ordered diagrammatic method, we derive a set of linear integral equations that couple the N-N to the π-d channel and satisfy two- and three-body unitarity. The resultant equations have dressed propagators for the nucleons, and dressed form factors for the πNN vertex. The inclusion of the full π-N amplitude in the P11 channel leads to a dressing of both the πNN vertex and N-N propagator without changing the basic structure of the equations. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Nucleon-nucleon and pion-deuteron scattering. Derived coupled equations for NN, NΔ, πd with dressed nucleons and πNN vertex.

  5. Revisiting Elastic Scattering of D(n, n)D reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanoiu, M.; Canton, L.; Kozier, K. S.; Nankov, N.; Plompen, A.; Rao, R.; Roubtsov, D.; Rouki, C.; Svenne, J. P.

    2010-04-01

    Interest has risen recently concerning the angular distribution of neutron elastic scattering on deuterium at low incident energies. The main subject is the amount of backscatter at energies below 3.2 MeV observed in differential cross-section measurements and represented in various evaluations. These various angles of approach encompass fundamental nuclear-data measurements, three-body nuclear-theory calculations, evaluated nuclear -data libraries and associated data processing, and the simulation of critical experiments involving heav y water. A new theoretical approach on the basis of three -nucleon theory was made that resulte d in new angular distributions. At the GELINA neutron time-of-flight facility a new experimental setup was developed to measure elastic scattering of neutrons on deuterium in the energy range of interest. The technique proposed is complementary to the earlier works by detecting the scattered neutron instead of the recoiling deuterium. The setup is an array of two HPGe detectors, each with a 10B neutron-gamma converter. Preliminary GELINA findings using a C6D6 target indicate less backscatter than predicted by ENDF/B -VII.0, in contrast to the nuclear-theory results. It is expected that completion of the planned work will reduce the uncertainty of the energy-angle distributions for deuterium elastic scattering and contribute to an improved deuterium evaluation in a future release of ENDF/B -VII.

  6. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2014-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot-single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi, the three-axis spectrometer PANDA, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the DNS neutron-polarization analysis, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering at KWS-1 and KWS-2, a very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractometer with focusing mirror, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  7. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  8. Quantum Scattering Study of Ro-Vibrational Excitations in N+N(sub 2) Collisions under Re-entry Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dunyou; Stallcop, James R.; Dateo, Christopher E.; Schwenke, David W.; Huo, Winifred M.

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional time-dependent quantum dynamics approach using a recently developed ab initio potential energy surface is applied to study ro-vibrational excitation in N+N2 exchange scattering for collision energies in the range 2.1- 3.2 eV. State-to-state integral exchange cross sections are examined to determine the distribution of excited rotational states of N(sub 2). The results demonstrate that highly-excited rotational states are produced by exchange scattering and furthermore, that the maximum value of (Delta)j increases rapidly with increasing collision energies. Integral exchange cross sections and exchange rate constants for excitation to the lower (upsilon = 0-3) vibrational energy levels are presented as a function of the collision energy. Excited-vibrational-state distributions for temperatures at 2,000 K and 10,000 K are included.

  9. Envelope correlation in (N, N) MIMO antenna array from scattering parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    the envelope correlation coefficient. This approach has the advantage that it does not require knowledge of the antenna radiation pattern. Numerical data that include conductor and permittivity loss are shown to validate the approach. Using the scattering parameters for calculating the envelope correlation...

  10. Complete Monte Carlo Simulation of Neutron Scattering Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosg, M.

    2011-12-01

    In the far past, it was not possible to accurately correct for the finite geometry and the finite sample size of a neutron scattering set-up. The limited calculation power of the ancient computers as well as the lack of powerful Monte Carlo codes and the limitation in the data base available then prevented a complete simulation of the actual experiment. Using e.g. the Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNPX [1], neutron scattering experiments can be simulated almost completely with a high degree of precision using a modern PC, which has a computing power that is ten thousand times that of a super computer of the early 1970s. Thus, (better) corrections can also be obtained easily for previous published data provided that these experiments are sufficiently well documented. Better knowledge of reference data (e.g. atomic mass, relativistic correction, and monitor cross sections) further contributes to data improvement. Elastic neutron scattering experiments from liquid samples of the helium isotopes performed around 1970 at LANL happen to be very well documented. Considering that the cryogenic targets are expensive and complicated, it is certainly worthwhile to improve these data by correcting them using this comparatively straightforward method. As two thirds of all differential scattering cross section data of 3He(n,n)3He are connected to the LANL data, it became necessary to correct the dependent data measured in Karlsruhe, Germany, as well. A thorough simulation of both the LANL experiments and the Karlsruhe experiment is presented, starting from the neutron production, followed by the interaction in the air, the interaction with the cryostat structure, and finally the scattering medium itself. In addition, scattering from the hydrogen reference sample was simulated. For the LANL data, the multiple scattering corrections are smaller by a factor of five at least, making this work relevant. Even more important are the corrections to the Karlsruhe data due to the

  11. Neutron detectors for scattering experiments at HANARO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Myungkook Moon; Changhee Lee; Jongkyu Cheon; Younghyun Choi; Harkrho Kim; Shraddha S Desai

    2008-11-01

    Position sensitive detectors (PSD) measure the distribution of scattered neutrons and are essential tools for neutron scattering experiments. Various types of neutron detectors used at neutron diffractometers are conventional tube detectors, 1-D and 2-D PSDs. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing various kinds of PSDs to improve the instrument performance and to develop new scattering instruments. Our development work is initiated with 1-D PSD for residual stress analysis spectrometer and finally the technology is extended to development of 2-D PSD with planar and curved geometry. All PSDs are based on multiwire grid assembly with delay line readout method for position encoding, as the response is faster than charge division method and enables higher count rate capability. Design details and operational characteristics of some of the PSDs developed, for application at neutron scattering instruments are presented.

  12. Zeno: Critical Fluid Light Scattering Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Robert W.; Shaumeyer, J. N.; Briggs, Matthew E.; Boukari, Hacene; Gent, David A.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    1996-01-01

    The Zeno (Critical Fluid Light Scattering) experiment is the culmination of a long history of critical fluid light scattering in liquid-vapor systems. The major limitation to making accurate measurements closer to the critical point was the density stratification which occurs in these extremely compressible fluids. Zeno was to determine the critical density fluctuation decay rates at a pair of supplementary angles in the temperature range 100 mK to 100 (mu)K from T(sub c) in a sample of xenon accurately loaded to the critical density. This paper gives some highlights from operating the instrument on two flights March, 1994 on STS-62 and February, 1996 on STS-75. More detail of the experiment Science Requirements, the personnel, apparatus, and results are displayed on the Web homepage at http://www.zeno.umd.edu.

  13. The MUon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) at PSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Michael; MUSE Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The proton is not an elementary particle but has a substructure governed by the interaction of quarks and gluons. The size of the proton is manifest in the spatial distributions of the electric charge and magnetization, which determine the response to electromagnetic interaction. Recently, contradictory measurements of the proton charge radius between muonic hydrogen and electronic probes have constituted the proton radius puzzle, which has been challenging our basic understanding of the proton. The MUon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) in preparation at the Paul-Scherrer Institute (PSI) has the potential to resolve the puzzle by measuring the proton charge radius with electron and muon scattering simultaneously and with high precision, including any possible difference between the two, and with both beam charges. The status of the MUSE experiment will be reported. Supported by NSF and DOE.

  14. OVARIAN DYSGERMINOMAS: TREATMENT EXPERIENCE OF THE N.N.BLOKHIN CRC RAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Streltzova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective review of treatment results of 35 patients with dysgerminomas in the Departments of Clinical Pharmacology and Gynecology, N.N.Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center (NNBRCRC between 1990 and 2006.Primary surgery was carried out in all patients. Twenty patients (57% underwent fertility-sparing surgery. Postoperative systemic chemotherapy was administered to 28 (80% women: аmong them 23 received platinum-based chemotherapy, 5 were treated with non- platinum combinations.At a median follow-up of 75 months the disease-free survival was 71,4% and the overall survival was 97,1%. Our data confirmed that prog- nosis of dysgerminomas is excellent if managed with standard treatment initially, this is possible, as a rule, only in specialized cancer centers.

  15. Miniature instrumentation for laser light scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert G. W.

    1989-01-01

    Traditional optical systems for photon correlation spectroscopy and laser anemometry have relied upon physically large and fairly expensive lasers, bulk-optics such as lenses of a few inches diameter, large mechanical mounts and carefully selected, fragile and bulky photon counting photomultiplier detectors. In some cases, experimental fluid dynamics at a desired position in a flow, perhaps deep inside complex machinery, is physically impossible or very difficult. Similar problems exist with photon correlation spectroscopy, e.g., remote and heterodyne experiments. Various optical and electro optical components were investigated and characterized with the aim of replacing existing photon correlation laser spectroscopy and anemometry techniques in miniaturized form, and with significant cost reduction. Very recently, a range of miniature, modular light scattering systems were constructed from little solid state optical and electro optical components, and experimentally verified measurement performance comparable to standard lab photon correlation spectroscopy and laser anemometry equipment.

  16. Scattering by two spheres: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1998-01-01

    on three issues: (1) to develop a simplified theory for scattering by two elastical spheres; (2) to measure the scattering by two spheres in a water tank, and (3) to compare the theoretical/numerical results with the measured data. A number of factors influencing multiple scattering, including...

  17. Effect of successive alkylation of N,N-dialkyl amides on the complexation behavior of uranium and thorium: solvent extraction, small angle neutron scattering, and computational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Parveen Kumar; Pathak, Priyanath N; Kumari, Neelam; Sadhu, Biswajit; Sundararajan, Mahesh; Aswal, Vinod Kumar; Mohapatra, Prasanta Kumar

    2014-12-11

    The effect of successive alkylation of the Cα atom adjacent to the carbonyl group in N,N-dialkyl amides (i.e., di(2-ethylhexyl)acetamide (D2EHAA), di(2-ethylhexyl)propionamide (D2EHPRA), di(2-ethylhexyl)isobutyramide (D2EHIBA), and di(2-ethylhexyl)pivalamide (D2EHPVA)) on the extraction behavior of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) and tetravalent thorium (Th(IV)) ions has been investigated. These studies show that the extraction of Th(IV) is significantly suppressed compared to that of U(VI) with increased branching at the Cα atom adjacent to the carbonyl group. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies showed an increased aggregation tendency in the presence of nitric acid and metal ions. D2EHAA showed more aggregation compared to its branched homologues, which explains its capacity for higher extraction of metal ions. These experimental observations were further supported by density function theory calculations, which provided structural evidence of differential binding affinities of these extractants for uranyl cations. The complexation process is primarily controlled by steric and electronic effects. Quantum chemical calculations showed that local hardness and polarizability can be extremely useful inputs for designing novel extractants relevant to a nuclear fuel cycle.

  18. Modeled as + n + n

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, B. F.; Afnan, I. R.

    2014-08-01

    A three-body calculation for the and hypernuclei has been undertaken. The respective cores are . The interactions in the system, modeled as , are reasonably well known. For example, the p n interaction is well determined by the p n scattering data, the - p interaction can be fitted to the binding energy. The - n interaction can be fitted to α- n scattering data. For the 4He- n system the s-wave can be modeled alternatively as a repulsive potential or as an attractive potential with a forbidden bound state. We explore these alternatives in 6He, because the interaction comes into play in modeling as well as in our + n + n model of , where the valence neutrons are Pauli blocked from the s-shell of the core nucleus.

  19. Experimenting from a Distance in the Case of Rutherford Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grober, S.; Vetter, M.; Eckert, B.; Jodl, H. -J.

    2010-01-01

    The Rutherford scattering experiment plays a central role in working out atomic models in physics and chemistry. Nevertheless, the experiment is rarely performed at school or in introductory physics courses at university. Therefore, we realized this experiment as a remotely controlled laboratory (RCL), i.e. the experiment is set up in reality and…

  20. Polystyrene nanoparticles in the presence of (ethylene oxide)13(propylene oxide)30(ethylene oxide)13, N,N-dimethyloctylamine-N-oxide and their mixtures. A calorimetric and dynamic light scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisi, R; Lazzara, G; Milioto, S; Muratore, N

    2008-02-14

    Polystyrene nanoparticles were synthesized by emulsion polymerization of styrene. They were functionalized using the conventional surfactant N,N-dimethyloctylamine-N-oxide (ODAO), the tri-block copolymer (ethylene oxide)(13)(propylene oxide)(30)(ethylene oxide)(13) (L64) and their mixtures. To this purpose, dynamic light scattering and calorimetric experiments were carried out and provided information consistent to each other. The L64 adsorption is Langmuir-type in the copolymer dilute regime and generates complex structures at larger concentrations. In the region where ODAO is in the unimeric state, the adsorption process is cooperative leading to hemi-micelle formation at the polystyrene nanoparticle/water interface. In the concentrated region (above the critical micellar concentration), ODAO forms micelles which interact with the solid substrate most likely through ion-dipole forces. The ODAO addition to the dispersion containing polystyrene particles already wrapped by L64 creates an ODAO thickness around the dispersed particles the size of which is equal to that in the absence of the copolymer, but is built at much lower concentrations. A plausible interpretation of this behavior is that the adsorbed L64 confers to the nanoparticles surface novel properties which enhance the attractive forces with the ODAO molecules.

  1. The electromagnetic calorimeter in JLab Real Compton Scattering Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert Shahinyan; Eugene Chudakov; A. Danagoulian; P. Degtyarenko; K. Egiyan; V. Gorbenko; J. Hines; E. Hovhannisyan; Ch. Hyde; C.W. de Jager; A. Ketikyan; V. Mamyan; R. Michaels; A.M. Nathan; V. Nelyubin; I. Rachek; M. Roedelbrom; A. Petrosyan; R. Pomatsalyuk; V. Popov; J. Segal; Yu. Shestakov; J. Templon; H. Voskanyan; B. Wojtsekhowski

    2007-04-16

    A hodoscope calorimeter comprising of 704 lead-glass blocks is described. The calorimeter was constructed for use in the JLab Real Compton Scattering experiment. The detector provides a measurement of the coordinates and the energy of scattered photons in the GeV energy range with resolutions of 5 mm and 6\\%/$\\sqrt{E_\\gamma \\, [GeV]}$, respectively. Design features and performance parameters during the experiment are presented.

  2. Simulation of a complete inelastic neutron scattering experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, H.; Lefmann, K.; Lake, B.;

    2002-01-01

    A simulation of an inelastic neutron scattering experiment on the high-temperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4 is presented. The complete experiment, including sample, is simulated using an interface between the experiment control program and the simulation software package (McStas) and is compared...

  3. Thulium-169 neutron inelastic scattering cross section measurements via the sup 1 sup 6 sup 9 Tm(n,n'gamma) reaction 25.40.fq; Inelastic neutron scattering; Nuclear reactions 169Tm(n,n'gamma); gamma-branching ratios; Neutron inelastic level cross sections; Compound and direct nuclear interaction; Time-of-flight method; High purity Ge detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, Y J; Kegel, G H R; Desimone, D J; Seo, P N; Young, P G

    2000-01-01

    Neutron inelastic scattering from thulium-169 has been studied for states above 100 keV via the (n,n'gamma) reaction at incident energies in the 0.2- to 1.0-MeV range. A high-resolution Ge spectrometer in conjunction with the time-of-flight technique was utilized. Thirty-six gamma-ray transitions from 16 levels were observed. Gamma-ray angular distributions were measured at E sub n =750 keV and excitation functions at 125 degrees were measured in 50 keV steps over the range of incident energies. Differential gamma-ray production cross sections and gamma-ray branching ratios were obtained. Inferred neutron inelastic level cross sections of the four lowest ground-state rotational band (K suppi=1/2 sup +) members are compared to the sum of calculated compound nucleus and direct interaction cross sections. For the remaining levels, measurements are compared to compound nucleus calculations only. The comparison shows generally good agreement particularly near threshold.

  4. Resonances in the Λ n n system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, Iraj R.; Gibson, Benjamin F.

    2015-11-01

    Background: A bound state of the Λ n n system has been reported, but at least three theoretical papers question the existence of such a bound state. Purpose: We address the alternative question of whether there might exist a resonance in the Λ n n system, using a rank-one separable potential formulation of the Hamiltonian. Methods: We examine the eigenvalues of the kernel of the Faddeev equation in the complex energy plane using contour rotation to allow us to analytically continue the kernel onto the second energy sheet. The model Λ n interaction is fitted to the Λ p scattering length and effective range. Results: We follow the largest eigenvalue as the Λ n potentials are scaled and the Λ n n continuum is turned first into a resonance, and then into a bound state of the system. Conclusions: Because a change in the strength of the Λ n potential of as little as 5% will produce a Λ n n resonance, we infer that an experiment of the H3 (e,e'K+)3nΛ type at JLAB could be used to constrain the properties of the Λ n interaction.

  5. The MINERvA neutrino scattering experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gran, Richard [University of Minnesota Duluth (United States)

    2008-11-01

    This has been a very active time for the MINERvA experiment. It has received construction approval and funding and is on track for installation in the NuMI beam in 2009. Much R and D work has been completed. This poster presents an update on the results from the recent R and D and prototyping work, the full experiment construction, and preparations for hadron and electron test beam calibrations of the detector components. The poster also describes the main physics goals and expected event rates for the experiment.

  6. Virtual experiments: Combining realistic neutron scattering instrument and sample simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhi, E.; Hugouvieux, V.; Johnson, M. R.; Kob, W.

    2009-08-01

    A new sample component is presented for the Monte Carlo, ray-tracing program, McStas, which is widely used to simulate neutron scattering instruments. The new component allows the sample to be described by its material dynamic structure factor, which is separated into coherent and incoherent contributions. The effects of absorption and multiple scattering are treated and results from simulations and previous experiments are compared. The sample component can also be used to treat any scattering material which may be close to the sample and therefore contaminates the total, measured signal.

  7. Simulation of a complete inelastic neutron scattering experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H.; Lefmann, K.; Lake, B.; Nielsen, K.; Skaarup, P.

    A simulation of an inelastic neutron scattering experiment on the high-temperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4 is presented. The complete experiment, including sample, is simulated using an interface between the experiment control program and the simulation software package (McStas) and is compared with the experimental data. Simulating the entire experiment is an attractive alternative to the usual method of convoluting the model cross section with the resolution function, especially if the resolution function is nontrivial.

  8. Monte Carlo simulations of multiple scattering effects in laser assisted free-free scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deharak, B. A.; Savich, J. L.; Roberts, H. M.; Brown, E. G.; McGill, M. R.; Kim, B. N.; Weaver, C. M.; Martin, N. L. S.

    2016-05-01

    We have conducted a series of Monte Carlo simulations of laser assisted free-free scattering experiments. The simulations make use of Kroll-Watson approximation to account for the effects of the laser field on the scattering process. The parameters for these simulations are believed to mimic the experimental conditions of the work reported by Wallbank and Holmes, particularly the target number density. The simulations account for the effects multiple scattering (i.e., the scattering of a single incident electron from multiple target atoms). We present a comparison of the results of these simulations to the experimental results of Wallbank and Holmes. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants Nos. PHY-0855040 (NLSM) and PHY-1402899 (BAd).

  9. ZENO: A Critical Fluid Light Scattering Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The ZENO experiment flew on the STS-62, it is designed to verify intriguing, but previously untested, theories in fluid physics. These theories attempt to describe dramatic changes in the properties of fluids near the critical temperature at which the vapor and liquid forms co-exist.

  10. Antiproton--Proton Scattering Experiments with Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Lenisa, P; Lenisa, Paolo; Rathmann, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The document describes the physics case of the PAX experiment using polarized antiprotons, which has recently been proposed for the new Facility for Antiprotons and Ions Research (FAIR) at GSI--Darmstadt. Polarized antiprotons provide access to a wealth of single-- and double--spin observables, thereby opening a new window to physics uniquely accessible at the HESR. The polarized antiprotons would be most efficiently produced by spin--filtering in a dedicated Antiproton Polarizer Ring (APR) using an internal polarized hydrogen gas target. In the proposed collider scenario of the PAX experiment, polarized protons stored in a COSY--like Cooler Storage Ring (CSR) up to momenta of 3.5 GeV/c are bombarded head--on with 15 GeV/c polarized antiprotons stored in the HESR. This asymmetric double--polarized antiproton--proton collider is ideally suited to map, e.g., the transversity distribution in the proton. The proposed detector consists of a large--angle apparatus optimized for the detection of Drell--Yan electron ...

  11. Experimenting from a distance in the case of Rutherford scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröber, S.; Vetter, M.; Eckert, B.; Jodl, H.-J.

    2010-07-01

    The Rutherford scattering experiment plays a central role in working out atomic models in physics and chemistry. Nevertheless, the experiment is rarely performed at school or in introductory physics courses at university. Therefore, we realized this experiment as a remotely controlled laboratory (RCL), i.e. the experiment is set up in reality and can be operated by a computer via the Internet. We present results of measurements and supplementary didactical material. In addition, we make suggestions on how to use the RCL in class and we describe the added value of performing this experiment as an RCL.

  12. Simple technique for scattering experiments of submillimeter droplets

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    A simple technique is presented of allowing the generation of submillimeter-sized single droplets for scattering experiments. Multiorder Raman spectra (including Stokes, anti-Stokes, and combination emission) from a liquid CCl4 spherical droplet formed by a hollow glass fiber is also obtained by this technique, with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG pulsed pumping (532 nm).

  13. Simulation of a complete inelastic neutron scattering experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, H; Nielsen, K; Skaarup, P; Lake, B

    2002-01-01

    A simulation of an inelastic neutron scattering experiment on the high-temperature superconductor La sub 2 sub - sub x Sr sub x CuO sub 4 is presented. The complete experiment, including sample, is simulated using an interface between the experiment control program and the simulation software package (McStas) and is compared with the experimental data. Simulating the entire experiment is an attractive alternative to the usual method of convoluting the model cross section with the resolution function, especially if the resolution function is nontrivial. (orig.)

  14. LHC optics and elastic scattering measured by the TOTEM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Nemes, Frigyes

    2016-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC has measured proton-proton elastic scattering in dedicated runs at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and 8 TeV centre-of-mass LHC energies. The proton-proton total cross-section $\\sigma_{\\rm tot}$ has been derived for both energies using a luminosity independent method. TOTEM has excluded a purely exponential differential cross-section for elastic proton-proton scattering with significance greater than 7$\\sigma$ in the $|t|$ range from 0.027 to 0.2 GeV$^{2}$ at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV.

  15. Background Studies for the MINER Coherent Neutrino Scattering Reactor Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Agnolet, G; Barker, D; Beck, R; Carroll, T J; Cesar, J; Cushman, P; Dent, J B; De Rijck, S; Dutta, B; Flanagan, W; Fritts, M; Gao, Y; Harris, H R; Hays, C C; Iyer, V; Jastram, A; Kadribasic, F; Kennedy, A; Kubik, A; Ogawa, I; Lang, K; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Martin, R D; Mast, N; McDeavitt, S; Mirabolfathi, N; Mohanty, B; Nakajima, K; Newhouse, J; Newstead, J L; Phan, D; Proga, M; Roberts, A; Rogachev, G; Salazar, R; Sander, J; Senapati, K; Shimada, M; Strigari, L; Tamagawa, Y; Teizer, W; Vermaak, J I C; Villano, A N; Walker, J; Webb, B; Wetzel, Z; Yadavalli, S A

    2016-01-01

    The proposed Mitchell Institute Neutrino Experiment at Reactor (MINER) experiment at the Nuclear Science Center at Texas A&M University will search for coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering within close proximity (about 2 meters) of a 1 MW TRIGA nuclear reactor core using low threshold, cryogenic germanium and silicon detectors. Given the Standard Model cross section of the scattering process and the proposed experimental proximity to the reactor, as many as 5 to 20 events/kg/day are expected. We discuss the status of preliminary measurements to characterize the main backgrounds for the proposed experiment. Both in situ measurements at the experimental site and simulations using the MCNP and GEANT4 codes are described. A strategy for monitoring backgrounds during data taking is briefly discussed.

  16. Chaotic dephasing in a double-slit scattering experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Levnajić, Zoran

    2010-01-01

    We design a computational experiment in which a quantum particle tunnels into a billiard of variable shape and scatters out of it through a double-slit opening on the billiard's base. The interference patterns produced by the scattered probability currents for a range of energies are investigated in relation to the billiard's geometry which is connected to its classical integrability. Four billiards with hierarchical integrability levels are considered: integrable, pseudo-integrable, weak-mixing and strongly chaotic. In agreement with the earlier result by Casati and Prosen [1], we find the billiard's integrability to have a crucial influence on the properties of the interference patterns. In the integrable case most experiment outcomes are found to be consistent with the constructive interference occurring in the usual double-slit experiment. In contrast to this, non-integrable billiards typically display asymmetric interference patterns of smaller visibility characterized by weakly correlated wave function ...

  17. A new measurement of the H(n,n)H elastic scattering angular distribution at 14.9 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukharouba, N. [Guelma Univ., Dept. of Physics (Algeria); Massey, Th.N.; Grimes, St.M.; Brient, Ch. E. [Ohio Univ., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Athens, OH (United States); Haight, R.C. [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Carter, D.E. [Ohio Univ., Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Athens, OH (United States); Carlson, A.D.; Bateman, F.B. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The relative angular distribution of the scattering of neutrons by protons was measured at E{sub n} = 14.9 MeV neutron energy for center-of-mass scattering angles ranging from 60 to 180 degrees. Absolute angular distribution values were obtained by normalizing the measured line shape to the accurately known n-p total cross section. The degree of anisotropy found in the angular distribution was higher than those of the predictions, but with a large related uncertainty due essentially to the 60 degrees data point. Initial assessment indicates a somewhat better agreement of the data with the predictions of Arndt and Nijmegen than with the ENDF/B-7.0 evaluation.

  18. Analysis of multiple scattering and multiphonon contributions in inelastic neutron scattering experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Dawidowski, J; Koza, M M; Blostein, J J; Aurelio, G; Fernández-Guillermet, A; Donato, P G

    2002-01-01

    We present a method of analysis of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments aiming at obtaining the density of phonon states in an absolute scale, as well as a reliable value of the mean-square displacement of the atoms. This method requires the measurement of the neutron total cross section of the sample as a function of energy, which provides a normalization condition for the INS experiment, as well as a value of the mean-square displacement. The method is applied in the case of an incoherent neutron scattering system, viz. the Ti-52wt.% Zr alloy. The applicability of this method to the study of metal alloys and other systems is discussed.

  19. Stimulated Brillouin scatter and stimulated ion Bernstein scatter during electron gyroharmonic heating experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, H.; Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Samimi, A.; Mahmoudian, A.; Briczinski, S. J.; McCarrick, M. J.

    2013-09-01

    Results of secondary radiation, Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE), produced during ionospheric modification experiments using ground-based high-power radio waves are reported. These results obtained at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility specifically considered the generation of Magnetized Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (MSBS) and Stimulated Ion Bernstein Scatter (SIBS) lines in the SEE spectrum when the transmitter frequency is near harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency. The heater antenna beam angle effect was investigated on MSBS in detail and shows a new spectral line postulated to be generated near the upper hybrid resonance region due to ion acoustic wave interaction. Frequency sweeping experiments near the electron gyroharmonics show for the first time the transition from MSBS to SIBS lines as the heater pump frequency approaches the gyroharmonic. Significantly far from the gyroharmonic, MSBS lines dominate, while close to the gyroharmonic, SIBS lines strengthen while MSBS lines weaken. New possibilities for diagnostic information are discussed in light of these new observations.

  20. On the analysis of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blostein, J.J.; Dawidowski, J.; Granada, J.R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and CONICET, Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Bariloche (Argentina)

    2001-03-01

    We analyze the different steps that must be followed for data processing in Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering Experiments. Firstly we discuss to what extent multiple scattering effects can affect the measured peak shape, concluding the an accurate calculation of these effects must be performed to extract the desired effective temperature from the experimental data. We present a Monte Carlo procedure to perform these corrections. Next, we focus our attention on experiments performed on light nuclei. We examine cases in which the desired information is obtained from the observed peak areas, and we analyze the procedure to obtain an effective temperature from the experimental peaks. As a consequence of the results emerging from those cases we trace the limits of validity of the convolution formalism usually employed, and propose a different treatment of the experimental data for this kind of measurements. (author)

  1. Quasifree scattering with electrons at ELISe/FAIR experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignote, Javier R. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006, Madrid (Spain); Simon, Haik [GSI, Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    An electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe is a part of the installations envisaged in the new experimental storage ring at the international facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. It offers the worldwide unique opportunity to use electrons as probe particle in investigations of the structure of exotic nuclei. The use of electrons as a probe particle provides a powerful tool for examining nuclear structure. The most reliable evidence how nuclei look like originates from electron scattering. Up to now, the scattering of electrons is still restricted to stable isotopes. ELISe aims at an extension of this powerful method to nuclei beyond the valley of stability. ELISe will be a unique and unprecedented tool for precisely measuring nuclear charge distributions, transition current matrix elements and spectroscopic factors. In this talk I present a review of the electro-nuclear coincidence experiments from a theoretical point of view and I focus my attention to the inverse or beam to beam kinematics set up that will be used at the ELISe experiment.

  2. Future prospects of baryon istability search in p-decay and n n(bar) oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, S.J.; Kamyshkov, Y.A. [ed.

    1996-11-01

    These proceedings contain thirty-one papers which review both the theoretical and the experimental status and near future of baryon instability research. Baryon instability is investigated from the vantage point of supersymmetric and unified theories. The interplay between baryogenesis and antimatter is examined. Double beta decay experiments are discussed. The huge Icarus experiment is described with its proton decay capabilities. Neutron-antineutron oscillations investigations are presented, especially efforts with ultra-cold neutrons. Individual papers are indexed separately on the Energy Data Base.

  3. High pressure gas vessels for neutron scattering experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Done, R; Evans, B E; Bowden, Z A

    2010-01-01

    The combination of high pressure techniques with neutron scattering proves to be a powerful tool for studying the phase transitions and physical properties of solids in terms of inter-atomic distances. In our report we are going to review a high pressure technique based on a gas medium compression. This technique covers the pressure range up to ~0.7GPa (in special cases 1.4GPa) and typically uses compressed helium gas as the pressure medium. We are going to look briefly at scientific areas where high pressure gas vessels are intensively used in neutron scattering experiments. After that we are going to describe the current situation in high pressure gas technology; specifically looking at materials of construction, designs of seals and pressure vessels and the equipment used for generating high pressure gas.

  4. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, W.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective eld theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering or current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral di*erences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  5. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-18

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. Here. we demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  6. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Schneck, K; Cerdeno, D G; Mandic, V; Rogers, H E; Agnese, R; Anderson, A J; Asai, M; Balakishiyeva, D; Barker, D; Thakur, R Basu; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Caldwell, D O; Calkins, R; Chagani, H; Chen, Y; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jardin, D M; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Leder, A; Loer, B; Asamar, E Lopez; Lukens, P; Mahapatra, R; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Mendoza, J D Morales; Oser, S M; Page, K; Page, W A; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Roberts, A; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Toback, D; Upadhyayula, S; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wilson, J S; Wright, D H; Yang, X; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  7. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-18

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  8. Enhancing detection sensitivity of SST-1 Thomson scattering experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhari, Vishnu; Patel, Kiran; Thomas, Jinto; Kumar, Ajai, E-mail: ajai@ipr.res.in

    2016-10-15

    Thomson Scattering System (TSS) is the main diagnostic to extract electron temperature and density of steady state superconducting (SST-1) tokamak plasma. Silicon avalanche photo diode is used with low noise and fast signal conditioning electronics (SCE) to detect incoming Thomson scattered laser photons. A stringent requirement for the measurement is to detect high speed and low level light signal (detection of 100 numbers of Thomson scattered photons for 50 ns pulse width at input of active area of detector) in the presence of wide band electro-magnetic interference (EMI) noise. The electronics and instruments for different sub-systems kept in laboratory contribute to the radiated and conductive noise in a complex manner to the experiment, which can degrade the resultant signal to noise ratio (SNR <1). In general a repeated trial method with flexible grounding scheme are used to improve system signal to noise ratio, which is time consuming and less efficient. In the present work a simple, robust, cost-effective instrumentation system is used for the measurement and monitoring with improved ground scheme and shielding method to minimize noise, isolating the internal sub-system generated noise and external interference which leads to an improved SNR.

  9. Electron scattering off rare isotopes - the ELISe experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Haik [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The international accelerator facility FAIR at the GSI laboratory at Darmstadt will provide intense, high-quality secondary beams of ions and antiprotons. The basic features of the facility are described in the baseline technical report. The ELISe experiment at FAIR aims for implementing electron scattering off exotic nuclei in colliding beam kinematics. These studies will allow for the first time to use the leptonic probe to study the ground state properties and excitation modes of radioactive, short lived, bare ions, and to analyze the excitation process and target like (decay) products independently. Elastic and inelastic electron scattering are considered being bench-mark reactions in nuclear structure investigations as the well-understood interaction allows reliable and virtually model-independent extraction of (transition) charge and current densities by means of form-factor measurements. The desing of the very demanding ELISe detector systems aiming for a coincident detection of decay scattered electrons, decay particles and reaction fragments are presented. Simulation calculations for the beam-beam kinematics and the resulting high selectivity for measuring the excitation and the decays of nuclear modes from threshold up into the continuum are shown.

  10. Neutron–Proton Scattering Experiments at ANKE–COSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathmann F.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The nucleon–nucleon interaction (NN is fundamental for the whole of nuclear physics and hence to the composition of matter as we know it. It has been demonstrated that stored, polarised beams and polarised internal targets are experimental tools of choice to probe spin effects in NN–scattering experiments. While the EDDA experiment has dramatically improved the proton–proton date base, information on spin observables in neutron–proton scattering is very incomplete above 800 MeV, resulting in large uncertainties in isoscalar n p phase shifts. Experiments at COSY, using a polarised deuteron beam or target, can lead to significant improvements in the situation through the study of quasi–free reactions on the neutron in the deuteron. Such a measurements has already been started at ANKE by using polarised deuterons on an unpolarised target to study the dp → {pp}n deuteron charge–exchange reaction and the full program with a polarised storage cell target just has been conducted. At low excitation energies of the final pp system, the spin observables are directly related to the spin– dependent parts of the neutron–proton charge–exchange amplitudes. Our measurement of the deuteron–proton spin correlations will allow us to determine the relative phases of these amplitudes in addition to their overall magnitudes.

  11. Detection of inverse Compton scattering in plasma wakefield experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlen, Simon

    2016-12-15

    Inverse Compton scattering (ICS) is the process of scattering of photons and electrons, where the photons gain a part of the electrons energy. In combination with plasma wakefield acceleration (PWA), ICS offers a compact MeV γ-ray source. A numerical study of ICS radiation produced in PWA experiments at FLASHForward was performed, using an ICS simulation code and the results from particle-in-cell modelling. The possibility of determining electron beam properties from measurements of the γ-ray source was explored for a wide range of experimental conditions. It was found that information about the electron divergence, the electron spectrum and longitudinal information can be obtained from measurements of the ICS beams for some cases. For the measurement of the ICS profile at FLASHForward, a CsI(Tl) scintillator array was chosen, similar to scintillators used in other ICS experiments. To find a suitable detector for spectrum measurements, an experimental test of a Compton spectrometer at the RAL was conducted. This test showed that a similar spectrometer could also be used at FLASHForward. However, changes to the spectrometer could be needed in order to use the pair production effect. In addition, further studies using Geant4 could lead to a better reconstruction of the obtained data. The studies presented here show that ICS is a promising method to analyse electron parameters from PWA experiments in further detail.

  12. EXCALIBUR-at-CALIBAN: a neutron transmission experiment for {sup 238}U(n,n'{sub continuum}γ) nuclear data validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, David; Leconte, Pierre; Destouches, Christophe [CEA, DEN, DER, SPRC et SPEX, Cadarache F-13108 SAINT-PAUL-LEZ-DURANCE (France); Casoli, Pierre; Chambru, Laurent; Chanussot, Didier; Chateauvieux, Herve; Gevrey, Gaetan; Guilbert, Frederique; Lereuil, Hugues; Rousseau, Guillaume; Schaub, Muriel [CEA, DAM, Valduc F-21120 IS-SUR-TILLE (France); Heusch, Murielle; Meplan, Olivier; Ramdhane, Mourad [CNRS/IN2P3, 53 rue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble, Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    Two recent papers justified a new experimental program to give a new basis for the validation of {sup 238}U nuclear data, namely neutron induced inelastic scattering and transport codes at neutron fission energies. The general idea is to perform a neutron transmission experiment through natural uranium material. As shown by Hans Bethe, neutron transmissions measured by dosimetric responses are linked to inelastic cross sections. This paper describes the principle and the results of such an experience called EXCALIBUR performed recently (January and October 2014) at the CALIBAN reactor facility. (authors)

  13. Design, fabrication and characterization of multi-guard-ring furnished p+n-n+ silicon strip detectors for future HEP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Kavita; Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Ranjan, Kirti; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh

    2016-07-01

    Si detectors, in various configurations (strips and pixels), have been playing a key role in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments due to their excellent vertexing and high precision tracking information. In future HEP experiments like upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN and the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), the Si tracking detectors will be operated in a very harsh radiation environment, which leads to both surface and bulk damage in Si detectors which in turn changes their electrical properties, i.e. change in the full depletion voltage, increase in the leakage current and decrease in the charge collection efficiency. In order to achieve the long term durability of Si-detectors in future HEP experiments, it is required to operate these detectors at very high reverse biases, beyond the full depletion voltage, thus requiring higher detector breakdown voltage. Delhi University (DU) is involved in the design, fabrication and characterization of multi-guard-ring furnished ac-coupled, single sided, p+n-n+ Si strip detectors for future HEP experiments. The design has been optimized using a two-dimensional numerical device simulation program (TCAD-Silvaco). The Si strip detectors are fabricated with eight-layers mask process using the planar fabrication technology by Bharat Electronic Lab (BEL), India. Further an electrical characterization set-up is established at DU to ensure the quality performance of fabricated Si strip detectors and test structures. In this work measurement results on non irradiated Si Strip detectors and test structures with multi-guard-rings using Current Voltage (IV) and Capacitance Voltage (CV) characterization set-ups are discussed. The effect of various design parameters, for example guard-ring spacing, number of guard-rings and metal overhang on breakdown voltage of test structures have been studied.

  14. Fluctuations spectra in TORE SUPRA from scattering experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervais, F.; Gresillon, D.; Hennequin, P.; Quemeneur, A.; Truc, A. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises; Devynck, P.; Garbet, X.; Payan, J.; Laviron, C.; Saha, S.K. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1992-12-31

    In order to measure the density fluctuations in the Tore Supra tokamak, a collective scattering CO{sub 2} laser experiment has been installed. Taking into account the pitch angle variation of the magnetic field lines in the tokamak and the perpendicularity of the fluctuation wave vectors to these field lines, some spatial resolution is obtained along the observed vertical chord. By rotating the observation wave vector k{sub s}, imposed by the geometry of the apparatus, in a horizontal plane around the measurement chord, it is possible to detect the turbulence coming mostly from the region where k{sub s} is locally aligned with k. Thus an observation zone (the top, the center or the bottom of the plasma) can be selected along the vertical chord. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Spectrometer magnet for experiment NA4 (deep inelastic muon scattering)

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This is one section of the toroidal-field spectrometer magnet of experiment NA4 (deep inelastic muon scattering), shown here during the installation period and later located in the North Area of the SPS. To see all 4 sections, select 7709201. Igor Savin from Dubna looks at what his lab had provided: the huge iron disks were machined at and provided by Dubna. Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers were installed in the gaps between the packs of 4 disks. When the beam from the SPS struck the target (to the right in this picture), the iron would quickly stop the hadronic shower, whilst the muons would go on, performing oscillations in the toroidal field. NA4 was a CERN-Dubna-Munich-Saclay (later also Bologna) collaboration, spokesman: Carlo Rubbia.

  16. Mechanical properties of N,N,N-trimethylchitosan chloride films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas de Britto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Films of chitosan and N,N,N-trimethylchitosan were cast from aqueous solutions. Chitosan was dissolved in 1% acetic acid while deionized water was the solvent for N,N,N-trimethylchitosan chloride. The resulting films presented different mechanical behaviors as evaluated by DMTA. The film of chitosan exhibited an elastic-type behavior while that of N,N,N-trimethylchitosan was typically viscous. No glass transition temperatures were observed; however, a discrete thermal transition was detected at 25 °C in the case of the N,N,N-trimethylchitosan.

  17. Kaon-nucleon scattering lengths from kaonic deuterium experiments revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Döring, M

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the impact of the recent measurement of kaonic hydrogen X rays by the SIDDHARTA collaboration on the allowed ranges for the kaon-deuteron scattering length in the framework of non-relativistic effective field theory. Based on data from KN scattering only, we predict the kaon-deuteron scattering length A_Kd= (-1.46 + i 1.08) fm, with an estimated uncertainty of about 25% in both the real and the imaginary part.

  18. Crystal structure of N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexa-methyl-guanidinium cyanate 1.5-hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiritiris, Ioannis; Kantlehner, Willi

    2015-12-01

    The title hydrated salt, C7H18N3 (+)·OCN(-).1.5H2O, was synthesized starting from N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexa-methyl-guanidinium chloride by a twofold anion-exchange reaction. The asymmetric unit contains two cations, two cyanate anions and three water mol-ecules. One cation shows orientational disorder and two sets of N-atom positions were found related by a 60° rotation, with an occupancy ratio of 0.852 (6):0.148 (6). The C-N bond lengths in both guanidin-ium ions range from 1.329 (2) to 1.358 (10) Å, indicating double-bond character, pointing towards charge delocalization within the NCN planes. Strong O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds between the crystal water mol-ecules and the cyanate ions and strong O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the water mol-ecules are present, resulting in a two-dimensional hydrogen bonded network running parallel to the (001) plane. The hexa-methyl-guanidinium ions are packed in between the layers built up by water mol-ecules and cyanate ions.

  19. Improved WIMP scattering limits from the LUX experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Akerib, D S; Bai, X; Bailey, A J; Balajthy, J; Beltrame, P; Bernard, E P; Bernstein, A; Biesiadzinski, T P; Boulton, E M; Bradley, A; Bramante, R; Cahn, S B; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chan, C; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A A; Chiller, C; Currie, A; Cutter, J E; Davison, T J R; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dobson, J E Y; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B N; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Gehman, V M; Ghag, C; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M G D; Hall, C R; Hanhardt, M; Haselschwardt, S J; Hertel, S A; Hogan, D P; Horn, M; Huang, D Q; Ignarra, C M; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Ji, W; Kazkaz, K; Khaitan, D; Knoche, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Lenardo, B G; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Malling, D C; Manalaysay, A; Mannino, R L; Marzioni, M F; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morad, J A; Murphy, A St J; Nehrkorn, C; Nelson, H N; Neves, F; O`Sullivan, K; Oliver-Mallory, K C; Ott, R A; Palladino, K J; Pangilinan, M; Pease, E K; Phelps, P; Reichhart, L; Rhyne, C; Shaw, S; Shutt, T A; Silva, C; Solovov, V N; Sorensen, P; Stephenson, S; Sumner, T J; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D J; Taylor, W; Tennyson, B P; Terman, P A; Tiedt, D R; To, W H; Tripathi, M; Tvrznikova, L; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Webb, R C; White, J T; Whitis, T J; Witherell, M S; Wolfs, F L H; Yazdani, K; Young, S K; Zhang, C

    2015-01-01

    We present constraints on WIMP-nucleus scattering from the 2013 data of the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter experiment, including $1.4\\times10^{4}\\,\\mathrm{kg\\cdot days}$ of search exposure. This new analysis incorporates several advances: single-photon calibration at the scintillation wavelength; improved event-reconstruction algorithms; a revised background model including events originating on the detector walls in an enlarged fiducial volume; and new calibrations from decays of an injected tritium $\\beta$ source and from kinematically constrained nuclear recoils down to 1.1 keV. Sensitivity, especially to low-mass WIMPs, is enhanced compared to our previous results which modeled the signal only above a 3 keV minimum energy. Under standard dark matter halo assumptions and in the mass range above 4 $\\mathrm{GeV}\\,c^{-2}$, these new results give the most stringent direct limits on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section. The 90% CL upper limit has a minimum of 0.4 zb at 33 $\\mathrm{GeV}\\,c^...

  20. Polarized Compton Scattering Experiments at the Mainz Microtron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Interactions between an electromagnetic wave and a proton are described at the basic level by the mass, charge, and anomalous magnetic moment of the proton. Such a description, however, assumes a point-like particle, something the proton is certainly not. The internal structure of the proton leads to higher order terms, such as the scalar and vector polarizabilities, in the interaction. To study these polarizabilities, a multi-experiment program has been undertaken at the Mainz Microtron to measure observables in Compton scattering that exhibit dependence on these parameters. This program has made use of the A2 tagged photon beam, with either a linear or circular polarization, proton targets of either unpolarized LH2 or frozen-spin butanol with transverse or longitudinal polarization, as well as the nearly 4 π detection capability of the Crystal Ball and TAPS detectors. The first of these measurements, the double-polarization asymmetry Σ2 x, also the first of its kind, has already been published. Measurements of the beam asymmetry Σ3 and another double-polarization asymmetry Σ2 z have also been performed and are in various stages of analysis and publication. This talk will discuss the status of these measurements, as well as various fitting studies that are being performed with the data in hand, and plans for future measurements. on behalf of the A2 collaboration at MAMI.

  1. Transverse momentum at work in high-energy scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signori, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    I will review some aspects of the definition and the phenomenology of Transverse-Momentum-Dependent distributions (TMDs) which are potentially interesting for the physics program at several current and future experimental facilities. First of all, I will review the definition of quark, gluon and Wilson loop TMDs based on gauge invariant hadronic matrix elements. Looking at the phenomenology of quarks, I will address the flavor dependence of the intrinsic transverse momentum in unpolarized TMDs, focusing on its extraction from Semi-Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering. I will also present an estimate of its impact on the transverse momentum spectrum of W and Z bosons produced in unpolarized hadronic collisions and on the determination of the W boson mass. Moreover, the combined effect of the flavor dependence and the evolution of TMDs with the energy scale will be discussed for electron-positron annihilation. Concerning gluons, I will present from an effective theory point of view the TMD factorization theorem for the transverse momentum spectrum of pseudoscalar quarkonium produced in hadronic collisions. Relying on this, I will discuss the possibility of extracting precise information on (un)polarized gluon TMDs at a future Fixed Target Experiment at the LHC (AFTER@LHC).

  2. Light scattering by neutrophils: Model, simulation, and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlova, D.Y.; Yurkin, M.A.; Hoekstra, A.G.; Maltsev, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the elastic light-scattering properties of human blood neutrophils, both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental study was performed with a scanning flow cytometer measuring the light-scattering patterns (LSPs) of individual cells over an angular range of 5-60 deg. We determine

  3. Inexpensive Mie scattering experiment for the classroom manufactured by 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Christian; Sack, Achim; Heckel, Michael; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2016-09-01

    Scattering experiments are fundamental for structure analysis of matter on molecular, atomic and sub-atomic length scales. In contrast, it is not standard to demonstrate optical scattering experiments on the undergraduate level beyond simple diffraction gratings. We present an inexpensive Mie scattering setup manufactured with 3D printing and open hardware. The experiment can be used to determine the particle size in dilute monodisperse colloidal suspensions with surprisingly high accuracy and is, thus, suitable to demonstrate relations between scattering measurements and microscopic properties of particles within undergraduate lab course projects.

  4. Determination of Rest Mass Energy of the Electron by a Compton Scattering Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasannakumar, S.; Krishnaveni, S.; Umesh, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    We report here a simple Compton scattering experiment which may be carried out in graduate and undergraduate laboratories to determine the rest mass energy of the electron. In the present experiment, we have measured the energies of the Compton scattered gamma rays with a NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer coupled to a 1 K multichannel analyzer at…

  5. Determination of Rest Mass Energy of the Electron by a Compton Scattering Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasannakumar, S.; Krishnaveni, S.; Umesh, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    We report here a simple Compton scattering experiment which may be carried out in graduate and undergraduate laboratories to determine the rest mass energy of the electron. In the present experiment, we have measured the energies of the Compton scattered gamma rays with a NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer coupled to a 1 K multichannel analyzer at…

  6. Terascale Physics Opportunities at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment: NuSOnG

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, T; Bugel, L; Camilleri, L; Conrad, J M; De Gouvêa, A; Fisher, P H; Formaggio, J A; Jenkins, J; Karagiorgi, G; Kobilarcik, T R; Kopp, S; Kyle, G; Loinaz, W A; Mason, D A; Milner, R; Moore, R; Morfín, J G; Nakamura, M; Naples, D; Nienaber, P; Olness, F I; Owens, J F; Pate, S F; Pronin, A; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Schellman, H; Schienbein, I; Syphers, M J; Tait, T M P; Takeuchi, T; Tan, C Y; Van de Water, R G; Yamamoto, R K; Yu, J Y

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering on Glass). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain over an order of magnitude higher statistics than presently available for the purely weak processes $\

  7. Light scattering by neutrophils: model, simulation, and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Darya Yu; Yurkin, Maxim A; Hoekstra, Alfons G; Maltsev, Valeri P

    2008-01-01

    We studied the elastic light-scattering properties of human blood neutrophils, both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental study was performed with a scanning flow cytometer measuring the light-scattering patterns (LSPs) of individual cells over an angular range of 5-60 deg. We determined the absolute differential light-scattering cross sections of neutrophils. We also proposed an optical model for a neutrophil as a sphere filled by small spheres and prolate spheroids that correspond to granules and segmented nucleus, respectively. This model was used in simulations of LSPs using the discrete dipole approximation and different compositions of internal organelles. A comparison of experimentally measured and simulated LSPs gives a good qualitative agreement in LSP shape and quantitative agreement in overall magnitude of the differential light-scattering cross section.

  8. Evaluation of advanced light scattering technology for microgravity experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, W. J.; Rosenblum, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The capabilities of modern light scattering equipment and the uses it might have in studying processes in microgravity are evaluated. Emphasis is on the resolution of polydisperse systems. This choice was made since a major use of light scattering was expected to be the study of crystal growth of macromolecules in low gravity environments. An evaluation of a modern photon correlation spectrometer and a Mie spectrometer is presented.

  9. Size Determination of Argon Clusters from a Rayleigh Scattering Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI An-Le; ZHAI Hua-Jin; LIU Bing-Chen; LI Zhong; NI Guo-Yuan; XU Zhi-Zhan

    2000-01-01

    Argon clusters are produced in the process of adiabatic expansion of a high backing pressure gas into vacuum through a nozzle. The cluster size is determined by a Rayleigh scattering measurement. The scattered signal measured is proportional to the 2.78th power of gas stagnation pressure. The average cluster sizes vary from 100 to more than 12000 atoms/cluster with the argon gas backing pressures ranging between 3 to 45 atm.

  10. The inelastic scattering neutron angular distribution of reaction 7Li(n,n'γ) 7Li ∗ (478 keV) derived from shape analysis of the Doppler broadened γ spectra at 9, 9.5 and 10 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizeng, Huang; Shanglian, Bao; Jinquan, Liu; Wentian, Cao; Zhengde, Huang; Lihua, Zhu; Long, Hou

    1995-02-01

    The angular distributions of the inelastic scattered neutrons from the reaction 7Li(n,n'γ) 7Li ∗ (478 keV) were derived from the shape analysis of the Doppler broadened γ spectra at incident neutron energies of 9, 9.5 and 10 MeV. The measured spectra were fitted to the Monte Carlo simulation results to get the Legendre coefficients of the angular distributions of the inelastic neutron scattering in the center-of-mass (CM) system. The derived results are compared with DWBA calculations. The agreements are rather good.

  11. Measurement of Double Parton Scattering at LHC with the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Ankita

    2015-01-01

    Double parton scattering is measured in different channels using the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. Data from pp collisions collected at 7 and 8 TeV center-of-mass energy are used. Several final states are investigated to identify and measure the signature of double parton scattering in inelastic events. Parameters are extracted from the data that are suited in an optimal way to distinguish double parton scattering from various backgrounds. Multivariate analysis techniques are exploited to maximise the sensitivity.

  12. Terrestrial effects on dark matter-electron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emken, Timon; Kouvaris, Chris; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2017-01-01

    techniques involving detection of dark matter-electron scattering offer new sensitivity to sub-GeV dark matter. Typically however it is implicitly assumed that the dark matter is not altered as it traverses the Earth to arrive at the detector. In this paper we study in detail the effects of terrestrial...

  13. Elastic scattering of surface plasmon polaritons: Modeling and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Coello, V.

    1998-01-01

    excitation wavelengths (594 and 633 nm) and different metal (silver and gold) films. The near-field optical images obtained are related to the calculated SPP intensity distributions demonstrating that the model developed can be successfully used in studies of SPP elastic scattering, e.g., to design...

  14. Wave chaotic experiments and models for complicated wave scattering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jen-Hao

    Wave scattering in a complicated environment is a common challenge in many engineering fields because the complexity makes exact solutions impractical to find, and the sensitivity to detail in the short-wavelength limit makes a numerical solution relevant only to a specific realization. On the other hand, wave chaos offers a statistical approach to understand the properties of complicated wave systems through the use of random matrix theory (RMT). A bridge between the theory and practical applications is the random coupling model (RCM) which connects the universal features predicted by RMT and the specific details of a real wave scattering system. The RCM gives a complete model for many wave properties and is beneficial for many physical and engineering fields that involve complicated wave scattering systems. One major contribution of this dissertation is that I have utilized three microwave systems to thoroughly test the RCM in complicated wave systems with varied loss, including a cryogenic system with a superconducting microwave cavity for testing the extremely-low-loss case. I have also experimentally tested an extension of the RCM that includes short-orbit corrections. Another novel result is development of a complete model based on the RCM for the fading phenomenon extensively studied in the wireless communication fields. This fading model encompasses the traditional fading models as its high-loss limit case and further predicts the fading statistics in the low-loss limit. This model provides the first physical explanation for the fitting parameters used in fading models. I have also applied the RCM to additional experimental wave properties of a complicated wave system, such as the impedance matrix, the scattering matrix, the variance ratio, and the thermopower. These predictions are significant for nuclear scattering, atomic physics, quantum transport in condensed matter systems, electromagnetics, acoustics, geophysics, etc.

  15. Different approaches to the analysis of small angle scattering experiments on porous aluminum-hydroxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F.B.

    2001-01-01

    Different approaches to the analysis of Small Angle X-ray Scattering experiments on the porous aluminum-hydroxide pseudo-boehmite are compared. Experimental data is analyzed both as scattering from mass fractal aggregates and polydisperse collections of anisotropic particles. Both types of analys...

  16. Thomson scattering diagnostic on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Peter; Maurer, D. A.; Ennis, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.

    2016-10-01

    A Thomson scattering system is being commissioned for the non-axisymmetric plasmas of the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH), a five-field period current-carrying torsatron. The system takes a single point measurement at the magnetic axis to both calibrate the two- color soft x-ray Te system and serve as an additional diagnostic for the V3FIT 3D equilibrium reconstruction code. A single point measurement will reduce the uncertainty in the reconstructed peak pressure by an order of magnitude for both current-carrying plasmas and future gyrotron-heated stellarator plasmas. The beam, generated by a frequency doubled Continuum 2 J, Nd:YaG laser, is passed vertically through an entrance Brewster window and a two-aperture optical baffle system to minimize stray light. The beam line propagates 8 m to the CTH device mid-plane with the beam diameter < 3 mm inside the plasma volume. Thomson scattered light is collected by two adjacent f/2 plano-convex condenser lenses and focused onto a custom fiber bundle. The fiber is then re-bundled and routed to a Holospec f/1.8 spectrograph to collect the red-shifted scattered light from 535-565 nm. The system has been designed to measure plasmas with core Te of 100 to 200 eV and densities of 5 ×1018 to 5 ×1019 m-3. Work supported by USDOE Grant DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  17. Selection rules for electric multipole transition of diatomic molecule in scattering experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱林繁; 田红春; 刘亚伟; 康旭; 刘国兴

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the energy level structures of atoms and molecules is mainly obtained by spectroscopic experiments. Both photoabsorption and photoemission spectra are subject to the electric dipole selection rules (also known as optical selection rules). However, the selection rules for atoms and molecules in the scattering experiments are not identical to those in the optical experiments. In this paper, based on the theory of the molecular point group, the selection rules are derived and summarized for the electric monopole, electric dipole, electric quadrupole, and electric octupole transitions of diatomic molecules under the first Born approximation in scattering experiments. Then based on the derived selection rules, the electron scattering spectra and x-ray scattering spectra of H2, N2, and CO at different momentum transfers are explained, and the discrepancies between the previous experimental results measured by different groups are elucidated.

  18. Υ production in U + U collisions at √{sN N}=193 GeV measured with the STAR experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Anderson, D. M.; Aoyama, R.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Ashraf, M. U.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Esumi, S.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, B.; Huang, T.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Jowzaee, S.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kumar, L.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, Y.; Li, C.; Li, X.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Liu, Y.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Luo, S.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, R.; Ma, L.; Ma, Y. G.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McKinzie, S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Miller, Z. W.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Nonaka, T.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Ray, R. L.; Reed, R.; Rehbein, M. J.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roth, J. D.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, Z.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sugiura, T.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Sun, X. M.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, G.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Z.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, J.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Q. H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, S.; Yang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    We present a measurement of the inclusive production of Υ mesons in U+U collisions at √{sN N}=193 GeV at midrapidity (|y |<1 ). Previous studies in central Au+Au collisions at √{sN N}=200 GeV show a suppression of Υ (1S+2S+3S) production relative to expectations from the Υ yield in p+p collisions scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions (Ncoll), with an indication that the Υ (1S) state is also suppressed. The present measurement extends the number of participant nucleons in the collision (Npart) by 20% compared to Au+Au collisions, and allows us to study a system with higher energy density. We observe a suppression in both the Υ (1 S +2 S +3 S ) and Υ (1 S ) yields in central U+U data, which consolidates and extends the previously observed suppression trend in Au+Au collisions.

  19. Estimation of the lead thickness required to shield scattered radiation from synchrotron radiation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    In the enclosure of synchrotron radiation experiments using a monochromatic beam, secondary radiation arises from two effects, namely fluorescence and scattering. While fluorescence can be regarded as isotropic, the angular dependence of Compton scattering has to be taken into account if the shielding shall not become unreasonably thick. The scope of this paper is to clarify how the different factors starting from the spectral properties of the source and the attenuation coefficient of the shielding, over the spectral and angular distribution of the scattered radiation and the geometry of the experiment influence the thickness of lead required to keep the dose rate outside the enclosure below the desired threshold.

  20. ELECTRON SCATTERING EXPERIMENTS ON THE NEUTRON AND PROTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkelman, Karl

    1963-06-15

    The electric and magnetic helicity form factors of the proton are measured at 4-momentum transfers (squared) of 25 to 45 f/sup -2/, by means of electron scattering by protons at high energies. The results are combined with other e/sup -/--p and e/sup -/--d experimental findings in order to show the proton form fuctors from 0 to 45 f/sup -2/ and the neutron form factors from 0 to 25 f/sup -2/. (T.F.H.)

  1. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments with the monochromatic imaging mode of the RITA-II spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Lefmann, Kim; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech;

    2006-01-01

    to perform real inelastic neutron scattering experiments. We present the results from inelastic powder, single crystal dispersion and single crystal constant energy mapping experiments. The advantages and complications of performing these experiments are discussed along with a comparison between the imaging...

  2. Calculation of Nuclear Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering in HERMES Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Hong-Xue; MAO Ya-Jun; WANG Si-Guang; SUN Bo

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the possibility to acquire information of nuclear generalized parton distribution (GPD) H by studying the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) off several nuclear targets at the HERMES group (Hadron-Electron Ring Accelerator Measurement of Spin). Two different models are used and developed to demonstrate the leading asymmetry amplitude AsinφLU for coherent-enriched and incoherent-enriched parts with both statistical and systematic uncertainties estimated. It is found that a clear enhancement of ratio of nuclear asymmetry AA,sinφLU to free proton asymmetry AH,sinφLU in the coherent-enriched region is expected by both models, and a decrease of the ratio in incoherent-enriched region; both give the information about nuclear modifications. It is also possible to distinguish between those two models even under the limited statistics.

  3. Analysing neutron scattering data using McStas virtual experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udby, L.; Willendrup, Peter Kjær; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    With the intention of developing a new data analysis method using virtual experiments we have built a detailed virtual model of the cold triple-axis spectrometer RITA-II at PSI, Switzerland, using the McStas neutron ray-tracing package. The parameters characterising the virtual instrument were...... carefully tuned against real experiments. In the present paper we show that virtual experiments reproduce experimentally observed linewidths within 1–3% for a variety of samples. Furthermore we show that the detailed knowledge of the instrumental resolution found from virtual experiments, including sample...

  4. Experiments in Special Relativity Using Compton Scattering of Gamma Rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelstaff, P. A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Some simple undergraduate laboratory experiments are described, which verify the energy-momentum relationship of special relativity. These experiments have been designed either to be used as classroom demonstrations or to be carried out by second-year students. (Author/JN)

  5. Analysing neutron scattering data using McStas virtual experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udby, L.; Willendrup, P. K.; Knudsen, E.; Niedermayer, Ch.; Filges, U.; Christensen, N. B.; Farhi, E.; Wells, B. O.; Lefmann, K.

    2011-04-01

    With the intention of developing a new data analysis method using virtual experiments we have built a detailed virtual model of the cold triple-axis spectrometer RITA-II at PSI, Switzerland, using the McStas neutron ray-tracing package. The parameters characterising the virtual instrument were carefully tuned against real experiments. In the present paper we show that virtual experiments reproduce experimentally observed linewidths within 1-3% for a variety of samples. Furthermore we show that the detailed knowledge of the instrumental resolution found from virtual experiments, including sample mosaicity, can be used for quantitative estimates of linewidth broadening resulting from, e.g., finite domain sizes in single-crystal samples.

  6. The Muon Scattering Experiment (MUSE at PSI and the proton radius puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohl Michael

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The unexplained large discrepancy of the proton charge radius measurements with muonic hydrogen Lamb shift and determinations from elastic electron scattering and Lamb shift in regular hydrogen of seven standard deviations is known as the proton radius puzzle. Suggested solutions of the puzzle range from possible errors in the experiments through unexpectedly large hadronic physics effects to new physics beyond the Standard Model. A new approach to verify the radius discrepancy in a systematic manner will be pursued with the Muon Scattering Experiment (MUSE at PSI. The experiment aims to compare elastic cross sections, the proton elastic form factors, and the extracted proton charge radius with scattering of electrons and muons of either charge and under identical conditions. The difference in the observed radius will be probed with a high precision to verify the discrepancy. An overview of the experiment and the current status will be presented.

  7. Forward and backward scattering experiments in ultra-cold Rubidium atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampel, Nir Shlomo

    project, we have studied coherent forward scattering in the form of a memory experiment. In such an experiment we convert the input light pulse to an atomic excitation, and at a later time convert back the atomic excitation into the retrieved light pulse. In the first project, we investigate the source...

  8. Forward and backward scattering experiments in ultra-cold Rubidium atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampel, Nir Shlomo

    project, we have studied coherent forward scattering in the form of a memory experiment. In such an experiment we convert the input light pulse to an atomic excitation, and at a later time convert back the atomic excitation into the retrieved light pulse. In the first project, we investigate the source....... With a microscopic description of the loss term due to light assisted collisions followed by radiation trapping, we find a reasonable quantiative agreement between model and experiment. In the second project we have realized off resonance Raman memory in an ultracold thermal sample in a magnetic trap, with total......In this thesis two different projects are described dealing with different aspects of light scattering. In the first we are examining the origin of backward scattering as manifest in Rayleigh superradiance. Here we have studied the onset dependence on the sign of the probe detuning. In the second...

  9. Basin Acoustic Seamount Scattering Experiment (BASSEX) Data Analysis and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Kauai source at various ranges and bearings. OBJECTIVES The primary objective of this work is to measure aspects of acoustic propagation that...range-dependent environments. The primary goal is to understand the physics of the acoustic propagation in complex environments. Three specific...During the test acoustic transmissions from sources used in the SPICEX and LOAPEX experiments (PI: Dr. Peter Worcester, SIO and Dr. Jim Mercer, APL-UW

  10. Spatial resolution with a CO sub 2 laser scattering experiment on TORE SUPRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laviron, C.; Devynck, P.; Garbet, X.; Payan, J.; Saha, S.K. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-les-Durance (France)); Truc, A.; Quemeneur, A.; Hennequin, P.; Gresillon, D.; Gervais, F. (Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises)

    1991-01-01

    The ALTAIR diagnostic has been developed to analyse the density fluctuations with wavelength between 0.2 and 2 cm in the tokamak TORE SUPRA. These fluctuations are measured by coherent Thomson scattering of a CO{sub 2} laser beam. The localisation of the fluctuations is an important aspect in a scattering experiment in a tokamak. For small scattering angles ({proportional to}1 mrad) the transverse resolution is excellent: The diameter of the beam (5cm) is very small compared to the diamter of the plasma (160cm). Conversely, there is no resolution along the observation direction because the length of the scattering volume is larger than the diameter of the plasma. (orig.).

  11. Spatial resolution with a CO{sub 2} laser scattering experiment on TORE SUPRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laviron, C.; Devynck, P.; Garbet, X.; Payan, J.; Saha, S.K. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Truc, A.; Quemeneur, A.; Hennequin, P.; Gresillon, D.; Gervais, F. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1991-12-31

    The ALTAIR diagnostic has been developed to analyse the density fluctuations with wavelength between 0.2 and 2 cm in the tokamak TORE SUPRA. These fluctuations are measured by coherent Thomson scattering of a CO{sub 2} laser beam. The localisation of the fluctuations is an important aspect in a scattering experiment in a tokamak. For small scattering angles ({approx} 1 mrad) the transverse resolution is excellent; the diameter of the beam (5cm) is very small compared to the diameter of the plasma (160cm). Conversely, there is no resolution along the observation direction because the length of the scattering volume is larger than the diameter of the plasma. If we take into account the helicity of the magnetic field lines in the tokamak, adding the fact that the turbulence wave vector is mainly perpendicular to these field lines, some resolution can be obtained along the direction of the beam.

  12. Neutron-scattering experiment on solid 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat'aš, S.; Bat'ko, I.; Boyko, V.; Schöttl, S.; Siemensmeyer, K.; Raasch, S.; Radulov, I.; Adams, E. D.; Scherline, T. E.

    The central aim of our work is the characterisation of magnetic and crystallographic properties of solid 3He on a microscopic scale. This can only be achieved using neutron-diffraction techniques. The potential of neutron methods in magnetism and their application to nuclear magnetism is well known. They were very successful in the recent investigation of spontaneous nuclear order in copper and silver. The high neutron absorption cross section makes the application of neutron diffraction in solid 3He very difficult - but a careful feasibility study of diffraction experiments shows that new results of fundamental importance in the field of magnetism may be gained.

  13. Synthesis of new tetrazene(N-N=N-N)-linked bi(1,2,4-triazole)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The reaction of 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole with sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SDCI) afforded new tetrazene(N-N=N-N)-linked bi(1,2,4-triazole) 2a in excellent yield. Increasing the molar ratio of SDCI to 4-amino- 1,2,4-triazole, the chlorinated product 1,5,5'-trichloro-4,4'-azo- 1,2,4-triazole (2b) was formed. These new compounds have been characterized by MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis.

  14. The Manuel Lujan, Jr. Neutron Scattering Center LANSCE experiment reports 1989 run cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyer, D.K.; DiStravolo, M.A. (comps.)

    1990-10-01

    This report contains a listing and description of experiments carried on at the LANSCE neutron scattering facility in the following areas: High Density Powder Diffraction; Neutron Powder Diffractometer, (NPD); Single Crystal Diffractometer, (SCD); Low-Q Diffractometer, (LQD); Surface Profile Analysis Reflectometer, (SPEAR); Filter Difference Spectrometer, (FDS); and Constant-Q Spectrometer.

  15. Band absorption in nonhomogeneous, isotropically-scattering planetary atmospheres - Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, W. A.; Sutton, R. E.; Miller, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program is developed which predicts the vertical distribution of an absorbing species in an isotropically-scattering, finite planetary atmosphere from measurements of the upwelling band radiance determined by a vertically traversing 2-channel radiometer. Comparison is made with experiment.

  16. Laser Light Scattering, from an Advanced Technology Development Program to Experiments in a Reduced Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Tscharnuter, Walther W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Dautet, Henri; Deschamps, Pierre; Boucher, Francois; Zuh, Jixiang; Tin, Padetha; Rogers, Richard B.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advancements in laser light scattering hardware are described. These include intelligent single card correlators; active quench/active reset avalanche photodiodes; laser diodes; and fiber optics which were used by or developed for a NASA advanced technology development program. A space shuttle experiment which will employ aspects of these hardware developments is previewed.

  17. Neutron Background Characterization for a Coherent Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering experiment at SNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerling, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Coherent Neutrino Nucleus Scattering (CNNS) is a theoretical well-grounded, but as-yet unverified process. The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) may provide an optimal platform for detection of CNNS, possibly with existing detector technology. A proto-collaboration of groups from several institutions has come together to investigate this option and propose an experiment for the first-time observation of CNNS. Currently, the largest risk to such an experiment comes from an unknown background of beam-induced high-energy neutrons that penetrate the existing SNS concrete shielding. We have deployed a neutron scatter camera at the SNS during beam operation and performed preliminary measurements of the neutron backgrounds at a promising experimental location. In order to measure neutrons as high as 100 MeV, we needed to make modifications to the neutron scatter camera and expand its capabilities beyond its standard operating range of 1-14MeV. We have identified sources of high-energy neutrons and continue to investigate other possible locations that may allow a successful CNNS experiment to go forward. The imaging capabilities of the neutron scatter camera will allow more optimal shielding designs that take into account neutron flux anisotropies at the selected experiment locations.

  18. Total electron scattering and ionization of N, N{sub 2} and metastable excited N*{sub 2}(A{sup 3}SIGMA{sub u}{sup +}): Theoretical cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshipura, K.N., E-mail: knjoshipura@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120 (India); Gangopadhyay, Sumona S.; Kothari, Harshit N. [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120 (India); Shelat, Foram A. [G.H. Patel College of Engineering and Technology, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120 (India)

    2009-08-03

    This Letter reports calculations on electron scattering cross sections for atomic and molecular nitrogen in the respective ground state, together with excited nitrogen molecules in their metastable state A{sup 3}SIGMA{sub u}{sup +}. The formalism of Complex Scattering Potential - ionization contribution developed by the authors earlier, is employed first to the well-known target N{sub 2}, the most abundant species in Earth's atmosphere. While there are a few electron impact studies on atomic N, there are hardly any investigations on the metastable species N*{sub 2}. We report various total cross sections including those of elastic scattering and ionization by electron impact on these targets, at energies E{sub i} from ionization threshold to 2000 eV. New results on total (complete) cross sections for atomic N and various cross sections for metastable N*{sub 2} are presented and compared. Our results are in accord with various experimental data on the most studied target N{sub 2}. Comparisons are made with the available results on atomic N. The present theoretical results are interpreted in terms of the target properties.

  19. Neutrino Scattering Uncertainties and their Role in Long Baseline Oscillation Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Harris; G. Blazey; Arie Bodek; D. Boehnlein; S. Boyd; William Brooks; Antje Bruell; Howard S. Budd; R. Burnstein; D. Casper; A. Chakravorty; Michael Christy; Jesse Chvojka; M.A.C. Cummings; P. deBarbaro; D. Drakoulakos; J. Dunmore; Rolf Ent; Hugh Gallagher; David Gaskell; Ronald Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Wendy Hinton; Xiaodong Jiang; T. Kafka; O. Kamaev; Cynthia Keppel; M. Kostin; Sergey Kulagin; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Steven Manly; W.A. Mann; Kevin Mcfarland-porter; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Jorge Morfin; D. Naples; John Nelson; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-ioana Niculescu; W. Oliver; Michael Paolone; Emmanuel Paschos; A. Pla-Dalmau; Ronald Ransome; C. Regis; P. Rubinov; V. Rykalin; Willis Sakumoto; P. Shanahan; N. Solomey; P. Spentzouris; P. Stamoulis; G. Tzanakos; Stephen Wood; F.X. Yumiceva; B. Ziemer; M. Zois

    2004-10-01

    The field of oscillation physics is about to make an enormous leap forward in statistical precision: first through the MINOS experiment in the coming year, and later through the NOvA and T2K experiments. Because of the relatively poor understanding of neutrino interactions in the energy ranges of these experiments, there are systematics that can arise in interpreting far detector data that can be as large as or even larger than the expected statistical uncertainties. We describe how these systematic errors arise, and how specific measurements in a dedicated neutrino scattering experiment like MINERvA can reduce the cross section systematic errors to well below the statistical errors.

  20. Higher order multipolar polarizabilities of carbon tetrafluoride from isotropic and anisotropic light scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kader, M. S. A.; Bancewicz, T.; Maroulis, G.

    2010-12-01

    The higher order dipole-quadrupole and dipole-octopole polarizabilities of carbon tetrafluoride has been determined from isotropic and anisotropic collision-induced light scattering (CILS) experiments of CF 4 and from anisotropic light scattering of its mixture with argon gas. The CILS spectra are analyzed by using the new updated and different intermolecular potentials. Our final estimates for these properties are ∣ A∣ = (1.051 ± 0.073) Å 4 and ∣ E∣ = (1.235 ± 0.282) Å 5 which are in excellent agreement with the ab initio theoretical values.

  1. Dipole-octopole polarizability of sulfur hexafluoride from isotropic and anisotropic light scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kader, M. S. A.; Bancewicz, T.

    2013-05-01

    The higher order dipole-octopole polarizability E of sulfur hexafluoride has been determined from isotropic and anisotropic collision-induced light scattering (CILS) experiments of pure SF6 gas and from anisotropic light scattering of its mixture with inert gases. The CILS spectra are analyzed by using the new updated and different intermolecular potentials. Our final estimates for this property is |E| = 96.405 ± 12.045 a.u. which is in excellent agreement with the ab initio theoretical value.

  2. A Collective Scattering System for Measuring Electron Gyroscale Fluctuations on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. R.; Mazzucato, E.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, Jr., N. C.

    2009-02-13

    A collective scattering system has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to measure electron gyroscale fluctuations in NSTX plasmas. Up to five distinct wavenumbers are measured simultaneously, and the large toroidal curvature of NSTX plasmas provides enhanced spatial localization. Steerable optics can position the scattering volume throughout the plasma from the magnetic axis to the outboard edge. Initial measurements indicate rich turbulent dynamics on the electron gyroscale. The system will be a valuable tool for investigating the connection between electron temperature gradient turbulence and electron thermal transport in NSTX plasmas.

  3. Data Driven Study of Neutron Response Using Quasielastic Neutrino Scattering in the Minerva Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Evan; Minerva Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how particles behave in detectors is a critical part of analyzing data from neutrino experiments, but neutral particles are difficult to characterize. The purpose of this project was to calibrate the neutron response in Quasielastic antineutrino scattering (QE) events in the Minerva detector. We applied quasi-elastic assumptions to estimate the outgoing neutron kinematics in QE scattering, and then added modifications to improve the model's predictions for neutron response in data. We compared these kinematic predictions of neutron energy and angle to Monte Carlo simulations of QE scattering and to the behavior of reconstructed energy ``blobs'' that characterize neutral particle behavior in simulated and real Minerva data. Filtering events for neutron energy, angle, and distance from the interaction vertex, we derive calibration functions for both the simulation and real data. Future work will include potential changes to the blobbing algorithms and refinement of the calibration technique using rigorous statistical methods.

  4. Geometry Survey of the Time-of-Flight Neutron-Elastic Scattering (Antonella) Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshinowo, Babatunde O. [Fermilab; Izraelevitch, Federico [Buenos Aires U.

    2016-10-17

    The Antonella experiment is a measurement of the ionization efficiency of nuclear recoils in silicon at low energies [1]. It is a neutron elastic scattering experiment motivated by the search for dark matter particles. In this experiment, a proton beam hits a lithium target and neutrons are produced. The neutron shower passes through a collimator that produces a neutron beam. The beam illuminates a silicon detector. With a certain probability, a neutron interacts with a silicon nucleus of the detector producing elastic scattering. After the interaction, a fraction of the neutron energy is transferred to the silicon nucleus which acquires kinetic energy and recoils. This kinetic energy is then dissipated in the detector producing ionization and thermal energy. The ionization produced is measured with the silicon detector electronics. On the other hand, the neutron is scattered out of the beam. A neutron-detector array (made of scintillator bars) registers the neutron arrival time and the scattering angle to reconstruct the kinematics of the neutron-nucleus interaction with the time-of-flight technique [2]. In the reconstruction equations, the energy of the nuclear recoil is a function of the scattering angle with respect to the beam direction, the time-of-flight of the neutron and the geometric distances between components of the setup (neutron-production target, silicon detector, scintillator bars). This paper summarizes the survey of the different components of the experiment that made possible the off-line analysis of the collected data. Measurements were made with the API Radian Laser Tracker and I-360 Probe Wireless. The survey was completed at the University of Notre Dame, Indiana, USA in February 2015.

  5. Low-energy photon scattering and photoactivation experiments: selected recent results from the Stuttgart Dynamitron facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kneiss, U

    2002-01-01

    Photon scattering off bound nuclear states (nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF)) and photoactivation of long-lived isomers are complementary to one another and share the principal advantage of a well-known reaction mechanism. The experimental progress achieved during the last years allows nowadays experiments of tremendously increased sensitivity opening new fields of applications. In the present lecture recent results are summarized from experiments performed at the well-established Bremsstrahlung photon scattering and photoactivation facilities of the 4.3 MV Stuttgart Dynamitron accelerator. Three current topics are discussed in details: The systematics of E1 two-phonon excitations of the type (2 sup + x 3 sup -) in nuclei near shell closures; the first observation of a population inversion of nuclear states, the precondition for a possible gamma-laser, by feeding from higher-lying photo-excited states (NRF experiments on sup 1 sup 0 sup 3 Rh); and the photoactivation of long-lived isomers. Here first resu...

  6. Investigation of X-Ray Harmonics in the Polarized Nonlinear Inverse Compton Scattering Experiment at UCLA

    CERN Document Server

    Doyuran, Adnan; Joshi, Chandrashekhar; Lim, Jae; Rosenzweig, James E; Tochitsky, Sergei Ya; Travish, Gil; Williams, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    An Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) experiment investigating the polarized harmonic production in the nonlinear regime has begun which will utilize the existing terawatt CO2 laser system and 15 MeV photoinjector in the Neptune Laboratory at UCLA. A major motivation for a source of high brightness polarized x-rays is the production of polarized positrons for use in future linear collider experiments. Analytical calculations have been performed to predict the angular and frequency spectrums for various polarizations and different scattering angles. Currently, the experiment is running and we report the set-up and initial results. The advantages and limitations of using a high laser vector potential, ao, in an ICS-based polarized positron source are expected to be revealed with further measurement of the harmonic spectrum and angular characteristics.

  7. Bistable switching in supercritical n+-n-n+GaAs transferred electron devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jøndrup, Peter; Jeppesen, Palle; Jeppson, Bert

    1976-01-01

    Bistable switching in supercritically doped n+-n-n+GaAs transferred electron devices (TED's) is investigated experimentally and interpreted in computer simulations, for which details of the computer program are given. Three switching modes all leading to stable anode domains are discussed, namely......: 1) cathode-triggered traveling domain; 2) cathode-triggered accumulation layer; 3) anode-triggered domain. Relative current drops up to 40 percent, and switching times down to 60 ps are obtained in low-duty-cycle pulsed experiments with threshold currents around 400 mA. Optimum device parameters...

  8. Elastic scattering of protons at the TOTEM experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080719; Csanád, Máté; Niewiadomski, Hubert

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC at CERN is optimized to measure elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC and measures the total proton-proton cross-section with\tthe luminosity-independent method. The TOTEM experiment uses the special technique of movable beam pipe insertions -- called Roman Pots -- to detect very forward protons. The reconstruction of the forward proton kinematics requires the precise understanding of the LHC beam optics. A new method of LHC optics determination is reported, which exploits kinematical distributions of elastically scattered proton-proton data measured by the Roman Pots of the TOTEM experiment. The method has been successfully applied to data samples recorded since 2010. The interpretation of the proton-proton elastic differential cross-section is a challenging task. The geometrical model of proton-proton elastic scattering of Bialas and Bzdak is fitted to ISR data and to data measured by the TOTEM experiment at LHC energy of $\\sqrt{s}=7$~TeV. The Bialas-Bzdak model is g...

  9. Distributed data processing and analysis environment for neutron scattering experiments at CSNS

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, H L; Yan, L L; Tang, M; Hu, L; Zhao, D X; Qiu, Y X; Zhang, H Y; Zhuang, J; Du, R

    2016-01-01

    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is the first high performance pulsed neutron source in China, which will meet the increasing fundamental research and technique applications demands in the domestic and oversea. A new distributed data processing and analysis environment has been developed, which has generic functionalities for neutron scattering experiments. The environment consists of three parts, an object-oriented data processing framework adopting a data centered architecture, a communication and data caching system based on C/S paradigm, and a data analysis and visualization software providing the 2D/3D experimental data display. This environment will be widely applied in CSNS for live data processing and virtual neutron scattering experiments based on Monte Carlo methods.

  10. Development of a Thomson scattering diagnostic for the Caltech jet-target experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Byong Hoon; Greig, Amelia; Bellan, Paul

    2016-10-01

    A Thomson scattering diagnostic is being developed for studying the Caltech jet-target impact experiment. This experiment has a high-speed MHD-driven jet impact a dense, high-mass target cloud. The compression of the jet upon impact simulates the compression of an imploding liner. A preliminary bench top system consisting of a low power laser, lenses, a beam rotator, a monochromator, and a PMT is being used for measuring the Rayleigh and eventually Raman scattering signals from atmospheric pressure N2 and O2. The laser is modulated at 500 Hz to 1 kHz and lock-in techniques are used to recover the low-amplitude signal. For the actual pulsed plasma experiment, the low-power laser will be replaced by a high power Nd:YAG laser. The detector will consist of a double monochromator consisting of two single monochromators separated by a mask in the focal plane to block Rayleigh scattered light; detection will be by an intensified, gated camera. The diagnostic will be used to study the compression and heating that occurs when the jet plasma collides with a dense, high mass target cloud. Supported by USDOE Grant DE-AR0000565.

  11. Adsorption behavior of Cr(VI) on modified natural zeolite by a new bolaform N,N,N,N',N',N'-hexamethyl-1,9-nonanediammonium dibromide reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozifar, M; Khorasani-Motlagh, M; Gorgij, M N; Naderpour, H R

    2008-07-15

    The demand for effective adsorbents is to increase in response to the widespread recognition of the deleterious health effects of Cr(VI)-oxyanions exposure through drinking water. In this study, Cr(VI)-oxyanions uptake from aqueous solutions by a new bolaform N,N,N,N',N',N'-hexamethyl-1,9-nonanediammonium dibromide reagent-modified natural zeolitic materials from Zahedan, Iran, was investigated using batch technique. Spectrophotometry method was used for Cr determination. The Cr(VI)-solution concentration varied between 2 and 104 mg L(-1). It was shown that the Cr(VI) uptake strongly depended on pH. The maximum removal of Cr(VI) occurred in acidic media at pH<1.5. The amounts of Cr(VI) adsorbed increased with increase in dose of both adsorbents and their contact time. Based on results an adsorption mechanism has been suggested. The adsorption data for modified zeolite using the amine was consistent with Langmuir isotherm equation and the equilibrium data was analyzed using the Langmuir isotherm.

  12. Fractal approach in petrology: Small-angle neutron scattering experiments with volcanic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucido, G.; Triolo, R.; Caponetti, E.

    1988-11-01

    Following Mandelbrot's pioneering work in 1977, we attempt to use the concept of fractal dimension in petrology. Fractal dimension is an intensive property of matter which offers a quantitative measure of the degree of surface roughness. Neutron scattering experiments have been performed on 18 volcanic rocks from different localities. The scattered intensity as a function of the momentum transfer obeys a power law whose exponent varies, for the rock samples presented, between -3 and -4. We conclude that, at the molecular level, our volcanic rocks are not fractal volumes. With regard to the particle-matrix interface, it is not possible to provide a determination at the present stage of research. Our findings suggest it is feasible to verify the degree of surface irregularity at a resolution which is relevant to many aspects of petrology.

  13. Development of the methods for simulating the neutron spectrometers and neutron-scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoshin, S. A.; Belushkin, A. V.; Ioffe, A. I.

    2016-07-01

    Reviewed are the results of simulating the neutron scattering instruments with the program package VITESS upgraded by the routines for treating the polarized neutrons, as developed by the authors. The reported investigations have been carried out at the Frank Laboratory for Neutron Physics at JINR in collaboration with the Juelich research center (Germany). The performance of the resonance and gradient adiabatic spin flippers, the Drabkin resonator, the classical and resonance spin-echo spectrometers, the spin-echo diffractometer for the small-angle neutron scattering, and the spin-echo spectrometer with rotating magnetic fields is successfully modeled. The methods for using the 3D map of the magnetic field from the input file, either mapped experimentally or computed using the finite-elements technique, in the VITESS computer code, are considered in detail. The results of neutron-polarimetry experiments are adequately reproduced by our simulations.

  14. Preparation and characterisation of magnetic nanostructured samples for inelastic neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzpaintner, Wolfgang

    2010-06-22

    Recent advances in thin-film structuring techniques have generated significant interest in the dynamics of spin waves in magnetic nanostructures and the possible use of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) for their investigation. This thesis describes the design and implementation, at GKSS Research Centre, of equipment for preparation of large and laterally submicron and nanometre structured magnetic samples for such future INS experiments. After a brief resume on spin waves in nanostructures, the development work on new purpose-designed equipment, including high vacuum (HV) argon ion beam milling and ultra high vacuum (UHV) e-beam evaporation setups, is described. Ni nanodot as well as Ni and novel Gd nanowire samples were prepared using combinations of sputter deposition, laser interference lithography, argon ion beam milling, e-beam evaporation and self organisation techniques. With reference to sample preparation, epitaxial growth studies for Ni on Si(100) substrate were performed, resulting in the development of a new deposition process, which by thermal tuning allows for the direct epitaxial growth of Ni on Si with unprecedented crystalline quality. The results of various characterisation experiments on the prepared nanostructured samples, including Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), microprobe analysis, Atomic and Magnetic Force Microscopy (AFM/MFM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Reflectivity (XRR), unpolarised and Polarised Neutron Scattering (PNR) and off-specular scattering by X-rays and neutrons using rocking scans and Time-Of-Flight Grazing Incidence Small Angle Neutron Scattering (TOF-GISANS), together with various analysis procedures such as Distorted-Wave Born Approximation (DWBA), are reported. The analysis of a Gd nanowire sample by TOF-GISANS led to a novel evaluation technique which in comparison with single wavelength methods allows portions of reciprocal space to be scanned without changing the angle of

  15. Size, flexibility, and scattering functions of semiflexible polyelectrolytes with excluded volume effects: Monte Carlo simulations and neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannavacciuolo, L.; Sommer, C.; Pedersen, J.S.;

    2000-01-01

    We present a systematic Monte Carlo study of the scattering function S(q) of semiflexible polyelectrolytes at infinite dilution, in solutions with different concentrations of added salt. In the spirit of a theoretical description of polyelectrolytes in terms of the equivalent parameters, namely...... outlined in the Odijk-Skolnick-Fixman theory, in which the behavior of charged polymers is described only in terms of increasing local rigidity and excluded volume effects. Moreover, the Monte Carlo data are found to be in very good agreement with experimental scattering measurements with equilibrium...

  16. SPEC application for achieving inelastic X-ray scattering experiment in the SSRF

    CERN Document Server

    Lan, Xuying; Liang, Dongxu; Yan, Shuai; Mao, Chengwen; Li, Aiguo; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    In order to carry out inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) experiment at BL15U1 beamline of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), the data acquisition and control system based on SPEC software has been developed. The IXS experimental method needs linkage control of monochromator, silicon drift detector (SDD) and ionization chamber on continuous segment-scan mode with variable step size, and gains the data of energy, spectrum and light intensity synchronously. A method is presented for achieving this function which was not realized only by using SSCAN of Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). This paper shows work details including control system description, SPEC configurations for EPICS devices, macro definitions and applications in the BL15U1. An IXS experiment was executed by using the SPEC control system, its results prove that the method is feasible to perform the experiment.

  17. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Hosokawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.

  18. Methyleneation of peptides by N, N, N, N -tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) under conditions used for free radical polymerization : A mechanistic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirangi, Mehrnoosh; Sastre Toraño, Javier; Sellergren, Börje; Hennink, Wim E.; Somsen, Govert W.; Van Nostrum, Cornelus F.

    2015-01-01

    Free radical polymerization is often used to prepare protein and peptide-loaded hydrogels for the design of controlled release systems and molecular imprinting materials. Peroxodisulfates (ammonium peroxodisulfates (APS) or potassium peroxodisulfates (KPS)) with N,N,N,N-tetramethylethylenediamine (T

  19. Distributed data processing and analysis environment for neutron scattering experiments at CSNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H. L.; Zhang, J. R.; Yan, L. L.; Tang, M.; Hu, L.; Zhao, D. X.; Qiu, Y. X.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhuang, J.; Du, R.

    2016-10-01

    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is the first high-performance pulsed neutron source in China, which will meet the increasing fundamental research and technique applications demands domestically and overseas. A new distributed data processing and analysis environment has been developed, which has generic functionalities for neutron scattering experiments. The environment consists of three parts, an object-oriented data processing framework adopting a data centered architecture, a communication and data caching system based on the C/S paradigm, and data analysis and visualization software providing the 2D/3D experimental data display. This environment will be widely applied in CSNS for live data processing.

  20. Stray-light suppression with high-collection efficiency in laser light-scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deilamian, K.; Gillaspy, J. D.; Kelleher, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    An optical system is described for collecting a large fraction of fluorescent light emitted isotropically from a cylindrical interaction region. While maintaining an overall detection efficiency of 9 percent, the system rejects, by more than 12 orders of magnitude, incident laser light along a single axis that intersects the interaction region. Such a system is useful for a wide variety of light-scattering experiments in which high-collection efficiency is desirable, but in which light from an incident laser beam must be rejected without resorting to spectral filters.

  1. Physics of Hard Sphere Experiment: Scattering, Rheology and Microscopy Study of Colloidal Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Z.-D.; Zhu, J.; Phan, S.-E.; Russel, W. B.; Chaikin, P. M.; Meyer, W. V.

    2002-01-01

    The Physics of Hard Sphere Experiment has two incarnations: the first as a scattering and rheology experiment on STS-83 and STS-94 and the second as a microscopy experiment to be performed in the future on LMM on the space station. Here we describe some of the quantitative and qualitative results from previous flights on the dynamics of crystallization in microgravity and especially the observed interaction of growing crystallites in the coexistance regime. To clarify rheological measurements we also present ground based experiments on the low shear rate viscosity and diffusion coefficient of several hard sphere experiments at high volume fraction. We also show how these experiments will be performed with confocal microscopy and laser tweezers in our lab and as preparation for the phAse II experiments on LMM. One of the main aims of the microscopy study will be the control of colloidal samples using an array of applied fields with an eye toward colloidal architectures. Temperature gradients, electric field gradients, laser tweezers and a variety of switchable imposed surface patterns are used toward this control.

  2. Track reconstruction for the Mu3e experiment based on a novel Multiple Scattering fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlinskiy Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mu3e experiment is designed to search for the lepton flavor violating decay μ+ → e+e+e−. The aim of the experiment is to reach a branching ratio sensitivity of 10−16. In a first phase the experiment will be performed at an existing beam line at the Paul-Scherrer Institute (Switzerland providing 108 muons per second, which will allow to reach a sensitivity of 2 · 10−15. The muons with a momentum of about 28 MeV/c are stopped and decay at rest on a target. The decay products (positrons and electrons with energies below 53MeV are measured by a tracking detector consisting of two double layers of 50 μm thin silicon pixel sensors. The high granularity of the pixel detector with a pixel size of 80 μm × 80 μm allows for a precise track reconstruction in the high multiplicity environment of the Mu3e experiment, reaching 100 tracks per reconstruction frame of 50 ns in the final phase of the experiment. To deal with such high rates and combinatorics, the Mu3e track reconstruction uses a novel fit algorithm that in the simplest case takes into account only the multiple scattering, which allows for a fast online tracking on a GPU based filter farm. An implementation of the 3-dimensional multiple scattering fit based on hit triplets is described. The extension of the fit that takes into account energy losses and pixel size is used for offline track reconstruction. The algorithm and performance of the offline track reconstruction based on a full Geant4 simulation of the Mu3e detector are presented.

  3. ISPyB for BioSAXS, the gateway to user autonomy in solution scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Maria Antolinos, Alejandro; Pernot, Petra; Brennich, Martha E.; Kieffer, Jérôme [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 40220, 38042 Grenoble (France); Bowler, Matthew W. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Delageniere, Solange; Ohlsson, Staffan; Malbet Monaco, Stephanie [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 40220, 38042 Grenoble (France); Ashton, Alun [DLS, Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Fermi Avenue, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Franke, Daniel; Svergun, Dmitri [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Building 25A, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); McSweeney, Sean; Gordon, Elspeth [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 40220, 38042 Grenoble (France); Round, Adam, E-mail: around@embl.fr [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 40220, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2015-01-01

    The ISPyB information-management system for crystallography has been adapted to include data from small-angle X-ray scattering of macromolecules in solution experiments. Logging experiments with the laboratory-information management system ISPyB (Information System for Protein crystallography Beamlines) enhances the automation of small-angle X-ray scattering of biological macromolecules in solution (BioSAXS) experiments. The ISPyB interface provides immediate user-oriented online feedback and enables data cross-checking and downstream analysis. To optimize data quality and completeness, ISPyBB (ISPyB for BioSAXS) makes it simple for users to compare the results from new measurements with previous acquisitions from the same day or earlier experiments in order to maximize the ability to collect all data required in a single synchrotron visit. The graphical user interface (GUI) of ISPyBB has been designed to guide users in the preparation of an experiment. The input of sample information and the ability to outline the experimental aims in advance provides feedback on the number of measurements required, calculation of expected sample volumes and time needed to collect the data: all of this information aids the users to better prepare for their trip to the synchrotron. A prototype version of the ISPyBB database is now available at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) beamline BM29 and is already greatly appreciated by academic users and industrial clients. It will soon be available at the PETRA III beamline P12 and the Diamond Light Source beamlines I22 and B21.

  4. Aspects of meson spectroscopy with N N annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dover, C.B.

    1990-04-01

    We focus on the potentialities of nucleon-antinucleon ({bar N}N) annihilation as a means of producing new mesonic states. The case for the existence of quasinuclear {bar N}N bound states is discussed in detail. Strong evidence for a 2{sup ++}(0{sup +}) state of this type has been obtained at LEAR in annihilation from the p-wave (L = 1) {bar N}N system, in support of earlier sightings of this object in L = 0 annihilation at Brookhaven. In the next generation of LEAR experiments, the emphasis shifts to the search for mesons containing dynamical excitations of the gluonic field, namely glueballs and hybrids (Q{bar Q}g). We discuss some features of the masses, decay branching ratios and production mechanisms for these states, and suggest particular {bar N}N annihilation channels which are optimal for their discovery. 59 refs., 15 figs.

  5. Simulator for the Parity-Violating Deep Inelastic Scattering experiment in the Solenoidal Large Intensity Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jack; Hall A SoLID Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The Solenoid Large Intensity Detector (SoLID) particle detector is the main detector that will be used for high energy particle experiments in Hall A that will be used with the 12 GeV electron beam at the Jefferson Lab. SoLID geometries were writen to be implemented in Geant4 using openGL as the visualization tool. This will allow us to test how the calorimeter, a specific yet integral part of the SoLID detector, detects the particles that result from electron beams colliding with targets. The goal is to simulate the approved experiments for the SoLID detector, starting with the Parity-Violating Deep Inelastic Scattering (PVDIS) experiment. This will provide critical information regarding the effectiveness of the calorimeter's design for such experiments. The expectation is that a Shashlik calorimeter will prove effective for the experiments approved for the SoLID detector. The ideal number of layers, or types of material for said layers, is an aspect of the calorimeter that will require testing through the simulations.The geometry files allow an easily-packaged program that can be shared amongst any collaborators interested in the SoLID experiments. NSF Grant No. 714001.

  6. Simulation experiments for gamma-ray mapping of planetary surfaces: Scattering of high-energy neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckner, J.; Englert, P.; Reedy, R. C.; Waenke, H.

    1986-01-01

    The concentration and distribution of certain elements in surface layers of planetary objects specify constraints on models of their origin and evolution. This information can be obtained by means of remote sensing gamma-ray spectroscopy, as planned for a number of future space missions, i.e., Mars, Moon, asteroids, and comets. To investigate the gamma-rays made by interactions of neutrons with matter, thin targets of different composition were placed between a neutron-source and a high-resolution germanium spectrometer. Gamma-rays in the range of 0.1 to 8 MeV were accumulated. In one set of experiments a 14-MeV neutron generator using the T(d,n) reaction as neutron-source was placed in a small room. Scattering in surrounding walls produced a spectrum of neutron energies from 14 MeV down to thermal. This complex neutron-source induced mainly neutron-capture lines and only a few scattering lines. As a result of the set-up, there was a considerable background of discrete lines from surrounding materials. A similar situation exists under planetary exploration conditions: gamma-rays are induced in the planetary surface as well as in the spacecraft. To investigate the contribution of neutrons with higher energies, an experiment for the measurement of prompt gamma radiation was set up at the end of a beam-line of an isochronous cyclotron.

  7. Development of a system for simultaneously generating triple extreme conditions for neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimura, Shigeju [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    We have developed new system available for controlling sample environment during the neutron scattering experiments. The system can simultaneously generate triple extreme conditions of low temperature, high magnetic field and high pressure. The system consists of : (1) a liquid-helium cryostat which enables the sample temperature range of 1.7 K to 200 K, (2) a superconducting magnet providing a vertical field up to 5 Tesla with antisymmetric split-coil geometry for polarized-beam experiments, and (3) a non-magnetic clamping high-pressure cell designed with the aim of generating hydrostatic pressure up to 2.5 Gpa. In the workshop, we will report the outline of the system and some results of performance tests using the system at JRR-3M of JAERI. (author)

  8. Pitch angle scattering by triggered emissions from the Siple Station wave injection experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harid, V.; Golkowski, M.; Bell, T. F.; Cohen, M.; Inan, U. S.

    2012-12-01

    Nonlinear amplification of whistler mode waves in the Earth's magnetosphere , due to gyroresonance with energetic electrons, also known as the phenomena of VLF triggered emissions, has been investigated extensively with analytical formulations, experimental observations and computer simulations. However, the pitch angle scattering of typical triggered emission waveforms has not been specifically considered. Most authors consider particle scattering either in the presence of a monochromatic constant amplitude wave or a broadband incoherent but time-frequency homogenous emission. Although investigation of these two limiting cases has provided valuable insight into radiation belt dynamics, a large class of waves including triggered emissions and chorus do not fall under either of the two descriptions. The inherent symmetry of a constant amplitude monochromatic wave around the equator results in non-cumulative pitch angle change for a large population of electrons. Wave amplification generated during linear and nonlinear growth result in wave gradients that can have a more significant effect on particle pitch angle and energy. In addition, coherent frequency changing signals are capable of shifting the cyclotron resonance condition and significantly perturbing particle trajectories from their adiabatic motion. The wave-injection experiment at Siple Station, Antarctica was designed to study wave growth and triggering processes in the magnetosphere. Amplified signals from Siple Station often show both wave gradients as well advances in phase and frequency. Using a numerical test-particle simulation, we model the effect of typical Siple Station signals on pitch angle scattering and particle precipitation. Results show that triggered emission type wave forms are more efficient in producing large pitch angle changes in resonant particles.

  9. Dynamics of functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes in solution studied by incoherent neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbina, A; Miguel, C [Departamento Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Plaza Hospital 1, 30202 Cartagena (Spain); Delgado, J L; Langa, F [Facultad de Ciencias del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 45071, Toledo (Spain); DIaz-Paniagua, C [Centro Espanol de MetrologIa, 28760 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, M [Institut Laue-Langevin, 39042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Batallan, F [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: antonio.urbina@upct.es

    2008-03-12

    We have studied, by incoherent neutron scattering experiments, the dynamics of a colloidal suspension of functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The nanotubes have been functionalized with pentyl ester groups attached at the ends and suspended in deuterated toluene with a concentration of 2.6 mg SWNT/1 ml of deuterated toluene. The experimental techniques were incoherent elastic neutron scattering (IENS) and incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering (IQNS). In the temperature range between 4 K and 300 K, three phases were observed by IENS measurements: a solid phase for TT{sub m}. Furthermore, in the high temperature range of the undercooled liquid phase, hysteresis loops in the heating and cooling scans were observed. The lower limit of the hysteresis loop defines the critical crossover temperature T{sub c}. IQNS measurements in the liquid phase and a cooling scan of the undercooled liquid phase were performed. Three different quasielastic peaks were identified, two in the liquid phase and another one in the undercooled liquid phase. The widths of the quasielastic peaks are discussed as a generalized diffusion function which can be factorized as a temperature dependent diffusion function and a Q dependent structure function. From the comparison of the diffusion function with the viscosity of toluene, we conclude that two components are in the long-time range Brownian motion and the other one in the short-time range Brownian motion.

  10. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off a deuterium target at the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Movsisyan, Aram

    2011-05-15

    Deeply virtual Compton scattering is studied in this report, using all data collected at the HERMES experiment from 1996 to 2005. Azimuthal asymmetries with respect to beam-helicity, beam-charge and target polarization alone and also to their different combinations for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons in deep-inelastic scattering from a both unpolarized and longitudinally polarized deuterium targets are measured. The asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes. The asymmetries are observed in the exclusive region -(1.5){sup 2} GeV{sup 2}

  11. Light scattering calculations for the nephelometer experiment on the 1981/1982 Jupiter Orbiter-Probe mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    A variety of studies were carried out to help establish the accuracy of quantities describing physical characteristics of cloud particles (such as size, shape, and composition) that are to be inferred from light scattering data obtained with the nephelameter experiment on the Galileo spacecraft. The objectives were to provide data for validating and testing procedures for analyzing the Galileo nephelameter data with light scattering observations in a variety of on-going laboratory and field measurement programs for which simultaneous observations of the physical characteristics of the scattering particles were available.

  12. Comparative study of different scattering geometries for the proposed Indian X-ray polarization measurement experiment using Geant4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadawale, S.V., E-mail: santoshv@prl.res.i [Physical Research Laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Paul, B. [Raman Research Institute, Sadashivnagar, Bangalore 560 080 (India); Pendharkar, J.; Naik, Sachindra [Physical Research Laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India)

    2010-06-21

    Polarization is a very important property of radiation from astrophysical sources. It carries unique information regarding the emission mechanism, physical conditions as well as emission geometry at the origin. Polarization measurements in X-rays can provide unique opportunity to study the behavior of matter and radiation under extreme magnetic fields and extreme gravitational fields. Unfortunately, over past two decades, when X-ray astronomy witnessed multiple order of magnitude improvement in temporal, spatial and spectral sensitivities, there is no (or very little) progress in the field of polarization measurements of astrophysical X-rays. Recently, a proposal has been submitted to Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) for a dedicated small satellite based experiment to carry out X-ray polarization measurement, which aims to provide the first X-ray polarization measurements since 1976. This experiment will be based on the well known principle of polarization measurement by Thomson scattering and employs the baseline design of a central low Z scatterer (typically Lithium, Lithium Hydride or Beryllium) surrounded by X-ray detectors to measure the angular intensity distribution of the scattered X-rays. The sensitivity of such experiment is determined by the collecting area, scattering and detection efficiency, X-ray detector background, and the modulation factor. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully select the scattering geometry which can provide the highest modulation factor and thus highest sensitivity within the specified experimental constraints. The effective way to determine optimum scattering geometry is by studying various possible scattering geometries by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Here we present results of our detailed comparative study based on Geant4 simulations of five different scattering geometries which can be considered within the weight and size constraints of the proposed small satellite based X-ray polarization measurement

  13. Determination of the M-matrix in d-. cap alpha. elastic scattering from a complete set of experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsener, K.; Grueebler, W.; Sperisen, F.; Ghazi-Wakili, K.; Koenig, V.; Schmelzbach, P.A.; Vuaridel, B.; Bittcher, M.; Singy, D.; Ulbricht, J.

    1988-05-02

    Six polarization transfer coefficients of the d-..cap alpha.. elastic scattering have been measured at an incident deuteron energy of 11.9 MeV and a scattering angle theta/sub lab/ = 37.3/sup 0/. Together with earlier data on cross section and analyzing powers, a complete set of measurements allows to deduce the d-..cap alpha.. M-matrix directly from experiment.

  14. PEG-g-poly(aspartamide-co-N,N-dimethylethylenediamino aspartamide): Synthesis, characterization and its application as a drug delivery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yang; Xiaohong Zhang; Li Yuan; Jianhua Hu

    2009-01-01

    PEG-g-poly(aspartamide-co-N,N-dimethylethylenediamino aspartamide) (PEG-DMEDA-PASP) was synthesized by two-step ringopening reactions of polysuccinimide (PSI) with α-methoxy-ω-amino-poly(ethylene glycol) and N,N-dimethylethylenediamine. The polymer structure was confirmed by 1H NMR and FT-IR. The resultant PEG-DMEDA-PASP with ammonium glycyrrhizinate (AMG) could form polymeric micelles in aqueous solution. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements revealed that these polymeric micelles were spherical particles with a narrow diameter distribution and that their average diameter was ca. 70 nm. These polymeric micelles had high-loading capacity (58%) and encapsulation efficiency (70%) for AMG. The results of in vitro release experiments showed that these polymeric micelles possessed sustained-release effects, with a release rate of 25% within 3 h and 900 within 24 h.

  15. ISPyB for BioSAXS, the gateway to user autonomy in solution scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maria Antolinos, Alejandro; Pernot, Petra; Brennich, Martha E.; Kieffer, Jérôme; Bowler, Matthew W.; Delageniere, Solange; Ohlsson, Staffan; Malbet Monaco, Stephanie; Ashton, Alun; Franke, Daniel; Svergun, Dmitri; McSweeney, Sean; Gordon, Elspeth; Round, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Logging experiments with the laboratory-information management system ISPyB (Information System for Protein crystallography Beamlines) enhances the automation of small-angle X-ray scattering of biological macromolecules in solution (BioSAXS) experiments. The ISPyB interface provides immediate user-oriented online feedback and enables data cross-checking and downstream analysis. To optimize data quality and completeness, ISPyBB (ISPyB for BioSAXS) makes it simple for users to compare the results from new measurements with previous acquisitions from the same day or earlier experiments in order to maximize the ability to collect all data required in a single synchrotron visit. The graphical user interface (GUI) of ISPyBB has been designed to guide users in the preparation of an experiment. The input of sample information and the ability to outline the experimental aims in advance provides feedback on the number of measurements required, calculation of expected sample volumes and time needed to collect the data: all of this information aids the users to better prepare for their trip to the synchrotron. A prototype version of the ISPyBB database is now available at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) beamline BM29 and is already greatly appreciated by academic users and industrial clients. It will soon be available at the PETRA III beamline P12 and the Diamond Light Source beamlines I22 and B21. PMID:25615862

  16. ISPyB for BioSAXS, the gateway to user autonomy in solution scattering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maria Antolinos, Alejandro; Pernot, Petra; Brennich, Martha E; Kieffer, Jérôme; Bowler, Matthew W; Delageniere, Solange; Ohlsson, Staffan; Malbet Monaco, Stephanie; Ashton, Alun; Franke, Daniel; Svergun, Dmitri; McSweeney, Sean; Gordon, Elspeth; Round, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Logging experiments with the laboratory-information management system ISPyB (Information System for Protein crystallography Beamlines) enhances the automation of small-angle X-ray scattering of biological macromolecules in solution (BioSAXS) experiments. The ISPyB interface provides immediate user-oriented online feedback and enables data cross-checking and downstream analysis. To optimize data quality and completeness, ISPyBB (ISPyB for BioSAXS) makes it simple for users to compare the results from new measurements with previous acquisitions from the same day or earlier experiments in order to maximize the ability to collect all data required in a single synchrotron visit. The graphical user interface (GUI) of ISPyBB has been designed to guide users in the preparation of an experiment. The input of sample information and the ability to outline the experimental aims in advance provides feedback on the number of measurements required, calculation of expected sample volumes and time needed to collect the data: all of this information aids the users to better prepare for their trip to the synchrotron. A prototype version of the ISPyBB database is now available at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) beamline BM29 and is already greatly appreciated by academic users and industrial clients. It will soon be available at the PETRA III beamline P12 and the Diamond Light Source beamlines I22 and B21.

  17. Hard Two-Photon Contribution to Elastic Lepton-Proton Scattering Determined by the OLYMPUS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B. S.; Ice, L. D.; Khaneft, D.; O'Connor, C.; Russell, R.; Schmidt, A.; Bernauer, J. C.; Kohl, M.; Akopov, N.; Alarcon, R.; Ates, O.; Avetisyan, A.; Beck, R.; Belostotski, S.; Bessuille, J.; Brinker, F.; Calarco, J. R.; Carassiti, V.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; de Leo, R.; Diefenbach, J.; Donnelly, T. W.; Dow, K.; Elbakian, G.; Eversheim, P. D.; Frullani, S.; Funke, Ch.; Gavrilov, G.; Gläser, B.; Görrissen, N.; Hasell, D. K.; Hauschildt, J.; Hoffmeister, Ph.; Holler, Y.; Ihloff, E.; Izotov, A.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Kelsey, J.; Kiselev, A.; Klassen, P.; Krivshich, A.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lenz, D.; Lumsden, S.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F.; Marukyan, H.; Miklukho, O.; Milner, R. G.; Movsisyan, A.; Murray, M.; Naryshkin, Y.; Perez Benito, R.; Perrino, R.; Redwine, R. P.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D.; Rosner, G.; Schneekloth, U.; Seitz, B.; Statera, M.; Thiel, A.; Vardanyan, H.; Veretennikov, D.; Vidal, C.; Winnebeck, A.; Yeganov, V.; Olympus Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    The OLYMPUS Collaboration reports on a precision measurement of the positron-proton to electron-proton elastic cross section ratio, R2 γ , a direct measure of the contribution of hard two-photon exchange to the elastic cross section. In the OLYMPUS measurement, 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams were directed through a hydrogen gas target internal to the DORIS storage ring at DESY. A toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight scintillators detected elastically scattered leptons in coincidence with recoiling protons over a scattering angle range of ≈20 ° to 80°. The relative luminosity between the two beam species was monitored using tracking telescopes of interleaved gas electron multiplier and multiwire proportional chamber detectors at 12°, as well as symmetric Møller or Bhabha calorimeters at 1.29°. A total integrated luminosity of 4.5 fb-1 was collected. In the extraction of R2 γ, radiative effects were taken into account using a Monte Carlo generator to simulate the convolutions of internal bremsstrahlung with experiment-specific conditions such as detector acceptance and reconstruction efficiency. The resulting values of R2 γ, presented here for a wide range of virtual photon polarization 0.456 <ɛ <0.978 , are smaller than some hadronic two-photon exchange calculations predict, but are in reasonable agreement with a subtracted dispersion model and a phenomenological fit to the form factor data.

  18. Internal Energy Dependence of Molecular Condensation Coefficients Determined from Molecular Beam Surface Scattering Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibener, S. J.; Lee, Y. T.

    1978-05-01

    An experiment was performed which confirms the existence of an internal mode dependence of molecular sticking probabilities for collisions of molecules with a cold surface. The scattering of a velocity selected effusive beam of CCl{sub 4} from a 90 K CC1{sub 4} ice surface has been studied at five translational velocities and for two different internal temperatures. At a surface temperature of 90 K (approx. 99% sticking probability) a four fold increase in reflected intensity was observed for the internally excited (560 K) CC1{sub 4} relative to the room temperature (298 K) CC1{sub 4} at a translational velocity of 2.5 X 10{sup 4} cm/sec. For a surface temperature of 90 K all angular distributions were found to peak 15{sup 0} superspecularly independent of incident velocity.

  19. Tutorial on Fourier space coverage for scattering experiments, with application to SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Ross W.

    2010-04-01

    The Fourier Diffraction Theorem relates the data measured during electromagnetic, optical, or acoustic scattering experiments to the spatial Fourier transform of the object under test. The theorem is well-known, but since it is based on integral equations and complicated mathematical expansions, the typical derivation may be difficult for the non-specialist. In this paper, the theorem is derived and presented using simple geometry, plus undergraduatelevel physics and mathematics. For practitioners of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, the theorem is important to understand because it leads to a simple geometric and graphical understanding of image resolution and sampling requirements, and how they are affected by radar system parameters and experimental geometry. Also, the theorem can be used as a starting point for imaging algorithms and motion compensation methods. Several examples are given in this paper for realistic scenarios.

  20. Light scattering by clouds of cosmic dust analogues with carbonaceous compounds (PROGRA2 experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadamcik, Edith; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Lasue, Jeremie

    Carbonaceous compounds are found in numerous clouds of solid particles in the Solar System (e.g. Cometary comae, Interplanetary dust, Titan's aerosols). Fluffy aggregates of submicron sized grains and more compact particles up to some tens of micrometers were present in the particles captured by the Stardust mission in the coma of comet 81P/Wild 2 [1]. Complex organic refractories were found in the particles together with silicates [2,3], while CHON particles were detected by mass spectrometer, as previously by Vega 1 and Giotto at 1P/Halley [4,5]. Titan's aerosols are complex organics (CxNyHz) and their light scattering properties can only be interpreted if they present a fluffy aggregates structure [6]. The light scattered by the dust particles is partially linearly polarized with a polarization degree depending on the physical properties of the dust and on the geometry (phase angle) and wavelength of observations [7]. Laboratory scattering measurements with the PROGRA2 experiment [8] (in A300- CNES and ESA dedicated microgravity flights or on ground for low density particles) offer an alternative to simulate the scattering properties of real particles particularly for structures too large or too complex to be handled easily by numerical simulations. Experimental simulations have been performed on numerous samples underlying the characteristics of the polarimetric phase curves such as maximum and minimum polarization as a function of the properties of the particles (grains and particles size, structure, refractive index) [9,10]. These results were used to interpret variations in polarization in cometary comae [11,12] or in the Titan's atmosphere [13]. In this presentation we emphasize the optical properties due to the presence of organics and C-bearing materials and compare them to the optical properties of more transparent materials included or not in organics. Finally we give some examples of application to the interpretation of Solar System dust observations

  1. Electron Neutrino Charged-Current Quasielastic Scattering in the MINERvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolcott, J. [Tufts U.

    2015-12-31

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter for electron neutrino appearance oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically begin with the muon neutrino cross section and apply theoretical corrections to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section. However, at present no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments exists. We present the cross sections for a CCQE-like process determined using the MINERvA detector, which are the first measurements of any exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^{2}$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^{2}$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between these measurements and the predictions of the GENIE generator. We furthermore report on a photon-like background unpredicted by the generator which we interpret as neutral-coherent diffractive scattering from hydrogen.

  2. The Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) experiment reports 1993 run cycle. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrer, R.; Longshore, A. [comps.

    1995-06-01

    This year the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) ran an informal user program because the US Department of Energy planned to close LANSCE in FY1994. As a result, an advisory committee recommended that LANSCE scientists and their collaborators complete work in progress. At LANSCE, neutrons are produced by spallation when a pulsed, 800-MeV proton beam impinges on a tungsten target. The proton pulses are provided by the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator and a associated Proton Storage Ring (PSR), which can Iter the intensity, time structure, and repetition rate of the pulses. The LAMPF protons of Line D are shared between the LANSCE target and the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility, which results in LANSCE spectrometers being available to external users for unclassified research about 80% of each annual LAMPF run cycle. Measurements of interest to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) may also be performed and may occupy up to an additional 20% of the available beam time. These experiments are reviewed by an internal program advisory committee. This year, a total of 127 proposals were submitted. The proposed experiments involved 229 scientists, 57 of whom visited LANSCE to participate in measurements. In addition, 3 (nuclear physics) participating research teams, comprising 44 scientists, carried out experiments at LANSCE. Instrument beam time was again oversubscribed, with 552 total days requested an 473 available for allocation.

  3. How do we know what is ‘inside the atom’?—Simulating scattering experiments in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, E. S.

    2017-07-01

    The idea of the indivisible atom, held since the time of the ancient Greeks, was smashed just over 100 years ago. Ernest Rutherford and his team of scientists in the UK used scattering experiments to discover that atoms have a very dense and extremely small central nucleus that contains more than 99.9% of the mass of an atom and is ten thousand times smaller than an atom. Then just over 50 years ago three physicists in America: Jerome Friedman, Henry Kendall and Richard Taylor carried out scattering experiments in California, that revealed the internal structure of nucleons—later called quarks. This workshop, developed by the Public Engagement team at the Science and Technology Facilities Council, takes secondary school students through these historic discoveries and the present day scattering experiments still changing the world of science.

  4. Results for quasi-elastic anti-neutrino scattering on scintillator from the MINERvA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellman, Heidi; Minerva Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We present a new preliminary measurement of the charge-current quasi-elastic scattering cross section for anti-neutrinos on scintillator (CH) over the energy range 1.5-10 GeV. The data were taken with the MINERvA detector in the NuMI beamline at Fermilab and cover the energy range of interest for the proposed DUNE long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment and of JLAB elastic scattering experiments. Of particular interest to the nuclear community are possible signatures for short range correlations and/or meson exchange currents in these data. We present comparisons to a range of nuclear models.

  5. Fragmentation and nucleon structure in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering at the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jossten, Sylvester Johannes

    2013-10-15

    Multiplicities for the semi-inclusive production of each charge state of {pi}{sup {+-}} and K{sup {+-}} mesons in deep-inelastic scattering are presented as a function of the kinematic quantities x, Q{sup 2}, z and P{sub h} {sub perpendicular} {sub to}. The multiplicities were extracted from data collected by the HERMES experiment at the HERA storage ring using 27.6 GeV electron and positron beams on a hydrogen or deuterium gas target. These results for identified hadrons constitute the most precise measurement to date, and will significantly enhance our understanding of the proton structure, as well as the fragmentation process in deep-inelastic scattering. Furthermore, the 3D binning at an unprecedented level of precision provides a handle to help disentangle the transverse momentum structure of both. The high level of precision coupled with an intermediate energy regime requires a careful study of the complex interaction between the experimental systematics, theoretical uncertainties, and the applicability of the factorization theorem within the standard framework of leading-twist collinear QCD. This is illustrated by the extraction of the valence quark ratio d{sub {nu}}/u{sub {nu}} at leading-order in {alpha}{sub s}. These results show a strong z-dependence below z {approx} 0.30, which could be interpreted as evidence for factorization breaking. This evidence weakens somewhat when isospin invariance of the fragmentation functions is assumed to be broken. Additionally, the multiplicities for the semi-inclusive production of {pi}{sup 0} mesons in deep-inelastic scattering are presented as a function of z. These multiplicities were extracted from the same data sample as used for the charged meson results. The neutral pion multiplicity is the same as the average charged pion multiplicity, up to z {approx} 0.70. This is consistent with isospin invariance below z {approx} 0.70. The results at high values of z show strong signs of isospin symmetry breaking.

  6. “SmartGlass” Obstacles for Dynamic Inducing of Light Scattering in Vision Research Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga DANILENKO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a technique that allows control of visual stimuli quality through the use of a setup with a polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC film positioned in the optical pathway of one or both human eyes. Nowadays, PDLC films allow alteration of the resolution and contrast limits of the transmitted light due to continuous change in the light scattering that is obtained by the application of an AC electrical field. In our experimental setup, the use of a wide-aperture up to area of 20 x 15 cm2 PDLC sheet is combined with a flat-screen PC display or with a modified display emission block without its interference filter unit and with an installed individually controllable colored light-emitting diode (LED backlight. In the latter case, the spatial structure of visual stimulus remains constant, but the PDLC switching-on timing for intensity, color, and contrast of visual stimuli control is done by a PC via an Arduino USB interface. Arduino applies a voltage to the backlight colored LEDs and the low voltage up to 30 – 80 V to light-scattering PDLC sheet. Modifications to this setup can improve the resolution of the timing and screen stimulus intensity and color purity, and increase the flexibility of its application in visual research tasks. A particular use of PDLC scattering sheets involves the altering of the stimuli input strength of the eye in different binocular viewing schemes. In such applications, a restricted-optical-aperture PDLC element is mounted in a goggle frame, and the element is controlled by the application of low-voltage AC field. The efficacy of the setup is demonstrated in experiments of human vision contrast sensitivity adaptation studies. Studies allow to determine the characteristic time of the contrast sensitivity altering of 4 s during adaptation phase and the same order of the characteristic time during recovery.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12907

  7. Study of the discovery potential for hidden photon emission at future electron scattering fixed target experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Beranek, T

    2013-01-01

    Electron scattering fixed target experiments are a versatile tool to explore various physics phenomena. Recently these experiments came into focus to search for $U(1)$ extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics at low energies. These extensions are motivated from anomalies in astrophysical observations as well as from deviations from Standard Model predictions, such as the discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical determination of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. They also arise naturally when the Standard Model is embedded into a more general theory. In the considered $U(1)$ extensions a new, light messenger particle $\\gamma^\\prime$, the hidden photon, couples to the hidden sector as well as to the electromagnetic current of the Standard Model by kinetic mixing, which allows for a search for this particle e.g. in the invariant mass distribution of the process $e (A,\\,Z)\\rightarrow e (A,\\,Z) l^+ l^-$. In this process the hidden photon is emitted by bremsstrahlung and decays into...

  8. A New 3He-Target Design for Compton Scattering Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalchick, S.; Gao, H.; Laskaris, G.; Weir, W.; Ye, Q.; Ye, Q. J.

    2011-10-01

    The neutron spin polarizabilities describe the stiffness of the neutron spin to external electric and magnetic fields. A double-polarized elastic Compton Scattering experiment will try to determine the neutron spin polarizabilities using a new polarized 3He target and the circularly polarized γ-beam of HI γS facility at the Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory (DFELL). To polarize the 3He target, a newly constructed solenoid is being used which can provide a very uniform magnetic field around the target area and allows to place High Intensity Gamma Source NaI Detector Arrays (HINDA) closer to the target. The ideal target polarization is 40-60% and will be measured using the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. A prototype of the polarized 3He target is being constructed in the Medium Energy Physics Group laboratories at Duke and is currently being tested. The experiment is expected to take place in 2013 after the DFELL upgrade. I will be presenting details of the construction process, including design specifications and data from the magnetic field mapping, as well as preliminary target polarization results. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, under contract number DE-FG02-03ER41231, and by the National Science Foundation, grant number NSF-PHY-08-51813.

  9. Experiment of X-ray Generations Using Laser-Compton Scattering at LINAC of SINAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Qiang-yan; XU Wang; LUO Wen; FAN Gong-tao; Yang Li-feng; Fan Guang-wei; LI Yong-jiang; XU Ben-ji; SHI Xiang-chun; LIN Guo-qiang; YAN Zhe; XU Yi; CHEN Jing-gen; GUO Wei; WANG Hong-wei; WANG Cheng-bin; XU Jia-qiang; Ma Yu-gang; CAI Xiang-zhou; ZHAO Ming-hua; SHEN Wen-qing

    2009-01-01

    Laser Compton scattering(LCS) can generate X-rays or y-rays with high brightness and easy controlled polarization by applying high-peak-power laser pulses to relativistic electron bunches.One of the most promising approaches to short pulsed X-ray sources is the laser synchrotron source.It is based on LCS between picoseconds relativistic electron bunches and picoseconds laser pulses.A project of Shanghai laser electron gamma source with LCS method has been proposed on Shanghai synchrotron radiation facility.Before that,a prototype has been developed in the beamline of the linear accelerator at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences.The LCS experiment was carried out by using the 107 MeV,5 Hz,1 ns,0.1 nC electron bunches from the linear accelerator and the 18 ns,10 MW peak power,Nd:YAG laser pulses.In this communication,we describe the details and report the first results of this experiment.

  10. QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment: NuSOnG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Batra, P.; /Columbia U.; Bugel, Leonard G.; /Columbia U.; Camilleri, Leslie Loris; /Columbia U.; Conrad, Janet Marie; /MIT; de Gouvea, A.; /Northwestern U.; Fisher, Peter H.; /MIT; Formaggio, Joseph Angelo; /MIT; Jenkins, J.; /Northwestern U.; Karagiorgi, Georgia S.; /MIT; Kobilarcik, T.R.; /Fermilab /Texas U.

    2009-06-01

    We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parameterized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of 'Beyond the Standard Model' physics.

  11. QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment: NuSOnG

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, T; Bugel, L; Camilleri, L; Conrad, J M; De Gouvêa, A; Fisher, P H; Formaggio, J A; Jenkins, J; Karagiorgi, G; Kobilarcik, T R; Kopp, S; Kyle, G; Loinaz, W A; Mason, D A; Milner, R; Moore, R; Morfín, J G; Nakamura, M; Naples, D; Nienaber, P; Olness, F I; Owens, J F; Pate, S F; Pronin, A; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Schellman, H; Schienbein, I; Syphers, M J; Tait, T M P; Takeuchi, T; Tan, C Y; Van de Water, R G; Yamamoto, R K; Yu, J Y

    2009-01-01

    We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parameterized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of "Beyond the Standard Model" physics.

  12. International round-robin experiment to test the International Organization for Standardization total-scattering draft standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadkhoda, P; Müller, A; Ristau, D; Duparré, A; Gliech, S; Lauth, H; Schuhmann, U; Reng, N; Tilsch, M; Schuhmann, R; Amra, C; Deumie, C; Jolie, C; Kessler, H; Lindström, T; Ribbing, C G; Bennett, J M

    2000-07-01

    An international round-robin experiment has been conducted among laboratories in different countries to test the measurement and the data-analysis procedures in the International Organization for Standardization draft standard ISO/DIS 13696 for measuring total scattering from low-scatter laser optics. Ten laboratories measured total backscattering from high-reflectance mirrors, 50% beam splitters, and antireflection-coated windows. Results were sent to the Laser Zentrum Hannover, which acted as coordinator and analyzed all the backscattering data. The results showed that the procedure in the draft standard was useful for measuring and reporting backscattering for low-scatter optics. Problems encountered in the round-robin experiment included the accumulation of particles on the surfaces, particularly on the high-reflectance mirrors.

  13. Momentum measurement of secondary particle by multiple coulomb scattering with emulsion cloud chamber in DONuT experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, K. [Aichi University of Education, Kariya (Japan); Saoulidou, N. [University of Athens (Greece); Tzanakos, G. [University of Athens (Greece); Baller, B. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Lundberg, B. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Rameika, R. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Song, J.S. [Gyeongsang University, Chinju, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, C.S. [Gyeongsang University, Chinju, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Chung, S.H. [Gyeongsang University, Chinju, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Aoki, S. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan); Hara, T. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan); Erickson, C. [University of Minnesota, MN (United States); Heller, K. [University of Minnesota, MN (United States); Schwienhorst, R. [University of Minnesota, MN (United States); Sielaff, J. [University of Minnesota, MN (United States); Trammell, J. [University of Minnesota, MN (United States); Hoshino, K. [Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8602 (Japan); Kawada, J. [Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8602 (Japan); Komatsu, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8602 (Japan); Miyanishi, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8602 (Japan); Nakamura, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8602 (Japan); Nakano, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8602 (Japan); Narita, K. [Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8602 (Japan); Niwa, K. [Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8602 (Japan); Nonaka, N. [Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8602 (Japan); Okada, K.; Sato, O.; Toshito, T.; Miyamoto, S.; Takahashi, S. [Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8602 (Japan); Park, B.D. [Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8602 (Japan)]. E-mail: park@flab.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Furukawa, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8602 (Japan); Paolone, V. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Kafka, T. [Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

    2007-04-21

    We present a method of momentum measurement of charged particles using emulsion data from the DONuT experiment, and report results from the momentum analysis of secondary particles from neutrino interactions. In 578 neutrino interactions, 2338 secondary particles were analyzed and 83.2% of attempted particles were measured by multiple coulomb scattering.

  14. First EXL experiment with stored radioactive beam: Proton scattering on 56Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid M. von

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available EXL (EXotic nuclei studied in Light-ion induced reactions at the NESR storage ring is a project within NUSTAR at FAIR. It aims at investigations of light-ion induced direct reactions in inverse kinematics with radioactive ions cooled and stored in the future NESR (New Experimental Storage Ring. The existing ESR (Experimental Storage Ring at GSI, together with its internal gas-jet target, provides a unique opportunity to perform such kind of experiments on a smaller scale at the present time. We have developed a UHV-compatible (Ultra High Vacuum detector setup mainly based on DSSDs (Double-sided Silicon-Strip Detector for the target-like recoils [4]. With this setup we were able to successfully investigate reactions with a stored radioactive beam for the first time ever. As a part of the first EXL campaign we investigated the reaction 56Ni(p,p56Ni in inverse kinematics in order to measure the differential cross section for elastic proton scattering and deduce the nuclear-matter distribution and radius of 56Ni. In the following, the experimental setup is introduced in more detail, and the current status of the ongoing analysis is discussed.

  15. Rotationally inelastic scattering of OH by molecular hydrogen: Theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schewe, H. Christian, E-mail: schewe@fhi-berlin.mpg.de; Meijer, Gerard [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Ma, Qianli; Dagdigian, Paul J., E-mail: pjdagdigian@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218-2685 (United States); Vanhaecke, Nicolas [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Laboratoire Aimé Cotton-UMR 9188 CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11 and Ecole Normale Supérieure Cachan, 91405 Orsay (France); Wang, Xingan [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Kłos, Jacek [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-2021 (United States); Alexander, Millard H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-2021 (United States); Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-2021 (United States); Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y. T. van de [Molecular and Laser Physics, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6265 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Avoird, Ad van der, E-mail: A.vanderAvoird@theochem.ru.nl [Theoretical Chemistry, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6265 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2015-05-28

    We present an experimental and theoretical investigation of rotationally inelastic transitions of OH, prepared in the X{sup 2}Π, v = 0, j = 3/2 F{sub 1}f level, in collisions with molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}). In a crossed beam experiment, the OH radicals were state selected and velocity tuned over the collision energy range 75–155 cm{sup −1} using a Stark decelerator. Relative parity-resolved state-to-state integral cross sections were determined for collisions with normal and para converted H{sub 2}. These cross sections, as well as previous OH–H{sub 2} measurements at 595 cm{sup −1} collision energy by Schreel and ter Meulen [J. Chem. Phys. 105, 4522 (1996)], and OH–D{sub 2} measurements for collision energies 100–500 cm{sup −1} by Kirste et al. [Phys. Rev. A 82, 042717 (2010)], were compared with the results of quantum scattering calculations using recently determined ab initio potential energy surfaces [Ma et al., J. Chem. Phys. 141, 174309 (2014)]. Good agreement between the experimental and computed relative cross sections was found, although some structure seen in the OH(j = 3/2 F{sub 1}f → j = 5/2 F{sub 1}e) + H{sub 2}(j = 0) cross section is not understood.

  16. Mean square hydrogen fluctuations in chitosan/lecithin nanoparticles from elastic neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonvico, Fabio [Dipartimento di Farmacia, Universita di Parma and INFM, Parma I-43100 (Italy); Di Bari, Maria Teresa [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Parma, INFM and CNISM, Parma I-43100 (Italy); Bove, Livia [INFM-OGG and CRS-SOFT, c/o Institue Laue-Langevin, 38042 Grenoble (France); Deriu, Antonio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Parma, INFM and CNISM, Parma I-43100 (Italy)]. E-mail: Antonio.Deriu@fis.unipr.it; Cavatorta, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Parma, INFM and CNISM, Parma I-43100 (Italy); Albanese, Gianfranco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Parma, INFM and CNISM, Parma I-43100 (Italy)

    2006-11-15

    Recently, we have started a systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nano- and microparticles of interest as highly biocompatible drug carriers. For these particles, that are composed of polymeric and lipid material, a detailed understanding of the particle-solvent interactions is of key importance in order to tailor their characteristics for delivering drugs with specific chemical properties. Here we report results of elastic neutron scattering (ENS) investigations on lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles. They were first prepared by autoassembling the two components in aqueous solution; the samples were then freeze-dried and re-hydrated in a D{sub 2}O atmosphere. The experiments were performed in the temperature range of 20-50 K using the backscattering spectrometer IN13 at ILL (Grenoble, France). The comparison of samples in the dry state with similar ones at an hydration level of about 0.3-0.4 (g D{sub 2}O/g hydrated sample), indicates that the presence of an outer chitosan 'coating' reduces the mean square fluctuations of the hydrogens in the lipid component, leading thus to a stiffer nanoparticle structure.

  17. Spectrometer Development in Support of Thomson Scattering Investigations for the Helicon Plasma Experiment (HPX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Eva; Davies, Richard; Azzari, Phil; Frank, John; Frank, Jackson; James, Royce; Hopson, Jordon; Duke-Tinson, Omar; Paolino, Richard; Sherman, Justin; Wright, Erin; Turk, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Now that reproducible plasmas have been created on the Helicon Plasma Experiment (HPX) at the Coast Guard Academy Plasma Laboratory (CGAPL), a high-performance spectrometer utilizing volume-phase-holographic (VPH) grating and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera with a range of 380-1090 nm and resolution of 1024x1024 is being assembled. This spectrometer will collect doppler shifted photons created by exciting the plasma with the first harmonic of a 2.5 J Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Direct measurements of the plasma's temperature and density will be determined using HPX's Thomson Scattering (TS) system as a single spatial point diagnostic. TS has the capability of determining plasma properties on short time scales and will be used to create a robust picture of the internal plasma parameters. A prototype spectrometer has been constructed to explore the Andor CCD camera's resolution and sensitivity. Concurrently, through intensive study of the high energy TS system, safety protocols and standard operation procedures (SOP) for the Coast Guard's largest and most powerful Laser have been developed. The current status of the TS SOP, diagnostic development, and the collection optic's spectrometer will be reported. Supported by U.S. DEPS Grant [HEL-JTO] PRWJFY15-16.

  18. Scattering experiments with microwave billiards at an exceptional point under broken time-reversal invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, S; Dietz, B; Harney, H L; Miski-Oglu, M; Richter, A; Schäfer, F

    2014-03-01

    Scattering experiments with microwave cavities were performed and the effects of broken time-reversal invariance (TRI), induced by means of a magnetized ferrite placed inside the cavity, on an isolated doublet of nearly degenerate resonances were investigated. All elements of the effective Hamiltonian of this two-level system were extracted. As a function of two experimental parameters, the doublet and the associated eigenvectors could be tuned to coalesce at a so-called exceptional point (EP). The behavior of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors when encircling the EP in parameter space was studied, including the geometric amplitude that builds up in the case of broken TRI. A one-dimensional subspace of parameters was found where the differences of the eigenvalues are either real or purely imaginary. There, the Hamiltonians were found to be PT invariant under the combined operation of parity (P) and time reversal (T) in a generalized sense. The EP is the point of transition between both regions. There a spontaneous breaking of PT occurs.

  19. The study of membrane formation via phase inversion method by cloud point and light scattering experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arahman, Nasrul; Maimun, Teuku; Mukramah, Syawaliah

    2017-01-01

    The composition of polymer solution and the methods of membrane preparation determine the solidification process of membrane. The formation of membrane structure prepared via non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) method is mostly determined by phase separation process between polymer, solvent, and non-solvent. This paper discusses the phase separation process of polymer solution containing Polyethersulfone (PES), N-methylpirrolidone (NMP), and surfactant Tetronic 1307 (Tet). Cloud point experiment is conducted to determine the amount of non-solvent needed on induced phase separation. Amount of water required as a non-solvent decreases by the addition of surfactant Tet. Kinetics of phase separation for such system is studied by the light scattering measurement. With the addition of Tet., the delayed phase separation is observed and the structure growth rate decreases. Moreover, the morphology of fabricated membrane from those polymer systems is analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images of both systems show the formation of finger-like macrovoids through the cross-section.

  20. The Thomson Scattering System on the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Strickler, R. Majeski, R. Kaita, B. LeBlanc

    2008-07-31

    The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) is a spherical tokamak with R0 = 0.4m, a = 0.26m, BTF ~ 3.4kG, IP ~ 400kA, and pulse length ~ 0.25s. The goal of LTX is to investigate tokamak plasmas that are almost entirely surrounded by a lithium-coated plasma-facing shell conformal to the last closed magnetic flux surface. Based on previous experimental results and simulation, it is expected that the low-recycling liquid lithium surfaces will result in higher temperatures at the plasma edge, flatter overall temperature profiles, centrally-peaked density profiles, and an increased confinement time. To test these predictions, the electron temperature and density profiles in LTX will be measured by a multi-point Thomson scattering system (TVTS). Initially, TS measurements will be made at up to 12 simultaneous points between the plasma center and plasma edge. Later, high resolution edge measurements will be deployed to study the lithium edge physics in greater detail. Technical challenges to implementing the TS system included limited "line of sight" access to the plasma due to the plasma-facing shell and problems associated with the presence of liquid lithium.

  1. Scatter hoarding and cache pilferage by superior competitors: an experiment with wild boar (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suselbeek, L.; Adamczyk, V.M.A.P.; Bongers, F.; Nolet, B.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; van Wieren, S.E.; Jansen, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Food-hoarding patterns range between larder hoarding (a few large caches) and scatter hoarding (many small caches), and are, in essence, the outcome of a hoard size–number trade-off in pilferage risk. Animals that scatter hoard are believed to do so, despite higher costs, to reduce loss of cached fo

  2. An unexpected signature of Lorenz-Mie scattering observed in flowcytometric experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.G.; Doornbos, R.M.P.; Deurloo, K.E.I.; Noordmans, H.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Maeda, M.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed analysis of elastic light scattering by spheresin FlowCytometers shows unexpected Lorenz-Miescattering patterns. The complete scattering matrix S ofspheres was measured. Two parameter scatterplots withx- and y- coordinates determined by the S11 + Sij andS11 - Sij values were obtained. Sampl

  3. Scattering Density Profile Model of POPG Bilayers as Determined by Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Small-Angle Neutron and X-ray Scattering Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Holland, B [University of Guelph; Gray, C.G [University of Guelph; Tomberli, B [Brandon University; Katsaras, John [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We combine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and experiment, both small-angle neutron (SANS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), to determine the precise structure of bilayers composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG), a lipid commonly encountered in bacterial membranes. Experiment and simulation are used to develop a one-dimensional scattering density profile (SDP) model suitable for the analysis of experimental data. The joint refinement of such data (i.e., SANS and SAXS) results in the area per lipid that is then used in the fixed-area simulations. In the final step, the direct comparison of simulated-to-experimental data gives rise to the detailed structure of POPG bilayers. From these studies we conclude that POPG s molecular area is 66.0 +/- 1.3 ^2, its overall bilayer thickness is 36.7 +/- 0.7 , and its hydrocarbon region thickness is 27.9 ( 0.6 , assuming a simulated value of 1203 ^3 for the total lipid volume.

  4. Spin-density correlations in the dynamic spin-fluctuation theory: Comparison with polarized neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikov, N.B., E-mail: melnikov@cs.msu.su [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Reser, B.I., E-mail: reser@imp.uran.ru [Miheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Paradezhenko, G.V., E-mail: gparadezhenko@cs.msu.su [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-01

    To study the spin-density correlations in the ferromagnetic metals above the Curie temperature, we relate the spin correlator and neutron scattering cross-section. In the dynamic spin-fluctuation theory, we obtain explicit expressions for the effective and local magnetic moments and spatial spin-density correlator. Our theoretical results are demonstrated by the example of bcc Fe. The effective and local moments are found in good agreement with results of polarized neutron scattering experiment over a wide temperature range. The calculated short-range order is small (up to 4 Å) and slowly decreases with temperature.

  5. A study of quasi-elastic muon neutrino and antineutrino scattering in the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubushkin, V.; Popov, B.; Kim, J. J.; Camilleri, L.; Levy, J.-M.; Mezzetto, M.; Naumov, D.; Alekhin, S.; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; de Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; di Lella, L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kulagin, S.; Kustov, D.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Ling, J.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Poulsen, C.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Samoylov, O.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Seaton, M.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Wu, Q.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    2009-10-01

    We have studied the muon neutrino and antineutrino quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering reactions ( ν μ n→ μ - p and bar{ν }_{μ}ptoμ+n ) using a set of experimental data collected by the NOMAD Collaboration. We have performed measurements of the cross-section of these processes on a nuclear target (mainly carbon) normalizing it to the total ν μ ( bar{ν}_{μ} ) charged-current cross section. The results for the flux-averaged QEL cross sections in the (anti)neutrino energy interval 3-100 GeV are < σ_{qel}rangle_{ν_{μ}}=(0.92±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst))×10^{-38} cm2 and <σ_{qel}rangle_{bar{ν}_{μ}}=(0.81±0.05(stat)±0.09(syst))×10^{-38} cm2 for neutrino and antineutrino, respectively. The axial mass parameter M A was extracted from the measured quasi-elastic neutrino cross section. The corresponding result is M A =1.05±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst) GeV. It is consistent with the axial mass values recalculated from the antineutrino cross section and extracted from the pure Q 2 shape analysis of the high purity sample of ν μ quasi-elastic 2-track events, but has smaller systematic error and should be quoted as the main result of this work. Our measured M A is found to be in good agreement with the world average value obtained in previous deuterium filled bubble chamber experiments. The NOMAD measurement of M A is lower than those recently published by K2K and MiniBooNE Collaborations. However, within the large errors quoted by these experiments on M A , these results are compatible with the more precise NOMAD value.

  6. Controlled synthesis of N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan for modulated bioadhesion and nasal membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardeshi, Chandrakantsing V; Belgamwar, Veena S

    2016-01-01

    In an experiment to explore the bioadhesion, biocompatibility, and membrane permeation properties, the controlled synthesis of N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) was carried out by two-step reductive methylation of chitosan (CHT). Methylation was confirmed by (1)H NMR (δ=3.1 ppm) and FTIR analysis (CH stretch at 1,485 cm(-1)). The TMC was further characterized by DSC, TGA, XRD, HR-TEM, SEM, and elemental analysis. Findings revealed improved solubility, enhanced viscosity, increased swelling index and higher molecular weight of TMC over CHT. Comparative evaluation validated increased bioadhesion potential, and improved ex vivo biocompatibility of TMC compared to CHT. Increased bioadhesion of TMC NPs over CHT NPs can be attributed to the strong electrostatic interactions between cationic amino groups with anionic sialic and sulfonic acid moieties contained in the mucin of the nasal mucus. Ex vivo biocompatibility studies suggested that the NP formulations of both biopolymers were biocompatible and could be applied safely on the nasal epithelium. Ex vivo permeation studies executed on excised cattle nasal mucosa illustrated improved permeability of TMC NPs over CHT NPs. In the author's opinion, two-step reductive methylation of CHT could be an attractive strategy to improve its solubility, bioadhesion, and permeation characteristics without affecting biocompatibility across the mucosal surfaces.

  7. The G0 Experiment: Apparatus for Parity-Violating Electron Scattering Measurements at Forward and Backward Angles

    CERN Document Server

    Androic, D; Arvieux, J; Asaturyan, R; Averett, T D; Bailey, S L; Batigne, G; Beck, D H; Beise, E J; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Bimbot, L; Birchall, J; Biselli, A; Bosted, P; Breuer, H; Brindza, P; Capuano, C L; Carlini, R D; Carr, R; Chant, N; Chao, Y -C; Clark, R; Coppens, A; Covrig, S D; Cowley, A; Dale, D; Davis, C A; Ellis, C; Falk, W R; Fenker, H; Finn, J M; Forest, T; Franklin, G; Frascaria, R; Furget, C; Gaskell, D; Gericke, M T W; Grames, J; Griffioen, K A; Grimm, K; Guillard, G; Guillon, B; Guler, H; Gustafsson, K; Hannelius, L; Hansknecht, J; Hasty, R D; Allen, A M Hawthorne; Horn, T; Ito, T M; Johnston, K; Jones, M; Kammel, P; Kazimi, R; King, P M; Kolarkar, A; Korkmaz, E; Korsch, W; Kox, S; Kuhn, J; Lachniet, J; Laszewski, R; Lee, L; Lenoble, J; Liatard, E; Liu, J; Lung, A; MacLachlan, G A; Mammei, J; Marchand, D; Martin, J W; Mack, D J; McFarlane, K W; McKee, D W; McKeown, R D; Merchez, F; Mihovilovic, M; Micherdzinska, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Moffit, B; Morlet, M; Muether, M; Musson, J; Nakahara, K; Neveling, R; Niccolai, S; Nilsson, D; Ong, S; Page, S A; Papavassiliou, V; Pate, S F; Phillips, S K; Pillot, P; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Porcelli, T A; Quemener, G; Quinn, B P; Ramsay, W D; Rauf, A W; Real, J -S; Ries, T; Roos, J Roche P; Rutledge, G A; Schaub, J; Secrest, J; Seva, T; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Spayde, D T; Stepanyan, S; Stutzman, M; Suleiman, R; Tadevosyan, V; Tieulent, R; van de Wiele, J; van Oers, W T H; Versteegen, M; Voutier, E; Vulcan, W F; Wells, S P; Warren, G; Williamson, S E; Woo, R J; Wood, S A; Yan, C; Yun, J; Zeps, V

    2011-01-01

    In the G0 experiment, performed at Jefferson Lab, the parity-violating elastic scattering of electrons from protons and quasi-elastic scattering from deuterons is measured in order to determine the neutral weak currents of the nucleon. Asymmetries as small as 1 part per million in the scattering of a polarized electron beam are determined using a dedicated apparatus. It consists of specialized beam-monitoring and control systems, a cryogenic hydrogen (or deuterium) target, and a superconducting, toroidal magnetic spectrometer equipped with plastic scintillation and aerogel Cerenkov detectors, as well as fast readout electronics for the measurement of individual events. The overall design and performance of this experimental system is discussed.

  8. Parity Violation Inelastic Scattering Experiments at 6 GeV and 12 GeV Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulkosky, Vincent A. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA; Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; et. al.,

    2015-03-01

    We report on the measurement of parity-violating asymmetries in the deep inelastic scattering and nucleon resonance regions using inclusive scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized deuterium target. The effective weak couplings C$_{2q}$ are accessible through the deep-inelastic scattering measurements. Here we report a measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry, which yields a determination of 2C$_{2u}$ - C$_{2d}$ with an improved precision of a factor of five relative to the previous result. This result indicates evidence with 95% confidence that the 2C$_{2u}$ - C$_{2d}$ is non-zero. This experiment also provides the first parity-violation data covering the whole resonance region, which provide constraints on nucleon resonance models. Finally, the program to extend these measurements at Jefferson Lab in the 12 GeV era using the Solenoidal Large Intensity Device was also discussed.

  9. Precise measurement in elastic electron scattering: HAPPEX and E-158 experiments; Mesures precises de violation de parite en diffusion d'electrons: experiences HAPPEX et E-158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacheret, A

    2004-12-01

    Parity Violation asymmetry measurements in elastic electron scattering are in one hand an interesting way of retrieving new informations about the sea quarks of the nucleon and in the other hand a powerful test of the Standard Model electroweak sector at low energy. This thesis describes the HAPPEX experiment at JLab and the E-158 experiment at SLAC (USA) which measure de parity violation asymmetries in elastic scattering of polarized electron on nuclei like Hydrogen or Helium and on atomic electrons. With the measurements on hadronic targets one can extract the strange quarks contribution to the charge and current density of the nucleon. With the electron-electron scattering one can test the standard model at the loop level and far from the Z pole by extracting sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}. In this thesis we describe the formalism associated with the electroweak probe. We present in detail the experimental methods used to make such precise measurements of parity violation asymmetry. Then, we describe the experimental set-up of each experiment and in particular the electron detector and the feedback loop on the beam current for the HAPPEX experiment and the analysis of E-158 run III with a dedicated systematic study on the beam sub-pulse fluctuations. We present the preliminary results for each experiment with a comparison with the other existing results and the future experiments. (author)

  10. Planar Rayleigh scattering results in helium-air mixing experiments in a Mach-6 wind tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    Shirinzadeh, B.; Hillard, M. E.; Balla, R. Jeffrey; Waitz, I. A.; Anders, J. B.; Exton, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Planar Rayleigh scattering measurements with an argon—fluoride excimer laser are performed to investigate helium mixing into air at supersonic speeds. The capability of the Rayleigh scattering technique for flow visualization of a turbulent environment is demonstrated in a large-scale, Mach-6 facility. The detection limit obtained with the present setup indicates that planar, quantitative measurements of density can be made over a large cross-sectional area (5 cm × 10 cm) of the flow field in...

  11. A study of quasi-elastic muon neutrino and antineutrino scattering in the NOMAD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubushkin, V.; Bunyatov, S.; Chukanov, A.; Klimov, O.; Kustov, D.; Nefedov, Yu.; Samoylov, O.; Tereshchenko, V. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Popov, B. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); LPNHE, Univ. of Paris VI and VII, Paris (France); Kim, J.J.; Godley, A.; Ling, J.; Mishra, S.R.; Petti, R.; Seaton, M.; Wu, Q. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Camilleri, L.; Autiero, D.; Di Lella, L.; Couto e Silva, E. do; Ferrere, D.; Grant, A.; Kokkonen, J.; Linssen, L.; Placci, A.; Stiegler, U.; Tsesmelis, E.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Wilson, F.F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Levy, J.M.; Astier, P.; Banner, M.; Dumarchez, J.; Lachaud, C.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Schahmaneche, K.; Touchard, A.M.; Vannucci, F. [LPNHE, Univ. of Paris VI and VII, Paris (France); Mezzetto, M.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Bobisut, F.; Collazuol, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Laveder, M.; Rebuffi, L.; Sconza, A.; Zuccon, P. [Univ. of Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy); Naumov, D. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Univ. of Florence (Italy); INFN, Florence (Italy); Alekhin, S. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Baldisseri, A.; Besson, N.; Bouchez, J.; Gosset, J.; Hagner, C.; Mechain, X.; Meyer, J.P.; Stolarczyk, T.; Zaccone, H. [DAPNIA, Saclay (France); Bassompierre, G.; Gaillard, J.M.; Gouanere, M.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Nedelec, P.; Pessard, H.; Sillou, D. [LAPP, Annecy (France); Benslama, K.; Degaudenzi, H.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Sozzi, G.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Tran, M.T.; Vacavant, L.; Vieira, J.M. [Univ. of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bird, I. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Univ. of Lausanne (Switzerland); Blumenfeld, B.; Long, J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Boyd, S.; Ellis, M.; Peak, L.S.; Ulrichs, J.; Varvell, K.E.; Yabsley, B.D. [Univ. of Sydney (Australia); Bueno, A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); ETH Zurich (Switzerland)] [and others

    2009-10-15

    We have studied the muon neutrino and antineutrino quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering reactions ({nu}{sub {mu}}n {yields}{mu}{sup -}p and anti {nu}{sub {mu}}p{yields}{mu}{sup +}n) using a set of experimental data collected by the NOMAD Collaboration. We have performed measurements of the cross-section of these processes on a nuclear target (mainly carbon) normalizing it to the total {nu}{sub {mu}}(anti {nu}{sub {mu}}) charged-current cross section. The results for the flux-averaged QEL cross sections in the (anti)neutrino energy interval 3-100 GeV are left angle {sigma}{sub qel} right angle {sub {nu}}{sub {mu}}=(0.92{+-}0.02(stat){+-}0.06(syst)) x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2} and left angle {sigma}{sub qel} right angle {sub anti} {sub {nu}{sub {mu}}}{sub =}(0.81{+-}0.05(stat){+-}0.09(syst)) x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2} for neutrino and antineutrino, respectively. The axial mass parameter M{sub A} was extracted from the measured quasi-elastic neutrino cross section. The corresponding result is M{sub A}=1.05{+-}0.02(stat){+-}0.06(syst) GeV. It is consistent with the axial mass values recalculated from the antineutrino cross section and extracted from the pure Q{sup 2} shape analysis of the high purity sample of {nu}{sub {mu}} quasi-elastic 2-track events, but has smaller systematic error and should be quoted as the main result of this work. Our measured M{sub A} is found to be in good agreement with the world average value obtained in previous deuterium filled bubble chamber experiments. The NOMAD measurement of M{sub A} is lower than those recently published by K2K and MiniBooNE Collaborations. However, within the large errors quoted by these experiments on M{sub A}, these results are compatible with the more precise NOMAD value. (orig.)

  12. Two-photon exchange contribution in elastic electron-proton scattering, experiment at the VEPP-3 storage ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolenko D.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a precise measurement of the ratio of the (e+ p to (e− p elastic scattering cross sections. This comparison is sensitive to the effect of two-photon exchange contributions which may be the cause for inconsistent extractions of the proton form factors obtained using different methods. The experiment was performed at storage ring VEPP–3, Novosibirsk at energies of positron/electron beams of 1.0 and 1.6 GeV with electron/positron scattering angles θ = 65÷105° for the first case and 15÷25° and 55÷75° for the second case. Details of the experiment and the preliminary results are presented.

  13. An upgraded experiment of X-ray photon-photon elastic scattering with a Laue-case beam collider

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaji, T; Yamazaki, T; Namba, T; Asai, S; Kobayashi, T; Tamasaku, K; Tanaka, Y; Inubushi, Y; Sawada, K; Yabashi, M; Ishikawa, T

    2016-01-01

    The new result of a photon-photon scattering experiment in the X-ray region is reported. An X-ray beam collider is used to divide and collide X-ray beams from an X-ray Free Electron Laser, SACLA. The sensitivity of the experiment is enhanced by an upgraded X-ray beam collider and improvement of the SACLA beam quality. The intensity of the colliding photon beams increased significantly, giving an integrated luminosity of (1.24 \\pm 0.08) \\times 10^{28} m^{-2}. No signal of scattered X rays was observed. The obtained 95% C.L. limit on the QED cross section is 1.9 \\times 10^{-27} m^2 at \\omega_{cms}=6.5 keV, which is more stringent by around three orders of magnitude than our previous result.

  14. Surface scattering and giant magnetoresistance: In-situ resistance and magnetoresistance experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, William Evans

    Surface scattering, particularly the enhancement of "specular" scattering, is widely believed to hold the key to yet-unattained levels of spin-valve GMR. We have developed a novel technique to measure surface scattering, the in-situ magnetoconductance measurement. By measuring resistance and GMR in real time during deposition, in ultrahigh vacuum, and in the Van der Pauw configuration, we may determine the effect on scattering of various overlayers as they are created. We have applied this technique to study claims that the specularity may be modified through deposition of metal overlayers. In conjunction with first-principles based calculations of film conductance and detailed characterization of thickness-dependent film microstructure, we have determined that the surface specularity is not modified during overlayer deposition. Effects previously attributed to specularity modulations are well interpreted through scattering mechanisms intrinsic to the system. We have also examined the dependence of GMR on bulk microstructure, as characterized ex-situ. We find that crystallographic disorder tends to decrease spin-valve GMR. This is shown experimentally through depositions of several series of samples, characterization of the relevant defects, and correlation to magnetotransport measurements. We have formed the films by sputtering and UHV ion beam deposition. Experimental techniques used to characterize microstructure are high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HR-xTEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), 59Co nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), contributed by Ewa Jedryka at the Polish Institute of Physics in Warsaw.

  15. Depolarizing power and polarization entropy of light scattering media: experiment and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Puentes, G; Aiello, A; Woerdman, J P; Puentes, Graciana; Voigt, Dirk; Aiello, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the depolarizing power and the polarization entropy of a broad class of scattering optical media. By means of polarization tomography, these quantities are derived from an effective Mueller matrix, which is introduced through a formal description of the multi-mode detection scheme we use, as recently proposed by Aiello and Woerdman (arXiv:quant-ph/0407234). This proposal emphasized an intriguing universality in the polarization aspects of classical as well as quantum light scattering; in this contribution we demonstrate experimentally that this universality is obeyed by a surprisingly wide class of depolarizing media. This, in turn, provides the experimentalist with a useful characterization of the polarization properties of any scattering media, as well as a universal criterion for the validity of the measured data.

  16. Mie Light-Scattering Granulometer with an Adaptive Numerical Filtering Method. II. Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, Laurent; Delfour, André; Guillame, Bernard

    2001-02-01

    A nephelometer is presented that theoretically requires no absolute calibration. This instrument is used for determining the particle-size distribution of various scattering media (aerosols, fogs, rocket exhausts, engine plumes, and the like) from angular static light-scattering measurements. An inverse procedure is used, which consists of a least-squares method and a regularization scheme based on numerical filtering. To retrieve the distribution function one matches the experimental data with theoretical patterns derived from Mie theory. The main principles of the inverse method are briefly presented, and the nephelometer is then described with the associated partial calibration procedure. Finally, the whole granulometer system (inverse method and nephelometer) is validated by comparison of measurements of scattering media with calibrated monodisperse or known size distribution functions.

  17. An experiment of X-ray photon–photon elastic scattering with a Laue-case beam collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yamaji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a search for photon–photon elastic scattering in vacuum in the X-ray region at an energy in the center of mass system of ωcms=6.5keV for which the QED cross section is σQED=2.5×10−47m2. An X-ray beam provided by the SACLA X-ray Free Electron Laser is split and the two beamlets are made to collide at right angle, with a total integrated luminosity of (1.24±0.08×1028m−2. No signal X rays from the elastic scattering that satisfy the correlation between energy and scattering angle were detected. We obtain a 95% C.L. upper limit for the scattering cross section of 1.9×10−27m2 at ωcms=6.5keV. The upper limit is the lowest upper limit obtained so far by keV experiments.

  18. Proposal to perform a high - statisics neutrino scattering experiment using a fine - grained detector in the NuMI Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfin, J.G.; /Fermilab; McFarland, K.; /Rochester U.

    2003-12-01

    The NuMI facility at Fermilab will provide an extremely intense beam of neutrinos for the MINOS neutrino-oscillation experiment. The spacious and fully-outfitted MINOS near detector hall will be the ideal venue for a high-statistics, high-resolution {nu} and {bar {nu}}-nucleon/nucleus scattering experiment. The experiment described here will measure neutrino cross-sections and probe nuclear effects essential to present and future neutrino-oscillation experiments. Moreover, with the high NuMI beam intensity, the experiment will either initially address or significantly improve our knowledge of a wide variety of neutrino physics topics of interest and importance to the elementary-particle and nuclear-physics communities.

  19. Planar Rayleigh scattering results in helium-air mixing experiments in a Mach-6 wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinzadeh, B.; Hillard, M. E.; Balla, R. J.; Waitz, I. A.; Anders, J. B.; Exton, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Planar Rayleigh scattering measurements with an argon-fluoride excimer laser are performed to investigate helium mixing into air at supersonic speeds. The capability of the Rayleigh scattering technique for flow visualization of a turbulent environment is demonstrated in a large-scale, Mach-6 facility. The detection limit obtained with the present setup indicates that planar, quantitative measurements of density can be made over a large cross-sectional area (5 cm x 10 cm) of the flow field in the absence of clusters.

  20. Planar Rayleigh Scattering Results in Helium/Air Mixing Experiments in a Mach 6 Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinzadeh, B.; Balla, R. Jeffrey; Hillard, M. E.; Anders, J. B.; Exton, R. J.; Waitz, I. A.

    1991-01-01

    Planar Rayleigh scattering measurements using an ArF-excimer laser have been performed to investigate helium mixing into air at supersonic speeds. The capability of the Rayleigh scattering technique for flow visualization of a turbulent environment is demonstrated in a large-scale, Mach 6facility. The detection limit obtained with the present setup indicates that planar, quantitative measurements of density can be made over a large cross sectional area (5 cm by 10 cm) of the flow field in the absence of clusters.

  1. Feasibility studies for light scattering experiments to determine the velocity relaxation of small particles in a fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquista, C.; Narducci, L. M.

    1980-01-01

    An approach for measuring the non-Markoffian component in the relaxation mechanism of a Brownian particle is proposed which combines desirable features of both the shock wave experiment and conventional light scattering experiments. It is suggested that the radiation pressure generated by a C.W. laser be used to guide an individual spherical particle to terminal velocity. At an appropriate time, the beam intensity is suddenly lowered to a value at which the radiation pressure is negligible, and the ensuing velocity relaxation is measured directly.

  2. Small-angle neutron scattering from multilamellar lipid bilayers: Theory, model, and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmich, Jesper; Mortensen, Kell; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1996-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering data obtained from fully hydrated, multilamellar phospholipid bilayers with deuterated acyl chains of different length are presented and analyzed within a paracrystalline theory and a geometric model that permit the bilayer structure to be determined under condition...

  3. Benchmarking a first-principles thermal neutron scattering law for water ice with a diffusion experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jesse; Zerkle, Michael; Heinrichs, David

    2017-09-01

    The neutron scattering properties of water ice are of interest to the nuclear criticality safety community for the transport and storage of nuclear materials in cold environments. The common hexagonal phase ice Ih has locally ordered, but globally disordered, H2O molecular orientations. A 96-molecule supercell is modeled using the VASP ab initio density functional theory code and PHONON lattice dynamics code to calculate the phonon vibrational spectra of H and O in ice Ih. These spectra are supplied to the LEAPR module of the NJOY2012 nuclear data processing code to generate thermal neutron scattering laws for H and O in ice Ih in the incoherent approximation. The predicted vibrational spectra are optimized to be representative of the globally averaged ice Ih structure by comparing theoretically calculated and experimentally measured total cross sections and inelastic neutron scattering spectra. The resulting scattering kernel is then supplied to the MC21 Monte Carlo transport code to calculate time eigenvalues for the fundamental mode decay in ice cylinders at various temperatures. Results are compared to experimental flux decay measurements for a pulsed-neutron die-away diffusion benchmark.

  4. Mantid - Data Analysis and Visualization Package for Neutron Scattering and $\\mu SR$ Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, O; Borreguero, J M; Buts, A; Campbell, S I; Chapon, L; Doucet, M; Draper, N; Leal, R Ferraz; Gigg, M A; Lynch, V E; Markvardsen, A; Mikkelson, D J; Mikkelson, R L; Miller, R; Palmen, K; Parker, P; Passos, G; Perring, T G; Peterson, P F; Ren, S; Reuter, M A; Savici, A T; Taylor, J W; Taylor, R J; Tolchenov, R; Zhou, W; Zikovsky, J

    2014-01-01

    The Mantid framework is a software solution developed for the analysis and visualization of neutron scattering and muon spin measurements. The framework is jointly developed by software engineers and scientists at the ISIS Neutron and Muon Facility and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The objectives, functionality and novel design aspects of Mantid are described.

  5. Mantid—Data analysis and visualization package for neutron scattering and μ SR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, O. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Tessella Ltd., Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Bilheux, J.C.; Borreguero, J.M. [Neutron Data Analysis and Visualization, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Buts, A. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Campbell, S.I. [Neutron Data Analysis and Visualization, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chapon, L. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Doucet, M. [Neutron Data Analysis and Visualization, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Draper, N. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Tessella Ltd., Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Ferraz Leal, R. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Gigg, M.A. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Tessella Ltd., Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Lynch, V.E. [Neutron Data Analysis and Visualization, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Markvardsen, A. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Mikkelson, D.J.; Mikkelson, R.L. [University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI (United States); Neutron Data Analysis and Visualization, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, R. [Computing and Computational Science Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Palmen, K.; Parker, P.; Passos, G.; Perring, T.G. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Peterson, P.F. [Neutron Data Analysis and Visualization, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); and others

    2014-11-11

    The Mantid framework is a software solution developed for the analysis and visualization of neutron scattering and muon spin measurements. The framework is jointly developed by software engineers and scientists at the ISIS Neutron and Muon Facility and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The objectives, functionality and novel design aspects of Mantid are described.

  6. Formation and decomposition of N,N,N-trimethylanilinium cations on zeolite H-Y investigated by in situ stopped-flow MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Seiler, Michael; Ivanova, Irina I; Sternberg, Ulrich; Weitkamp, Jens; Hunger, Michael

    2002-06-26

    Methylation of aniline by methanol on zeolite H-Y has been investigated by in situ (13)C MAS NMR spectroscopy under flow conditions. The in situ (13)C continuous-flow (CF) MAS NMR experiments were performed at reaction temperatures between 473 and 523 K, molar methanol-to-aniline ratios of 1:1 to 4:1, and modified residence times of (13)CH(3)OH between 20 and 100 (g x h)/mol. The methylation reaction was shown to start at 473 K. N,N,N-Trimethylanilinium cations causing a (13)C NMR signal at 58 ppm constitute the major product on the catalyst surface. Small amounts of protonated N-methylaniline ([PhNH(2)CH(3)](+)) and N,N-dimethylaniline ([PhNH(CH(3))(2)](+)) were also observed at ca. 39 and 48 ppm, respectively. After increase of the temperature to 523 K, the contents of N,N-dimethylanilinium cations and ring-alkylated reaction products strongly increased, accompanied by a decrease of the amount of N,N,N-trimethylanilinium cations. With application of the in situ stopped-flow (SF) MAS NMR technique, the decomposition of N,N,N-trimethylanilinium cations on zeolite H-Y to N,N-dimethylanilinium and N-methylanilinium cations was investigated to gain a deeper insight into the reaction mechanism. The results obtained allow the proposal of a mechanism consisting of three steps: (i) the conversion of methanol to surface methoxy groups and dimethyl ether (DME); (ii) the alkylation of aniline with methanol, methoxy groups, or DME leading to an equilibrium mixture of N,N,N-trimethylanilinium, N,N-dimethylanilinium, and N-methylanilinium cations attached to the zeolite surface; (iii) the deprotonation of N,N-dimethylanilinium and N-methylanilinium cations causing the formation of N,N-dimethylaniline (NNDMA) and N-methylaniline (NMA) in the gas phase, respectively. The chemical equilibrium between the anilinium cations carrying different numbers of methyl groups is suggested to play a key role for the products distribution in the gas phase.

  7. A posteriori determination of the useful data range for small-angle scattering experiments on dilute monodisperse systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarev, Petr V; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2015-05-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) experiments on solutions provide rapidly decaying scattering curves, often with a poor signal-to-noise ratio, especially at higher angles. On modern instruments, the noise is partially compensated for by oversampling, thanks to the fact that the angular increment in the data is small compared with that needed to describe adequately the local behaviour and features of the scattering curve. Given a (noisy) experimental data set, an important question arises as to which part of the data still contains useful information and should be taken into account for the interpretation and model building. Here, it is demonstrated that, for monodisperse systems, the useful experimental data range is defined by the number of meaningful Shannon channels that can be determined from the data set. An algorithm to determine this number and thus the data range is developed, and it is tested on a number of simulated data sets with various noise levels and with different degrees of oversampling, corresponding to typical SAXS/SANS experiments. The method is implemented in a computer program and examples of its application to analyse the experimental data recorded under various conditions are presented. The program can be employed to discard experimental data containing no useful information in automated pipelines, in modelling procedures, and for data deposition or publication. The software is freely accessible to academic users.

  8. Networking properties of cyclodextrin-based cross-linked polymers probed by inelastic light-scattering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Barbara; Caponi, Silvia; Castiglione, Franca; Corezzi, Silvia; Fontana, Aldo; Giarola, Marco; Mariotto, Gino; Mele, Andrea; Petrillo, Caterina; Trotta, Francesco; Viliani, Gabriele

    2012-05-03

    An integrated experimental approach, based on inelastic light-scattering techniques, has been here employed for a multilength scale characterization of networking properties of cyclodextrin nanosponges, a new class of cross-linked polymeric materials built up from natural oligosaccharides cyclodextrins. By using Raman and Brillouin scattering experiments, we performed a detailed inspection of the vibrational dynamics of these polymers over a wide frequency window ranging from gigahertz to terahertz, with the aim of providing physical descriptors correlated to the cross-linking degree and elastic properties of the material. The results seem to suggest that the stiffness of cross-linked polymers can be successfully tuned by acting on the type and the relative amount of the cross-linker during the synthesis of a polymer matrix, predicting and controlling their swelling and entrapment properties. The proposed experimental approach is a useful tool for investigating the structural and physicochemical properties of polymeric network systems.

  9. Performance of the micro-PIC gaseous area detector in small-angle X-ray scattering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kaori; Tsuchiya, Ken'ichi; Ito, Kazuki; Okada, Yoko; Fujii, Kotaro; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Miuchi, Kentaro; Takata, Masaki; Tanimori, Toru; Uekusa, Hidehiro

    2009-03-01

    The application of a two-dimensional photon-counting detector based on a micro-pixel gas chamber (micro-PIC) to high-resolution small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and its performance, are reported. The micro-PIC is a micro-pattern gaseous detector fabricated by printed circuit board technology. This article describes the performance of the micro-PIC in SAXS experiments at SPring-8. A dynamic range of >10(5) was obtained for X-ray scattering from a polystyrene sphere solution. A maximum counting rate of up to 5 MHz was observed with good linearity and without saturation. For a diffraction pattern of collagen, weak peaks were observed in the high-angle region in one accumulation of photons.

  10. Water diffusion through compacted clays analyzed by neutron scattering and tracer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Sanchez, F

    2007-11-15

    samples using various methodologies to better interpret the dynamic results. Parameters such as particle size, layer spacing, chemical composition, external and total surfaces and porosity were determined. The fundamental transport processes in compacted clay systems were studied over a broad range of temperatures, combining microscopic diffusion experiments (T {approx} 98 to -23 {sup o}C) with macroscopic measurements (T {approx} 70 to 0 {sup o}C). Moreover, the freezing behaviour of water in compacted clays and its dynamical properties in the supercooled regime were also investigated using microscopic techniques such as neutron scattering, time of flight and backscattering techniques. Such knowledge contributes to develop simplified models for water (and possibly also solute) transport through clays, as they will be used to assess the performance of radioactive waste repositories. From this point of view, it can be beneficial for the safety of radioactive waste repositories and thus the protection of the environment.

  11. New insights into the extraction of uranium(VI) by an N,N-dialkylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, F.; Ferru, G.; Berthon, L.; Boubals, N.; Guilbaud, P.; Sorel, C.; Diat, O.; Bauduin, P.; Simonin, J. P.; Morel, J. P.; Morel-Desrosiers, N.; Charbonnel, M. C.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the methodology developed in order to thoroughly characterise a solvent extraction system containing high solute concentrations. The chemical system selected is N,N-(2-ethylhexyl)isobutyramide (DEHiBA) diluted in one alkane with increasing concentration of uranium(VI). Combining experiments with theoretical calculations allowed a deeper understanding of the extraction mechanism. A thermodynamic study was performed by the classical van't Hoff method and also by direct calorimetry to provide the enthalpies of extraction and specific heats. Dedicated methods like vapour pressure osmometry and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry analysis provide information about the stoichiometry of the extracted species. Spectroscopic investigations with ultraviolet-visible and Fourier transform infrared probed the uranium coordination. Finally, a combination of molecular dynamics simulations, and small and wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments investigated the organisation in the organic phase beyond the molecular scale. It was shown that the high concentrations of uranium extracted have no influence on the stoichiometry of the complexes and the coordination of uranium in the inner sphere. The thermodynamic properties related to the extraction process and obtained with a fine consideration of the activity coefficients showed to be the same as those found with trace concentration. However, an unexpected organisation beyond the molecular scale was observed with an important role of nitrates as bridging ligands which could explain some physico-chemical properties. This approach could be applied to other chemical systems (other N,N-dialkylamides or other cations) to identify the origin of the different affinities between ligands and the difference of selectivity between cations.

  12. DOE experiment for scattering bars optimization at the 90nm node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, G.; Connolly, B.; Courboin, D.; Di Giacomo, A.; Gasnier, F.; Lallement, R.; Parker, D.; Pindo, M.; Richoilley, J. C.; Royere, F.; Rameau-Savio, A.; Tissier, M.

    2011-03-01

    Scattering bars (SB) are sub-resolution lines added to the original database during Resolution Enhancement Techniques (RET) treatments. Their goal is stabilizing the CD of the adjacent polygons (by suppressing or reducing secondary diffraction waves). SB increase the process window in the litho process by lowering the first derivative of the CD. Moreover, the detailed knowledge of SB behavior around the fab working point is a must for future shrinks and for preparing the next technology nodes. SB are inserted in the generation of critical levels for STMicroelectronics 90 nm technology embedded memories before invoking the Model for Optical Proximity Corrections (MBOPC). This allows the software to calculate their contribution to the intensity in the aerial image and integrate their effects in Edge Proximity Error (EPE) corrections. However the Rule-Based insertion of these assist features still leaves behind occurrences of conflicting priorities as in the image below. (See manuscript PDF)Detection of Hot Spots in 2D simulations for die treatment validation (done on BRION equipment on each critical level before mask making) is in most cases correlated with SB singularities, at least for CD non-uniformity, bridging issues and necking in correspondence with OPC fragmentation effects. Within the framework of the MaXSSIMM project, we established a joint STMicroelectronics and Toppan Photomasks team to explore the influence of assist features (CD, distance), convex and concave corner rounding and CD uniformity by means of specific test patterns. The proposed study concerns the algorithms used to define the mask shop input as well as the physical mask etching. A set of test cases, based on elementary test patterns, each one including a list of geometrical variations, has been defined. As the number of configurations becomes rapidly very large (tens of thousands) we had to apply Design of Experiments (DOE) algorithms in order to reduce the number of measurements to a

  13. A Study of Diffractive Scattering with the ATLAS and ALFA Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lind, Alexander Pedersen

    This thesis presents a study of diffractive scattering of high-energy protons. Hadronic diffraction is not well-understood and many alternative approaches exist. The Monte Carlo event generator Pythia 8 follows a Pomeron-based approach, where the invariant mass of the diffractive system and the squared momentum transfer $t$ of the system is set up according to a phenomenological Pomeron flux parameterization, which is parameterized by the super-critical Pomeron trajectory, $\\alpha(t) = 1 + \\varepsilon + \\alpha' t$, where the intercept parameter $\\varepsilon$ and the slope parameter $\\alpha'$ can be tuned by the user. A fast detector response simulation of the ALFA and ATLAS detectors has been developed in the Rivet toolkit for the purposes of this thesis. The developed simulation framework is able to handle the beam transport of diffractively scattered protons as well as impose the kinematic acceptance of the ALFA detector which was found to be approximately $\\xi \\lesssim 0.22$, with a pseudorapidity coverag...

  14. Reconstruction of three-dimensional anisotropic structure from small-angle scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guan-Rong; Wang, Yangyang; Wu, Bin; Wang, Zhe; Do, Changwoo; Smith, Gregory S.; Bras, Wim; Porcar, Lionel; Falus, Péter; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2017-08-01

    When subjected to flow, the structures of many soft-matter systems become anisotropic due to the symmetry breaking of the spatial arrangements of constituent particles at the microscopic level. At present, it is common practice to use various small-angle scattering techniques to explore flow-induced microstructural distortion. However, there has not been a thorough discussion in the literature on how a three-dimensional anisotropic structure can be faithfully reconstructed from two-dimensional small-angle scattering spectra. In this work, we address this issue rigorously from a mathematical perspective by using real spherical harmonic expansion analysis. We first show that, except for cases in which mechanical perturbation is sufficiently small, the existing small-angle scattering techniques generally do not provide complete information on structural distortion. This limitation is caused by the linear dependence of certain real spherical harmonic basis vectors on the flow-vorticity and flow-velocity gradient planes in the Couette shear cell. To circumvent the constraint imposed by this geometry, an alternative approach is proposed in which a parallel sliding plate shear cell is used with a central rotary axis along the flow direction. From the calculation of rotation of the reference frame, we demonstrate the feasibility of this experimental implementation for a fully resolved three-dimensional anisotropic structure via a case study of sheared polymers.

  15. Design and implementation of a Thomson scattering diagnostic for the Compact Toroidal Hybrid Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, P. J.; Maurer, D. A.; Ennis, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.; Goforth, M. M.; Loch, S. D.; Pearce, A. J.; Cianciosa, M. R.

    2014-10-01

    A Thomson scattering system using standard commercially available components has been designed for the non-axisymmetric plasmas of the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH). The initial system takes a single point measurement and will be used to assess options for an upgrade to a multi-point system providing electron temperature and density profiles. This single point measurement will reduce the uncertainty in the reconstructed peak pressure by an order of magnitude for both ohmically driven, current-carrying plasmas and future gyrotron-heated stellarator plasmas. A principle design goal is to minimize stray laser light, geometrically on the machine side and spectrally on the collection side, to allow measurements of both full and half Thomson scattered spectral profiles. The beam, generated by a frequency doubled Continuum 2 J Nd:YaG laser, is passed vertically through an entrance Brewster window and an aperturing baffle system to minimize stray light. Light collection, spectral processing, and signal detection are accomplished with an f / # ~ 1 aspheric lens, a Holospec f/1.8 spectrometer, and an Andor iStar DH740-18U-C3 image intensified camera. The estimated number of scattered photons per channel will be of the order of 5 ×103 with a signal to noise ratio of S / N = 19 This work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  16. Solvent extraction of nitric acid,uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) by N,N,N',N'-tetrahexylsuccinylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A new kind of diamideN,N,N',N'-tetrahexylsuccinylamide (THSA)wassynthesized,characterized and used for the extraction of HNO3,U(VI) and Th(IV)in a diluent composed of 0.5 volume fraction1,2,4-trimethy benzene(TMB) and 0.5 volume fraction kerosene(OK).Extraction distribution coefficients of U(VI) and Th(IV) as functionsof aqueous nitric acid concentration, extractant concentration,temperature and salting-out agent (LiNO3) have been studied, and it is found that THSA as an extractant is superior to TBP for extraction ofU(VI) and Th(IV).Back extraction was also studied.At low acidity, themain adduct of THSA and HNO3 is HNO3.THSA.THSA.(HNO3)2 and THSA.(HNO3)3 are also found at high acidity.The compositions of extracted species, apparent equilibrium constants and enthalpies ofextraction reactions have also been calculated.

  17. EFFECT OF N,N,N',N'-TETRAALKYL TEREPHTHALAMIDE ON NON-ISOTHERMAL CRYSTALLIZATION KINETICS OF POLYPROPYLENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-qing Shentu; Ji-peng Li; Zhi-xue Weng

    2006-01-01

    The effect of N,N,N',N'-tetraalkyl terephthalamide (TATA) on the non-isothermal crystallization and melting characteristics of polypropylene (PP) was studied. The addition of TATA can lead to the formation of β-crystal PP. With the increase in TATA concentration the degree of crystallinity for β-crystal PP increased significantly, and that for α-crystal PP decreased, which indicated that TATA effectively induced the formation of β-crystal PP. WAXD also revealed the existence of β-crystal PP after the introduction of TATA into PP. PP containing TATA crystallized at a temperature range of 5-10℃ higher than that of pure PP, and the half-crystallization time (t1/2) and Avrami exponent (n) of PP at the same cooling rate were decreased by the addition of TATA, indicating that TATA influenced the crystallization rate and crystallization growth mode of PP. The rate constant of crystallization of PP containing TATA (Zc) was larger than that of pure PP, which further indicated that the crystallization of PP was accelerated by the addition of TATA.

  18. Polarographic investigation of Cu(II) complexes with N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-hydroxypropyl)-ethylenediamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkus, E; Vaskelis, A; Zakaité, I; Reklaitis, J

    1995-11-01

    During investigation of the formation of Cu(2+) ion complexes with N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-hydroxypropyl)-ethylenediamine (Quadrol-Q) by means of constant current polarography (20 degrees C, ionic strength J = 3 mol l(-1)), the possibility of the formation of two complex compounds; CuQ(2+) and CuQ(2+)(2), was shown within the pH range from 6 to 8. The logarithms of the stability constants for these compounds are 10.6 +/- 0.5 and 14.6 +/- 0.4 respectively. Cu(II) complexation increases sharply when the pH increases from 8 to 10. It was shown that the data at a pH of greater than 10 are in accordance with the existence of the hydroxy complexes CuQ(OH)(2) and CuQ(2)(OH)(2), the logarithms of the stability constants being 26.9 +/- 0.5 and 29.1 +/- 0.3.

  19. Demonstration of space-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering capability for warm dense matter experiments on the Z accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, T.; Harding, E. C.; Bailey, J. E.; Lemke, R. W.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Hansen, S. B.; Smith, I. C.; Geissel, M.; Maurer, A.; Reneker, J.; Romero, D.; Sinars, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Benage, J. F.

    2016-03-01

    Experiments on the Sandia Z pulsed-power accelerator have demonstrated the ability to produce warm dense matter (WDM) states with unprecedented uniformity, duration, and size, which are ideal for investigations of fundamental WDM properties. For the first time, space-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) spectra from shocked carbon foams were recorded on Z. The large (>20 MA) electrical current produced by Z was used to launch Al flyer plates up to 25 km/s. The impact of the flyer plate on a CH2 foam target produced a shocked state with an estimated pressure of 0.75 Mbar, density of 0.52 g/cm3, and temperature of 4.3 eV. Both unshocked and shocked portions of the foam target were probed with 6.2 keV x-rays produced by focusing the Z-Beamlet laser onto a nearby Mn foil. The data are composed of three spatially distinct spectra that were simultaneously captured with a single spectrometer with high spectral (4.8 eV) and spatial (190 μm) resolutions. Detailed spectral information from three target locations is provided simultaneously: the incident x-ray source, the scattered signal from unshocked foam, and the scattered signal from shocked foam.

  20. A framework to analyze searches for gauge bosons of the hidden light sector in electron scattering fixed target experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beranek, T. [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz and PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2013-11-07

    Electron scattering fixed target experiments are a versatile tool to probe various kinds of physics phenomena. Recently fixed target experiments in which an electron beam is scattered off a heavy nucleus and a lepton-antilepton pair is created, i.e. e(A,Z) →e(A,Z)l{sup +}l{sup −}, were utilized to search for physics beyond the standard model at modest energies. In these experiments one searches for a small, narrow resonance in the invariant mass spectrum of the lepton-antilepton pair, arising from the exchange of a new light gauge boson γ′ coupling to the dark sector as well as very weakly to standard model particles. Such a signal would appear as an enhancement over a smooth QED background. Hence a precise understanding of the background is crucial. We present a theoretical analysis of the process e(A,Z) →e(A,Z)l{sup +}l{sup −}. Therefore we have performed an analysis of the cross section, which is then used to extract exclusion limits on the parameter space of the γ′, describing the existing experimental data taken at MAMI.

  1. Strange Quark Contributions to Parity-Violating Asymmetries in the Forward G0 Electron-Proton Scattering Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, D S; Asaturyan, R; Averett, T; Bailey, S L; Batigne, G; Beck, D H; Beise, E J; Benesch, J; Bimbot, L; Birchall, J; Biselli, A; Bosted, P; Boukobza, E; Breuer, H; Carlini, R; Carr, R; Chant, N; Chao Yu Chiu; Chattopadhyay, S; Clark, R; Covrig, S D; Cowley, A; Dale, D; Davis, C; Falk, W; Finn, J M; Forest, T; Franklin, G; Furget, C; Gaskell, D; Grames, J; Griffioen, K A; Grimm, K; Guillon, B; Guler, H; Hannelius, L; Hasty, R; Hawthorne Allen, A; Horn, T; Johnston, K; Jones, M; Kammel, P; Kazimi, R; King, P M; Kolarkar, A; Korkmaz, E; Korsch, W; Kox, S; Kühn, J; Lachniet, J; Lee, L; Lenoble, J; Liatard, E; Liu, J; Loupias, B; Lung, A; MacLachlan, G A; Marchand, D; Martin, J W; McFarlane, K W; McKee, D W; McKeown, R D; Merchez, F; Mkrtchyan, H G; Moffit, B; Morlet, M; Nakagawa, I; Nakahara, K; Nakos, M; Neveling, R; Niccolai, S; Ong, S; Page, S; Papavassiliou, V; Pate, S F; Phillips, S K; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Porcelli, T A; Quéméner, G; Quinn, B; Ramsay, W D; Rauf, A W; Real, J S; Roche, J; Roos, P; Rutledge, G A; Secrest, J; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Spayde, D T; Stepanyan, S; Stutzman, M; Sulkosky, V; Tadevosyan, V; Tieulent, R; Van der Wiele, J; Van Oers, W T H; Voutier, E; Vulcan, W; Warren, G; Wells, S P; Williamson, S E; Wood, S A; Yan, C; Yun, J; Zeps, V

    2005-01-01

    We have measured parity-violating asymmetries in elastic electron-proton scattering over the range of momentum transfers 0.12 < Q^2 < 1.0 GeV^2. These asymmetries, arising from interference of the electromagnetic and neutral weak interactions, are sensitive to strange quark contributions to the currents of the proton. The measurements were made at JLab using a toroidal spectrometer to detect the recoiling protons from a liquid hydrogen target. The results indicate non-zero, Q^2 dependent, strange quark contributions and provide new information beyond that obtained in previous experiments.

  2. Strange Quark Contributions to Parity-Violating Asymmetries in the Forward G0 Electron-Proton Scattering Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Armstrong; Francois Arvieux; Razmik Asaturyan; Todd Averett; Stephanie Bailey; Guillaume Batigne; Douglas Beck; Elizabeth Beise; Jay Benesch; Louis Bimbot; James Birchall; Angela Biselli; Peter Bosted; Elodie Boukobza; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; R. Carr; Nicholas Chant; Yu-Chiu Chao; Swapan Chattopadhyay; Russell Clark; Silviu Covrig; Anthony Cowley; Daniel Dale; C. Davis; Willie Falk; John Finn; Tony Forest; Gregg Franklin; Christophe Furget; David Gaskell; Joseph Grames; Keith Griffioen; Klaus Grimm; Benoit Guillon; Hayko Guler; Lars Hannelius; R. Hasty; A. Hawthorne Allen; Tanja Horn; Kathleen Johnston; Mark Jones; Peter Kammel; Reza Kazimi; Paul King; Ameya Kolarkar; Elie Korkmaz; Wolfgang Korsch; Serge Kox; Joachim Kuhn; Jeff Lachniet; Lawrence Lee; Jason Lenoble; Eric Liatard; J. Liu; Berenice Loupias; A. Lung; Glen MacLachlan; Dominique Marchand; J.W. Martin; Kenneth McFarlane; Daniella Mckee; Robert McKeown; Fernand Merchez; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Bryan Moffit; M. Morlet; Itaru Nakagawa; Kazutaka Nakahara; Melissa Nakos; Retief Neveling; Silvia Niccolai; S. Ong; Shelley Page; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Sarah Phillips; Mark Pitt; Benard Poelker; Tracy Porcelli; Gilles Quemener; Brian Quinn; William Ramsay; Aamer Rauf; Jean-Sebastien Real; Julie Roche; Philip Roos; Gary Rutledge; Jeffery Secrest; Neven Simicevic; G.R. Smith; Damon Spayde; Samuel Stepanyan; Marcy Stutzman; Vincent Sulkosky; Vardan Tadevosyan; Raphael Tieulent; Jacques Van de Wiele; Willem van Oers; Eric Voutier; William Vulcan; G. Warren; S.P. Wells; Steven Williamson; S.A. Wood; Chen Yan; Junho Yun; Valdis Zeps

    2005-06-01

    We have measured parity-violating asymmetries in elastic electron-proton scattering over the range of momentum transfers 0.12 < Q{sup 2} < 1.0 GeV{sup 2}. These asymmetries, arising from interference of the electromagnetic and neutral weak interactions, are sensitive to strange quark contributions to the currents of the proton. The measurements were made at JLab using a toroidal spectrometer to detect the recoiling protons from a liquid hydrogen target. The results indicate non-zero, Q{sup 2} dependent, strange quark contributions and provide new information beyond that obtained in previous experiments.

  3. Raman Scattering from 1,3-Propanedithiol at a Hot Spot: Theory Meets Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2013-08-21

    We compute the Raman spectra of 1,3-propanedithiol (PDT) in the gas phase, in methanol, linked either to the face or vertex of a finite tetrahedral Ag20 cluster, and linking two Ag20 clusters using tools of density functional theory. The calculated normal mode-dependent molecular polarizability derivative tensors are employed to simulate single molecule surface-enhanced Raman (SERS) spectra. This is achieved by rotating the polarizability tensors of an individual molecule with respect to explicitly defined vector components of the incident and scattered radiation. Our results provide a basis for understanding commonly observed phenomena in single molecule SERS spectroscopy.

  4. VV+jets and vector boson scattering at the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bellan, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    The production of massive vector boson pairs is a key process for the understanding of the non-abelian gauge structure of the standard model and for the comprehension of the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism. The study of the production of vector boson pairs with the presence of two jets in the event allows measuring the electroweak production of vector bosons in association with jets, in particular made up through vector boson scattering (VBS) processes. In this contribution, we presented the recent results of the production of dibosons in association with two jets at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV.

  5. Experiment Observation on Acoustic Forward Scattering for Underwater Moving Object Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Bo; MA Yuan-Liang; YANG Kun-De

    2011-01-01

    The problem of detecting an object in shallow water by observing changes in the acoustic field as the object passes between an acoustic source and receiver is addressed. A signal processing scheme based on forward scattering is proposed to detect the perturbed field in the presence of the moving object. The periodic LFM wideband signal is transmitted and a sudden change of field is acquired using a normalized median filter. The experimental results on the lake show that the proposed scheme is successful for the detection of a slowly moving object in the bistatic blind zone.

  6. Mantid - Data Analysis and Visualization Package for Neutron Scattering and $\\mu SR$ Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Owen [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (ISIS); Bilheux, Jean-Christophe [ORNL; Borreguero Calvo, Jose M [ORNL; Buts, Alex [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (ISIS); Campbell, Stuart I [ORNL; Doucet, Mathieu [ORNL; Draper, Nicholas J [ORNL; Ferraz Leal, Ricardo F [ORNL; Gigg, Martyn [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (ISIS); Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; Mikkelson, Dennis J [ORNL; Mikkelson, Ruth L [ORNL; Miller, Ross G [ORNL; Perring, Toby G [ORNL; Peterson, Peter F [ORNL; Ren, Shelly [ORNL; Reuter, Michael A [ORNL; Savici, Andrei T [ORNL; Taylor, Jonathan W [ORNL; Taylor, Russell J [ORNL; Zhou, Wenduo [ORNL; Zikovsky, Janik L [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    The Mantid framework is a software solution developed for the analysis and visualization of neutron scattering and muon spin measurements. The framework is jointly developed by a large team of software engineers and scientists at the ISIS Neutron and Muon Facility and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The objective of the development is to improve software quality, both in terms of performance and ease of use, for the the user community of large scale facilities. The functionality and novel design aspects of the framework are described.

  7. Matter Scatter and Energy Anarchy. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is Simply Common Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Keith A.

    1988-01-01

    Shows that the second law of thermodynamics is in the common experience of many people and if taught first, before the law of conservation, can result in fewer misconceptions among pupils. Stresses the use of common experiences in teaching. (CW)

  8. MINERvA: A Dedicated neutrino scattering experiment at NuMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, Kevin S.; /Rochester U.

    2006-05-01

    MINERvA is a dedicated neutrino cross-section experiment planned for the near detector hall of the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. I summarize the detector design and physics capabilities of the experiment.

  9. [N,N-Bis(diphenylphosphinoisopropylamine]dibromidonickel(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [NiBr2(C27H27NP2], was synthesized by the reaction of NiBr2(dme (dme is 1,2-dimethoxyethane with N,N-bis(diphenylphosphinoisopropylamine in methanol/tetrahydrofuran. The nickel(II center is coordinated by two P atoms of the chelating PNP ligand, Ph2PN(iPrPPh2, and two bromide ions in a distorted square-planar geometry.

  10. Theoretical study of the $N N \\to N N \\pi \\pi$ reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, L; Hernández, E

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a model for the N N --> N N pi pi reaction and evaluated cross sections for the different charged channels. The low energy part of those channels where the pions can be in an isospin zero state is dominated by N* excitation, driven by an isoscalar source recently found experimentally, followed by the decay N* --> N (pi pi, T=0, s-wave). At higher energies, and in channels where the pions are not in T=0, Delta excitation mechanisms become relevant. A rough agreement with the experimental data is obtained in most channels. Repercussions of the present findings for the ABC effect and the p p --> p p pi0 reaction close to threshold are also suggested.

  11. Hard Two-Photon Contribution to Elastic Lepton-Proton Scattering: Determined by the OLYMPUS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, B S; Khaneft, D; O'Connor, C; Russell, R; Schmidt, A; Bernauer, J C; Kohl, M; Akopov, N; Alarcon, R; Ates, O; Avetisyan, A; Beck, R; Belostotski, S; Bessuille, J; Brinker, F; Calarco, J R; Carassiti, V; Cisbani, E; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; De Leo, R; Diefenbach, J; Donnelly, T W; Dow, K; Elbakian, G; Eversheim, P D; Frullani, S; Funke, Ch; Gavrilov, G; Gläser, B; Görrissen, N; Hasell, D K; Hauschildt, J; Hoffmeister, Ph; Holler, Y; Ihloff, E; Izotov, A; Kaiser, R; Karyan, G; Kelsey, J; Kiselev, A; Klassen, P; Krivshich, A; Lehmann, I; Lenisa, P; Lenz, D; Lumsden, S; Ma, Y; Maas, F; Marukyan, H; Miklukho, O; Milner, R G; Movsisyan, A; Murray, M; Naryshkin, Y; Benito, R Perez; Perrino, R; Redwine, R P; neiro, D Rodríguez Pi\\; Rosner, G; Schneekloth, U; Seitz, B; Statera, M; Thiel, A; Vardanyan, H; Veretennikov, D; Vidal, C; Winnebeck, A; Yeganov, V

    2016-01-01

    The OLYMPUS collaboration reports on a precision measurement of the positron-proton to electron-proton elastic cross section ratio $R_{2\\gamma}$, a direct measure of the contribution of hard two-photon exchange to the elastic cross section. In the OLYMPUS measurement, 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams were directed through a hydrogen gas target internal to the DORIS storage ring at DESY. A toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight scintillators detected elastically scattered leptons in coincidence with recoiling protons over a scattering angle range of $\\approx 20^\\circ$ to $80^\\circ$. The relative luminosity between the two beam species was monitored using tracking telescopes of interleaved GEM and MWPC detectors at $12^\\circ$, as well as symmetric M{\\o}ller/Bhabha calorimeters at $1.29^\\circ$. A total integrated luminosity of 4.5 fb$^{-1}$ was collected. In the extraction of $R_{2\\gamma}$, radiative effects were taken into account using a Monte Carlo generator to ...

  12. A Cryogenic Target for Compton Scattering Experiments at HI γS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendellen, David; Ahmed, Mohammad; Weller, Henry; Feldman, Gerald

    2015-04-01

    We have designed, constructed, and tested a cryogenic target for use at the High Intensity γ-ray Source (HI γS). The target is able to liquefy helium (LHe), hydrogen (LH2), and deuterium (LD2). It precools room-temperature gas in two stages with a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. The precooled gas condenses onto a series of copper fins and drips down to fill a 0.25 L Kapton target cell. The cryotarget will be used to measure nuclear and nucleon electromagnetic polarizabilities. The electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleons, α and β, will be probed by scattering a γ-ray beam on unpolarized LD2 and LH2 targets. Scattered photons will be detected by the HI γS NaI Detector Array (HINDA). We have tested the target with LHe at 3 K and are preparing for LD2 testing and production running. Work supported by US Department of Energy Contracts DE-FG02-97ER41033, DE-FG02-06ER41422, and DE-SCOO0536.

  13. A letter of intent for a neutrino scattering experiment on the booster neutrino meanline: FINeSSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, B.T.; Tayloe, R.; /Indiana U. /Yale U.

    2005-03-01

    The experiment described in this Letter of Intent provides a decisive measurement of {Delta}s, the spin of the nucleon carried by strange quarks. This is crucial as, after more than thirty years of study, the spin contribution of strange quarks to the nucleon is still not understood. The interpretation of {Delta}s measurements from inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) experiments using charged leptons suffers from two questionable techniques; an assumption of SU(3)-flavor symmetry, and an extrapolation into unmeasured kinematic regions, both of which provide ample room for uncertain theoretical errors in the results. The results of recent semi-inclusive DIS data from HERMES paint a somewhat different picture of the contribution of strange quarks to the nucleon spin than do the inclusive results, but since HERMES does not make use of either of the above-mentioned techniques, then the results are somewhat incomparable. What is required is a measurement directly probing the spin contribution of the strange quarks in the nucleon. Neutrino experiments provide a theoretically clean and robust method of determining {Delta}s by comparing the neutral current interaction, which is isoscalar plus isovector, to the charged current interaction, which is strictly isovector. A past experiment, E734, performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, has pioneered this effort. Building on what they have learned, we present an experiment which achieves a measurement to {+-} 0.025 using neutrino scattering, and {+-} 0.04 using anti-neutrino scattering, significantly better than past measurements. The combination of the neutrino and anti-neutrino data, when combined with the results of the parity-violating electron-nucleon scattering data, will produce the most significant result for {Delta}s. This experiment can also measure neutrino cross sections in the energy range required for accelerator-based precision oscillation measurements. Accurate measurements of cross sections have been

  14. Monitoring and scoring counter-diffusion protein crystallization experiments in capillaries by in situ dynamic light scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Oberthuer

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of using in situ Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS to monitor counter-diffusion crystallization experiments in capillaries. Firstly, we have validated the quality of the DLS signal in thin capillaries, which is comparable to that obtained in standard quartz cuvettes. Then, we have carried out DLS measurements of a counter-diffusion crystallization experiment of glucose isomerase in capillaries of different diameters (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mm in order to follow the temporal evolution of protein supersaturation. Finally, we have compared DLS data with optical recordings of the progression of the crystallization front and with a simulation model of counter-diffusion in 1D.

  15. Monitoring and scoring counter-diffusion protein crystallization experiments in capillaries by in situ dynamic light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthuer, Dominik; Melero-García, Emilio; Dierks, Karsten; Meyer, Arne; Betzel, Christian; Garcia-Caballero, Alfonso; Gavira, Jose A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of using in situ Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) to monitor counter-diffusion crystallization experiments in capillaries. Firstly, we have validated the quality of the DLS signal in thin capillaries, which is comparable to that obtained in standard quartz cuvettes. Then, we have carried out DLS measurements of a counter-diffusion crystallization experiment of glucose isomerase in capillaries of different diameters (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mm) in order to follow the temporal evolution of protein supersaturation. Finally, we have compared DLS data with optical recordings of the progression of the crystallization front and with a simulation model of counter-diffusion in 1D.

  16. A HΛ4+n+n model of HΛ6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, B. F.; Afnan, I. R.

    2013-09-01

    A three-body calculation for the HeΛ6 and HΛ6 hypernuclei, in which the respective cores are He4 and HΛ4, has been initiated. The interactions in the HeΛ6 system are reasonably well known. For example, the Λn interaction is approximately determined by bubble-chamber Λ-p scattering data, the He4-Λ interaction can be fitted to the HeΛ5 binding energy, and the He4-n interaction can be fitted to α-n scattering data. For He4-n the s-wave can be modeled alternatively as a repulsive potential (Eskandarian and Afnan, 1992 [1]) or as an attractive potential with a forbidden bound state (Lehman, 1982 [2]). We examine the effect of these alternatives on He6 and Li6, because the interaction comes into play in modeling HeΛ6 as well as in our HΛ4+n+n model of HΛ6, where the valence neutrons are Pauli blocked from the s-shell of the core.

  17. Two Comments to Utilization of Structure Function Approach in Deep Inelastic Scattering Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kuraev, E A; Ilichev, A S

    2002-01-01

    The "returning to resonance" mechanism can be used to obtain the simple procedure of taking radiative corrections (RC) to deep inelastic scattering (DIS) cross sections into account in the framework of Drell-Yan picture. Iteration procedure is proposed. Kinematical region y\\to 1 can be described in the framework of Drell-Yan picture using the structure function approach. The large RC in the lowest order reflect the Sudakov form factor suppression, which can be taken into account in all orders of perturbation theory. Based on explicit calculation in two lowest orders of perturbation theory we construct the cross section in y\\to 1 region obeying renormalization group equations and including the Sudakov-like form factor suppression.

  18. X-ray Compton scattering experiments for fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, K., E-mail: kazuhiro-matsuda@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fukumaru, T.; Kimura, K.; Yao, M. [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tamura, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Katoh, M. [A.L.M.T. Corp., Iwasekoshi-Machi 2, Toyama 931-8543 (Japan); Kajihara, Y.; Inui, M. [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    We have developed a high-pressure vessel and a cell for x-ray Compton scattering measurements of fluid alkali metals. Measurements have been successfully carried out for alkali metal rubidium at elevated temperatures and pressures using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. The width of Compton profiles (CPs) of fluid rubidium becomes narrow with decreasing fluid density, which indicates that the CPs sensitively detect the effect of reduction in the valence electron density. At the request of all authors of the paper, and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, an updated version of this article was published on 10 September 2015. The original article supplied to AIP Publishing was not the final version and contained PDF conversion errors in Formulas (1) and (2). The errors have been corrected in the updated and re-published article.

  19. High frequency scattering from trihedral corner reflectors and other benchmark targets - SBR versus experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, John; Lee, Shung-Wu; Lin, Luke; Jeng, Shyh-Kang; Scarborough, Steven M.; Yu, C. L.

    1991-09-01

    A general method for calculating the radar cross section (RCS) from a three-dimensional target is described. The target is first constructed by using a solid-geometry-modeling computer-aided design (CAD) package. Following the shooting and bouncing ray (SBR) method, a very dense grid of rays is launched from the incident direction toward the target. Each ray is traced according to the geometrical optics theory including the effect of ray tube divergence, polarization, and material reflection coefficient. At the point where the ray exits the target, a physical optics-type integration is performed to obtain the scattered far fields. This method is tested using several simple examples involving interaction among plates, cylinders, and spheres. The theoretical results are generally in good agreement with measured data.

  20. 25--30 T water cooled pulse magnet concept for neutron scattering experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyssa, Y.M.; Walsh, R.P.; Miller, J.R.; Pernambuco-Wise, P.; Bird, M.D.; Schneider-Muntau, H.J. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Boeing, H.; Robinson, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory is in need of a high field, split-pair, pulse magnet that would provide a 25--30 T field in a 25 mm bore and 10 mm split gap for 2--4 ms at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. Single stack Bitter magnets of this type providing less than 20 T vertical field in the split gap have been constructed before. To produce higher fields, there is a need to use a multiple layer coil with internal reinforcement. The magnet should withstand up to 10{sup 7} cycles of loading and unloading. The authors have conducted a feasibility study that address these unique requirements.

  1. Shear-induced breaking of cages in colloidal glasses: Scattering experiments and mode coupling theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, Christian P., E-mail: Christian.2.Amann@uni-konstanz.de; Fuchs, Matthias, E-mail: Matthias.Fuchs@uni-konstanz.de [Fachbereich Physik, Universität Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Denisov, Dmitry; Dang, Minh Triet; Schall, Peter [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Struth, Bernd [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-21

    We employ x-ray scattering on sheared colloidal suspensions and mode coupling theory to study structure factor distortions of glass-forming systems under shear. We find a transition from quadrupolar elastic distortion at small strains to quadrupolar and hexadecupolar modes in the stationary state. The latter are interpreted as signatures of plastic rearrangements in homogeneous, thermalized systems. From their transient evolution with strain, we identify characteristic strain and length-scale values where these plastic rearrangements dominate. This characteristic strain coincides with the maximum of the shear stress versus strain curve, indicating the proliferation of plastic flow. The hexadecupolar modes dominate at the wavevector of the principal peak of the equilibrium structure factor that is related to the cage-effect in mode coupling theory. We hence identify the structural signature of plastic flow of glasses.

  2. Dependence of ultrasonic scattering on frequency and microarchitecture in trabecular bone: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Keith A.

    2002-05-01

    Measurements of ultrasonic properties of calcaneus (heel bone) have been shown to be effective for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between ultrasound and bone are currently not well understood. A model that predicts backscatter from trabecular bone has been developed. Scattering is assumed to originate from the surfaces of trabeculae, which are modeled as long, thin, elastic cylinders with radii small compared with the ultrasonic wavelength. Experimental measurements of backscatter using broadband ultrasound centered at 500 kHz from 43 trabecular bone samples (from human calcaneus) in vitro have been performed. Microcomputed tomography has been performed on all 43 samples in order to measure microarchitectural features. The theory correctly predicts the measured dependences of backscatter on ultrasonic frequency and trabecular thickness. [Funding from the FDA Office of Womens Health is gratefully acknowledged.

  3. Installation of a Thomson scattering diagnostic on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, P. J.; Maurer, D. A.; Ennis, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.; Cianciosa, M. R.

    2015-11-01

    A Thomson scattering system is being commissioned for the non-axisymmetric plasmas of the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH), a five-field period current-carrying torsatron. The initial system takes a single point measurement on the magnetic axis and will be used to assess options for an expansion to a multi-point system to enable better 3D equilibrium reconstructions using the V3FIT code. A single point measurement will reduce the uncertainty in the reconstructed peak pressure by an order of magnitude for both current-carrying plasmas and future gyrotron-heated stellarator plasmas. The beam, generated by a frequency doubled Continuum 2 J, Nd:YaG laser, is passed vertically through an entrance Brewster window and a two-aperture optical baffle system to minimize stray light. The beam line is designed to propagate ~ 8 m to the mid-plane of the CTH device with the beam diameter < 3 mm inside the plasma volume. An Andor iStar DH740-18U-C3 image intensified CCD camera is used in conjunction with a Holospec f/1.8 spectrograph to collect the red-shifted scattered light from 532-580 nm. A single point system will initially measure plasmas with core electron temperatures of 100 to 200 eV and densities of 5 ×1018 to 5 ×1019 m-3. This work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  4. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  5. Experiments with a double solenoid system: Measurements of the 6He + p Resonant Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pampa Condori R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent experiment has been performed in the double solenoid system Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil (RIBRAS by impinging a pure 6He secondary beam on a thick CH2 target to measure the 6He + p excitation function. Results of this experiment will be presented.

  6. Polarized and depolarized light-scattering studies on Brownian diffusional and critical fluid systems: theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    An effort to expand light-scattering autocorrelation techniques to Brownian diffusional and critical fluid systems in which multiple scattering effects are important, and to understand the observed similarity of the Rayleigh linewidth of light scattered from these two seemingly different systems is discussed. A formalism was developed to find the light field multiply scattered from a suspension of Brownian diffusing particles. For the field doubly scattered from a system of noninteracting Brownian particles, the intensity and correlation time were much less dependent on the scattering angle than for the singly scattered component. The polarized and depolarized correlation times of light scattered from Brownian particle systems were measured. The double-scattering formalism was extended to light scattered from critical fluid systems. In the region k xi greater than 5 the doubly and singly scattered correlation times were nearly equal. The dynamic droplet model of critical phenomena was developed which gives the proper, experimentally verified, forms for the intensity and linewidth of light scattered from a critical fluid. To test the dynamic droplet model and the mode theories Rayleigh linewidth predictions, light-scattering measurements were performed on the critical fluid system methanol and cyclohexane. The data agreed with both the dynamic droplet and decoupled mode theory predictions. The depolarized scattered spectra from a critical fluid were measured, and qualitative agreement with the double-scattering theory was found. 57 figures, 5 tables.

  7. Simulation of complete neutron scattering experiments: from model systems to liquid germanium; Simulation complete d'une experience de diffusion de neutrons: des systemes modeles au germanium liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugouvieux, V

    2004-11-15

    In this thesis, both theoretical and experimental studies of liquids are done. Neutron scattering enables structural and dynamical properties of liquids to be investigated. On the theoretical side, molecular dynamics simulations are of great interest since they give positions and velocities of the atoms and the forces acting on each of them. They also enable spatial and temporal correlations to be computed and these quantities are also available from neutron scattering experiments. Consequently, the comparison can be made between results from molecular dynamics simulations and from neutron scattering experiments, in order to improve our understanding of the structure and dynamics of liquids. However, since extracting reliable data from a neutron scattering experiment is difficult, we propose to simulate the experiment as a whole, including both instrument and sample, in order to gain understanding and to evaluate the impact of the different parasitic contributions (absorption, multiple scattering associated with elastic and inelastic scattering, instrument resolution). This approach, in which the sample is described by its structure and dynamics as computed from molecular dynamics simulations, is presented and tested on isotropic model systems. Then liquid germanium is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering and both classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. This enables us to simulate the experiment we performed and to evaluate the influence of the contributions from the instrument and from the sample on the detected signal. (author)

  8. Structure and stability for (AlN)_n~+ and (AlN)_n~- (n=1-15) clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武海顺; 张富强; 许小红; 张乾二; 张聪杰

    2002-01-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT) method with 6-31G* basis set, we have carried out the optimizing calculation of geometry, vibrational frequency and thermodynamical stability for(AIN)n+ and (AIN)n- (n =1-15) clusters. Moreover, their ionic potential (IP) and electron affinity(EA) were discussed. The results show that the electrical charge condition of the cluster has a relatively great impact on the structure of the cluster and with the increase of n, this kind of impactis reduced gradually. There are no AI-AI and N-N bonds in the stable structure of (AIN)n+ or (AIN)n-, and the AI-N bond is the sole bond type. The magic number regularity of (AIN)n+, and (AIN)n- is consistent with that for (AIN)n, indicating that the structure with even n such as 2, 4,6, … is more stable. In addition, (AIN)10 has the maximal ionization power (9.14 eV) and the minimal electron affinity energy (0.19 eV), which manifests that (AIN)10 is more stable than other clusters.

  9. Neutron scattering from fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen; Freltoft, T.; Richter, D.

    1986-01-01

    The scattering formalism for fractal structures is presented. Volume fractals are exemplified by silica particle clusters formed either from colloidal suspensions or by flame hydrolysis. The determination of the fractional dimensionality through scattering experiments is reviewed, and recent small...

  10. Multiplet classification for SU(n,n)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrev, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    In the present paper we review our project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators on the example of the non-compact algebras su(n,n) for n = 2, 3,4. We give explicitly the main multiplets of indecomposable elementary representations and some reduced multiplets. We give explicitly the minimal representations. Due to the recently established parabolic relations the multiplet classification results are valid also for the algebras sl(2n, R) and when n = 2k for the algebras su* (4k) with suitably chosen maximal parabolic subalgebras.

  11. One dimensional light localization with classical scatterers; an advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kemp, K J; Guthrie, J; Hagood, B; Havey, M D

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of electronic wave localization through disorder was introduced by Anderson in 1958 in the context of electron transport in solids. It remains an important area of fundamental and applied research. Localization of all wave phenomena, including light, is thought to exist in a restricted one dimensional geometry. We present here a series of experiments which illustrate, using a simple experimental arrangement and approach, localization of light in a quasi one dimensional physical system. In the experiments, reflected and transmitted light from a stack of glass slides of varying thickness reveals an Ohm's Law type behavior for small thicknesses, and evolution to exponential decay of the transmitted power for thicker slide stacks. Light absorption is negligible in our realization of the experiment. For larger stacks of slides, weak departure from a one dimensional behavior is also observed. The experiment and analysis of the results, then showing many of the essential features of wave localization,...

  12. One-dimensional light localization with classical scatterers: An advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, K. J.; Barker, S.; Guthrie, J.; Hagood, B.; Havey, M. D.

    2016-10-01

    The phenomenon of electronic wave localization through disorder remains an important area of fundamental and applied research. Localization of all wave phenomena, including light, is thought to exist in a restricted one-dimensional geometry. We present here a series of experiments to illustrate, using a straightforward experimental arrangement and approach, the localization of light in a quasi-one-dimensional physical system. In the experiments, reflected and transmitted light from a stack of glass slides of varying thickness reveals an Ohm's law type behavior for small thicknesses, and evolution to exponential decay of the transmitted power for larger thicknesses. For larger stacks of slides, a weak departure from one-dimensional behavior is also observed. The experiment and analysis of the results, showing many of the essential features of wave localization, is relatively straightforward, economical, and suitable for laboratory experiments at an undergraduate level.

  13. Optimization of a coherent soft x-ray beamline for coherent scattering experiments at NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro D.; Chubar, O.; Kaznatcheev, K.; Reininger, R.; Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Wang, S.

    2011-08-21

    The coherent soft x-ray and full polarization control (CSX) beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source - II (NSLS-II) will deliver 1013 coherent photons per second in the energy range of 0.2-2 keV with a resolving power of 2000. The source, a dual elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU), and beamline optics should be optimized to deliver the highest possible coherent flux in a 10-30 {micro}m spot for use in coherent scattering experiments. Using the computer code Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW), we simulate the photon source and focusing optics in order to investigate the conditions which provide the highest usable coherent intensity on the sample. In particular, we find that an intermediate phasing magnet is needed to correct for the relative phase between the two EPUs and that the optimum phase setting produces a spectrum in which the desired wavelength is slightly red-shifted thus requiring a larger aperture than originally anticipated. This setting is distinct from that which produces an on-axis spectrum similar to a single long undulator. Furthermore, partial coherence calculations, utilizing a multiple electron approach, indicate that a high degree of spatial coherence is still obtained at the sample location when such an aperture is used. The aperture size which maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of a double-slit experiment is explored. This combination of high coherence and intensity is ideally suited for x-ray ptychography experiments which reconstruct the scattering density from micro-diffraction patterns. This technique is briefly reviewed and the effects on the image quality of proximity to the beamline focus are explored.

  14. Excess pions in Drell-Yan and deep inelastic scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florian, D. de (Lab. de Fisica Teorica, Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Nacional de La Plata (Argentina)); Epele, L.N. (Lab. de Fisica Teorica, Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Nacional de La Plata (Argentina)); Fanchiotti, H. (Lab. de Fisica Teorica, Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Nacional de La Plata (Argentina)); Garcia Canal, C.A. (Lab. de Fisica Teorica, Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Nacional de La Plata (Argentina)); Sassot, R. (Lab. de Fisica Teorica, Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Nacional de La Plata (Argentina))

    1994-10-01

    Recent data on Drell-Yan processes induced by protons on nuclear targets gives non trivial information about nuclear effects. A very simple model for excess pions in nuclei reproduces the main features of these data, and also of those coming from deep inelastic experiments. This simple scheme gives an unified treatment of nuclear effects highlighting its importance in the deuteron and provides a precise prediction for future p - p and p - d Drell-Yan experiments. (orig.)

  15. Perfect/complete scattering experiments probing quantum mechanics on atomic and molecular collisions and coincidences

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinpoppen, Hans; Grum-Grzhimailo, Alexei N

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to elucidate what kind of experiment must be performed in order to determine the full set of independent parameters which can be extracted and calculated from theory, where electrons, photons, atoms, ions, molecules, or molecular ions may serve as the interacting constituents of matter.  The feasibility of such perfect' and-or `complete' experiments, providing the complete quantum mechanical knowledge of the process, is associated with the enormous potential of modern research techniques, both, in experiment and theory.  It is even difficult to overestimate the role of theory in setting of the complete experiment, starting with the fact that an experiment can be complete only within a certain theoretical framework, and ending with the direct prescription of what, and in what conditions should be measured to make the experiment `complete'.  The language of the related theory is the language of quantum mechanical amplitudes and their relative phases.  This book captures the spi...

  16. Transverse magnetoresistance induced by electron-surface scattering on thin gold films: Experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyarzún, Simón [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne CEDEX (France); Henríquez, Ricardo [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Suárez, Marco Antonio; Moraga, Luis [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Casilla 487-3, Santiago 8370449 (Chile); Kremer, Germán [Bachillerato, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Santiago 7800024 (Chile); Munoz, Raúl C., E-mail: ramunoz@ing.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Casilla 487-3, Santiago 8370449 (Chile)

    2014-01-15

    We report new experimental data regarding the transverse magnetoresistance measured in a family of thin gold films of different thickness with the electric field E oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field B (both fields contained within the plane of the film), as well as a theoretical description of size effects based upon a solution of Boltzmann Transport Equation. The measurements were performed at low temperatures T (4 K ≤ T ≤ 50 K) under magnetic field strengths B (1.5 T ≤ B ≤ 9 T). The magnetoresistance signal can be univocally identified as arising from electron-surface scattering, for the Hall mobility at 4 K depends linearly on film thickness. The magnetoresistance signal exhibits a marked thickness dependence, and its curvature as a function of magnetic field B varies with film thickness. The theoretical description of the magnetic field dependence of the magnetoresistance requires a Hall field that varies with the thickness of the film; this Hall field is tuned to reproduce the experimental data.

  17. A small and robust active beamstop for scattering experiments on high-brilliance undulator beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Clement E; Hermes, Christoph; Svergun, Dmitri I; Fiedler, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    A small active in-vacuum beamstop has been developed to monitor the flux of intense third-generation synchrotron X-ray beams protecting the downstream detector from the direct beam. Standard active beamstops, where a built-in diode directly absorbs the beam, have limitations in size and lifetime. In the present design, a silicon PIN diode detects the photons back-scattered from a cavity in the beamstop. This approach drastically reduces the radiation dose on the diode and thus increases its lifetime. The beamstop with a diameter of 2 mm has been fabricated to meet the requirements for the P12 bioSAXS beamline of EMBL Hamburg at PETRA III (DESY). The beamstop is in regular user operation at the beamline and displays a good response over the range of energies tested (6-20 keV). Further miniaturization of the diode is easily possible as its size is not limited by the PIN diode used.

  18. Thomson scattering diagnostic system design for the Compact Toroidal Hybrid experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traverso, P. J., E-mail: pjt0002@auburn.edu; Maurer, D. A.; Ennis, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.; Goforth, M. M.; Loch, S. D.; Pearce, A. J.; Cianciosa, M. R. [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A new Thomson scattering system using standard commercially available components has been designed for the non-axisymmetric plasmas of the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH). The beam, generated by a frequency doubled Continuum PL DLS 2 J Nd:YAG laser, is passed vertically through an entrance Brewster window and an aperturing baffle system to minimize the stray laser light that could enter the collection optics. The beam line has been designed with an 8 m propagation distance to the mid-plane of the CTH device with the beam diameter kept less than 3 mm inside the plasma volume. The beam exits the vacuum system through another Brewster window and enters a beam dump, again to minimize the stray light in the vacuum chamber. Light collection, spectral processing, and signal detection are accomplished with an f/#∼ 1 aspheric lens, a commercially available Holospec f/1.8 spectrometer, and an Andor iStar DH740-18U-C3 image intensified camera. Spectral rejection of stray laser light, if needed, can be performed with the use of an optional interference filter at the spectrometer input. The system has been developed for initial single point measurements of plasmas with core electron temperatures of approximately 20–300 eV and densities of 5 × 10{sup 18} to 5 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3} dependent upon operational scenario.

  19. Estimating the Analytical and Surface Enhancement Factors in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS): A Novel Physical Chemistry and Nanotechnology Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Ioana E.; Alnajjar, Khadijeh S.; Monahan, Jennifer L.; Stahler, Adam; Hunter, Nora E.; Weaver, Kent M.; Baker, Joshua D.; Meyerhoefer, Allie J.; Dolson, David A.

    2012-01-01

    A novel laboratory experiment was successfully implemented for undergraduate and graduate students in physical chemistry and nanotechnology. The main goal of the experiment was to rigorously determine the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensing capabilities of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). These were quantified by…

  20. Initial Thomson Scattering Survey of Local Helicity Injection and Ohmic Plasmas at the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossberg, D. J.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2014-10-01

    A multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic has recently been installed on the Pegasus ST. The system utilizes a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (λ0 ~ 532 nm), spectrometers with volume phase holographic gratings, and a gated, intensified CCD camera. It provides measurements of Te and ne at 8 spatial locations for each spectrometer once per discharge. A new multiple aperture and beam dump system has been implemented to mitigate interference from stray light. This system has provided initial measurements in the core region of plasmas initiated by local helicity injection (LHI), as well as conventional Ohmic L- and H-mode discharges. Multi-shot averages of low-density (ne ~ 3 ×1018 m-3) , Ip ~ 0 . 1 MA LHI discharges show central Te ~ 75 eV at the end of the helicity injection phase. Ip ~ 0 . 13 MA Ohmic plasmas at moderate densities (ne ~ 2 ×1019 m-3) have core Te ~ 150 eV in L-mode. Generally, these plasmas do not reach transport equilibrium in the short 25 ms pulse length available. After an L-H transition, strong spectral broadening indicates increasing Te, to values above the range of the present spectrometer system with a high-dispersion VPH grating. Near-term system upgrades will focus on deploying a second spectrometer, with a lower-dispersion grating capable of measuring the 0.1-1.0 keV range. The second spectrometer system will also increase the available number of spatial channels, enabling study of H-mode pedestal structure. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  1. SCANDAL -- A facility for elastic neutron scattering studies in the 50--130 MeV range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, J.; Blomgren, J.; Atac, A.; Bergenwall, B.; Dangtip, S.; Elmgren, K.; Johansson, C.; Olsson, N.; Prokofiev, A.V.; Rahm, J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Neutron Research; Jonsson, O.; Nilsson, L.; Renberg, P.U. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). The Svedberg Laboratory; Nadel-Turonski, P. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Sciences; Ringbom, A. [Swedish Defence Research Establishment (FOA), Stockholm (Sweden); Oberstedt, A.; Tovesson, F. [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Technology and Science; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lecolley, F.R.; Louvel, M.; Marie, N.; Schweitzer, C.; Varignon, C. [Univ. de Caen (France); Eudes, Ph.; Haddad, F.; Kerveno, M.; Kirchner, T.; Lebrun, C. [Univ. de Nantes (France); Stuttge, L. [IReS, Strasbourg (France); Slypen, I. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain (Belgium). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Smirnov, A.N. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Michel, R.; Neumann, S. [Univ. Hannover (Germany). Zentrum fuer Strahlenschutz und Radiooekologie; Herpers, U. [Univ. Cologne (Germany). Abteilung Nuklearchemie

    2001-01-01

    A facility for detection of scattered neutrons in the energy interval 50--130 MeV, SCANDAL (SCAttered Nucleon Detection AssembLy), has recently been installed at the 20--180 MeV neutron beam facility of the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala. It is primarily intended for studies of elastic neutron scattering, but can be used for the (n,p) and (n,d) reaction experiments as well. The performance of the spectrometer is illustrated in measurements of the (n,p) and (n,n) reactions on {sup 1}H and {sup 12}C. In addition, the neutron beam facility is described in some detail.

  2. Improving a high-efficiency, gated spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Döppner, T., E-mail: doeppner1@llnl.gov; Bachmann, B.; Emig, J.; Hardy, M.; Kalantar, D. H.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; Wood, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94720 (United States); Kraus, D.; Saunders, A. M. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Neumayer, P. [Gesellschaft für Schwerionenphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Falcone, R. W. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Fletcher, L. B. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We are developing x-ray Thomson scattering for applications in implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. In particular we have designed and fielded MACS, a high-efficiency, gated x-ray spectrometer at 7.5–10 keV [T. Döppner et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D617 (2014)]. Here we report on two new Bragg crystals based on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG), a flat crystal and a dual-section cylindrically curved crystal. We have performed in situ calibration measurements using a brass foil target, and we used the flat HOPG crystal to measure Mo K-shell emission at 18 keV in 2nd order diffraction. Such high photon energy line emission will be required to penetrate and probe ultra-high-density plasmas or plasmas of mid-Z elements.

  3. Recent research progress on preparation and application of N, N, N-trimethyl chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meiyan; Long, Zhu; Xiao, Huining; Dong, Cuihua

    2016-11-03

    N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) is a quaternized chitosan derivative with excellent solubility in aqueous solutions. It has been extensively studied as an absorption enhancer, antibacterial agent and gene vector due to its ability to form complexes with anionic gels or macromoleculars. However, the research which describes the process of TMC preparation and its new applications has not been fully reviewed. In this paper, recent progress regarding different TMC preparation methods and its characterization and application in different fields is presented. Key findings are compared and summarized and some topics for further study are suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The MOLLER Experiment: An Ultra-Precise Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle Using M{\\o}ller Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Benesch, J; Carlini, R D; Chen, J-P; Chudakov, E; Covrig, S; Dalton, M M; Deur, A; Gaskell, D; Gavalya, A; Gomez, J; Higinbotham, D W; Keppel, C; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Roblin, Y; Suleiman, R; Wines, R; Wojtsekhowski, B; Cates, G; Crabb, D; Day, D; Gnanvo, K; Keller, D; Liyanage, N; Nelyubin, V V; Nguyen, H; Norum, B; Paschke, K; Sulkosky, V; Zhang, J; Zheng, X; Birchall, J; Blunden, P; Gericke, M T W; Falk, W R; Lee, L; Mammei, J; Page, S A; van Oers, W T H; Dehmelt, K; Deshpande, A; Feege, N; Hemmick, T K; Kumar, K S; Kutz, T; Miskimen, R; Ramsey-Musolf, M J; Riordan, S; Taylor, N Hirlinger; Bessuille, J; Ihloff, E; Kelsey, J; Kowalski, S; Silwal, R; De Cataldo, G; De Leo, R; Di Bari, D; Lagamba, L; Bellini, E NappiV; Mammoliti, F; Noto, F; Sperduto, M L; Sutera, C M; Cole, P; Forest, T A; Khandekar, M; McNulty, D; Aulenbacher, K; Baunack, S; Maas, F; Tioukine, V; Gilman, R; Myers, K; Ransome, R; Tadepalli, A; Beniniwattha, R; Holmes, R; Souder, P; Armstrong, D S; Averett, T D; Deconinck, W; Duvall, W; Lee, A; Pitt, M L; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Fassi, L El; De Persio, F; Meddi, F; Urciuoli, G M; Cisbani, E; Fanelli, C; Garibaldi, F; Johnston, K; Simicevic, N; Wells, S; King, P M; Roche, J; Arrington, J; Reimer, P E; Franklin, G; Quinn, B; Ahmidouch, A; Danagoulian, S; Glamazdin, O; Pomatsalyuk, R; Mammei, R; Martin, J W; Holmstrom, T; Erler, J; Kolomensky, Yu G; Napolitano, J; Aniol, K A; Ramsay, W D; Korkmaz, E; Spayde, D T; Benmokhtar, F; Del Dotto, A; Perrino, R; Barkanova, S; Aleksejevs, A; Singh, J

    2014-01-01

    The physics case and an experimental overview of the MOLLER (Measurement Of a Lepton Lepton Electroweak Reaction) experiment at the 12 GeV upgraded Jefferson Lab are presented. A highlight of the Fundamental Symmetries subfield of the 2007 NSAC Long Range Plan was the SLAC E158 measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry $A_{PV}$ in polarized electron-electron (M{\\o}ller) scattering. The proposed MOLLER experiment will improve on this result by a factor of five, yielding the most precise measurement of the weak mixing angle at low or high energy anticipated over the next decade. This new result would be sensitive to the interference of the electromagnetic amplitude with new neutral current amplitudes as weak as $\\sim 10^{-3}\\cdot G_F$ from as yet undiscovered dynamics beyond the Standard Model. The resulting discovery reach is unmatched by any proposed experiment measuring a flavor- and CP-conserving process over the next decade, and yields a unique window to new physics at MeV and multi-TeV scales, complem...

  5. The Manuel Lujan, Jr. Neutron Scattering Center, LANSCE experiment reports: 1990 Run Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiStravolo, M.A. (comp.)

    1991-10-01

    This year was the third in which LANSCE ran a formal user program. A call for proposals was issued before the scheduled run cycles, and experiment proposals were submitted by scientists from universities, industry, and other research facilities around the world. An external program advisory committee, which LANSCE shares with the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS), Argonne National Laboratory examined the proposals and made recommendations. At LANSCE, neutrons are produced by spallation when a pulsed, 800-MeV proton beam impinges on a tungsten target. The proton pulses are provided by the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator and an associated Proton Storage Ring (PSR), which can alter the intensity, time structure, and repetition rate of the pulses. The LAMPF protons of Line D are shared between the LANSCE target and the Weapons Neutron Research facility, which results in LANSCE spectrometers being available to external users for unclassified research about 80% of each six-month LAMPF run cycle. Measurements of interest to the Los Alamos National Laboratory may also be performed and may occupy up to an additional 20% of the available beam time. These experiments are reviewed by an internal program advisory committee. One hundred thirty-four proposals were submitted for unclassified research and twelve proposals for research of a programmatic nature to the Laboratory. Our definition of beam availability is when the proton current from the PSR exceeds 50% of the planned value. The PSR ran at 65{mu}A current (average) at 20 Hz for most of 1990. All of the scheduled experiments were performed and experiments in support of the LANSCE research program were accomplished during the discretionary periods.

  6. Electron Neutrino Charged-Current Quasielastic Scattering in the MINERvA Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, J

    2016-01-01

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter for electron neutrino appearance oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically begin with the muon neutrino cross section and apply theoretical corrections to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section. However, at present no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments exists. We present the cross sections for a CCQE-like process determined using the MINERvA detector, which are the first measurements of any exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^{2}$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^{2}$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between these measurements and the predictions of the GENIE generato...

  7. Electron neutrino charged-current quasielastic scattering in the MINERvA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter to appearance-type neutrino oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically work from the muon neutrino cross section and apply corrections from theoretical arguments to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section, but to date there has been no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments. We present the first measurement of an exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions, namely, the cross section for a CCQE-like process, made using the MINERvA detector. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^2$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^2$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between this measurement and the predictions of the GENIE generator.

  8. Electron Neutrino Charged-Current Quasielastic Scattering in the MINERvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolcott, Jeremy [Rochester U.

    2015-10-28

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter to appearance-type neutrino oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically work from the muon neutrino cross section and apply corrections from theoretical arguments to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section, but to date there has been no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments. We present the first measurement of an exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions, namely, the cross section for a CCQE-like process, made using the MINERvA detector. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^2$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^2$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between this measurement and the predictions of the GENIE generator.

  9. Neuropharmacology of N,N-dimethyltryptamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaro, Theresa M; Gatch, Michael B

    2016-09-01

    N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is an indole alkaloid widely found in plants and animals. It is best known for producing brief and intense psychedelic effects when ingested. Increasing evidence suggests that endogenous DMT plays important roles for a number of processes in the periphery and central nervous system, and may act as a neurotransmitter. This paper reviews the current literature of both the recreational use of DMT and its potential roles as an endogenous neurotransmitter. Pharmacokinetics, mechanisms of action in the periphery and central nervous system, clinical uses and adverse effects are also reviewed. DMT appears to have limited neurotoxicity and other adverse effects except for intense cardiovascular effects when administered intravenously in large doses. Because of its role in nervous system signaling, DMT may be a useful experimental tool in exploring how the brain works, and may also be a useful clinical tool for treatment of anxiety and psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A simple bijection between standard (n,n,n) tableaux and irreducible webs for sl_3

    CERN Document Server

    Tymoczko, Julianna

    2010-01-01

    Combinatorial spiders are a model for the invariant space of the tensor product of representations. The basic objects, webs, are certain directed planar graphs with boundary; algebraic operations on representations correspond to graph-theoretic operations on webs. Kuperberg developed spiders for rank 2 Lie algebras and sl_2. Building on a result of Kuperberg's, Khovanov-Kuperberg found a recursive algorithm giving a bijection between standard Young tableaux of shape (n,n,n) and irreducible webs for sl_3 whose boundary vertices are all sources. In this paper, we give a simple and explicit map from standard Young tableaux of shape (n,n,n) to irreducible webs for sl_3 whose boundary vertices are all sources, and show that it is the same as Khovanov-Kuperberg's map. Our construction generalizes to some webs with both sources and sinks on the boundary. Moreover, it allows us to extend the correspondence between webs and tableaux in two ways. First, we provide a short, geometric proof of Petersen-Pylyavskyy-Rhoades...

  11. The Manuel Lujan, Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) experiment reports 1992 run cycle. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiStravolo, M.A. [comp.

    1993-09-01

    This year was the fifth in which LANSCE ran a formal user program. A call for proposals was issued before the scheduled run cycles, and experiment proposals were submitted by scientists from universities, industry, and other research facilities around the world. An external program advisory committee, which LANSCE shares with the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS), Argonne National Laboratory, examined the proposals and made recommendations. At LANSCE, neutrons are produced by spallation when a pulsed, 800-MeV proton beam impinges on a tungsten target. The proton pulses are provided by the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator and an associated Proton Storage Ring (PSR), which can alter the intensity, time structure, and repetition rate of the pulses. The LAMPF protons of Line D are shared between the LANSCE target and the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility, which results in LANSCE spectrometers being available to external users for unclassified research about 80% of each annual LAMPF run cycle. Measurements of interest to the Los Alamos National Laboratory may also be performed and may occupy up to an additional 20% of the available beam time. These experiments are reviewed by an internal program advisory committee. One hundred sixty-seven proposals were submitted for unclassified research and twelve proposals for research of a programmatic interest to the Laboratory; six experiments in support of the LANSCE research program were accomplished during the discretionary periods. Oversubscription for instrument beam time by a factor of three was evident with 839 total days requested and only 371 available for allocation.

  12. Water diffusion through compacted clays analyzed by neutron scattering and tracer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Sanchez, F

    2007-11-15

    /cm{sup 3}, in order to reduce the pore sizes and to better study the dynamic properties of water close to the water-clay interface. We compared the water dynamics in fully hydrated compacted clays, at two significantly different time-space scales, in an attempt to distinguish the relevant features of the water transport. A fundamental microscopic investigation, tracing down to the atomic level was carried out, by neutron scattering, using time-of-flight and backscattering techniques. A classical macroscopic study was performed by using tracer through-diffusion methods. At the macroscopic level (time/spatial scale of about hours/mm to cm) the water diffusion depends strongly on the clay pore size and arrangement of the particles. However, at the microscopic level (time/spatial scale of about ten to hundred picosecond/10{sup -8} cm) the diffusion is governed by the local environment, which concerns to cations and clay surfaces and less to the particle arrangement. For a further understanding of this local environment, the water diffusion in clays was also measured at different hydration states, to vary the fraction of interlayer or external layer water, as compared to free pore water. The large difference in the diffusion paths of the two selected techniques makes a direct comparison of water diffusivities impossible. Therefore, two possibilities were established: An indirect comparison by connecting the results for diffusion coefficient at the two different scales through pure geometrical and electrostatic factors; and a direct comparison through the activation energy E{sub a} which was estimated from the dependence of the diffusion coefficients on the temperature. In contrast to the macroscopic diffusion coefficients, the activation energy is probably less influenced by geometrical factors and more by microscopic interactions, and thus could possibly be directly compared at the two different scales. The research was accomplished by a detailed characterization of the clay

  13. Wave Scattering by Double Slotted Barriers in A Steady Current: Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The adoption of slotted breakwaters can be an ideal option in the protection of very large near-shore floating structures that may extend offshore to a considerable water depth. In this paper, we experimently investigated the behaviour of wave transmission and reflection coefficients of double slotted barriers in the presence of a steady opposing current. The experimental results show that opposing currents have only minor effects on wave reflection, but can significantly reduce the wave transmission through double slotted barriers. The experimental results suggest that coastal currents should be taken into consideration for an economical design of slotted breakwaters.

  14. Charged-current quasielastic scattering of muon antineutrino and neutrino in the MINERvA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ankowski, Artur M

    2015-01-01

    One of the largest sources of systematic uncertainties in ongoing neutrino-oscillation measurements is the description of nuclear effects. Its considerable reduction is expected thanks to the dedicated studies of (anti)neutrino-nucleus interactions in the MINERvA experiment. In this article, the calculations within the spectral function approach are compared to the charged-current quasielastic cross sections reported from MINERvA. The obtained results show that the effect of final-state interactions on the (anti)muon kinematics plays pivotal role in reproducing the experimental data.

  15. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off an unpolarized hydrogen target at the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, Dietmar

    2009-11-15

    The structure of this thesis is as follows: In the second chapter the theoretical basis needed for the description of the exclusive electro-production of photons in the framework of GPDs is explained. Three different models are discussed and experimental observables are defined. The third chapter includes a description of the Hermes experiment and its components. The data analysis is discussed in chapter four, along with various studies both on real and Monte Carlo data and the derivations of the systematic uncertainties. In chapter five the present results are given and interpreted both from an experimental point of view, and in comparison to existing models. Conclusion from the results are drawn. Furthermore the calibration of the Recoil Silicon Detector and the performance of the complete Recoil Detector is outlined in chapter six. In chapter seven an outlook is presented followed by the summary. (orig.)

  16. Dark matter scattering on electrons: Accurate calculations of atomic excitations and implications for the DAMA and XENON experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Benjamin; Dzuba, Vladimir; Flambaum, Victor; Gribakin, Gleb; Pospelov, Maxim; Stadnik, Yevgeny

    2017-01-01

    Atoms can become ionised during the scattering of a slow, heavy particle off a bound electron. Such an interaction involving leptophilic WIMP dark matter is a potential explanation for the anomalous 9 sigma annual modulation in the DAMA direct detection experiment. We show that due to non-analytic, cusp-like behavior of Coulomb functions close to the nucleus leads to an effective atomic structure enhancement. Crucially, we also show that electron relativistic effects are important. With this in mind, we perform high-accuracy relativistic calculations of atomic ionisation. We scan the parameter space: the DM mass, the mediator mass, and the effective coupling strength, to determine if there is any region that could potentially explain the DAMA signal. While we find that the modulation fraction of all events with energy deposition above 2 keV in NaI can be quite significant, reaching 50%, the relevant parts of the parameter space are excluded by the XENON10 and XENON100 experiments.

  17. EXAFS of Poly [μ-hexakis(2-methylimidazolato-N,N')triiron( II)]: Implications for Metalloprotein Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Feiters, M.C.; Navaratnam, S.; Al-Hakim, M.; Allen, J.C.; Spek, A.L.; Veldink, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    EXAFS data at the Fe K-edge of the coordination compound poly[mu-hexakis(2-methylimidazolato-N,N3triiron(II)] are presented. Single-scattering analysis of the EXAFS gives good agreement with the crystallographic data for the first two shells of atoms around the iron, but beyond that, multiple-scatte

  18. Drop by drop scattering properties of a radar bin : a numerical experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the development and initial results of a numerical simulation of pseudo-radar observations computed as the sum of the electric field backscattered by each drop. Simulations are carried out for three successive radar bins with a gate length of 30 m and beam width of 1°. The first step is the simulation of a 100 m x 100 m x 100 m volume with all its drops. The 3D raindrop generator relies on the findings on the rainfall field very small scales (mm to few tens of m) spatio-temporal structure, of the HYDROP experiment and a recent analysis of 2D video disdrometer data in a Multifractal framework. More precisely: (i) The Liquid Water Content (LWC) distribution is represented with the help a multiplicative cascade down to 0.5 m, below which it is considered as homogeneous. (ii) Within each 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m3 patch, liquid water is distributed into drops according to a pre-defined Drop Size Distribution (DSD) and located randomly uniformly. (iii) Such configuration is compared with the one consisting of the same drops uniformly distributed over the 50 x 50 x 50 m3 volume. Then the backscattered field by the drops located within a radar bin are computed as the sum a individual contribution. Antenna beam weighing is taken into account Due to the fact that the radar wave length is much smaller than the "patches" size for rainfall, it appears that as theoretically expected we retrieved an exponential distribution for potential measure horizontal reflectivity. A much lower dispersion is noticed for differential reflectivity. We show that a simple ballistic assumption for drop velocities does not enable to reproduce radar observations, and turbulence must be taken into account. Finally the sensitivity of these outputs to the various model parameters is quantified.

  19. Biomaterials based on N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan fibers in wound dressing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongzheng; Yan, Dong; Cheng, Xiaojie; Kong, Ming; Liu, Ya; Feng, Chao; Chen, Xiguang

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) fibers were synthesized successfully and the resulting quaternized materials were characterized by FTIR. The designed TMC fibers with different degree of quaternization achieved high water absorption capability. In antibacterial activity study, TMC fibers showed high antibacterial activity than chitosan fibers against the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (>63%) and gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (>99%). TMC fibers exhibited no obvious cytotoxicity to mouse embryo fibroblast cells with low extraction concentrations (<0.05g/mL). In animal wound healing test, TMC2 fibers could significantly enhance wound re-epithelialization and contraction compared with the control (chitosan fibers). In conclusion, TMC fibers have a potential to be used as wound dressing materials.

  20. Solvent extraction of trivalent lanthanoid ions with N,N`-dimethyl-N,N`-diphenyl-3-oxapentanediamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, H.; Tachimori, S. [Separation Chemistry Lab., Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)]|[Ibaraki Univ., Bunkyo (Japan); Yaita, T.; Tamura, K. [Ibaraki Univ., Bunkyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    The extraction of trivalent lanthanoid ions from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions by N,N`-dimethyl-N,N`-diphenyl-3-oxapentanediamide, DMDPhOPDA, was investigated. The distribution ratios in the nitric acid system were much higher than those in the hydrochloric acid system. In the nitric acid system, the dependencies of the distribution ratios on nitric acid and DMDPhOPDA concentrations showed a difference between lighter and heavier lanthanoid ions. The plots of the number of DMDPhOPDA molecules in the extracted species obtained from slope analysis in 4 mol dm{sup -3} nitric acid versus the ionic radius of trivalent lanthanoid ions exhibited a significant change around the middle of the lanthanoids (S-shape). The distribution ratios in the nitric acid system increased with an increase in the atomic number, while those in the HCl system decreased. (orig.)

  1. Aggregation of N,N'-diallylurea and N,N'-diallylthiourea in solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rospenk, Maria; Obrzud, Monika; Koll, Aleksander

    2017-11-05

    Joint studies by IR spectroscopy, dipole moments, average molecular weight measurements and DFT calculations on the self-aggregation of N,N'-diallylureas and N,N'-diallylthioureas in solvents of different polarities were performed. Simultaneous uses of all these methods are required for better understanding the mechanism of aggregation and the effects of different polarity of solvents. In this study also the measurements of IR spectra in polarized light were additionally performed, which gives information on arrangement of aggregates in liquid crystal matrix-built of 4-CN biphenyl derivative. It was demonstrated that in such conditions two forms of dimers the linear and cyclic ones are in equilibrium with different arrangements according the axis of CN group. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Human psychopharmacology of N,N-dimethyltryptamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassman, R J

    1996-01-01

    We generated dose-response data for the endogenous and ultra-short-acting hallucinogen, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), in a cohort of experienced hallucinogen users, measuring multiple biological and psychological outcome measures. Subjective responses were quantified with a new rating scale, the HRS, which provided better resolution of dose effects than did the biological variables. A tolerance study then was performed, in which volunteers received four closely spaced hallucinogenic doses of DMT. Subjective responses demonstrated no tolerance, while biological measures were inconsistently reduced over the course of the sessions. Thus, DMT remains unique among classic hallucinogens in its inability to induce tolerance to its psychological effects. To assess the role of the 5-HT1A site in mediating DMT's effects, a pindolol pre-treatment study was performed. Pindolol significantly increased psychological responses to DMT, suggesting a buffering effect of 5-HT1A agonism on 5-HT2-mediated psychedelic effects. These data are opposite to those described in lower animal models of hallucinogens' mechanisms of action.

  3. N,N-Dimethyltryptamine-Induced Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Neil E; Darby, W Connor; Sandhu, Preetpal S

    2015-01-01

    N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A and 1A receptor agonist that exhibits potent psychoactive properties in humans. Recreational use of this drug has increased precipitously and is likely to result in an increase in patients presenting with substance-induced psychoses. The present case provides an early example of substance-induced psychosis attributable to repeated use of DMT. A 42-year-old white man, with no significant past psychiatric history, was brought to the emergency department by the police and was found to exhibit disinhibited behavior, elevated affect, disorganized thought process, and delusions of reference. Laboratory studies revealed elevated creatinine kinase level indicative of rhabdomyolysis. The patient endorsed recent and repeated use of DMT, as well as long-term Cannabis (marijuana) use. Over the course of the next 3 weeks, the patient was successfully treated with quetiapine for psychosis, divalproex sodium (Depakote) for impulsivity, gabapentin for anxiety, and hydroxyzine for sleep, which resulted in the resolution of his symptoms and development of reasonable insight and judgment. Approximately 6 months after discharge, the patient remained treatment compliant, as well as drug and symptom free. This case report illustrates an important example of substance-induced psychosis that resolved with antipsychotic treatment in a 42-year-old white man with no past psychiatric history likely attributable to the use of DMT. Given the increasing use of this substance, the emergency department, primary care, and inpatient services are likely to see a significant increase in similar cases.

  4. N,N-Dimethyldehydroabietylammonium chloride ethanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Zhi Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 1-[(1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthren-1-yl]-N,N-dimethylmethanaminium chloride ethanol monosolvate}, C22H36N+·Cl−·C2H6O, was synthesized from dehydroabietylamine by N-methylation with formaldehyde/formic acid and transformation into the hydrochloride. The dehydroabietyl moiety exhibits the usual conformation with the two cyclohexane rings in chair and half-chair conformations and a trans-ring junction. The crystal structure is built up from columns of the dehydroabietyl moieties stacked along the a axis. These columns are held together by the chloride ions via N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl interactions, which establish a two-dimensional network parallel to (010. The ethanol solvent molecules are located between the columns and anchored via O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  5. Bis[N,N'-bis(diphenylmethylene)ethylenediamine-2N,N']copper(I) dichlorocuprate(I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirkhani, Valiollah; Harkema, Sybolt; Kia, Reza

    2004-01-01

    The 1:1 adduct of N,N'-bis(diphenylmethylene)ethylenediamine (bz2en) with copper(I) chloride, viz. [Cu(C28H24N2)2][CuCl2], has been synthesized. The structure contains cationic moieties of CuI ions (Cu on a twofold axis) coordinated to four N atoms of two bz2en molecules (in a distorted tetrahedron)

  6. Bis[N,N'-bis(diphenylmethylene)ethylenediamine-2N,N']copper(I) dichlorocuprate(I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirkhani, Valiollah; Harkema, Sybolt; Kia, Reza

    2004-01-01

    The 1:1 adduct of N,N'-bis(diphenylmethylene)ethylenediamine (bz2en) with copper(I) chloride, viz. [Cu(C28H24N2)2][CuCl2], has been synthesized. The structure contains cationic moieties of CuI ions (Cu on a twofold axis) coordinated to four N atoms of two bz2en molecules (in a distorted tetrahedron)

  7. The pH induced sol-gel transition in skim milk revisited. A detailed study using time-resolved light and x-ray scattering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitzi, Christian; Menzel, Andreas; Schurtenberger, Peter; Stradner, Anna

    2011-03-15

    We present a detailed study of the evolution of the size, structure and stability of casein micelles upon acidification of skim milk typically applied in yogurt-making processes using a combination of time-resolved light and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. While most of the available light scattering studies on casein acidification have been restricted to transparent and therefore highly diluted samples, we now profit from a newly developed multiangle 3D light scattering instrument, which allows for time-resolved measurements in highly turbid samples. Our experiments clearly demonstrate the presence of two parallel pH-dependent processes, micellar reassembly and aggregation. Using a systematic investigation of the effect of casein concentration, acidification rate, and ionic strength, we are able to decouple these two processes and obtain detailed information about the pH-induced restructuration of the casein micelle structure that occurs prior to destabilization. Moreover, our experiments also unambiguously demonstrate that these micellar reassembly processes are highly concentration dependent, and that typical light scattering studies conducted under highly diluted conditions are resulting in findings that may not be relevant for the situation encountered in industrial processes at higher concentrations. Experiments conducted with covalently cross-linked micelles, where the pH-induced reassembly has been suppressed, further confirm our findings.

  8. The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)-A conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, A.N.; Gaidarov, M.K. [INRNE-BAS Sofia (Bulgaria); Ivanov, M.V. [Grupo de Physica Nuclear, Complutense University of Madrid (Spain); Kadrev, D.N. [INRNE-BAS Sofia (Bulgaria); Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Czajkowski, S.; Jurado, B. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires Bordeaux-Gradingnan (CENBG) (France); Belier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Granier, T.; Taieb, J. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Dore, D.; Letourneau, A.; Ridikas, D.; Dupont, E.; Berthoumieux, E.; Panebianco, S. [CEA Saclay (France); Farget, F.; Schmitt, C. [GANIL Caen (France)

    2011-05-01

    The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe is part of the installations envisaged at the new experimental storage ring at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. It offers an unique opportunity to use electrons as probe in investigations of the structure of exotic nuclei. The conceptual design and the scientific challenges of ELISe are presented.

  9. The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)-A conceptual design study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonov, A. N.; Gaidarov, M. K.; Ivanov, M. V.; Kadrev, D. N.; Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Czajkowski, S.; Jurado, B.; Belier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Granier, T.; Taieb, J.; Dore, D.; Letourneau, A.; Ridikas, D.; Dupont, E.; Berthoumieux, E.; Panebianco, S.; Farget, F.; Schmitt, C.; Audouin, L.; Khan, E.; Tassan-Got, L.; Aumann, T.; Beller, P.; Boretzky, K.; Dolinskii, A.; Egelhof, P.; Emling, H.; Franzke, B.; Geissel, H.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kester, O.; Kurz, N.; Litvinov, Y.; Muenzenberg, G.; Nolden, F.; Schmidt, K. -H.; Scheidenberger, Ch.; Simon, H.; Steck, M.; Weick, H.; Enders, J.; Pietralla, N.; Richter, A.; Schrieder, G.; Zilges, A.; Distler, M. O.; Merkel, H.; Mueller, U.; Junghans, A. R.; Lenske, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Suda, T.; Kato, S.; Adachi, T.; Hamieh, S.; Harakeh, M. N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Woertche, H.; Berg, G. P. A.; Koop, I. A.; Logatchov, P. V.; Otboev, A. V.; Parkhomchuk, V. V.; Shatilov, D. N.; Shatunov, P. Y.; Shatunov, Y. M.; Shiyankov, S. V.; Shvartz, D. I.; Skrinsky, A. N.; Chulkov, L. V.; Danilin, B. V.; Korsheninnikov, A. A.; Kuzmin, E. A.; Ogloblin, A. A.; Volkov, V. A.; Grishkin, Y.; Lisin, V. P.; Mushkarenkov, A. N.; Nedorezov, V.; Polonski, A. L.; Rudnev, N. V.; Turinge, A. A.; Artukh, A.; Avdeichikov, V.; Ershov, S. N.; Fomichev, A.; Golovkov, M.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Grigorenko, L.; Klygin, S.; Krupko, S.; Meshkov, I. N.; Rodin, A.; Sereda, Y.; Seleznev, I.; Sidorchuk, S.; Syresin, E.; Stepantsov, S.; Ter-Akopian, G.; Teterev, Y.; Vorontsov, A. N.; Kamerdzhiev, S. P.; Litvinova, E. V.; Karataglidis, S.; Alvarez Rodriguez, R.; Borge, M. J. G.; Ramirez, C. Fernandez; Garrido, E.; Sarriguren, P.; Vignote, J. R.; Fraile Prieto, L. M.; Lopez Herraiz, J.; Moya de Guerra, E.; Udias-Moinelo, J.; Amaro Soriano, J. E.; Rojo, A. M. Lallena; Caballero, J. A.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Zhukov, M.; Golubev, P.; Rudolph, D.; Hencken, K.; Jourdan, J.; Krusche, B.; Rauscher, T.; Kiselev, D.; Trautmann, D.; Al-Khalili, J.; Catford, W.; Johnson, R.; Stevenson, P. D.; Barton, C.; Jenkins, D.; Lemmon, R.; Chartier, M.; Cullen, D.; Bertulani, C. A.; Heinz, A.

    2011-01-01

    The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe is part of the installations envisaged at the new experimental storage ring at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. It offers an unique opportunity to use electrons as probe in investigations of the

  10. N-methylated tryptamine derivatives in citrus genus plants: identification of N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine in bergamot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Cautela, Domenico; Castaldo, Domenico

    2012-09-19

    The occurrence of N-methylated tryptamine derivatives in bergamot plant (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poit) is reported for the first time. Interestingly, the most abundant of these substances is N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine, which has not been previously identified in any citrus plant. The N-methylated tryptamine derivatives were identified and quantitated in leaves, peel, juice, and seeds by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. N,N,N-Trimethyltryptamine was confirmed by MS(3) and comparison with the synthesized authentic standard. In addition, the study of the distribution of tryptophan, tryptamine, N-methyltryptamine, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, and N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine indicated that these compounds are differently expressed in the various tissues of the bergamot plant. Intriguingly, chemically synthesized N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine was reported to possess nicotine-like activity being a stimulant of parasympathetic ganglia by exerting its action on acetylcholine receptors. On this basis, the identification of N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine at a relatively high level in leaves suggests a possible role in a physiological mechanism of plant defense.

  11. N-methylated derivatives of tyramine in citrus genus plants: identification of N,N,N-trimethyltyramine (candicine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; D'Onofrio, Nunzia; Casale, Rosario; Cautela, Domenico; Ferrari, Giovanna; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Castaldo, Domenico

    2014-03-26

    The distribution of tyramine and its methylated derivatives, N-methyltyramine and N,N-dimethyltyramine, was investigated in tissue parts (leaves and fruits) of several plants of Citrus genus by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). In the course of our study we discovered the occurrence of N,N,N-trimethyltyramine in all citrus plants examined. This quaternary ammonium compound, known to act in animals as a neurotoxin, was recognized and characterized by mass spectrometric analysis. The substance, never described before in the Citrus genus, is also known as candicine or maltoxin. Results indicate that N,N,N-trimethyltyramine is consistently expressed in leaves of clementine, bitter orange, and lemon. Conversely, low levels were found in the leaves of orange, mandarin, chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia), bergamot, citron, and pomelo. In the edible part of the fruits, N,N,N-trimethyltyramine was found at trace levels.

  12. Imaging characterization of the rapid adiabatic passage in a source-rotatable, crossed-beam scattering experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huilin; Mondal, Sohidul; Yang, Chung-Hsin; Liu, Kopin

    2017-07-01

    In order to achieve a more efficient preparation of a specific ro-vibrationally excited reactant state for reactive scattering experiments, we implemented the rapid adiabatic passage (RAP) scheme to our pulsed crossed-beam machine, using a single-mode, continuous-wave mid-infrared laser. The challenge for this source-rotatable apparatus lies in the non-orthogonal geometry between the molecular beam and the laser propagation directions. As such, the velocity spread of the supersonic beam results in a significantly broader Doppler distribution that needs to be activated for RAP to occur than the conventional orthogonal configuration. In this report, we detail our approach to shifting, locking, and stabilizing the absolute mid-infrared frequency. We exploited the imaging detection technique to characterize the RAP process and to quantify the excitation efficiency. We showed that with appropriate focusing of the IR laser, a nearly complete population transfer can still be achieved in favorable cases. Compared to our previous setup—a pulsed optical parametric oscillator/amplifier in combination with a multipass ring reflector for saturated absorption, the present RAP scheme with a single-pass, continuous-wave laser yields noticeably higher population-transfer efficiency.

  13. Effects of multiple scatter on the propagation and absorption of electromagnetic waves in a field-aligned-striated cold magneto-plasma: implications for ionospheric modification experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Robinson

    Full Text Available A new theory of the propagation of low power electromagnetic test waves through the upper-hybrid resonance layer in the presence of magnetic field-aligned plasma density striations, which includes the effects of multiple scatter, is presented. The case of sinusoidal striations in a cold magnetoplasma is treated rigorously and then extended, in an approximate manner, to the broad-band striation spectrum and warm plasma cases. In contrast to previous, single scatter theories, it is found that the interaction layer is much broader than the wavelength of the test wave. This is due to the combined electric fields of the scattered waves becoming localised on the contour of a fixed plasma density, which corresponds to a constant value for the local upper-hybrid resonance frequency over the whole interaction region. The results are applied to the calculation of the refractive index of an ordinary mode test wave during modification experiments in the ionospheric F-region. Although strong anomalous absorption arises, no new cutoffs occur at the upper-hybrid resonance, so that in contrast to the predictions of previous single scatter theories, no additional reflections occur there. These results are consistent with observations made during ionospheric modification experiments at Tromsø, Norway.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionospheric irregularities Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  14. Radiative corrections beyond the ultra relativistic limit in unpolarized ep elastic and Moeller scatterings for the PRad Experiment at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akushevich, I.; Gao, H.; Meziane, M. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Ilyichev, A. [National Center of Particle and High Energy Physics, Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-01-01

    The clear 7σ discrepancy between measurements of the proton charge radius from muonic hydrogen Lamb shifts and those from hydrogen Lamb shift and electron scattering lead to both intense theoretical and experimental efforts to understand and explain this difference. In this regard, a new experiment (PRad) based on unpolarized ep elastic scattering cross section measurements normalized to Moeller scattering is underway at Jefferson Laboratory to extract the proton charge radius based on new proton electric form factor down to values of momentum transfer squared Q{sup 2}, as low as 10{sup -4} GeV/c{sup 2}. To reach the precision of the experiment in such a small Q{sup 2} region requires reliable knowledge of radiative corrections. In this paper, we present a complete calculation of radiative corrections for unpolarized elastic ep and Moeller scatterings performed within a covariant formalism resulting in the set of explicit formulas beyond the ultra relativistic approximation (m{sub e}{sup 2} << Q{sup 2}), and numerical results for the kinematics of the PRad experiment. (orig.)

  15. Electron scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, J.

    1984-11-01

    Because of the elementary structure of the electron, it is considered a precise probe of the constituent nature of hadronic matter. Use of the electron as a probe of subnucleonic degrees of freedom in nuclei is discussed in this presentation. Experimentally determined charge distributions for a wide variety of nuclei are presented and compared with shell model calculations which include single particle modes, core polarization, corrections due to delta-hole components, and corrections due to inclusion of meson exchange currents. (AIP)

  16. Characterization of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for high-resolution spatially-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering measurements in shock-compressed experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Pablant, N. A.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Efthimion, P. C.; Lee, H. J.; Zastrau, U.

    2017-01-01

    We have proposed, designed and built a dual-channel x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for spectrally- and spatially-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) measurements in the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) end station at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). This spectrometer employs two spherically-bent germanium (Ge) 220 crystals, which are combined to form a large aperture dispersive element with a spectral bandwidth of 300 eV that enables both the elastic and inelastic x-ray scattering peaks to be simultaneously measured. The apparatus and its characterization are described. A resolving power of 1900 was demonstrated and a spatial resolution of 12 μm was achieved in calibration tests. For XRTS measurements, a narrow-bandwidth (ΔE/Ecarbon plasma produced in shock-compressed samples of different forms of carbon. Preliminary results of the scattering experiments from Pyrolytic Graphite samples that illustrate the utility of the instrument are presented.

  17. Study of n-n correlations in d + 2H --> p + p + n + n reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Konobeevsky, E; Mordovskoy, M; Zuyev, S; Lebedev, V; Spassky, A

    2016-01-01

    A kinematically complete measurement of the four-body breakup reaction d+2H-->2ps+2ns --> p +p +n +n has been performed at 15 MeV deuteron beam of the SINP MSU. The two protons and neutron were detected at angles close to those of emission of 2ps and 2ns systems. The energy of singlet dineutron state was determined by comparing experimental TOF spectrum of breakup neutrons with simulated spectra depending on this energy. A low value Enn = 0.076 +/- 0.006 keV obtained by fitting procedure apparently indicates an effective enhancement of nn-interaction in the intermediate state of studied reaction.

  18. High resolution observations of sporadic-E layers within the polar cap ionosphere using a new incoherent scatter radar experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Damtie

    Full Text Available High resolution observations of sporadic-E layers using a new experiment with the EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATter Svalbard radar (ESR are presented. The observations were made by means of a new type of hardware, which was connected in parallel with the standard receiver. The radar beam was aligned with the geomagnetic field. The experiment applies a new modulation principle. Two phase codes, one with 22 bits and the other with 5 bits, were transmitted at separate frequencies. Each bit was further modulated by a 5-bit Barker code. The basic bit length of both transmissions was 6 µs. Instead of storing the lagged products of the ionospheric echoes in the traditional way, samples of both the transmitted pulses and the ionospheric echoes were taken at intervals of 1 µs and stored on hard disk. The lagged products were calculated later in an off-line analysis. In the analysis a sidelobe-free Barker decoding technique was used. The experiment produces range ambiguities, which were removed by mathematical inversion. Sporadic-E layers were observed at 105–115 km altitudes, and they are displayed with a 150-m range resolution and a 10-s time resolution. The layers show sometimes complex shapes, including triple peaked structures. The thickness of these sublayers is of the order of 1–2 km and they may be separated by 5 km in range. While drifting downwards, the sublayers merge together to form a single layer. The plasma inside a layer is found to have a longer correlation length than that of the surrounding plasma. This may be an indication of heavy ions inside the layer. The field-aligned ion velocity is also calculated. It reveals shears in the meridional wind, which suggests that shears probably also exist in the zonal wind. Hence the wind shear mechanism is a possible generation mechanism of the layer. However, observations from the coherent SuperDARN radar indicate the presence of an ionospheric electric field pointing in the sector between

  19. Automated sample-changing robot for solution scattering experiments at the EMBL Hamburg SAXS station X33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, A. R.; Franke, D.; Moritz, S.; Huchler, R.; Fritsche, M.; Malthan, D.; Klaering, R.; Svergun, D. I.; Roessle, M.

    2008-01-01

    There is a rapidly increasing interest in the use of synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) for large-scale studies of biological macromolecules in solution, and this requires an adequate means of automating the experiment. A prototype has been developed of an automated sample changer for solution SAXS, where the solutions are kept in thermostatically controlled well plates allowing for operation with up to 192 samples. The measuring protocol involves controlled loading of protein solutions and matching buffers, followed by cleaning and drying of the cell between measurements. The system was installed and tested at the X33 beamline of the EMBL, at the storage ring DORIS-III (DESY, Hamburg), where it was used by over 50 external groups during 2007. At X33, a throughput of approximately 12 samples per hour, with a failure rate of sample loading of less than 0.5%, was observed. The feedback from users indicates that the ease of use and reliability of the user operation at the beamline were greatly improved compared with the manual filling mode. The changer is controlled by a client–server-based network protocol, locally and remotely. During the testing phase, the changer was operated in an attended mode to assess its reliability and convenience. Full integration with the beamline control software, allowing for automated data collection of all samples loaded into the machine with remote control from the user, is presently being implemented. The approach reported is not limited to synchrotron-based SAXS but can also be used on laboratory and neutron sources. PMID:25484841

  20. PMMA-N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles for fabrication of antibacterial natural rubber latex gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpornwichanop, Thanida; Polpanich, Duangporn; Thiramanas, Raweewan; Suteewong, Teeraporn; Tangboriboonrat, Pramuan

    2014-08-30

    This paper presents one-pot synthesis of N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) stabilized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) latex particles via the miniemulsion polymerization technique. From (1)H NMR, synthesized TMC contains 52% degree of quaternization. Compared to native biopolymer chitosan, TMC possesses permanently positive charges as well as provides greater antibacterial activity. Combining properties of PMMA and TMC, PMMA-TMC latex nanoparticles (hydrodynamic size ≈282 nm) could be used in place of inorganic lubricating powder in fabrication of latex gloves at pH ≥ 7. After immersing sulphur prevulcanized natural rubber (SPNR) film into 3 wt% of PMMA-TMC latex at pH 7, significant amount of nanoparticles uniformly deposited onto SPNR film was observed under SEM. A number of nanoparticles present on film surface would increase surface roughness of the rubber film and potentially inhibit the bacterial (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) growth, which would be useful for fabrication of special gloves with antibacterial property.

  1. Antimicrobial analysis of films processed from chitosan and N,N,N-trimethylchitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Goy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan and its derivatives have been proposed as bactericidal and fungicidal agents against a large numbers of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Some antimicrobial mechanisms have been proposed for chitosan, with the most widely acceptable being the presence of charged-NH3+ groups in the polymer backbone and its interactions with the bacterial wall constituents. Since this mechanism is based on an electrostatic interaction, it suggests that the greater the number of cationic amines, the higher will be the antimicrobial activity. So, in the present study, the effectiveness of commercial medium molecular weight chitosan and its ionic charged derivative (quaternized N,N,N-trimethylchitosan were evaluated. Cast films of both materials were assessed against Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive and Escherichia coli (gram-negative as model bacteria by inhibition zone formation. The results show positive activity against the gram-positive microorganism for both materials. The antibacterial effectiveness of the chitosan derivative was dependent on the film polymer concentration. No activity however, was observed against the gram-negative species for either material in film form. The results point to the possibility of considering different antimicrobial mechanisms acting on each type of bacteria.

  2. Preparation of N, N, N-trimethyl chitosan via a novel approach using dimethyl carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meiyan; Long, Zhu; Xiao, Huining; Dong, Cuihua

    2017-08-01

    N,N,N-trimehtyl chitosan (TMC) is a water-soluble derivate of chitosan, which has been widely used as a biomedical material due to its excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and bacterial properties. To date, TMC can only be prepared by the quaternization of chitosan using alkyl halide or dimethyl sulfate. However, alkyl halide and dimethyl sulfate are highly toxic, cancerigenic for humans, and harmful to the environment. This paper puts forward a novel approach to preparing TMC using dimethyl carbonate as a methylation reagent in an ionic liquid. The as-synthesized O-methyl-free TMC was characterized using NMR, FTIR, XRD and TG analyses. The results showed that TMC with a degree of quaternization of 9.11% was successfully obtained and the crystallinity of chitosan decreased with the increasing degree of N-methylation, the thermal stability of TMC was lower than that of chitosan. Furthermore, the effects of the dose of ionic liquid and dimethyl carbonate were disscussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Variations of topside ionospheric scale heights over Millstone Hill during the 30-day incoherent scatter radar experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A 30-day incoherent scatter radar (ISR experiment was conducted at Millstone Hill (288.5° E, 42.6° N from 4 October to 4 November 2002. The altitude profiles of electron density Ne, ion and electron temperature (Ti and Te, and line-of-sight velocity during this experiment were processed to deduce the topside plasma scale height Hp, vertical scale height VSH, Chapman scale height Hm, ion velocity, and the relative altitude gradient of plasma temperature (dTp/dh/Tp, as well as the F2 layer electron density (NmF2 and height (hmF2. These data are analyzed to explore the variations of the ionosphere over Millstone Hill under geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. Results show that ionospheric parameters generally follow their median behavior under geomagnetically quiet conditions, while the main feature of the scale heights, as well as other parameters, deviated significantly from their median behaviors under disturbed conditions. The enhanced variability of ionospheric scale heights during the storm-times suggests that the geomagnetic activity has a major impact on the behavior of ionospheric scale heights, as well as the shape of the topside electron density profiles. Over Millstone Hill, the diurnal behaviors of the median VSH and Hm are very similar to each other and are not so tightly correlated with that of the plasma scale height Hp or the plasma temperature. The present study confirms the sensitivity of the ionospheric scale heights over Millstone Hill to thermal structure and dynamics. The values of VSH/Hp tend to decrease as (dTp/dh/Tp becomes larger or the dynamic processes become enhanced.

  4. THERMOSENSITIVITY OF NARROW-DISPERSED POLY(N-N-PROPYLACRYLAMIDE) PREPARED BY ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-yong Hu; Jing Du; Qing-bin Meng; Zhan-yong Li; Xiao-xia Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Controlled polymerization of N-n-propylacrylamide was achieved by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP)in a N,N-dimethylformamide-water mixture (50 vol%) at room temperature with methyl 2-chloropropinonate as initiator andCuCl/tris(2-dimethylaminoethyl)amine as the catalytic system in a ratio of 1:1:1. High molecular weight homopolymers (upto 3.7×104) with narrow molecular weight distribution (less than 1.2) were obtained. The living character of thepolymerization was further demonstrated by self-blocking experiment. An inverse molecular weight dependence of the cloudpoint of narrow-dispersed poly(N-n-propylacrylamide) aqueous solution was determined by turbidimetry and differentialscanning calorimetry, especially for the low molecular weight samples.

  5. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide transformation in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calza, P; Medana, C; Raso, E; Giancotti, V; Minero, C

    2011-09-01

    The paper deals with the aqueous environmental fate of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), one of the most widespread and efficient mosquito repellents. The investigation involved monitoring of the DEET decomposition and the identification of intermediate compounds. Initially, control experiments in the dark and under illumination were performed on sterilized and river water spiked with DEET, with the aim to simulate all possible transformation processes occurring in aquatic system. Under illumination, DEET was degraded and transformed into numerous organic intermediate compounds, 37 of which could be identified. Several isomeric species were formed and characterized by analysing MS and MS(n) spectra, and by comparison with parent molecule fragmentation pathways. These laboratory simulation experiments were verified in the field to check the mechanism previously supposed. River water was sampled and analysed at eight sampling points. Among the transformation products (TPs) identified in river water spiked with DEET, twelve of them were also found in natural river water. The transformation occurring in aquatic systems involved dealkylation, mono- and poly-hydroxylation followed by oxidation of the hydroxyl groups and cleavage of the alkyl chains. Two TPs were principally formed in dark condition, while the others are mainly produced through indirect photolysis processes mediated by natural photosensitizers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 40 CFR 721.7270 - 1-propanaminium, 3-amino-, N,N,N-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs., chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs., chloride. 721.7270 Section 721.7270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-soya acyl derivs., chloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1-propanaminium, 3-amino-, N,N,N-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs...

  7. Hydration and vibrational dynamics of betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tanping; Cui, Yaowen; Mathaga, John; Kumar, Revati; Kuroda, Daniel G.

    2015-06-01

    Zwitterions are naturally occurring molecules that have a positive and a negative charge group in its structure and are of great importance in many areas of science. Here, the vibrational and hydration dynamics of the zwitterionic system betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) is reported. The linear infrared spectrum of aqueous betaine exhibits an asymmetric band in the 1550-1700 cm-1 region of the spectrum. This band is attributed to the carboxylate asymmetric stretch of betaine. The potential of mean force computed from ab initio molecular dynamic simulations confirms that the two observed transitions of the linear spectrum are related to two different betaine conformers present in solution. A model of the experimental data using non-linear response theory agrees very well with a vibrational model comprising of two vibrational transitions. In addition, our modeling shows that spectral parameters such as the slope of the zeroth contour plot and central line slope are both sensitive to the presence of overlapping transitions. The vibrational dynamics of the system reveals an ultrafast decay of the vibrational population relaxation as well as the correlation of frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF). A decay of ˜0.5 ps is observed for the FFCF correlation time and is attributed to the frequency fluctuations caused by the motions of water molecules in the solvation shell. The comparison of the experimental observations with simulations of the FFCF from ab initio molecular dynamics and a density functional theory frequency map shows a very good agreement corroborating the correct characterization and assignment of the derived parameters.

  8. Analysis of the auger recombination rate in P+N-n-N-N HgCdTe detectors for HOT applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, J.; Tennant, W. E.; Bellotti, E.; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.

    2016-05-01

    Infrared (IR) photon detectors must be cryogenically cooled to provide the highest possible performance, usually to temperatures at or below ~ 150K. Such low operating temperatures (Top) impose very stringent requirements on cryogenic coolers. As such, there is a constant push in the industry to engineer new detector architectures that operate at higher temperatures, so called higher operating temperature (HOT) detectors. The ultimate goal for HOT detectors is room temperature operation. While this is not currently possibly for photon detectors, significant increases in Top are nonetheless beneficial in terms of reduced size, weight, power and cost (SWAP-C). The most common HgCdTe IR detector architecture is the P+n heterostructure photodiode (where a capital letter indicates a wide band gap relative to the active layer or "AL"). A variant of this architecture, the P+N-n-N-N heterostructure photodiode, should have a near identical photo-response to the P+n heterostructure, but with significantly lower dark diffusion current. The P+N-n-N-N heterostructure utilizes a very low doped AL, surrounded on both sides by wide-gap layers. The low doping in the AL, allows the AL to be fully depleted, which drastically reduces the Auger recombination rate in that layer. Minimizing the Auger recombination rate reduces the intrinsic dark diffusion current, thereby increasing Top. Note when we use the term "recombination rate" for photodiodes, we are actually referring to the net generation and recombination of minority carriers (and corresponding dark currents) by the Auger process. For these benefits to be realized, these devices must be intrinsically limited and well passivated. The focus of this proceeding is on studying the fundamental physics of the intrinsic dark currents in ideal P+N-n-N-N heterostructures, namely Auger recombination. Due to the complexity of these devices, specifically the presence of multiple heterojunctions, numerical device modeling techniques must be

  9. An experiment to locate cavities as strong scatterers using S-coda waves -the Cooke4 mine in South Africa-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imagawa, S.; Kawakata, H.; Doi, I.; Yoshimitsu, N.; Murakami, O.; Nakatani, M.; Naoi, M.; Philipp, J.; Ward, A.; Visser, V.; Masakale, T.; Milev, A. M.; Durrheim, R. J.; Ribeiro, L.; Ward, M.; Ogasawara, H.

    2013-12-01

    To investigate short-wavelength heterogeneity of the crust, scattered waves contained in coda waves are useful. In general, locations of the scatterers are estimated from the travel times of scattered waves with a stochastic back-projection method, so that artifacts may emerge if seismic stations and sources are inadequately distributed. In this study, using coda waves, we try to locate well-mapped cavities such as tunnels, shafts and stopes in the Cooke4 Gold Mine in South Africa. At this mine, we have developed a dense seismic network in the vicinity of a region with high seismicity. The seismic network is narrow and the source distribution is far from being uniform, which can cause artifacts. We use 3-component accelerograms recorded at 6 stations about 1 km below surface in the shaft pillar area. The data are recorded for 6.6 ms at the sampling frequency of 500 kHz. Considering the size (2-4 m) of tunnels and shafts, a band-pass filter of 800-1600 Hz is applied. Considering the distribution of seismic sources and stations, and also the data length, an analysis volume of 300×300×260 m3 is set and divided into blocks of 4×4×4 m3. In general, the exponential decays of the coda wave amplitude from an event tend to be the same regardless of the distance from seismic source to station (Aki, 1980). If strong scatterers exist, a phase with relatively large amplitude would appear at the corresponding time. We identify such phases by looking for phases where the amplitude significantly exceeds the overall envelope of S-coda. Using the travel time of thus picked 'scattering phase', we locate the corresponding scatterer. Since our target structures are highly localized strong scatterers, we assume single scattering in the present analysis, as, for example, Matsumoto et al. (2006). The block containing the estimated scatterer location receives votes according to the amplitude of the scattering phase. By adding votes from all the traces, we have obtained a three

  10. Interaction of O2 with CH4, CF4, and CCl4 by Molecular Beam Scattering Experiments and Theoretical Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, David; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Bartocci, Alessio; Nunzi, Francesca; Tarantelli, Francesco; Belpassi, Leonardo; Pirani, Fernando

    2016-07-14

    Gas phase collisions of O2 by CH4, CF4, and CCl4 have been investigated with the molecular beam technique by measuring both the integral cross section value, Q, and its dependence on the collision velocity, v. The adopted experimental conditions have been appropriate to resolve the oscillating "glory" pattern, a quantum interference effect controlled by the features of the intermolecular interaction, for all the three case studies. The analysis of the Q(v) data, performed by adopting a suitable representation of the intermolecular potential function, provided the basic features of the anisotropic potential energy surfaces at intermediate and large separation distances and information on the relative role of the physically relevant types of contributions to the global interaction. The present work demonstrates that while O2-CH4 and O2-CF4 are basically bound through the balance between size (Pauli) repulsion and dispersion attraction, an appreaciable intermolecular bond stabilization by charge transfer is operative in O2-CCl4. Ab initio calculations of the strength of the interaction, coupled with detailed analysis of electronic charge displacement promoted by the formation of the dimer, fully rationalizes the experimental findings. This investigation indicates that the interactions of O2, when averaged over its relative orientations, are similar to that of a noble gas (Ng), specifically Ar. We also show that the binding energy in the basic configurations of the prototypical Ng-CF4,CCl4 systems [ Cappelletti , D. ; Chem. Eur. J. 2015 , 21 , 6234 - 6240 ] can be reconstructed by using the interactions in Ng-F and Ng-Cl systems, previously characterized by molecular beam scattering experiments of state-selected halogen atom beams. This information is fundamental to approach the modeling of the weak intermolecular halogen bond. On the basis of the electronic polarizability, this also confirms [ Aquilanti , V. ; Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2005 , 44 , 2356 - 2360 ] that O2

  11. An FPGA-based trigger processor for a measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering at the COMPASS-II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schopferer, Sebastian

    2013-12-16

    The COMPASS-II experiment at CERN is focusing on a measurement of the deeply virtual Compton scattering. Several upgrades of the experimental setup have been performed in 2012, namely the construction of a long liquid hydrogen target and a surrounding recoil proton detector called CAMERA. Based on a time-of-flight measurement between two barrels of scintillators, the CAMERA detector allows to detect protons with a kinetic energy down to 35 MeV, which leave the target under large polar angles. At the same time, protons can be distinguished from other particles resulting from background processes by means of an energy loss measurement in the scintillating material. In order to extend the existing COMPASS trigger scheme, a digital trigger system has been developed, which is detailed in the thesis at hand. The trigger system is able to select events with a recoil proton in the final state while suppressing background events, using the particle identification capabilities of the CAMERA detector. Challenging selection criteria based on both the time-of-flight and the energy loss measurement call for a powerful programmable logic board. At the same time, the integration into the existing COMPASS trigger system poses strict constraints on the latency of the trigger decision. For the implementation of the proton trigger system, a new FPGA-based trigger and DAQ hardware called TIGER has been built. The module is operated in two firmware configurations, serving two distinct purposes. Firstly, the trigger processor is responsible for the generation of a trigger signal based on recoil particles, which is included in the global first-level trigger decision. Secondly, a readout concentrator allows to multiplex the data streams of up to 18 readout modules into one link to the DAQ. The CAMERA detector and the corresponding readout and trigger electronics was commissioned during a test run in autumn 2012. This thesis contains details about the trigger concept, the development of the

  12. Laser-radiation scattering by cement in the process of hydration: simulation of the dynamics and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, M P; Maksimyak, P P; Maksimyak, A P

    2012-04-01

    This paper discusses simulation of speckle-field dynamics during coherent light scattering by a cement surface in the process of hydration. Cement particles are represented by the spheres whose sizes and reflection indices are changing during the hydration process. The study of intensity fluctuations of scattered coherent radiation is a suitable technique for the analysis of both fast and slow processes of mineral binder hydration and formation of polycrystalline structures in the process of hardening. The results of simulation are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  13. Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering and Visible Extinction Spectroscopy of Copper Chlorophyllin: An Upper Level Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Cheryl S.; Reim, Candace Lawson; Sirois, John J.; House, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced chemistry students are introduced to surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) by studying how sodium copper chlorophyllin (CuChl) adsorbs onto silver colloids (CuChl/Ag) as a function of pH. Using both SERRS and visible extinction spectroscopy, the extent of CuChl adsorption and colloidal aggregation are monitored. Initially at…

  14. Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering and Visible Extinction Spectroscopy of Copper Chlorophyllin: An Upper Level Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Cheryl S.; Reim, Candace Lawson; Sirois, John J.; House, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced chemistry students are introduced to surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) by studying how sodium copper chlorophyllin (CuChl) adsorbs onto silver colloids (CuChl/Ag) as a function of pH. Using both SERRS and visible extinction spectroscopy, the extent of CuChl adsorption and colloidal aggregation are monitored. Initially at…

  15. Synthesis of N,N,N-4,4"-Di-(4-methylphenyl)-2,2':6',2"-terpyridine-N,N,N-tris(isothiocyanato) Ruthenium(Ⅱ) and Application to Colorimetric Hg2+ Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-Hong; LIU Zhi-Qiang; LI Fu-You; DUAN Xin-Fang; HUANG Chun-Hui

    2007-01-01

    A terpyridine derivative DPTP [di-(4-methylphenyl)-2,2':6',2"-terpyridine] was conveniently synthesized from 2-bromopyridine via halogen-dance reaction, Kharash coupling and Stille coupling reaction. Then its corresponding ruthenium complex Ru-DPTP [N,N,N-4,4"-di-(4-methylphenyl)-2,2':6',2"-terpyridine-N,N,N-tris(iso-thiocyanato)-ruthenium(Ⅱ) ammonium] was obtained and fully characterized by IR, UV-Vis, ESI MS and elemental analysis. The MLCT absorption band of Ru-DPTP was blue-shifted from 570 to 500 nm upon addition of Hg2+. Among a series of surveyed metal ions, the complex showed a unique recognition to Hg2+, indicating that it can be used as a selective colorimetric sensor for Hg2+.

  16. On the design of experiments for determining ternary mixture free energies from static light scattering data using a nonlinear partial differential equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahle, Chris W; Ross, David S; Thurston, George M

    2012-07-21

    We mathematically design sets of static light scattering experiments to provide for model-independent measurements of ternary liquid mixing free energies to a desired level of accuracy. A parabolic partial differential equation (PDE), linearized from the full nonlinear PDE [D. Ross, G. Thurston, and C. Lutzer, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 064106 (2008)], describes how data noise affects the free energies to be inferred. The linearized PDE creates a net of spacelike characteristic curves and orthogonal, timelike curves in the composition triangle, and this net governs diffusion of information coming from light scattering measurements to the free energy. Free energy perturbations induced by a light scattering perturbation diffuse along the characteristic curves and towards their concave sides, with a diffusivity that is proportional to the local characteristic curvature radius. Consequently, static light scattering can determine mixing free energies in regions with convex characteristic curve boundaries, given suitable boundary data. The dielectric coefficient is a Lyapunov function for the dynamical system whose trajectories are PDE characteristics. Information diffusion is heterogeneous and system-dependent in the composition triangle, since the characteristics depend on molecular interactions and are tangent to liquid-liquid phase separation coexistence loci at critical points. We find scaling relations that link free energy accuracy, total measurement time, the number of samples, and the interpolation method, and identify the key quantitative tradeoffs between devoting time to measuring more samples, or fewer samples more accurately. For each total measurement time there are optimal sample numbers beyond which more will not improve free energy accuracy. We estimate the degree to which many-point interpolation and optimized measurement concentrations can improve accuracy and save time. For a modest light scattering setup, a sample calculation shows that less than two

  17. Measurement of 235U(n,n'γ) and 235U(n,2nγ) reaction cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerveno, M.; Thiry, J. C.; Bacquias, A.; Borcea, C.; Dessagne, P.; Drohé, J. C.; Goriely, S.; Hilaire, S.; Jericha, E.; Karam, H.; Negret, A.; Pavlik, A.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Romain, P.; Rouki, C.; Rudolf, G.; Stanoiu, M.

    2013-02-01

    The design of generation IV nuclear reactors and the studies of new fuel cycles require knowledge of the cross sections of various nuclear reactions. Our research is focused on (n,xnγ) reactions occurring in these new reactors. The aim is to measure unknown cross sections and to reduce the uncertainty on present data for reactions and isotopes of interest for transmutation or advanced reactors. The present work studies the 235U(n,n'γ) and 235U(n,2nγ) reactions in the fast neutron energy domain (up to 20 MeV). The experiments were performed with the Geel electron linear accelerator GELINA, which delivers a pulsed white neutron beam. The time characteristics enable measuring neutron energies with the time-of-flight (TOF) technique. The neutron induced reactions [in this case inelastic scattering and (n,2n) reactions] are identified by on-line prompt γ spectroscopy with an experimental setup including four high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. A fission ionization chamber is used to monitor the incident neutron flux. The experimental setup and analysis methods are presented and the model calculations performed with the TALYS-1.2 code are discussed.

  18. Determination of the s-wave pion-nucleon threshold scattering parameters from the results of experiments on pionic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Oades, G C; Matsinos, E; Rasche, G; Woolcock, W S

    2007-01-01

    We give the conversion equations which lead from experimental values of the 3p -> 1s transition energy in pionic hydrogen and the total width of the 1s level to values of the s-wave threshold scattering parameters for the processes pi- p -> pi- p and pi- p -> pi0 n respectively. Using a three-channel potential model, we then calculate the electromagnetic corrections to these quantities, which remove the effects of the Coulomb interaction, the external mass differences and the presence of the gamma n channel. We give the s-wave scattering parameters obtained from the present experimental data and these electromagnetic corrections. Finally we discuss the implications for isospin invariance.

  19. In memory of Paco Yndurain: A precise determination of pion-pion scattering from experiment and dispersion relations

    CERN Document Server

    Peláez, J R; Kaminski, R; Ynduráin, F J

    2009-01-01

    This talk is dedicated to the memory of Paco Yndurain, the original speaker in the conference. After a short account of his scientific career, we briefly review our ongoing collaboration to determine precisely the $\\pi\\pi$ scattering amplitude including the most recent data by means of Forward Dispersion Relations and Roy Equations. A remarkable improvement in precision over the intermediate energy region is obtained by using once-subtracted Roy Equations in addition to the standard twice-subtracted ones.

  20. In memory of Paco Yndurain: A precise determination of {pi}{pi} scattering from experiment and dispersion relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, J.R.; Garcia Martin, R. [Dept. de Fisica Teorica II, Univ. Complutense de Madrid. 28040 Madrid. Spain (Spain); Kaminski, R. [Department of Theoretical Physics Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342, Krakow (Poland); Yndurain, F.J. [Dept. de Fisica Teorica, C-XI Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Canto Blanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    This talk is dedicated to the memory of Paco Yndurain, the original speaker in the conference. After a short account of his scientific career, we briefly review our ongoing collaboration to determine precisely the {pi}{pi} scattering amplitude including the most recent data by means of Forward Dispersion Relations and Roy Equations. A remarkable improvement in precision over the intermediate energy region is obtained by using once-subtracted Roy Equations in addition to the standard twice-subtracted ones.

  1. Understanding nucleic acid structural changes by comparing wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments to molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabit, Suzette A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; Katz, Andrea M. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; Tolokh, Igor S. [Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA; Drozdetski, Aleksander [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA; Baker, Nathan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Onufriev, Alexey V. [Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA; Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA; Pollack, Lois [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA

    2016-05-24

    Wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) is emerging as a powerful tool for increasing the resolution of solution structure measurements of biomolecules. Compared to its better known complement, small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), WAXS targets higher scattering angles and can enhance structural studies of molecules by accessing finer details of solution structures. Although the extension from SAXS to WAXS is easy to implement experimentally, the computational tools required to fully harness the power of WAXS are still under development. Currently, WAXS is employed to study structural changes and ligand binding in proteins; however the methods are not as fully developed for nucleic acids. Here, we show how WAXS can qualitatively char- acterize nucleic acid structures as well as the small but significant structural changes driven by the addition of multivalent ions. We show the potential of WAXS to test all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and to provide insight in understanding how the trivalent ion cobalt(III) hexammine (CoHex) affects the structure of RNA and DNA helices. We find that MD simulations capture the RNA structural change that occurs due to addition of CoHex.

  2. X-ray scattering of periodic and graded multilayers: comparison of experiments to simulations from surface microroughness characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Salmaso, B; Canestrari, R; Raimondi, L; 10.1016/j.nima.2012.10.104

    2013-01-01

    To enhance the reflectivity of X-ray mirrors beyond the critical angle, multilayer coatings are required. Interface imperfections in the multilayer growth process are known to cause non-specular scattering and degrade the mirror optical performance; therefore, it is important to predict the amount of X-ray scattering from the rough topography of the outer surface of the coating, which can be directly measured, e.g., with an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). This kind of characterization, combined with X-ray reflectivity measurements to assess the deep multilayer stack structure, can be used to model the layer roughening during the growth process via a well-known roughness evolution model. In this work, X-ray scattering measurements are performed and compared with simulations obtained from the modeled interfacial Power Spectral Densities (PSDs) and the modeled Crossed Spectral Densities for all the couples of interfaces. We already used this approach in a previous work for periodic multilayers; we now show how th...

  3. Ab initio study of structural and electronic properties of (GaN)n/(AlN)n superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoudi, L.; Merabet, M.; Dahmane, F.; Boucharef, M.; Benalia, S.; Rached, D.

    2016-10-01

    Structural and electronic properties of binary GaN and AlN compounds and their superlattices (SLs) (GaN)n/(AlN)n are investigated using the first-principles full potential linear muffin-tin orbitals method (FP-LMTO). The exchange-correlation potential is treated with the local density approximation of Perdew and Wang (LDA-PW). The ground-state properties are determined for the bulk materials GaN, AlN, and their superlattices (GaN)n/(AlN)n) in cubic phase. The calculated structural properties of GaN and AlN compounds are in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical data. It is found that AlN exhibit an indirect fundamental band gap while that GaN and the superlattices (SLs) exhibit a direct fundamental band gap, which might make the superlattices (GaN)n/(AlN)n materials promising and useful for optoelectronic applications. The fundamental band gap decreases with increasing the number of monolayer.

  4. 40 CFR 180.1130 - N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1130 N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance....

  5. Low-energy (0.7-74 keV) nuclear recoil calibration of the LUX dark matter experiment using D-D neutron scattering kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Akerib, D S; Araújo, H M; Bai, X; Bailey, A J; Balajthy, J; Beltrame, P; Bernard, E P; Bernstein, A; Biesiadzinski, T P; Boulton, E M; Bradley, A; Bramante, R; Brás, P; Byram, D; Cahn, S B; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chan, C; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A A; Chiller, C; Currie, A; Cutter, J E; Davison, T J R; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dobson, J E Y; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B N; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Gehman, V M; Ghag, C; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M G D; Hall, C R; Hanhardt, M; Haselschwardt, S J; Hertel, S A; Hogan, D P; Horn, M; Huang, D Q; Ignarra, C M; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Ji, W; Kamdin, K; Kazkaz, K; Khaitan, D; Knoche, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Lenardo, B G; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Malling, D C; Manalaysay, A; Mannino, R L; Marzioni, M F; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morad, J A; Murphy, A St J; Nehrkorn, C; Nelson, H N; Neves, F; O'Sullivan, K; Oliver-Mallory, K C; Palladino, K J; Pangilinan, M; Pease, E K; Phelps, P; Reichhart, L; Rhyne, C A; Shaw, S; Shutt, T A; Silva, C; Solmaz, M; Solovov, V N; Sorensen, P; Stephenson, S; Sumner, T J; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D J; Taylor, W C; Tennyson, B P; Terman, P A; Tiedt, D R; To, W H; Tripathi, M; Tvrznikova, L; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Webb, R C; White, J T; Whitis, T J; Witherell, M S; Wolfs, F L H; Xu, J; Yazdani, K; Young, S K; Zhang, C

    2016-01-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is a dual-phase liquid xenon time projection chamber (TPC) operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota. A calibration of nuclear recoils in liquid xenon was performed $\\textit{in situ}$ in the LUX detector using a collimated beam of mono-energetic 2.45 MeV neutrons produced by a deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion source. The nuclear recoil energy from the first neutron scatter in the TPC was reconstructed using the measured scattering angle defined by double-scatter neutron events within the active xenon volume. We measured the absolute charge ($Q_{y}$) and light ($L_{y}$) yields at an average electric field of 180 V/cm for nuclear recoil energies spanning 0.7 to 74 keV and 1.1 to 74 keV, respectively. This calibration of the nuclear recoil signal yields will permit the further refinement of liquid xenon nuclear recoil signal models and, importantly for dark matter searches, clearly demonstrates measured ionization and scintillation s...

  6. Diffuse scattering and low-energy phonons in superionic conductor Cu1.8SSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilkin, Sergey; Hoser, Andreas; Schweika, Werner

    2005-03-01

    The neutron diffuse and inelastic scattering were studied in the superionic α-phase of copper selenide. In neutron diffraction experiments on Cu1.85Se single crystal the diffuse scattering features were observed along [111] direction in vicinity of (400) and (422) reflections. In inelastic neutron scattering measurements performed with time-of-flight spectrometer the elastic and inelastic scattering processes were separated and a strong inelastic scattering was observed also along [111] nearby (400) and (022). This shows that diffuse scattering found in conventional diffraction experiment is mainly inelastic and most probably comes from the low-energy phonons. Such phonons with optic-like behaviour of transverse acoustic modes at q/qm> 0.2-0.4 were found earlier in α-Cu1.85Se [1]. [1] S.A. Danilkin, A.N. Skomorokhov, A. Hoser, H. Fuess, V. Rajevac, N.N. Bickulova, Crystal structure and lattice dynamics of superionic copper selenide Cu2-δSe, J. Alloys and Compounds, 2003, v. 361, p. 57-61.

  7. Light scattering experiments with micron-sized dust aggregates: results on ensembles of SiO{sub 2} monospheres and of irregularly shaped graphite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, Gerhard [Institute for Planetology, University of Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 10, 48149 Muenster (Germany)]. E-mail: gwurm@nwz.uni-muenster.de; Relke, Helena [Astrophysical Institute, University of Jena, Schillergaesschen 2-3, 07745 Jena (Germany); Dorschner, Johann [Astrophysical Institute, University of Jena, Schillergaesschen 2-3, 07745 Jena (Germany); Krauss, Oliver [Institute for Planetology, University of Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 10, 48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2004-12-15

    We present two series of measurements of angular-resolved light scattering on ensembles of large dust aggregates grown via cluster-cluster-aggregation. As first non-absorbing sample we use spherical monodisperse amorphous SiO{sub 2} particles with 750nm radius. The aggregates measured consist of up to approximately 100 individual particles. As the second absorbing material we use graphite. This sample is rather polydisperse with a broad size distribution. Individual graphite particles are plate like with typical sizes of 1-2{mu}m as plate diameter and a few hundred nm as thickness. The wavelength of the incident radiation in the experiments is 680nm corresponding to a size parameter of x=6.93 for the individual SiO{sub 2} spheres and X{approx}100 for the SiO{sub 2} aggregates. The largest graphite aggregates were somewhat smaller than the largest SiO{sub 2} aggregates. For the SiO{sub 2} particles, we observe a change in the scattering function and degree of linear polarization over the whole range of aggregate growth. We could not observe a limit to mutual interaction within an aggregate within our range of parameters, i.e. up to aggregates consisting of 100 monomers. Scattering gets more diffuse. This is in agreement with calculations that show that the asymmetry parameter is slightly decreasing as large aggregates grow. The graphite particles show almost no change in the scattering function and polarization. We apply the results to dusty astrophysical environments.

  8. Order in poly(di-n-alkyl itaconate)s revealed by X-ray scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, P.F.; Arrighi, V. E-mail: v.arrighi@hw.ac.uk; McEwen, I.J.; Qian, H.; Terrill, N.J

    2003-01-01

    The effects of both blending and copolymersiation on local ordering in poly(di-n-alkyl itaconate)s is investigated, as a function of side chain length, using small-angle X-ray scattering. Preliminary results show that local ordering is unaffected by blending in these immiscible materials, however copolymerisation leads to different behaviour. For short side chains the characteristic distance varies smoothly with copolymer composition, but with longer side chains the characteristic separations found for the homopolymers are observed, and these remain unchanged with composition.

  9. Search for inelastic WIMP nucleus scattering on $^{129}$Xe in data from the XMASS-I experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Uchida, H; Hieda, K; Hiraide, K; Hirano, S; Ichimura, K; Kishimoto, Y; Kobayashi, K; Moriyama, S; Nakagawa, K; Nakahata, M; Ogawa, H; Oka, N; Sekiya, H; Shinozaki, A; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takachio, O; Umemoto, D; Yamashita, M; Yang, B S; Tasaka, S; Liu, J; Martens, K; Hosokawa, K; Miuchi, K; Murata, A; Onishi, Y; Otsuka, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, K B; Lee, M K; Lee, J S; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Masuda, K; Nishitani, Y; Takiya, H; Kim, N Y; Kim, Y D; Kusaba, F; Nishijima, K; Fujii, K; Murayama, I; Nakamura, S

    2014-01-01

    A search for inelastic scattering of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) on the isotope $^{129}$Xe was done in data taken with the single phase liquid xenon detector XMASS at the Kamioka Observatory. Using a restricted volume containing 41 kg of LXe at the very center of our detector we observed no significant excess in 165.9 days of data and derived for e.g. a 50 GeV WIMP an upper limit for its inelastic cross section on $^{129}$Xe nuclei of 3.2 pb at the 90% confidence level.

  10. High Power Experiment of X-Band Thermionic Cathode RF Gun for Compton Scattering X-ray Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Fumito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Dobashi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Tomohiko; Meng, De; Urakawa, Junji; Higo, Toshiyasu; Akemoto, Mitsuo; Matsuo, Kenichi; Sakae, Hisaharu; Yamamoto, Masashi

    2006-11-01

    We are currently developing a compact monochromatic X-ray source based on laser-electron collision. To realize remarkably compact-, high-intensity- and highly-stable-system, we adopt an X-band multi-bunch liner accelerator (linac) and reliable Q-switch laser. The X-ray yields by the multi-bunch electron beam and Q-switch Nd: YAG laser of 1.4 J/10 ns (FWHM) (532 nm, second harmonic) is 107 photons/RF-pulse (108 photons/sec for 10 Hz operation). The injector of the system consists of a 3.5-cell X-band thermionic cathode RF gun and an alpha magnet. So far we have achieved beam generation from the X-band thermionic cathode RF gun. The peak beam energy is 2 MeV. This experimental high energy (˜2 MeV) beam generation from the X-band thermionic cathode RF gun is the first in the world. In this paper, we describe the system of the Compton scattering X-ray source based on the X-band linac, experimental results of X-band thermionic cathode RF gun and the details of the experimental setup for Compton scattering X-ray generation that are under construction.

  11. Diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostorz, G. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Angewandte Physik, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    While Bragg scattering is characteristic for the average structure of crystals, static local deviations from the average lattice lead to diffuse elastic scattering around and between Bragg peaks. This scattering thus contains information on the occupation of lattice sites by different atomic species and on static local displacements, even in a macroscopically homogeneous crystalline sample. The various diffuse scattering effects, including those around the incident beam (small-angle scattering), are introduced and illustrated by typical results obtained for some Ni alloys. (author) 7 figs., 41 refs.

  12. Spin-Dependent Electron Scattering from Polarized Protons and Deuterons with the BLAST Experiment at MIT-Bates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasell, Douglas K.; Milner, Richard G.; Redwine, Robert P.; Alarcon, Ricardo; Gao, Haiyan; Kohl, Michael; Calarco, John R.

    2011-11-01

    The Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) experiment was operated at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center from 2003 until 2005. The experiment was designed to exploit the power of a polarized electron beam incident on polarized targets of hydrogen and deuterium to measure, in a systematic manner, the neutron, proton, and deuteron form factors as well as other aspects of the electromagnetic interaction on few-nucleon systems. We briefly describe the experiment, and present and discuss the numerous results obtained.

  13. High frequency scattering from trihedral corner reflectors and other benchmark targets - SBR versus experiment. [Shooting and Bouncing Ray method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, John; Lee, Shung-Wu; Lin, Luke; Jeng, Shyh-Kang; Scarborough, Steven M.; Yu, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    A general method for calculating the radar cross section (RCS) from a three-dimensional target is described. The target is first constructed by using a solid-geometry-modeling computer-aided design (CAD) package. Following the shooting and bouncing ray (SBR) method, a very dense grid of rays is launched from the incident direction toward the target. Each ray is traced according to the geometrical optics theory including the effect of ray tube divergence, polarization, and material reflection coefficient. At the point where the ray exits the target, a physical optics-type integration is performed to obtain the scattered far fields. This method is tested using several simple examples involving interaction among plates, cylinders, and spheres. The theoretical results are generally in good agreement with measured data.

  14. Electrochemical and spectroscopic investigations of uranium(III) with N,N,N',N'-tetramethylmalonamide in DMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, T. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: yamamura@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Shirasaki, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Li, D.X. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Shiokawa, Y. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2006-07-20

    In order to investigate the electrode reaction of negative electrolyte, U(III)/U(IV), of the all-uranium redox-flow battery proposed by us, we investigated the magnetic susceptibility, spectroscopy and electrode reactions of U(III) and U(IV) complexes with N,N,N',N'-tetramethylmalonamide (TMMA). The effective magnetic moment for the U(III) complex (1.95{mu} {sub B}/atomU) is significantly smaller than the theoretical moment for free U{sup 3+} ion, and this may indicate the itinerant nature of U(III) due to the coordination of TMMA. In N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), the energy levels due to f-f transitions was only slightly perturbed from those of uranium(III) perchlorate in DMF. The U(III)/U(IV) redox potential of U(III)-TMMA complex shifted negatively from that of uranium(III) perchlorate.

  15. Neutron Scattering from 36Ar and 4He Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, K.

    1977-01-01

    Scale factors for neutron diffraction and neutron inelastic scattering are presented for common adsorbates, and the feasibility of experiments is discussed together with the information gained by each type of experiment. Diffraction, coherent inelastic scattering, and incoherent scattering are tr...

  16. Stress Assignment in N+N Combinations in Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Rahman Mitib Altakhaineh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The validity of stress as a criterion to distinguish between compounds and phrases has been investigated in many languages, including English (see e.g. Lieber 2005: 376; Booij 2012: 84. However, the possibility of using stress as a criterion in this way has not been investigated for Arabic. Siloni (1997: 21 claims that in N+N combinations in Semitic languages, stress always falls on the second element. However, the results of a study using PRAAT reveal that, in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA and Jordanian Arabic (JA, stress plays no role in distinguishing between various N+N combinations, i.e. compounds and phrases, e.g.ˈmuʕallim lfiizyaaʔ ‘the physics teacher’ vs.ˈbayt lwalad ‘the boy’s house’, respectively. Analysis shows that the default position of stress in N+N combinations in MSA and JA is on the first element. There is only one systematic exception, which is phonetically conditioned: in N+N combinations with assimilated geminates on the word boundary, a secondary stress or perhaps double stress is assigned.

  17. Comparison of Si+n and Ge+n(n=2-15) Cationic Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Wei; ZANG Qing-jun; LU Wen-cai; WANG Cai-zhuang; HO Kai-ming

    2011-01-01

    We designed and optimized a large number of the isomers of Si12+ at the level of density functional theory (DFT)-B3LYP/6-311++G(d) using the Gaussian 03 software package. An unambiguous structure of the Si12+ cluster is presented, whose IR spectrum agrees well with the experiment result. The most stable geometric structures of Ge+n(n=2-15) clusters were determined by the all-electron PBE/DND method in DMol3 of the Material Studio Package, and compared with those of the corresponding Si+n geometries. Most structures of Ge+n and Si+n are similar except the ones of those for n=9, 12, 13 and 14, and the pentagonal bipyramid motif and the tri-capped trigonal prism(TTP) motif often appear in the Si+n and Ge+n(n=7-15) structures(except for Si14+).

  18. On the road to metallic nanoparticles by rational design: bridging the gap between atomic-level theoretical modeling and reality by total scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Binay; Wilson, A. R.; Wiley, B. J.; Ren, Y.; Petkov, Valeri

    2015-10-01

    The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can reveal real-world metallic nanoparticles (NPs) at the atomic level was scrutinized and demonstrated to be insufficient and how it can be improved by using a pragmatic approach involving straightforward experiments is shown. In particular, 4 to 6 nm in size silica supported Au100-xPdx (x = 30, 46 and 58) explored for catalytic applications is characterized structurally by total scattering experiments including high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled to atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Atomic-level models for the NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modeling Sutton-Chen (SC) method. Models are matched against independent experimental data and are demonstrated to be inaccurate unless their theoretical foundation, i.e. the SC method, is supplemented with basic yet crucial information on the length and strength of metal-to-metal bonds and, when necessary, structural disorder in the actual NPs studied. An atomic PDF-based approach for accessing such information and implementing it in theoretical modeling is put forward. For completeness, the approach is concisely demonstrated on 15 nm in size water-dispersed Au particles explored for bio-medical applications and 16 nm in size hexane-dispersed Fe48Pd52 particles explored for magnetic applications as well. It is argued that when ``tuned up'' against experiments relevant to metals and alloys confined to nanoscale dimensions, such as total scattering coupled to atomic PDF analysis, rather than by mere intuition and/or against data for the respective solids, atomic-level theoretical modeling can provide a sound understanding of the synthesis-structure-property relationships in real-world metallic NPs. Ultimately this can help advance nanoscience and technology a step closer to producing metallic NPs by rational design.The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can

  19. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF MN(II-TRANS-1,2-DIAMINOCYCLEHEXANE-N,N,N',N'TETRAACETATE AS PARAMAGNETIC CONTRAST AGENT FOR ENHANCEMENT OF CEREBRAL MENINGEOMAS IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Ussov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. We have evaluated the abilities of new original paramagnetic contrast agent Mn-DCTA (0,5 mol solution of Manganese(II complex with trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate, registered trade mark Cyclomang for contrast-enhanced imaging of brain meningeomas in dogs.Material and methods. Twelve animals were included, all with brain tumors reveald during out-patient veterinary examinations. In ten of twelve the diagnosis was verified later by pathomorphologic study. The cerebral MRI has been carred out as set of axial, sagittal and coronal slices as thin as three to five mm, covering all the volume of brain.The scanning parameters in T1-weighted spin-ech mode were as follows: TR = 400–500 ms, TE = 15–20 ms, the dose of injected paramagnetic was standardised as 1 mmol per 10 kg of body weight. For quantitative analysis the index of enhancement was calculated.Results. In all cases the sure enhancement with clear visualization of cerebral tumor was obtained due to highly intensive uptake of Mn-DCTA to the tumor tissue. When evaluated quantitatively the uptake of Mn-DCTA to the tumor gave the index of enhancement in T1-weighted spin-echo mode as high as IE = 1,72 ± 0,18 for the central parts of tumor and IE = 2,08 ± 0,23 for the peripheral ones, where as in control animals it was far below these values. Intravenous injection of Mn-DCTA to dogs with cerebral tumors did not induce any detectable pathologic or even physiologic effects.Conclusion. Henceforth we conclude the Mn-DCTA provides highly available methodologically simple imaging of cerebral meningeomas and can be thought out as promising paramagnetic agent for clinical magnetic resonance imaging in humans.

  20. Methyleneation of peptides by N,N,N,N-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) under conditions used for free radical polymerization: a mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirangi, Mehrnoosh; Sastre Toraño, Javier; Sellergren, Börje; Hennink, Wim E; Somsen, Govert W; van Nostrum, Cornelus F

    2015-01-21

    Free radical polymerization is often used to prepare protein and peptide-loaded hydrogels for the design of controlled release systems and molecular imprinting materials. Peroxodisulfates (ammonium peroxodisulfates (APS) or potassium peroxodisulfates (KPS)) with N,N,N,N-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) are frequently used as initiator and catalyst. However, exposure to these free radical polymerization reagents may lead to modification of the protein and peptide. In this work, we show the modification of lysine residues by ammonium peroxodisulfate (APS)/TEMED of the immunostimulant thymopentin (TP5). Parallel studies on a decapeptide and a library of 15 dipeptides were performed to reveal the mechanism of modification. LC-MS of APS/TEMED-exposed TP5 revealed a major reaction product with an increased mass (+12 Da) with respect to TP5. LC-MS(2) and LC-MS(3) were performed to obtain structural information on the modified peptide and localize the actual modification site. Interpretation of the obtained data demonstrates the formation of a methylene bridge between the lysine and arginine residue in the presence of TEMED, while replacing TEMED with a sodium bisulfite catalyst did not show this modification. Studies with the other peptides showed that the TEMED radical can induce methyleneation on peptides when lysine is next to arginine, proline, cysteine, aspargine, glutamine, histidine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and aspartic acid residues. Stability of peptides and protein needs to be considered when using APS/TEMED in in situ polymerization systems. The use of an alternative catalyst such as sodium bisulfite may preserve the chemical integrity of peptides during in situ polymerization.

  1. Structural, molecular orbital and optical characterizations of binuclear mixed ligand copper (II) complex of phthalate with N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, A; Farag, A A M; Ammar, A H; Ahmed, H M

    2014-09-15

    A new binuclear mixed ligand complex, [Cu2(Phth)(Me4en)2(H2O)2(NO3)2]·H2O (where, Phth=phthalate, and (Me4en)=N,N,N',N'tetramethylethylenediamine) was synthesized and characterized using analytical, spectral, magnetic, molar conductance, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. The XRD data of Cu(II)-complex was analyzed on the basis of Williamson-Hall (W-H) and compared with TEM results. The results indicate that the complex is well crystalline and correspond to hexagonal crystal structure. Analysis of the absorption coefficient near the absorption edge reveals that the optical band gaps are indirect allowed transition with values of 1.17 and 1.78 eV. The d-d absorption bands of the complex (dissolved in various solvents) exhibit a color changes (solvatochromic). Specific and non-specific interactions of solvent molecules with the complex were investigated using Multiple Linear Regression Analysis (MLRA). Transient photocurrent characteristics of Cu(II)-complex/n-Si heterojunctions indicate that photocurrent under illumination increase with increasing of light intensity and explained by continuous distribution of traps. Structural parameters of the free ligands and their Cu(II)-complex were calculated on the basis of semi-empirical PM3 level and compared with the experimental data. The present copper (II) complex was screened for its antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus strain.

  2. On the road to metallic nanoparticles by rational design: bridging the gap between atomic-level theoretical modeling and reality by total scattering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Binay; Wilson, A R; Wiley, B J; Ren, Y; Petkov, Valeri

    2015-11-14

    The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can reveal real-world metallic nanoparticles (NPs) at the atomic level was scrutinized and demonstrated to be insufficient and how it can be improved by using a pragmatic approach involving straightforward experiments is shown. In particular, 4 to 6 nm in size silica supported Au(100-x)Pd(x) (x = 30, 46 and 58) explored for catalytic applications is characterized structurally by total scattering experiments including high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled to atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Atomic-level models for the NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modeling Sutton-Chen (SC) method. Models are matched against independent experimental data and are demonstrated to be inaccurate unless their theoretical foundation, i.e. the SC method, is supplemented with basic yet crucial information on the length and strength of metal-to-metal bonds and, when necessary, structural disorder in the actual NPs studied. An atomic PDF-based approach for accessing such information and implementing it in theoretical modeling is put forward. For completeness, the approach is concisely demonstrated on 15 nm in size water-dispersed Au particles explored for bio-medical applications and 16 nm in size hexane-dispersed Fe48Pd52 particles explored for magnetic applications as well. It is argued that when "tuned up" against experiments relevant to metals and alloys confined to nanoscale dimensions, such as total scattering coupled to atomic PDF analysis, rather than by mere intuition and/or against data for the respective solids, atomic-level theoretical modeling can provide a sound understanding of the synthesis-structure-property relationships in real-world metallic NPs. Ultimately this can help advance nanoscience and technology a step closer to producing metallic NPs by rational design.

  3. Structural and thermodynamic study of the complexes of Nd(III) with N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-3-oxa-glutaramide and the acid analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guoxin; Teat, Simon J; Rao, Linfeng

    2014-09-15

    The thermodynamics of Nd(III) complexes with N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-3-oxa-glutaramide (TMOGA, L(I)), N,N-dimethyl-3-oxa-glutaramic acid (DMOGA, HL(II)), and oxydiacetic acid (ODA, H2L(III)) in aqueous solutions was studied. Stability constants, enthalpies, and entropies of complexation were determined by spectrophotometry, potentiometry, and calorimetry. The stability constants of corresponding Nd(III) complexes decrease in the following order: Nd(III)/L(III) > Nd(III)/L(II) > Nd(III)/L(I). For all complexes, the enthalpies of complexation are negative and the entropies of complexation are positive, indicating that the complexation is driven by both enthalpy and entropy. Furthermore, from L(III) to L(II), and to L(I), the enthalpy of complexation becomes more exothermic and the entropy of complexation less positive, suggesting that the substitution of a carboxylate group with an amide group on the ligands enhances the enthalpy-driven force but weakens the entropy-driven force of the complexation with Nd(III). Crystal structures of three 1:3 Nd(III) complexes, Nd(L(I))3(ClO4)3 (I), Nd(L(I))3(NO3)3(H2O)2 (II), and Nd(L(II))3(H2O)7.5 (III), were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and compared with the structure of a 1:3 Nd(III)/L(III) complex in the literature, Na3NdL(III)3(NaClO4)2(H2O)6 (IV). In all four structures, the ligands are tridentate and Nd(III) is nine-coordinated with similar distorted tricapped trigonal prism geometry by three ether oxygen atoms capped on the three faces of the prism, and six oxygen atoms from the ketone group or carboxyl group at the corners. The absorption spectra of Nd(III) in solutions showed very similar patterns as Nd(III) formed successive 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 complexes with L(I), L(II), and L(III), respectively, implying that the Nd(III) complexes with the three ligands have similar coordination geometries in aqueous solutions, as observed in the solids.

  4. Tannin concentration enhances seed caching by scatter-hoarding rodents: An experiment using artificial ‘seeds’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin

    2008-11-01

    Tannins are very common among plant seeds but their effects on the fate of seeds, for example, via mediation of the feeding preferences of scatter-hoarding rodents, are poorly understood. In this study, we created a series of artificial 'seeds' that only differed in tannin concentration and the type of tannin, and placed them in a pine forest in the Shangri-La Alpine Botanical Garden, Yunnan Province of China. Two rodent species ( Apodemus latronum and A. chevrieri) showed significant preferences for 'seeds' with different tannin concentrations. A significantly higher proportion of seeds with low tannin concentration were consumed in situ compared with seeds with a higher tannin concentration. Meanwhile, the tannin concentration was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of seeds cached. The different types of tannin (hydrolysable tannin vs condensed tannin) did not differ significantly in their effect on the proportion of seeds eaten in situ vs seeds cached. Tannin concentrations had no significant effect on the distance that cached seeds were carried, which suggests that rodents may respond to different seed traits in deciding whether or not to cache seeds and how far they will transport seeds.

  5. Effect of crystal shape on neutron rocking curves of perfect single crystals designed for ultra-small-angle scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, A. K.; Rehm, C.

    2014-07-01

    The present study has been conducted in the framework of the channel-cut crystal design for the Kookaburra ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) instrument to be installed at the OPAL reactor of ANSTO. This facility is based on the classical Bonse-Hart method that uses two multiple-reflection crystal systems. The dynamical theory of diffraction by perfect crystals distinguishes two cases: the Darwin case applying to infinitely thick crystals and the Ewald solution for very small absorption taking into account the reflection from the rear face of a plane-parallel crystal reflecting in Bragg geometry. The former is preferable because it yields narrower rocking curves. To prevent the neutrons to "see" the rear face, grooves were machined into the backside of perfect Si test crystals for single reflection and filled with neutron absorbing material. These samples were examined at the S18 instrument of the Institut Laue-Langevin. Unexpectedly the crystals with empty slots showed an increase of the rocking curve width. When filling the slots with an absorber the widths decreased, but without reaching that of the Darwin curve. Understanding the results and achieving a successful crystal design call for the development of a theory that permits to describe neutron diffraction from crystals with a structured back face.

  6. The ν -cleus experiment: a gram-scale fiducial-volume cryogenic detector for the first detection of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R.; Rothe, J.; Angloher, G.; Bento, A.; Gütlein, A.; Hauff, D.; Kluck, H.; Mancuso, M.; Oberauer, L.; Petricca, F.; Pröbst, F.; Schieck, J.; Schönert, S.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L.

    2017-08-01

    We discuss a small-scale experiment, called ν -cleus, for the first detection of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering by probing nuclear-recoil energies down to the 10 eV regime. The detector consists of low-threshold CaWO_4 and Al_2O_3 calorimeter arrays with a total mass of about 10 g and several cryogenic veto detectors operated at millikelvin temperatures. Realizing a fiducial volume and a multi-element target, the detector enables active discrimination of γ , neutron and surface backgrounds. A first prototype Al_2O_3 device, operated above ground in a setup without shielding, has achieved an energy threshold of {˜ }20 eV and further improvements are in reach. A sensitivity study for the detection of coherent neutrino scattering at nuclear power plants shows a unique discovery potential (5σ ) within a measuring time of {\\lesssim }2 weeks. Furthermore, a site at a thermal research reactor and the use of a radioactive neutrino source are investigated. With this technology, real-time monitoring of nuclear power plants is feasible.

  7. Medium energy measurements of N-N parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: pp elastic absolute cross section measurement; spin transfer measurements in np elastic scattering; single pion production in np scattering; photoproduction of high P{sub t} jets in the wide band beam of the tevatron; and search for K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}e, K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} ee.

  8. Synthesis of Thermo-Responsive Polymer via Radical (Co)polymerization of N,N-Dimethyl-α-(hydroxymethyl)acrylamide with N,N-Diethylacrylamide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohsaka, Yasuhiro; Tanimoto, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    .... In this article, we report the first example of radical polymerization of α-functionalized N,N-disubstituted acrylamide affording thermo-responsive hydrophilic polymers. N,N-dimethyl-α-(hydroxymethyl)acrylamide (DMαHAA) was (co...

  9. A consistent analysis of (p,p`) and (n,n`) reactions using the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Harada, M. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Double-differential proton emission cross sections were measured for proton-induced reactions on several medium-heavy nuclei ({sup 54,56}Fe, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 90}Zr, and {sup 93}Nb) at two incident energies of 14.1 and 26 MeV. The (p,p`) data for {sup 56}Fe and {sup 93}Nb were compared with available data of (n,n`) scattering for the same target nuclei and incident energies, and both data were analyzed using the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin model to extract the strength V{sub 0} of the effective N-N interaction which is the only free parameter used in multistep direct calculations. (author)

  10. Towards a validation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for use in forensic science: repeatability and reproducibility experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlethaler, Cyril; Leona, Marco; Lombardi, John R

    2016-11-01

    In order for a new analytical technique such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to be used in a routine manner, data and studies on the validation of the method are required. In that context, we performed a systematic study of the variability observed at different levels of the analytical procedure (i.e. respectively measurement, sampling, colloids aliquots, colloids batches, laboratories). Our goal is to provide data towards a qualitative validation of the technique for identification purposes. Three molecules of forensic interest were used as probes, respectively crystal violet, methamphetamine and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). We demonstrate that the method is repeatable with RSD and multivariate techniques (PCA). The % RSD at the different analytical stages vary between the molecules and the peaks considered. The repeatability is on the order of 2-6% for crystal violet, and 5-16% for TNT. Methamphetamine binds very weakly to the silver colloids giving much greater variability in the measurements (5-29%). We show that spectra measured in the same conditions (e.g. same laboratory and instrument), even a few days apart, are comparable and stable. The largest source of variation has been identified to be the measurement conditions and the associated random fluctuations in intensity (i.e. Brownian motion of the particles, solvent evaporation and concentration). The influence of the substrate is confirmed to be negligible. However, the reproducibility between different laboratories and different instruments introduced the largest source of variability (∼ 10-70%). Despite these factors, we demonstrate that qualitative identification of the species under analysis by measurement and comparison of peaks position is always successful even though quantitative analysis is, at present, difficult. Regardless of the amount of variability determined, the molecules could always be successfully identified, even on different instruments from different laboratories by

  11. 40 CFR 721.8100 - Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy-ethyl) tal-lo-wa-mine oxide phos-phate. 721.8100... Substances § 721.8100 Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis...

  12. Elastic Scattering and Total Cross-Section in p+p reactions as measured by the LHC Experiment TOTEM at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Csörgö, Tamás; Aspell, P; Atanassov, I; Avati, V; Baechler, J; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Bossini, E; Bozzo, M; Brogi, P; Brücken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F S; Calicchio, M; Catanesi, M G; Covault, C; Csanád, M; Deile, M; Dimovasili, E; Doubek, M; Eggert, K; Eremin, V; Ferretti, R; Ferro, F; Fiergolski, A; Garcia, F; Giani, S; Greco, V; Grzanka, L; Heino, J; Hilden, T; Intonti, M R; Janda, M; Kaspar, J; Kopal, J; Kundrát, V; Kurvinen, K; Lami, S; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Leszko, T; Lippmaa, E; Lokajícek, M; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas Rodríguez, F; Macrí, M; Magaletti, L; Magazzù, G; Mercadante, A; Meucci, M; Minutoli, S; Nemes, F; Niewiadomski, H; Noschis, E; Novák, T; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Österberg, K; Palazzi, P; Perrot, A-L; Pedreschi, E; Petäjäjärvi, J; Procházka, J; Quinto, M; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Robutti, E; Ropelewski, L; Ruggiero, G; Saarikko, H; Sanguinetti, G; Santroni, A; Scribano, A; Sette, G; Snoeys, W; Spinella, F; Sziklai, J; Taylor, C; Turini, N; Vacek, V; Vítek, M; Welti, J; Whitmore, J

    2012-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured by the TOTEM experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at $\\sqrt{s} = 7 $ TeV in special runs with the Roman Pot detectors placed as close to the outgoing beam as seven times the transverse beam size. The differential cross-section measurements are reported in the |t|-range of 0.36 to 2.5 GeV$^2$. Extending the range of data to low t values from 0.02 to 0.33 GeV$^2$,and utilizing the luminosity measurements of CMS, the total proton-proton cross section at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV is measured to be $(98.3 \\pm 0.2^{stat} \\pm 2.8^{syst})$ mb.

  13. Chlorido[N,N'-dibenzyl-N,N'-bis-(pyridin-2-ylmeth-yl)ethane-1,2-diamine]-copper(II) perchlorate methanol monosolvate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song, Hui-Ting; Mao, Jia-Wei; Liu, Ming; Pan, Zhi-Quan

    2012-01-01

    In the title solvated mol-ecular salt, [CuCl(C(28)H(30)N(4))]ClO(4)·CH(3)OH, the Cu(2+) ion is coordinated by the N,N',N'',N'''-tetra-dentate ligand and a chloride ion, generating a very distorted square-based pyramidal CuN...

  14. A Base Promoted Synthesis of N,N-dimethylformamidines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bao Lin; Ding, Si Yi; Ren, Yu Fei; Wang, Liu Chang; Jia, Yu Cai [Shaanxi Normal Univ., Xi' an (China); Zhang, Xi Quan; Gu, Hong Mei [Jiangsu Chia Tai Tianqing Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Nanjing (China)

    2013-05-15

    In conclusion, this report supplies a base promoted synthesis of N'-aryl-N,N-dimethylformamidines straight from arylamines bearing strong electron withdrawing group at o-position and imine complex from DMF and Me{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The key advantage of the procedure is to avoid the preparation of N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal from DMF and Me{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Using this method, some important intermediates shown as entry 1-4, 9-11 in Table 3 were efficiently prepared. With these intermediates in hand, various antitumor drugs containing quinazoline moiety such as gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib etc. can be synthesized conveniently.

  15. Development of new additive for drilling fluid from the partial hydrophobization N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC); Desenvolvimento de novos aditivos para fluidos de perfuracao a partir da hidrofobizacao parcial da N,N,N trimetilquitosana (TMQ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Thacyla C. do; Lopes, Grazielle; Silva, Joaquim F.M. da; Nascimento, Regina S.V., E-mail: cycyla@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Polo de Xistoquimica

    2009-07-01

    N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) hydrophobically modified can act as an excellent additive for drilling fluids water based, working as inhibitor of reactive shales and rheological modifiers. The cationic chitosan was obtained by reaction of chitosan with CH{sub 3}I in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone to obtain the TMC and chitosan was also hydrophobically modified with palmitoil chloride to get Quit P. Through another route, Quit P was modified to obtain the cationic TMCP. The derivatives were characterized by FT-IR and {sup 1}HNMR spectrophotometry allowing the calculation of the degree of quaternization of the TMC. The rheology tests showed that the system with TMCP presented pseudo plastic behavior, while the system with TMC behaved as a Newtonian fluid. The results indicated that TMCP can act as rheology modifier for water-based drilling fluids. (author)

  16. The E00-110 experiment in Jefferson Lab's Hall A: Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off the Proton at 6 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Defurne, M; Aniol, K A; Beaumel, M; Benaoum, H; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Camsonne, A; Chen, J -P; Chudakov, E; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; de Jager, C W; Deur, A; Feuerbach, R; Ferdi, C; Fieschi, J -M; Frullani, S; Fuchey, E; Garcon, M; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gavalian, G; Gilman, R; Gomez, J; Gueye, P; Guichon, P A M; Guillon, B; Hansen, O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; Jiang, X; Jo, H S; Kaufman, L J; Kelleher, A; Keppel, C; Kolarkar, A; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; Laveissière, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Lu, H -J; Margaziotis, D J; Mazouz, M; Meziani, Z -E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R; Michel, B; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P; Camacho, C Muñoz; Nanda, S; Nelyubin, V; Paremuzyan, R; Potokar, M; Qiang, Y; Ransome, R D; Réal, J -S; Reitz, B; Roblin, Y; Roche, J; Sabatié, F; Saha, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Ulmer, P E; Voutier, E; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2015-01-01

    We present final results on the photon electroproduction ($\\vec{e}p\\rightarrow ep\\gamma$) cross section in the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) regime and the valence quark region from Jefferson Lab experiment E00-110. Results from an analysis of a subset of these data were published before, but the analysis has been improved which is described here at length, together with details on the experimental setup. Furthermore, additional data have been analyzed resulting in photon electroproduction cross sections at new kinematic settings, for a total of 588 experimental bins. Results of the $Q^2$- and $x_B$-dependences of both the helicity-dependent and helicity-independent cross sections are discussed. The $Q^2$-dependence illustrates the dominance of the twist-2 handbag amplitude in the kinematics of the experiment, as previously noted. Thanks to the excellent accuracy of this high luminosity experiment, it becomes clear that the unpolarized cross section shows a significant deviation from the Bethe-Heit...

  17. E00-110 experiment at Jefferson Lab Hall A: Deeply virtual Compton scattering off the proton at 6 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defurne, M.; Amaryan, M.; Aniol, K. A.; Beaumel, M.; Benaoum, H.; Bertin, P.; Brossard, M.; Camsonne, A.; Chen, J.-P.; Chudakov, E.; Craver, B.; Cusanno, F.; de Jager, C. W.; Deur, A.; Feuerbach, R.; Ferdi, C.; Fieschi, J.-M.; Frullani, S.; Fuchey, E.; Garçon, M.; Garibaldi, F.; Gayou, O.; Gavalian, G.; Gilman, R.; Gomez, J.; Gueye, P.; Guichon, P. A. M.; Guillon, B.; Hansen, O.; Hayes, D.; Higinbotham, D.; Holmstrom, T.; Hyde, C. E.; Ibrahim, H.; Igarashi, R.; Jiang, X.; Jo, H. S.; Kaufman, L. J.; Kelleher, A.; Keppel, C.; Kolarkar, A.; Kuchina, E.; Kumbartzki, G.; Laveissière, G.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Liyanage, N.; Lu, H.-J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Mazouz, M.; Meziani, Z.-E.; McCormick, K.; Michaels, R.; Michel, B.; Moffit, B.; Monaghan, P.; Muñoz Camacho, C.; Nanda, S.; Nelyubin, V.; Paremuzyan, R.; Potokar, M.; Qiang, Y.; Ransome, R. D.; Réal, J.-S.; Reitz, B.; Roblin, Y.; Roche, J.; Sabatié, F.; Saha, A.; Sirca, S.; Slifer, K.; Solvignon, P.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Ulmer, P. E.; Voutier, E.; Wang, K.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    We present final results on the photon electroproduction (e ⃗p →e p γ ) cross section in the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) regime and the valence quark region from Jefferson Lab experiment E00-110. Results from an analysis of a subset of these data were published before, but the analysis has been improved, which is described here at length, together with details on the experimental setup. Furthermore, additional data have been analyzed, resulting in photon electroproduction cross sections at new kinematic settings for a total of 588 experimental bins. Results of the Q2 and xB dependencies of both the helicity-dependent and the helicity-independent cross sections are discussed. The Q2 dependence illustrates the dominance of the twist-2 handbag amplitude in the kinematics of the experiment, as previously noted. Thanks to the excellent accuracy of this high-luminosity experiment, it becomes clear that the unpolarized cross section shows a significant deviation from the Bethe-Heitler process in our kinematics, compatible with a large contribution from the leading twist-2 DVCS2 term to the photon electroproduction cross section. The necessity to include higher-twist corrections to fully reproduce the shape of the data is also discussed. The DVCS cross sections in this paper represent the final set of experimental results from E00-110, superseding the previous publication.

  18. New metabolic pathway for N,N-dimethyltryptamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryhorczuk, L.M.; Rainey, J.M. Jr.; Frohman, C.E.; Novak, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) undergoes a major structural alteration when added to whole human blood or its red blood cells in vitro. A new high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) peak is present in extracts of these treated tissues. The compound responsible for this peak has been identified by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and by mass spectrometry as dimethylkynuramine (DMK). The enzyme responsible for this appears to be different from tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and also from indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

  19. Photoionization studies of (BH3)n (n=1,2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruščić, B.; Mayhew, C. A.; Berkowitz, J.

    1988-05-01

    The results of photoionization mass spectrometric studies on B2H6, and BH3 (produced by pyrolysis of B2H6) are presented. The photoion yield curves of B2H+n (n=2-6) and BH+n (n=2-3) from B2H6, as well as BH+n (n=1-3) from BH3 have been obtained. It is shown that the combination of appearance potential measurements for BH+3 (B2H6) and BH+3 (BH3) yields a poor upper limit for -ΔHdimerization, 0 K (BH3) of 52.7 kcal/mol, while the combination of BH+2 (B2H6) and BH+2 (BH3) provides a better upper limit (46.6±0.6 kcal/mol) for this quantity. However, the threshold for BH+ (BH3), combined with auxiliary data, provides the best current experimental value, (34.3-39.1)±2 kcal/mol. This experimental value is in good agreement with a recent ab initio calculation, and is arrived at by using the best current estimate of ΔHf(B2H6), rather than a radically different value proposed in that paper. The ionization potential of BH3, ΔHf (BH+2), and the atomization energy of BH3 obtained experimentally are in excellent agreement with other ab initio calculations. The upper limits on heats of formation for the ionic species B2H+n (n=2-6) are obtained, and plausible structures are discussed for these species, based on the current energetics and various ab initio calculations. Finally, the fragmentation behavior of photoions from diborane is shown to have a more facile explanation by quasiequilibrium theory than by a molecular orbital picture, with the probable exception of BH+3 (B2H6).

  20. [N,N-Bis(diphenyl-phosphino)isopropyl-amine]dibromidonickel(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Marko; Wöhl, Anina; Peitz, Stephan; Müller, Bernd H; Spannenberg, Anke; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2009-02-06

    The title compound, [NiBr(2)(C(27)H(27)NP(2))], was synthesized by the reaction of NiBr(2)(dme) (dme is 1,2-dimethoxy-ethane) with N,N-bis-(diphenyl-phosphino)isopropyl-amine in methanol/tetra-hydro-furan. The nickel(II) center is coordinated by two P atoms of the chelating PNP ligand, Ph(2)PN(iPr)PPh(2), and two bromide ions in a distorted square-planar geometry.

  1. SYNTHESIS OF POLYMERS CONTAINING N-N LINKAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaza Gomurashvili; Allan S. Hay

    2003-01-01

    The N-N linkage in hydrazine is thermally stable when it is tetrasubstituted and there are electron-withdrawing groups attached to the nitrogen atoms. Our research on the synthesis of polymers containing N-N linkages is reviewed. The N,N-bisimide structure has been introduced in the backbone of polymers as well as a pendant group in poly(aryl ether)s to give very thermoxidatively stable polymers with very high glass transition temperatures. Most of the polymers form tough,flexible films. N-Aminotriazoles also form stable imides by reaction with anhydrides and these N-imidotriazole groups have been introduced as pendent groups on poly(aryl ether)s. The polymers are highly fluorescent materials. Three methods for the synthesis of polymers containing the tetrasubstituted-azine structure will be discussed: (1) oxidative coupling of bisimines;(2) condensation of bishydrazones with diketones; (3) poly(aryl ether azines) from the azine formed from 4-fluorobenzophenone by reaction with salts of bisphenols.

  2. Quaternary ammonium salt N-(dodecyloxycarboxymethyl)-N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium chloride induced alterations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae physiology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    EWA OBŁĄK; AGATA PIECUCH; EWA MACIASZCZYK-DZIUBIŃSKA; DONATA WAWRZYCKA

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the influence of the quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) called IM (N-(dodecyloxycarboxymethyl)-N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium chloride) on yeast cells of the parental strain and the IM-resistant mutant (EO25 IMR)growth. The phenotype of this mutant was pleiotropic. The IMR mutant exhibited resistance to ethanol, osmotic shockand oxidative stress, as well as increased sensitivity to UV. Moreover, it was noted that mutant EO25 appears to havean increased resistance to clotrimazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, nystatin and cycloheximide. It also toleratedgrowth in the presence of crystal violet, DTT and metals (selenium, tin, arsenic). It was shown that the presence ofIM decreased ergosterol level in mutant plasma membrane and increased its unsaturation. These results indicatechanges in the cell lipid composition. Western blot analysis showed the induction of Pma1 level by IM. RT-PCRrevealed an increased PMA1 expression after IM treatment.

  3. Functionalyzed Polyampholytes on the Basis of Copolymers of N,N-Diallyl-N,N-dimethylammonium Chloride and Maleic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlasov, Petr; Chernyy, Sergey; Domnina, Nina

    2010-01-01

    Polyampholytes were prepared by radical copolymerization of N,N-diallyl-N,N-dimethylammonium chloride and maleic acid. The esterification and subsequent hydrazinolysis permitted to introduce hydrazide groups capable of formation of the coordination bond with copper ions. The formation of complex...... between the hydrazide groups of polyampholyte and Cu2+ ions was established by electronic spectroscopy. It was shown that the coordination of two hydrazide groups in the complex was hampered because of the polymeric nature of the ligand. It is shown that the created functionalized polyampholytes exhibit...... fungiostatic activity. The highest inhibiting effect on the growth of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporumis observed for complexes of the hydrazide-containing polyampholytes with Cu2+ ions....

  4. BioSAXS Sample Changer: a robotic sample changer for rapid and reliable high-throughput X-ray solution scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, Adam, E-mail: around@embl.fr; Felisaz, Franck [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Fodinger, Lukas; Gobbo, Alexandre [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Huet, Julien [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Villard, Cyril [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Blanchet, Clement E., E-mail: around@embl.fr [EMBL c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Pernot, Petra; McSweeney, Sean [ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France); Roessle, Manfred; Svergun, Dmitri I. [EMBL c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Cipriani, Florent, E-mail: around@embl.fr [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2015-01-01

    A robotic sample changer for solution X-ray scattering experiments optimized for speed and to use the minimum amount of material has been developed. This system is now in routine use at three high-brilliance European synchrotron sites, each capable of several hundred measurements per day. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of macromolecules in solution is in increasing demand by an ever more diverse research community, both academic and industrial. To better serve user needs, and to allow automated and high-throughput operation, a sample changer (BioSAXS Sample Changer) that is able to perform unattended measurements of up to several hundred samples per day has been developed. The Sample Changer is able to handle and expose sample volumes of down to 5 µl with a measurement/cleaning cycle of under 1 min. The samples are stored in standard 96-well plates and the data are collected in a vacuum-mounted capillary with automated positioning of the solution in the X-ray beam. Fast and efficient capillary cleaning avoids cross-contamination and ensures reproducibility of the measurements. Independent temperature control for the well storage and for the measurement capillary allows the samples to be kept cool while still collecting data at physiological temperatures. The Sample Changer has been installed at three major third-generation synchrotrons: on the BM29 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the P12 beamline at the PETRA-III synchrotron (EMBL@PETRA-III) and the I22/B21 beamlines at Diamond Light Source, with the latter being the first commercial unit supplied by Bruker ASC.

  5. Critical scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirling, W.G. [Liverpool Univ., Dep. of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Perry, S.C. [Keele Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO{sub 3} is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs.

  6. No signature of nuclear-Coulomb interference in the proton-proton elastic scattering via the Trojan Horse Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumino, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); DMFCI, Universita di Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); DMFCI, Universita di Catania (Italy); Rapisarda, G.G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); DMFCI, Universita di Catania (Italy)] (and others)

    2007-05-01

    The Trojan Horse Method (THM) was applied to the p+d interaction in order to study the p+p scattering, the simplest case where the suppression of the Coulomb amplitude due to off-shell effects can be observed. The three-body p+d->p+p+n experiment was performed at 5 and 6 MeV and the shape of the quasi-free cross-section was investigated as a function of both the outgoing proton energy and the p-p relative energy. Preliminary results show a behaviour which turns out to be much similar to that of n+n, n+p and nuclear p+p cross-sections.

  7. New tetradentate N,N,N,N-chelating α-diimine ligands and their corresponding zinc and nickel complexes: synthesis, characterisation and testing as olefin polymerisation catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lidong; Gomes, Clara S B; Gomes, Pedro T; Duarte, M Teresa; Fan, Zhiqiang

    2011-04-07

    A series of zinc complexes of the general formula {[ZnCl(ArN=C(An)-C(An)=NAr)](+)}(2)[Zn(2)Cl(6)](2-) (where Ar = 2-(1-benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)phenyl 2a, 2-(1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)phenyl 2b, 2-(1-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)phenyl 2c; An = acenaphthene backbone) were prepared by the condensation of acenaphthenequinone with the corresponding o-triazolyl-substituted anilines (2-(1-benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)aniline 1a, 2-(1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)aniline 1b, 2-(1-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)aniline 1c) which were formed by the copper(I)-catalyzed Huisgen[3+2] dipolar cycloaddition between 2-ethynylaniline and the corresponding azides in high yields, using anhydrous ZnCl(2) as the metal template, in boiling glacial acetic acid. Zinc complexes of the type [ZnCl(ArN=C(An)-C(An)=NAr)](+)[ZnCl(3)(NCCH(3))](-) (4a-c) were synthesized by crystallisation of the corresponding complexes 2a-c in acetonitrile, at -20 °C. After removal of zinc dichloride from complexes 2a-c by the addition of potassium oxalate, in dichloromethane, the tetradentate N,N,N,N-chelating α-diimine ligands of the type ArN=C(An)-C(An)=NAr (5a-c) were obtained. The new ligand precursors and zinc complexes were characterised by elemental analysis, (1)H and (13)C{(1)H} NMR spectroscopy, two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Reaction of the ligand precursors 5a-c with [NiBr(2)(DME)], in dichloromethane, gave nickel complexes of the type [NiBr(2)(ArN=C(An)-C(An)=NAr)] (6a-c). The results of single crystal X-ray diffraction characterisation and magnetic susceptibility measurements demonstrated that nickel complexes 6a-c possess octahedral geometries around the nickel atoms with variable configurations, the Br atoms of which can be ionized when dissolved in methanol. In preliminary catalytic tests, complexes 6a-c revealed to be active as catalysts for the polymerisation of norbornene and styrene, when activated by cocatalyst MAO. The characterisation

  8. N,N,N,,N,-四己基丁二酰胺萃取铀、钍及硝酸的机理%Extraction mechanism of U(Ⅵ), Th(Ⅳ) and nirtic acid with N,N,N',N'-Tetrahexylsuccinylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友绍; 孙宗勋; 何磊; 包伯荣; 孙思修

    2003-01-01

    合成了N,N,N',N'-四己基丁二酰胺(THSA).以正十二烷为稀释剂研究了THSA萃取硝酸的平衡,认为在低酸度下主要形成THSA@HNO3加合物,在高酸度下主要形成加合物THSA@HNO3和THSA@(HNO3)2;还研究了THSA从硝酸介质中萃取铀、钍的机理,通过考察HNO3浓度、THSA浓度及温度对铀和钍分配比的影响,得出了萃合物的组成为UO2(NO3)2@THSA和Th(NO3)4@2THSA,并计算出萃取反应的表观平衡常数及热焓.实验结果表明THSA具有较强的对铀、钍萃取能力,并有望实现铀、钍分离.

  9. Nuclear response functions for the N-N*(1440) transition

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, L; Donnelly, T W; Molinari, A

    2003-01-01

    Parity-conserving and -violating response functions are computed for the inclusive electroexcitation of the N*(1440)(Roper) resonance in nuclear matter modeled as a relativistic Fermi gas. Using various empirical parameterizations and theoretical models of the N-N*(1440) transition form factors, the sensitivity of the response functions to details of the structure of the Roper resonance is investigated. The possibility of disentangling this resonance from the contribution of Delta electroproduction in nuclei is addressed. Finally, the contributions of the Roper resonance to the longitudinal scaling function and to the Coulomb sum rule are also explored.

  10. BOC(n,n) signal multipath mitigation using MEDLL technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xuan; Zhang, Yanmei; Su, Lianqing; Guo, Haichao

    2015-11-01

    For satellite navigation and positioning receivers are susceptible to the influence of the multipath, this paper used multipath estimating delay lock loop (MEDLL) technology for BOC (n, n) multipath signal tracking. Through the analysis of multipath signal model, it is concluded that all the multipath signal can be expressed by its amplitude, phase and delay. Then in odor to get the accurate direct signal, this paper applied MEDLL algorithm to estimate the received signal. Finally, the simulation show that this algorithm can realize multipath signal track demodulation and accurate data demodulation under a low signal noise ratio environment (SNR= -20db).

  11. Design and construction of a spectrometer facility and experiment for intermediate energy proton scattering on helium. [Wave functions, preliminary experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolfe, R.M.

    1976-12-01

    The goal of the research was to investigate proton scattering on nuclei at intermediate energies and in particular to investigate proton scattering on helium. A theoretical investigation of the helium nucleus and the nature of the intermediate energy interaction, design and optimization of an energy-loss spectrometer facility for proton-nucleus scattering, and the unique superfluid helium target and experimental design are discussed.

  12. New insights into nucleation. Pressure trace measurements and the first small angle X-ray scattering experiments in a supersonic laval nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, D.

    2007-07-01

    Homogeneous nucleation rates of the n-alcohols and the n-alkanes have been determined by combining information from two sets of supersonic Laval nozzle expansion experiments under identical conditions. The nucleation rates J=N/{delta}t{sub Jmax} for the n-alcohols are in the range of 1.10{sup 17}experiment static pressure measurements were conducted for the n-alkanes to determine the condensible partial pressure, temperature, supersaturation, characteristic time, and the expansion rate corresponding to the maximum nucleation rate. Characteristic times in the range of 13{<=}{delta}t{sub Jmax}/{mu}s{<=}34 were found. In the second set of experiments, the first flow rate resolved Small Angle X-ray Scattering experiments are conducted to determine the particle number density for both substance classes. Particle number densities in the range of 1.10{sup 12}scattering spectrum, information on the

  13. Synthesis and tribological properties of antimony N, N-diethanoldithiocarbamate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 黄可龙; 瞿龙; 舒万艮

    2001-01-01

    Antimony N, N-diethanoldithiocarbamate was synthesized with diethanolamine, antimony trioxide and carbon disulfide. The influences of temperature, reaction time, solvents and their dosages were investigated, and the optimum synthesis conditions were: reaction temperature 15~20 ℃, reaction time 2.5 h, 250 mL CH3OH as solvent and the hot CH3OH as recrystallization solvent. Element analysis, IR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR spectra were used to study its chemical composition and molecular structure. Antimony N, N-diethanol-dithiocarbamate was added in the base oil, and its properties of wear resistance and extreme pressure were studied by FB, FD and WSD. The synthesis product behaves per fectly as wear resistance and extreme pressure additive and its extreme pressure property is superior to its wear resistance property. The mechanism of tribological action was discussed by using XPS and AES spectra, and the reason of good wear resistance and extreme pressure properties is that the synthesis product decompose element C, S and N.

  14. A new generation of B(n)N(n) rings as a supplement to boron nitride tubes and cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajjemi, Majid; Boggs, James E

    2013-02-21

    In B(n)N(n) cages or tubes, when the quasi-borazine rings are attached to each other through a pair of common atoms of B and N, the bonding structure is named class A. On the other hand, there are some B(n)N(n) rings including a covalent bond between two atoms of B and N, which are named class B. In all previous studies, both reports of synthesis and theoretical calculation of boron nitride tubes and cages, the quasi-borazine units are attached together like class A. There are no theoretical or experimental reports from class B compounds except for a brief study in our previous works (Struct. Chem. 2012, 23, 551-580; J. Phys. Chem. C 2010, 114, 15315.). In this study, we have used two kinds of boron nitride rings from a twisted BN sheet in the same chirality created by different mechanisms. For (4, 4) chirality, the molecules B(16)N(16) and B(15)N(15) are found to respectively represent class A and B, and for (5, 5) chirality the molecules B(20)N(20) and B(18)N(18) are respectively again of class A and B. The structure of class A rings is similar to boron nitride tubes, but we have shown that it is impossible to produce a macromolecule of class B form as tubes or cages, because there is much more instability and intermolecular tension in macro forms of class B. This is the main reason that the class B molecules are rare and, because of their small size, have not yet been synthesized, although we have some suggestions for the synthesis of these kinds of molecules. The stability and electromagnetic properties with hybrid density functional theory using the EPR-III and EPR-II basis sets for explanation of hyperfine parameters and spin densities, electrical potential, and isotropic Fermi coupling constant of these rings have been studied by the nonbonded interaction models. Normal mode analyses including aromaticity have been investigated by using the nucleus independent chemical shift values at the ring center. Interaction energy and gain in energy aid in describing

  15. Concise synthesis of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine starting with bufotenine from Brazilian Anadenanthera ssp..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Leandro A; Murta, Maria M; Gatto, Claudia C; Fagg, Christopher W; dos Santos, Maria L

    2015-04-01

    Bufotenine (1, 5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) was isolated from seeds of Anadenanthera spp., a tree widespread in the Brazilian cerrado, using an efficient acid-base shakeout protocol. The conversion of bufotenine into N,N-dimethyltryptamine (4) and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5) was accomplished through an innovative and short approach featuring the use of novel bufotenine-aminoborane complex (7). Furthermore, an easy methodology for conversion of bufotenine into 5-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine (6) was well-established. This is the first study that highlights bufotenine as a resource for the production of N,N-dimethyltryptamines for either pharmacological and toxicological investigations or for synthetic purposes.

  16. Medium energy measurements of N-N parameters. Progress report: January 1, 1990--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, D.; Bachman, M.; Coffey, P.; Glass, G.; Jobst, B.; McNaughton, K.H.; Nguyen, C.; Riley, P.J.

    1993-10-01

    The authors report here progress made during the three year period January 1, 1990, to December 31, 1993, for the Department of Energy Three-Year Grant No. DE-FG05-88ER40446, third year. A major part of the work has been associated with nucleon-nucleon (N-N) research carried out at the Nucleon Physics Laboratory (NPL) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). During this period they also completed data acquisition and analyses of a TRIUMF experiment, but they have no further plans for experimental work at TRIUMF. Other research has been and will be continued to be carried out at BNL, and involves two rare kaon decay experiments, BNL E791, now completed, and a second generation rare kaon decay experiment, E871, which has just this summer completed an engineering test run. The authors are now also members of a proposed experiment, STAR, (Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC) to be carried out at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider facility, RHIC, at BNL. The past three years have been a time of rapid change in the focus of the experimental program. A LAMPF experiment, E1097, in which they spent a large amount of effort during the past three years, was terminated due to funding shortages after they had fabricated the detector, but before data acquisition, and consequently they increased their participation in the rare kaon experiment at BNL, E871. It now appears that there will be no LAMPF N-N program after 1993, so that the research efforts will concentrate on the BNL rare kaon decay measurement, E871, and on STAR. The authors expect that STAR, which requires the fabrication of a large colliding beam detector facility, will use an increasing amount of their research efforts during the next few years. In what follows they describe recent progress on the LAMPF and TRIUMF N-N measurements, on the BNL rare kaon decay work, and on the initial work with the STAR group.

  17. Double parton scattering in four-jet events in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00232391; Levy, Aharon

    The dijet double-differential cross section is measured as a function of the dijet invariant mass, using data taken during 2010 and during 2011 with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, with a center-of-mass energy, $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV. The measurements are sensitive to invariant masses between 70 GeV and 4.27 TeV with center-of-mass jet rapidities up to 3.5. A novel technique to correct jets for pile-up (additional proton-proton collisions) in the 2011 data is developed and subsequently used in the measurement. The data are found to be consistent over 12 orders of magnitude with fixed-order NLO pQCD predictions provided by NLOJET++. The results constitute a stringent test of pQCD, in an energy regime previously unexplored. The dijet analysis is a confidence building step for the extraction of the signal of hard double parton scattering in four-jet events, and subsequent extraction of the effective overlap area between the interacting protons, expressed in terms of the variable, $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{eff}}$. The measur...

  18. Light scattering experiments on aqueous solutions of selected cellulose ethers: contribution to the study of polymer-mineral interactions in a new injectable biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohic, Sylvain; Weiss, Pierre; Roger, Philippe; Daculsi, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) is used as a ligand for a bioactive calcium phosphate ceramic (the filler) in a ready-to-use injectable sterilized biomaterial for bone and dental surgery. Light scattering experiments were usually used to study high water-soluble polymers and to determine the basic macromolecular parameters. In order to gain a deeper understanding of polymer/mineral interactions in this type of material, we have investigated the effect of divalent and trivalent ions (Ca2+, PO43−) and steam sterilization on dilute solutions of HPMC and HEC. The sterilization process may cause some degradation of HEC taking into account its high molecular weight and some rigidity of the polymer chain. Moreover, in the case of HPMC, the changes in the conformations rather than degradation process are supposed. These effects of degradation and flocculation are strengthened in alkaline medium. Experimental data suggested the formation of chelate complexes between Ca2+ and HPMC which improve its affinity to the mineral blend and consolidate the injectable biomaterial even in the case of its hydration by biological fluid. PMID:15348303

  19. A new insight into the dipole-quadrupole and dipole-octupole polarizabilities of CCl4 from ab initio calculations and anisotropic light scattering experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kader, M. S. A.; Kalugina, Y. N.

    2015-10-01

    The dipole-quadrupole and dipole-octupole polarizabilities of CCl4 have been determined from collision-induced light scattering (CILS) spectrum. (Hyper)polarizabilities were calculated at the CCSD(T) level of theory with aug-cc-pVXZ (X = D, T, Q) basis sets. The CILS spectra were analyzed using our new intermolecular potential and those available in literature. The quality of the present potential was checked by comparison between calculated and experimental thermophysical and transport properties over a wide temperature range. Our final estimates from experiment for these properties are |A|=62.7 a.u. and |E|=423.8 a.u. and the theoretical values of (hyper)polarizabilities calculated at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ level of theory are α = 69.27 a.u., A = 67.15 a.u., E = -203.97 a.u., C = 821.75 a.u., β = 11.88 a.u., and γ = 10 768.6 a.u.

  20. 季铵盐壳聚糖及其纳米粒子作为基因载体的研究%Preparation and Characteristics of N, N, N-trimethylated Chitosan Chloride for Gene Delivery in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璠娜; 饶华新; 张子勇

    2013-01-01

    The pDNA loading, protecting and transfection capacity of TMC and its nanoparticles were evaluated. The pDNA loaded nanoparticles were prepared by electrostatic interaction. The size, polydispersity, zeta potential and morphology of the nanoparticles were measured with dynamic laser scattering (DLS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The protection of the nanoparticles for pDNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. The effect of the TMC/pDNA nanoparticles on cell viability was illustrated with MTT assay. Transfection activity of the nanoparticles was evaluated by gene transfection experiment in vitro in HepG 2 cells. Lipo-fectamine 2000 vector was used as control. The TMC/pDNA nanoparticles with a narrow size-distributed region and a regular spherical structure. TMC could partially protect the encapsulated plasmid pDNA from nuclease degradation as shown by electrophoretic mobility analysis. MTT assay shows that cell activity was not decreased remarkably. The gene transfection experiment in vitro suggested that TMC/pDNA nanoparticlesCnearly spherical shape,a particle diameter of 10 - 300 nm)could transfect HepG 2 cells effectively. When m(TMC)/m(pDNA) = 10 ∶ 1, the nanoparticles have the highest transfection efficiency at 48 h.%评价N,N,N-三甲基壳聚糖盐酸盐(TMC)及其纳米粒子对质粒DNA(pDNA)的负载及保护能力,考察了其纳米复合物对人类肝癌细胞株(HepG 2细胞)的转染能力.通过复凝聚法制备TMC/pDNA纳米粒子,并采用透射电镜及原子力显微镜表征粒子形态和粒径;采用凝胶阻滞分析观察其对pDNA的保护情况;采用四噻氮唑盐(MTT)比色法测定细胞毒性;以Lipofectamine 2000转染试剂作为阳性对照,检测其对HepG 2细胞的转染活性;采用荧光倒置显微镜观察转染情况.结果表明负载pDNA的TMC纳米粒子多呈球形,粒径为100~300 nm,能有效地包裹和保护基因不被DNaseⅠ酶消化

  1. Response to ``Comment on `Elastic incoherent neutron scattering operating by varying instrumental energy resolution: Principle, simulations, and experiments of the resolution elastic neutron scattering (RENS)''' [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 107101 (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magazó, Salvatore; Migliardo, Federica; Benedetto, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Recently [S. Magazù et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 105115 (2011), 10.1063/1.3641870] we have proposed a new method for characterizing, by neutron scattering, the dynamical properties of complex material systems, such as, the ones of interest in the biophysical field. This approach called Resolution Elastic Neutron Scattering, in short RENS, is based on the detection of the elastically scattered neutron intensity as a function of the instrumental energy resolution. By experimental, theoretical, and numerical findings, we have pointed out that an inflection point occurs in the elastic intensity when the system relaxation time approaches the instrumental energy resolution time. This approach, differently from quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS), gives the chance to evaluate the system relaxation times without using pre-defined models that can be wrong and/or misleading. Here, we reply to a Comment on the above-mentioned main paper in which Wuttke proposes a different approach to evaluate the above-mentioned inflection point; on this regard, it should be noticed that the existence of the inflection point, which is the main topic of our work, is not questioned and that the approach proposed by Wuttke in the Comment, although valid for a class of dynamical processes, is not applicable when different and distinct processes occur simultaneously at different time scale.

  2. Response to 'Comment on 'Elastic incoherent neutron scattering operating by varying instrumental energy resolution: Principle, simulations, and experiments of the resolution elastic neutron scattering (RENS)'' [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 107101 (2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magazu, Salvatore; Migliardo, Federica; Benedetto, Antonio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Messina, C.da Papardo n Degree-Sign 31, P.O. Box 55, Vill. S. Agata 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Recently [S. Magazu et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 105115 (2011)] we have proposed a new method for characterizing, by neutron scattering, the dynamical properties of complex material systems, such as, the ones of interest in the biophysical field. This approach called Resolution Elastic Neutron Scattering, in short RENS, is based on the detection of the elastically scattered neutron intensity as a function of the instrumental energy resolution. By experimental, theoretical, and numerical findings, we have pointed out that an inflection point occurs in the elastic intensity when the system relaxation time approaches the instrumental energy resolution time. This approach, differently from quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS), gives the chance to evaluate the system relaxation times without using pre-defined models that can be wrong and/or misleading. Here, we reply to a Comment on the above-mentioned main paper in which Wuttke proposes a different approach to evaluate the above-mentioned inflection point; on this regard, it should be noticed that the existence of the inflection point, which is the main topic of our work, is not questioned and that the approach proposed by Wuttke in the Comment, although valid for a class of dynamical processes, is not applicable when different and distinct processes occur simultaneously at different time scale.

  3. EFFECT OF PHOTOOXIDATION ON PHOTOLUMINESCENCE OF N, N'-DIPHENYL-N, N'-DI(M-TOLYL)-BENZIDINE AND RUBRENE CODOPED PMMA THIN FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.B. Hou; L.J. Meng; M.P. dos Santos

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the PMMA films doped with N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-di(m-tolyl)-benzidineand rubrene were fabricated by spin coating, and the effect of photooxidation onthe photoluminescence of the doped PMMA thin films was investigated. The resultsshowed that under the irradiation of 350nm UV light, N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-di(m-tolyl)-benzidine can sensitized rubrene and results in the enhancement in the photooxrationof rubrene. The effect of photooxidation on the photoluminescence from rubrene w asmore obvious. Both lifetime measurement and in situ measurement of photolumines-cence showed that rubrene molecules exist in two chemical surroundings.

  4. New nasal nanocomplex self-assembled from charged biomacromolecules: N,N,N-Trimethyl chitosan and dextran sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Abhijeet D; Vanjari, Yogesh H; Sancheti, Karan H; Patel, Harun M; Belgamwar, Veena S; Surana, Sanjay J; Pardeshi, Chandrakantsing V

    2016-07-01

    Although chitosan (CHT, a linear cationic polysaccharide) is biodegradable, biocompatible, non-toxic, and mucoadhesive in nature, the low solubility of CHT in aqueous and alkaline media limits its applicability in pharmaceutical and biomedical field. This necessitate the introduction of new chemically-modified derivatives of CHT those can surmount the solubility barrier. Herein, N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC), a quaternized hydrophilic derivative of CHT, was synthesized by two-step reductive methylation of CHT and characterized for (1)H NMR and zeta potential measurements. Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) based on TMC and dextran sulfate (DS) were prepared via ionic interactions between charged functional groups of former polysaccharides at different pH conditions (pH 5, 8, 10, and 12) and characterized for physicochemical (particle size and zeta potential) and solid- state characterizations (HR-TEM, SEM, FTIR, TGA and XRD). At alkaline pH conditions, the participant polymer chains (TMC and DS) are sufficiently close to form more stable PECs. The release efficiency was assessed after loading a model drug into optimized PEC formulation. Data indicated that the PECs fabricated at alkaline pH presents a reliable formulation for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

  5. Evaluation of N,N-dialkylamides as promising process extractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, P. N.; Prabhu, D. R.; Kanekar, A. S.; Manchanda, V. K.

    2010-03-01

    Studies carried out at BARC, India on the development of new extractants for reprocessing of spent fuel suggested that while straight chain N,N-dihexyloctanamide (DHOA) is promising alternative to TBP for the reprocessing of irradiated uranium based fuels, branched chain N,N-di(2-ethylhexyl)isobutyramide (D2EHIBA) is suitable for the selective recovery of 233U from irradiated Th. In advanced fuel cycle scenarios, the coprocessing of U/Pu stream appears attractive particularly with respect to development of proliferation resistant technologies. DHOA extracted Pu(IV) more efficiently than TBP, both at trace-level concentration as well as under uranium/plutonium loading conditions. Uranium extraction behavior of DHOA was however, similar to that of TBP during the extraction cycle. Stripping behavior of U and Pu (without any reductant) was better for DHOA than that of TBP. It was observed during batch studies that whereas 99% Pu is stripped in four stages in case of DHOA, only 89% Pu is stripped in case of TBP under identical experimental conditions. DHOA offered better fission product decontamination than that of TBP. GANEX (Group ActiNide EXtraction) and ARTIST (Amide-based Radio-resources Treatment with Interim Storage of Transuranics) processes proposed for actinide partitioning use branched chain amides for the selective extraction of uranium from spent fuel feed solutions. The branched-alkyl monoamide (BAMA) proposed to be used in ARTIST process is N,N-di-(2-ethylhexyl)butyramide (D2EHBA). In this context, the extraction behavior of U(VI) and Pu(IV) were compared using D2EHIBA, TBP, and D2EHBA under similar concentration of nitric acid (0.5 — 6M) and of uranium (0-50g/L). These studies suggested that D2EHIBA is a promising extractant for selective extraction of uranium over plutonium in process streams. Similarly, D2EHIBA offered distinctly better decontamination of 233U over Th and fission products under THOREX feed conditions. The possibility of simultaneous

  6. Polarized lepton-nucleon scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, E.

    1994-02-01

    Deep inelastic polarized lepton-nucleon scattering is reviewed in three lectures. The first lecture covers the polarized deep inelastic scattering formalism and foundational theoretical work. The second lecture describes the nucleon spin structure function experiments that have been performed up through 1993. The third lecture discusses implication of the results and future experiments aimed at high-precision measurements of the nucleon spin structure functions.

  7. Reactivity Impact of 2H and 16O Elastic Scattering Nuclear Data on Critical Systems with Heavy Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubtsov, D.; Kozier, K. S.; Chow, J. C.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Kopecky, S.; Svenne, J. P.; Canton, L.

    2014-04-01

    The accuracy of deuterium nuclear data is important for reactor physics simulations of heavy water (D2O) reactors. The elastic neutron scattering cross section data at thermal energies, σs,th, have been observed to have noticeable impact on the reactivity values in simulations of critical systems involving D2O. We discuss how the uncertainties in the thermal scattering cross sections of 2H(n,n)2H and 16O(n,n)16O propagate to the uncertainty of the calculated neutron multiplication factor, keff, in thermal critical assemblies with heavy water neutron moderator/reflector. The method of trial evaluated nuclear data files, in which specific cross sections are individually perturbed, is used to calculate the sensitivity coefficients of keff to the microscopic nuclear data, such as σs(E) characterized by σs,th. Large reactivity differences of up to ≃ 5-10 mk (500-1000 pcm) were observed using 2H and 16O data files with different elastic scattering data in MCNP5 simulations of the LANL HEU heavy-water solution thermal critical experiments included in the ICSBEP handbook.

  8. Off-energy-shell p-p scattering at sub-Coulomb energies via the Trojan horse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Campajola, L.; Cherubini, S.; Crucillá, V.; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Z.; Gialanella, L.; Gulino, M.; Gyürky, G.; Kiss, G.; Cognata, M. La; Lamia, L.; Ordine, A.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Somorjai, E.

    2008-12-01

    Two-proton scattering at sub-Coulomb energies has been measured indirectly via the Trojan horse method applied to the p+d→p+p+n reaction to investigate off-energy shell effects for scattering processes. The three-body experiment was performed at 5 and 4.7 MeV corresponding to a p-p relative energy ranging from 80 to 670 keV. The free p-p cross section exhibits a deep minimum right within this relative energy region due to Coulomb plus nuclear destructive interference. No minimum occurs instead in the Trojan horse p-p cross section, which was extracted by employing a simple plane-wave impulse approximation. A detailed formalism was developed to build up the expression of the theoretical half-off-shell p-p cross section. Its behavior agrees with the Trojan horse data and in turn formally fits the n-n, n-p, and nuclear p-p cross sections given the fact that in its expression the Coulomb amplitude is negligible with respect to the nuclear one. These results confirm the Trojan horse suppression of the Coulomb amplitude for scattering due to the off-shell character of the process.

  9. Comment on "Elastic incoherent neutron scattering operating by varying instrumental energy resolution: Principle, simulations, and experiments of the resolution elastic neutron scattering (RENS)" [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 105115 (2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Joachim

    2012-10-01

    In a recent contribution to this journal, Magazù, Migliardo, and Benedetto suggest to determine relaxation times from inflection points in the elastic neutron scattering intensity as function of (1) resolution time or (2) temperature. Method (1) can be generalized into a scaling law. Method (2) is only approximately valid; its application to protein data does not back a wavenumber-independent dynamic transition.

  10. Classical and quantum scattering in optical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puentes, Graciana

    2007-01-01

    The central topic of the Thesis concerns light scattering experiments with entangled photons. Specifically, we study the effect of scattering processes on polarization-entanglement of twin-photons. The main idea is that scattering generally couples polarization and spatial degrees of freedom of pho

  11. Chemistry of organogold compounds I. Syntheses and properties of dihalogold(III) N,N-dialkyldithiocarbamates and dialkylgold(III) N,N-dialkyldithiocarbamates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, H.J.A.; Nivard, R.J.F.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    Monomeric dialkylgold(III) N,N-dialkyldithiocarbamates (R2AuSSCNR'2) can be prepared in good yields from monomeric dibromogold(III) N,N-dialkyldithiocarbamates (Br2AuSSCNR'2) and alkylmagnesium halides or dialkylcadmium compounds. In addition N-ethylpiperidinium tetrachloroaurate can be converted

  12. Treatment of energy loss and multiple scattering in the context of track parameter and covariance matrix propagation in continuous material in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, E; Hughes, E W; Lopez Mateos, D; Salzburger, A; Strandlie, A

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the energy loss, its fluctuations, and the multiple scattering of particles passing through matter, with an emphasis on muons. In addition to the well-known Bethe-Bloch and Bethe-Heitler equations describing the mean energy loss from ionization and bremsstrahlung respectively, new parameterizations of the mean energy loss of muons from the direct e+e- pair production and photonuclear interactions are presented along with new estimates of the most probable energy loss and its fluctuations in the ATLAS calorimeters. Moreover, a new adaptive Highland/Moliere approach to finding the multiple scattering angle is taken to accomodate a wide range of scatterer thicknesses. Furthermore, tests of the muon energy loss, its fluctuations, and multiple scattering are done in the ATLAS calorimeters. The material effects described in this paper are all part of the simultaneous track and error propagation (STEP) algorithm of the common ATLAS tracking software.

  13. Structural and Spectroscopic Properties of Linear Carbon Chains NC2nN and HC2n+1N (n = 1~10)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-Lai; WU Wen-Peng; WANG Lian-Bin; CAO Ze-Xing

    2005-01-01

    Using density functional theory, geometries and vibrational frequencies of linear chains NC2nN and HC2n+1N (n = 1~ 10) have been investigated.Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been used to calculate the vertical transition energies and oscillator strengths for the X 1∑+k → 11∑+u transition in NC2nN (n = 1 ~10) and X1∑+ → 11∑+ transition in HC2n+1N (n =1 ~7).On the basis of present calculations, the explicit expressions for the size dependence of the excitation energy and the first adiabatic ionization energy in both carbon chains have been suggested.

  14. Scattering theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Harald [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department

    2013-08-01

    Written by the author of the widely acclaimed textbook. Theoretical Atomic Physics Includes sections on quantum reflection, tunable Feshbach resonances and Efimov states. Useful for advanced students and researchers. This book presents a concise and modern coverage of scattering theory. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. The level of abstraction is kept as low as at all possible, and deeper questions related to mathematical foundations of scattering theory are passed by. The book should be understandable for anyone with a basic knowledge of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. It is intended for advanced students and researchers, and it is hoped that it will be useful for theorists and experimentalists alike.

  15. Scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...

  16. Phase-shift analysis of low-energy $\\pi^{\\pm}p$ elastic-scattering data

    CERN Document Server

    Matsinos, E; Oades, G C; Rasche, G; Woolcock, W S

    2006-01-01

    Using electromagnetic corrections previously calculated by means of a potential model, we have made a phase-shift analysis of the $\\pi^\\pm p$ elastic-scattering data up to a pion laboratory kinetic energy of 100 MeV. The hadronic interaction was assumed to be isospin invariant. We found that it was possible to obtain self-consistent databases by removing very few measurements. A pion-nucleon model was fitted to the elastic-scattering database obtained after the removal of the outliers. The model-parameter values showed an impressive stability when the database was subjected to different criteria for the rejection of experiments. Our result for the pseudovector $\\pi N N$ coupling constant (in the standard form) is $0.0733 \\pm 0.0014$. The six hadronic phase shifts up to 100 MeV are given in tabulated form. We also give the values of the s-wave scattering lengths and the p-wave scattering volumes. Big differences in the s-wave part of the interaction were observed when comparing our hadronic phase shifts with t...

  17. The hallucinogen N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is an endogenous sigma-1 receptor regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanilla, Dominique; Johannessen, Molly; Hajipour, Abdol R; Cozzi, Nicholas V; Jackson, Meyer B; Ruoho, Arnold E

    2009-02-13

    The sigma-1 receptor is widely distributed in the central nervous system and periphery. Originally mischaracterized as an opioid receptor, the sigma-1 receptor binds a vast number of synthetic compounds but does not bind opioid peptides; it is currently considered an orphan receptor. The sigma-1 receptor pharmacophore includes an alkylamine core, also found in the endogenous compound N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). DMT acts as a hallucinogen, but its receptor target has been unclear. DMT bound to sigma-1 receptors and inhibited voltage-gated sodium ion (Na+) channels in both native cardiac myocytes and heterologous cells that express sigma-1 receptors. DMT induced hypermobility in wild-type mice but not in sigma-1 receptor knockout mice. These biochemical, physiological, and behavioral experiments indicate that DMT is an endogenous agonist for the sigma-1 receptor.

  18. On the transmethylation hypothesis: stress, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, and positive symptoms of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammenos, Dionysios; Barker, Steven A

    2015-06-01

    Past research suggests a relationship between stress and positive symptoms of psychosis. However, the biological substrate of this relationship remains unknown. According to the transmethylation hypothesis, schizophrenia could result from a biochemical disruption in the stress mechanism. This biochemical disruption would lead to the production of a substance that would account for the symptoms of psychosis. Moreover, some studies have tested endogenous N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in the context of the transmethylation hypothesis. Stress has been found to elevate DMT levels in rodents. Also, elevated DMT levels have been associated with positive features of psychosis in psychiatric patients. Additionally, healthy participants treated with exogenous DMT experience predominantly positive symptoms of psychosis. The present paper examines endogenous DMT as a possible biological mediator of the relationship between stress and positive symptoms of psychosis.

  19. Noncompetitive inhibition of indolethylamine-N-methyltransferase by N,N-dimethyltryptamine and N,N-dimethylaminopropyltryptamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Uyen B; Vorperian, Sevahn K; Satyshur, Kenneth; Eickstaedt, Kelsey; Cozzi, Nicholas V; Mavlyutov, Timur; Hajipour, Abdol R; Ruoho, Arnold E

    2014-05-13

    Indolethylamine-N-methyltransferase (INMT) is a Class 1 transmethylation enzyme known for its production of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a hallucinogen with affinity for various serotonergic, adrenergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, and sigma-1 receptors. DMT is produced via the action of INMT on the endogenous substrates tryptamine and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). The biological, biochemical, and selective small molecule regulation of INMT enzyme activity remain largely unknown. Kinetic mechanisms for inhibition of rabbit lung INMT (rabINMT) by the product, DMT, and by a new novel tryptamine derivative were determined. After Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk analyses had been applied to study inhibition, DMT was found to be a mixed competitive and noncompetitive inhibitor when measured against tryptamine. The novel tryptamine derivative, N-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-N',N'-dimethylpropane-1,3-diamine (propyl dimethyl amino tryptamine or PDAT), was shown to inhibit rabINMT by a pure noncompetitive mechanism when measured against tryptamine with a Ki of 84 μM. No inhibition by PDAT was observed at 2 mM when it was tested against structurally similar Class 1 methyltransferases, such as human phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (hPNMT) and human nicotinamide-N-methyltransferase (hNNMT), indicating selectivity for INMT. The demonstration of noncompetitive mechanisms for INMT inhibition implies the presence of an inhibitory allosteric site. In silico analyses using the computer modeling software Autodock and the rabINMT sequence threaded onto the human INMT (hINMT) structure (Protein Data Bank entry 2A14 ) identified an N-terminal helix-loop-helix non-active site binding region of the enzyme. The energies for binding of DMT and PDAT to this region of rabINMT, as determined by Autodock, were -6.34 and -7.58 kcal/mol, respectively. Assessment of the allosteric control of INMT may illuminate new biochemical pathway(s) underlying the biology of INMT.

  20. Test of the slow variable discretization method in the adiabatic hyperspherical treatment of the p + n + n system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Kevin; Greene, Chris; Kievsky, Alejandro

    2013-10-01

    We consider the p + n + n system using the Argonne v18 plus the Urbana IX three-nucleon potential in the adiabatic hyperspherical description. Considering the J = 1 / 2 + state, we solve for bound states and scattering properties in a two-step method. First, we use a hyperspherical harmonic expansion to calculate the adiabatic potential curves as a function of the hyperradius R. Second, we solve the remaining set of coupled equations in R using Gauss-Lobatto basis function in a discrete variable representation together with a slow variable discretization of R [O. I. Tolstikhin, S. Watanabe, and M. Matsuzawa, J. Phys. B 29 L389 (1996)]. The resulting bound state energies not only agree well with benchmark calculations, but also show favorable convergence properties in comparison with the direct calculation of the coupling matrices. Two- and three-body scattering properties of the system are also calculated and extension to other scattering states and to the four-nucleon problem are discussed. This work is supported in part by funding from the NSF.

  1. A time-resolved x-ray scattering experiment for the study of phase transitions and crystallization processes in metallic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, J. F.; Sutton, M.; Altounian, Z.; Saini, S.; Luriom L. B.; Sandy, A. R.; Lumma, D.; Borthwick, M. A.; Falus, P.; Mochrie, S. G. J.; Stephenson, G. B.

    1999-10-29

    An experimental setup to perform high-resolution time-resolved X-ray scattering has been commissioned on the side station of beamline 8-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. A Peltier-cooled diode detector array covering an angle range of 20 degrees is mounted on a 4-circle goniometer and is used to temporally resolve X-ray scattering patterns with a resolution up to 10 ms. Metallic ribbon samples can be quickly heated and cooled from temperatures up to 500 C inside a furnace with controllable atmosphere and equipped with a beryllium window. A description of the setup is presented along with actual results showing time-resolved phase transitions and crystallization processes in AlYNi metallic alloys. These results demonstrate the power of this technique to investigate complex crystallization processes as well as the versatility of this time-resolved X-ray scattering spectrometer.

  2. Superradiant Forward Scattering in Multiple Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Chabe, Julien; Bienaime, Tom; Bachelard, Romain; Piovella, Nicola; Kaiser, Robin

    2012-01-01

    We report on an interference effect in multiple scattering by resonant scatterers resulting in enhanced forward scattering, violating Ohm's law for photons. The underlying mechanism of this wave effect is superradiance, which we have investigated using cold atoms as a toy model. We present numerical and experimental evidences for this superradiant forward scattering, which is robust against disorder and configuration averaging.

  3. Observation of Nonlinear Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotseroglou, T.

    2003-12-19

    This experiment tests Quantum Electrodynamics in the strong field regime. Nonlinear Compton scattering has been observed during the interaction of a 46.6 GeV electron beam with a 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} laser beam. The strength of the field achieved was measured by the parameter {eta} = e{var_epsilon}{sub rms}/{omega}mc = 0.6. Data were collected with infrared and green laser photons and circularly polarized laser light. The timing stabilization achieved between the picosecond laser and electron pulses has {sigma}{sub rms} = 2 ps. A strong signal of electrons that absorbed up to 4 infrared photons (or up to 3 green photons) at the same point in space and time, while emitting a single gamma ray, was observed. The energy spectra of the scattered electrons and the nonlinear dependence of the electron yield on the field strength agreed with the simulation over 3 orders of magnitude. The detector could not resolve the nonlinear Compton scattering from the multiple single Compton scattering which produced rates of scattered electrons of the same order of magnitude. Nevertheless, a simulation has studied this difference and concluded that the scattered electron rates observed could not be accounted for only by multiple ordinary Compton scattering; nonlinear Compton scattering processes are dominant for n {ge} 3.

  4. Electroless copper plating process of N, N, N, N′-tetrakis (2-hydroxypropyl) ethylenediamine system with high plating rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ya-jie; ZOU Wei-hong; YI Dan-qing; GONG Zhu-qing; LI Xin-hai

    2005-01-01

    Electroless copper plating process of N, N, N′, N′-tetrakis (2-hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine(THPED) chelating agent was researched comprehensively. The results indicate that plating rate decreases with the 3H2O has a bad effect on deposits quality, but 2, 2′-dipyridyl and PEG make deposits quality improve greatly. Low concentration of 2-mercaptobenzothiozole (2-MBT) increases plating rate and improves deposits quality, but decreases plating rate and worsens deposits quality when 2-MBT reaches 5 mg/L. The optimal conditions of this electroless MBT are 16.8 g/L, 16.0 mL/L, 13.3 g/L, 0.5 g/L, 5.0 mg/L and 2.0 mg/L, respectively, pH value is 12.75,bath temperature is 30 ℃. Plating rate reaches 9.54 μm/h plating for 30 min in the bath. The SEM images demonstrate that the surface of copper film is smooth and the crystal is fine.

  5. Bis(μ-N,N-di-allyl-dithio-carbamato)bis[(N,N-di-allyl-dithio-carbamato)cadmium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwudiwe, Damian C; Hrubaru, Madalina; Hosten, Eric C; Arderne, Charmaine

    2017-09-01

    The title compound, [Cd2(C7H10NS2)4], is a neutral dinuclear cadmium(II) complex bearing four bis N,N-di-allyl-di-thio-carbamate ligands coordinating to two Cd(II) cations. In each of the monomeric subunits, there are four S atoms of two di-thio-carbamate ligands [Cd-S = 2.5558 (3), 2.8016 (3), 2.6050 (3) and 2.5709 (3) Å] that coordinate to one Cd(II) atom in a bidentate mode. The dimers are located over an inversion centre bridged by two additional bridging Cd-S bonds [2.6021 (3) Å], leading to a substantial distortion of the geometry of the monomeric subunit from the expected square-planar geometry. The five-coordinate environment around each of the Cd(II) ions in the dimer is best described as substanti-ally tetra-gonally distorted square pyramidal. The di-thio-carbamate groups are themselves planar and are also coplanar with the Cd(II) ions. The negative charge on these groups is delocalized by resonance across the S atoms bound to the Cd(II) cation. This delocalization of the π electrons in the di-thio-carbamate groups also extends to the C-N bonds as they reveal significant double bond character [C-N = 1.3213 (16) and 1.3333 (15) Å].

  6. Synthesis-atomic structure-properties relationships in metallic nanoparticles by total scattering experiments and 3D computer simulations: case of Pt-Ru nanoalloy catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Binay; Ren, Yang; Shan, Shiyao; Zhao, Yinguang; Cronk, Hannah; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Petkov, Valeri

    2015-05-07

    An approach to determining the 3D atomic structure of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) in fine detail and using the unique knowledge obtained for rationalizing their synthesis and properties targeted for optimization is described and exemplified on Pt-Ru alloy NPs of importance to the development of devices for clean energy conversion such as fuel cells. In particular, PtxRu100-x alloy NPs, where x = 31, 49 and 75, are synthesized by wet chemistry and activated catalytically by a post-synthesis treatment involving heating under controlled N2-H2 atmosphere. So-activated NPs are evaluated as catalysts for gas-phase CO oxidation and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions taking place in fuel cells. Both as-synthesized and activated NPs are characterized structurally by total scattering experiments involving high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction coupled to atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) analysis. 3D structure models both for as-synthesized and activated NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modelling Sutton-Chen method. Models are refined against the experimental PDF data by reverse Monte Carlo simulations and analysed in terms of prime structural characteristics such as metal-to-metal bond lengths, bond angles and first coordination numbers for Pt and Ru atoms. Analysis indicates that, though of a similar type, the atomic structure of as-synthesized and respective activated NPs differ in several details of importance to NP catalytic properties. Structural characteristics of activated NPs and data for their catalytic activity are compared side by side and strong evidence found that electronic effects, indicated by significant changes in Pt-Pt and Ru-Ru metal bond lengths at NP surface, and practically unrecognized so far atomic ensemble effects, indicated by distinct stacking of atomic layers near NP surface and prevalence of particular configurations of Pt and Ru atoms in these layers, contribute to the

  7. Metal ion complexes of N,N'-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,3-diaminopropane-N,N'-diacetic acid, H2bppd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, Daniel S; Florián, Jan; McLauchlan, Craig C; Herlinger, Albert W

    2014-04-01

    A higher yield synthesis of N,N'-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,3-diaminopropane-N,N'-diacetic acid (H2bppd) and its complexation of trivalent metal ions (Al(III), Ga(III), In(III)) and selected lanthanides (Ln(III)) are reported. H2bppd and the metal-bppd(2-) complexes, isolated as hexafluorophosphate salts, were characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, IR, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. [Ga(bppd)]PF6, [Ga(C19H22N4O4)]PF6, was crystallized as colorless needles by slow evaporation from anhydrous methanol; its molecular structure was solved by direct X-ray crystallography methods. The compound crystallized in the monoclinic space group P21/c, with a = 9.6134(2) Å, b = 20.2505(4) Å, c = 11.6483(3) Å, β = 97.520(1)(o), and Z = 4. Ga is coordinated in a distorted octahedral geometry provided by a N4O2 donor atom set with cis-monodentate acetate groups and cis-2-pyridylmethyl N atoms. Quantum mechanical calculations were performed for the three possible geometric isomers of a pseudo-octahedral metal-bppd(2-) complex with five different metal ions. The results indicate, that in aqueous solution, the stability of the trans-O,O isomer is similar to that of the cis-O,O; cis-Npy,Npy isomer but is greater than that of the trans-Npy,Npy isomer. Calculations for a six-coordinate La(III)-bppd(2-) complex converge to a structure with a very large Npy-La-Npy bond angle (146.4°), a high metal charge (2.28 au), and a high solvation free energy (-79.4 kcal/mol). The most stable geometric arrangement for bppd(2-) around the larger La(III) is best described as an open nestlike structure with space available for additional ligands. IR spectroscopy was used to investigate the nature of the H2bppd-metal complexes isolated in the solid state and the binding modes of the carboxylate functionalities. The spectra indicate that fully deprotonated [M(bppd)](+) complexes as well as partially protonated complexes [M(Hbppd)Cl](+) were isolated. The (1)H and (13)C assignments for

  8. Synthesis-atomic structure-properties relationships in metallic nanoparticles by total scattering experiments and 3D computer simulations: case of Pt-Ru nanoalloy catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Binay; Ren, Yang; Shan, Shiyao; Zhao, Yinguang; Cronk, Hannah; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Petkov, Valeri

    2015-04-01

    An approach to determining the 3D atomic structure of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) in fine detail and using the unique knowledge obtained for rationalizing their synthesis and properties targeted for optimization is described and exemplified on Pt-Ru alloy NPs of importance to the development of devices for clean energy conversion such as fuel cells. In particular, PtxRu100-x alloy NPs, where x = 31, 49 and 75, are synthesized by wet chemistry and activated catalytically by a post-synthesis treatment involving heating under controlled N2-H2 atmosphere. So-activated NPs are evaluated as catalysts for gas-phase CO oxidation and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions taking place in fuel cells. Both as-synthesized and activated NPs are characterized structurally by total scattering experiments involving high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction coupled to atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) analysis. 3D structure models both for as-synthesized and activated NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modelling Sutton-Chen method. Models are refined against the experimental PDF data by reverse Monte Carlo simulations and analysed in terms of prime structural characteristics such as metal-to-metal bond lengths, bond angles and first coordination numbers for Pt and Ru atoms. Analysis indicates that, though of a similar type, the atomic structure of as-synthesized and respective activated NPs differ in several details of importance to NP catalytic properties. Structural characteristics of activated NPs and data for their catalytic activity are compared side by side and strong evidence found that electronic effects, indicated by significant changes in Pt-Pt and Ru-Ru metal bond lengths at NP surface, and practically unrecognized so far atomic ensemble effects, indicated by distinct stacking of atomic layers near NP surface and prevalence of particular configurations of Pt and Ru atoms in these layers, contribute to the

  9. Using Raman Spectroscopy and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering to Identify Colorants in Art: An Experiment for an Upper-Division Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Hannah E.; Frano, Kristen A.; Svoboda, Shelley A.; Wustholz, Kristin L.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of art represent an attractive way to introduce undergraduate students to concepts in nanoscience, vibrational spectroscopy, and instrumental analysis. Here, we present an undergraduate analytical or physical chemistry laboratory wherein a combination of normal Raman and SERS spectroscopy is used to…

  10. Using Raman Spectroscopy and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering to Identify Colorants in Art: An Experiment for an Upper-Division Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Hannah E.; Frano, Kristen A.; Svoboda, Shelley A.; Wustholz, Kristin L.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of art represent an attractive way to introduce undergraduate students to concepts in nanoscience, vibrational spectroscopy, and instrumental analysis. Here, we present an undergraduate analytical or physical chemistry laboratory wherein a combination of normal Raman and SERS spectroscopy is used to…

  11. Study of hard double-parton scattering in four-jet events in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =7$ TeV with the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive four-jet events produced in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV are analysed for the presence of hard double-parton scattering using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 37.3 pb$^{-1}$, collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The contribution of hard double-parton scattering to the production of four-jet events is extracted using an artificial neural network, assuming that hard double-parton scattering can be approximated by an uncorrelated overlaying of dijet events. For events containing at least four jets with transverse momentum $p_{\\mathrm{T}} \\geq 20$ GeV and pseudorapidity $\\eta \\leq 4.4$, and at least one having $p_{\\mathrm{T}} \\geq 42.5$ GeV, the contribution of hard double-parton scattering is estimated to be $f_{\\mathrm{DPS}} = 0.092 ^{+0.005}_{-0.011} (\\mathrm{stat.}) ^{+0.033}_{-0.037} (\\mathrm{syst.})$. After combining this measurement with those of the inclusive dijet and four-jet cross-sections in the appropriate phase space r...

  12. STABILITY OF POLY(N,N'-METHYLENEBISACRYLAMIDE-co-4-VINYLPYRIDINE) MICROGEL DISPERSION AND ADJUSTMENT OF THE HYDROPHOBICITY IN THE MICROGELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-de Chen; Xing-hai Shen; Hong-cheng Gao

    2005-01-01

    In the UV-Vis spectra of pure light-scattering systems, there is an exponential relationship between absorbance and wavelength (A = Kλ-n). Here, the exponent n is named as flocculation-coagulation parameter. In the present paper, the effects of different additives on the stability of poly(N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide-co-4-vinylpyridine) (poly(Bis-co-4-VP))microgel dispersion were studied in detail via this parameter. The results showed that the stability of the dispersion mainly comes from the ionization of pyridine groups, making the microgel positively charged on its surface. This was confirmed by the measurement of Zeta potential and the result of conductometric titration. The result of fluorescence analysis indicated that the hydrophobicity in the microgels is enhanced with the increase in total 4-VP unit content.

  13. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  14. Indolealkylamine metabolism: synthesis of deuterated indolealkylamines as metabolic probes. [Hallucinogens: N, N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, P.E. Jr.; Cheng Chiao (Alabama Univ., Birmingham, AL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1993-06-01

    The synthesis of the deuterium labeled, endogenously occurring, indolealkylamine hallucinogens N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine via reduction of amide intermediates with lithium aluminum deuteride is described. The compounds were characterized with [sup 1]H, [sup 2]H and [sup 13]C NMR. These compounds were synthesized for use as probes for investigating the metabolism of these compounds by MAO via the in vivo kinetic isotope effect. (Author).

  15. N,N-Di aryl anilinosquaraines and Their Application to Organic Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Siyi

    2011-11-08

    We report new derivatives of symmetric squaraine dyes with N,N-diarylanilino substituents that have high solubility and high absorptivity (ε = 0.71-4.1 ×105 M-1cm-1) in the red solar spectral region (λmax = 645-694 nm) making them promising candidates for application in organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Unsymmetrical N,N-diisobutylanilino- and N,N-diphenylanilino(diphenylamino) squaraines have also been prepared that give blue-shifted absorption spectra (λmax = 529-535 nm) relative to their symmetric counterparts. Compared to bis(N,N-diisobutylanilino)squaraine, both symmetrical and unsymmetrical N,N-diarylanilino squaraines show markedly broader absorption bands in solution than their N,N-dialkylanilino squaraine counterparts: the full width at half-maximum (fwhm) for N,N-diarylanilino squaraines range from 1280-1980 cm-1, while the fwhm value for the N,N-diisobutylanilino squarine is only 630 cm-1. The absorption bands for thin films of N,N-diarylanilino squaraines broaden further to 2500-3300 cm-1. N,N-Diarylanilino squaraines are fluorescent, albeit with lower quantum yields than bis(N,N-diisobutylanilino)squaraine (φPL = 0.02-0.66 and 0.80, respectively). OPVs were prepared with solution processed squaraine layers using the following structure: ITO/squaraine (66-85 Å)/C60 (400 Å)/BCP (100 Å)/Al (1000 Å), BCP = bathocuproine. Devices using thin films of the bis(N,N-diarylanilino)squaraines as donor layers show improved performance relative to OPVs prepared with bis(N,N-dialkylanilino) squaraines, i.e. bis(N,N-diisobutylanilino)squaraine: open-circuit voltage Voc = 0.59 ± 0.05 V, short-circuit current Jsc = 5.58 ± 0.16 mA/cm2, fill factor FF = 0.56 ± 0.03, and power conversion efficiency η = 1.8 ± 0.2% under 1 sun, AM1.5G simulated illumination, compared with bis(N,N-diphenylanilino)squaraine: V oc = 0.82 ± 0.02 V, Jsc = 6.71 ± 0.10 mA/cm2, FF = 0.59 ± 0.01, and η = 3.2 ± 0.1%. Morphological studies of thin films suggest that the solubility of bis(N,N

  16. Nuclear model calculations of (n,p) and (n,n'p) reactions on molybdenum isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivascu, M.; Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.

    1983-06-01

    Cross sections for the (n,p) and (n,n'p) reactions on stable molybdenum isotopes have been calculated in the energy range from threshold up to 20 MeV. The calculations have involved the optical model (SCAT2 code), the statistical model (Kauser-Feshbach STAPRE code) and the preequilibrium decay exciton and hybrid models (incorporated in STAPRE). The input model parameters have been determined or checked analyzing against the available experimental data the calculated neutron strength functions, potential scattering radius, total, differential shape elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections (SPRT method), the excitation function of the reaction /sup 93/Nb(p,n)/sup 93/Mo, neutron resonance data and discrete levels at low excitation energies, neutron radiative capture cross sections on /sup 93/Nb and /sup 98,100/Mo target nuclei, the excitation function of the reaction /sup 92/Mo(n,2n)/sup 91/Mo cross section and isomer ratio, and the proton - emission spectrum for 15 MeV neutron incident energy on /sup 92/Mo target. The calculation of nuclear level density for excitation energies higher than approx.23 MeV are more reliable done by means of the liquid drop model predictions for the back - shifted Fermi gas model parameters. That enables also to use in a unified way the average level density parameter anti a = A/8 MeV/sup -1/ in both statistical and exciton models. The calculated (n,p) and (n,n'p) reaction cross sections are compared with the available experimental data and their sensitivity to the input parameter variations are discussed. 132 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Scattering fidelity in elastodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, T.; Seligman, T. H.; Weaver, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    The recent introduction of the concept of scattering fidelity causes us to revisit the experiment by Lobkis and Weaver [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 254302 (2003)]. There, the “distortion” of the coda of an acoustic signal is measured under temperature changes. This quantity is, in fact, the negative logarithm of scattering fidelity. We reanalyze their experimental data for two samples, and we find good agreement with random matrix predictions for the standard fidelity. Usually, one may expect such an agreement for chaotic systems, only. While the first sample may indeed be assumed chaotic, for the second sample, a perfect cuboid, such an agreement is surprising. For the first sample, the random matrix analysis yields perturbation strengths compatible with semiclassical predictions. For the cuboid, the measured perturbation strengths are by a common factor of (5)/(3) too large. Apart from that, the experimental curves for the distortion are well reproduced.

  18. Transverse stimulated Raman scattering in KDP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, C.E.; Sacks, R.A.; Wonterghem, B.M. Van; Caird, J.A.; Murray, J.R.; Campbell, J.H.; Kyle, K.; Ehrlich, R.E.; Nielsen, N.D.

    1995-09-12

    Optical components of large-aperture, high irradiance and high fluence lasers can experience significant levels of stimulated scattering along their transverse dimensions. The authors have observed transverse stimulated Raman scattering in large aperture KDP crystals, and have measured the stimulated gain coefficient. With sufficiently high gain, transverse stimulated scattering can lead to energy loss from the main beam and, more importantly, optical damage in the components in which this scattering occurs. Thus transverse stimulated,scattering is of concern in large aperture fusion lasers such as Nova and Beamlet, which is a single-aperture, full-scale scientific prototype of the laser driver for the proposed National Ignition Facility.

  19. Intercomparison of aerosol single-scattering albedo derived from AERONET surface radiometers and LARGE in situ aircraft profiles during the 2011 DRAGON-MD and DISCOVER-AQ experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, J. S.; Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Thornhill, K. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Sinyuk, A.; Giles, D. M.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Kenny, P. R.; Smirnov, A.; Slutsker, I.

    2014-06-01

    Single-scattering albedo (SSA) retrievals obtained with CIMEL Sun-sky radiometers from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) aerosol monitoring network were used to make comparisons with simultaneous in situ sampling from aircraft profiles carried out by the NASA Langley Aerosol Group Experiment (LARGE) team in the summer of 2011 during the coincident DRAGON-MD (Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observational Network-Maryland) and DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) experiments. The single-scattering albedos (interpolated to 550 nm) derived from AERONET measurements for aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 440 nm ≥ 0.4 (mean SSA: 0.979) were on average 0.011 lower than the values derived from the LARGE profile measurements (mean SSA: 0.99). The maximum difference observed was 0.023 with all the observed differences within the combined uncertainty for the stated SSA accuracy (0.03 for AERONET; 0.02 for LARGE). Single-scattering albedo averages were also analyzed for lower aerosol loading conditions (AOD ≥ 0.2) and a dependence on aerosol optical depth was noted with significantly lower single-scattering albedos observed for lower AOD in both AERONET and LARGE data sets. Various explanations for the SSA trend were explored based on other retrieval products including volume median radius and imaginary refractive index as well as column water vapor measurements. Additionally, these SSA trends with AOD were evaluated for one of the DRAGON-MD study sites, Goddard Space Flight Center, and two other Mid-Atlantic AERONET sites over the long-term record dating to 1999.

  20. Extraction and separation of Nd(III), Sm(III), Dy(III), Fe(III), Ni(II), and Cs(I) from concentrated chloride solutions with N,N,N',N'-tetra(2-ethylhexyl) diglycolamide as new extractant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.A. Mowafy; D. Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using N,N,N',N'-tetra(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (TEHDGA) in 75 vol.% n-dodecane-25 vol.% n-octanol as agents for the extraction and separation of Nd(III), Sm(III), Dy(III), Fe(III), Ni(II), and Cs(I) from concentrated chlo-ride solution was investigated. Different extraction behaviors were obtained towards rare earth elements (REE) studied and Fe(III), Ni(II) and Cs(I). Efficient separation of Nd(III), Sm(III) and Dy(III) from Fe(III), Ni(II), and Cs(I) was achieved by TEHDGA, depending on the HCl, HNO3 or H2SO4 concentration. A systematic investigation was carried out on the detailed extraction prop-erties of Nd(III), Sm(III), and Dy(III) with TEHDGA from chloride media. The IR spectra of the extracted species were investi-gated.

  1. Transient Absorption Spectral Characterization of Electron Transfer between Fullerenes (C60/C70) and N, N, N', N' -Tetra(p-methylphenyl)-4,4'-diamino-1, 1'-diphenyl Sulphide (TPDAS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG,He-Ping(曾和平)

    2002-01-01

    In search of new systems with a photoexcited redox pair which exhibits a strong and stable photoinduced absorption band to understand the photophyscial and photochemical properties of electron transfer between fullerenes (C60/C70) and organic donor [N, N, N', N'-tetra(p-methylphenyl)-4,4'-diamino-1,1'-diphenyl sulphide(TP DAs) ], we studied characteristic absorption spectra in the near-IR region obtained from 532 nm nanosecond laser flash photolysis of a mixture of the fullerenes (C60/C70) and TPDAS in polar solvents. When fullerenes (C60/C70) were photoexcited, the rise of the radical anion of fullerenes (C60/C70) with the rapid decay of their excited triplet states were observed in benzonitrile. It can be deduced that the electron transfer reaction does take place from TPDAS to excited triplet state of fullerenes (C60/C70). The rate conalso evaluated.

  2. Role of choline and glycine betaine in the formation of N,N-dimethylpiperidinium (mepiquat) under Maillard reaction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessaire, Thomas; Tarres, Adrienne; Stadler, Richard H; Delatour, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first to examine the role of choline and glycine betaine, naturally present in some foods, in particular in cereal grains, to generate N,N-dimethylpiperidinium (mepiquat) under Maillard conditions via transmethylation reactions involving the nucleophile piperidine. The formation of mepiquat and its intermediates piperidine - formed by cyclisation of free lysine in the presence of reducing sugars - and N-methylpiperidine were monitored over time (240°C, up to 180 min) using high-resolution mass spectrometry in a model system comprised of a ternary mixture of lysine/fructose/alkylating agent (choline or betaine). The reaction yield was compared with data recently determined for trigonelline, a known methylation agent present naturally in coffee beans. The role of choline and glycine betaine in nucleophilic displacement reactions was further supported by experiments carried out with stable isotope-labelled precursors (¹³C- and deuterium-labelled). The results unequivocally demonstrated that the piperidine ring of mepiquat originates from the carbon chain of lysine, and that either choline or glycine betaine furnishes the N-methyl groups. The kinetics of formation of the corresponding demethylated products of both choline and glycine betaine, N,N-demethyl-2-aminoethanol and N,N-dimethylglycine, respectively, were also determined using high-resolution mass spectrometry.

  3. Electron scattering on hydrogen and deuterium molecules at 14-25 keV by the "Troitsk nu-mass" experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abdurashitov, D N; Chernov, V G; Geraskin, E V; Golubev, A A; Koroteev, G A; Likhovid, N A; Nozik, A A; Pantuev, V S; Parfenov, V I; Skasyrskaya, A K; Zadorozhny, S V

    2016-01-01

    We've performed precise measurements of electron scattering on molecular hydrogen and deuterium by using the "Troitsk nu-mass" setup. Electrons were generated by the electron gun with an energy line width better than 0.3 eV. The electron energies were 14, 17, 18.7, 19 and 25 keV. The windowless gaseous tritium source (WGTS) was filled by hydrogen isotopes and served as a target. The total column density was adjusted to form a length of 0.35--0.7 of the electron mean free path. The integral spectrum of scattered electrons was measured by the electrostatic spectrometer with a magnetic adiabatic collimation and relative energy resolution 8.3 10^{-5}. As a result, the shapes of molecular excitation and ionization spectra were extracted for both isotopes. We did not find any difference between hydrogen and deuterium targets. The relative energy dependence was extracted too.

  4. Transient-Absorption Spectroscopy of Cis-Trans Isomerization of N,N-dimethyl-4,4'-Azodianiline with 3D-Printed Temperature-Controlled Sample Holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosenkov, Dmytro; Shaw, James; Zuczek, Jennifer; Kholod, Yana

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory unit demonstrates a project based approach to teaching physical chemistry laboratory where upper-division undergraduates carry out a transient-absorption experiment investigating the kinetics of cis-trans isomerization of N,N-dimethyl-4,4'-azodianiline. Students participate in modification of a standard flash-photolysis spectrometer…

  5. Small-angle scattering computed tomography (SAS-CT) using a Talbot-Lau interferometerand a rotating anode x-ray tube:theory and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Hong; Bevins, Nicholas; Zambelli, Joseph; Qi, Zhihua

    2010-06-01

    X-ray differential phase contrast imaging methods, including projection imaging and the corresponding computed tomography (CT), have been implemented using a Talbot interferometer and either a synchrotron beam line or a low brilliance x-ray source generated by a stationary-anode x-ray tube. From small-angle scattering events which occur as an x-ray propagates through a medium, a signal intensity loss can be recorded and analyzed for an understanding of the micro-structures in an image object. This has been demonstrated using a Talbot-Lau interferometer and a stationary-anode x-ray tube. In this paper, theoretical principles and an experimental implementation of the corresponding CT imaging method are presented. First, a line integral is derived from analyzing the cross section of the small-angle scattering events. This method is referred to as small-angle scattering computed tomography (SAS-CT). Next, a Talbot-Lau interferometer and a rotating-anode x-ray tube were used to implement SAS-CT. A physical phantom and human breast tissue sample were used to demonstrate the reconstructed SAS-CT image volumes.

  6. P ' CP '-Pincer palladium complex-catalyzed allylation of N,N-dimethylsulfamoyl-protected aldimines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jie; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Gebbink, Robertus J. M. Klein; van Koten, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    The P'CP'-pincer palladium complex-catalyzed allylation of N,N-dimethylsulfamoyl-protected aldimines with allyl(tributyl)stannane is investigated for the preparation of N-homoallylic sulfamides. The desired N,N-dimethylsulfamoyl-protected products are obtained in moderate to high yields in DMF under

  7. Study of hard double-parton scattering in four-jet events in pp collisions at √s=7 TeV with the ATLAS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaboud, M. [Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohamed Premier and LPTPM, Oujda (Morocco); Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK, United States of America (United States); Abdallah, J. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington TX, United States of America (United States); Collaboration: The ATLAS collaboration; and others

    2016-11-21

    Inclusive four-jet events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s=7 TeV are analysed for the presence of hard double-parton scattering using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 37.3 pb{sup −1}, collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The contribution of hard double-parton scattering to the production of four-jet events is extracted using an artificial neural network, assuming that hard double-parton scattering can be approximated by an uncorrelated overlaying of dijet events. For events containing at least four jets with transverse momentum p{sub T}≥20 GeV and pseudorapidity ∣η∣≤4.4, and at least one having p{sub T}≥42.5 GeV, the contribution of hard double-parton scattering is estimated to be f{sub DPS}=0.092 {sub −0.011}{sup +0.005} (stat.) {sub −0.037}{sup +0.033} (syst.). After combining this measurement with those of the inclusive dijet and four-jet cross-sections in the appropriate phase space regions, the effective cross-section, σ {sub eff}, was determined to be σ {sub eff}=14.9 {sub −1.0}{sup +1.2} (stat.) {sub −3.8}{sup +5.1} (syst.) mb. This result is consistent within the quoted uncertainties with previous measurements of σ {sub eff}, performed at centre-of-mass energies between 63 GeV and 8 TeV using various final states, and it corresponds to 21{sub −6}{sup +7}% of the total inelastic cross-section measured at √s=7 TeV. The distributions of the observables sensitive to the contribution of hard double-parton scattering, corrected for detector effects, are also provided.

  8. On scattered subword complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Kása, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Special scattered subwords, in which the gaps are of length from a given set, are defined. The scattered subword complexity, which is the number of such scattered subwords, is computed for rainbow words.

  9. Weak Polarized Electron Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens; Mantry, Sonny; Souder, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Scattering polarized electrons provides an important probe of the weak interactions. Precisely measuring the parity-violating left-right cross section asymmetry is the goal of a number of experiments recently completed or in progress. The experiments are challenging, since A_{LR} is small, typically between 10^(-4) and 10^(-8). By carefully choosing appropriate targets and kinematics, various pieces of the weak Lagrangian can be isolated, providing a search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For other choices, unique features of the strong interaction are studied, including the radius of the neutron density in heavy nuclei, charge symmetry violation, and higher twist terms. This article reviews the theory behind the experiments, as well as the general techniques used in the experimental program.

  10. Bidirectional optical scattering facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI)The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from a...

  11. Bidirectional optical scattering facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI) The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from...

  12. Molecular-beam scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, M. F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N2 from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HC1 (FEMALE) NAC1 + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2(2)P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3(2)P/sub 3/2) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  13. Molecular-beam scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, M.F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N/sub 2/ from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl ..-->.. NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  14. A {sup 4}{sub Λ}H+n+n model of {sup 6}{sub Λ}H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, B.F., E-mail: bfgibson@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Afnan, I.R. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001 (Australia)

    2013-09-20

    A three-body calculation for the {sup 6}{sub Λ}He and {sup 6}{sub Λ}H hypernuclei, in which the respective cores are {sup 4}He and {sup 4}{sub Λ}H, has been initiated. The interactions in the {sup 6}{sub Λ}He system are reasonably well known. For example, the Λn interaction is approximately determined by bubble-chamber Λ–p scattering data, the {sup 4}He–Λ interaction can be fitted to the {sup 5}{sub Λ}He binding energy, and the {sup 4}He–n interaction can be fitted to α–n scattering data. For {sup 4}He–n the s-wave can be modeled alternatively as a repulsive potential (Eskandarian and Afnan, 1992 [1]) or as an attractive potential with a forbidden bound state (Lehman, 1982 [2]). We examine the effect of these alternatives on {sup 6}He and {sup 6}Li, because the interaction comes into play in modeling {sup 6}{sub Λ}He as well as in our {sup 4}{sub Λ}H+n+n model of {sup 6}{sub Λ}H, where the valence neutrons are Pauli blocked from the s-shell of the core.

  15. Effect of nonlinear physical phenomena on the photovoltaic effect in silicon p +-n-n + solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnatsakanov, T. T.; Shuman, V. B.; Pomortseva, L. I.; Schröder, D.; Schlögl, A.

    2000-03-01

    The influence of the combined effects of high injection level and heavy doping on the characteristics of silicon p +-n-n + solar cells is examined. The total amount of nonlinear physical phenomena (Auger recombination, electron-hole scattering, band-gap narrowing, charge carrier lifetime and transport coefficient reduction in the heavily doped layers of the structure) is taken into account. It has been established that a combined process which includes the generated charge carrier overflowing from n-base layer to highly doped n +-type and p +-type layers of the structure and their subsequent recombination in these highly doped layers, proves to be of great importance in silicon solar cells. The influence of electron-hole scattering on charge carrier transport in the highly doped n +-type and p +-type layers has been investigated for the first time. It has been found that minority carrier complete drag phenomenon results in a significant decrease of n +-type and p +-type layer saturation currents.

  16. A spin label study of perturbation effects of N-(1-methyldodecyl)-N, N, N-trimethylammonium bromide and N-(1-methyldodecyl)-N, N-dimethylamine oxide on model membranes prepared from Escherichia coli-isolated lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sersen, F; Leitmanová, A; Devínsky, F; Lacko, I; Balgavý, P

    1989-04-01

    Interaction of bactericidal surfactants N-(1-methyldodecyl)-N, N, N-trimethylammonium bromide (2-ATDBr) and N-(1-methyldodecyl)-N, N-dimethylamine oxide (2-ATDNO) with phospholipid membranes prepared from Escherichia coli -- isolated lipids was studied by ESR spectroscopy using m-doxyl stearic acid (m-DSA, m = 5, 12, 16) and N-cetyl-N, N-dimethyl-N-tempoylammonium bromide spin labels located in different membrane depths. 2-ATDBr was found to be a more potent membrane perturbant than 2-ATDNO both at equal membrane and sample concentrations; this is in compliance with the respective antimicrobial activities of these agents. Using the statistical model of hydrocarbon chains in lipid bilayers, the probabilities of the formation of gauche conformations and the effective energy differences between the trans and gauche conformations were calculated from m-DSA order parameters for two different bilayer regions. Based on these parameters, a molecular model of the location of surfactant molecules in bilayer has been formulated. It has been suggested that at low concentrations the surfactant molecules are located in structural defects between lipid clusters in the bilayer. After filling up these defects, the surfactant molecules penetrate into the clusters between lipid molecules, expand the bilayer laterally and increase the amount of gauche conformations in the hydrocarbon chains in the hydrophobic core of the bilayer.

  17. Introduction to neutron scattering. Lecture notes of the introductory course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furrer, A. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    These proceedings enclose ten papers presented at the 1. European Conference on Neutron scattering (ECNS `96). The aim of the Introductory Course was fourfold: - to learn the basic principles of neutron scattering, - to get introduced into the most important classes of neutron scattering instruments, -to learn concepts and their transformation into neutron scattering experiments in various fields of condensed matter research, - to recognize the limitations of the neutron scattering technique as well as to the complementarity of other methods. figs., tabs., refs.

  18. Structural analysis of N,N-diacyl-1,4-dihydropyrazine by variable-temperature NMR and DFT calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiu-qing; Tan, Hong-bo; Yan, Hong; Chang, Yu

    2017-04-01

    N,N-diacyl-1,4-dihydropyrazine derivatives (1) were prepared via an efficient microwave-assisted synthesis. 1 was isolated and unambiguously confirmed by NMR spectra and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The NMR spectra of 1 showed complicated rather than conventional spectroscopy. Variable-temperature experiments and DFT calculation (PES) were used to investigate this phenomenon. DFT calculations confirmed that the structures of the two rotamers of 1 correspond to those determined by NMR in solution, and gave the syn-anti interconversion barriers of rotamers. The results showed that two isomers exist in solution (deuterated solvent) at room temperature, resulting in complicated NMR spectra.

  19. The inelastic neutron scattering spectra of [alpha]-3-amino-5-nitro-1,2,4-2H-triazole: Experiment and DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciezak, Jennifer A.; Trevino, S. F.

    2005-02-01

    The inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectrum of α-3-amino-5-nitro-1,2,4-triazole is presented through 1200 cm -1. A comparison of the INS spectrum with an isolated molecule B3LYP/6-311G** calculation reveals generally good frequency and intensity agreement with two notable differences in intensity. Periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are employed to determine whether the intermolecular hydrogen bonding is the origin of these differences between the B3LYP/6-311G** and INS spectrum.

  20. Medium energy measurements of N-N parameters. Final technical report, April 1, 1994--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, D.; Betts, W.; Coffey, P.; Glass, G.; McDonough, J.; Riley, P.; Tang, J.L.

    1998-08-01

    This document is a final technical report describing the accomplishments of the medium/high energy nuclear physics research program at the University of Texas at Austin. The research program had four main thrusts, only one of which can be considered as measurements of N-N parameters: (1) finishing the data analyses associated with recent LAMPF and TRIUMPF N-N experiments, whose overall purpose has been the determination of the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes, both for isospin 0 and 1 at medium energies; (2) continuing work on BNL E871, a search for rare decay modes of the K{sub L}; (3) work on the RHIC-STAR project, an experiment to create and study a quark gluon plasma and nuclear matter at high energy density; (4) beginning a new AGS experiment (E896) which will search for the lowest mass state of the predicted strange di-baryons, the Ho, and other exotic states of nuclear matter through nucleus-nucleus collisions.

  1. Aqueous complexation of trivalent lanthanide and actinide cations by N,N,N'{sub 2},N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitz, J. V.; Ensor, D. D.; Jensen, M. P.; Morss, L. R.

    1999-06-16

    The aqueous complexation reactions of trivalent lanthanide and actinide cations with the hexadentate ligand N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), have been characterized using potentiometric and spectroscopic techniques in 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} At 25 C, the stability constant of Am(TPEN){sup 3+} is two orders of magnitude larger than that of Sm(TPEN){sup 3+}, reflecting the stronger interactions of the trivalent actinide cations with softer ligands as compared to lanthanide cations.

  2. Carbon dioxide capture by planar (AlN)n clusters (n=3-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chen; Wang, Chong

    2017-09-26

    Searching for materials and technologies of efficient CO2 capture is of the utmost importance to reduce the CO2 impact on the environment. Therefore, the (AlN)n clusters (n = 3-5) are researched using density functional theoretical calculations. The results of the optimization show that the most stable structures of (AlN)n clusters all display planar configurations at B3LYP and G3B3 methods, which are consistent with the reported results. For these planar clusters, we further systematically studied their interactions with carbon dioxide molecules to understand their adsorption behavior at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level, including geometric optimization, binding energy, bond index, and electrostatic. We found that the planar structures of (AlN)n (n = 3-5) can capture 3-5 CO2 molecules. The result indicates that (AlN)n (n = 3-5) clusters binding with CO2 is an exothermic process (the capture of every CO2 molecule on (AlN)n clusters releases at least 30 kcal mol(-1) in relative free energy values). These analysis results are expected to further motivate the applications of clusters to be efficient CO2 capture materials.

  3. Experiment to Measure Deep Inelastic Electron Scattering on Hydrogen and Deuterium with Seperation of Nu(W)(2) and W(1) Nucleon Structure Functions, at the Highest Fermilab Energies and Q(2) Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, G.; Edighoffer, J.; Grigorian, A.; Guiragossian, Z.G.T.; Hofstadter, R.; McPharlin, T.P.; Yearian, M.R.; /Stanford U.; Cox, B.C.; Peoples Jr., J.; /Fermilab

    1975-10-15

    The authors propose to measure the inclusive deep inelastic electron-nucleon scattering cross sections on hydrogen and deuterium. Cross sections will be measured in the range of momentum transfers Q{sub min}{sup 2} = 0.160 (GeV/c){sup 2} and Q{sub max}{sup 2} = 160.0 (GeV/c){sup 2}, in the range of recoil hadronic mass squared of W{sub min}{sup 2} = 2 GeV{sup 2} and W{sub max}{sup 2} = 450 GeV{sup 2}. The electromagnetic structure functions, {nu}W{sub 2}(Q{sup 2},{nu}) and W{sub 1}(Q{sup 2},{nu}), of both protons and neutrons will be measured and separated by well-known methods, in the highest possible unexplored FERMILAB kinematical regions. The high intensity Proton-West superconducting beam will be used to yield an electron beam of high purity, based on a synchrotron radiation compensated tuning technique. The electron beam will be used at 150 GeV (5 x 10{sup 8} e{sup {+-}}/pulse), at 175 GeV (3.6 x 10{sup 8} e{sup {+-}}/pulse) and at 250 GeV (1 x 10{sup 8} e{sup {+-}}/pulse). The scattered electron will be detected with good acceptance, good resolution and excellent identification. The detector will be the E-192 apparatus with small additions. A simple self-calibration procedure is available, both in experiment and apparatus, removing beam-associated and target-associated background in the entire (Q{sup 2}, W{sup 2}) kinematical regions. Usually, interesting physics occurs where counting rates are small. This experiment will be completely trust-worthy in such regions because their apparatus provides excellent information on the tracking and identification of scattered electrons.

  4. The Scattering of Fast Nucleons from Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerman, A. K.; McManus, H.; Thaler, R. M.

    2000-04-01

    The formal theory of the scattering of high-energy nucleons by nuclei is developed in terms of the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude. The most important approximations necessary to make numerical calculation feasible are then examined. The optical model potential is derived on this basis and compared with the optical model parameters found from experiment. The elastic scattering and polarization of nucleons from light nuclei is predicted and compared with experiment. The effect of nuclear correlations is discussed. The polarization of inelastically scattered nucleons is discussed and predictions compared with experiments. To within the validity of the approximations the experimental data on the scattering of nucleons from nuclei at energies above ˜100 Mev appears to be consistent with the theory.

  5. The scattering of fast nucleons from nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerman, A. K. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); McManus, H. [Chalk River Laboratory, Chalk River, Ontario, (Canada); Thaler, R. M. [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

    2000-04-10

    The formal theory of the scattering of high-energy nucleons by nuclei is developed in terms of the nucleon nucleon scattering amplitude. The most important approximations necessary to make numerical calculation feasible are then examined. The optical model potential is derived on this basis and compared with the optical model parameters found from experiment. The elastic scattering and polarization of nucleons from light nuclei is predicted and compared with experiment. The effect of nuclear correlations is discussed. The polarization of inelastically scattered nucleons is discussed and predictions compared with experiments. To within the validity of the approximations the experimental data on the scattering of nucleons from nuclei at energies above {approx}100 Mev appears to be consistent with the theory. (c) 2000 Academic Press, Inc.

  6. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  7. Studies on improved hole injection into N,N'-Bis(3-methylphenyl)- N,N'-diphenylbenzidine hole transport layer in the device by thermal annealing of indium tin oxide anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasi, Gnyaneshwar; Asokan, K.; Thangaraju, Kuppusamy

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate the improved hole injection into N,N'-Bis(3-methylphenyl)- N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (TPD) hole transport layer (HTL) by thermal annealing of ITO anode in hole-only devices (HODs). ITO anode was patterned and annealed at different temperatures (200, 300, and 400 °C) under the normal ambient. ITO film annealed at 400 °C shows the higher sheet resistance of 185 Ω/□ and the Hall measurement also confirms the drastic increase in the resistivity after 300 °C. The drastic decrease of Hall carrier concentration and mobility after 300 °C is attributed to the trapping of free carriers and scattering from the chemisorbed oxygen at grain boundaries. XRD analysis shows the increasing crystallite size as annealing temperature increases. SEM images show that ITO thin film annealed at 400 °C exhibits the wrinkle kind of morphological structures. AFM studies also supported the significant changes with an increase in the surface roughness of ITO film annealed after 300 °C. The fabricated HOD based on ITO anode annealed at 300 °C exhibited the improved hole injection than that of pristine and 200 °C annealed ITO-based HODs, and it is drastically decreased for 400 °C annealed ITO-based device below that of pristine device. It is reported that the annealing of ITO film at 400 °C under the normal ambient changes its surface morphology and/or surface chemical properties which play a role in the hole-injection properties. These results show that annealing of ITO anode upto 300 °C under the normal ambient improves the hole injection into TPD HTL in HODs, which will also be useful to enhance the hole injection and improve the charge balance in organic light-emitting diodes to improve the efficiencies.

  8. Light repolarization by scattering media

    CERN Document Server

    Sorrentini, Jacques; Soriano, Gabriel; Amra, Claude

    2011-01-01

    The polarization of a coherent depolarized incident light beam passing through a disordered medium is investigated. The local polarization of the scattered far field and the probability density function are calculated and show an excellent agreement with experiment. It is demonstrated that complex media may confer high degree of polarization (0.75 DOP average) to the incident unpolarized light.

  9. Reactive and nonreactive scattering of N-2 from Ru(0001): A six-dimensional adiabatic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, C.; Vincent, J.K.; Krishnamohan, G.P.;

    2006-01-01

    results show a strong dependence of reaction on the initial vibrational state. Computed angular scattering distributions and parallel translation energy distributions are in good agreement with experiments on scattering, but the theory overestimates vibrational and rotational excitations in scattering. (c...

  10. Thomson scattering from laser plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J D; Alley, W E; De Groot, J S; Estabrook, K G; Glenzer, S H; Hammer, J H; Jadaud, J P; MacGowan, B J; Rozmus, W; Suter, L J; Williams, E A

    1999-01-12

    Thomson scattering has recently been introduced as a fundamental diagnostic of plasma conditions and basic physical processes in dense, inertial confinement fusion plasmas. Experiments at the Nova laser facility [E. M. Campbell et al., Laser Part. Beams 9, 209 (1991)] have demonstrated accurate temporally and spatially resolved characterization of densities, electron temperatures, and average ionization levels by simultaneously observing Thomson scattered light from ion acoustic and electron plasma (Langmuir) fluctuations. In addition, observations of fast and slow ion acous- tic waves in two-ion species plasmas have also allowed an independent measurement of the ion temperature. These results have motivated the application of Thomson scattering in closed-geometry inertial confinement fusion hohlraums to benchmark integrated radiation-hydrodynamic modeling of fusion plasmas. For this purpose a high energy 4{omega} probe laser was implemented recently allowing ultraviolet Thomson scattering at various locations in high-density gas-filled hohlraum plasmas. In partic- ular, the observation of steep electron temperature gradients indicates that electron thermal transport is inhibited in these gas-filled hohlraums. Hydrodynamic calcula- tions which include an exact treatment of large-scale magnetic fields are in agreement with these findings. Moreover, the Thomson scattering data clearly indicate axial stagnation in these hohlraums by showing a fast rise of the ion temperature. Its timing is in good agreement with calculations indicating that the stagnating plasma will not deteriorate the implosion of the fusion capsules in ignition experiments.

  11. Blockade involving high- n, n ~ 300 , strontium Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Zhang, Xinyue; Dunning, F. Barry

    2016-05-01

    The blockade of high- n strontium n1F3 Rydberg states contained in a hot atomic beam is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. One difficulty in such experiments is that, once created, Rydberg atoms move out of the excitation volume reducing blockade effects. While the effects of such motion are apparent, the data provide strong evidence of blockade, consistent with theoretical predictions. Because of their relatively high angular momentum (L = 3) , a pair of n1F3 Rydberg atoms have many degenerate states whose degeneracy is removed by Rydberg-Rydberg interactions yielding a high density of states near the target energy. To evaluate the effect of blockade not only the energy shifts but also the modification of the oscillator strengths for excitation have to be taken into account. The n-scaling of the interactions and the importance of high-order multipoles will also be discussed. Research supported by the NSF and Robert A. Welch Foundation.

  12. Inverse acoustic problem of N homogeneous scatterers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    The three-dimensional inverse acoustic medium problem of N homogeneous objects with known geometry and location is considered. It is proven that one scattering experiment is sufficient for the unique determination of the complex wavenumbers of the objects. The mapping from the scattered fields...

  13. Inverse acoustic problem of N homogeneous scatterers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    The three-dimensional inverse acoustic medium problem of N homogeneous objects with known geometry and location is considered. It is proven that one scattering experiment is sufficient for the unique determination of the complex wavenumbers of the objects. The mapping from the scattered fields...

  14. Spectral Properties and Solubilization Location of 2'-Ethylhexyl 4-(N,N-Dimethylamino)benzoate in Micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Ding; Xin-zhen Du; Chun Wang; Xiao-quan Lu

    2008-01-01

    Dual fluorescence and UV absorption of 2'-ethylhexyl 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzoate (EHDMAB) were investigated in cationic,non-ionic and anionic miceUes.When EHDMAB was solubilized in different micellss, the UV absorption of EHDMAB was enhanced.Twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) emission with longer wavelength was observed in ionic micelles,whereas TICT emission with shorter wavelength was obtained in non-ionic micelles.In particular,dual fluorescence of EHDMAB was significantly quenched by the positively charged pyridinium ions arranged in the Stern layer of cationic micelles.UV radiation absorbed mainly decays via TICT emission and radiationless deactivation.The dimethylamino group of EHDMAB experiences different polar environments in ionic and non-ionic micelles according to the polarity dependence of TICT emission of EHDMAB in organic solvents.In terms of the molecular structures and sizes of EHDMAB and surfactants,each individual EHDMAB molecule should be buried in micelles with its dimethylamino group toward the polar head groups of different micelles and with its 2'-ethylhexyl chain toward the hydrophobic micellar core.Dynamic fluorescence quenching measurements of EHDMAB provide further support for the location of EHDMAB in different micelles.

  15. Early Events in the Nonadiabatic Relaxation Dynamics of 4-(N,N-Dimethylamino)benzonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochman, Michał A; Tajti, Attila; Morrison, Carole A; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2015-03-10

    4-(N,N-Dimethylamino)benzonitrile (DMABN) is the archetypal system for dual fluorescence. Several past studies, both experimental and theoretical, have examined the mechanism of its relaxation in the gas phase following photoexcitation to the S2 state, without converging to a single description. In this contribution, we report first-principles simulations of the early events involved in this process performed using the nonadiabatic trajectory surface hopping (TSH) approach in combination with the ADC(2) electronic structure method. ADC(2) is verified to reproduce the ground- and excited-state structures of DMABN in reasonably close agreement with previous theoretical benchmarks. The TSH simulations predict that internal conversion from the S2 state to the S1 takes place as early as 8.5 fs, on average, after the initial photoexcitation, and with no significant torsion of the dimethylamino group relative to the aromatic ring. As evidenced by supporting EOM-CCSD calculations, the population transfer from S2 to S1 can be attributed to the skeletal deformation modes of the aromatic ring and the stretching of the ring-dimethylamino nitrogen bond. The non- or slightly twisted locally excited structure is the predominant product of the internal conversion, and the twisted intramolecular charge transfer structure is formed through equilibration with the locally excited structure with no change of adiabatic state. These findings point toward a new interpretation of data from previous time-resolved experiments.

  16. Imaging with Scattered Neutrons

    OpenAIRE

    Ballhausen, H.; Abele, H.; Gaehler, R.; Trapp, M.; Van Overberghe, A.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a novel experimental technique for neutron imaging with scattered neutrons. These scattered neutrons are of interest for condensed matter physics, because they permit to reveal the local distribution of incoherent and coherent scattering within a sample. In contrast to standard attenuation based imaging, scattered neutron imaging distinguishes between the scattering cross section and the total attenuation cross section including absorption. First successful low-noise millimeter-re...

  17. Results on the Spin-Dependent Scattering of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles on Nucleons from the Run 3 Data of the LUX Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bradley, A.; Bramante, R.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Ott, R. A.; Palladino, K. J.; Pangilinan, M.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We present experimental constraints on the spin-dependent WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle)-nucleon elastic cross sections from LUX data acquired in 2013. LUX is a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota), which is designed to observe the recoil signature of galactic WIMPs scattering from xenon nuclei. A profile likelihood ratio analysis of 1.4 ×104 kg day of fiducial exposure allows 90% C.L. upper limits to be set on the WIMP-neutron (WIMP-proton) cross section of σn=9.4 ×10-41 cm2 (σp=2.9 ×10-39 cm2 ) at 33 GeV /c2 . The spin-dependent WIMP-neutron limit is the most sensitive constraint to date.

  18. Structural evolution of regenerated silk fibroin under shear: Combined wide- and small-angle x-ray scattering experiments using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossle, Manfred [European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), France; Panine, Pierre [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF); Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Riekel, Christine [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF)

    2004-04-01

    The structural evolution of regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibroin during shearing with a Couette cell has been studied in situ by synchrotron radiation small- and wide-angle x-ray scattering techniques. An elongation of fibroin molecules was observed with increasing shear rate, followed by an aggregation phase. The aggregates were found to be amorphous with {beta}-conformation according to infrared spectroscopy. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction with a 5 {micro}m beam on aggregated material, which had solidified in air, showed silk II reflections and a material with equatorial reflections close to the silk I structure reflections, but with strong differences in reflection intensities. This silk I type material shows up to two low-angle peaks suggesting the presence of water molecules that might be intercalated between hydrogen-bonded sheets.

  19. Large-scale single-crystal growth of (CH3)2NH2CuCl3 for neutron scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Garam; Oh, In-Hwan; Park, J. M. Sungil; Park, Seong-Hun; Hong, Chang Seop; Lee, Kwang-Sei

    2016-05-01

    Neutron scattering studies on low-dimensional quantum spin systems require large-size single-crystals. Single-crystals of (CH3)2NH2CuCl3 showing low-dimensional magnetic behaviors were grown by a slow solvent evaporation method in a two-solvent system at different temperature settings. The best results were obtained for the bilayer solution of methanol and isopropanol with a molar ratio of 2:1 at 35 °C. The quality of the obtained single-crystals was tested by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction and single-crystal neutron diffraction. In addition, to confirm structural phase transitions (SPTs), thermal analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 300 K and 175 K, respectively, were conducted, confirming the presence of a SPT at Tup=288 K on heating and Tdown=285 K on cooling.

  20. Gas gain operations with single photon resolution using an integrating ionization chamber in small-angle X-ray scattering experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Menk, R H; Besch, H J; Walenta, Albert H; Amenitsch, H; Bernstorff, S

    2000-01-01

    In this work a combination of an ionization chamber with one-dimensional spatial resolution and a MicroCAT structure will be presented. Initially, MicroCAT was thought of as a shielding grid (Frisch-grid) but later was used as an active electron amplification device that enables single X-ray photon resolution measurements at low fluxes even with integrating readout electronics. Moreover, the adjustable gas gain that continuously covers the entire range from pure ionization chamber mode up to high gas gains (30000 and more) provides stable operation yielding a huge dynamic range of about 10 sup 8 and more. First measurements on biological samples using small angle X-ray scattering techniques with synchrotron radiation will be presented.

  1. Palladium-catalyzed Cascade Cyclization-Coupling Reaction of Benzyl Halides with N,N-Diallylbenzoylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Min HU; Yu ZHANG; Jian Lin HAN; Cheng Jian ZHU; Yi PAN

    2003-01-01

    A novel type of palladium-catalyzed cascade cyclization-coupling reaction has been found. Reaction of N, N-diallylbenzoylamide 1 with benzyl halides 2 afforded the corresponding dihydropyrroles 3 in moderate to excellent yields.

  2. SYNTHESIS OF TETRAKIS-N,N,N-TRIMETHYLAMMONIUMMETHYL-C-3,4-DIMETHOXYPHENYLCALIX[4]RESORCINARENE IODIDE BASED VANILLIN AND ITS ANTIDOTE ACTIVITY FOR CHROMIUM(VI INTOXICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryadi Budi Utomo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A research has been conducted to synthesize tetrakis-N,N,N-trimethylammoniummethyl-C-3,4-dimethoxyphenylcalix[4]resorcinarene iodide from vanillin and investigate its antidote capability for Cr(VI intoxication. The synthesis was carried out in four steps i.e. (1 O-alkylation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (2 HCl-catalyzed condensation of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde with resorcinol, (3 Mannich reaction of C-3,4-dimethoxyphenylcalix[4]resorcinarene with formaldehyde and dimethylamine in the presence of HCl to yield tetrakis-N,N-dimethylaminomethyl-C-3,4-dimethoxyphenylcalix[4]resorcinarene, and (4 treatment the Mannich base with methyl iodide to produce the quaternary ammonium salt of tetrakis-N,N,N-trimethylammoniummethyl-C-3,4-dimethoxyphenylcalix[4]resorcinarene iodide. According to the analysis of 1H-NMR spectrometer, the targeted compounds tend to exist in the chair (C2h conformation. The capability of resorcinarene for Cr(VI antidote was examined by orally injection method on mice groups. Based on LD50 determination, the resorcinarene was classified as non toxic compound according to Loomis criteria. Therapeutic using quaternary ammonium-modified resorcinarene was able to reduce metal concentrations of Cr(VI in liver, kidney, and serum in the magnitude of 78.30; 85.72, and 88.79%, respectively. The higher dose of drug administered the greater decrease in the level of heavy metal. Judging from the amount of milligrams of reduced chromium per gram of organ, kidney is the organ having highest decreasing metal concentrations.

  3. Helix-Sense-Selective Polymerization of N,N-Diphenyl(Meth)acrylamide by Anionic Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the helix-sense-selective polymerization of N,N-diphenyl acrylamide (DPAA) and N,N-diphenyl methacrylamide(DPMAA) were studied with living helix prepolymer as anionic initiator, and the chiral optical properties of the obtained polymers were investigated too.It was shown that optically active polymers of DPAA and DPMAA could be obtained under the experimental condition, and exhibited the same screw sense as that of the prepolymer.

  4. Some Congruence Properties of a Restricted Bipartition Function cN(n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipen Saikia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Let cN(n denote the number of bipartitions (λ,μ of a positive integer n subject to the restriction that each part of μ is divisible by N. In this paper, we prove some congruence properties of the function cN(n for N=7, 11, and 5l, for any integer l≥1, by employing Ramanujan’s theta-function identities.

  5. Relationship between Scattered Photon Counts and Concentrations of Some Saline Solutions in Compton Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Guang; ZHOU Shang-Qi; HAN Zhong; CHEN Shuang-Kou

    2007-01-01

    Compton scattering saline solution was researched.Firstly according to the Compton scattering theory the linear relationship between the concentration and the scattered photon counts was obtained.And then it was proved by Compton scattering experiments for some solutions.According to those experiments, it was found that the slope was decreased when the atomic number of the cation was increased for alkali metal chloride solutions and alkaline-earth metal chloride solutions.Based on those relationships,a new method was promoted with which to measure the concentration of saline solution untouched the measured solution.

  6. Comparison of removal of endodontic smear layer using ethylene glycol bis (beta-amino ethyl ether-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid and citric acid in primary teeth: A scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul J Hegde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Root canal irrigants are considered momentous in their tissue dissolving property, eliminating microorganisms, and removing smear layer. The present study was aimed to compare the removal of endodontic smear layer using ethylene glycol bis (beta-amino ethyl ether-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA and citric acid solutions with saline as a control in primary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Thirty primary anterior teeth were chosen for the study. The teeth were distributed into three groups having ten teeth each. Following instrumentation, root canals of the first group were treated with 17% EGTA and the second group with 6% citric acid. Only saline was used as an irrigant for the control group. Then, the teeth were subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM study. The scale given by Rome et al. for the smear layer removal was used in the present study. Results: The pictures from the SEM showed that among the tested irrigants, 17% EGTA + 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl group showed the best results when compared to other groups. Conclusion: The results advocate that the sequential irrigation of the pulp canal walls with 17% EGTA followed by 5% NaOCl produced efficacious and smear-free root canal walls.

  7. Biological activity and redistribution of nucleolar proteins of two different cell lines treated with cis-dichloro-1,2-propylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetato ruthenium (III) (RAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmani, Fatima Azzahra; Torreblanca, José; Moreno, Javier; García-Herdugo, Gregorio; Vilaplana, Rosario; González-Víltchez, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    The interaction of a newly synthesized antitumor complex cis-dichloro-1,2-propylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetato ruthenium (III) (RAP) with DNA was investigated in vitro through a number of techniques including comet assay, immunoprecipitation, and immunolocalization of certain nucleolar proteins (the upstream binding factor (UBF) and fibrillarin) involved in DNA transcription, rRNA processing, and ribosomal assembly. The results showed that RAP binds to the DNA of two cell lines (H4 and Hs-683) causing a delay in cell proliferation rate leading to a number of cellular modifications. These modifications include DNA-damage assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis method (comet assay) and variation in the expression of nucleolar proteins; UBF was more abundant in RAP treated cells, this was explained by the high affinity of this protein to DNA modified by RAP. On the other hand, fibrillarin was found in less quantities in RAP treated cells which was explained by a de-regulation of the ribosomal machinery caused by RAP.

  8. An electrical analogy to Mie scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridad, José M.; Connaughton, Stephen; Ott, Christian; Weber, Heiko B.; Krstić, Vojislav

    2016-09-01

    Mie scattering is an optical phenomenon that appears when electromagnetic waves, in particular light, are elastically scattered at a spherical or cylindrical object. A transfer of this phenomenon onto electron states in ballistic graphene has been proposed theoretically, assuming a well-defined incident wave scattered by a perfectly cylindrical nanometer scaled potential, but experimental fingerprints are lacking. We present an experimental demonstration of an electrical analogue to Mie scattering by using graphene as a conductor, and circular potentials arranged in a square two-dimensional array. The tabletop experiment is carried out under seemingly unfavourable conditions of diffusive transport at room-temperature. Nonetheless, when a canted arrangement of the array with respect to the incident current is chosen, cascaded Mie scattering results robustly in a transverse voltage. Its response on electrostatic gating and variation of potentials convincingly underscores Mie scattering as underlying mechanism. The findings presented here encourage the design of functional electronic metamaterials.

  9. An electrical analogy to Mie scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridad, José M.; Connaughton, Stephen; Ott, Christian; Weber, Heiko B.; Krstić, Vojislav

    2016-01-01

    Mie scattering is an optical phenomenon that appears when electromagnetic waves, in particular light, are elastically scattered at a spherical or cylindrical object. A transfer of this phenomenon onto electron states in ballistic graphene has been proposed theoretically, assuming a well-defined incident wave scattered by a perfectly cylindrical nanometer scaled potential, but experimental fingerprints are lacking. We present an experimental demonstration of an electrical analogue to Mie scattering by using graphene as a conductor, and circular potentials arranged in a square two-dimensional array. The tabletop experiment is carried out under seemingly unfavourable conditions of diffusive transport at room-temperature. Nonetheless, when a canted arrangement of the array with respect to the incident current is chosen, cascaded Mie scattering results robustly in a transverse voltage. Its response on electrostatic gating and variation of potentials convincingly underscores Mie scattering as underlying mechanism. The findings presented here encourage the design of functional electronic metamaterials. PMID:27671003

  10. Improved Scatter Search Using Cuckoo Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed T.Sadiq Al-Obaidi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Scatter Search (SS is a deterministic strategy that has been applied successfully to some combinatorial and continuous optimization problems. Cuckoo Search (CS is heuristic search algorithm which is inspired by the reproduction strategy of cuckoos. This paper presents enhanced scatter search algorithm using CS algorithm. The improvement provides Scatter Search with random exploration for search space of problem and more of diversity and intensification for promising solutions. The original and improved Scatter Search has been tested on Traveling Salesman Problem. A computational experiment with benchmark instances is reported. The results demonstrate that the improved Scatter Search algorithms produce better performance than original Scatter Search algorithm. The improvement in the value of average fitness is 23.2% comparing with original SS. The developed algorithm has been compared with other algorithms for the same problem, and the result was competitive with some algorithm and insufficient with another.

  11. An electrical analogy to Mie scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridad, José M; Connaughton, Stephen; Ott, Christian; Weber, Heiko B; Krstić, Vojislav

    2016-09-27

    Mie scattering is an optical phenomenon that appears when electromagnetic waves, in particular light, are elastically scattered at a spherical or cylindrical object. A transfer of this phenomenon onto electron states in ballistic graphene has been proposed theoretically, assuming a well-defined incident wave scattered by a perfectly cylindrical nanometer scaled potential, but experimental fingerprints are lacking. We present an experimental demonstration of an electrical analogue to Mie scattering by using graphene as a conductor, and circular potentials arranged in a square two-dimensional array. The tabletop experiment is carried out under seemingly unfavourable conditions of diffusive transport at room-temperature. Nonetheless, when a canted arrangement of the array with respect to the incident current is chosen, cascaded Mie scattering results robustly in a transverse voltage. Its response on electrostatic gating and variation of potentials convincingly underscores Mie scattering as underlying mechanism. The findings presented here encourage the design of functional electronic metamaterials.

  12. Crossed-beam experiment for the scattering of low- and intermediate-energy electrons from BF{sub 3}: A comparative study with XF{sub 3} (X = C, N, and CH) molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, M., E-mail: masami-h@sophia.ac.jp; Suga, A.; Kato, H.; Tanaka, H. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Limão-Vieira, P. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ferreira da Silva, F. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); García, G. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-07-14

    Absolute differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron interaction with BF{sub 3} molecules have been measured in the impact energy range of 1.5–200 eV and recorded over a scattering angle range of 15°–150°. These angular distributions have been normalized by reference to the elastic DCSs of the He atom and integrated by employing a modified phase shift analysis procedure to generate integral cross sections (ICSs) and momentum transfer cross sections (MTCSs). The calculations of DCSs and ICSs have been carried out using an independent atom model under the screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR). The present elastic DCSs have been found to agree well with the results of IAM-SCAR calculation above 20 eV, and also with a recent Schwinger multichannel calculation below 30 eV. Furthermore, in the comparison with the XF{sub 3} (X = B, C, N, and CH) molecules, the elastic DCSs reveal a similar angular distribution which are approximately equal in magnitude from 30 to 200 eV. This feature suggests that the elastic scattering is dominated virtually by the 3-outer fluorine atoms surrounding the XF{sub 3} molecules. The vibrational DCSs have also been obtained in the energy range of 1.5–15 eV and vibrational analysis based on the angular correlation theory has been carried out to explain the nature of the shape resonances. Limited experiments on vibrational inelastic scattering confirmed the existence of a shape resonance with a peak at 3.8 eV, which is also observed in the vibrational ICS. Finally, the estimated elastic ICSs, MTCSs, as well as total cross sections are compared with the previous cross section data available.

  13. Fast scintillation timing detector using proportional-mode avalanche photodiode for nuclear resonant scattering experiments in high-energy synchrotron X-ray region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Keisuke; Kishimoto, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    To obtain both a high count rate of >107 s-1 and a detection efficiency sufficient for high-energy X-rays of >30 keV, we propose a scintillation timing detector using a proportional-mode silicon avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) for synchrotron radiation nuclear resonant scattering. We here present results obtained with a prototype detector using a lead-loaded plastic scintillator (EJ-256) mounted on a proportional-mode Si-APD (active area size: 3 mm in diameter). The detector was operated at ‒35 °C for a better signal-to-noise ratio. Using synchrotron X-rays of 67.41 keV, which is the same energy as the first excited level of 61Ni, we successfully measured pulse-height and time spectra of the scintillation light. A good time resolution of 0.50±0.06 ns (full width at half-maximum) was obtained for 67.41 keV X-rays with a scintillator 3 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick.

  14. BioSAXS Sample Changer: a robotic sample changer for rapid and reliable high-throughput X-ray solution scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, Adam; Felisaz, Franck; Fodinger, Lukas; Gobbo, Alexandre; Huet, Julien; Villard, Cyril; Blanchet, Clement E.; Pernot, Petra; McSweeney, Sean; Roessle, Manfred; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Cipriani, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of macromolecules in solution is in increasing demand by an ever more diverse research community, both academic and industrial. To better serve user needs, and to allow automated and high-throughput operation, a sample changer (BioSAXS Sample Changer) that is able to perform unattended measurements of up to several hundred samples per day has been developed. The Sample Changer is able to handle and expose sample volumes of down to 5 µl with a measurement/cleaning cycle of under 1 min. The samples are stored in standard 96-well plates and the data are collected in a vacuum-mounted capillary with automated positioning of the solution in the X-ray beam. Fast and efficient capillary cleaning avoids cross-contamination and ensures reproducibility of the measurements. Independent temperature control for the well storage and for the measurement capillary allows the samples to be kept cool while still collecting data at physiological temperatures. The Sample Changer has been installed at three major third-generation synchrotrons: on the BM29 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the P12 beamline at the PETRA-III synchrotron (EMBL@PETRA-III) and the I22/B21 beamlines at Diamond Light Source, with the latter being the first commercial unit supplied by Bruker ASC. PMID:25615861

  15. BioSAXS Sample Changer: a robotic sample changer for rapid and reliable high-throughput X-ray solution scattering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, Adam; Felisaz, Franck; Fodinger, Lukas; Gobbo, Alexandre; Huet, Julien; Villard, Cyril; Blanchet, Clement E; Pernot, Petra; McSweeney, Sean; Roessle, Manfred; Svergun, Dmitri I; Cipriani, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of macromolecules in solution is in increasing demand by an ever more diverse research community, both academic and industrial. To better serve user needs, and to allow automated and high-throughput operation, a sample changer (BioSAXS Sample Changer) that is able to perform unattended measurements of up to several hundred samples per day has been developed. The Sample Changer is able to handle and expose sample volumes of down to 5 µl with a measurement/cleaning cycle of under 1 min. The samples are stored in standard 96-well plates and the data are collected in a vacuum-mounted capillary with automated positioning of the solution in the X-ray beam. Fast and efficient capillary cleaning avoids cross-contamination and ensures reproducibility of the measurements. Independent temperature control for the well storage and for the measurement capillary allows the samples to be kept cool while still collecting data at physiological temperatures. The Sample Changer has been installed at three major third-generation synchrotrons: on the BM29 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the P12 beamline at the PETRA-III synchrotron (EMBL@PETRA-III) and the I22/B21 beamlines at Diamond Light Source, with the latter being the first commercial unit supplied by Bruker ASC.

  16. Structure of light neutron-rich nuclei and mechanism of elastic proton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibraeva, E. T., E-mail: ibr@inp.kz [National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan); Zhusupov, M. A. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan); Imambekov, O. [National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan)

    2011-11-15

    Differential cross sections for elastic p{sup 6}He, p{sup 8}Li, and p{sup 9}Li scattering at two energies of 70 and 700 MeV per nucleon were calculated within the Glauber theory of multiple diffractive scattering. Threeparticle wave functions ({alpha}-n-n for {sup 6}He, {alpha}-t-n for {sup 8}Li, and {sup 7}Li-n-n for {sup 9}Li) were used for realistic potentials of intercluster interactions. The sensitivity of elastic scattering to proton-nucleus interaction and to the structure of nuclei was explored. In particular, the dependence of the differential cross section on the contribution of higher order collisions, on scattering on the core and peripheral nucleons, and on the contribution of small wave-function components and their asymptotic behavior was determined. A comparison with available experimental data and with the results of calculations within different formalisms was performed.

  17. C60/N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine:MoO3 as the interconnection layer for high efficient tandem blue fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoming; Bi, Wentao; Hua, Yulin; Sun, Jin'e; Xiao, Zhihui; Wang, Li; Yin, Shougen

    2013-06-17

    The high efficient tandem blue fluorescent organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with the transparent interconnection layer (ICL) of fullerence (C60)/Molybdenum oxide (MoO3)-doped N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB) were presented. A stack consisting of 0.5 nm of LiF and 1 nm of Ca, which is located from C60 to adjacent electron transporting layer is used as an electron injection layer. The experiment results indicate that the luminance of the tandem device is basically equal to that of the traditional single-unit device, but the current density of the tandem device is much less than that of the single-unit device under a same luminance. The current efficiency and the maximal power efficiency of tandem device with LiF/Ca/C60/NPB:MoO3/MoO3-based interconnection layer have been approximately enhanced by 250% and 126%, respectively. In addition, we also analyze that the mechanism of the efficiency enhancement is ascribed to the effective charge separation and transport of the ICL in tandem OLEDs.

  18. Surface enhanced Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Furtak, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    In the course of the development of surface science, advances have been identified with the introduction of new diagnostic probes for analytical characterization of the adsorbates and microscopic structure of surfaces and interfaces. Among the most recently de­ veloped techniques, and one around which a storm of controversy has developed, is what has now been earmarked as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Within this phenomenon, molecules adsorbed onto metal surfaces under certain conditions exhibit an anomalously large interaction cross section for the Raman effect. This makes it possible to observe the detailed vibrational signature of the adsorbate in the ambient phase with an energy resolution much higher than that which is presently available in electron energy loss spectroscopy and when the surface is in contact with a much larger amount of material than that which can be tolerated in infrared absorption experiments. The ability to perform vibrational spectroscopy under these conditions would l...

  19. Optics as Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Francia, Giuliano Toraldo

    1973-01-01

    The art of deriving information about an object from the radiation it scatters was once limited to visible light. Now due to new techniques, much of the modern physical science research utilizes radiation scattering. (DF)

  20. Collisional excitation of NH(X{sup 3}Σ{sup −}) by Ne: Potential energy surface, scattering calculations, and comparison with experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhafs, Nezha; Lique, François, E-mail: francois.lique@univ-lehavre.fr [LOMC–UMR 6294, CNRS-Université du Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, BP 1123, 76063 Le Havre (France)

    2015-11-14

    We present a new three-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the NH(X{sup 3}Σ{sup −})–Ne van der Waals system, which explicitly takes into account the NH vibrational motion. Ab initio calculations of the NH–Ne PES were carried out using the open-shell single- and double-excitation coupled cluster approach with non-iterative perturbational treatment of triple excitations [RCCSD(T)]. The augmented correlation-consistent quadruple zeta (aug-cc-pVQZ) basis set was employed. Mid-bond functions were also included in order to improve the accuracy in the van der Waals well. Using this new PES, we have studied the collisional excitation of NH(X{sup 3}Σ{sup −}) by Ne. Close-coupling calculations of the collisional excitation cross sections of the fine-structure levels of NH by Ne are performed for energies up to 3000 cm{sup −1}, which yield, after thermal average, rate coefficients up to 350 K. The propensity rules between fine-structure levels are reported, and it is found that F-conserving cross sections are larger than F-changing cross sections even if the propensity rules are not as strong as for the NH–He system. The calculated rate coefficients are compared with available experimental measurements at room temperature and a fairly good agreement is found between experimental and theoretical data, confirming the good quality of the scattering calculations and also the accuracy of the potential energy surface used in this work.

  1. N,N-二甲基色胺衍生物合成研究%Synthesis of N,N-Dimethyltryptamine Derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德臣; 姜爱丽; 郭清华

    2002-01-01

    以四氢呋喃和对氰甲基盐酸苯肼(Ⅹ)为主要原料合成了色胺衍生物N,N-二甲基-2-{5-[(3-氨基-1,2,4-口恶二唑-5-基)甲基]-1-氢-吲哚-3-基}乙胺(Ⅶ).四氢呋喃和氯化氢反应,得到4-氯丁醇(ⅩⅤ),产率为62%;ⅩⅤ用氯铬酸吡啶盐氧化得4-氯丁醛(ⅪⅤ),产率为61%;ⅪⅤ经缩醛化得4-氯丁醛缩甲醇(ⅩⅢ), 产率为56%;ⅩⅢ用二甲胺取代得4-(N,N-二甲胺基)丁醛缩甲醇(Ⅸ),产率为86%;Ⅸ与Ⅹ经环化得N,N-二甲基-2-[5-(氰甲基)-1氢-吲哚-3-基]乙胺(Ⅺ),产率为76%;Ⅺ经酯化得N,N-二甲基-2-[5-(乙酯甲基)-1氢-吲哚-3-基]乙胺(Ⅻ),产率为82%;Ⅻ与羟基硫酸胍缩合得产物(Ⅶ),产率为66%.

  2. Total Synthesis of N,N'-diferuloyl-putrescine and JBIR-94%N,N'-diferuloyl-putrescine和JBIR-94的全合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓琴; 杨金会; 冯尧; 陈兵兵; 谢一民

    2015-01-01

    阿魏酸和1,4-丁二胺经缩合反应制得天然产物N,N-diferuloyl-putrescine (1);用Pd/C催化还原1首次完成了天然产物JBIR-94的全合成,总收率77.1%,其结构经1H NMR,13C NMR和IR确证.

  3. Measurements of bubbles in sea water by nonstationary sound scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulichev, V A; Bulanov, V A

    2011-11-01

    Methods for the characterization of bubbles in sea water by acoustic scattering are analyzed. Nonstationary linear and nonlinear sound scattering methods are proposed. The transient linear and nonlinear sound scattering allows the scattering by resonant gas bubbles to be distinguished from the scattering by other microinhomogeneities. The application of parametric arrays in oceanic experiments, together with the broadband frequency analysis of the backscattering coefficient, allows information about bubbles in sea water to be obtained. Experimental results on sound scattering and gas bubble distribution functions are presented for different conditions in the ocean.

  4. Electrochemical and spectroscopic investigation of Ln3+ (Ln = Sm, Eu, and Yb) solvation in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-based ionic liquids and coordination by N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-3-oxa-pentane diamide (TODGA) and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yunfeng; Hussey, Charles L

    2013-03-18

    The electrochemistry and electronic absorption spectroscopy of samarium, europium, and ytterbium were investigated in the 1-(1-butyl)trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BuMe3NTf2N) and 1-butyl-3-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BuMePyroTf2N) ionic liquids and in these solvents containing the neutral tridentate ligand N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-3-oxo-pentane diamide (TODGA) and the anionic hard ligand chloride. Lanthanide ions were introduced into the ionic liquids by controlled potential oxidation of the respective metals to yield solutions containing Eu(2+), Sm(3+), and Yb(3+), and it was possible to cycle between Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) as well as Yb(3+) and Yb(2+) using controlled potential electrolysis. Electronic absorption spectroscopy suggested that the Ln(3+) species are weakly solvated by Tf2N(-) anions as [Ln(Tf2N)x]((x-3)-) in the neat ILs. The quasireversible Ln(3+/2+) couples of all three elements were readily accessible in these ILs, but Sm(2+) was only stable on the voltammetric time scale. Addition of TODGA to [Ln(Tf2N)x]((x-3)-) solutions produces 3:1 complexes with Eu(3+) and Sm(3+) but only a 2:1 complex with the smaller Yb(3+) ion. Depending on the temperature, addition of Cl(-) to solutions of [Ln(Tf2N)x]((x-3)-) induces precipitation of LnCl3(s) when the mole ratio mCl(-)/mLn(3+) ≈ 3. However, when mCl(-)/mLn(3+) > 3, these precipitates redissolve to form the octahedral chloride complexes, [LnCl6](3-).

  5. Structural, molecular orbital and optical characterizations of solvatochromic mixed ligand copper(II) complex of 5,5-Dimethyl cyclohexanate 1,3-dione and N,N,N";,N";N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, A.; Farag, A. A. M.; Ammar, A. H.; Ahmed, H. M.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, a new solvatochromic mononuclear mixed ligand complex with the formula, Cu(DMCHD)(Me5dien)NO3 (where, DMCHD = 5,5-Dimethyl cyclohexanate 1,3-dione and (Me5dien) = N,N,N";,N";N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine was synthesized and characterized by analytical, spectral, magnetic, molar conductance, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. The formation constant-value for copper (II)-DMCHD was found to be much lower than the expected for similar β-diketones, revealing monobasic unidentate nature of this ligand. The d-d absorption bands of the prepared complex exhibit a color changes in various solvent (solvatochromic). Specific and non-specific interactions of solvent molecules with the complex were investigated using Multi Parametric Linear Regression Analysis (MLRA). Structural parameters of the free ligands and their Cu (II) - complex were calculated on the basis of semi-empirical PM3 level and compared with the experimental data. The crystallite size and morphology of Cu(DMCHD)(Me5dien)NO3 were examined using XRD analysis and TEM, revealing that the complex is well crystalline and correspond to the monoclinic crystal structure. The lattice strain and mean crystallite size were estimated by Williamson-Hall (W-H) plot using X-ray diffraction data. The main important absorption parameters such as extinction molar coefficient, oscillator strength and electric dipole strength of the principal optical transitions in the UV-Vis region were calculated. The analysis of absorption coefficient near the fundamental absorption edge reveals that the optical band gaps are direct allowed transitions with values of 2.78 eV and 3.59 eV. The present copper (II) complex was screened for its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus Aureus and Bacillus Subtilis as Gram-positive bacteria, Escherichia Coli and Salmonella Typhimurium as Gram-negative bacteria and Candida Albicans as fungus

  6. Structural, molecular orbital and optical characterizations of solvatochromic mixed ligand copper(II) complex of 5,5-Dimethyl cyclohexanate 1,3-dione and N,N,N',N'N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, A; Farag, A A M; Ammar, A H; Ahmed, H M

    2014-03-25

    In this work, a new solvatochromic mononuclear mixed ligand complex with the formula, Cu(DMCHD)(Me5dien)NO3 (where, DMCHD=5,5-Dimethyl cyclohexanate 1,3-dione and (Me5dien)=N,N,N',N'N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine was synthesized and characterized by analytical, spectral, magnetic, molar conductance, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. The formation constant-value for copper (II)-DMCHD was found to be much lower than the expected for similar β-diketones, revealing monobasic unidentate nature of this ligand. The d-d absorption bands of the prepared complex exhibit a color changes in various solvent (solvatochromic). Specific and non-specific interactions of solvent molecules with the complex were investigated using Multi Parametric Linear Regression Analysis (MLRA). Structural parameters of the free ligands and their Cu (II) - complex were calculated on the basis of semi-empirical PM3 level and compared with the experimental data. The crystallite size and morphology of Cu(DMCHD)(Me5dien)NO3 were examined using XRD analysis and TEM, revealing that the complex is well crystalline and correspond to the monoclinic crystal structure. The lattice strain and mean crystallite size were estimated by Williamson-Hall (W-H) plot using X-ray diffraction data. The main important absorption parameters such as extinction molar coefficient, oscillator strength and electric dipole strength of the principal optical transitions in the UV-Vis region were calculated. The analysis of absorption coefficient near the fundamental absorption edge reveals that the optical band gaps are direct allowed transitions with values of 2.78 eV and 3.59 eV. The present copper (II) complex was screened for its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus Aureus and Bacillus Subtilis as Gram-positive bacteria, Escherichia Coli and Salmonella Typhimurium as Gram-negative bacteria and Candida Albicans as fungus strain.

  7. Scattering by Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.

  8. Neutron Brillouin scattering in dense fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkerk, P. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands); FINGO Collaboration

    1997-04-01

    Thermal neutron scattering is a typical microscopic probe for investigating dynamics and structure in condensed matter. In contrast, light (Brillouin) scattering with its three orders of magnitude larger wavelength is a typical macroscopic probe. In a series of experiments using the improved small-angle facility of IN5 a significant step forward is made towards reducing the gap between the two. For the first time the transition from the conventional single line in the neutron spectrum scattered by a fluid to the Rayleigh-Brillouin triplet known from light-scattering experiments is clearly and unambiguously observed in the raw neutron data without applying any corrections. Results of these experiments are presented. (author).

  9. Antischistosomal activity of N,N'-arylurea analogs against Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Houzong; Liu, Fengyou; Chen, Jinglei; Li, Yan; Cui, Jinhao; Qiao, Chunhua

    2016-03-01

    Although the antischistosomal activities of N,N'-arylurea analogs were reported, systematic structure-activity relationships have not been conducted. In this Letter, we reported the design, synthesis and evaluation of 45 N,N'-arylurea analogs. Among these prepared compounds, 13 compounds were urea linker modified and 32 were N,N'-arylurea derivatives. The activity evaluation revealed 12 analogs exhibited IC50 values lower than 22.6μM, and 7 of them had IC50 less than 10μM against the juvenile Schistosoma japonicum in vitro. Their worm killing potency was even higher against adult worm. Unfortunately, low to moderate worm burden reduction of 0-33.4% was recorded after administration of a single oral dose of 200mg/kg or 400mg/kg to mice harboring S. japonicum.

  10. The SCANDAL facility - How to measure elastic neutron scattering in the 50-130 MeV range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, Joakim

    2001-01-01

    The interest in neutrons of energies above 20 MeV is growing rapidly, since new applications are being developed or have been identified. Transmutation of nuclear waste and cancer therapy with neutron beams are two research fields that would benefit from new neutron scattering data at these energies. A facility for detection of scattered neutrons in the energy interval 50-130 MeV, SCANDAL (SCAttered Nucleon Detection AssembLy), has been developed and installed at the neutron beam facility of the The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. It can be used to study the (n,n), (n,p) and (n,d) reactions. This thesis describes the layout of the setup, the experimental procedure, and data analysis principles. The performance of the spectrometer is illustrated with measurements of the (n,p) and (n,n) reactions on {sup 1}H and {sup 12}C. In addition, the neutron beam facility is described in some detail.

  11. Relativistic scalar-vector models of the N-N and N-nuclear interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, A.E.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper for the Proceedings of Conference an Anti-Nucleon and Nucleon-Nucleus Interactions summarizes work by the principal investigator and his collaborators on the nucleon-nucleon (N-N) and nucleon-nuclear (N-eta) interactions. It draws heavily on a paper presented at the Many Body Conference in Rome in 1972 but also includes a brief review of our phenomenological N-eta interaction studies. We first summarize our 48-49 generalized scalar-vector meson field theory model of the N-N interactions. This is followed by a brief description of our phenomenological work in the 50's on the N-eta interaction sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission (the present DOE). This work finally led to strong velocity dependent potentials with spin orbit and isospin terms for shell and optical model applications. This is followed by a section on the Emergence of One-Boson Exchange Models describing developments in the 60's of quantitative generalized one boson exchange potentials (GOBEP) including our purely relativistic N-N analyses. Then follows a section on the application of this meson field model to the N-eta interaction, in particular to spherical closed shell nuclei. This work was sponsored by AFOSR but funding was halted with the Mansfield amendment. We conclude with a discussion of subsequent collateral work by former colleagues and by others who have converged upon scalar-vector relativistic models of N-N, antiN-N, N-eta and antiN-eta interactions and some lessons learned from this extended endeavor. 61 refs.

  12. A 10 nN resolution thrust-stand for micro-propulsion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Subha; Courtney, Daniel G.; Shea, Herbert, E-mail: herbert.shea@epfl.ch [Microsystems for Space Technologies Laboratory (LMTS), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    We report on the development of a nano-Newton thrust-stand that can measure up to 100 μN thrust from different types of microthrusters with 10 nN resolution. The compact thrust-stand measures the impingement force of the particles emitted from a microthruster onto a suspended plate of size 45 mm × 45 mm and with a natural frequency over 50 Hz. Using a homodyne (lock-in) readout provides strong immunity to facility vibrations, which historically has been a major challenge for nano-Newton thrust-stands. A cold-gas thruster generating up to 50 μN thrust in air was first used to validate the thrust-stand. Better than 10 nN resolution and a minimum detectable thrust of 10 nN were achieved. Thrust from a miniature electrospray propulsion system generating up to 3 μN of thrust was measured with our thrust-stand in vacuum, and the thrust was compared with that computed from beam diagnostics, obtaining agreement within 50 nN to 150 nN. The 10 nN resolution obtained from this thrust-stand matches that from state-of-the-art nano-Newton thrust-stands, which measure thrust directly from the thruster by mounting it on a moving arm (but whose natural frequency is well below 1 Hz). The thrust-stand is the first of its kind to demonstrate less than 3 μN resolution by measuring the impingement force, making it capable of measuring thrust from different types of microthrusters, with the potential of easy upscaling for thrust measurement at much higher levels, simply by replacing the force sensor with other force sensors.

  13. A 10 nN resolution thrust-stand for micro-propulsion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subha; Courtney, Daniel G.; Shea, Herbert

    2015-11-01

    We report on the development of a nano-Newton thrust-stand that can measure up to 100 μN thrust from different types of microthrusters with 10 nN resolution. The compact thrust-stand measures the impingement force of the particles emitted from a microthruster onto a suspended plate of size 45 mm × 45 mm and with a natural frequency over 50 Hz. Using a homodyne (lock-in) readout provides strong immunity to facility vibrations, which historically has been a major challenge for nano-Newton thrust-stands. A cold-gas thruster generating up to 50 μN thrust in air was first used to validate the thrust-stand. Better than 10 nN resolution and a minimum detectable thrust of 10 nN were achieved. Thrust from a miniature electrospray propulsion system generating up to 3 μN of thrust was measured with our thrust-stand in vacuum, and the thrust was compared with that computed from beam diagnostics, obtaining agreement within 50 nN to 150 nN. The 10 nN resolution obtained from this thrust-stand matches that from state-of-the-art nano-Newton thrust-stands, which measure thrust directly from the thruster by mounting it on a moving arm (but whose natural frequency is well below 1 Hz). The thrust-stand is the first of its kind to demonstrate less than 3 μN resolution by measuring the impingement force, making it capable of measuring thrust from different types of microthrusters, with the potential of easy upscaling for thrust measurement at much higher levels, simply by replacing the force sensor with other force sensors.

  14. Serotonin receptor binding affinities of several hallucinogenic phenylalkylamine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, R A; Liebowitz, S M; Mack, E C

    1978-08-01

    Hallucinogenic phenylalkylamine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine analogues are known to affect serotonergic systems both in vivo and in vitro. Using a rat stomach fundus model, the 5-HT receptor binding affinities of several of these analogues were determined and compared. The most behaviorally potent analogues examined, DOB, DOM, and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, were found to possess rather high affirmities (pA2 = 7.35, 7.12, and 7.08, respectively) for the 5-HT receptors of the model system.

  15. Oxidation Reactivity Channels for 2-(Pyridin-2-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-acetamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pailloux, Sylvie [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Binyamin, Iris [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Kim, Sung-jun [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Deck, Lorraine M. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Hay, Benjamin [ORNL; Duesler, Eileen N. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Paine, Robert T. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque

    2007-11-01

    Synthetic routes to 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-N,N-diphenylacetamide and 2-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-acetamide are described along with results from the chemical oxidation of these compounds with peracetic acid, m-chloroperbenzoic acid, and OXONE. In each case, oxidations generate four products in varying amounts depending on the oxidant and reaction conditions. Each product has been characterized by spectroscopic methods and the molecular structures of several of the new compounds have been confirmed by X-ray crystallography.

  16. Oxidation reactivity channels for 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-N,N-diphenylacetamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pailloux, Sylvie; Binyamin, Iris; Deck, Lorraine M.; Rapko, Brian M.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Duesler, Eileen N.; Paine, Robert T.

    2007-11-01

    Synthetic routes to 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-N,N-diphenylacetamide and 2-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N,N-diphenylacetamide are described along with results from the chemical oxidation of these compounds with peracetic acid, m-chloroperbenzoic acid, and OXONE. In each case, oxidations generate four products in varying amounts depending on the oxidant and reaction conditions. Each product has been characterized by spectroscopic methods and the molecular structures of several of the new compounds have been confirmed by X-ray crystallography.

  17. Burn Rate Studies on AN-Based Propellants: Effect of N-N Bonded Binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Oommen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available New epoxy resins having N-N bonds in their structures have been employed as binders for ammonium nitrate (AN-based propellants. The resins have been characterized by various analytical techniques. The effect of the new binders on the burn rates of AN-based compositions including the metallized systems has been examined. The overall enhancement in the burn rate, as compared to that observed with conventional binders, has been explained in terms of the combustion reactivity of the N-N bondwiththe oxidizing speciesproduced duringcombustion. Furtherincreasein burn rate canbe achieved by inclusion of magnesium metal or ammonium perchlorate into these compositions.

  18. Similarity renormalization group evolution of N N interactions within a subtractive renormalization scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durães F.O.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We apply the similarity renormalization group (SRG approach to evolve a nucleon-nucleon (N N interaction in leading-order (LO chiral effective field theory (ChEFT, renormalized within the framework of the subtracted kernel method (SKM. We derive a fixed-point interaction and show the renormalization group (RG invariance in the SKM approach. We also compare the evolution of N N potentials with the subtraction scale through a SKM RG equation in the form of a non-relativistic Callan-Symanzik (NRCS equation and the evolution with the similarity cutoff through the SRG transformation.

  19. LEPINOCONUS CHIOCCHINII GEN. N., N. SP., A CONICAL AGGLUTINATED FORAMINIFERA FROM THE UPPER CRETACEOUS OF ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERZIKA CRUZ-ABAD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new conical agglutinated foraminifer, Lepinoconus chiocchinii gen n., n. sp. from the lower Campanian shallow-water platform deposits of the Lepini Mountains (central Apennines, Italy, is described. It has a pseudo-keriothecal wall structure, uniserial arrangement of the adult chambers and multiple apertures. The exoskeleton is constituted by beams (main and intercalary continuous from one chamber to the next, while the endoskeleton bears pillars. The new taxon is included in the Coskinolinidae family. Lepinoconus chiocchinii gen. n., n. sp. is known from southern Italy, Greece and Albania.

  20. Rockfestivaalirakentamisen johtaminen ja organisointi : Rakennustyöntekijän näkökulma

    OpenAIRE

    Koskinen, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten festivaalirakentamisen johtaminen ja organisointi näyttäytyy rakennusprojektissa mukana olevan työntekijän näkökulmasta. Aineiston keruussa olen käyttänyt omia kokemuksiani. Tutkimuskysymyksiä oli kolme: 1. Miten rakentamisprosessin onnistunut johtaminen näyttäytyy työntekijän näkökulmasta? 2. Mitkä ovat rakentamisen suurimmat ongelmakohdat/tilanteet johtamisen ja organisoinnin näkökulmasta? 3. Miten rakentamisprosessin johtamista voi keh...

  1. Fluorescence quenching of anthracene by N, N-diethylaniline in the O/W microemulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭霞; 徐慧; 郭荣

    2000-01-01

    Photoinduced electron-transfer system of anthracene-N , N-di-ethylaniline (DEA) was studied in the oil in water (O/W) microemulsuins formed by SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), BA(benzyl alcohol) and H2O. The time-resolved fluorescence study showed that the fluorescence quenching of the excited anthracene by DEA occurs at the interface of the O/W micreomulsions Besides as the quencher of the excited anthrace ne, N, N-diethylaniine could act as a cosurfactant to change the structures of the microemulsions, just as BA did. The quenching rate constants for the different structures of the system were determined.

  2. Cross section measurement for (n,n{alpha}) reactions by 14 MeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasugai, Y.; Ikeda, Y.; Uno, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Yamamoto, H.; Kawade, K.

    1997-03-01

    Nine (n,n{alpha}) cross sections for (n,n{alpha}) reactions induced by 13.5-14.9 MeV neutrons were measured for {sup 51}V, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 71}Ga, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 87}Rb, {sup 91}Zr, {sup 93}Nb, {sup 96}Zr and {sup 109}Ag isotopes by using Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) at JAERI. The reactions for 91Zr and 96Zr were measured for the first time. The evaluated data of JENDL-3 and ENDF/B-VI were compared with the present data. Some of the evaluated values are much different from our data by a factor more than ten. (author)

  3. A supramolecular ladder-like network from trimesic acid and pyrazine N,N'-dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vitthal N; Görbitz, Carl Henrik

    2014-01-01

    In the title complex, benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid-pyrazine N,N'-dioxide (2/1), C9H6O6·0.5C4H4N2O2, cocrystallized trimesic acid (TMA) and pyrazine N,N'-dioxide (PNO) molecules form strong O-H...O hydrogen bonds, but also important weak C-H...O and dipole-dipole intermolecular interactions, to generate a densely packed three-dimensional network. PNO molecules lie on inversion centres where they connect pairs of TMA sheets into distinct two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded layers perpendicular to the crystallographic ab diagonal.

  4. Proton scattering from unstable nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y Blumenfeld; E Khan; F Maréchal; T Suomijärvi

    2001-08-01

    Recent improvements in the intensities and optical qualities of radioactive beams have made possible the study of elastic and inelastic proton scattering on unstable nuclei. The design and performances of an innovative silicon strip detector array devoted to such experiments are described. The quality of the data obtained are illustrated with recent results obtained at the GANIL facility for unstable oxygen, sulfur and argon isotopes. Methods to analyse the data using phenomenological and microscopic optical model potentials are discussed.

  5. [Extraction of Heavy Metals from Sludge Using Biodegradable Chelating Agent N,N-bis(carboxymethyl) Glutamic Acid Tetrasodium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing; Cui, Yan-rui; Tang, Xiao-xiao; Yang, Hui-juan; Sun, Jian-hui

    2015-05-01

    N, N-bis (carboxymethyl) glutamic acid tetrasodium (GLDA), a novel biodegradable and green chelating agent, has excellent metal chelating ability. Batch experiment was conducted to study the extraction process of Cd, Ni, Cu and Zn in industrial sludge using GLDA. The effects of contact time, pH of the system, content of chelating agent were investigated, and the forms of heavy metals in sludge pre- and post-extraction using the modified BCR sequential extraction procedure were studied. The results showed that GLDA was effective for cadmium extraction in sludge. Several heavy metals could be effectively extracted under the condition of pH 4 and molar ratio of chelating agent to total heavy metal 3:1. Residual fraction took the largest fraction in Zn, which caused the low extraction efficiency of this metal. Chelating properties were related not only to contact time, pH, chelating agent's concentration, and stability constant but also to species distribution of metals.

  6. Semiempirical and ab initio calculations versus dynamic NMR on conformational analysis of cyclohexyl-N,N-dimethylcarbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basso Ernani A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Axial-equatorial conformational proportions for cyclohexyl-N,N-dimethyl carbamate have been measured, for the first time, by the Eliel method, ¹H and 13C dynamic nuclear magnetic resonance (DNMR. The results were compared against those determined by theoretical calculations. By the Eliel method at least five experimentally independent measureables were used in CCl4, CDCl3 and CD3CN. The ¹H and 13C low temperature experiments were performed in CF2Br2/CD2Cl2 . Semiempirical methods MNDO, AM1 and PM3 and ab initio molecular orbital calculations at the HF/STO-3G and HF/6-31G(d,p levels have been performed on the axial and equatorial conformers populations. All applied methods correctly predict the equatorial conformer preference over the axial one. The resulting equatorial preferences determined by NMR data and theoretical calculations are in good agreement.

  7. Measurement of the $\\bar{p}p \\rightarrow \\bar{n}n$ Charge-Exchange Differential Cross-Section

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this proposal is a measurement of the differential cross-section of the $\\bar{p}$p $\\rightarrow$ $\\bar{n}$n charge-exchange reaction with a point-to-point precision of 1\\% in the forward direction, and an absolute normalization error of 3\\%. The high precision of the data should allow, inter alia, a determination of the $\\pi$NN coupling constant to better than 2\\%.\\\\ \\\\ The measurement will be done using the existing neutron and antineutron detectors built for experiment PS199 and liquid hydrogen target. In one week of running time, with a $\\bar{p}$ beam intensity of 3 $ 10 ^{5} $ $\\bar{p}$/sec, the reaction will be measured at a few $\\bar{p}$ momenta, in the range 500 to 900~MeV/c.

  8. Luminescent platinum complexes with terdentate ligands forming 6-membered chelate rings: advantageous and deleterious effects in N--N--N and N--C--N-coordinated complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Katherine L; Parkes, Louise F; Piper, Jason D; Williams, J A Gareth

    2010-01-18

    Platinum(II) complexes of the form [PtL(n)Cl](+) are reported, containing the N--N--N-coordinating ligands 2,6-di(8-quinolyl)pyridine (L(1)), 2,6-di(8-quinolyl)-4-methoxypyridine (L(2)), or 2,6-di(7-aza-indolyl)-pyridine (L(3)). Metathesis of the chloride co-ligand in [PtL(1)Cl](+) can be accomplished under mild conditions, as exemplified by the formation of the complexes [PtL(1)OMe](+) and [PtL(1)(C[triple bond]C-tfp)](+), in which L(1) remains bound as a terdentate ligand {HC[triple bond]C-tfp = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)-phenylacetylene}. An N--C--N-coordinated, cyclometalated analogue of [PtL(1)Cl](+) has also been prepared, namely, PtL(4)Cl where HL(4) is 1,3-di(8-quinolyl)benzene. The common feature among the six new complexes described here is that they contain 6-membered chelate rings, rather than the usual 5-membered rings that form when more common N--N--N ligands, such as 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine (tpy), bind to Pt(II). All the quinolyl-based complexes are phosphorescent in solution at room temperature, with quantum yields up to 4%. This contrasts with the well-established lack of emission from [Pt(tpy)Cl](+) under these conditions. Density functional theory calculations suggest that the improvement may stem, at least in part, from the relief of ring strain associated with the larger chelate ring size, leading to a more optimal bite angle at the metal, close to 180 degrees , and hence to a stronger ligand field. Consideration of the luminescence parameters, including data at 77 K, together with absorption and electrochemical data and the results of TD-DFT calculations, suggests that the lowest-lying singlet states have metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) character, but that the triplet state from which emission occurs has more predominant ligand-centered character. The azaindolyl complex [PtL(3)Cl](+) is not emissive at room temperature, apparently owing to a particularly small radiative rate constant. The cyclometalated complex PtL(4)Cl emits at lower

  9. Antiproton-Proton Glory Scattering

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment measures @*p and K|-p backwards scattering between 8 and 16 GeV/c in the Omega spectrometer using the S1 beam, with sensitivities of several events per nanobarn. The mechanism responsible for backward scattering in channels not mediated by particle exchange is not understood, and could be almost energy-independent glory scattering, especially since relatively high cross sections of 190~(@*p) and 120~(K|-p)nb have been measured earlier at 5~GeV/c. @p|-p backwards scattering is measured for monitoring purposes. The trigger requires a forward particle of momentum close to the beam momentum. Absence of light in the two forward Cerenkov counters indicates that the particle is a proton. Combinations of an incident @p|- and an outgoing K|+, or an incident K|- or @* and an outgoing @p|+, cover the following byproducts: @*p~@A~@p|+@p|- which is an (allowed) baryon exchange reaction, and the exotic exchange reactions @p|-p~@A~K|+Y K|-p~@A~@p|+Y|-, where Y|- may be the @S|- or the Y*|-(1385).

  10. Reactivity impact of 2H and 16O elastic scattering nuclear data on critical systems with heavy water

    OpenAIRE

    Roubtsov, D.; KOZIER K.; Chow, J. C.; Plompen, Arjan; Kopecky, Stefan; Svenne, J. P.; Canton, L.

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of deuterium nuclear data is important for reactor physics simulations of heavy water (D2O) reactors. The elastic neutron scattering cross section data at thermal energies, σs, th, have been observed to have noticeable impact on the reactivity values in simulations of critical systems involving D2O. We discuss how the uncertainties in the thermal scattering cross sections of 2H(n,n)2H and 16O(n,n)16O propagate to the uncertainty of the calculated neutron multiplication factor, ke...

  11. On the Nature of Scattering from Isolated Perturbations in Elastic Media and the Consequences for Processing of Seismic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Christof

    2000-01-01

    The nature of seismic scattering was investigated by elastic scattering theory and numerical experiment. Seismic scattering situations can be classified by analyzing the amplitude versus scattering angle behavior of the scattered seismic wave field. The shape of large objects has significant impact on the dynamics of the scattered wave field. Gather oriented as well as prestack methods capable of enhancing the scattering response and assisting in classification were developed. A new 3D migrat...

  12. Photoluminescence and pressure effects in short period InN/nGaN superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staszczak, G.; Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of photoluminescence and its dependence on hydrostatic pressure are performed on a set of InN/nGaN superlattices with one InN monolayer and with different numbers of GaN monolayers. The emission energies, EPL, measured at ambient pressure, are close to the value of the band gap, Eg...

  13. A GC-FID method for quantitative analysis of N,N-carbonyldiimidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Claire; Mangion, Ian

    2016-03-20

    N,N-Carbonyldiimidazole (CDI), a common synthetic reagent used in commercial scale pharmaceutical synthesis, is known to be sensitive to hydrolysis from ambient moisture. This liability demands a simple, robust analytical method to quantitatively determine reagent quality to ensure reproducible performance in chemical reactions. This work describes a protocol for a rapid GC-FID based analysis of CDI.

  14. Double pion production in $NN$ and $\\bar{N}N$ collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Xu; Xu, Hu-Shan

    2010-01-01

    With an effective Lagrangian approach, we give a full analysis on the $NN \\to NN\\pi\\pi$ and $\\bar{N}N\\to \\bar{N}N\\pi\\pi$ reactions by exploring the roles of various resonances with mass up to 1.72 GeV. We find large contributions from $\\Delta$, $N^*(1440)$, $\\Delta(1600)$ and $\\Delta(1620)$ resonances. Our calculations also indicate sizeable contributions from nucleon poles for the energies close to the threshold. A good description to the existing data of different isospin channels of $NN\\to NN\\pi\\pi$ and $\\bar{N}N\\to \\bar{N}N\\pi\\pi$ for beam energies up to 2.2 GeV is reached. Our results provide important implications to the ABC effect and guildlines to the future experimental projects at COSY, HADES and HIRFL-CSR. We point out that the \\={P}ANDA at FAIR could be an essential place for studying the properties of baryon resonances and the data with baryon and anti-baryon in final states are worth analyzing.

  15. The Electron Transfer Reaction between p-Nitrobenzoates and β-N, N-Dimethylaminonaphthalene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A few of p-nitrobenzoates were synthesized, and the electron transfer of them with β-N, N-dimethylaminonaphthalene (DMAN) in methanol solution was studied. Steady-state fluore-scence results showed the cyclodextrin moiety in p-nitrobenzoyl-β-cyclodextrin would block the electron transfer pathway from DMAN compared with other electron acceptors, thus, reduced the electron transfer efficiency.

  16. Efficacy and safety of dietary N,N-dimethylglycine in broiler production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, I.D.

    2011-01-01

    N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), the dimethyl derivative of the amino acid glycine, is a naturally occurring intermediary metabolite in the choline to glycine metabolism. The molecule was first reported in 1943 and is currently used for a variety of applications, including the enhancement of athletic

  17. Preparation of N, N'-diacylpiperazine and its extraction property for U(Ⅵ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel extractant, N, N'-diacylpiperazine (DAPEZ), was synthesized and characterized for the first time. Its extraction property for U(Ⅵ) from aqueous nitric acid media has been studied. The effects of concentration of nitric acid and extractant on the distribution ratio were examined and the extraction mechanism were discussed.

  18. Influence of solvents on extraction of U(Ⅵ) by N,N'-didecanoylpiperazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Extraction behavior of N, N'-didecanoylpiperazine (DDPEZ) for U(Ⅵ)in a series of solvents from aqueous nitric acid media was investigated for the first time.The dependence of distribution ratios on the concentration of aqueous nitric acid.extractant and temperature has been discussed. The increasing sequence of extractiveability of DDPEZ is given: chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, dimethylbenzene, toluene,benzene.``

  19. Oxygenase-Catalyzed Desymmetrization of N,N-Dialkyl-piperidine-4-carboxylic Acids**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydzik, Anna M; Leung, Ivanhoe K H; Kochan, Grazyna T; McDonough, Michael A; Claridge, Timothy D W; Schofield, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    γ-Butyrobetaine hydroxylase (BBOX) is a 2-oxoglutarate dependent oxygenase that catalyzes the final hydroxylation step in the biosynthesis of carnitine. BBOX was shown to catalyze the oxidative desymmetrization of achiral N,N-dialkyl piperidine-4-carboxylates to give products with two or three stereogenic centers. PMID:25164544

  20. Trimethine cyanine dyes as fluorescent probes for amyloid fibrils: The effect of N,N'-substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Marina V; Chernii, Svitlana V; Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Yu; Kryvorotenko, Dmytro V; Derevyanko, Nadiya O; Slominskii, Yurii L; Kovalska, Vladyslava B; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M

    2015-09-01

    The effect of various N,N'-substituents in the molecule of benzothiazole trimethine cyanine dye on its ability to sense the amyloid aggregates of protein was studied. The dyes are low fluorescent when free and in the presence of monomeric proteins, but their emission intensity sharply increases in complexes with aggregated insulin and lysozyme, with the fluorescence quantum yield reaching up to 0.42. The dyes carrying butyl, hydroxyalkyl, and phenylalkyl groups as N,N'-substituents possess the increased fluorescent sensitivity to fibrillar lysozyme, whereas the ones carrying quaternary amino groups are preferably sensitive to fibrillar insulin. This fluorescent sensitivity preference provided by the N,N'-functional groups could be explained by the interaction between these groups and protein side chains. The strongest fluorescent response (up to 70times) and the same sensitivity to aggregates of both proteins were exhibited by the dye D-51 carrying N-sulfoalkyl group. The studied cyanines allow the detection of fibrillar aggregates in the wide range up to 0.8 to 300μg/ml and permit monitoring the protein aggregation kinetics with high reproducibility. The modification of trimethine cyanine dyes by functional substituents in N,N'-positions is suggested as a tool for the design of fluorescent molecules with the enhanced fluorescent sensitivity to the fibrillar aggregates of proteins.