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Sample records for n-heterocyclic carbene ligands

  1. Influence of bulky yet flexible N-heterocyclic carbene ligands in gold catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Alba; Patrick, Scott R; Gasperini, Danila; Meiries, Sebastien; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Three new Au(I) complexes of the formula [Au(NHC)(NTf2)] (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) bearing bulky and flexible ligands have been synthesised. The ligands studied are IPent, IHept and INon which belong to the 'ITent' ('Tent' for 'tentacular') family of NHC derivatives. The effect of these ligands in gold-promoted transformations has been investigated.

  2. Cytotoxic gold(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes with phosphane ligands as potent enzyme inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubbiani, Riccardo; Salassa, Luca; de Almeida, Andreia; Casini, Angela; Ott, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Organometallic gold complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands have been demonstrating promising properties as novel anticancer agents. Gold(I) NHC complexes containing different phosphanes as secondary ligands were shown to trigger strong cytotoxic effects in cancer cells, and their effect

  3. Olefin Metathesis With Ruthenium-Arene Catalysts Bearing N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaude, Lionel; Demonceau, Albert

    In this chapter, we summarize the main results of our investigations on the ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of cyclooctene catalyzed by various ruthenium (Ru)-arene complexes bearing imidazolin-2-ylidene, imidazolidin- 2-ylidene, or triazolin-5-ylidene ligands. Three major findings emerged from this study. First, we underscored the intervention of a photochemical activation step due to visible light illumination. Second, we established that the presence of an endocyclic double bond in the carbene ligand central heterocycle was not crucial to achieve high catalytic efficiencies. Third, we demonstrated that ortho-metallation of the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand by the Ru center led to inactive catalysts.

  4. New metathesis catalyst bearing chromanyl moieties at the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Hryniewicka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a new type of Hoveyda–Grubbs 2nd generation catalyst bearing a modified N-heterocyclic carbene ligands is reported. The new catalyst contains an NHC ligand symmetrically substituted with chromanyl moieties. The complex was tested in model CM and RCM reactions. It showed very high activity in CM reactions with electron-deficient α,β-unsaturated compounds even at 0 °C. It was also examined in more demanding systems such as conjugated dienes and polyenes. The catalyst is stable, storable and easy to purify.

  5. Latent ruthenium–indenylidene catalysts bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene and a bidentate picolinate ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault E. Schmid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A silver-free methodology was developed for the synthesis of unprecedented N-heterocyclic carbene ruthenium indenylidene complexes bearing a bidentate picolinate ligand. The highly stable (SIPr(picolinateRuCl(indenylidene complex 4a (SIPr = 1,3-bis(2-6-diisopropylphenylimidazolidin-2-ylidene demonstrated excellent latent behaviour in ring closing metathesis (RCM reaction and could be activated in the presence of a Brønsted acid. The versatility of the catalyst 4a was subsequently demonstrated in RCM, cross-metathesis (CM and enyne metathesis reactions.

  6. Synthesis of mixed silylene-carbene chelate ligands from N-heterocyclic silylcarbenes mediated by nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gengwen; Enthaler, Stephan; Inoue, Shigeyoshi; Blom, Burgert; Driess, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    The Ni(II) -mediated tautomerization of the N-heterocyclic hydrosilylcarbene L(2) Si(H)(CH2 )NHC 1, where L(2) =CH(CCH2 )(CMe)(NAr)2 , Ar=2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 ; NHC=3,4,5-trimethylimidazol-2-yliden-6-yl, leads to the first N-heterocyclic silylene (NHSi)-carbene (NHC) chelate ligand in the dibromo nickel(II) complex [L(1) Si:(CH2 )(NHC)NiBr2 ] 2 (L(1) =CH(MeCNAr)2 ). Reduction of 2 with KC8 in the presence of PMe3 as an auxiliary ligand afforded, depending on the reaction time, the N-heterocyclic silyl-NHC bromo Ni(II) complex [L(2) Si(CH2 )NHCNiBr(PMe3 )] 3 and the unique Ni(0) complex [η(2) (Si-H){L(2) Si(H)(CH2 )NHC}Ni(PMe3 )2 ] 4 featuring an agostic SiH→Ni bonding interaction. When 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane (DMPE) was employed as an exogenous ligand, the first NHSi-NHC chelate-ligand-stabilized Ni(0) complex [L(1) Si:(CH2 )NHCNi(dmpe)] 5 could be isolated. Moreover, the dicarbonyl Ni(0) complex 6, [L(1) Si:(CH2 )NHCNi(CO)2 ], is easily accessible by the reduction of 2 with K(BHEt3 ) under a CO atmosphere. The complexes were spectroscopically and structurally characterized. Furthermore, complex 2 can serve as an efficient precatalyst for Kumada-Corriu-type cross-coupling reactions.

  7. Atmospheric Hydrogenation of Esters Catalyzed by PNP-Ruthenium Complexes with an N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Osamu; Nakayama, Yuji; Nara, Hideki; Fujiwhara, Mitsuhiko; Kayaki, Yoshihito

    2016-08-01

    New pincer ruthenium complexes bearing a monodentate N-heterocyclic carbene ligand were synthesized and demonstrated as powerful hydrogenation catalysts. With an atmospheric pressure of hydrogen gas, aromatic, heteroaromatic, and aliphatic esters as well as lactones were converted into the corresponding alcohols at 50 °C. This reaction protocol offers reliable access to alcohols using an easy operational setup.

  8. Nickel N-heterocyclic carbene complexes in homogeneous catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berding, Joris

    2009-01-01

    Described in this thesis are the investigations into the chemistry of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands and transition-metal complexes thereof. Specifically, a variety of N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of nickel were prepared, characterized and used as catalysts in three types of homogeneous ca

  9. Gold(I) Complexes of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands Containing Benzimidazole: Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    İlknur Özdemir; Nazan Temelli; Selami Günal; Serpil Demir

    2010-01-01

    Gold(I) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes were obtained in good yields from the corresponding silver complexes by treatment with [AuCl(PPh3)] following the commonly used silver carbene transfer route. The silver complexes were synthesized from the benzimidazolium halide salts by the in situ reactions with Ag2O in dichloromethane as a solvent at room temperature. All gold complexes have been characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Au-NHC complexes were...

  10. Gold(I Complexes of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands Containing Benzimidazole: Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlknur Özdemir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gold(I N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC complexes were obtained in good yields from the corresponding silver complexes by treatment with [AuCl(PPh3] following the commonly used silver carbene transfer route. The silver complexes were synthesized from the benzimidazolium halide salts by the in situ reactions with Ag2O in dichloromethane as a solvent at room temperature. All gold complexes have been characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Au-NHC complexes were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungal species.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of an iron complex bearing a cyclic tetra-N-heterocyclic carbene ligand: An artifical heme analogue?

    KAUST Repository

    Anneser, Markus R.

    2015-04-20

    An iron(II) complex with a cyclic tetradentate ligand containing four N-heterocyclic carbenes was synthesized and characterized by means of NMR and IR spectroscopies, as well as by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. The iron center exhibits an octahedral coordination geometry with two acetonitrile ligands in axial positions, showing structural analogies with porphyrine-ligated iron complexes. The acetonitrile ligands can readily be substituted by other ligands, for instance, dimethyl sulfoxide, carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide. Cyclic voltammetry was used to examine the electronic properties of the synthesized compounds. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  12. Large yet flexible N-heterocyclic carbene ligands for palladium catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiries, Sebastien; Le Duc, Gaëtan; Chartoire, Anthony; Collado, Alba; Speck, Klaus; Athukorala Arachchige, Kasun S; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Nolan, Steven P

    2013-12-16

    A straightforward and scalable eight-step synthesis of new N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) has been developed from inexpensive and readily available 2-nitro-m-xylene. This process allows for the preparation of a novel class of NHCs coined ITent ("Tent" for "tentacular") of which the well-known IMes (N,N'-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene), IPr (N,N'-bis(2,6-di(2-propyl)phenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) and IPent (N,N'-bis(2,6-di(3-pentyl)phenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) NHCs are the simplest and already known congeners. The synthetic route was successfully used for the preparation of three members of the ITent family: IPent (N,N'-bis(2,6-di(3-pentyl)phenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene), IHept (N,N'-bis(2,6-di(4-heptyl)phenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) and INon (N,N'-bis(2,6-di(5-nonyl)phenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene). The electronic and steric properties of each NHC were studied through the preparation of both nickel and palladium complexes. Finally the effect of these new ITent ligands in Pd-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura and Buchwald-Hartwig cross-couplings was investigated.

  13. Sulfur containing platinum(II) complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene ligands obtained by reactions of a hydrosulfido complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yuri; Hashimoto, Hideki; Nishioka, Takanori

    2012-10-21

    A hydrosulfido platinum(ii) complex with a chelated N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand was oxidised with O(2) in the presence of excess hydrogen sulfide, to give a linear tetrasulfido complex, and without hydrogen sulfide, to give a thiosulfato-bridged dinuclear complex. The hydrosulfido complex also reacted with an acetato complex containing the chelating NHC platinum unit to afford a trinuclear platinum complex with two triply bridging sulfido ligands showing an equilibrium in solution between two isomers based on the arrangement of the chelating NHC ligands.

  14. Ruthenium complexes of chelating amido-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene ligands: Synthesis, structure and DFT studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sachin Kumar; Anantha Narayanan; Mitta Nageswar Rao; Mobin M Shaikh; Prasenjit Ghosh

    2011-11-01

    Synthesis, structure and density functional theory (DFT) studies of a series of new ruthenium complexes, [1-(R)-3--(benzylacetamido)imidazol-2-ylidene]RuCl(-cymene) [R = Me (1c), -Pr (2c), CH2Ph (3c); -cymene = 4--propyltoluene] supported over /-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands are reported. In particular, the ruthenium (1-3)c complexes were synthesized from the respective silver complexes, [1-(R)-3--(benzylacetamido)imidazol-2-ylidene]2Ag+Cl− [R = Me (1b), -Pr (2b), CH2Ph (3b)] by the treatment with [Ru(-cymene)Cl2]2 in 65-76% yields. The molecular structures of (1-3)c revealed the chelation of the N-heterocylic carbene ligand through the carbene center and an amido sidearm of the ligand in all of the three complexes. The density functional theory studies on the ruthenium (1-3)c complexes indicated strong binding of the NHC ligand to the metal center as was observed from the deeply buried NHC-Ru -bonding molecular orbitals.

  15. Nitrenium ions and trivalent boron ligands as analogues of N-heterocyclic carbenes in olefin metathesis: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazio, A; Woźniak, K; Grela, K; Trzaskowski, B

    2015-12-14

    We used the density functional theory to evaluate the suitability of nitrenium ions and trivalent boron ligands as analogues of N-heterocyclic carbenes in ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts. We demonstrate that these analogues induce only minor structural changes in Hoveyda-Grubbs-like precatalysts, but have major impact on precatalyst initiation. Nitrenium ion-modified precatalysts are characterized by a weak Ru-N bond resulting in a relatively strong Ru-O bond and large free energy barriers for initiation, making them good candidates for efficient latent Ru-based catalysts. On the other hand the trivalent boron ligand, bearing a formal -1 charge, binds strongly to the ruthenium ion, weakening the Ru-O bond and facilitating its dissociation, to promote fast reaction initiation. We show that the calculated bond dissociation energy of the Ru-C/N/B bond may serve as an accurate indicator of the Ru-O bond strength and the rate of metathesis initiation.

  16. Metal-ligand bifunctional reactivity and catalysis of protic N-heterocyclic carbene and pyrazole complexes featuring β-NH units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Shigeki; Ikariya, Takao

    2014-11-28

    Metal-ligand bifunctional cooperation has attracted much attention because it offers a powerful methodology to realize a number of highly efficient and selective catalysts. In this article, recent developments in the metal-ligand cooperative reactions of protic N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and pyrazole complexes bearing an acidic NH group at the position β to the metal are surveyed. Protic 2-pyridylidenes as related cooperating non-innocent ligands are also described.

  17. Methylpalladium complexes with pyrimidine-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Summary A series of methylpalladium(II) complexes with pyrimidine-NHC ligands carrying different aryl- and alkyl substituents R ([((pym)^(NHC-R))PdII(CH3)X] with X = Cl, CF3COO, CH3) has been prepared by transmetalation reactions from the corresponding silver complexes and chloro(methyl)(cyclooctadiene)palladium(II). The dimethyl(1-(2-pyrimidyl)-3-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene)palladium(II) complex was synthesized via the free carbene route. All complexes were fully characterized by standard methods and in three cases also by a solid state structure. PMID:27559406

  18. Optimized Syntheses of Cyclopentadienyl Nickel Chloride Compounds Containing "N"-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands for Short Laboratory Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jason; Lightbody, Owen C.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments are described for the preparation of imidazolium chloride precursors to "N"-heterocyclic carbenes and their cyclopentadienyl nickel chloride derivatives. The syntheses have been optimized for second- and third-year undergraduate laboratories that have a maximum programmed length of three hours per week. The experiments are flexible and…

  19. Palladium complexes of a new type of N-heterocyclic carbene ligand derived from a tricyclic triazolooxazine framework

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj Kumar Gangwar; Alok Ch Kalita; Prasenjit Ghosh

    2014-09-01

    A new type of tricyclic triazolooxazine derived N-heterocyclic carbene precursors were developed by the alkylation reaction of a tricyclic triazolooxazine framework. In particular, the reaction of 5a,6,7,8,9,9ahexahydro-4-benzo[][1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-][1,4]oxazine with methyl iodide and ethyl iodide yielded the tricyclic triazolooxazine derived N-heterocyclic carbene precursors, (1−2)a, in 67−84% yield. The tricyclic triazolooxazinium iodide salts, (1−2)a, underwent metallation in a straight forward manner upon treatment with PdCl2 in the presence of K2CO3 in pyridine to give the trans-{3-(R)-5a,6,7,8,9,9a-hexahydro-4-benzo[][1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-][1,4]oxazin-4-ylidene} PdI2(pyridine) [R = Me (1b), Et (2b)] complexes in 23−25% yield. The new tricyclic triazolooxazine derived N-heterocyclic carbene moiety, as stabilized upon binding to palladium in the (1−2)b complexes, was structurally characterized by the X-ray single crystal diffraction studies.

  20. Solvent-dependent switch of ligand donor ability and catalytic activity of ruthenium(II) complexes containing pyridinylidene amide (PYA) N-heterocyclic carbene hybrid ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Vivienne; Carleton, Daniel J; Olguin, Juan; Mueller-Bunz, Helge; Wright, L James; Albrecht, Martin

    2014-08-04

    Chelating ligands incorporating both N-[1-alkylpyridin-4(1H)-ylidene]amide (PYA) and N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) donor sites were prepared and used for the synthesis of ruthenium(II) complexes. Cyclic voltammetry, NMR, and UV-vis spectroscopy of the complexes indicate a solvent-dependent contribution of the limiting resonance structures associated with the ligand in solution. The neutral pyridylidene imine structure is more pronounced in apolar solvents (CH2Cl2), while the mesoionic pyridinium amide form is predominant in polar solvents (MeOH, DMSO). The distinct electronic properties of these hybrid PYA-NHC ligands in different solvents have a direct influence on the catalytic activity of the ruthenium center, e.g., in the dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. The activity in different solvents qualitatively correlates with the solvent permittivity.

  1. Iridium(I) complexes with anionic N-heterocyclic carbene ligands as catalysts for the hydrogenation of alkenes in nonpolar media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolychev, Eugene L; Kronig, Sabrina; Brandhorst, Kai; Freytag, Matthias; Jones, Peter G; Tamm, Matthias

    2013-08-21

    A series of lithium complexes of anionic N-heterocyclic carbenes that contain a weakly coordinating borate moiety (WCA-NHC) was prepared in one step from free N-heterocyclic carbenes by deprotonation with n-butyl lithium followed by borane addition. The reaction of the resulting lithium-carbene adducts with [M(COD)Cl]2 (M = Rh, Ir; COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) afforded zwitterionic rhodium(I) and iridium(I) complexes of the type [(WCA-NHC)M(COD)], in which the metal atoms exhibit an intramolecular interaction with the N-aryl groups of the carbene ligands. For M = Rh, the neutral complex [(WCA-NHC)Rh(CO)2] and the ate complex (NEt4)[(WCA-NHC)Rh(CO)2Cl] were prepared, with the latter allowing an assessment of the donor ability of the ligand by IR spectroscopy. The zwitterionic iridium-COD complexes were tested as catalysts for the homogeneous hydrogenation of alkenes, which can be performed in the presence of nonpolar solvents or in the neat alkene substrate. Thereby, the most active complex showed excellent stability and activity in hydrogenation of alkenes at low catalyst loadings (down to 10 ppm).

  2. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of novel silver(I) complexes with coumarin substituted N-heterocyclic carbene ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Mert Olgun; Olgundeniz, Begüm; Günal, Selami; Özdemir, İlknur; Alıcı, Bülent; Çetinkaya, Engin

    2016-02-15

    Eight new coumarin substituted silver(I) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes were synthesized by the interaction of the corresponding imidazolium or benzimidazolium chlorides and Ag2O in dichloromethane at room temperature. Structures of these complexes were established on the basis of elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR and mass spectroscopic techniques. The antimicrobial activities of carbene precursors and silver NHC complexes were tested against standard strains: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungi Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. Results showed that all the compounds inhibited the growth of the all bacteria and fungi strains and some complexes performed good activities against different microorganisms. Among all the compounds, the most lipophilic complex bis[1-(4-methylene-6,8-dimethyl-2H-chromen-2-one)-3-(naphthalene-2-ylmethyl)benzimidazol-2-ylidene]silver(I) dichloro argentate (5e) was found out as the most active one.

  3. Bulky N-Phosphino-Functionalized N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands: Synthesis, Ruthenium Coordination Chemistry, and Ruthenium Alkylidene Complexes for Olefin Metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher C; Rominger, Frank; Limbach, Michael; Hofmann, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Ruthenium chemistry and applications in catalytic olefin metathesis based on N-phosphino-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene ligands (NHCPs) are presented. Alkyl NHCP Ru coordination chemistry is described, and access to several potential synthetic precursors for ruthenium alkylidene complexes is outlined, incorporating both trimethylsilyl and phenyl alkylidenes. The Ru alkylidene complexes are evaluated as potential olefin metathesis catalysts and were shown to behave in a latent fashion. They displayed catalytic activity at elevated temperatures for both ring closing metathesis and ring opening metathesis polymerization.

  4. N-heterocyclic carbene-ruthenium complexes for the racemization of chiral alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Johann; Nolan, Steven P

    2010-03-19

    The activity of well-defined 16-electron ruthenium complexes bearing an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand in the racemization of chiral alcohols is reported. Mechanistic considerations are also presented.

  5. Conformations of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands in Ruthenium Complexes Relevant to Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian C.; Benitez, Diego; O'Leary, Daniel J.; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Day, Michael W.; Goddard, William A.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    The structure of ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalyst 3 and model π-complex 5 in solution and in the solid state are reported. The N-tolyl ligands, due to their lower symmetry than the traditional N-mesityl substituents, complicate this analysis, but ultimately provide explanation for the enhanced reactivity of 3 relative to standard catalyst 2. The tilt of the N-tolyl ring provides additional space near the ruthenium center, which is consistent with the enhanced reactivity of 3 towards sterically demanding substrates. Due to this tilt, the more sterically accessible face bears the two methyl substituents of the N-aryl rings. These experimental studies are supported by computational studies of these complexes by DFT. The experimental data provides a means to validate the accuracy of the B3LYP and M06 functionals. B3LYP provides geometries that match X-ray crystal structural data more closely, though it leads to slightly less (∼0.5 kcal mol−1) accuracy than M06 most likely because it underestimates attractive non-covalent interactions. PMID:19146414

  6. Ruthenium(II) complexes bearing pyridine-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene ligands: Synthesis, structure and catalytic application over amide synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MUTHUKUMARAN NIRMALA; PERIASAMY VISWANATHAMURTHI

    2016-11-01

    A series of four imidazolium salts was synthesized by the reaction of 2-bromopyridine with 1- substituted imidazoles. These imidazolium salts (1a–d) were successfully employed as ligand precursors for the syntheses of new ruthenium(II) complexes bearing neutral bidentate ligands of N-heterocyclic carbene and pyridine donor moiety. The NHC-ruthenium(II) complexes (3a–d) were synthesized by reacting the appropriately substituted pyridine-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbenes with Ag₂O forming the NHC–silver bromide in situ followed by transmetalation with [RuHCl(CO)(PPh₃)₃]. The new complexes were characterized by elemental analyses and spectroscopy (IR, UV-Vis, ¹H, ¹³C, ³¹P-NMR) as well as ESI mass spectrometry. Based on the spectral results, an octahedral geometry was assigned for all the complexes. The complexes were shown to be efficient catalysts for the one-pot conversion of various aldehydes to their corresponding primary amides with good to excellent isolated yields using NH₂OH.HCl and NaHCO₃. The effects of solvent, base, temperature, time and catalyst loading were also investigated. A broad range of amides were successfully synthesized with excellent isolated yields using the above optimized protocol. Notably, the complex 3a was found to be a very efficient and versatile catalyst towards amidation of a wide range of aldehydes.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Divalent Manganese, Iron, and Cobalt Complexes in Tripodal Phenolate/N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligand Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Käß, Martina; Hohenberger, Johannes; Adelhardt, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Two novel tripodal ligands, (BIMPNMes,Ad,Me)− and (MIMPNMes,Ad,Me)2–, combining two types of donor atoms, namely, NHC and phenolate donors, were synthesized to complete the series of N-anchored ligands, ranging from chelating species with tris(carbene) to tris(phenolate) chelating arms. The compl...

  8. How does the addition of steric hindrance to a typical N-heterocyclic carbene ligand affect catalytic activity in olefin metathesis?

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to predict and rationalize the effect of the modification of the structure of the prototype 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand. The modification consists in the substitution of the methyl groups of ortho isopropyl substituent with phenyl groups, and here we plan to describe how such significant changes affect the metal environment and therefore the related catalytic behaviour. Bearing in mind that there is a significant structural difference between both ligands in different olefin metathesis reactions, here by means of DFT we characterize where the NHC ligand plays a more active role and where it is a simple spectator, or at least its modification does not significantly change its catalytic role/performance. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. N-Heterocyclic carbene chemistry of iron: fundamentals and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingleson, Michael J; Layfield, Richard A

    2012-04-14

    The use of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) in the chemistry of iron is stimulating important new applications of one of the most ubiquitous ligand types in modern organometallic chemistry. A series of reports has shown how the flexible and modifiable stereo-electronic properties of NHC ligands can be combined with iron in a range of oxidation states to create opportunities for studying unique structures, bonding and reactivity. Of particular interest are the roles of iron NHC complexes in: the stabilization of unusual oxidation states and coordination environments; the activation of small molecules; homogeneous catalysis; and bio-mimetic chemistry. Our feature article summarizes the key developments in the field.

  10. Enantiopure C1-symmetric N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands from Desymmetrized meso-1,2-Diphenylethylenediamine: Application in Ruthenium-Catalyzed Olefin Metathesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Paradiso

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to design improved chiral ruthenium catalysts for asymmetric olefin metathesis, enantiomeric catalysts incorporating C1-symmetric N-Heterocyclic carbenes (NHC ligands with syn-related substituents on the backbone were synthesized starting from meso-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine. The absolute configuration of the enantiomers of the desymmetrized meso diamine was assigned by optical rotation analysis and in silico calculations, and was found to be maintained in their respective ruthenium catalysts by comparison of the relative electronic circular dichroism (ECD spectra. The catalytic behaviour of the enantiomeric ruthenium complexes was investigated in model asymmetric metathesis transformations and compared to that of analogous complexes bearing C1-symmetric NHC ligands with an anti backbone. Modest enantioselectivities were registered and different catalyst properties depending on the nature of stereochemical relationship of substituents on the backbone were observed.

  11. "Decarbonization" of an imino N-heterocyclic carbene via triple benzyl migration from hafnium

    Science.gov (United States)

    An imino N-heterocyclic carbene underwent three sequential benzyl migrations upon reaction with tetrabenzylhafnium, resulting in complete removal of the carbene carbon from the ligand. The resulting eneamido-amidinato hafnium complex showed alkene polymerization activity comparable to that of a prec...

  12. Effect of the nature of the substituent in N-alkylimidazole ligands on the outcome of deprotonation: ring opening versus the formation of N-heterocyclic carbene complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertos, Miguel A; Pérez, Julio; Riera, Lucía; Díaz, Jesús; López, Ramón

    2010-07-26

    Complexes [Re(CO)(3)(N-RIm)(3)]OTf (N-RIm=N-alkylimidazole, OTf=trifluoromethanesulfonate; 1a-d) have been straightforwardly synthesised from [Re(OTf)(CO)(5)] and the appropriate N-alkylimidazole. The reaction of compounds 1a-d with the strong base KN(SiMe(3))(2) led to deprotonation of a central C-H group of an imidazole ligand, thus affording very highly reactive derivatives. The latter can evolve through two different pathways, depending on the nature of the substituents of the imidazole ligands. Compound 1a contains three N-MeIm ligands, and its product 2a features a C-bound imidazol-2-yl ligand. When 2a is treated with HOTf or MeOTf, rhenium N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) 3a or 4a are afforded as a result of the protonation or methylation, respectively, of the non-coordinated N atom. The reaction of 2a with [AuCl(PPh(3))] led to the heterobimetallic compound 5, in which the N-heterocyclic ligand is once again N-bound to the Re atom and C-coordinated to the gold fragment. For compounds 1b-d, with at least one N-arylimidazole ligand, deprotonation led to an unprecedented reactivity pattern: the carbanion generated by the deprotonation of the C2-H group of an imidazole ligand attacks a central C-H group of a neighbouring N-RIm ligand, thus affording the product of C-C coupling and ring-opening of the imidazole moiety that has been attacked (2c, d). The new complexes featured an amido-type N atom that can be protonated or methylated, thus obtaining compounds 3c, d or 4c, d, respectively. The latter reaction forces a change in the disposition of the olefinic unit generated by the ring-opening of the N-RIm ligand from a cisoid to a transoid geometry. Theoretical calculations help to rationalise the experimental observation of ring-opening (when at least one of the substituents of the imidazole ligands is an aryl group) or tautomerisation of the N-heterocyclic ligand to afford the imidazol-2-yl product.

  13. Luminescent cyclometalated alkynylplatinum(II) complexes with a tridentate pyridine-based N-heterocyclic carbene ligand: synthesis, characterization, electrochemistry, photophysics, and computational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sammual Yu-Lut; Lam, Elizabeth Suk-Hang; Lam, Wai Han; Wong, Keith Man-Chung; Wong, Wing-Tak; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2013-07-29

    A new class of luminescent alkynylplatinum(II) complexes with a tridentate pyridine-based N-heterocyclic carbene (2,6-bis(1-butylimidazol-2-ylidenyl)pyridine) ligand, [Pt(II)(C^N^C)(C≡CR)][PF6], and their chloroplatinum(II) precursor complex, [Pt(II)(C^N^C)Cl][PF6], have been synthesized and characterized. One of the alkynylplatinum(II) complexes has also been structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. The electrochemistry, electronic absorption and luminescence properties of the complexes have been studied. Nanosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy has also been performed to probe the nature of the excited state. The origin of the absorption and emission properties has been supported by computational studies.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of divalent manganese, iron, and cobalt complexes in tripodal phenolate/N-heterocyclic carbene ligand environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käß, Martina; Hohenberger, Johannes; Adelhardt, Mario; Zolnhofer, Eva M; Mossin, Susanne; Heinemann, Frank W; Sutter, Jörg; Meyer, Karsten

    2014-03-03

    Two novel tripodal ligands, (BIMPN(Mes,Ad,Me))(-) and (MIMPN(Mes,Ad,Me))(2-), combining two types of donor atoms, namely, NHC and phenolate donors, were synthesized to complete the series of N-anchored ligands, ranging from chelating species with tris(carbene) to tris(phenolate) chelating arms. The complete ligand series offers a convenient way of tuning the electronic and steric environment around the metal center, thus, allowing for control of the complex's reactivity. This series of divalent complexes of Mn, Fe, and Co was synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, IR, and UV/vis spectroscopy as well as by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Variable-temperature SQUID magnetization measurements in the range from 2 to 300 K confirmed high-spin ground states for all divalent complexes and revealed a trend of increasing zero-field splitting |D| from Mn(II), to Fe(II), to Co(II) complexes. Zero-field (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy of the Fe(II) complexes 3, 4, 8, and 11 shows isomer shifts δ that increase gradually as carbenes are substituted for phenolates in the series of ligands. From the single-crystal structure determinations of the complexes, the different steric demand of the ligands is evident. Particularly, the molecular structure of 1-in which a pyridine molecule is situated next to the Mn-Cl bond-and those of azide complexes 2, 4, and 6 demonstrate the flexibility of these mixed-ligand derivatives, which, in contrast to the corresponding symmetrical TIMEN(R) ligands, allow for side access of, e.g., organic substrates, to the reactive metal center.

  15. Generating and trapping metalla-N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Javier; García, Lucía; Vivanco, Marilín; Berros, Ángela; Van der Maelen, Juan Francisco

    2015-03-27

    By means of a combined experimental and theoretical approach, the electronic features and chemical behavior of metalla-N-heterocyclic carbenes (MNHCs, N-heterocyclic carbenes containing a metal atom within the heterocyclic skeleton) have been established and compared with those of classical NHCs. MNHCs are strongly basic (proton affinity and pK(a) values around 290 kcal mol(-1) and 36, respectively) with a narrow singlet-triplet gap (around 23 kcal mol(-1)). MNHCs can be generated from the corresponding metalla-imidazolium salts and trapped by addition of transition-metal complexes affording the corresponding heterodimetallic dicarbene derivatives, which can serve as carbene transfer agents.

  16. An Electronic Rationale for Observed Initiation Rates in Ruthenium-Mediated Olefin Metathesis: Charge Donation in Phosphine And N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getty, K.; Delgado-Jaime, M.U.; Kennepohl, P.

    2009-06-01

    Ru K-edge XAS data indicate that second generation ruthenium-based olefin metathesis precatalysts (L = N-heterocyclic carbene) possess a more electron-deficient metal center than in the corresponding first generation species (L = tricyclohexylphosphine). This surprising effect is also observed from DFT calculations and provides a simple rationale for the slow phosphine dissociation kinetics previously noted for second-generation metathesis precatalysts.

  17. Alkyne hydroarylation with Au N-heterocyclic carbene catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tubaro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mono- and dinuclear gold complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC ligands have been employed as catalysts in the intermolecular hydroarylation of alkynes with simple unfunctionalised arenes. Both mono- and dinuclear gold(III complexes were able to catalyze the reaction; however, the best results were obtained with the mononuclear gold(I complex IPrAuCl. This complex, activated with one equivalent of silver tetrafluoroborate, exhibited under acidic conditions at room temperature much higher catalytic activity and selectivity compared to more commonly employed palladium(II catalysts. Moreover, the complex was active, albeit to a minor extent, even under neutral conditions, and exhibited lower activity but higher selectivity compared to the previously published complex AuCl(PPh3. Preliminary results on intramolecular hydroarylations using this catalytic system indicate, however, that alkyne hydration by traces of water may become a serious competing reaction.

  18. N-Heterocyclic carbene metal complexes in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehninger, Luciano; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Ott, Ingo

    2013-03-14

    Metal complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands are widely used in chemistry due to their catalytic properties and applied for olefin metathesis among other reactions. The enhanced application of this type of organometallics has over the last few years also triggered a steadily increasing number of studies in the fields of medicinal chemistry, which take advantage of the fascinating chemical properties of these complexes. In fact it has been demonstrated that metal NHC complexes can be used to develop highly efficient metal based drugs with possible applications in the treatment of cancer or infectious diseases. Complexes of silver and gold have been biologically evaluated most frequently but also platinum or other transition metals have demonstrated promising biological properties.

  19. Gold(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes with an "activable" ester moiety : Possible biological applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, Benoit; Bodio, Ewen; Richard, Philippe; Picquet, Michel; Le Gendre, Pierre; Casini, Angela

    2015-01-01

    While N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) are ubiquitous ligands in catalysts for organic or industrial synthesis, their potential to form transition metal complexes for medicinal applications has still to be exploited. Within this frame, new Au(I)-NHC compounds have been synthesized and structurally char

  20. Enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed synthesis of trifluoromethyldihydropyridinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Ling; Liang, Zhi-Qin; Chen, Kun-Quan; Sun, De-Qun; Ye, Song

    2015-06-05

    The enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed [4 + 2] cyclocondensation of α-chloroaldehydes and trifluoromethyl N-Boc azadienes was developed, giving the corresponding 3,4-disubstituted-6-trifluoromethyldihydropyridin-2(1H)-ones in good yields with exclusive cis-selectivities and excellent enantioselectivities.

  1. π-face donation from the aromatic N-substituent of N-heterocyclic carbene ligands to metal and its role in catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Credendino, Raffaele

    2012-05-16

    In this work, we calculate the redox potential in a series of Ir and Ru complexes bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand presenting different Y groups in the para position of the aromatic N-substituent. The calculated redox potentials excellently correlate with the experimental ΔE 1/2 potentials, offering a handle to rationalize the experimental findings. Analysis of the HOMO of the complexes before oxidation suggests that electron-donating Y groups destabilize the metal centered HOMO. Energy decomposition of the metal-NHC interaction indicates that electron-donating Y groups reinforce this interaction in the oxidized complexes. Analysis of the electron density in the reduced and oxidized states of representative complexes indicates a clear donation from the C ipso of the N-substituents to an empty d orbital on the metal. In case of the Ru complexes, this mechanism involves the Ru-alkylidene moiety. All of these results suggest that electron-donating Y groups render the aromatic N-substituent able to donate more density to electron-deficient metals through the C ipso atom. This conclusion suggests that electron-donating Y groups could stabilize higher oxidation states during catalysis. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of differently donating Y groups in model reactions of Ru-catalyzed olefin metathesis and Pd-catalyzed C-C cross-coupling. Consistent with the experimental results, calculations indicate an easier reaction pathway if the N-substituent of the NHC ligand presents an electron-donating Y group. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Synthesis and Properties of Chelating N-Heterocyclic Carbene Rhodium(I) Complexes: Synthetic Experiments in Current Organometallic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Jose A.; Poyatos, Macarena; Mas-Marza, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of two air-stable Rh(I) complexes bearing a chelating N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand is described. The synthesis involves the preparation of a Ag(I)-NHC complex and its use as carbene transfer agent to a Rh(I) precursor. The so obtained complex can be further reacted with carbon monoxide to give the…

  3. Structural Diversity of Copper(I)-N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes; Ligand Tuning Facilitates Isolation of the First Structurally Characterised Copper(I)-NHC Containing a Copper(I)-Alkene Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Willans, CE; Lake, BRM

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of a series of imidazolium salts bearing N-allyl substituents, and a range of substituents on the second nitrogen atom that have varying electronic and steric properties, is reported. The ligands have been coordinated to a copper(I) centre and the resulting copper(I)–NHC (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) complexes have been thoroughly examined, both in solution and in the solid-state. The solid-state structures are highly diverse and exhibit a range of unusual geometries and cuprop...

  4. Silver(I) complexes of mono- and bidentate N-heterocyclic carbene ligands: synthesis, crystal structures, and in vitro antibacterial and anticancer studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Rosenani A; Choo, Sze Yii; Budagumpi, Srinivasa; Iqbal, Muhammad Adnan; Al-Ashraf Abdullah, Amirul

    2015-01-27

    A series of benzimidazole-based N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) proligands {1-benzyl-3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium bromide/hexafluorophosphate (1/4), 1,3-bis(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium bromide/hexafluorophosphate (2/5) and 1,3-bis(3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium-1-ylmethylbenzene dibromide/dihexafluorophosphate (3/6)} has been synthesized by the successive N-alkylation method. Ag complexes {1-benzyl-3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidenesilver(I) hexafluorophosphate (7), 1,3-bis(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidenesilver(I) hexafluorophosphate (8) and 1,3-bis(3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidene)-1-ylmethylbenzene disilver(I) dihexafluorophosphate (9)} of NHC ligands have been synthesized by the treatment of benzimidazolium salts with Ag2O at mild reaction conditions. Both, NHC proligands and Ag-NHC complexes have been characterized by (1)H and (13)C{(1)H} NMR and FTIR spectroscopy and elemental analysis technique. Additionally, the structure of the NHC proligand 5 and the mononuclear Ag complexes 7 and 8 has been elucidated by the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Both the complexes exhibit the same general structural motif with linear coordination geometry around the Ag centre having two NHC ligands. Preliminary in vitro antibacterial potentials of reported compounds against a Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and a Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis) bacteria evidenced the higher activity of mononuclear silver(I) complexes. The anticancer studies against the human derived colorectal cancer (HCT 116) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29) cell lines using the MTT assay method, revealed the higher activity of Ag-NHC complexes. The benzimidazolium salts 4-6 and Ag-NHC complexes 7-9 displayed the following IC50 values against the HCT 116 and HT29 cell lines, respectively, 31.8 ± 1.9, 15.2 ± 1.5, 4.8 ± 0.6, 10.5 ± 1.0, 18.7 ± 1.6, 1.20 ± 0.3 and 245.0 ± 4.6, 8.7 ± 0.8, 146.1 ± 3.1, 7.6 ± 0.7, 5.5 ± 0.8, 103.0 ± 2.3 μM.

  5. Ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts featuring unsymmetrical N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Veronica; Bertolasi, Valerio; Costabile, Chiara; Grisi, Fabia

    2016-01-14

    New ruthenium Grubbs' and Hoveyda-Grubbs' second generation catalysts bearing N-alkyl/N-isopropylphenyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands with syn or anti backbone configuration were obtained and compared in model olefin metathesis reactions. Different catalytic efficiencies were observed depending on the size of the N-alkyl group (methyl or cyclohexyl) and on the backbone configuration. The presence of an N-cyclohexyl substituent determined the most significant reactivity differences between catalysts with syn or anti phenyl groups on the backbone. In particular, anti catalysts proved highly efficient, especially in the ring-closing metathesis (RCM) of encumbered diolefins, while syn catalysts showed low efficiency in the RCM of less hindered diolefins. This peculiar behavior, rationalized through DFT studies, was found to be related to the high propensity of these catalysts to give nonproductive metathesis events. Enantiopure anti catalysts were also tested in asymmetric metathesis reactions, where moderate enantioselectivities were observed. The steric and electronic properties of unsymmetrical NHCs with the N-cyclohexyl group were then evaluated using the corresponding rhodium complexes. While steric factors proved unimportant for both syn and anti NHCs, a major electron-donating character was found for the unsymmetrical NHC with anti phenyl substituents on the backbone.

  6. Homobimetallic Ruthenium-N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes For Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Xavier; Demonceau, Albert; Delaude, Lionel

    In this chapter, the synthesis and catalytic activity towards olefin metathesis of homobimetallic ruthenium (Ru)-alkylidene, -cyclodiene or -arene complexes bearing phosphine or N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the last category of bimetallic compounds. Three representatives of this new type of molecular scaffold were investigated. Thus, [(p-cymene)Ru(m-Cl)3RuCl (h2-C2H4)(L)] complexes with L = PCy3 (15a), IMes (16a), or IMesCl2 (16b) were prepared. They served as catalyst precursors for cross-metathesis (CM) of various styrene derivatives. These experiments revealed the outstanding aptitude of complex 16a (and to a lesser extent of 16b) to catalyze olefin metathesis reactions. Contrary to monometallic Ru-arene complexes of the [RuCl2(p-cymene)(L)] type, the new homobimetallic species did not require the addition of a diazo compound nor visible light illumination to initiate the ring-opening metathesis of norbornene or cyclooctene. When diethyl 2,2-diallylmalonate and N,N-diallyltosylamide were exposed to 16a,b, a mixture of cycloisomerization and ring-closing metathesis (RCM) products was obtained in a nonselective way. Addition of phenylacetylene enhanced the metathetical activity while completely repressing the cycloisomerization process.

  7. Copper(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes : synthesis, characterisation and applications in synthesis and catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Santoro, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    The work described herein focuses on the synthesis and characterisation of copper(I) complexes bearing N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands, their use in catalysis as well as organometallic synthesis and related reaction mechanisms. Two classes of complexes were considered: neutral NHC-Cu(I) species and their cationic analogues. Concerning the former, initial efforts were focused on the development of a general and straightforward synthetic methodology towards complexes of the type [Cu(X)(...

  8. Cationic bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium complex: structure and application as latent catalyst in olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouen, Mathieu; Queval, Pierre; Falivene, Laura; Allard, Jessica; Toupet, Loïc; Crévisy, Christophe; Caijo, Frédéric; Baslé, Olivier; Cavallo, Luigi; Mauduit, Marc

    2014-10-13

    An unexpected cationic bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) benzylidene ether based ruthenium complex (2 a) was prepared through the double incorporation of an unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene (U2 -NHC) ligand that bore an N-substituted cyclododecyl side chain. The isolation and full characterization (including X-ray diffraction studies) of key synthetic intermediates along with theoretical calculations allowed us to understand the mechanism of the overall cationization process. Finally, the newly developed complex 2 a displayed interesting latent behavior during ring-closing metathesis, which could be "switched on" under acidic conditions.

  9. Cationic bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium complex: Structure and application as latent catalyst in olefin metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Rouen, Mathieu

    2014-09-11

    An unexpected cationic bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) benzylidene ether based ruthenium complex (2 a) was prepared through the double incorporation of an unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene (U2-NHC) ligand that bore an N-substituted cyclododecyl side chain. The isolation and full characterization (including X-ray diffraction studies) of key synthetic intermediates along with theoretical calculations allowed us to understand the mechanism of the overall cationization process. Finally, the newly developed complex 2 a displayed interesting latent behavior during ring-closing metathesis, which could be "switched on" under acidic conditions.

  10. The Depolymerization of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) (PET) Using N-Heterocyclic Carbenes from Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamber, Nahrain E.; Tsujii, Yasuhito; Keets, Kate; Waymouth, Robert M.; Pratt, Russell C.; Nyce, Gregory W.; Hedrick, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The depolymerization of the plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE) is described in this laboratory procedure. The transesterification reaction used to depolymerize PET employs a highly efficient N-heterocyclic carbene catalyst derived from a commercially available imidazolium ionic liquid. N-heterocyclic carbenes are potent nucleophilic…

  11. Continuous-Flow N-Heterocyclic Carbene Generation and Organocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Lorenzo; Hans, Morgan; Delaude, Lionel; Monbaliu, Jean-Christophe M

    2016-03-18

    Two methods were assessed for the generation of common N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) from stable imidazol(in)ium precursors using convenient and straightforward continuous-flow setups with either a heterogeneous inorganic base (Cs2CO3 or K3PO4) or a homogeneous organic base (KN(SiMe3)2). In-line quenching with carbon disulfide revealed that the homogeneous strategy was most efficient for the preparation of a small library of NHCs. The generation of free nucleophilic carbenes was next telescoped with two benchmark NHC-catalyzed reactions; namely, the transesterification of vinyl acetate with benzyl alcohol and the amidation of N-Boc-glycine methyl ester with ethanolamine. Both organocatalytic transformations proceeded with total conversion and excellent yields were achieved after extraction, showcasing the first examples of continuous-flow organocatalysis with NHCs.

  12. Caffeine-Based Gold(I) N-Heterocyclic Carbenes as Possible Anticancer Agents : Synthesis and Biological Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, Benoit; Stefan, Loic; Pirrotta, Marc; Monchaud, David; Bodio, Ewen; Richard, Philippe; Le Gendre, Pierre; Warmerdam, Elena; de Jager, Marina H.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Picquet, Michel; Casini, Angela

    2014-01-01

    A new series of gold(I) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes based on xanthine ligands have been synthesized and characterized by mass spectrometry, NMR, and X-ray diffraction. The compounds have been tested for their antiproliferative properties in human cancer cells and nontumorigenic cells in v

  13. Fluorescent silver(I) and gold(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes with cytotoxic properties : mechanistic insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Citta, Anna; Schuh, Esther; Mohr, Fabian; Folda, Alessandra; Massimino, Maria Lina; Bindoli, Alberto; Casini, Angela; Rigobello, Maria Pia

    2013-01-01

    Silver(I) and gold(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes bearing a fluorescent anthracenyl ligand were examined for cytotoxicity in normal and tumor cells. The silver(I) complex exhibits greater cytotoxicity in tumor cells compared with normal cells. Notably, in cell extracts, this complex deter

  14. Alcohol-Induced C-N Bond Cleavage of Cyclometalated N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands with a Methylene-Linked Pendant Imidazolium Ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wei; Fei, Zhaofu; Scopelliti, Rosario; Dyson, Paul J

    2016-08-16

    Reaction of the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl rhodium iodide dimer [Cp*RhI2 ]2 with 1,1'-diphenyl-3,3'-methylenediimidazolium diiodide in non-alcohol solvents, in the presence of base, led to the formation of bis-carbene complex [Cp*Rh(bis-NHC)I]I (bis-NHC=1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-methylenediimidazoline-5,5'-diylidene). In contrast, when employing alcohols as the solvent in the same reaction, cleavage of a methylene C-N bond is observed, affording ether-functionalized (cyclometalated) carbene ligands coordinated to the metal center and the concomitant formation of complexes with a coordinated imidazole ligand. Studies employing other 1,1'-diimidazolium salts indicate that the cyclometalation step is a prerequisite for the activation/scission of the C-N bond and, based on additional experimental data, a SN 2 mechanism for the reaction is tentatively proposed.

  15. Highly stable water-soluble platinum nanoparticles stabilized by hydrophilic N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Edwin A; Tricard, Simon; Flores, Juan Carlos; de Jesús, Ernesto; Chaudret, Bruno

    2014-11-24

    Controlling the synthesis of stable metal nanoparticles in water is a current challenge in nanochemistry. The strategy presented herein uses sulfonated N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands to stabilize platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) in water, under air, for an indefinite time period. The particles were prepared by thermal decomposition of a preformed molecular Pt complex containing the NHC ligand and were then purified by dialysis and characterized by TEM, high-resolution TEM, and spectroscopic techniques. Solid-state NMR studies showed coordination of the carbene ligands to the nanoparticle surface and allowed the determination of a (13)C-(195)Pt coupling constant for the first time in a nanosystem (940 Hz). Additionally, in one case a novel structure was formed in which platinum(II) NHC complexes form a second coordination sphere around the nanoparticle.

  16. Evaluation of an olefin metathesis pre-catalyst with a bulky and electron-rich N-heterocyclic carbene

    KAUST Repository

    Manzini, Simone

    2015-03-01

    The commercially-available metathesis pre-catalyst M23 has been evaluated alongside new complex [RuCl2((3-phenyl)indenylidene)(PPh3)(SIPrOMe)] (1), which bears a para-methoxy-substituted N-heterocyclic carbene ligand. Several model metathesis reactions could be conducted using only parts-per-million levels of ruthenium catalyst. The effects of the different NHC ligands on reactivity have been explored.

  17. Highly enantioselective [4 + 2] cyclization of chloroaldehydes and 1-azadienes catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Teng-Yue; Sun, Li-Hui; Ye, Song

    2012-11-14

    Highly functionalized dihydropyridinones were synthesized via the N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed enantioselective [4 + 2] annulation of α-chloroaldehydes and azadienes. Hydrogenation of the resulted dihydropyridinones afforded the corresponding piperidinones with high enantiopurity.

  18. A facile route to backbone-tethered N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands via NHC to aNHC rearrangement in NHC silicon halide adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Heidi; Schmidt, David; Radius, Udo

    2015-02-09

    The reaction of 1,3-diisopropylimidazolin-2-ylidene (iPr2 Im) with diphenyldichlorosilane (Ph2 SiCl2 ) leads to the adduct (iPr2 Im)SiCl2 Ph2 1. Prolonged heating of isolated 1 at 66 °C in THF affords the backbone-tethered bis(imidazolium) salt [((a) HiPr2 Im)2 SiPh2 ](2+)  2 Cl(-) 2 ("(a) " denotes "abnormal" coordination of the NHC), which can be synthesized in high yields in one step starting from two equivalents of iPr2 Im and Ph2 SiCl2 . Imidazolium salt 2 can be deprotonated in THF at room temperature using sodium hydride as a base and catalytic amounts of sodium tert-butoxide to give the stable N-heterocyclic dicarbene ((a) iPr2 Im)2 SiPh2 3, in which two NHCs are backbone-tethered with a SiPh2 group. This easy-to-synthesize dicarbene 3 can be used as a novel ligand type in transition metal chemistry for the preparation of dinuclear NHC complexes, as exemplified by the synthesis of the homodinuclear copper(I) complex [{(a) (ClCuiPr2 Im)}2 SiPh2 ] 4.

  19. Synthetic and Structural Studies of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes of Nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Jun-Wen; XU,Fang-Bo; LI,Qiang-Shan; SONG,Hai-Bin; LIU,Yong-Sheng; ZHANG,Zheng-Zhi

    2004-01-01

    @@ Transition metal complexes of stable N-heterocyclic carbenes have recently gained increasing attention as pre-catalysts for a number of important reactions primarily based on the analogy between N-heterocyclic carbenes and strong ó-donating tertiary phosphines,[1] Although a large number of transition-metal carbene complexes have been reported, very few incorporate chelating carbenes were reported.[2,3] Therefore, we have set out to prepare and study transition-metal compounds with chelating di-N-heterocyclic carbenes, and we now report new dicationic tetra(carbine)nickel(Ⅱ) complexes in this class (Scheme 1). Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies (Figure 1).

  20. Multicomponent synthesis of unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene precursors and their related transition-metal complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Queval, Pierre

    2013-12-04

    A low-cost, modular, and easily scalable multicomponent procedure affording access in good yields and excellent selectivity (up to 93 %) to a wide range of (a)chiral unsymmetrical 1-aryl-3-cycloalkyl-imidazolium salts is disclosed. Electronic and steric properties of the corresponding unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene (U2-NHC) ligands were evaluated and evidenced strong electron donor ability, high steric discrimination, and modular steric demand. A low-cost, modular, and easily scalable multicomponent procedure, affording access to a wide range of (a)chiral unsymmetrical 1-aryl-3-cycloalkyl- imidazolium salts in good yields and excellent selectivities, is disclosed. Electronic and steric properties of the corresponding unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene (U2-NHC) ligands were evaluated and evidenced strong electron-donor ability, high steric discrimination, and modular steric demand. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Tuning and Quantifying Steric and Electronic Effects of N-Heterocyclic Carbenes

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura

    2014-07-12

    This chapter states that the main handles for tuning steric and electronic effects are the substituents on N atoms, the nature of the C4-C5 bridge (either saturated or unsaturated), and the substituents on the C4 and C5 atoms. The initial intuition that steric properties of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) could be modulated and could impact catalytic behavior stimulated the development of steric descriptors to quantify the steric requirement of different NHCs and, possibly, to compare them with tertiary phosphines. NHCs can be classified as typically strong σ-basic/π-acid ligands, although they have been also shown to exhibit reasonable π-basic properties. This electronic modularity allows NHC ligands to adapt flexibly to different chemical environments represented by a transition metal and the other ligands. © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation of a N-Heterocyclic Carbene Nickel(II) Complex: Synthetic Experiments in Current Organic and Organometallic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritleng, Vincent; Brenner, Eric; Chetcuti, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    A four-part experiment that leads to the synthesis of a cyclopentadienyl chloro-nickel(II) complex bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand is presented. In the first part, the preparation of 1,3-bis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolium chloride (IMes[middle dot]HCl) in a one-pot procedure by reaction of 2,4,6-trimethylaniline with…

  3. Experimental and theoretical investigations on the high-electron donor character of pyrido-annelated N-heterocyclic carbenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nonnenmacher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rh(CO2Cl(NHC complexes of dipyrido-annelated N-heterocyclic carbenes were prepared. From the C–H coupling constant of the respective imidazolium salts and the N–C–N angle of the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC, a weaker σ-donor character than that of typical unsaturated NHCs is expected. However, the IR stretching frequencies of their Rh(CO2Cl complexes suggest an electron-donor character even stronger than that of saturated NHCs. We ascribe this to the extremely weak π-acceptor character of the dipyrido-annelated NHCs caused by the conjugated 14 πe− system that thus allows for an enhanced Rh–CO backbonding. This extremely low π-acceptor ability is also corroborated by the 77Se NMR chemical shift of −55.8 ppm for the respective selenourea, the lowest value ever measured for imidazole derived selenoureas. DFT-calculations of the free carbene confirm the low σ-donor character by the fact that the σ-orbital of the carbene is the HOMO−1 that lies 0.58 eV below the HOMO which is located at the π-system. Natural population analysis reveals the lowest occupation of the pπ-orbital for the saturated carbene carbon atom and the highest for the pyrido-annelated carbene. Going from the free carbene to the Rh(CO2Cl(NHC complexes, the increase in occupancy of the complete π-system of the carbene ligand upon coordination is lowest for the pyrido-annelated carbene and highest for the saturated carbene.

  4. The N-heterocyclic carbene chemistry of transition-metal carbonyl clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Javier A; García-Álvarez, Pablo

    2011-11-01

    In the last decade, chemists have dedicated many efforts to investigate the coordination chemistry of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs). Although most of that research activity has been devoted to mononuclear complexes, transition-metal carbonyl clusters have not escaped from these investigations. This critical review, which is focussed on the reactivity of NHCs (or their precursors) with transition-metal carbonyl clusters (mostly are of ruthenium and osmium) and on the transformations underwent by the NHC-containing species initially formed in those reactions, shows that the polynuclear character of these metallic compounds or, more precisely, the close proximity of one or more metal atoms to that which is or can be attached to the NHC ligand, is responsible for reactivity patterns that have no parallel in the NHC chemistry of mononuclear complexes (74 references).

  5. Silver complexes of 1,2,4-triazole derived N-heterocyclic carbenes: Synthesis, structure and reactivity studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chandrakanta Dash; Mobin M Shaikh; Prasenjit Ghosh

    2011-03-01

    Two silver(I) complexes {[1-R-4-(-t4-butylacetamido)-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene]2Ag}+ Cl− [R = Et (1b), -Pr (2b)] of /-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbenes derived from 1,2,4-triazoles are reported. The silver complexes, 1b and 2b, have been synthesized from the reaction of the /-functionalized triazolium chloride salts namely, 1-R-4-(N-t-butylacetamido)-1,2,4-triazolium chloride [R = Et (1a), -Pr (2a)] by treatment with Ag2O in 53-56% yield. The 1,2,4-triazolium chloride salts 1a and 2a were prepared by the alkylation reaction of 1-R-1,2,4-triazole (R = Et, -Pr) with --butyl-2-chloro acetamide in 47-63% yield. The molecular structures of the silver(I) complexes, 1b and 2b, have been determined by X-ray diffraction studies. The density functional theory studies on the silver 1b and 2b complexes suggest that the 1,2,4-triazole derived N-heterocyclic carbenes to be strong −donating ligands similar to the now much recognized imidazolebased N-heterocyclic carbenes. The reactivity studies with (SMe2)AuCl and (SMe2)CuBr indicated the silver complexes, 1b and 2b, to be good transmetallating agents.

  6. Impact of Substituents Attached to N-Heterocyclic Carbenes on the Catalytic Activity of Copper Complexes in the Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds with Triethoxysilane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG, Jiajian; CHEN, Lingzhen; XU, Zheng; HU, Yingqian; LI, Jiayun; BAI, Ying; QIU, Huayu; LAI, Guoqiao

    2009-01-01

    By using functionalized imidazolium salts such as 1-allyl-3-alkylimidazolium or 1-alkyi-3-vinylimidazolium salts as carbene ligand precursors, the reduction of aryl ketones with triethoxysilane may be catalyzed by copper salt/imidazolium salt/KO~tBu systems. The functional substituents attached to the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) serve to enhance the catalytic activity. Different copper salts also have an effect on the catalytic activity, with copper(Ⅱ) acetate monohydrate being superior to copper(I) chloride.

  7. Direct estimate of the internal π-donation to the carbene centre within N-heterocyclic carbenes and related molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego M. Andrada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen cyclic and acylic carbenes have been calculated with density functional theory at the BP86/def2-TZVPP level. The strength of the internal X→p(π π-donation of heteroatoms and carbon which are bonded to the C(II atom is estimated with the help of NBO calculations and with an energy decomposition analysis. The investigated molecules include N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs, the cyclic alkyl(aminocarbene (cAAC, mesoionic carbenes and ylide-stabilized carbenes. The bonding analysis suggests that the carbene centre in cAAC and in diamidocarbene have the weakest X→p(π π-donation while mesoionic carbenes possess the strongest π-donation.

  8. N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed internal redox reaction of alkynals: an efficient synthesis of allenoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Ming; Tam, Yik; Wang, Yu-Jie; Li, Zigang; Sun, Jianwei

    2012-03-16

    An efficient N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed internal redox reaction of alkynals that bear a γ leaving group has been developed. This process provides a new access to a range of allenoates in good yields. Preliminary results demonstrate that the enantioselective variant can also be achieved.

  9. N-heterocyclic carbene copper(I) catalysed N-methylation of amines using CO2

    KAUST Repository

    Santoro, Orlando

    2015-09-30

    The N-methylation of amines using CO2 and PhSiH3 as source of CH3 was efficiently performed using a N-heterocyclic carbene copper(I) complex. The methodology was found compatible with aromatic and aliphatic primary and secondary amines. Synthetic and computational studies have been carried out to support the proposed reaction mechanism for this transformation.

  10. N-Heterocyclic carbene functionalized goup 7-9 transition metal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aktas, H.; Slootweg, J.C.; Ehlers, A.W.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Lammertsma, K.

    2009-01-01

    The N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) functionalized phosphinidene complexes [(pCy)(IiPr2Me2)- RudPMes*] (4), [(pCy)(IiPr2Me2)OsdPMes*] (6), and [(Cp*)(IiPr2Me2)RhdPMes*] (7) were generated by a double-dehydrohalogenation-ligation sequence of the corresponding primary phosphine complexes with 3 equiv of

  11. Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of furan- and thiophene-functionalized bis(n-heterocyclic carbene) complexes of iron(II)

    KAUST Repository

    Rieb, Julia

    2014-09-15

    The synthesis of iron(II) complexes bearing new heteroatom-functionalized methylene-bridged bis(N-heterocyclic carbene) ligands is reported. All complexes are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Tetrakis(acetonitrile)-cis-[bis(o-imidazol-2-ylidenefuran)methane]iron(II) hexafluorophosphate (2a) and tetrakis(acetonitrile)-cis-[bis(o-imidazol-2-ylidenethiophene)methane]iron(II) hexafluorophosphate (2b) were obtained by aminolysis of [Fe{N(SiMe3)2}2(THF)] with furan- and thiophene-functionalized bis(imidazolium) salts 1a and 1b in acetonitrile. The SC-XRD structures of 2a and 2b show coordination of the bis(carbene) ligand in a bidentate fashion instead of a possible tetradentate coordination. The four other coordination sites of these distorted octahedral complexes are occupied by acetonitrile ligands. Crystallization of 2a in an acetone solution by the slow diffusion of Et2O led to the formation of cisdiacetonitriledi[ bis(o-imidazol-2-ylidenefuran)methane]iron(II) hexafluorophosphate (3a) with two bis(carbene) ligands coordinated in a bidentate manner and two cis-positioned acetonitrile molecules. Compounds 2a and 2b are the first reported iron(II) carbene complexes with four coordination sites occupied by solvent molecules, and it was demonstrated that those solvent ligands can undergo ligand-exchange reactions.

  12. Unexpected rearrangements in the synthesis of an unsymmetrical tridentate dianionic N-heterocyclic carbene

    KAUST Repository

    Despagnet-Ayoub, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the same ethylenediamine species, three valuable carbene precursors were synthesized under differing conditions: a tridentate dianionic N-heterocyclic carbene bearing an aniline, a phenol and a central dihydroimidazolium salt, its benzimidazolium isomer by intramolecular rearrangement and a dicationic benzimidazolium-benzoxazolium salt by changing the Brønsted acid from HCl to HBF4. A DFT study was performed to understand the rearrangement pathway. The structure of a bis[(NCO)carbene] zirconium complex was determined. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Cross-Coupling of Aryl Iodides with Malononitrile Catalyzed by Palladium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO,Cheng-Wei(高诚伟); TAO,Xiao-Chun(陶晓春); LIU,Tao-Ping(刘涛平); HUANG,Ji-Ling(黄吉玲); QIAN,Yan-Long(钱延龙)

    2002-01-01

    Eight N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC), generated in situ from their imidazolium salts, as ligands of palladium complexes were used for the catalytic coupling of iodobenzene with malononitrile anion. It was found that 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolium chloride (IMesHC1)-Pd2(dba)3 catalytic system has the highest activity to obtain phenyl malononitrile among the imidazolium salts. The substituted iodoarenes reacted with malononitrile anions by using the catalytic system to give crosscoupling products in yields from 50% to 96%.

  14. Evaluation of arene ruthenium(II) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes as organometallics interacting with thiol and selenol containing biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehninger, Luciano; Stefanopoulou, Maria; Alborzinia, Hamed; Schur, Julia; Ludewig, Stephanie; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Muñoz-Castro, Alvaro; Köster, Reinhard W; Baumann, Knut; Wölfl, Stefan; Sheldrick, William S; Ott, Ingo

    2013-02-07

    Metal complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands have been widely used in catalytic chemistry and are now increasingly considered for the development of new chemical tools and metal based drugs. Ruthenium complexes of the type (p-cymene)(NHC)RuCl(2) interacted with biologically relevant thiols and selenols, which resulted in the inhibition of enzymes such as thioredoxin reductase or cathepsin B. Pronounced antiproliferative effects could be obtained provided that an appropriate cellular uptake was achieved. Inhibition of tumor cell growth was accompanied by a perturbation of metabolic parameters such as cellular respiration.

  15. Cationic tungsten-oxo-alkylidene-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes: highly active olefin metathesis catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowner, Roman; Frey, Wolfgang; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2015-05-20

    The synthesis, structure, and olefin metathesis activity of the first neutral and cationic W-oxo-alkylidene-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalysts are reported. Neutral W-oxo-alkylidene-NHC catalysts can be prepared in up to 90% isolated yield. Depending on the ligands used, they possess either an octahedral (Oh) or trigonal bipyramidal ligand sphere. They can be activated with excess AlCl3 to form cationic olefin metathesis-active W-complexes; however, these readily convert into neutral chloro-complexes. Well-defined, stable cationic species can be prepared by stoichiometric substitution of one chloro ligand in the parent, neutral W-oxo-alkylidene-NHC complexes with Ag(MeCN)2B(Ar(F))4 or NaB(Ar(F))4; B(Ar(F))4 = B(3,5-(CF3)2-C6H3)4. They are highly active olefin metathesis catalysts, allowing for turnover numbers up to 10,000 in various olefin metathesis reactions including alkenes bearing nitrile, sec-amine, and thioether groups.

  16. Quantum Mechanical Study of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Adsorption on Au Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuan; Chen, Jingguang G; Lu, Qi; Cheng, Mu-Jeng

    2017-03-27

    There is increasing interest in using N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) as surface ligands to stabilize transition-metal nanoparticles (NPs) and to replace thiols for the preparation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold surfaces. This type of surface decoration is advantageous because it leads to improved catalytic activity of NPs and increased stability of SAM, as shown by recent experiments. In this work, we used quantum mechanics combined with periodic surface models to study the adsorption of NHCs on the Au(111) surface. We found that NHCs prefer to bind to the top site with adsorption energies (ΔEs) varying from 1.69 to 2.34 eV, depending on the type of NHC, and the inclusion of solvents in the calculations leads to insignificant variation in the calculated ΔEs. Three types of NHCs were found to bind to Au(111) more tightly and therefore should be better stabilizers than those commonly used. Importantly, by analyzing electronic structures using the Bader charge and energy decomposition analysis, we find that during adsorption NHC acts as an electron donor, transferring its electron density from the lone pair orbital at the carbene center to the empty d orbital of Au with negligible π-back-donation. This binding pattern is very different from that of CO, a ligand commonly used in organometallics, where both interactions are equally important. This leads to the identification of the protonation energies of NHCs as a descriptor for predicting ΔEs, providing a convenient method for computational high-throughput screening for better NHC-type surface ligands.

  17. Accesses to electronic structures and the excited states of blue luminescent copper(I) complexes containing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands: a DFT/TDDFT exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Zhao, Feng; Xu, Shengxian; Xia, Hongying; Wang, Jinglan; Wang, Yibo

    2014-09-01

    The ground electronic states and photophysical properties of three designed Cu(I) complexes [Cu(ImNHC)(POP)](+) (1), [Cu(methyl-ImNHC)(POP)](+) (2), and [Cu(BenzImNHC)(POP)](+) (3); where [ImNHC = 3-methyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene; methyl-ImNHC = 3-methyl-1-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene; BenzImNHC = 3-methyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylidene], have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The results reveal that the presence of the methylene spacer in the NHC ligands has a more direct effect on the distribution of frontier molecular orbitals while the elongation of π conjugation provided by the fused imidazole in the NHC ligands has a negligible effect. The UV-vis absorption spectra of all the complexes are well produced by TD-DFT calculations based on the charge transfer amount calculations and the corresponding band assignments are discussed. Importantly, the triplet energy calculations demonstrated that complex 2 would be a highly efficient blue emitter with the deep-blue of 440 nm.

  18. A simple route to phosphamethine cyanines from S,N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Justin F; Corrente, Andrea M; Macdonald, Charles L B

    2016-02-07

    Although salts of thiazolium cations are known, many readily prepared iodide salts have eluded spectroscopic and structural characterization; herein, data for a variety of such salts are reported. It has been demonstrated that thiazolium cations can be deprotonated to generate S,N-heterocyclic carbenes and their "electron rich olefin" dimers, but use of the former has been largely overshadowed by that of the more common N-heterocyclic carbenes. We report herein that the deprotonation of thiazolium iodides and their subsequent reaction with a conveniently prepared triphosphenium precursor grants phosphamethine cyanine cations with solid-state geometry and electronic structure unlike those of NHC-stabilized cations. Protection of the phosphorus atom in such ions with elemental sulfur provides an air- and moisture-stable dithiophosphinium salt.

  19. In Silico Olefin Metathesis with Ru-Based Catalysts Containing N-Heterocyclic Carbenes Bearing C60 Fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan Pablo; Vummaleti, Sai Vikrama Chaitanya; Falivene, Laura; Nolan, Steven P; Cavallo, Luigi; Solà, Miquel; Poater, Albert

    2016-05-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to explore the potential of Ru-based complexes with 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene (SIMes) ligand backbone (A) being modified in silico by the insertion of a C60 molecule (B and C), as olefin metathesis catalysts. To this end, we investigated the olefin metathesis reaction catalyzed by complexes A, B, and C using ethylene as the substrate, focusing mainly on the thermodynamic stability of all possible reaction intermediates. Our results suggest that complex B bearing an electron-withdrawing N-heterocyclic carbene improves the performance of unannulated complex A. The efficiency of complex B is only surpassed by complex A when the backbone of the N-heterocyclic carbene of complex A is substituted by two amino groups. The particular performance of complexes B and C has to be attributed to electronic factors, that is, the electronic-donating capacity of modified SIMes ligand rather than steric effects, because the latter are predicted to be almost identical for complexes B and C when compared to those of A. Overall, this study indicates that such Ru-based complexes B and C might have the potential to be effective olefin metathesis catalysts.

  20. In Silico Olefin Metathesis with Ru-Based Catalysts Containing N-Heterocyclic Carbenes Bearing C60Fullerenes

    KAUST Repository

    Martínez, Juan Pablo

    2016-04-10

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to explore the potential of Ru-based complexes with 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene (SIMes) ligand backbone (A) being modified in silico by the insertion of a C60 molecule (B and C), as olefin metathesis catalysts. To this end, we investigated the olefin metathesis reaction catalyzed by complexes A, B, and C using ethylene as the substrate, focusing mainly on the thermodynamic stability of all possible reaction intermediates. Our results suggest that complex B bearing an electron-withdrawing N-heterocyclic carbene improves the performance of unannulated complex A. The efficiency of complex B is only surpassed by complex A when the backbone of the N-heterocyclic carbene of complex A is substituted by two amino groups. The particular performance of complexes B and C has to be attributed to electronic factors, that is, the electronic-donating capacity of modified SIMes ligand rather than steric effects, because the latter are predicted to be almost identical for complexes B and C when compared to those of A. Overall, this study indicates that such Ru-based complexes B and C might have the potential to be effective olefin metathesis catalysts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Recent advances in N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC-catalysed benzoin reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev S. Menon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available N-Heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs have emerged as a powerful class of organocatalysts that mediate a variety of organic transformations. The Benzoin reaction constitutes one of the earliest known carbon–carbon bond-forming reactions catalysed by NHCs. The rapid growth of NHC catalysis in general has resulted in the development of a variety of benzoin and benzoin-type reactions. An overview of such NHC-catalysed benzoin reactions is presented.

  2. Theoretical NMR spectroscopy of N-heterocyclic carbenes and their metal complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura

    2016-12-26

    Recent theoretical analysis of the NMR properties of free N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) and Metal-NHC complexes has complemented experiments, allowing the establishment of structure/property relationships and the rationalization of otherwise surprising experimental results. In this review, the main conclusions from recent literature are discussed, with the aim to offer a vision of the potential of theoretical analyses of NMR properties.

  3. Advances in the Knowledge of N-Heterocyclic Carbenes Properties. The Backing of the Electrochemical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Feroci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years, N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs have acquired considerable popularity as ligands for transition metals, organocatalysts and in metal-free polymer synthesis. NHCs are generally derived from azolium based salts NHCH+X− by deprotonation or reduction (chemical or electrochemical of NHCH+. The extensive knowledge of the physicochemical properties of NHCH+/NHC system could help to select the conditions (scaffold of NHC, nature of the counter-ion X−, solvent, etc. to enhance the catalytic power of NHC in a synthesis. The electrochemical behavior of NHCH+/NHC system, in the absence and in the presence of solvent, was extensively discussed. The cathodic reduction of NHCH+ to NHC and the anodic oxidation of NHC, and the related effect of the scaffold, solvent, and electrodic material were emphasized. The electrochemical investigations allow acquiring further knowledge as regards the stability of NHC, the acidic and nucleophilic properties of NHCH+/NHC system, the reactivity of NHC versus carbon dioxide and the effect of the hydrogen bond on the catalytic efficiency of NHC. The question of the spontaneous or induced formation of NHC from particular ionic liquids was reconsidered via voltammetric analysis. The results suggested by the classical and the electrochemical methodologies were compared and discussed.

  4. Synthesis and NMR study of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC precursors derived from Tröger’s Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric MUSENGIMANA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of olefin metathesis reactions, various catalysts have been developed but those based on Ruthenium and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC ligands are particularly more efficient. Herein, we report a synthesis of NHC precursors derived from the Tröger’s base and its analogues which can be used in the synthesis of the new kind of metathesis catalysts. The NHC derived from the Tröger’s base present a particular chirality that could affect stereoselectivity of catalysis, and the form “V” of these ligands implies that the aromatic substituents point totally outside the coordination sphere of the metal, where would be no steric hindrance unlike what happens with the usual NHC.

  5. Synthesis and anticancer activity of silver(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes derived from the natural xanthine products caffeine, theophylline and theobromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Heba A; Lake, Benjamin R M; Laing, Thomas; Phillips, Roger M; Willans, Charlotte E

    2015-04-28

    A new library of silver(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes prepared from the natural products caffeine, theophylline and theobromine is reported. The complexes have been fully characterised using a combination of NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, the hydrophobicity of the complexes has been measured. The silver(I)-N-heterocyclic carbenes have been evaluated for their antiproliferative properties against a range of cancer cell lines of different histological types, and compared to cisplatin. The data shows different profiles of response when compared to cisplatin in the same panel of cells, indicating a different mechanism of action. Furthermore, it appears that the steric effect of the ligand and the hydrophobicity of the complex both play a role in the chemosensitivity of these compounds, with greater steric bulk and greater hydrophilicity delivering higher cytotoxicity.

  6. Coordination chemistry of N-heterocyclic nitrenium-based ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulchinsky, Yuri; Kozuch, Sebastian; Saha, Prasenjit; Mauda, Assaf; Nisnevich, Gennady; Botoshansky, Mark; Shimon, Linda J W; Gandelman, Mark

    2015-05-04

    Comprehensive studies on the coordination properties of tridentate nitrenium-based ligands are presented. N-heterocyclic nitrenium ions demonstrate general and versatile binding abilities to various transition metals, as exemplified by the synthesis and characterization of Rh(I) , Rh(III) , Mo(0) , Ru(0) , Ru(II) , Pd(II) , Pt(II) , Pt(IV) , and Ag(I) complexes based on these unusual ligands. Formation of nitrenium-metal bonds is unambiguously confirmed both in solution by selective (15) N-labeling experiments and in the solid state by X-ray crystallography. The generality of N-heterocyclic nitrenium as a ligand is also validated by a systematic DFT study of its affinity towards all second-row transition and post-transition metals (Y-Cd) in terms of the corresponding bond-dissociation energies.

  7. Bis-ligated Ti and Zr complexes of chelating N-heterocyclic carbenes

    KAUST Repository

    El-Batta, Amer

    2011-07-01

    In this communication we report the synthesis of novel titanium and zirconium complexes ligated by bidentate "salicylaldimine-like" N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC). Double addition of the NHC chelate to either TiCl4(thf)2 or ZrCl4 forms bis-ligated organometallic fragments with a distorted octahedral geometry. These complexes are rare examples of group IV transition-metal NHC adducts. Preliminary catalytic tests demonstrate that in the presence of methylaluminoxane (MAO) these complexes are useful initiators for the polymerization of ethylene and the copolymerization of ethylene with norbornene and 1-octene. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Backbone tuning in indenylidene–ruthenium complexes bearing an unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Urbina-Blanco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The steric and electronic influence of backbone substitution in IMes-based (IMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenylimidazol-2-ylidene N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC was probed by synthesizing the [RhCl(CO2(NHC] series of complexes to quantify experimentally the Tolman electronic parameter (electronic and the percent buried volume (%Vbur, steric parameters. The corresponding ruthenium–indenylidene complexes were also synthesized and tested in benchmark metathesis transformations to establish possible correlations between reactivity and NHC electronic and steric parameters.

  9. Sulfur-Functionalized N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes of Pd(II: Syntheses, Structures and Catalytic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yuan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs can be easily modified by introducing functional groups at the nitrogen atoms, which leads to versatile coordination chemistry as well as diverse catalytic applications of the resulting complexes. This article summarizes our contributions to the field of NHCs bearing different types of sulfur functions, i.e., thioether, sulfoxide, thiophene, and thiolato. The experimental evidence for the truly hemilabile coordination behavior of a Pd(II thioether-NHC complex has been reported as well. In addition, complexes bearing rigid CSC-pincer ligands have been synthesized and the reasons for pincer versus pseudo-pincer formation investigated. Incorporation of the electron-rich thiolato function resulted in the isolation of structurally diverse complexes. The catalytic activities of selected complexes have been tested in Suzuki-Miyaura, Mizoroki-Heck and hydroamination reactions.

  10. Grubbs–Hoveyda type catalysts bearing a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene for biphasic olefin metathesis reactions in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Koy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The novel dicationic metathesis catalyst [(RuCl2(H2ITapMe2(=CH–2-(2-PrO-C6H42+ (OTf−2] (Ru-2, H2ITapMe2 = 1,3-bis(2’,6’-dimethyl-4’-trimethylammoniumphenyl-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene, OTf− = CF3SO3− based on a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC ligand was prepared. The reactivity was tested in ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP under biphasic conditions using a nonpolar organic solvent (toluene and the ionic liquid (IL 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BDMIM+][BF4−]. The structure of Ru-2 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis.

  11. Cationic Silica-Supported N-Heterocyclic Carbene Tungsten Oxo Alkylidene Sites: Highly Active and Stable Catalysts for Olefin Metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucino, Margherita; Mougel, Victor; Schowner, Roman; Fedorov, Alexey; Buchmeiser, Michael R; Copéret, Christophe

    2016-03-18

    Designing supported alkene metathesis catalysts with high activity and stability is still a challenge, despite significant advances in the last years. Described herein is the combination of strong σ-donating N-heterocyclic carbene ligands with weak σ-donating surface silanolates and cationic tungsten sites leading to highly active and stable alkene metathesis catalysts. These well-defined silica-supported catalysts, [(≡SiO)W(=O)(=CHCMe2 Ph)(IMes)(OTf)] and [(≡SiO)W(=O)(=CHCMe2 Ph)(IMes)(+) ][B(Ar(F) )4 (-) ] [IMes=1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-imidazol-2-ylidene, B(Ar(F) )4 =B(3,5-(CF3 )2 C6 H3 )4 ] catalyze alkene metathesis, and the cationic species display unprecedented activity for a broad range of substrates, especially for terminal olefins with turnover numbers above 1.2 million for propene.

  12. Grubbs–Hoveyda type catalysts bearing a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene for biphasic olefin metathesis reactions in ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koy, Maximilian; Altmann, Hagen J; Autenrieth, Benjamin; Frey, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Summary The novel dicationic metathesis catalyst [(RuCl2(H2ITapMe2)(=CH–2-(2-PrO)-C6H4))2+ (OTf−)2] (Ru-2, H2ITapMe2 = 1,3-bis(2’,6’-dimethyl-4’-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene, OTf− = CF3SO3 −) based on a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand was prepared. The reactivity was tested in ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) under biphasic conditions using a nonpolar organic solvent (toluene) and the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BDMIM+][BF4 −]. The structure of Ru-2 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis. PMID:26664582

  13. Grubbs-Hoveyda type catalysts bearing a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene for biphasic olefin metathesis reactions in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koy, Maximilian; Altmann, Hagen J; Autenrieth, Benjamin; Frey, Wolfgang; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    The novel dicationic metathesis catalyst [(RuCl2(H2ITapMe2)(=CH-2-(2-PrO)-C6H4))(2+) (OTf(-))2] (Ru-2, H2ITapMe2 = 1,3-bis(2',6'-dimethyl-4'-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene, OTf(-) = CF3SO3 (-)) based on a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand was prepared. The reactivity was tested in ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) under biphasic conditions using a nonpolar organic solvent (toluene) and the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BDMIM(+)][BF4 (-)]. The structure of Ru-2 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis.

  14. 25 years of N-heterocyclic carbenes: activation of both main-group element-element bonds and NHCs themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtemberger-Pietsch, Sabrina; Radius, Udo; Marder, Todd B

    2016-04-14

    N-Heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) are widely used ligands and reagents in modern inorganic synthesis as well as in homogeneous catalysis and organocatalysis. However, NHCs are not always innocent bystanders. In the last few years, more and more examples were reported of reactions of NHCs with main-group elements which resulted in modification of the NHC. Many of these reactions lead to ring expansion and the formation of six-membered heterocyclic rings involving insertion of the heteroatom into the C-N bond and migration of hydrides, phenyl groups or boron-containing fragments. Furthermore, a few related NHC rearrangements were observed some decades ago. In this Perspective, we summarise the history of NHC ring expansion reactions from the 1960s till the present.

  15. Dehydrogenative Synthesis of Imines from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Agnese; Madsen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    be applied to a variety of primary alcohols and amines and can be combined with a subsequent addition reaction. A deuterium labeling experiment indicates that the catalytically active species is a ruthenium dihydride. The reaction is believed to proceed by initial dehydrogenation of the alcohol......A new method for the direct synthesis of imines from alcohols and amines is described where hydrogen gas is liberated. The reaction is catalyzed by the ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] in the presence of the ligand DABCO and molecular sieves. The imination can...... to the aldehyde, which stays coordinated to ruthenium. Nucleophilic attack of the amine affords the hemiaminal, which is released from ruthenium and converted into the imine....

  16. A RhIII-N-heterocyclic carbene complex from metal-metal singly bonded [RhII−RhII] precursor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arup Sinha; Abir Sarbajna; Shrabani dinda; Jitendra K Bera

    2011-11-01

    Metal-metal singly bonded [Rh2(CO)4(acac)2][OTf]2 (1) has been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques. A density functional theory (DFT) optimized structure has been computed for the unbridged centro-symmetric structure. Reaction of 1 with PIN.HBr results in the [Rh(PIN)2(H2O)Br][OTf]2 (2) in high yield. The reaction involves metal-oxidation from RhII to RhIII accompanied by the metal-metal bond cleavage. The X-ray structure of 2 has been determined which reveals the incorporation of two N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands to each rhodium. This work demonstrates the general utility of the metal-metal bonded compounds for the easy synthesis of metal-NHC compounds.

  17. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Palladium Complex Catalyzed Oxidative Carbonylation of Amines to Ureas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG,Shu-Zhan; PENG,Xin-Gao; LIU,Jian-Ming; SUN,Wei; XIA,Chun-Gu

    2007-01-01

    Palladium carbene shows high efficiency without any promoter on oxidative carbonylation of amines to ureas and a new type of palladium carbene complex containing both an aniline and an NHC ligands was found to be the active species for the reaction.

  18. N-Heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a powerful tool in organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vreese, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Summary The interplay between metals and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) has provided a window of opportunities for the development of novel catalytic strategies within the past few years. The recent successful combination of Brønsted acids with NHCs has added a new dimension to the field of cooperative catalysis, enabling the stereoselective synthesis of functionalized pyrrolidin-2-ones as valuable scaffolds in heterocyclic chemistry. This Commentary will briefly highlight the concept of N-heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a new and powerful methodology in organic chemistry. PMID:22509208

  19. N-Heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a powerful tool in organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob De Vreese

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between metals and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs has provided a window of opportunities for the development of novel catalytic strategies within the past few years. The recent successful combination of Brønsted acids with NHCs has added a new dimension to the field of cooperative catalysis, enabling the stereoselective synthesis of functionalized pyrrolidin-2-ones as valuable scaffolds in heterocyclic chemistry. This Commentary will briefly highlight the concept of N-heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a new and powerful methodology in organic chemistry.

  20. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes in Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Xinjun; Dorta, Reto; Leitgeb, Anita; Slugovc, Christian; Tiede, Sascha; Blechert, Siegfried

    Olefin metathesis is now a synthetic tool found ubiquitously in various fields involving synthesis. Of its many variations, three are prominently used: (1) catalytic ring closing metathesis (RCM) is an extremely powerful method for the construction of carbon-carbon double bonds in organic chemistry; (2) ring opening metathesis polymerisation (ROMP) where polymers are formed by use of the energy released from cyclic strain; and (3) cross metathesis (CM) where non-cyclic partners are coupled through C-C double bond formation. These important transformations and variations on these themes mediated by second generation ruthenium complexes bearing a NHC ligand will be presented in the following sections.

  1. Synthesis of Well-Defined Copper "N"-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes and Their Use as Catalysts for a "Click Reaction": A Multistep Experiment that Emphasizes the Role of Catalysis in Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ison, Elon A.; Ison, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A multistep experiment for an advanced synthesis lab course that incorporates topics in organic-inorganic synthesis and catalysis and highlights green chemistry principles was developed. Students synthesized two "N"-heterocyclic carbene ligands, used them to prepare two well-defined copper(I) complexes and subsequently utilized the complexes as…

  2. Sterically (un)encumbered mer-tridentate N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of titanium(iv) for the copolymerization of cyclohexene oxide with CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessevik, Julie; Lalrempuia, Ralte; Nsiri, Hajar; Törnroos, Karl W; Jensen, Vidar R; Le Roux, Erwan

    2016-10-01

    Titanium(iv) complexes bearing an unsubstituted tridentate bis(phenolate) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) were synthesized and structurally identified. While sterically unencumbered NHC-Ti(iv) complexes bearing chloro and alkoxy co-ligands tend to dimerize in solution and in solid-state, the use of a bulky aryloxy as co-ligand favors the monomeric species. Upon activation by onium salts, all these complexes were found to be highly selective towards the copolymerization of cyclohexene oxide (CHO) with CO2 under mild conditions (PCO2 < 1 bar), albeit the sterically unencumbered NHC-Ti(iv) complexes are less stable and active than their structural analogues bearing bulkier substituents.

  3. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed [2+2+2] Annulation of Allenoates with Trifluoromethylketones%N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed [2+2+2] Annulation of Allenoates with Trifluoromethylketones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙利辉; 王统; 叶松

    2012-01-01

    In contrast with the reported phosphine- and DABCO-catalyzed [3 + 2] and [2 +2] annulation of allenoates with trifluoromethylketone, the [2+2+2] annulation of allenoates and two molecules of trifluoromethylketone was found under the condition of N-heterocyclic carbene catalysis.

  4. Reactivity studies of pincer bis-protic N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of platinum and palladium under basic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Marelius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bis-protic N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of platinum and palladium (4 yield dimeric structures 6 when treated with sodium tert-butoxide in CH2Cl2. The use of a more polar solvent (THF and a strong base (LiN(iPr2 gave the lithium chloride adducts monobasic complex 7 or analogous dibasic complex 8.

  5. Reactivity studies of pincer bis-protic N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of platinum and palladium under basic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelius, David C; Moore, Curtis E; Rheingold, Arnold L

    2016-01-01

    Summary Bis-protic N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of platinum and palladium (4) yield dimeric structures 6 when treated with sodium tert-butoxide in CH2Cl2. The use of a more polar solvent (THF) and a strong base (LiN(iPr)2) gave the lithium chloride adducts monobasic complex 7 or analogous dibasic complex 8. PMID:27559382

  6. N-Heterocyclic-Carbene-Catalysed Diastereoselective Vinylogous Mukaiyama/Michael Reaction of 2-(Trimethylsilyloxy)furan and Enones

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ying

    2015-10-15

    N-heterocyclic carbenes have been utilised as highly efficient nucleophilic organocatalysts to mediate vinylogous Mukaiyama/Michael reactions of 2-(trimethylsilyloxy)furan with enones to afford γ-substituted butenolides in 44-99% yield with 3:1-32:1 diastereoselectivity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed synthesis of saccharine-derived dihydropyridinones with cis-selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi-Qin; Wang, Dong-Ling; Zhang, Chun-Lin; Ye, Song

    2016-07-06

    The enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed [2 + 4] cyclocondensation of α-chloroaldehydes and saccharine-derived 1-azadienes was developed, giving the corresponding saccharine-derived dihydropyridinones in good yields with exclusive cis-selectivities and excellent enantioselectivities.

  8. Cyclopentadienyl molybdenum(II/VI) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes: Synthesis, structure, and reactivity under oxidative conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Shenyu

    2010-04-26

    A series of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes CpMo(CO) 2(NHC)X (NHC = IMe = 1,3-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidene, X = Br, 1; NHC = 1,3-dipropylimidazol-2-ylidene, X = Br, 2; NHC = IMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6- trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene, X = Br, 3; NHC = IBz = 1,3-dibenzylimidazol- 2-ylidene, X = Br, 4a, and X = Cl, 4b; NHC = 1-methyl-3-propylimidazol-2- ylidene, X = Br, 5) and [CpMo(CO)2(IMes)(CH3CN)][BF 4] (6) have been synthesized and fully characterized. The stability of metal-NHC ligand bonds in these compounds under oxidative conditions has been investigated. The thermally stable Mo(VI) dioxo NHC complex [CpMoO 2(IMes)][BF4] (9) has been isolated by the oxidation of the ionic complex 6 by TBHP (tert-butyl hydrogen peroxide). Complex 6 can be applied as a very active (TOFs up to 3400 h-1) and selective olefin epoxidation catalyst. While under oxidative conditions (in the presence of TBHP), compounds 1-5 decompose into imidazolium bromide and imidazolium polyoxomolybdate. The formation of polyoxomolybdate as oxidation products had not been observed in a similar epoxidation catalyzed by Mo(II) and Mo(VI) complexes. DFT studies suggest that the presence of Br- destabilizes the CpMo(VI) oxo NHC carbene species, consistent with the experimental observations. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Intramolecular C-N bond activation and ring-expansion reactions of N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemberger, Patrick; Bodi, Andras; Berthel, Johannes H J; Radius, Udo

    2015-01-19

    Intramolecular ring-expansion reactions (RER) of the N-heterocyclic carbene 1,3-dimethylimidazolin-2-ylidene were observed upon vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoexcitation. Similarly to RERs reported in the solvent phase, for the reaction of NHCs with main-group-element hydrides, hydrogen transfer to the NHC carbon atom is the crucial initial step. In an ionization-mediated protonation, 1,3-dimethylimidazolin-2-ylidene forms an imidazolium ion, which is the rate-limiting step on the pathway to two six-membered ring products, namely, methylpyrimidinium and -pyrazinium ions. To unravel the reaction path, we have used imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy with VUV synchrotron radiation, as well as high-level composite method calculations. Similarities and differences between the mechanism in the gas phase and in the condensed phase are discussed.

  10. 2-Azidoimidazolium Ions Captured by N-Heterocyclic Carbenes: Azole-Substituted Triazatrimethine Cyanines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Haslinger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available 1,3-Disubstituted 2-azidoimidazolium salts (substituents = methyl, methoxy; anion = PF6 reacted with N-heterocyclic carbenes to yield yellow 2-(1-(azolinylidenetriazen-3-yl-1,3-R2-imidazolium salts (azole = 1,3-dimethylimidazole, 1,3-dimethoxyimidazole, 4-dimethylamino-1-methyl-1,2,4-triazole; R = methyl, methoxy; anion = PF6. Crystal structures of three cationic triazenes were determined. Numerous interionic C–H···F contacts were observed. Solvatochromism of the triazenes in polar solvents was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, involving the dipolarity π* and hydrogen-bond donor acidity α of the solvent. Cyclovoltammetry showed irreversible reduction of the cations to uncharged radicals. Thermoanalysis showed exothermal decomposition.

  11. Amide Synthesis from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Johan Hygum; Osztrovszky, Gyorgyi; Nordstrøm, Lars Ulrik Rubæk

    2010-01-01

    The direct synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines is described with the simultaneous liberation of dihydrogen. The reaction does not require any stoichiometric additives or hydrogen acceptors and is catalyzed by ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes. Three different catalyst systems...... chloride and base. A range of different primary alcohols and amines have been coupled in the presence of the three catalyst systems to afford the corresponding amides in moderate to excellent yields. The best results are obtained with sterically unhindered alcohols and amines. The three catalyst systems do...... not show any significant differences in reactivity, which indicates that the same catalytically active species is operating. The reaction is believed to proceed by initial dehydrogenation of the primary alcohol to the aldehyde that stays coordinated to ruthenium and is not released into the reaction...

  12. Mechanistic Investigation of the Ruthenium–N-Heterocyclic-Carbene-Catalyzed Amidation of Alcohols and Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Ilya; Fristrup, Peter; Madsen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of the ruthenium–N-heterocyclic-carbene-catalyzed formation of amides from alcohols and amines was investigated by experimental techniques (Hammett studies, kinetic isotope effects) and by a computational study by using dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT/ M06......, but that it is one of several slow steps in the catalytic cycle. Rapid scrambling of hydrogen and deuterium at the a position of the alcohol was observed with deuterium-labeled substrates, which implies that the catalytically active species is a ruthenium dihydride. The experimental results were supported...... by the characterization of a plausible catalytic cycle by using DFT/M06. Both cisdihydride and trans-dihydride intermediates were considered, but when the theoretical turnover frequencies (TOFs) were derived directly from the calculated DFT/M06 energies, we found that only the trans-dihydride pathway was in agreement...

  13. Nanofiber composites containing N-heterocyclic carbene complexes with antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzatahry AA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed A Elzatahry1,4, Abdullah M Al-Enizi1, Elsayed Ahmed Elsayed2,5, Rachel R Butorac3, Salem S Al-Deyab1, Mohammad AM Wadaan2, Alan H Cowley31Petrochemical Research Chair, Department of Chemistry, 2Chair of Advanced Proteomics & Cytomics Research, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; 4Institute of Advanced Technology and New Materials, City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Borg Alrab, Alexandria, Egypt; 5Natural & Microbial Products Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: This report concerns nanofiber composites that incorporate N-heterocyclic carbenes and the use of such composites for testing antimicrobial and antifungal activities. The nanofiber composites were produced by electrospinning mixtures of the gold chloride or gold acetate complexes of a bis(iminoacenaphthene (BIAN-supported NHC with aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. The products were characterized by scanning-electron microscopy, which revealed that nanofibers in the range of 250–300 nm had been produced. The biological activities of the nanofiber composites were tested against two Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and two fungal strains. No activity was evident against the fungal strains. However, the gold chloride complex was found to be active against all the Gram-positive pathogens and one of the Gram-negative pathogens. It was also found that the activity of the produced nanofibers was localized and that no release of the bioactive compound from the nanofibers was evident. The demonstrated antimicrobial activities of these novel nanofiber composites render them potentially useful as wound dressings.Keywords: nanofiber, electrospinning, N-Heterocyclic carbene, biopolymer, antimicrobial

  14. Cationic gold(I) heteroleptic complexes bearing a pyrazole-derived N-heterocyclic carbene: syntheses, characterizations, and cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaram, Haresh; Tan, Jackie; Huynh, Han Vinh

    2013-09-14

    A series of cationic gold(I) heteroleptic complexes bearing the pyrazole-derived N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) FPyr (1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-octahydropyridazino[1,2-a]indazolin-11-ylidene), and either a 1,3-disubstituted benzimidazole-derived NHC of the type RR'-bimy (3: R = R' = CHPh2; 4: R = CHPh2, R' = (i)Pr; 5: R = R' = CH2Ph; 6: R = R' = (i)Bu; 7: R = R' = n-Pr; 8: R = R' = Et; 9: R = R' = 2-propenyl) or a non-NHC co-ligand L (10: L = PPh3; 11: L = P(OPh)3; 12: L = DMAP) (DMAP = 4-dimethylaminopyridine) have been synthesized from [AuCl(FPyr)] (1). Complexes 3-12 have been characterized using multinuclei NMR spectroscopies, ESI mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. X-ray diffraction analyses have been performed on complexes 5, 6, and 9-11. To the best of our knowledge, 11 represents the first gold-NHC complex to bear the P(OPh)3 ligand. The cytotoxic activities of complexes 3-12 have been studied in vitro with the NCI-H1666 non-small cell lung cancer cell line.

  15. Structure and spectroscopic properties of the dimeric copper(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complex [Cu₂(CNC(t-Bu))₂](PF₆)₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riener, Korbinian; Pöthig, Alexander; Cokoja, Mirza; Herrmann, Wolfgang A; Kühn, Fritz E

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the use of copper N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes has expanded to fields besides catalysis, namely medicinal chemistry and luminescence applications. In the latter case, multinuclear copper NHC compounds have attracted interest, however, the number of these complexes in the literature is still quite limited. Bis[μ-1,3-bis(3-tert-butylimidazolin-2-yliden-1-yl)pyridine]-1κ(4)C(2),N:N,C(2');2κ(4)C(2),N:N,C(2')-dicopper(I) bis(hexafluoridophosphate), [Cu2(C19H25N5)2](PF6)2, is a dimeric copper(I) complex bridged by two CNC, i.e. bis(N-heterocyclic carbene)pyridine, ligands. Each Cu(I) atom is almost linearly coordinated by two NHC ligands and interactions are observed between the pyridine N atoms and the metal centres, while no cuprophilic interactions were observed. Very strong absorption bands are evident in the UV-Vis spectrum at 236 and 274 nm, and an emission band is observed at 450 nm. The reported complex is a new example of a multinuclear copper NHC complex and a member of a compound class which has only rarely been reported.

  16. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalysed Diastereoselective Vinylogous Michael Addition Reaction of gamma-Substituted deconjugated Butenolides

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Hao

    2015-11-16

    An efficient N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalysed vinylogous Michael addition of deconjugated butenolides was developed. In the presence of 5 mol% of the NHC catalyst, both γ-alkyl and aryl-substituted deconjugated butenolides undergo vinylogous Michael addition with various α, β-unsaturated ketones, esters, or nitriles to afford γ,γ-disubstituted butenolides containing adjacent quaternary and tertiary carbon centers in good to excellent yields with excellent diastereoselectivities. In this process, the free carbene is assumed to act as a strong Brønsted base to promote the conjugate addition.

  17. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Vinylogous Mukaiyama Aldol Reaction of α-Keto Esters and α-Trifluoromethyl Ketones

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Guang-Fen

    2015-11-05

    © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York · Synthesis 2016. N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed vinylogous Mukaiyama aldol reaction of ketones was developed. Under the catalysis of 5 mol% NHC, α-keto esters and α-trifluoromethyl ketones reacted with 2-(trimethysilyloxy)furan efficiently to produce γ-substituted butenolides containing adjacent quaternary and tertiary carbon centers in high yields with good diastereoselectivities.

  18. Alkyne-Azide Cycloaddition Catalyzed by Silver Chloride and “Abnormal” Silver N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo I. Ortega-Arizmendi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A library of 1,2,3-triazoles was synthesized from diverse alkynes and azides using catalytic amounts of silver chloride instead of copper compounds. In addition, a novel “abnormal” silver N-heterocyclic carbene complex was tested as catalyst in this process. The results suggest that the reaction requires only 0.5% of silver complex, affording 1,2,3-triazoles in good yields.

  19. A curious interplay in the films of N-heterocyclic carbene Pt(II) complexes upon deposition of alkali metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Anna A; Grachova, Elena V; Niedzialek, Dorota; Solomatina, Anastasia I; Sonntag, Simon; Fedorov, Alexander V; Vilkov, Oleg Yu; Neudachina, Vera S; Laubschat, Clemens; Tunik, Sergey P; Vyalikh, Denis V

    2016-05-06

    The recently synthesized series of Pt(II) complexes containing cyclometallating (phenylpyridine or benzoquinoline) and N-heterocyclic carbene ligands possess intriguing structures, topologies, and light emitting properties. Here, we report curious physicochemical interactions between in situ PVD-grown films of a typical representative of the aforementioned Pt(II) complex compounds and Li, Na, K and Cs atoms. Based on a combination of detailed core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum-chemical calculations at the density functional theory level, we found that the deposition of alkali atoms onto the molecular film leads to unusual redistribution of electron density: essential modification of nitrogen sites, reduction of the coordination Pt(II) centre to Pt(0) and decrease of electron density on the bromine atoms. A possible explanation for this is formation of a supramolecular system "Pt complex-alkali metal ion"; the latter is supported by restoration of the system to the initial state upon subsequent oxygen treatment. The discovered properties highlight a considerable potential of the Pt(II) complexes for a variety of biomedical, sensing, chemical, and electronic applications.

  20. A curious interplay in the films of N-heterocyclic carbene PtII complexes upon deposition of alkali metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Anna A.; Grachova, Elena V.; Niedzialek, Dorota; Solomatina, Anastasia I.; Sonntag, Simon; Fedorov, Alexander V.; Vilkov, Oleg Yu.; Neudachina, Vera S.; Laubschat, Clemens; Tunik, Sergey P.; Vyalikh, Denis V.

    2016-05-01

    The recently synthesized series of PtII complexes containing cyclometallating (phenylpyridine or benzoquinoline) and N-heterocyclic carbene ligands possess intriguing structures, topologies, and light emitting properties. Here, we report curious physicochemical interactions between in situ PVD-grown films of a typical representative of the aforementioned PtII complex compounds and Li, Na, K and Cs atoms. Based on a combination of detailed core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum-chemical calculations at the density functional theory level, we found that the deposition of alkali atoms onto the molecular film leads to unusual redistribution of electron density: essential modification of nitrogen sites, reduction of the coordination PtII centre to Pt0 and decrease of electron density on the bromine atoms. A possible explanation for this is formation of a supramolecular system “Pt complex-alkali metal ion” the latter is supported by restoration of the system to the initial state upon subsequent oxygen treatment. The discovered properties highlight a considerable potential of the PtII complexes for a variety of biomedical, sensing, chemical, and electronic applications.

  1. From betaines to anionic N-heterocyclic carbenes. Borane, gold, rhodium, and nickel complexes starting from an imidazoliumphenolate and its carbene tautomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mesomeric betaine imidazolium-1-ylphenolate forms a borane adduct with tris(pentafluorophenylborane by coordination with the phenolate oxygen, whereas its NHC tautomer 1-(2-phenolimidazol-2-ylidene reacts with (triphenylphosphinegold(I chloride to give the cationic NHC complex [Au(NHC2][Cl] by coordination with the carbene carbon atom. The anionic N-heterocyclic carbene 1-(2-phenolateimidazol-2-ylidene gives the complexes [K][Au(NHC−2], [Rh(NHC−3] and [Ni(NHC−2], respectively. Results of four single crystal analyses are presented.

  2. Theoretical study of N-heterocyclic carbenes-catalyzed cascade annulation of benzodienones and enals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Fang, Xinqiang; Chi, Yonggui Robin; Li, Guohui

    2013-09-01

    Growing attention in developing new N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-mediated reactions involving homoenolate intermediates has prompted our interest in exploring the mechanistic details of the related reactions. In this work, we carried out a detailed theoretical study for the NHC-catalyzed annulation reaction of cinnamaldehyde (A) and benzodi(enone) (B) in the presence of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU). By performing density functional theory calculations, we show clearly the detailed reaction mechanism and rationalize the experimental observation. The reaction of A and B falls into two stages: the formation of homoenolate intermediate and the annulation of homoenolate with B. In the homoenolate formation stage, three possible paths are characterized. The pathway involving the DBU-assisted 1,2-proton transfer with a stepwise mechanism is kinetically more favorable, and the DBU-assisted C1 proton departure is the rate-determining step of the total reaction. The annulation of homoenolate with B involves four elementary steps. The conformational difference of homoenolate (cis and trans) leads to two slightly different reaction processes. In the total reaction, the process involving cis-conformation of A is kinetically more feasible. This can be clearly understood through the frontier molecular orbital analysis and the electronic inductive effect. The calculated results are expected to offer valuable information for further design and development of NHC-mediated reactions.

  3. Theoretical Insights on the Interaction of N-Heterocyclic Carbenes with Tetravalent Silicon Reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Dipanjali; Deuri, Sanjib; Phukan, Prodeep

    2016-01-14

    Lewis acid-base type interaction between N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and tetravalent silicon reagent (SiR) has been investigated computationally. This NHC-Si interaction is of fundamental importance to the understanding of variety of NHC catalyzed organic transformations involving silicon compounds such as cyanosilylation, trifluoromethylsilylation, etc. Geometries of 24 NHCs, 10 silicon reagents, and their 61 Lewis acid-base complexes have been optimized using the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) and M05-2X/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. The strength of NHC-Si interaction has been assessed in terms of binding energy of the complexes, charge transfer (CT) and the length of Si-CNHC bond. Energy decomposition analysis (EDA) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis at M052X/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory has been carried out to get a deeper understanding of the nature of bonding and charge delocalization. Proton affinity of the NHCs and fluoride affinity of the SiRs have been calculated and correlated with the binding energy of the resulting complexes.

  4. Recent advances in carbon dioxide capture, fixation, and activation by using N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Longhua; Wang, Hongming

    2014-04-01

    In the last two decades, CO2 emission has caused a lot of environmental problems. To mitigate the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, various strategies have been implemented, one of which is the use of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and related complexes to accomplish the capture, fixation, and activation of CO2 effectively. In this review, we summarize CO2 capture, fixation, and activation by utilizing NHCs and related complexes; homogeneous reactions and their reaction mechanisms are discussed. Free NHCs and NHC salts can capture CO2 in both direct and indirect ways to form imidazolium carboxylates, and they can also catalyze the reaction of aromatic aldehydes with CO2 to form carboxylic acids and derivatives. Moreover, associated with transition metals (TMs), NHCs can form NHC-TM complexes to transform CO2 into industrial acid or esters. Non-metal-NHC complexes can also catalyze the reactions of silicon and boron complexes with CO2 . In addition, catalytic cycloaddition of epoxides with CO2 is another effective function of NHC complexes, and NHC ionic liquids perform excellently in this aspect.

  5. Tunable and Efficient White Light Phosphorescent Emission Based on Single Component N-Heterocyclic Carbene Platinum(II) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Michael; Suter, Dominik; Blacque, Olivier; Venkatesan, Koushik

    2016-05-16

    A new class of cyclometalated pyridine N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) Pt(II) complexes with electronically different alkyne derivatives (C≡CR; R = C6H4C(CH3)3 (1), C6H5 (2), C6H4F (3), C6H3(CF3)2 (4)) as ancillary ligands were synthesized, and the consequences of the electronic properties of the different substituted phenylacetylene ligands on the phosphorescent emission efficiencies were studied, where C≡CC6H4C(CH3)3 = 4-tert-butylphenylacetylene, C≡CC6H5 = phenylacetylene, C≡CC6H4F = 4-fluorophenylacetylene, and C≡CC6H3(CF3)2 = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetylene. Structural characterization, electrochemistry, and photophysical investigations were performed for all four compounds. Moreover, the emission quantum efficiencies and wavelength emission intensities of the complexes were also recorded in different weight percents in poly(methyl methacrylate) films (PMMA) and evaluated in the CIE-1931 chromaticity diagram. The square planar coordination geometry with the alkynyl ligands was corroborated for complexes 1, 2, and 3 by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These complexes show tunable monomeric high energy triplet emission and an additional concentration-dependent low-energy excimer-based phosphorescence. While adopting weight percent concentrations between 15 and 25%, the two emission bands covering the entire visible spectrum were obtained with these particular complexes displaying the properties of an efficient white light triplet emitter with excellent CIE-1931 coordinates (0.31, 0.33). On the basis of the high luminescent quantum efficiency of over 50% for white light emission, these compounds could be potentially useful for white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) based applications.

  6. A theobromine derived silver N-heterocyclic carbene: synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial efficacy studies on cystic fibrosis relevant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzner, Matthew J; Hindi, Khadijah M; Wright, Brian D; Taylor, Jane B; Han, Daniel S; Youngs, Wiley J; Cannon, Carolyn L

    2009-09-21

    The increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pulmonary infections in the cystic fibrosis (CF) population has prompted the investigation of innovative silver based therapeutics. The functionalization of the naturally occurring xanthine theobromine at the N(1) nitrogen atom with an ethanol substituent followed by the methylation of the N(9) nitrogen atom gives the N-heterocyclic carbene precursor 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3,7,9-trimethylxanthinium iodide. The reaction of this xanthinium salt with silver acetate produces the highly hydrophilic silver carbene complex SCC8. The in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of this newly synthesized complex was evaluated with excellent results on a variety of virulent and MDR pathogens isolated from CF patients. A comparative in vivo study between the known caffeine derived silver carbene SCC1 and SCC8 demonstrated the ability of both complexes to improve the survival rates of mice in a pneumonia model utilizing the clinically isolated infectious strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA M57-15.

  7. Protic N-Heterocyclic Carbene Versus Pyrazole: Rigorous Comparison of Proton- and Electron-Donating Abilities in a Pincer-Type Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Tatsuro; Yoshinari, Akihiro; Ikariya, Takao; Kuwata, Shigeki

    2016-11-07

    Evaluation of the acidity of proton-responsive ligands such as protic N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) bearing an NH-wingtip provides a key to understanding the metal-ligand cooperation in enzymatic and artificial catalysis. Here, we design a CNN pincer-type ruthenium complex 2 bearing protic NHC and isoelectronic pyrazole units in a symmetrical skeleton, to compare their acidities and electron-donating abilities. The synthesis is achieved by direct C-H metalation of 2-(imidazol-1-yl)-6-(pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine with [RuCl2 (PPh3 )3 ]. (15) N-Labeling experiments confirm that deprotonation of 2 occurs first at the pyrazole side, indicating clearly that the protic pyrazole is more acidic than the NHC group. The electrochemical measurements as well as derivatization to carbonyl complexes demonstrate that the protic NHC is more electron-donating than pyrazole in both protonated and deprotonated forms.

  8. A cationic rhodium(I N-heterocyclic carbene complex isolated as an aqua adduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley L. Huttenstine

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The title complex, aqua[1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenylimidazol-2-ylidene](η4-cycloocta-1,5-dienerhodium(I tetrafluoridoborate, [Rh(C8H12(C27H36N2(H2O]BF4, exihibits a square-planar geometry around the Rh(I atom, formed by a bidentate cycloocta-1,5-diene (cod ligand, an N-heterocylcic carbene and an aqua ligand. The complex is cationic and a BF4− anion balances the charge. The structure exists as a hydrogen-bonded dimer in the solid state, formed via interactions between the aqua ligand H atoms and the BF4− F atoms.

  9. Origin of stereoselectivity in a chiral N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed desymmetrization of substituted cyclohexyl 1,3-diketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, Yernaidu; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism and stereoselectivity in a chiral N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed desymmetrization of a 1,3-diketone is established by using density functional theory computations. The Breslow intermediate formation is identified to involve Hunig's base-assisted proton transfer. The relative energies of stereoselectivity-determining intramolecular aldol cyclization transition states reveal that in the most preferred mode the re-face of enolate adds to the si-face of carbonyl leading to a tricyclic lactone with a configuration (2aS,4aS,8'S) in excellent agreement with previous experimental reports.

  10. Mechanism and Stereoselectivity in an Asymmetric N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond Activation Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Monika; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2016-11-18

    The mechanism and origin of stereoinduction in a chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalyzed C-C bond activation of cyclobutenone has been established using B3LYP-D3 density functional theory computations. The activation of cyclobutenone as an NHC-bound vinyl enolate and subsequent reaction with the electrophilic sulfonyl imine leads to the lactam product. The most preferred stereocontrolling transition state exhibits a number of noncovalent interactions rendering additional stabilization. The computed enantio- and diastereoselectivities are in good agreement with the previous experimental observations.

  11. Synthesis, Structural Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Novel Water Soluble Ionic Liquids Derived from N-Heterocyclic Carbene Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kunduracıoğlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Six N-heterocyclic Carbene based Ionic Liquids (ILs have been synthesized by conventional methods. The ILs were spectroscopically characterized by NMR and FT-IR techniques. Their in vitro antimicrobial activities were determined towards gram-positive and gram-negative bacterias and yeast strains using minimum inhibition concentration (MIC assay. The best inhibition performances were obtained with compound 1 due to its more hydrophilic nature compared with the others. It exhibited 1 mg L–1 MIC value against to the most bacteria while the others showed 4 mg L–1. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  12. Axially Chiral C2-Symmetric N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) Palladium Complex-Catalyzed Asymmetric Fluorination and Amination of Oxindoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张睿; 王德; 徐琴; 姜佳俊; 施敏

    2012-01-01

    Chiral C2-symmetric N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) palladium diaquo complex 5b prepared from (S)-BINAM was found to be a fairly effective catalyst for the enantioselective asymmetric fluorination of oxindoles to give the corresponding products in moderate enantioselectivities along with good to excellent yields.

  13. "N"-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Reaction of Chalcone and Cinnamaldehyde to Give 1,3,4-Triphenylcyclopentene Using Organocatalysis to Form a Homoenolate Equivalent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Barry B.

    2015-01-01

    In this experiment, students carry out a modern organocatalytic reaction using IMes·HCl and NaOH to catalyze the formation of 1,3,4-triphenylcyclopentene from cinnamaldehyde and chalcone in water. Deprotonation of IMes·HCl with NaOH forms the "N"-heterocyclic carbene IMes that reacts with cinnamaldehyde to form a homoenolate equivalent…

  14. Hexacoordinate Ru-based olefin metathesis catalysts with pH-responsive N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC and N-donor ligands for ROMP reactions in non-aqueous, aqueous and emulsion conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawna L. Balof

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Three new ruthenium alkylidene complexes (PCy3Cl2(H2ITapRu=CHSPh (9, (DMAP2Cl2(H2ITapRu=CHPh (11 and (DMAP2Cl2(H2ITapRu=CHSPh (12 have been synthesized bearing the pH-responsive H2ITap ligand (H2ITap = 1,3-bis(2’,6’-dimethyl-4’-dimethylaminophenyl-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene. Catalysts 11 and 12 are additionally ligated by two pH-responsive DMAP ligands. The crystal structure was solved for complex 12 by X-ray diffraction. In organic, neutral solution, the catalysts are capable of performing standard ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP and ring closing metathesis (RCM reactions with standard substrates. The ROMP with complex 11 is accelerated in the presence of two equiv of H3PO4, but is reduced as soon as the acid amount increased. The metathesis of phenylthiomethylidene catalysts 9 and 12 is sluggish at room temperature, but their ROMP can be dramatically accelerated at 60 °C. Complexes 11 and 12 are soluble in aqueous acid. They display the ability to perform RCM of diallylmalonic acid (DAMA, however, their conversions are very low amounting only to few turnovers before decomposition. However, both catalysts exhibit outstanding performance in the ROMP of dicyclopentadiene (DCPD and mixtures of DCPD with cyclooctene (COE in acidic aqueous microemulsion. With loadings as low as 180 ppm, the catalysts afforded mostly quantitative conversions of these monomers while maintaining the size and shape of the droplets throughout the polymerization process. Furthermore, the coagulate content for all experiments stayed <2%. This represents an unprecedented efficiency in emulsion ROMP based on hydrophilic ruthenium alkylidene complexes.

  15. Hexacoordinate Ru-based olefin metathesis catalysts with pH-responsive N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and N-donor ligands for ROMP reactions in non-aqueous, aqueous and emulsion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balof, Shawna L; Nix, K Owen; Olliff, Matthew S; Roessler, Sarah E; Saha, Arpita; Müller, Kevin B; Behrens, Ulrich; Valente, Edward J; Schanz, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Three new ruthenium alkylidene complexes (PCy3)Cl2(H2ITap)Ru=CHSPh (9), (DMAP)2Cl2(H2ITap)Ru=CHPh (11) and (DMAP)2Cl2(H2ITap)Ru=CHSPh (12) have been synthesized bearing the pH-responsive H2ITap ligand (H2ITap = 1,3-bis(2',6'-dimethyl-4'-dimethylaminophenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene). Catalysts 11 and 12 are additionally ligated by two pH-responsive DMAP ligands. The crystal structure was solved for complex 12 by X-ray diffraction. In organic, neutral solution, the catalysts are capable of performing standard ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and ring closing metathesis (RCM) reactions with standard substrates. The ROMP with complex 11 is accelerated in the presence of two equiv of H3PO4, but is reduced as soon as the acid amount increased. The metathesis of phenylthiomethylidene catalysts 9 and 12 is sluggish at room temperature, but their ROMP can be dramatically accelerated at 60 °C. Complexes 11 and 12 are soluble in aqueous acid. They display the ability to perform RCM of diallylmalonic acid (DAMA), however, their conversions are very low amounting only to few turnovers before decomposition. However, both catalysts exhibit outstanding performance in the ROMP of dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and mixtures of DCPD with cyclooctene (COE) in acidic aqueous microemulsion. With loadings as low as 180 ppm, the catalysts afforded mostly quantitative conversions of these monomers while maintaining the size and shape of the droplets throughout the polymerization process. Furthermore, the coagulate content for all experiments stayed <2%. This represents an unprecedented efficiency in emulsion ROMP based on hydrophilic ruthenium alkylidene complexes.

  16. Hexacoordinate Ru-based olefin metathesis catalysts with pH-responsive N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and N-donor ligands for ROMP reactions in non-aqueous, aqueous and emulsion conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balof, Shawna L; Nix, K Owen; Olliff, Matthew S; Roessler, Sarah E; Saha, Arpita; Müller, Kevin B; Behrens, Ulrich; Valente, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Three new ruthenium alkylidene complexes (PCy3)Cl2(H2ITap)Ru=CHSPh (9), (DMAP)2Cl2(H2ITap)Ru=CHPh (11) and (DMAP)2Cl2(H2ITap)Ru=CHSPh (12) have been synthesized bearing the pH-responsive H2ITap ligand (H2ITap = 1,3-bis(2’,6’-dimethyl-4’-dimethylaminophenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene). Catalysts 11 and 12 are additionally ligated by two pH-responsive DMAP ligands. The crystal structure was solved for complex 12 by X-ray diffraction. In organic, neutral solution, the catalysts are capable of performing standard ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and ring closing metathesis (RCM) reactions with standard substrates. The ROMP with complex 11 is accelerated in the presence of two equiv of H3PO4, but is reduced as soon as the acid amount increased. The metathesis of phenylthiomethylidene catalysts 9 and 12 is sluggish at room temperature, but their ROMP can be dramatically accelerated at 60 °C. Complexes 11 and 12 are soluble in aqueous acid. They display the ability to perform RCM of diallylmalonic acid (DAMA), however, their conversions are very low amounting only to few turnovers before decomposition. However, both catalysts exhibit outstanding performance in the ROMP of dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and mixtures of DCPD with cyclooctene (COE) in acidic aqueous microemulsion. With loadings as low as 180 ppm, the catalysts afforded mostly quantitative conversions of these monomers while maintaining the size and shape of the droplets throughout the polymerization process. Furthermore, the coagulate content for all experiments stayed <2%. This represents an unprecedented efficiency in emulsion ROMP based on hydrophilic ruthenium alkylidene complexes. PMID:26664616

  17. Simple direct formation of self-assembled N-heterocyclic carbene monolayers on gold and their application in biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudden, Cathleen M.; Horton, J. Hugh; Narouz, Mina R.; Li, Zhijun; Smith, Christene A.; Munro, Kim; Baddeley, Christopher J.; Larrea, Christian R.; Drevniok, Benedict; Thanabalasingam, Bheeshmon; McLean, Alastair B.; Zenkina, Olena V.; Ebralidze, Iraklii I.; She, Zhe; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard; Mosey, Nicholas J.; Saunders, Lisa N.; Yagi, Akiko

    2016-09-01

    The formation of organic films on gold employing N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) has been previously shown to be a useful strategy for generating stable organic films. However, NHCs or NHC precursors typically require inert atmosphere and harsh conditions for their generation and use. Herein we describe the use of benzimidazolium hydrogen carbonates as bench stable solid precursors for the preparation of NHC films in solution or by vapour-phase deposition from the solid state. The ability to prepare these films by vapour-phase deposition permitted the analysis of the films by a variety of surface science techniques, resulting in the first measurement of NHC desorption energy (158+/-10 kJ mol-1) and confirmation that the NHC sits upright on the surface. The use of these films in surface plasmon resonance-type biosensing is described, where they provide specific advantages versus traditional thiol-based films.

  18. The reductive P-P coupling of primary and secondary phosphines mediated by N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Heidi; Schmidt, David; Radius, Udo

    2015-06-25

    The dehydrogenative coupling of primary and secondary phosphines with the N-heterocyclic carbene iPr2Im (1,3-di-isopropyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene) has been reported. The dehydrogenation of R2PH affords diphosphines R2P-PR2. The reaction of iPr2Im with ArPH2 leads to the formation of NHC phosphinidene adducts iPr2Im[double bond, length as m-dash]PAr and cyclic oligophosphines P4Ar4, P5Ar5 and P6Ar6, depending on the stoichiometry used. The NHC acts in these reactions as a phosphine activator and hydrogen acceptor.

  19. Pd(II) immobilized on mesoporous silica by N-heterocyclic carbene ionic liquids and catalysis for hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Hou, Minqiang; Wu, Tianbin; Jiang, Tao; Fan, Honglei; Yang, Guanying; Han, Buxing

    2011-02-14

    In this work we synthesized Pd(II) immobilized on mesoporous silica by N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ionic liquids (ILs) with different alkyl chain lengths. The catalysts were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), low-angle X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nitrogen sorption. The catalysts were used for the hydrogenation of alkenes and allyl alcohol. The results indicated that the catalysts were very active, selective, and stable. The selectivity for the hydrogenation of allyl alcohol to 1-propanol increased with the increase of the alkyl chain length of the ILs. The effect of supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)) on the hydrogenation of allyl alcohol was also studied, and it was demonstrated that scCO(2) could enhance the selectivity of the reaction considerably. The XPS study showed that the valence of Pd(II) remained unchanged under hydrogenation conditions.

  20. Guidelines To Select the N-Heterocyclic Carbene for the Organopolymerization of Monomers with a Polar Group

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura

    2017-02-13

    We report on the DFT stability of zwitterion and spirocycle adducts of five polar monomers with nine N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC), covering the most typical classes of monomers and NHCs used in organopolymerization. Results indicate that the relative stability of the two adducts is dominated by the singlet-triplet energy gap of the free NHC, with low energy gaps favoring the spirocycle adduct, while high energy gaps favor the zwitterionic adduct. This basic structure/property relationship can be tuned by the hindrance of the NHC and the nature of the monomer. In addition to rationalize existing systems, the 45 NHC/monomer combinations we examined can be used as a guideline to predict the behavior of a new NHC/monomer combination.

  1. Synthesis of Novel N-heterocyclic Carbene Precursor Salts of Chiral Tetrahydropyrimidinium%新型手性四氢嘧啶氮杂环卡宾前体盐的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵迎春; 李杰; 张利; 徐亮

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel chiral 3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidinium salts, the precursor of N-heterocyclic carbene ligands, were desinged and synthesized from (IS,3S)-1,3-diphenyl-1 ,3-propanediamine. The structures were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and HR-MS.%以1,3-二苯基-l,3-二胺为原料,设计并合成了一系列新的手性四氢嘧啶氮杂环卡宾前体盐,其结构经1H NMR,13C NMR和HR-MS表征.

  2. Enolate chelating N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of Fe(Ⅱ): Synthesis, structure and their catalytic activity for ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The reaction of anhydrous FeBr2 with two equivalents of anionic N-heterocyclic carbene (NaL1 and NaL2), which are generated in situ by the reaction of the corresponding salt [4-R-C6H4COCH2{CH- (NCHCHNiPr)}Br] (R = OCH3, H2L1Br, 1; R = F, H2L2Br, 2) with two equivalents of NaN(SiMe3)2, affords bis-ligand Fe(Ⅱ) complexes of L21Fe (3) and L22Fe (4) in high yield, respectively. Attempt to synthesize mono-ligand Fe(Ⅱ) bromide by the 1:1 molar ratio of NaL to FeBr2 is unsuccessful, and the same complexes of 3 and 4 were obtained. Both 3 and 4 have been depicted by elemental analysis and X-ray structure determination. Preliminary studies show that both 3 and 4 can be used as single-component catalyst for the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone, and the catalytic activity of 3 is higher than that of 4.

  3. Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis: Selective Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide by a Nickel N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Isoquinoline Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoi, VanSara; Kornienko, Nick; Margarit, C; Yang, Peidong; Chang, Christopher

    2013-06-07

    The solar-driven reduction of carbon dioxide to value-added chemical fuels is a longstanding challenge in the fields of catalysis, energy science, and green chemistry. In order to develop effective CO2 fixation, several key considerations must be balanced, including (1) catalyst selectivity for promoting CO2 reduction over competing hydrogen generation from proton reduction, (2) visible-light harvesting that matches the solar spectrum, and (3) the use of cheap and earth-abundant catalytic components. In this report, we present the synthesis and characterization of a new family of earth-abundant nickel complexes supported by N-heterocyclic carbene amine ligands that exhibit high selectivity and activity for the electrocatalytic and photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to CO. Systematic changes in the carbene and amine donors of the ligand have been surveyed, and [Ni(Prbimiq1)]2+ (1c, where Prbimiq1 = bis(3-(imidazolyl)isoquinolinyl)propane) emerges as a catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 with the lowest cathodic onset potential (Ecat = 1.2 V vs SCE). Using this earth-abundant catalyst with Ir(ppy)3 (where ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) and an electron donor, we have developed a visible-light photoredox system for the catalytic conversion of CO2 to CO that proceeds with high selectivity and activity and achieves turnover numbers and turnover frequencies reaching 98,000 and 3.9 s1, respectively. Further studies reveal that the overall efficiency of this solar-to-fuel cycle may be limited by the formation of the active Ni catalyst and/or the chemical reduction of CO2 to CO at the reduced nickel center and provide a starting point for improved photoredox systems for sustainable carbon-neutral energy conversion.

  4. Variation of the Sterical Properties of the N-Heterocyclic Carbene Coligand in Thermally Triggerable Ruthenium-Based Olefin Metathesis Precatalysts/Initiators

    KAUST Repository

    Pump, Eva

    2015-11-09

    A series of ruthenium complexes based on the κ(C,N)-(2-(benzo[h]quinolin-10-yl)methylidene ruthenium dichloride fragment featuring different neutral coligands L (L = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene (SIPr), 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene (SIMes), 1,3-bis(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene (SIXyl), and 1,3-bis(2-methylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene (SITol)) was prepared, characterized, and tested in the thermally induced ring-opening metathesis polymerization of dicyclopentadiene. In addition, the corresponding tricyclohexylphosphine derivative was investigated for comparison. All compounds were isolated as their trans-dichloro isomers. NMR spectroscopic features as well as structural features are, particularly within the NHC-bearing complexes, very similar, but their polymerization activity at elevated temperatures is distinctly different. While the SIMes derivative shows the desired properties, i.e., latency at room temperature and pronounced polymerization activity at elevated temperature, all other preinitiators do not. The preinitiator featuring the SIPr coligand is the most latent one, needing temperatures > 140 °C to show moderate activity in the polymerization of dicyclopentadiene. Compounds bearing the smaller N-heterocyclic carbene congeners are stable and latent at room temperature, but decompose upon heating, diminishing the polymerization activity at elevated temperatures. Density functional calculations show that the SIMes derivative is the easiest to activate and yields the most stable 14-electron intermediate. Finally calculations reveal a distinct influence of the nature of the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand on the position of the equilibrium of cis- and trans-dichloro isomers of the complexes. While the SIPr and the SIMes derivatives prefer the cis-configuration, all other derivatives favor, at least in solvents with low dielectric constants, the trans

  5. Recent Advances in Medicinal Applications of Coinage-Metal (Cu and Ag) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Marika; Santini, Carlo; Pellei, Maura

    2016-01-01

    The fascinating chemical properties of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes showed them to be a suitable class of complexes to be investigated for their applications as drugs in the treatment of the infectious disease or cancer. In particular, the great structural versatility provided a library of compounds with a low cytotoxic profile, suitable candidates as new anticancer agents. Most of these complexes have shown higher cytotoxicity than cisplatin. In the present review, the medicinal applications of copper(I)- and silver(I)-NHC complexes are summarized. Specifically, azolium precursors and related Cu(I)- and Ag(I)-NHC complexes of functionalized and non-functionalized imidazole-, and benzimidazole-based NHC complexes studied as an alternative to cisplatin as chemotherapeutic agents are reviewed. An outline of the most significant chemical features is presented: copper(I)- and silver(I)-NHC complexes tested as anticancer drugs have been reported and a description of structure-activity relationships was made as far as possible.

  6. Mechanistic Insights into the Organopolymerization of N-Methyl N-Carboxyanhydrides Mediated by N-Heterocyclic Carbenes

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura

    2016-10-04

    We report on a DFT investigation of initiation, propagation, and termination in the organopolymerization of N-methyl N-carboxyanhydrides toward cyclic poly(N-substituted glycine)s, promoted by N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC). Calculations support the experimentally based hypothesis of two competing initiation pathways. The first leading to formation of a zwitterionic adduct by nucleophilic addition of the NHC to one of the carbonyl groups of monomer. The second via acid–base reactivity, starting with the NHC promoted abstraction of a proton from the methylene group of the monomer, leading to an ion-pair-type adduct, followed by nucleophilic attack of the adduct to a new monomer molecule. Chain elongation can proceed from both the initiation adducts via nucleophilic attack of the carbamate chain-end to a new monomer molecule via concerted elimination of CO2 from the carbamate chain-end. Energy barriers along all the considered termination pathways are remarkably higher that the energy barrier along the chain elongation pathways, consistent with the quasi-living experimental behavior. Analysis of the competing termination pathways suggests that the cyclic species determined via MALDI-TOF MS experiments consists of a zwitterionic species deriving from nucleophilic attack of the N atom of the carbamate chain-end to the C═O group bound to the NHC moiety.

  7. From the N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Conjugate Addition of Alcohols to the Controlled Polymerization of (Meth)acrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottou, Winnie Nzahou; Bourichon, Damien; Vignolle, Joan; Wirotius, Anne-Laure; Robert, Fredéric; Landais, Yannick; Sotiropoulos, Jean-Marc; Miqueu, Karinne; Taton, Daniel

    2015-06-22

    Among various N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) tested, only 1,3-bis(tert-butyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (NHC(tBu) ) proved to selectively promote the catalytic conjugate addition of alcohols onto (meth)acrylate substrates. This rather rare example of NHC-catalyzed 1,4-addition of alcohols was investigated as a simple means to trigger the polymerization of both methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate (MMA and MA, respectively). Well-defined α-alkoxy poly(methyl (meth)acrylate) (PM(M)A) chains, the molar masses of which could be controlled by the initial [(meth)acrylate]0/[ROH]0 molar ratio, were ultimately obtained in N,N-dimethylformamide at 25 °C. A hydroxyl-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-OH) macro-initiator was also employed to directly access PEO-b-PMMA amphiphilic block copolymers. Investigations into the reaction mechanism by DFT calculations revealed the occurrence of two competitive concerted pathways, involving either the activation of the alcohol or that of the monomer by NHC(tBu) .

  8. Organic Transformations Catalyzed by N-Heterocyclic Carben e-Metal Complexes%以N-杂环卡宾为配体的金属络合物催化有机合成的反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林涛; 麻生明

    2001-01-01

    Reactions catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbene-metal complexes, such as ol efin metathesis, coupling reaction, hydrosilylation reaction, etc. were revi ewed.   Ruthenium (II) complexes bearing one or two imidazolin-2-ylidene ligands are h ighly active catalysts for all types of ring closing metathesis reactions. Impor tantly, they even allow the formation of tetrasubstituted alkenes that were not previously achieved by ruthenium-phosphine metathesis catalysts. In addition, f unctionalized olefins were synthesized by intermolecular cross-metathesis and r ing-closing metathesis.   Palladium(0) complexes of imidazolin-2-ylidenes (19) could not catalyze the coupling of p-chlorotoluene and phenylboronic acid. However, a system consists of a Pd(0) precursor and dihydroimidazoline carbene ligand, wh ich is generated in situ, showed high activity for Suzuki cross-coupling re action of aryl chlorides with arylboronic acids, Kumada cross-coupling reaction of aryl chlorides with aryl Grignard reagents and amination of aryl chlorides.   Complexes of the (NHC)Pd(PR3)I2-type with bulky N-heterocyclic carbene s (NHC) are efficient catalysts for the Suzuki and Stille cross-coupling reacti ons, etc.   Imidazolidin-2-ylidene derivatives of rhodium(I) and ruthenium(II) catalyze t he carbon-carbon coupling of terminal alkynes, the cyclopropanation reactions o f diazoalkane derivatives with styrene, hydrosilylation of alkenes, alkynes, keto nes and hydrogenation of olefins.%综述了近几年来以N-杂环卡宾 为配体的金属络合物催化有机合成的反应。

  9. [bmim][Br] as a solvent and activator for the Ga-mediated Barbier allylation: direct formation of an N-heterocyclic carbene from Ga metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dibakar; Chattopadhyay, Angshuman; Sharma, Anubha; Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2012-12-21

    The room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [bmim][Br] has been found to be an excellent green and inexpensive medium for the Ga-mediated allylation of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes and ketones. The RTIL activated the metal via formation of a Ga-N-heterocyclic carbene complex that assisted in the completion of the reaction at ambient temperature with only 0.5 equiv of Ga and 1.2 equiv of allyl bromide with respect to the carbonyl substrates. The present protocol required a much shorter time than those reported in the literature using other metals and solvents and proceeded with good yields and excellent selectivity.

  10. Synthesis, electronic structure, and magnetism of [Ni(6-Mes)2]+: a two-coordinate nickel(I) complex stabilized by bulky N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulten, Rebecca C; Page, Michael J; Algarra, Andrés G; Le Roy, Jennifer J; López, Isidoro; Carter, Emma; Llobet, Antoni; Macgregor, Stuart A; Mahon, Mary F; Murphy, Damien M; Murugesu, Muralee; Whittlesey, Michael K

    2013-09-18

    The two-coordinate cationic Ni(I) bis-N-heterocyclic carbene complex [Ni(6-Mes)2]Br (1) [6-Mes =1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene] has been structurally characterized and displays a highly linear geometry with a C-Ni-C angle of 179.27(13)°. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the five occupied metal-based orbitals are split in an approximate 2:1:2 pattern. Significant magnetic anisotropy results from this orbital degeneracy, leading to single-ion magnet (SIM) behavior.

  11. N, N′-Olefin functionalized Bis-Imidazolium Pd(II) chloride N-Heterocyclic carbene complex builds a supramolecular framework and shows catalytic efficacy for `C–C' coupling reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gourisankar Roymahapatra; Tapastaru Samanta; Saikat Kumar Seth; Ambikesh Mahapatra; Shyamal Kumar Chattopadhyay; Joydev Dinda

    2015-06-01

    The ligand 3,3′-(-phenylenedimethylene)bis{1-(2-methylallyl)} imidazolium bromide (1) and its Palladium(II) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex (3) has been synthesized and characterized by several spectroscopic techniques and the solid-state structure of 3 has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The Pd(II) complex possesses ring head to tail – stacking interactions (3.767 A°) through imidazole rings. Complex 3 catalyzes Suzuki-Miyaura `C–C' coupling reaction. DFT calculations have been used to understand the HOMO/LUMO energy and hence the stability and reactivity of Pd(II) complex in syn and anti-configuration.

  12. Water-soluble IrIII N-heterocyclic carbene based catalysts for the reduction of CO2 to formate by transfer hydrogenation and the deuteration of aryl amines in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azua, Arturo; Sanz, Sergio; Peris, Eduardo

    2011-03-28

    Two new water-soluble [IrI(2)(AcO)(bis-NHC)] complexes (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) incorporating a sulfonate functionality have been synthesized. The two complexes have been tested in the reduction of CO(2) with H(2) and iPrOH, and their activity has been compared with similar species without the sulfonate moiety. In both reactions, the complex with the two abnormally bound NHCs shows the best catalytic efficiencies, due to the higher σ-electron-donor character of the ligand. Remarkably, the activities obtained for the reduction of CO(2) under the transfer hydrogenation conditions are the best reported to date in terms of TON value (max. TON=2700). The two new complexes have also shown very good activity in the selective deuteration of arylamines, a process that is known to proceed through a chelate assisted N-directed process.

  13. Cu(I)-N heterocyclic carbene complexes: Synthesis, catalysis and DFT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinda, Joydev; Roymahapatra, Gourisankar; Sarkar, Deblina; Mondal, Tapan K.; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Sinha, Chittaranjan; Hwang, Wen-Shu

    2017-01-01

    The structural, spectroscopic and catalytic properties of the two Cu(I) complexes [Cu2(L1)2](PF6)2;(1) and [Cu2(L2)2](PF6)2; (2), bearing proligands 2,6-bis-(N-methylimidazolium)pyrazine hexafluorophosphate (L1) and 2,6-bis-(N-methylbenzimidazolium)pyrazine hexafluorophosphate (L2), have been investigated. The solid state structure of 1 has been determined by X-ray diffraction studies, while DFT computation technique has been used to optimize structure 2. From molecular orbital calculations using TD-DFT, the absorption bands are assigned to metal to ligand charge transfer(MLCT) along with some inter ligand charge transfer (ILCT) transitions. Complexes 1 and 2 possess very weak Cu(I)sbnd Cu(I) interactions within the reported distance 2.947-3.020 Å. They are expected to have luminescent properties due to Cu(I)sbnd Cu(I) interactions. Preliminary studies revealed both complexes to possess catalytic efficiency in general hydrosilylation reactions.

  14. Chemistry of Iron N -heterocyclic carbene complexes: Syntheses, structures, reactivities, and catalytic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Riener, Korbinian

    2014-05-28

    Iron is the most abundant transition metal in Earth\\'s crust. It is relatively inexpensive, not very toxic, and environmentally benign. Undoubtedly, due to the involvement in a multitude of biological processes, which heavily rely on the rich functionalities of iron-containing enzymes, iron is one of the most important elements in nature. Additionally, three-coordinate iron complexes have been reported during the past several years. In this review, the mentioned iron NHC complexes are categorized by their main structure and reactivity attributes. Thus, monocarbene and bis-monocarbene complexes are presented first. This class is subdivided into carbonyl, nitrosyl, and halide compounds followed by a brief section on other, more unconventional iron NHC motifs. Subsequently, donor-substituted complexes bearing bi-, tri-, tetra-, or even pentadentate ligands and further pincer as well as scorpionato motifs are described.

  15. Novel Nonsymmetrically p-Benzyl-Substituted (Benzimidazole N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Silver(I Acetate Complexes: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Hackenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsymmetrically substituted N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC precursors 1a–d and 3a–d were synthesised by first reacting 1H-(benzimidazole with p-cyanobenzyl bromide to give 4-(1H-imidazole-1-ylmethylbenzonitrile (1 and 4-(1H-benzimidazole-1-ylmethylbenzonitrile (3 and afterwards introducing benzyl bromide, 1-(bromomethyl-4-methylbenzene, 1-(bromomethyl-4-methoxybenzene, and methyl 4-(bromomethylbenzoate. The NHC-silver(I acetate complexes (1-benzyl-3-(4-cyanobenzyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazole-2-ylidene silver(I acetate (2a, (1-(4-cyanobenzyl-3-(4-methylbenzyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazole-2-ylidene silver(I acetate (2b, (1-(4-cyanobenzyl-3-[4-(methoxycarbonylbenzyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazole-2-ylidene silver(I acetate (2c, (1-benzyl-3-(4-cyanobenzyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazole-2-ylidene silver(I acetate (4a, (1-(4-cyanobenzyl-3-(4-methylbenzyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazole-2-ylidene silver(I acetate (4b, (1-(4-cyanobenzyl-3-(4-methoxybenzyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazole-2-ylidene silver(I acetate (4c, and (1-(4-cyanobenzyl-3-[4-(methoxycarbonylbenzyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazole-2-ylidene silver(I acetate (4d were yielded by reacting these NHC precursors with silver(I acetate. The silver(I acetate complex 4b was characterised by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Preliminary in vitro antibacterial studies against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, were carried out on the seven NHC-silver(I acetate complexes 2a–c and 4a–d. Also the IC50 values of these seven complexes were determined by an MTT-based assay against the human renal cancer cell line Caki-1. The complexes 2a–c and 4a–c revealed the following IC50 values, respectively, 25 (±1, 15 (±2, 5.4 (±0.8, 16 (±2, 7.1 (±1, 20 (±4, and 14 (±1 μM.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of a cationic phthalimido-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene complex of palladium(II) and its catalytic activity

    KAUST Repository

    Goh, Li Min Serena

    2014-01-29

    A cationic phthalimido-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) palladium(II) complex has been synthesized from [3-methyl-1-(2′- phthalimidoethyl)imidazolium] hexafluorophosphate ([NHCMe,PhtH] PF6) by transmetalation and isolated in 67 % yield. The title complex has been applied as catalyst in the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction under benign aqueous conditions. The catalyst is active without any observable initiation period. High average turnover frequencies (TOFs) of up to 55000 h-1 have been reached with catalyst concentrations as low as 0.01 mol-%. A cationic phthalimido-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) palladium(II) complex has been prepared in high yield. The complex was activated instantly, without an initiation period, in the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction under benign aqueous aerobic conditions. Turnover frequencies (TOFs) up to 55000 h-1, were achieved with 0.01 mol-% of the complex. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Redox noninnocence of carbene ligands: carbene radicals in (catalytic) C-C bond formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dzik, W.I.; Zhang, X.P.; de Bruin, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this Forum contribution, we highlight the radical-type reactivities of one-electron-reduced Fischer-type carbenes. Carbene complexes of group 6 transition metals (Cr, Mo, and W) can be relatively easily reduced by an external reducing agent, leading to one-electron reduction of the carbene ligand

  18. Reactivity of cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbenes (CAACs) and bis(amino)cyclopropenylidenes (BACs) with heteroallenes: comparisons with their N-heterocyclic carbene (NHCs) counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbeiser, Glenn; Soleilhavoup, Michele; Donnadieu, Bruno; Bertrand, Guy

    2009-11-02

    Similarly to NHCs, CAAC(a) and BAC(a) react with CO2 to give the corresponding betaines. Based on the carbonyl stretching frequencies of cis-[RhCl(CO)2(L)] complexes, the order of electron donor ability was predicted to be CAAC(a) approximately BAC(a)>NHCs. When the betaines nu(asym)(CO2) values are used, the apparent ordering is BAC(a)>NHCs approximately CAAC(a) that indicates a limitation for the use of IR spectroscopy in the ranking of ligand sigma-donating ability. Although all carbenes react with carbon disulfide to give the corresponding betaines, a second equivalent of CS2 reacts with the BAC-CS2 leading to a bicyclic thieno[2,3-diamino]-1,3-dithiole-2-thione, which results from a novel ring expansion process. Surprisingly, in contrast to NHCs, CAAC(a) does not react with carbodiimide, whereas BAC(a) exclusively gives a ring expanded product, analogous to that obtained with CS2. The intermediate amidinate can be trapped, using the lithium tetrafluoroborate adduct of BAC(b) as a carbene surrogate.

  19. Iridium(I) Compounds as Prospective Anticancer Agents: Solution Chemistry, Antiproliferative Profiles and Protein Interactions for a Series of Iridium(I) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothe, Yvonne; Marzo, Tiziano; Messori, Luigi; Metzler-Nolte, Nils

    2016-08-22

    A series of structurally related mono- and bis-NHC-iridium(I) (NHC: N-heterocyclic carbene) complexes have been investigated for their suitability as potential anticancer drugs. Their spectral behaviour in aqueous buffers under physiological-like conditions and their cytotoxicity against the cancer cell lines MCF-7 and HT-29 are reported. Notably, almost all complexes exhibit significant cytotoxic effects towards both cancer cell lines. In general, the cationic bis-carbene complexes show higher stability and greater anticancer activity than their neutral mono-carbene analogues with IC50 values in the high nanomolar range. Furthermore, to gain initial mechanistic insight, the interactions of these iridium(I)-NHC complexes with two model proteins, namely lysozyme and cytochrome c, were explored by HR-ESI-MS analyses. The different protein metalation patterns of the complexes can be roughly classified into two distinct groups. Those interactions give us a first idea about the possible mechanism of action of this class of compounds. Overall, our findings show that iridium(I)-NHC complexes represent very interesting candidates for further development as new metal-based anticancer drugs.

  20. N-formylation and N-methylation of amines using metal-free N-heterocyclic carbene catalysts and CO2 as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbink, Felix D; Das, Shoubhik; Dyson, Paul J

    2017-02-01

    N-formylation and N-methylation of amines are important reactions that are used to produce a wide range of key intermediates and compounds. This protocol describes the environmentally benign N-formylation and N-methylation of primary and secondary amines using carbon dioxide (CO2) as the carbon source, hydrosilanes as reductants and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) as catalysts. Using CO2 as a reagent has the advantage of low cost and negligible toxicity. However, the catalyst is air-sensitive and must be generated fresh before use; consequently, the techniques used to prepare and manipulate the catalyst are described. The synthetic approach described in this protocol does not use any toxic reagents; using the appropriate catalyst, N-formylated or N-methylated products can be obtained with high selectivity. The overall time for catalyst preparation and for conducting several catalytic reactions in parallel is 15-48 h, depending on the nature of the substrates.

  1. Room temperature ring expansion of N-heterocyclic carbenes and B-B bond cleavage of diboron(4) compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Sabrina; Paul, Ursula; Cade, Ian A; Ingleson, Michael J; Radius, Udo; Marder, Todd B

    2015-06-15

    We report the isolation and detailed structural characterization, by solid-state and solution NMR spectroscopy, of the neutral mono- and bis-NHC adducts of bis(catecholato)diboron (B2 cat2 ). The bis-NHC adduct undergoes thermally induced rearrangement, forming a six-membered -B-C=N-C=C-N-heterocyclic ring via C-N bond cleavage and ring expansion of the NHC, whereas the mono-NHC adduct is stable. Bis(neopentylglycolato)diboron (B2 neop2 ) is much more reactive than B2 cat2 giving a ring expanded product at room temperature, demonstrating that ring expansion of NHCs can be a very facile process with significant implications for their use in catalysis.

  2. Proton-Transfer Polymerization by N-Heterocyclic Carbenes: Monomer and Catalyst Scopes and Mechanism for Converting Dimethacrylates into Unsaturated Polyesters

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Miao

    2016-01-18

    This contribution presents a full account of experimental and theoretical/computational investigations into the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed proton-transfer polymerization (HTP) that converts common dimethacrylates (DMAs) containing no protic groups into unsaturated polyesters. This new HTP proceeds through the step-growth propagation cycles via enamine intermediates, consisting of the proposed conjugate addition–proton transfer–NHC release fundamental steps. This study examines the monomer and catalyst scopes as well as the fundamental steps involved in the overall HTP mechanism. DMAs having six different types of linkages connecting the two methacrylates have been polymerized into the corresponding unsaturated polyesters. The most intriguing unsaturated polyester of the series is that based on the biomass-derived furfuryl dimethacrylate, which showed a unique self-curing ability Four MeO– and Cl–substituted TPT (1,3,4-triphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene) derivatives as methanol insertion products, RxTPT(MeO/H) (R = MeO, Cl; x = 2, 3), and two free carbenes (catalysts), OMe2TPT and OMe3TPT, have been synthesized, while OMe2TPT(MeO/H) and OMe2TPT have also been structurally characterized. The structure/reactivity relationship study revealed that OMe2TPT, being both a strong nucleophile and a good leaving group, exhibits the highest HTP activity and also produced the polyester with the highest Mn, while the Cl–substituted TPT derivatives are least active and efficient. Computational studies have provided mechanistic insights into the tail-to-tail dimerization coupling step as a suitable model for the propagation cycle of the HTP. The extensive energy profile was mapped out and the experimentally observed unicity of the TPT-based catalysts was satisfactorily explained with the thermodynamic formation of key spirocyclic species.

  3. Mixed N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Bis(oxazolinyl)borato Rhodium and Iridium Complexes in Photochemical and Thermal Oxidative Addition Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Songchen [Ames Laboratory; Manna, Kuntal [Ames Laboratory; Ellern, Arkady [Ames Laboratory; Sadow, Aaron D [Ames Laboratory

    2014-12-08

    In order to facilitate oxidative addition chemistry of fac-coordinated rhodium(I) and iridium(I) compounds, carbene–bis(oxazolinyl)phenylborate proligands have been synthesized and reacted with organometallic precursors. Two proligands, PhB(OxMe2)2(ImtBuH) (H[1]; OxMe2 = 4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline; ImtBuH = 1-tert-butylimidazole) and PhB(OxMe2)2(ImMesH) (H[2]; ImMesH = 1-mesitylimidazole), are deprotonated with potassium benzyl to generate K[1] and K[2], and these potassium compounds serve as reagents for the synthesis of a series of rhodium and iridium complexes. Cyclooctadiene and dicarbonyl compounds {PhB(OxMe2)2ImtBu}Rh(η4-C8H12) (3), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Rh(η4-C8H12) (4), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Rh(CO)2 (5), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Ir(η4-C8H12) (6), and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Ir(CO)2 (7) are synthesized along with ToMM(η4-C8H12) (M = Rh (8); M = Ir (9); ToM = tris(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate). The spectroscopic and structural properties and reactivity of this series of compounds show electronic and steric effects of substituents on the imidazole (tert-butyl vs mesityl), effects of replacing an oxazoline in ToM with a carbene donor, and the influence of the donor ligand (CO vs C8H12). The reactions of K[2] and [M(μ-Cl)(η2-C8H14)2]2 (M = Rh, Ir) provide {κ4-PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes'CH2}Rh(μ-H)(μ-Cl)Rh(η2-C8H14)2 (10) and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}IrH(η3-C8H13) (11). In the former compound, a spontaneous oxidative addition of a mesityl ortho-methyl to give a mixed-valent dirhodium species is observed, while the iridium compound forms a monometallic allyl hydride. Photochemical reactions of dicarbonyl compounds 5 and 7 result in C–H bond oxidative addition providing the compounds {κ4-PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes'CH2}RhH(CO) (12) and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}IrH(Ph)CO (13). In 12, oxidative addition results in cyclometalation of the mesityl ortho-methyl similar to 10, whereas the iridium compound reacts with the benzene solvent to give a rare crystallographically characterized cis

  4. Structure, bonding and energetics of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) stabilized low oxidation state group 2 (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) metal complexes: A theoretical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashim Baishya; V Rao Mundlapati; Sharanappa Nembenna; Himansu S Biswal

    2014-11-01

    A series of N-heterocyclic carbene stabilized low oxidation state group 2 metal halide and hydrides with metal-metal bonds ([L(X) M-M(X) L]; L = NHC ((CHNH)2C:), M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba, and X = Cl or H) has been studied by computational methods. The main objective of this study is to predict whether it is possible to stabilize neutral ligated low oxidation state alkaline-earth metal complexes with metal-metal bonds. The homolytic metal-metal Bond Dissociation Energy (BDE) calculation, Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Energy Decomposition Analyses (EDA) on density functional theory (DFT) optimized [L(X)M-M(X)L] complexes revealed that they are as stable as their -diketiminate, guanidinate and -diimine counterparts. The optimized structures of the complexes are in trans-linear geometries. The bond order analyses such as Wiberg Bond Indices (WBI) and Fuzzi Bond Order (FBO) confirm the existence of single bond between two metal atoms, and it is covalent in nature.

  5. Alkali-Metal-Mediated Magnesiations of an N-Heterocyclic Carbene: Normal, Abnormal, and "Paranormal" Reactivity in a Single Tritopic Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Antonio J; Fuentes, M Ángeles; Hernán-Gómez, Alberto; Hevia, Eva; Kennedy, Alan R; Mulvey, Robert E; O'Hara, Charles T

    2015-11-16

    Herein the sodium alkylmagnesium amide [Na4Mg2(TMP)6(nBu)2] (TMP=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide), a template base as its deprotonating action is dictated primarily by its 12 atom ring structure, is studied with the common N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) IPr [1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene]. Remarkably, magnesiation of IPr occurs at the para-position of an aryl substituent, sodiation occurs at the abnormal C4 position, and a dative bond occurs between normal C2 and sodium, all within a 20 atom ring structure accommodating two IPr(2-). Studies with different K/Mg and Na/Mg bimetallic bases led to two other magnesiated NHC structures containing two or three IPr(-) monoanions bound to Mg through abnormal C4 sites. Synergistic in that magnesiation can only work through alkali-metal mediation, these reactions add magnesium to the small cartel of metals capable of directly metalating a NHC.

  6. Insights into the Competing Mechanisms and Origin of Enantioselectivity for N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Reaction of Aldehyde with Enamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yan; Chen, Xinhuan; Wei, Donghui; Chang, Junbiao

    2016-12-01

    Hydroacylation reactions and aza-benzoin reactions have attracted considerable attention from experimental chemists. Recently, Wang et al. reported an interesting reaction of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed addition of aldehyde to enamide, in which both hydroacylation and aza-benzoin reactions may be involved. Thus, understanding the competing relationship between them is of great interest. Now, density functional theory (DFT) investigation was performed to elucidate this issue. Our results reveal that enamide can tautomerize to its imine isomer with the assistance of HCO3‑. The addition of NHC to aldehydes formed Breslow intermediate, which can go through cross-coupling with enamide via hydroacylation reaction or its imine isomer via aza-benzoin reaction. The aza-benzoin reaction requires relatively lower free energy barrier than the hydroacylation reaction. The more polar characteristic of C=N group in the imine isomers, and the more advantageous stereoelectronic effect in the carbon-carbon bond forming transition states in aza-benzoin pathway were identified to determine that the imine isomer can react with the Breslow intermediate more easily. Furthermore, the origin of enantioselectivities for the reaction was explored and reasonably explained by structural analyses on key transition states. The work should provide valuable insights for rational design of switchable NHC-catalyzed hydroacylation and aza-benzoin reactions with high stereoselectivity.

  7. N-heterocyclic carbene-assisted, bis(phosphine)nickel-catalyzed cross-couplings of diarylborinic acids with aryl chlorides, tosylates, and sulfamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Haihua; Chen, Xiaofeng; Zou, Gang

    2014-08-01

    Efficient bis(phosphine)nickel-catalyzed cross-couplings of diarylborinic acids with aryl chlorides, tosylates, and sulfamates have been effected with an assistance of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) generated in situ from N,N'-dialkylimidazoliums, e.g., N-butyl-N'-methylimidazolium bromide ([Bmim]Br), in toluene using K3PO4·3H2O as base. In contrast to bis(NHC)nickel-catalyzed conventional Suzuki coupling of arylboronic acids, mono(NHC)bis(phosphine)nickel species generated in situ from Ni(PPh3)2Cl2/[Bmim]Br displayed high catalytic activities in the cross-couplings of diarylborinic acids. The structural influences from diarylborinic acids were found to be rather small, while electronic factors from aryl chlorides, tosylates, and sulfamates affected the couplings remarkably. The couplings of electronically activated aryl chlorides, tosylates, and sulfamates could be efficiently effected with 1.5 mol % NiCl2(PPh3)2/[Bmim]Br as catalyst precursor to give the biaryl products in excellent yields, while 3-5 mol % loadings had to be used for the couplings of non- and deactivated ones. A small ortho-substitutent on the aromatic ring of aryl chlorides, tosylates, and sulfamates was tolerable. Applicability of the nickel-catalyzed cross-couplings in practical synthesis of fine chemicals has been demonstrated in process development for a third-generation topical retinoid, Adapalene.

  8. Cyclometalated Palladium(II) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes: Anticancer Agents for Potent In Vitro Cytotoxicity and In Vivo Tumor Growth Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Tommy Tsz-Him; Lok, Chun-Nam; Chung, Clive Yik-Sham; Fung, Yi-Man Eva; Chow, Pui-Keong; Wan, Pui-Ki; Che, Chi-Ming

    2016-09-19

    Palladium(II) complexes are generally reactive toward substitution/reduction, and their biological applications are seldom explored. A new series of palladium(II) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes that are stable in the presence of biological thiols are reported. A representative complex, [Pd(C^N^N)(N,N'-nBu2 NHC)](CF3 SO3 ) (Pd1 d, HC^N^N=6-phenyl-2,2'-bipyridine, N,N'-nBu2 NHC=N,N'-di-n-butylimidazolylidene), displays potent killing activity toward cancer cell lines (IC50 =0.09-0.5 μm) but is less cytotoxic toward a normal human fibroblast cell line (CCD-19Lu, IC50 =11.8 μm). In vivo anticancer studies revealed that Pd1 d significantly inhibited tumor growth in a nude mice model. Proteomics data and in vitro biochemical assays reveal that Pd1 d exerts anticancer effects, including inhibition of an epidermal growth factor receptor pathway, induction of mitochondrial dysfunction, and antiangiogenic activity to endothelial cells.

  9. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Catalytic Behavior of 1-Ethyl-3-benyl-imidazolyl Tetranuclear N-Heterocyclic Carbene Silver Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-Guo; SU Zhi-Xian; BIAN Qing-Quan; LIU Si-Man; LIU Ting

    2012-01-01

    The title complex [Ag(carbene)2]2[Ag2Br4] has been synthesized by the reaction of Ag2O with 1-ethyl-3-benyl-imidazolium bromide in DMSO at room temperature, and characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It crystallizes in triclinic, space group P with a = 10.1597(10), b =11.0646(11), c = 13.0245(14) , α = 102.230(2), β = 90.606, γ = 113.9250(10)o, V = 1300.3(2) 3, Mr = 748.06, Z = 2, Dc = 1.911 g/cm3, μ(MoKα) = 4.60 mm-1 and F(000) = 728. The structure was refined to R = 0.0316 and wR = 0.0835 for 3744 observed reflections with I 〉 2σ(I). The title compound crystallizes as a centrosymmetric tetranuclear compound. One half of the molecule comprises the asymmetric unit of the structure. The Ag(1) atom is nearly linear or T-shaped when the Ag(1)-Ag(2) interaction is taken into consideration, which is bi-coordinated by two carbene carbon atoms. The Ag(2) atom adopts tetrahedral geometry. The catalytic behavior of the title complex has been investigated, and the results indicate it has a highly catalytic activation for L-lactide polymerization.

  10. Steric and electronic parameters of a bulky yet flexible N-heterocyclic carbene: 1,3-bis(2,6-bis(1-ethylpropyl)phenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (IPent)

    KAUST Repository

    Collado, Alba

    2013-06-10

    The free N-heterocyclic carbene IPent (1; IPent = 1,3-bis(2,6-bis(1- ethylpropyl)phenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) was prepared from the corresponding imidazolium chloride salt (2). The steric and electronic parameters of 1 were determined by synthesis of the gold(I) chloride complex [Au(IPent)Cl] (3) and the nickel-carbonyl complex [Ni(IPent)(CO)3] (4), respectively. 3 and 4 were fully characterized by NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction studies on single crystals. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. Neutral and Cationic Molybdenum Imido Alkylidene N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes: Reactivity in Selected Olefin Metathesis Reactions and Immobilization on Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Suman; Schowner, Roman; Imbrich, Dominik A; Frey, Wolfgang; Hunger, Michael; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2015-09-21

    The synthesis and single-crystal X-ray structures of the novel molybdenum imido alkylidene N-heterocyclic carbene complexes [Mo(N-2,6-Me2C6H3)(IMesH2)(CHCMe2Ph)(OTf)2] (3), [Mo(N-2,6-Me2C6H3)(IMes)(CHCMe2Ph)(OTf)2] (4), [Mo(N-2,6-Me2C6H3)(IMesH2)(CHCMe2Ph)(OTf){OCH(CF3)2}] (5), [Mo(N-2,6-Me2C6H3)(CH3CN)(IMesH2)(CHCMe2Ph)(OTf)](+)BArF(-) (6), [Mo(N-2,6-Cl2C6H3)(IMesH2)(CHCMe3)(OTf)2] (7) and [Mo(N-2,6-Cl2C6H3)(IMes)(CHCMe3)(OTf)2] (8) are reported (IMesH2=1,3-dimesitylimidazolidin-2-ylidene, IMes=1,3-dimesitylimidazolin-2-ylidene, BArF(-)=tetrakis-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] borate, OTf=CF3SO3(-)). Also, silica-immobilized versions I1 and I2 were prepared. Catalysts 3-8, I1 and I2 were used in homo-, cross-, and ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reactions and in the cyclopolymerization of α,ω-diynes. In the RCM of α,ω-dienes, in the homometathesis of 1-alkenes, and in the ethenolysis of cyclooctene, turnover numbers (TONs) up to 100,000, 210,000 and 30,000, respectively, were achieved. With I1 and I2, virtually Mo-free products were obtained (<3 ppm Mo). With 1,6-hepta- and 1,7-octadiynes, catalysts 3, 4, and 5 allowed for the regioselective cyclopolymerization of 4,4-bis(ethoxycarbonyl)-1,6-heptadiyne, 4,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)-1,6-heptadiyne, 4,4-bis[(3,5-diethoxybenzoyloxy)methyl]-1,6-heptadiyne, 4,4,5,5-tetrakis(ethoxycarbonyl)-1,7-octadiyne, and 1,6-heptadiyne-4-carboxylic acid, underlining the high functional-group tolerance of these novel Group 6 metal alkylidenes.

  12. Organocatalytic conjugate-addition polymerization of linear and cyclic acrylic monomers by N-heterocyclic carbenes: Mechanisms of chain initiation, propagation, and termination

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yuetao

    2013-11-27

    This contribution presents a full account of experimental and theoretical/computational investigations into the mechanisms of chain initiation, propagation, and termination of the recently discovered N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-mediated organocatalytic conjugate-addition polymerization of acrylic monomers. The current study specifically focuses on three commonly used NHCs of vastly different nucleophilicity, 1,3-di-tert-butylimidazolin-2-ylidene (ItBu), 1,3- dimesitylimidazolin-2-ylidene (IMes), and 1,3,4-triphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4- triazol-5-ylidene (TPT), and two representative acrylic monomers, the linear methyl methacrylate (MMA) and its cyclic analog, biomass-derived renewable γ-methyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MMBL). For MMA, there exhibits an exquisite selectivity of the NHC structure for the three types of reactions it promotes: enamine formation (single-monomer addition) by IMes, dimerization (tail-to-tail) by TPT, and polymerization by ItBu. For MMBL, all three NHCs promote no dimerization but polymerization, with the polymerization activity being highly sensitive to the NHC structure and the solvent polarity. Thus, ItBu is the most active catalyst of the series and converts quantitatively 1000-3000 equiv of MMBL in 1 min or 10 000 equiv in 5 min at room temperature to MMBL-based bioplastics with a narrow range of molecular weights of Mn = 70-85 kg/mol, regardless of the [MMBL]/[ItBu] ratio employed. The ItBu-catalyzed MMBL polymerization reaches an exceptionally high turnover frequency up to 122 s -1 and a high initiator efficiency value up to 1600%. Unique chain-termination mechanisms have been revealed, accounting for the production of relative high-molecular-weight linear polymers and the catalytic nature of this NHC-mediated conjugate-addition polymerization. Computational studies have provided mechanistic insights into reactivity and selectivity between two competing pathways for each NHC-monomer zwitterionic adduct, namely enamine

  13. Deprotonation of C-alkyl groups of cationic N-heterocyclic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Javier A; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Pérez-Carreño, Enrique; Pruneda, Vanessa

    2012-04-21

    The C-alkyl groups of C-alkylpyrazinium-derived ligands have been selectively deprotonated by K[N(SiMe(3))(2)], through charge-controlled processes, to give neutral products that contain C-alkylidenepyrazine-derived ligands.

  14. Cyclic (Alkyl)(Amino)Carbene Complexes of Rhodium and Nickel and Their Steric and Electronic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ursula S D; Sieck, Carolin; Haehnel, Martin; Hammond, Kai; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo

    2016-07-25

    N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbenes (CAACs) are of great interest, as their electronic and steric properties provide a unique class of ligands and organocatalysts. Herein, substitution reactions involving novel carbonyl complexes of rhodium and nickel were studied to provide a deeper understanding of the fundamental electronic factors characterizing CAAC(methyl) , which were compared with the large array of data available for NHC and sterically more demanding CAAC ligands.

  15. Electronic bond tuning with heterocyclic carbenes

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the impact of the nature of the heterocyclic carbene ring, when used as a complex forming ligand, on the relative stability of key intermediates in three typical Ru, Pd and Au promoted reactions. Results show that P-heterocyclic carbenes have a propensity to increase the bonding of the labile ligand and of the substrate in Ru-promoted olefin metathesis, whereas negligible impact is expected on the stability of the ruthenacycle intermediate. In the case of Pd cross-coupling reactions, dissociation of a P-heterocyclic carbene is easier than dissociation of the N-heterocyclic analogue. In the case of the Au-OH synthon, the Au-OH bond is weakened with the P-heterocyclic carbene ligands. A detailed energy decomposition analysis is performed to rationalize these results. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Orbital-like motion of hydride ligands around low-coordinate metal centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, Manuel A; Vidossich, Pietro; Conejero, Salvador; Lledós, Agustí

    2014-12-15

    Hydrogen atoms in the coordination sphere of a transition metal are highly mobile ligands. Here, a new type of dynamic process involving hydrides has been characterized by computational means. This dynamic event consists of an orbital-like motion of hydride ligands around low-coordinate metal centers containing N-heterocyclic carbenes. The hydride movement around the carbene-metal-carbene axis is the lowest energy mode connecting energy equivalent isomers. This understanding provides crucial information for the interpretation of NMR spectra.

  17. 氮杂环卡宾的合成及在氢转移反应中的应用%Synthesis and Application of N-Heterocyclic Carbene in Transfer Hydrogenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳炫; 周宏勇; 李云庆; 王家喜

    2012-01-01

    利用氯甲基吡啶与咪唑反应制备了一系列含吡啶取代咪唑 L1~L5,考察了所得咪唑衍生物与钌化合物在碱性条件下原位形成的氮杂卡宾钌络合物对苯胺与醇氢转移反应的催化活性.研究了碱的种类、钌前体、温度等对反应的影响,结果表明 RuCl3·H2O/1-(2-吡啶甲基)-3-甲基碘化咪唑(L3)/KOH催化体系在185℃时对苯胺与乙二醇反应的催化活性较高,选择性生成N-羟乙基苯胺,TON(单化活性转化的底物分数)可达2130.此外,还考察了RuCl3·H2O/L3/KOH催化体系对苯胺与丁醇、环己醇、异丙醇、苯甲醇反应的催化性能.在催化剂作用下,醇与苯胺可形成亚胺及仲胺,伯醇可以自氢转移反应形成酯,反应产物的结构及选择性取决于醇的结构及反应条件.%A series of pyridine substituted imidazoles L1~L5 have been synthesized via reaction of chloromethylpyridine with imidazole. The effects of base, ruthenium precursor and temperature on the activity of catalyst formed in situ of N-heterocyclic carbene ligands with Ru precursor in catalytic hydrogen transfer reaction of aniline with glycol were evaluated. The results showed that the reaction of aniline with glycol promoted by RuCl3·H2O/3-methyl-1(2-pyridinylmethyl)-imidazole iodide (L3)/KOH at 185 ℃ selectively produced 2-(phenylamino)ethanol with the TON (turnover number) of 2130. In addition, the catalytic properties of RuCl3·H2O/L3/KOH in reaction of aniline with butanol, cyclohexanol, wo-propanol and phenyltnethanol were also investigated. Under promotion of catalyst, the aniline reacted with alcohol to produce imine and secondary amine. In addition, the ester was formed by self transfer hydrogenation of primary alcohol. The selectivity and product structures were depended on the structure of alcohol and the reaction conditions.

  18. First Insertions of Carbene Ligands into Ge-N and Si-N Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Rodríguez, Lucía; Cabeza, Javier A; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Gómez-Gallego, Mar; Merinero, Alba D; Sierra, Miguel A

    2017-02-22

    The insertion of carbene ligands into Ge-N (three examples) and Si-N (one example) bonds has been achieved for the first time by treating Fischer carbene complexes (M = W, Cr) with bulky amidinatotetrylenes (E = Ge, Si). These reactions, which start with a nucleophilic attack of the amidinatotetrylene heavier group-14 atom to the carbene C atom, proceed through a stereoselective insertion of the carbene fragment into an E-N bond of the amidinatotetrylene ENCN four-membered ring, leading to [M(CO)5L] derivatives in which L belongs to a novel family of tetrylene ligands comprising an ECNCN five-membered ring.

  19. Gold(I) Carbene Complexes Causing Thioredoxin 1 and Thioredoxin 2 Oxidation as Potential Anticancer Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuh, Esther; Pflueger, Carolin; Citta, Anna; Folda, Alessandra; Rigobello, Maria Pia; Bindoli, Alberto; Casini, Angela; Mohr, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    Gold(I) complexes with 1,3-substituted imidazole-2-ylidene and benzimidazole-2-ylidene ligands of the type NHC-Au-L (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene L = Cl or 2-mercapto-pyrimidine) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative properties

  20. Insights into Stereoselective Aminomethylation Reaction of α,β-Unsaturated Aldehyde with N,O-Acetal via N-Heterocyclic Carbene and Brønsted Acid/Base Cooperative Organocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Tang, Mingsheng; Wang, Yanyan; Wei, Donghui

    2016-07-01

    A theoretical investigation has been performed to interrogate the mechanism and stereoselectivities of aminomethylation reaction of α,β-unsaturated aldehyde with N,O-acetal, which is initiated by N-heterocyclic carbene and Brønsted acid (BA). The calculated results disclose that the reaction contains several steps, i.e., formation of the actual catalysts NHC and Brønsted acid Et3N·H(+) coupled with activation of C-O bond of N,O-acetal, nucleophilic attack of NHC on α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, formation of Breslow intermediate, β-protonation for the formation of enolate intermediate, nucleophilic addition on the Re/Si face to enolate by the activated iminium cation, esterification coupled with regeneration of Et3N·H(+), and dissociation of NHC from product. Addition on the prochiral face of enolate should be the stereocontrolling step, in which the chiral α-carbon is formed. Furthermore, NBO, GRI, and FMO analyses have been performed to explore the roles of catalysts and origin of stereoselectivity. Surprisingly, the added Brønsted base (BB) Et3N plays an indispensable role in the esterification process, indicating the reaction proceeds under NHC-BA/BB multicatalysis rather than NHC-BA dual catalysis proposed in the experiment. This theoretical work provides a case on the exploration of the special roles of the multicatalysts in NHC chemistry, which is valuable for rational design on new cooperative organocatalysis.

  1. A computational insight into a metal mediated pathway for the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactides by an ionic {(NHC)2Ag}(+)X(-) (X = halide) type N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Raji; Sunoj, Raghavan B; Ghosh, Prasenjit

    2011-10-21

    A metal mediated coordination-insertion pathway for the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of L-lactide by an ionic {(NHC)(2)Ag}(+)X(-) (X = halide) type silver complex of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) has been investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. A clear insight into the lactide insertion process could be obtained by modeling two consecutive monomer addition steps with the first one mimicking chain initiation with the second representing a propagation step. In particular, in each of the cycles, the reaction initiates with the formation of a lactide coordinated species, [1+LL] and [2+LL] that transforms into a metal bound cyclic lactide intermediate, I([1+LL]→2) and I([2+LL]→3), which subsequently ring opens to give the lactide inserted products, 2 and 3. The estimated overall activation barrier for the initiation step is 42.0 kcal mol(-1) while the same for the propagation step is 31.5 kcal mol(-1). Studies on higher monomer insertions showed a decrease in the relative product energies as anticipated for an addition polymerization pathway.

  2. Easy abstraction of a hydride anion from an alkyl C-H bond of a coordinated bis(N-heterocyclic carbene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Javier A; Damonte, Marina; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Pérez-Carreño, Enrique

    2013-04-07

    The high basicity of a trimethylene-linked bis(NHC), acting as a chelating ligand in a ruthenium(0) complex, is responsible for its involvement in a room-temperature reaction in which the metal atom to which this bis(NHC) ligand is coordinated replaces a hydride anion of the ligand trimethylene linker, which can be taken by a hydride abstractor as unusual, in that role, as [Ru3(CO)12].

  3. A computational study on the N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed Csp(2)-Csp(3) bond activation/[4+2] cycloaddition cascade reaction of cyclobutenones with imines: a new application of the conservation principle of molecular orbital symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wu, Bohua; Zhang, Haoyang; Wei, Donghui; Tang, Mingsheng

    2016-07-20

    A comprehensive density functional theory (DFT) investigation has been performed to interrogate the mechanisms and stereoselectivities of the Csp(2)-Csp(3) single bond activation of cyclobutenones and their [4+2] cycloaddition reaction with imines via N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) organocatalysis. According to our calculated results, the fundamental reaction pathway contains four steps: nucleophilic addition of NHC to cyclobutenone, C-C bond cleavage for the formation of an enolate intermediate, [4+2] cycloaddition of the enolate intermediate with isatin imine, and the elimination of the NHC catalyst. In addition, the calculated results also reveal that the second reaction step is the rate-determining step, whereas the third step is the regio- and stereo-selectivity determining step. For the regio- and stereo-selectivity determining step, all four possible attack modes were considered. The addition of the C[double bond, length as m-dash]N bond in isatin imine to the dienolate intermediate is more energy favorable than the addition of the C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bond to a dienolate intermediate. Moreover, the Re face addition of the C[double bond, length as m-dash]N bond in isatin imine to the Re face of the dienolate intermediate leading to the SS configuration N-containing product was demonstrated to be most energy favorable, which is mainly due to the stronger second-order perturbation energy value in the corresponding transition state. Furthermore, by tracking the frontier molecular orbital (FMO) changes in the rate-determining C-C bond cleavage step, we found that the reaction obeys the conservation principle of molecular orbital symmetry. We believe that the present work would provide valuable insights into this kind of reaction.

  4. Pincer-CNC mononuclear, dinuclear and heterodinuclear Au(III) and Pt(II) complexes supported by mono- and poly-N-heterocyclic carbenes: synthesis and photophysical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonell, S; Poyatos, M; Peris, E

    2016-04-07

    A family of cyclometallated Au(iii) and Pt(ii) complexes containing a CNC-pincer ligand (CNC = 2,6-diphenylpyridine) supported by pyrene-based mono- or bis-NHC ligands have been synthesized and characterized, together with the preparation of a Pt-Au hetero-dimetallic complex based on a Y-shaped tris-NHC ligand. The photophysical properties of all the new species and of two related Ru(ii)-arene complexes were studied and compared. Whereas the pyrene-based complexes only exhibit emission in solution, those containing the Y-shaped tris-NHC ligand are only luminescent when dispersed in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). In particular, the pyrene-based complexes were found to be emissive in the range of 373-440 nm, with quantum yields ranging from 3.1 to 6.3%, and their emission spectra were found to be almost superimposable, pointing to the fluorescent pyrene-centered nature of the emission. This observation suggests that the emission properties of the pyrene fragment may be combined with some of the numerous applications of NHCs as supporting ligands allowing, for instance, the design of biological luminescent agents.

  5. Adjusting the DNA Interaction and Anticancer Activity of Pt(II) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes by Steric Shielding of the Trans Leaving Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muenzner, Julienne K.; Rehm, Tobias; Biersack, Bernhard; Casini, Angela; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Worawutputtapong, Pawida; Noor, Awal; Kempe, Rhett; Brabec, Viktor; Kasparkova, Jana; Schobert, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Five platinum(LI) complexes bearing a (1,3-dibenzyl)imidazol-2-ylidene ligand but different leaving groups trans to it were examined for cytotomicity, DNA and cell cycle interference, vascular disrupting properties, and nephrotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of complexes 3a-c increased with the steric shi

  6. What can NMR spectroscopy of selenoureas and phosphinidenes teach us about the π-accepting abilities of N-heterocyclic carbenes?

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.

    2015-01-02

    The electronic nature of the interaction of NHCs with metal centres is of interest when exploring their properties, how these properties influence those of metal complexes, and how these properties might depend on ligand structure. Selenourea and phosphinidene complexes have been proposed to allow the measurement of the π-accepting ability of NHCs, independent of their σ-donating ability, via the collection of 77Se or 31P NMR spectra, respectively. Herein, the synthesis and characterisation of selenoureas derived from a range of imidazol-2-ylidenes, 4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidenes and triazol-2-ylidenes are documented. Computational studies are used to explore the link between the shielding of the selenium centre and the electronic properties of the NHCs. Results show that δSe is correlated to the energy gap between a filled lone pair orbital on Se and the empty π* orbital corresponding to the Se–NHC bond. Bond energy decomposition analysis indicated no correlation between the orbital σ-contribution to bonding and the chemical shielding, while a good correlation was found between the π-contribution to bonding and the chemical shielding, confirming that this technique is indeed able to quantify the ability of NHCs to accept π-electron density. Calculations conducted on phosphinidene adducts yielded similar results. With the link between δSe and δP and π-back bonding ability clearly established, these compounds represent useful ways in which to fully understand and quantify this aspect of the electronic properties of NHCs.

  7. Theoretical studies on Ru(fppz)2(CO)L(L=N-heterocyclic ligand): Electronic structure, adsorption, phosphorescence, and solvatochromism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tao; ZHOU Xin; BAI FuQuan; ZHANG JianPo; XIA BaoHui; PAN QingJiang; ZHANG HongXing

    2008-01-01

    A series of ruthenium(Ⅱ) complexes Ru(fppz)2(CO)L [fppz = 3-trifluoromethyl-5(2-pyridyl)pyrazole; L =pyridine (1), 4-dimethylaminopyridine (2), 4-cyanopyridine (3)] were designed and investigated theo-retically to explore their electronic structures, absorption, and emissions as well as the solvatochrom-ism. The singlet ground state and triplet excited state geometries were fully optimized at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ and CIS/LANL2DZ level, respectively. The HOMO of 1-3 is composed of dyz(Ru) atom and π(fppz). The LUMO of 1 and 2 is dominantly contributed by π*(fppz) orbital, but that of 3 is con-tributed by π*(L). Absorption and phosphorescence in vacuo, C6H12, and CH3CN media were calculated using the TD-DFT level of theory with the PCM model based on the optimized ground and excited state geometries, respectively. The lowest-lying absorption of 1 and 2 at 387 and 391 nm is attributed to {[dyz(Ru) + π(fppz)]→[π*(fppz)]} transition, but that of 3 at 479 nm is assigned to {[dyz(Ru) +π(fppz)]→[π*(L)]} transition. The phosphorescence of 1 and 2 at 436 and 438 nm originates from 3{[dyz(Ru) +π(fppz)] [π*(fppz)]} excited state, while that of 3 at 606 nm is from 3{[dyz(Ru) + π(fppz)] [π*(L)]} excited state. The calculation results showed that the absorption and emission transition character can be changed from MLCT/ILCT to MLCT/LLCT transition by altering the substituent on the L ligand. The phosphorescence of 1 and 2 does not have solvatochromism, but that of 3 at 606 nm (vacuo), 584 nm (C6H12), and 541 nm (CH3CN) is strongly dependent on the solvent polarity, so introducing elec-tron-withdrawing group on ligand L will induce remarkable solvatochromism.

  8. Optical spectra, electronic structure and aromaticity of benzannulated N-heterocyclic carbene and its analogues of the type C6H4(NR)2E: (E = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysin, Rinat R; Bukalov, Sergey S; Leites, Larissa A; Zabula, Alexander V

    2017-02-24

    A series of benzannulated N-heterocyclic compounds containing divalent 14 group atoms, C6H4(NR)2E(II), E = C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, have been studied by various experimental (vibrational and UV-vis spectroscopy) and theoretical (NICS, ISE, ACID) techniques. The methods used confirm 10 π-electron delocalization (aromaticity) in these heterocycles, however, the aromaticity sequences estimated by the criteria based on different physical properties do not coincide.

  9. N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) Binuclear Gold Complexes Catalyzed Aminoarylation of Olefins%氮杂环卡宾双核金络合物催化的胺芳基化反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张睿; 徐琴; 施敏

    2012-01-01

    N-Heterocyclic carbene(NHC) binuclear gold complexes and mononuclear gold complex have been successfully prepared from 1,1’-binaphthalenyl-2,2’-diamine(BINAM) in good yields.Their structures have been unambiguously determined by spectroscopic data and X-ray diffraction.On the basis of X-ray diffraction,a weak interaction between Au-Au has been identified in the N-heterocyclic carbene(NHC) binuclear gold complex 4b,in which the distance of Au(I)-Au(I) is 4.190.We also found that NHC-binuclear gold complex 4b is a more effective catalyst than that of NHC-mononuclear gold complex in the aminoarylation of olefins under identical conditions.Based on these experimental data,the improved yield of aminoarylation is possibly attributed to the weak Au(I)-Au(I) interaction in the N-heterocyclic carbene(NHC) binuclear gold complex 4b.A plausible reaction mechanism has been proposed on the basis of previous literature.The reaction procedure is quite simple.When NHC-gold(I) catalyst 4b(3 mol%,3.0 μmol) was dissolved in solvent(2.0 mL) in a flame-dried Schlenk tube equipped with a septum cap and stirring bar,the additive AgSbF6(6.0 μmol) was added under argon,and then the mixture was stirred under argon at room temperature for 10 min.Alkylamine(0.1 mmol),arylboronic acid(0.2 mmol),and selectfluor(0.2 mmol) were added,and then the reaction mixture was stirred at 60 ℃ for 12 h.The crude product was concentrated under reduced pressure,and purified by flash chromatography on silica gel(eluent: EtOAc/petroleum ether=1/16) to yield the pure corresponding product.Recently,a number of bis(gold) vinyl species have been isolated from homogeneous gold catalysis and have been identified as the key intermediate in the catalytic process.Meanwhile,binuclear gold complexes have been also realized as the key species in the homogeneous gold catalysis recently.In this paper,we first disclosed that the N-heterocyclic

  10. Enantioselective Palladium-Catalyzed Carbene Insertion into the N-H Bonds of Aromatic Heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Vanessa; Hiew, Stanley C; Gutman, Eugene S; Premachandra, Ilandari Dewage Udara Anulal; Van Vranken, David L

    2017-03-15

    C3-substituted indoles and carbazoles react with α-aryl-α-diazoesters under palladium catalysis to form α-(N-indolyl)-α-arylesters and α-(N-carbazolyl)-α-arylesters. The products result from insertion of a palladium-carbene ligand into the N-H bond of the aromatic N-heterocycles. Enantioselection was achieved using a chiral bis(oxazoline) ligand, in many cases with high enantioselectivity (up to 99 % ee). The method was applied to synthesize the core of a bioactive carbazole derivative in a concise manner.

  11. NHC-manganese(i) complexes as carbene transfer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Javier; Berros, Angela; Perandones, Bernabé F; Vivanco, Marilín

    2009-09-21

    Tautomerization of coordinated azoles to their corresponding N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) has been carried out by reaction of complexes fac-[Mn(L)(CO)(3)(dppe)](+) (L = N-phenylimidazole) and fac-[Mn(L)(CO)(3)(bipy)](+) (L = N-methylbenzimidazole, benzoxazole, benzothiazole) with KO(t)Bu and subsequent protonation of the azolyl intermediates with NH(4)PF(6). Several NHC-manganese(i) complexes bearing an N-H residue of general formula fac-[Mn(NHC)(CO)(3)(dppe)](+) and fac-[Mn(NHC)(CO)(3)(bipy)](+) have been tested as carbene transfer agents to the gold fragments [Au(L)](+) (L = PPh(3), CNPh, CNXylyl), allowing isolation or spectroscopic detection of various Mn(i)/Au(i) heterometallic intermediates containing azolyl bridging ligands, which liberate the gold(i) carbene complexes [Au(NHC)(L)](+) by means of acid hydrolysis. By contrast, when using the silver(i) fragment [Ag(PPh(3))](+) as carbene acceptor no transmetallation process occurred but instead inverse tautomerization of the NHC to the corresponding imidazole ligand was observed.

  12. Insights Into the Carbene-Initiated Aggregation of [Fe(cot)2

    KAUST Repository

    Lavallo, Vincent

    2010-11-25

    Carbenes attack! Stable carbenes react with [Fe(cot)2] in very different ways. Whereas the classical N-heterocyclic carbenes induce the formation of tetra- and trimetallic iron clusters, abnormal NHCs and carbocyclic carbenes (BACs) form mono- and bimetallic iron complexes. Cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbenes (CAACs) react with [Fe(cot)2] in a completely different manner, namely through outersphere [4+1] cycloaddition.

  13. Cationic iridium(III) complexes with two carbene-based cyclometalating ligands: cis versus trans isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Filippo; La Placa, Maria Grazia I; Armaroli, Nicola; Scopelliti, Rosario; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Kessler, Florian

    2015-03-16

    A series of cationic iridium(III) complexes with two carbene-based cyclometalating ligands and five different N^N bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline ancillary ligands is presented. For the first time--in the frame of a rarely studied class of bis(heteroleptic) iridium complexes with two carbene-based cyclometalating ligands--a pair of cis and trans isomers has been isolated. All complexes (trans-1-5 and cis-3) were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (31)P NMR, and HRMS (ESI-TOF); in addition, crystal structures of cis-3 and trans-4 are reported and discussed. Cyclic voltammetric studies show that the whole series exhibits highly reversible oxidation and reduction processes, suggesting promising potential for optoelectronic applications. Ground-state DFT and TD-DFT calculations nicely predict the blue shift experimentally observed in the room-temperature absorption and emission spectra of cis-3, compared to the trans complexes. In CH3CN, cis-3 displays a 4-fold increase in photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) with respect to trans-3, as a consequence of drastically slower nonradiative rate constant. By contrast, at 77 K, the emission properties of all the compounds, including the cis isomer, are much more similar, with a pronounced hypsochromic shift for the trans complexes. A similar behavior is found in solid state (1% w/w poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix), with all complexes displaying PLQY of ∼70-80%, comparable emission lifetimes (τ ≈ 1.3 μs), and a remarkable rigidochromic shift. To rationalize the more pronounced nonradiative deactivation (and smaller PLQY) observed for photoexcited trans complexes, comparative temperature-dependent emission studies in the range of 77-450 K for cis-3 and trans-3 were made in propylene glycol, showing that solvation effects are primarily responsible for the observed behavior.

  14. Carbene-metal hydrides can be much less acidic than phosphine-metal hydrides: significance in hydrogenations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ye; Fan, Yubo; Burgess, Kevin

    2010-05-05

    Acidities of iridium hydride intermediates were shown to be critical in some transformations mediated by the chiral analogues of Crabtree's catalyst, 1-3. To do this, several experiments were undertaken to investigate the acidities of hydrogenation mixtures formed using these iridium-oxazoline complexes. DFT calculations indicated that the acidity difference for Ir-H intermediates in these hydrogenations were astounding; iridium hydride from the N-heterocyclic carbene catalyst 1 was calculated to be around seven pK(a) units less acidic than those from the P-based complexes 2 and 3. Consistent with this, the carbene complex 1 was shown to be more effective for hydrogenations of acid-sensitive substrates. In deuteration experiments, less "abnormal" deuteration was observed, corresponding to fewer complications from acid-mediated alkene isomerization preceding the D(2)-addition step. Finally, simple tests with pH indicators provided visual evidence that phosphine-based catalyst precursors give significantly more acidic reaction mixtures than the corresponding N-heterocyclic carbene ones. These observations indicate carbene-for-phosphine (and similar) ligand substitutions may impact the outcome of catalytic reactions by modifying the acidities of the metal hydrides formed.

  15. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Novel Ag-N-Hetero-cyclic Carbene Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlknur Özdemir

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of imidazolidinium ligand precursors are metallated with Ag2O to give silver(I N-heterocyclic carbene complexes. All compounds were fully characterized by elemental analyses, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and IR spectroscopy techniques. All compounds studied in this work were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against the standard strains: Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853 and the fungi Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. The new imidazolidin-2-ylidene silver complexes have been found to display effective antimicrobial activity against a series of bacteria and fungi.

  16. Monofunctional platinum(II) complexes with potent tumor cell growth inhibitory activity: the effect of a hydrogen-bond donor/acceptor N-heterocyclic ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta, Nicola; Savino, Salvatore; Gandin, Valentina; Marzano, Christine; Natile, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we investigate the possibility of further increase the role of the N-donor aromatic base in antitumor Hollis-type compounds by conferring the possibility to act as a hydrogen-bond donor/acceptor. Therefore, we synthesized the Pt(II) complex cis-[PtCl(NH3 )2 (naph)]NO3 (1) containing the 1,8-naphthyridine (naph) ligand. The naphthyridine ligand is generally monodentate, and the second nitrogen atom can act as H-bond donor/acceptor depending upon its protonation state. The possibility of forming such an H-bond could be crucial in the interaction of the drug with DNA or proteins. Apart from the synthesis of the compound, in this study we evaluated its in vitro antitumor activity in a wide panel of tumor cell lines, also including cells selected for their sensitivity/resistance to oxaliplatin, which was compared with that of previously reported complex 2 ([PtI(2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)(1-methyl-cytosine)]I) and oxaliplatin and cisplatin as reference compounds. The cytotoxicity data were correlated with the cellular uptake and the DNA platination levels. Finally, the reactivity of 1 towards guanosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-GMP) and glutathione was investigated to provide insights into its mechanism of action.

  17. Cross—Coupling of Aryl Iodides with Malononitrile Catalyzed by Palladium N—Heterocyclic Carbene Complex System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高诚伟; 陶晓春; 等

    2002-01-01

    Eight N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC),generated in situ from their imidazolium salts,as ligands of palladium complexes were used for the catalytic coupling of iodobenzene with malononi-trile anion,It was found that 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-imidazolium chloride (IMesHCl)-Pd2(dba)3 catalytic system has the highest activity to obtain phenyl malononitrile among the imidazolium salts.The substituted iodoarenes reacted with malononitrile anions by using the catalytic system to give cross-coupling products in yields from 50% to 96%.

  18. Methandiide as a non-innocent ligand in carbene complexes: from the electronic structure to bond activation reactions and cooperative catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Julia; Modl, Tanja; Gessner, Viktoria H

    2014-09-01

    The synthesis of a ruthenium carbene complex based on a sulfonyl-substituted methandiide and its application in bond activation reactions and cooperative catalysis is reported. In the complex, the metal-carbon interaction can be tuned between a Ru-C single bond with additional electrostatic interactions and a Ru=C double bond, thus allowing the control of the stability and reactivity of the complex. Hence, activation of polar and non-polar bonds (O-H, H-H) as well as dehydrogenation reactions become possible. In these reactions the carbene acts as a non-innocent ligand supporting the bond activation as nucleophilic center in the 1,2-addition across the metal-carbon double bond. This metal-ligand cooperativity can be applied in the catalytic transfer hydrogenation for the reduction of ketones. This concept opens new ways for the application of carbene complexes in catalysis.

  19. Synthesis of axially chiral oxazoline-carbene ligands with an N-naphthyl framework and a study of their coordination with AuCl·SMe(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feijun; Li, Shengke; Qu, Mingliang; Zhao, Mei-Xin; Liu, Lian-Jun; Shi, Min

    2012-01-01

    Axially chiral oxazoline-carbene ligands with an N-naphthyl framework were successfully prepared, and their coordination behavior with AuCl·SMe(2) was also investigated, affording the corresponding Au(I) complexes in moderate to high yields.

  20. Cycloalkyl-based unsymmetrical unsaturated (U₂)-NHC ligands: flexibility and dissymmetry in ruthenium-catalysed olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouen, Mathieu; Borré, Etienne; Falivene, Laura; Toupet, Loic; Berthod, Mikaël; Cavallo, Luigi; Olivier-Bourbigou, Hélène; Mauduit, Marc

    2014-05-21

    Air-stable Ru-indenylidene and Hoveyda-type complexes bearing new unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene (U2-NHC) ligands combining a mesityl unit and a flexible cycloalkyl moiety as N-substituents were synthesised. Structural features, chemical stabilities and catalytic profiles in olefin metathesis of this new library of cycloalkyl-based U2-NHC Ru complexes were studied and compared with their unsymmetrical saturated NHC-Ru homologues as well as a set of commercially available Ru-catalysts bearing either symmetrical SIMes or IMes NHC ligands.

  1. Cycloalkyl-based unsymmetrical unsaturated (U2)-NHC ligands: Flexibility and dissymmetry in ruthenium-catalysed olefin metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Rouen, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Air-stable Ru-indenylidene and Hoveyda-type complexes bearing new unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene (U2-NHC) ligands combining a mesityl unit and a flexible cycloalkyl moiety as N-substituents were synthesised. Structural features, chemical stabilities and catalytic profiles in olefin metathesis of this new library of cycloalkyl-based U2-NHC Ru complexes were studied and compared with their unsymmetrical saturated NHC-Ru homologues as well as a set of commercially available Ru-catalysts bearing either symmetrical SIMes or IMes NHC ligands. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  2. The influence of anionic ligands on stereoisomerism of Ru carbenes and their importance to efficiency and selectivity of catalytic olefin metathesis reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torker, Sebastian; Khan, R Kashif M; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2014-03-01

    Investigations detailed herein provide insight regarding the mechanism of stereochemical inversion of stereogenic-at-Ru carbene complexes through a nonolefin metathesis-based polytopal rearrangement pathway. Computational analyses (DFT) reveal that there are two key factors that generate sufficient energy barriers that are responsible for the possibility of isolation and characterization of high-energy, but kinetically stable, intermediates: (1) donor-donor interactions that involve the anionic ligands and the strongly electron donating carbene groups and (2) dipolar effects arising from the syn relationship between the anionic groups (iodide and phenoxide). We demonstrate that a Brønsted acid lowers barriers to facilitate isomerization, and that the positive influence of a proton source is the result of its ability to diminish the repulsive electronic interactions originating from the anionic ligands. The implications of the present studies regarding a more sophisticated knowledge of the role of anionic units on the efficiency of Ru-catalyzed olefin metathesis reactions are discussed. The electronic basis for the increased facility with which allylic alcohols participate in olefin metathesis processes will be presented as well. Finally, we illustrate how a better understanding of the role of anionic ligands has served as the basis for successful design of Ru-based Z-selective catalysts for alkene metathesis.

  3. Stereoselectively fluorinated N-heterocycles: a brief survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Guo; Hunter, Luke

    2013-11-29

    The stereoselective incorporation of fluorine atoms into N-heterocycles can lead to dramatic changes in the molecules' physical and chemical properties. These changes can be rationally exploited for the benefit of diverse fields such as medicinal chemistry and organocatalysis. This brief review will examine some of the effects that fluorine substitution can have in N-heterocycles, including changes to the molecules' stability, their conformational behaviour, their hydrogen bonding ability, and their basicity. Finally, some methods for the synthesis of stereoselectively fluorinated N-heterocycles will also be reviewed.

  4. Stereoselectively fluorinated N-heterocycles: a brief survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Guo Hu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The stereoselective incorporation of fluorine atoms into N-heterocycles can lead to dramatic changes in the molecules’ physical and chemical properties. These changes can be rationally exploited for the benefit of diverse fields such as medicinal chemistry and organocatalysis. This brief review will examine some of the effects that fluorine substitution can have in N-heterocycles, including changes to the molecules’ stability, their conformational behaviour, their hydrogen bonding ability, and their basicity. Finally, some methods for the synthesis of stereoselectively fluorinated N-heterocycles will also be reviewed.

  5. Effects of Phosphine-Carbene Substitutions on the Electrochemical and Thermodynamic Properties of Nickel Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, Brandon R.; Wiedner, Eric S.; Helm, Monte L.; Linehan, John C.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2014-05-12

    Nickel(II) complexes containing chelating N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphine ligands ([NiL2](BPh4)2, for which L = [MeIm(CH2)2PR2]) have been synthesized for the purpose of studying how this class of ligand effects the electrochemical properties compared to the nickel bis- diphosphine analogues. The nickel complexes were synthesized and characterized by x-ray crystallography and electrochemical methods. Based on the half wave potentials (E1/2), substitution of an NHC for one of the phosphines in a diphoshine ligand results in shifts in potential to 0.6 V to 1.2 V more negative than the corresponding nickel bis-diphosphine complexes. These quantitative results highlight the substantial effect that NHC ligands can have upon the electronic properties of the metal complexes. BRG, JCL, and AMA acknowledge the support by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. MLH acknoledges the support of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  6. Stereoselectively fluorinated N-heterocycles: a brief survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiang-Guo; Hunter, Luke

    2013-01-01

    The stereoselective incorporation of fluorine atoms into N-heterocycles can lead to dramatic changes in the molecules’ physical and chemical properties. These changes can be rationally exploited for the benefit of diverse fields such as medicinal chemistry and organocatalysis. This brief review will examine some of the effects that fluorine substitution can have in N-heterocycles, including changes to the molecules’ stability, their conformational behaviour, their hydrogen bonding ability, an...

  7. A dimer of bis(N-heterocyclic carbenerhodium(I centres spanned by a dibenzo-18-crown-6 bridge from synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B. Colbran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The compound (μ-3,3′,3′′,3′′′-{[2,5,8,15,18,21-hexaoxatricyclo[20.4.0.09,14]hexacosa-1(22,9,11,13,23,25-hexaene-11,12,24,25-tetrayl]tetrakis(methylene}tetrakis(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylbis[(η4-cycloocta-1,4-dienerhodium(I] bis(hexafluoridophosphate acetonitrile sesquisolvate dihydrate, [Rh2(C8H122(C40H42N8O6](PF62·1.5CH3CN·2H2O, crystallized from acetonitrile under an atmosphere of diethyl ether. In the crystal structure, the complex cation exhibits two square-planar RhI centres, each bound by a cyclooctadiene (COD ligand and by two adjacent imidazolylidene N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC donors from the same phenoxy ring of the {[dibenzo-18-crown-6-11,12,24,25-tetrayl]tetrakis(methylene}tetrakis(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl (L ligand. The dibenzo-crown ether bridge of L spans the Rh centres and forms hydrogen bonds with water molecules. One water molecule with half occupancy bridges adjacent macrocycles in the lattice. Another water with full occupancy forms weak hydrogen bonds to the crown ether O atoms and is, in turn, part hydrogen bonded by a lattice water with half occupancy. The latter water is within hydrogen-bonding distance of a fourth water also with partial occupancy. The result of these interactions is the formation of a layer in the ab plane. Two PF6− ions, one of which is twofold disordered, and one ordered and one twofold disordered (with 0.5 occupancy lattice acetonitrile molecules complete the crystal structure.

  8. Tungsten(VI) Carbyne/Bis(carbene) Tautomerization Enabled by N-Donor SBA15 Surface Ligands: A Solid-State NMR and DFT Study

    KAUST Repository

    Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa

    2016-08-11

    Designing supported well-defined bis(carbene) complexes remains a key challenge in heterogeneous catalysis. The reaction of W(CtBu)(CH(2)tBu)(3) with amine-modified mesoporous SBA15 silica, which has vicinal silanol/silylamine pairs [(SiOH)(SiNH2)], leads to [(SiNH2-)(SiO-)W(CHtBu)(CH(2)tBu)(2)] and [(SiNH2-)(SiO-)W(=CHtBu)(2)(CH(2)tBu). Variable temperature, H-1-H-1 2D double-quantum, H-1-C-13 HETCOR, and HETCOR with spin diffusion solid-state NMR spectroscopy demonstrate tautomerization between the alkyl alkylidyne and the bis(alkylidene) on the SBA15 surface. Such equilibrium is possible through the coordination of W to the surface [(Si-OH)(Si-NH2)] groups, which act as a [N,O] pincer ligand. DFT calculations provide a rationalization for the surface-complex tautomerization and support the experimental results. This direct observation of such a process shows the strong similarity between molecular mechanisms in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. In propane metathesis (at 150 degrees C), the tungsten bis(carbene) tautomer is favorable, with a turnover number (TON) of 262. It is the highest TON among all the tungsten alkyl-supported catalysts.

  9. Synthesis and structure of ruthenium(IV) complexes featuring N-heterocyclic ligands with an N-H group as the hydrogen-bond donor: hydrogen interactions in solution and in the solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Josefina; Gimeno, José; Merino, Isabel; Rubio, Eduardo; Suárez, Francisco J

    2011-06-06

    The synthesis and characterization of novel ruthenium(IV) complexes [Ru(η(3):η(3)-C(10)H(16))Cl(2)L] [L = 3-methylpyrazole (2b), 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (2c), 3-methyl-5-phenylpyrazole (2d), 2-(1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenol (2e), 6-azauracile (3), and 1H-indazol-3-ol (4)] are reported. Complex 2e is converted to the chelated complex [Ru(η(3):η(3)-C(10)H(16))Cl(κ(2)-N,O-2-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)phenoxy)] (5) by treatment with an excess of NaOH. All of the ligands feature N-H, O-H, or C═O as the potential hydrogen-bonding group. The structures of complexes 2a-2c, 2e, 3, and 5 in the solid state have been determined by X-ray diffraction. Complexes 2a-2c and 3, which contain the pyrazole N-H group, exhibit intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds with chloride ligands [N-H···Cl distances (Å): intramolecular, 2.30-2.78; intermolecular, 2.59-2.77]. Complexes 2e and 3 bearing respectively O-H and C═O groups also feature N-H···O interactions [intramolecular (2e), 2.27 Å; intermolecular (3), 2.00 Å]. Chelated complex 5, lacking the O-H group, only shows an intramolecular N-H···Cl hydrogen bonding of 2.42 Å. The structure of complex 3, which turns out to be a dimer in the solid state through a double intermolecular N-H···O hydrogen bonding, has also been investigated in solution (CD(2)Cl(2)) by NMR diffusion studies. Diffusion-ordered spectroscopy experiments reveal an equilibrium between monomer and dimer species in solution whose extension depends on the temperature, concentration, and coordinating properties of the solvent. Preliminary catalytic studies show that complex 3 is highly active in the redox isomerization of the allylic alcohols in an aqueous medium under very mild reaction conditions (35 °C) and in the absence of a base.

  10. Synthetic and Thermodynamic Investigations of Ancillary Ligand Influence on Catalytic Organometallic Systems. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolan, Steven

    2003-03-20

    During the grant period we have been involved in synthesizing and experimentally determining solution enthalpy values associated with partially fluorinated ligands. This has lead to the publication of manuscripts dealing with synthetic, calorimetric and catalytic behavior of partially fluorinated ligands. The collaboration with Los Alamos researchers has lead to the publication of catalytic results in sc CO{sub 2} which have proven very interesting. Furthermore, we have also examined ligands that behave as phosphine mimics. The N-heterocyclic carbenes have been explored as alternatives for tertiary phosphines and have resulted in the design and construction of efficient palladium and nickel system capable of performing C-C and C-N cross coupling reactions. The initial studies in this areas were made possible by exploratory work conducted under the DOE/EPSCoR grant.

  11. Synthesis and optimization of N-heterocyclic pyridinones as catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhijian; Harrison, Scott T; Schubert, Jeffrey W; Sanders, John M; Polsky-Fisher, Stacey; Zhang, Nanyan Rena; McLoughlin, Debra; Gibson, Christopher R; Robinson, Ronald G; Sachs, Nancy A; Kandebo, Monika; Yao, Lihang; Smith, Sean M; Hutson, Pete H; Wolkenberg, Scott E; Barrow, James C

    2016-06-15

    A series of N-heterocyclic pyridinone catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors were synthesized. Physicochemical properties, including ligand lipophilic efficiency (LLE) and clogP, were used to guide compound design and attempt to improve inhibitor pharmacokinetics. Incorporation of heterocyclic central rings provided improvements in physicochemical parameters but did not significantly reduce in vitro or in vivo clearance. Nevertheless, compound 11 was identified as a potent inhibitor with sufficient in vivo exposure to significantly affect the dopamine metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and indicate central COMT inhibition.

  12. A general synthetic route to [Cu(X)(NHC)] (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene, X = Cl, Br, I) complexes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Optimisation details and full characterisation data. CCDC 940850–940853. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c3cc45488f Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Orlando; Collado, Alba; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Nolan, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    A one-pot procedure for the synthesis of [Cu(X)(NHC)] (X = Cl, Br, I) is reported. The reaction is applicable to a wide range of saturated and unsaturated NHC ligands, is scalable and proceeds under mild conditions using technical grade solvents in air. PMID:24087835

  13. Cobalt(II) Porphyrin-Catalyzed Intramolecular Cyclopropanation of N-Alkyl Indoles/Pyrroles with Alkylcarbene: Efficient Synthesis of Polycyclic N-Heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Annapureddy Rajasekar; Hao, Fei; Wu, Kai; Zhou, Cong-Ying; Che, Chi-Ming

    2016-01-26

    A protocol on chemoselective cobalt(II) porphyrin-catalyzed intramolecular cyclopropanation of N-alkyl indoles/pyrroles with alkylcarbenes has been developed. The reaction enables the rapid construction of a range of nitrogen-containing polycyclic compounds in moderate to high yields from readily accessible materials. These N-containing polycyclic compounds can be converted into a variety of N-heterocycles with potential synthetic and biological interest. Compared to their N-tosylhydrazone counterparts, the use of bulky N-2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl hydrazones as carbene precursors allows cyclopropanation to occur under milder reaction conditions.

  14. The transfer of tin and germanium atoms from N-heterocyclic stannylenes and germylenes to diazadienes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans-Eichler, Timo; Gudat, Dietrich; Nättinen, Kalle; Nieger, Martin

    2006-01-23

    New N-heterocyclic stannylenes and germylenes were synthesized by transamination of E[N(SiMe3)2] (E = Ge, Sn) with alpha-amino-aldimines or ethylidene-1,2-diamines and were characterized by spectroscopic methods and in the case of the germylene 10 g by X-ray diffraction. The reactions of several germylenes and stannylenes with diazadienes were studied by using dynamic NMR and computational methods. Experimental and theoretical studies confirmed that metathesis with exchange of the Group 14 atom is feasible for both stannylenes and germylenes, with exchange rates being generally higher for stannylenes. The metathesis of the diazadiene 3 b and the stannylene 1 b follows second-order kinetics and exhibits a sizeable negative entropy of activation. The transfer reaction is inhibited by bulky substituents in both reactants and surprisingly coincides with a suppression of the fragmentation of the stannylene into tin and diazadiene. A connection between oxidative addition and ring fragmentation was also observed in the reaction of 1 f with sulfur. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that all metathesis reactions proceed via transient spirocyclic [1+4] cycloaddition products, the formation of which is generally endothermic and endergonic. The spirostannanes display a distorted Psi-tbp geometry at the tin atom and their cycloreversion requires low or nearly negligible activation energies; spirogermanes exhibit distorted tetrahedral central atoms and sizeable energy barriers with respect to the same reaction. Complementary studies of cycloadditions of diazadienes to triplet germylenes or stannylenes indicate that these reactions are exothermic. The lowest triplet state in the carbene homologues results from promotion of an electron from an n(N) orbital with pi character rather than the n(C)-sigma orbital as in carbenes, and singlet-triplet excitation energies decrease from carbon to tin. Spirostannanes exhibit a triplet ground-state multiplicity that implies

  15. Metal complexes with oxygen-functionalized NHC ligands: synthesis and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameury, Sophie; de Frémont, Pierre; Braunstein, Pierre

    2017-02-06

    Ligand design has met with considerable success with both categories of hybrid ligands, which are characterized by chemically different donor groups, and of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs). Their spectacular development and diversity are attracting worldwide interest and offers almost unlimited diversity and potential in e.g. coordination/organometallic main group and transition metal chemistry, catalysis, medicinal chemistry and materials science. This review aims at providing a comprehensive update on a specific class of ligands that has enjoyed much attention in the past few years, at the intersection between the two categories mentioned above, that of hybrid NHC ligands in which the functionality associated with the carbene donor is of the oxygen-donor type. For each type of oxygen-donor present in such chelating (Section 1) or bridging (Section 2) hybrid ligands, we will examine the synthesis, structures and reactivity of their metal complexes and their applications, with a special focus on homogeneous catalysis (Section 3). Thus, hydrogenation, C-H bond activation, C-C, C-N, C-O bond formation, hydrolysis of silanes, oligomerization, polymerization, metathesis, hydrosilylation, C-C bond cleavage, acceptorless dehydrogenation, dehalogenation/hydrogen transfer, oxidation and reduction reactions will be successively presented in a tabular manner, to facilitate an overview and a rapid identification of the relevant publications describing which metals associated with a given oxygen functionality are most suitable. The literature coverage includes the year 2015.

  16. Clusters containing carbene ligands. The unusual synthesis, coordination, and reactivity of a bridging (dimetalliomethyl)(diethylamino)carbene ligand in the cluster complex Os/sub 3/(CO)/sub 9/(/mu//sub 3/-HCC(NEt/sub 2/))(/mu/-H)/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.D.; Tanner, J.T.

    1988-10-01

    The photoinduced decarbonylation of Os/sub 3/-(CO)/sub 10/(/mu/-C(H)C(H)NEt/sub 2/)(/mu/-H) (1) yields Os/sub 3/(CO)/sub 9/(/mu//sub 3/-CC(H)NEt/sub 2/)(/mu/-H)/sub 2/ (2; 58% yield) and Os/sub 3/(CO)/sub 9/(/mu//sub 3/-C(H)CNEt/sub 2/)(/mu/-H)/sub 2/ (3; 21% yield). Compound 3 was also obtained from 2 in 70% yield by heating to 68/degree/C in hexane solvent. Both products were characterized by IR, /sup 1/H NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 2 contains and /eta//sup 1/-triply bridging (diethylamino)alkenylidene ligand coordinated to a triangular triosmium cluster. Compound 3 contains a triply bridging HC/sub 2/NEt/sub 2/ ligand that is formulated to include two osmiums as a (dimetalliomethyl)(diethylamino)carbene ligand on the basis of structural and reactivity evidence. Compound 3 reacts with NHPr/sub 2//sup n/ to yield Os/sub 3/(CO)/sub 9/(/mu//sub 3/-C(H)CNPr/sub 2//sup n/)(/mu/-H)/sub 2/ (4) in 74% yield by replacement of the diethylamino group.

  17. Ruthenium Olefin Metathesis Catalysts Bearing Carbohydrate-Based N-Heterocyclic Carbenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitz, Benjamin K.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Ru-based olefin metathesis catalysts containing carbohydrate-derived NHCs from glucose and galactose were synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy. 2D-NMR spectroscopy revealed the presence of Ru-C (benzylidene) rotamers at RT and the rate of rotation was measured using magnetization transfer and VT-NMR spectroscopy. The catalysts were found to be effective at ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), ring closing metathesis (RCM), cross metathesis (CM), and asymmetric ring opening cross metathesis (AROCM) and showed surprising selectivity in both CM and AROCM. PMID:21603126

  18. Group 11 N-heterocyclic carbenes : synthesis, characterisation and catalytic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lazreg, Faïma

    2015-01-01

    As part of a worldwide effort to develop efficient catalysts for use in organic chemistry and in the synthesis of highly valuable molecules, work performed during the course of my stay in St Andrews has focused on the design and synthesis of new group 11 metal complexes for their applications in catalysis. The aim of this work was to develop new, active and stable, easy to synthesise group 11 complexes and investigate their catalytic activity as well as to try to understand the...

  19. Investigation of the properties of 4,5-dialkylated N-heterocyclic carbenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, S.; Tursky, Matyas; Frohlich, R.;

    2009-01-01

    The investigation of the electronic and steric properties of 4,5-disubstituted imidazolylidenes is reported, as well as their successful application as organocatalysts in the formation of gamma-butyrolactones by conjugate Umpolung....

  20. Homogeneous and heterogenised masked N-heterocyclic carbenes for bio-based cyclic carbonate synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, Joseph A.; Drexel, Roland; Arstad, Bjornar; Reubsaet, Erik; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.

    2016-01-01

    (Multifunctional) cyclic carbonates are generating much interest, with bio-based bis-cyclic compounds attracting attention from the polymer sector as potential renewable monomers for systems such as non-isocyanate polyurethanes. Here, the efficient synthesis of one such substrate, diglycerol dicarbo

  1. Nickel N-heterocyclic carbene complexes in the vinyl polymerization of norbornene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berding, J.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Bouwman, E.

    2010-01-01

    Vinyl polymerized norbornene has some useful properties such as good mechanical strength, optical transparency and heat resistance. Several transition metal complexes have been described in the literature as active catalysts for the vinyl polymerization of norbornene. We now report the use of three

  2. Palladium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Precatalyst Site Isolated in the Core of a Star Polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Bukhriakov, Konstantin

    2015-10-02

    An approach for supporting a Pd-NHC complex on a soluble star polymer with nanoscale dimensions is described. The resulting star polymer catalyst exhibits excellent activity in cross-coupling reactions, is stable in air and moisture, and is easily recoverable and recyclable. These properties are distinct and unattainable with the small-molecule version of the same catalyst. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  3. N-heterocyclic carbene catalyzed asymmetric intermolecular Stetter reaction: origin of enantioselectivity and role of counterions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniyil, Rositha; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2013-10-04

    The mechanism and the role of KOtBu in an enantioselective NHC-catalyzed Stetter reaction between p-chlorobenzaldehyde and N-acylamido acrylate is established using DFT(M06-2X) methods. The Gibbs free energies are found to be significantly lower for transition states with explicit bound KOtBu as compared to the conventional pathways without the counterions. An intermolecular proton transfer from HOtBu to the prochiral carbon is identified as the stereocontrolling step. The computed enantioselectivities are in excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Gold(I) carbene complexes causing thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin 2 oxidation as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Esther; Pflüger, Carolin; Citta, Anna; Folda, Alessandra; Rigobello, Maria Pia; Bindoli, Alberto; Casini, Angela; Mohr, Fabian

    2012-06-14

    Gold(I) complexes with 1,3-substituted imidazole-2-ylidene and benzimidazole-2-ylidene ligands of the type NHC-Au-L (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene L = Cl or 2-mercapto-pyrimidine) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative properties in human ovarian cancer cells sensitive and resistant to cisplatin (A2780S/R), as well in the nontumorigenic human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293T), showing in some cases important cytotoxic effects. Some of the complexes were comparatively tested as thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione reductase (GR) inhibitors, directly against the purified proteins or in cell extracts. The compounds showed potent and selective TrxR inhibition properties in particular in cancer cell lines. Remarkably, the most effective TrxR inhibitors induced extensive oxidation of thioredoxins (Trxs), which was more relevant in the cancerous cells than in HEK-293T cells. Additional biochemical assays on glutathione systems and reactive oxygen species formation evidenced important differences with respect to the classical cytotoxic Au(I)-phosphine compound auranofin.

  5. Synthesis and Optimization of the Second-generation Grubbs' Catalyst Ligand%第二代Grubbs催化剂配体的合成及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李郭成; 高康莉; 邓兆静; 韩国志

    2015-01-01

    Grubbs催化剂是一种用于烯烃复分解反应的配位化合物,其中的配体对于催化剂的催化性能、稳定性有很大的影响. 目前,N-杂环卡宾( N-heterocyclic carbenes,NHC)是第二代Grubbs催化剂中的一个关键配体. 本文以乙二醛为原料,通过取代、还原、环化等反应,合成了一种氮杂环卡宾的前驱体1 ,3-二取代-2-羧基咪唑啉. 在此基础上,对部分关键合成环节进行了优化. 研究结果表明,在乙二醛-双-( 2 ,4 ,6三甲基苯基)亚胺的合成过程中,随着反应温度的升高,产率逐渐升高,后有所降低. 在3-( 2 ,4 ,6三甲基苯基) -2-羧基咪唑啉的合成过程中,反应时间对收率影响最大.%Grubbs catalyst is a coordination compound for olefin metathesis. The ligand in the Grubbs' catalyst has great influence on the function and stability of the catalyst. At present, N- heterocyclic carbene ( NHC) is a key ligand for the second generation of Grubbs' catalyst. In this paper, using glyoxal as raw materials, 1,3-substituted-2- carboxy-imidazoline as pre-heterocyclic carbene was synthesized by substitution, reduction and cyclization re-actions. On this base, some key steps were optimized by reaction temperature and time.

  6. Ruthenium(II) Complexes Containing Lutidine-Derived Pincer CNC Ligands: Synthesis, Structure, and Catalytic Hydrogenation of C-N bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Juárez, Martín; López-Serrano, Joaquín; Lara, Patricia; Morales-Cerón, Judith P; Vaquero, Mónica; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Salazar, Verónica; Suárez, Andrés

    2015-05-11

    A series of Ru complexes containing lutidine-derived pincer CNC ligands have been prepared by transmetalation with the corresponding silver-carbene derivatives. Characterization of these derivatives shows both mer and fac coordination of the CNC ligands depending on the wingtips of the N-heterocyclic carbene fragments. In the presence of tBuOK, the Ru-CNC complexes are active in the hydrogenation of a series of imines. In addition, these complexes catalyze the reversible hydrogenation of phenantridine. Detailed NMR spectroscopic studies have shown the capability of the CNC ligand to be deprotonated and get involved in ligand-assisted activation of dihydrogen. More interestingly, upon deprotonation, the Ru-CNC complex 5 e(BF4 ) is able to add aldimines to the metal-ligand framework to yield an amido complex. Finally, investigation of the mechanism of the hydrogenation of imines has been carried out by means of DFT calculations. The calculated mechanism involves outer-sphere stepwise hydrogen transfer to the C-N bond assisted either by the pincer ligand or a second coordinated H2 molecule.

  7. Dihydrogen activation by frustrated carbene-borane Lewis pairs: an experimental and theoretical study of carbene variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronig, Sabrina; Theuergarten, Eileen; Holschumacher, Dirk; Bannenberg, Thomas; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Jones, Peter G; Tamm, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    A variety of Lewis acid-base pairs consisting of tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, B(C(6)F(5))(3), in combination with sterically demanding five- and six-membered N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) of the imidazolin-2-ylidene, imidazolidin-2-ylidene, and tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene types were investigated with respect to their potential to act as frustrated Lewis pairs (FLP) by reaction with dihydrogen (H(2)) and tetrahydrofuran (THF). A sufficient degree of "frustration" was usually established by introduction of a 1,3-di-tert-butyl or 1,3-diadamantyl carbene substitution pattern, which allows an unquenched acid-base reactivity and thus leads to heterolytic dihydrogen activation and ring-opening of THF. In contrast, 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-substituted carbenes showed ambiguous behavior, and the corresponding five-membered imidazolin-2-ylidene formed a stable carbene-B(C(6)F(5))(3) adduct, whereas fast C-F activation and formation of a zwitterionic pyrimidinium-fluoroborate was observed for the six-membered tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene. A stable adduct was also isolated for the combination of the acyclic carbene bis(diisopropylamino)methylene with B(C(6)F(5))(3), and consequently no reactivity toward H(2) and THF was observed. To rationalize the reactivity of the carbene-borane Lewis pairs, the thermodynamics of adduct formation with B(C(6)F(5))(3) were calculated for 10 different carbenes; the stability (or instability) of these adducts can be used as a good measure of the degree of "frustration".

  8. A Heteroleptic Ferrous Complex with Mesoionic Bis(1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene) Ligands: Taming the MLCT Excited State of Iron(II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yizhu; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Fredin, Lisa A.;

    2015-01-01

    Strongly sigma-donating N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have revived research interest in the catalytic chemistry of iron, and are now also starting to bring the photochemistry and photophysics of this abundant element into a new era. In this work, a heteroleptic Fe-II complex (1) was synthesized...... based on sequentially furnishing the Fe-II center with the benchmark 2,2-bipyridine (bpy) ligand and the more strongly sigma-donating mesoionic ligand, 4,4-bis(1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene) (btz). Complex1 was comprehensively characterized by electrochemistry, static and ultrafast spectroscopy, and quantum...... chemical calculations and compared to [Fe(bpy)(3)](PF6)(2) and (TBA)(2)[Fe(bpy)(CN)(4)]. Heteroleptic complex1 extends the absorption spectrum towards longer wavelengths compared to a previously synthesized homoleptic Fe-II NHC complex. The combination of the mesoionic nature of btz and the heteroleptic...

  9. Regioselective acceptorless dehydrogenative coupling of N-heterocycles toward functionalized quinolines, phenanthrolines, and indoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Dinesh; Gonzalez-de-Castro, Angela; Li, Ho Yin; Xiao, Jianliang

    2015-04-20

    A new strategy has been developed for the oxidant- and base-free dehydrogenative coupling of N-heterocycles at mild conditions. Under the action of an iridium catalyst, N-heterocycles undergo multiple sp(3) CH activation steps, generating a nucleophilic enamine that reacts in situ with various electrophiles to give highly functionalized products. The dehydrogenative coupling can be cascaded with Friedel-Crafts addition, resulting in a double functionalization of the N-heterocycles.

  10. Ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) 1,2,3-triazolylidene organometallics: a preliminary investigation into the biological activity of 'click' carbene complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpin, Kelly J; Crot, Stéphanie; Riedel, Tina; Kitchen, Jonathan A; Dyson, Paul J

    2014-01-21

    Taking advantage of the facile and versatile synthetic properties of 'click' 1,2,3-triazolylidene N-heterocyclic carbenes (tzNHC's), a range of new organometallic Ru(II) and Os(II) arene complexes containing functionalised tzNHC ligands, [M(η(6)-p-cymene)(tzNHC)Cl2] [M = Ru(II), Os(II)], have been synthesised and fully characterised, including the X-ray crystal structure of one of the Os(II) complexes. The tzNHC ligands remain coordinated to the metal centres under relevant physiological conditions, and following binding to the model protein, ubiquitin. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the compounds towards human ovarian cancer cells is dependent on the substituent on the tzNHC ligand but is generally <50 μM and in some cases <1 μM, whilst still retaining a high degree of selectivity towards cancer cells over healthy cells (1.85 μM in A2780 ovarian cancer cells versus 435 μM in human embryonic kidney cells in one case).

  11. Stable Di- and Tri-coordinated Carbon(II) Supported by an Electron-Rich β-Diketiminate Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, Vianney; Planet, Yoan; Moore, Curtis E; Pecaut, Jacques; Philouze, Christian; Martin, David

    2017-01-19

    Complexes of the ubiquitous β-diketiminates (NacNac) ligands have been reported with most elements of the periodic table, including Group 14 Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb. The striking absence of carbon representatives has been attributed to the extreme electrophilicity of the putative C-NacNac adducts. An electron enriched 2,4-(dimethylamino)diketiminato backbone is described, which allowed for the synthesis and isolation of such stable pyrimidin-1,3-diium and pyrimidinium-2-ylidene salts. Structural and preliminary reactivity studies are reported, including an air-stable gold complex. An unforeseen original class of stable N-heterocyclic carbenes and, more generally, the potential of electron-rich NacNac patterns for taming highly electrophilic centers are showcased.

  12. Stereoelectronic basis for the kinetic resolution of N-heterocycles with chiral acylating reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Ying; Wanner, Benedikt; Wheeler, Philip; Beauchemin, André M; Rovis, Tomislav; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2014-06-10

    The kinetic resolution of N-heterocycles with chiral acylating agents reveals a previously unrecognized stereoelectronic effect in amine acylation. Combined with a new achiral hydroxamate, this effect makes possible the resolution of various N-heterocycles by using easily prepared reagents. A transition-state model to rationalize the stereochemical outcome of this kinetic resolution is also proposed.

  13. Mechanisms for dehydrogenation and hydrogenation of N-heterocycles using PNP-pincer-supported iron catalysts: a density functional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatlon, Boodsarin; Surawatanawong, Panida

    2016-10-14

    The catalytic dehydrogenation and hydrogenation of N-heterocycles have potential applications in organic hydrogen storage. Recently, Fe(HPNP)(CO)(H)(HBH3) (cp1) and Fe(HPNP)(CO)(H)(Br) (cp2), the iron(ii) complexes supported by bis(phosphino)amine pincer (Fe-PNP) (PNP = N(CH2CH2P(i)Pr2)2), have been reported to be the starting complexes which can catalyze the dehydrogenation and hydrogenation of N-heterocycles. The active species were proposed to be the trans-dihydride complexes, Fe(HPNP)(CO)(H)2 (cp4) and Fe(PNP)(CO)(H) (cp3), which can be interconverted. Here, our density functional study revealed that the N-heterocyclic substrate plays a role in the formation of cp4 from cp1, while the tert-butoxide base assists with the formation of cp3 from cp2. The mechanism for cp3 catalyzed dehydrogenation of a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (THQ) substrate to quinoline (Q) involves two main steps: (i) dehydrogenation of THQ to 3,4-dihydroquinoline (34DHQ) and (ii) dehydrogenation of 34DHQ to Q. In each dehydrogenation step, the proton is transferred from the substrate to the N of the PNP ligand of cp3. An ion-pair complex between Fe-PNP and the deprotonated substrate is then formed before the hydride at the adjacent C is transferred to Fe. Notably, the isomerization of 34DHQ to 14DHQ or 12DHQ is not necessary, as the bifunctionality of Fe-PNP in cp3 can stabilize the ion-pair complex and facilitate direct dehydrogenation of the C3-C4 bond in 34DHQ. On the other hand, the mechanism for hydrogenation of Q involves the initial formation of 14DHQ, which can easily isomerize to 34DHQ with the assistance of a tert-butoxide base. Finally, 34DHQ is dehydrogenated to THQ. As the overall energy barriers for cp3 catalyzed dehydrogenation of THQ (+27.6 kcal mol(-1)) and cp4 catalyzed hydrogenation of Q (+23.8 kcal mol(-1)) are only slightly different, reaction conditions can be conveniently adjusted to favor either the dehydrogenation or hydrogenation process. Insights into the role of

  14. Ligand versus Complex: C-F and C-H Bond Activation of Polyfluoroaromatics at a Cyclic (Alkyl)(Amino)Carbene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ursula S D; Radius, Udo

    2017-03-17

    C-F and C-H bond activation reactions of polyfluoroaromatics at the cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbene (cAAC) cAAC(methyl) (1) are reported. Studies on the C-F bond activation using the cAAC-stabilized nickel(0) complex [Ni(cAAC(methyl) )2 ] (2) have shown that 2 does not react with fluorinated arenes. However, these investigations led to the observation of C-F bond cleavage of perfluorinated arenes by the carbene ligand cAAC(methyl) (1) itself. The reaction of 1 with C6 F6 , C6 F5 -C6 F5 , C6 F5 -CF3 , and C5 F5 N afforded the insertion products of cAAC into one of the C-F bonds of the substrate, that is, the C-F bond activation products (cAAC(methyl) )F(Ar(f) ) (Ar(f) =C6 F5 4 a, C6 F4 -C6 F5 4 b, C6 F4 -CF3 4 c, C5 F4 N 4 d). These products decompose readily upon heating to 80 °C within a few hours in solution with formation of ionic iminium salts [(cAAC(methyl) )(Ar(f) )][X] 6 a-d or neutral alkenyl perfluoroaryl imine compounds 7 a-d. The compounds (cAAC(methyl) )F(Ar(f) ) 4 a-d readily transfer fluoride, which has been exemplified by the fluoride transfer of all compounds using BF3 etherate as fluoride acceptor. Fluoride transfer has also been achieved starting from (cAAC(methyl) )F(C6 F4 -CF3 ) (4 c) or (cAAC(methyl) )F(C5 F4 N) (4 d) to other selected substrates such as trimethylchlorosilane, benzoyl chloride and tosyl chloride. Instead of C-F bond activation, insertion of the cAAC into the C-H bond was observed if 1 was treated with the partially fluorinated arenes C6 F5 H, 1,2,4,5-C6 F4 H2 , 1,3,5-C6 F3 H3 , and 1,3-C6 F2 H4 . The compounds (cAAC(methyl) )H(Ar(f) ) (Ar(f) =C6 F5 12 e, 2,3,5,6-C6 F4 H 12 f, 2,4,6-C6 F3 H2 12 g and 2,6-C6 F2 H3 12 h) have been isolated in good yields and have been characterized including X-ray analysis. Fluorobenzene C6 FH5 (pKa ≈37), the least C-H acidic fluoroarene used in this study, does not react. In order to investigate the scope and limitations of this type of cAAC C-H bond activation

  15. Structural and Substituent Group Effects on Multielectron Standard Reduction Potentials of Aromatic N-Heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenenboom, Mitchell C; Saravanan, Karthikeyan; Zhu, Yaqun; Carr, Jeffrey M; Marjolin, Aude; Faura, Gabriel G; Yu, Eric C; Dominey, Raymond N; Keith, John A

    2016-09-01

    Aromatic N-heterocycles have been used in electrochemical CO2 reduction, but their precise role is not yet fully understood. We used first-principles quantum chemistry to determine how the molecular sizes and substituent groups of these molecules affect their standard redox potentials involving various proton and electron transfers. We then use that data to generate molecular Pourbaix diagrams to find the electrochemical conditions at which the aromatic N-heterocycle molecules could participate in multiproton and electron shuttling in accordance with the Sabatier principle. While one-electron standard redox potentials for aromatic N-heterocycles can vary significantly with molecule size and the presence of substituent groups, the two-electron and two-proton standard redox potentials depend much less on structural modifications and substituent groups. This indicates that a wide variety of aromatic N-heterocycles can participate in proton, electron, and/or hydride shuttling under suitable electrochemical conditions.

  16. Theoretical study of ionization potentials of N-heterocyclic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmyla K. Sviatenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict the redox properties is an important tool for study electron transfer processes occurring in the gas-phase (atmospheric chemistry or in the condensed phase (electrochemistry, biochemistry. MPWB1K/6-31+G(d and MPWB1K/tzvp theoretical models were found to provide reasonable accuracy of the prediction of ionization potentials for mono- and polycyclic azacompounds. The root mean square errors of the methods are 0.19 and 0.20, respectively. While the mean absolute deviation for both methods is the same and equals to 0.15 eV. These theoretical models were applied to predict ionization potentials for compounds not evaluated experimentally. Influence of substitutes and a number of nitrogen atoms on value of ionization potential was analyzed. Methyl-, and phenyl- groups, and fused benzo cycle decrease ionization potentials of N-heterocycles. Increase of amount of nitrogen atoms in five-membered cycles leads to significant enlargement of ionization potentials.

  17. C-H amination in the synthesis of N-heterocycles

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Hua; Yu,Jipan

    2015-01-01

    Jipan Yu, Hua Fu Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: N-heterocycles are important motifs in natural products and pharmaceuticals. Recently, the transition metal–catalyzed C-H amination has become a subject in the synthesis of N-heterocycles because of use of the readily available starting materials, high efficiency, economy,...

  18. Regioselective Allene Hydrosilylation Catalyzed by NHC Complexes of Nickel and Palladium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Zachary D.; Li, Wei; Belderrain, Tomás R.; Montgomery, John

    2013-01-01

    Regioselective methods for allene hydrosilylation have been developed, with regioselectivity being governed primarily by choice of metal. Alkenylsilanes are produced via nickel catalysis with larger N-heterocyclic carbene ligands, and allylsilanes are produced via palladium catalysis with smaller N-heterocyclic carbene ligands. These complementary methods allow either regioisomeric product to be obtained with exceptional regiocontrol. PMID:24079389

  19. Steric Maps to Evaluate the Role of Steric Hindrance on the IPr NHC Ligand

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert

    2013-06-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to predict and rationalize the effect of the modification of the structure of the prototype 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) (IPr) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand. The modification consists in the substitution of the methyl groups of ortho isopropyl substituent with phenyl groups, and here we plan to describe how such significant changes effect the metal environment and therefore the related catalytic behaviour by simple steric maps. Bearing in mind that there is a significant structural difference between IPr and IPr* ligands, that translated in different reactivity for several olefin metathesis reactions, here by means of DFT we characterize where the NHC ligand plays a more active role and where it is a simple spectator, or at least its modification does not significantly change its catalytic role/performance. Furthermore, this communication endeavours to modify further the skeleton of the IPr NHC ligand. The optimization of these bulky new systems go to the limits of the DFT computational method.

  20. Ligand Effects on the Hydrogenation of Biomass-Inspired Substrates with Bifunctional Ru, Ir, and Rh Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E.; Jongbloed, L.S.; Tromp, D.S.; Lutz, M.; de Bruin, B.; Elsevier, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    We herein report on the application and structural investigation of a new set of complexes that contain bidentate N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and primary amine moieties of the type [M(arene)Cl(L)] [M=Ru, Ir, or Rh; arene=p-cymene or pentamethylcyclopentadienyl; L=1-(2-aminophenyl)-3-(n-alkyl)imid

  1. Role of Lanthanide-Ligand bonding in the magnetization relaxation of mononuclear single-ion magnets: A case study on Pyrazole and Carbene ligated LnIII(Ln=Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TULIKA GUPTA; GUNASEKARAN VELMURUGAN; THAYALAN RAJESHKUMAR; GOPALAN RAJARAMAN

    2016-10-01

    Ab initio CASSCF+RASSI-SO+SINGLE_ANISO and DFT based NBO and QTAIM investigations were carried out on a series of trigonal prismatic M(BcMe)₃ (M = Tb(1), Dy(2), Ho(3), Er(4), [BcMe]⁻ = dihydrobis (methylimidazolyl) borate) and M(BpMe)₃ (M = Tb(1a), Dy(2a), Ho(3a), Er(4a) [BpMe]⁻ = dihydrobis (methypyrazolyl) borate) complexes to ascertain the anisotropic variations of these two ligand field environments and the influence of Lanthanide-ligand bonding on the magnetic anisotropy. Among all the complexes studied, only 1 and 2 show large Ucal (computed energy barrier for magnetization reorientation) values of 256.4 and 268.5 cm⁻¹, respectively and this is in accordance with experiment. Experimentally only frequency dependent χ” tails are observed for complex 1a and our calculation predicts a large Ucalof 229.4 cm⁻¹ for this molecule. Besides these, none of the complexes (3, 4, 2a, 3a and 4a) computed to possess large energy barrier and this is affirmed by the experiments. These observed differences in the magnetic properties are correlated to the Ln-Ligand bonding. Our calculations transpire comparatively improved Single-Ion Magnet (SIM) behaviour for carbene analogues due to the more axially compressed trigonal prismatic ligand environment. Furthermore, our detailed Mulliken charge, spin density, NBO and Wiberg bond analysis implied stronger Ln...H–BH agostic interaction for pyrazole analogues. Further, QTAIM analysis reveals the physical nature of coordination, covalent, and fine details of the agostic interactions in all the eight complexes studied. Quite interestingly, for the first time, using the Laplacian density, we are able to quantify the prolate and oblate nature of the electron clouds in lanthanides and this is expected to have a far reaching outcome beyond the examples studied.

  2. Comprehensive thermochemistry of W-H bonding in the metal hydrides CpW(CO)2(IMes)H, [CpW(CO)2(IMes)H](•+), and [CpW(CO)2(IMes)(H)2]+. Influence of an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand on metal hydride bond energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, John A S; Appel, Aaron M; DuBois, Daniel L; Bullock, R Morris

    2011-09-21

    The free energies interconnecting nine tungsten complexes have been determined from chemical equilibria and electrochemical data in MeCN solution (T = 22 °C). Homolytic W-H bond dissociation free energies are 59.3(3) kcal mol(-1) for CpW(CO)(2)(IMes)H and 59(1) kcal mol(-1) for the dihydride [CpW(CO)(2)(IMes)(H)(2)](+) (where IMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene), indicating that the bonds are the same within experimental uncertainty for the neutral hydride and the cationic dihydride. For the radical cation, [CpW(CO)(2)(IMes)H](•+), W-H bond homolysis to generate the 16-electron cation [CpW(CO)(2)(IMes)](+) is followed by MeCN uptake, with free energies for these steps being 51(1) and -16.9(5) kcal mol(-1), respectively. Based on these two steps, the free energy change for the net conversion of [CpW(CO)(2)(IMes)H](•+) to [CpW(CO)(2)(IMes)(MeCN)](+) in MeCN is 34(1) kcal mol(-1), indicating a much lower bond strength for the 17-electron radical cation of the metal hydride compared to the 18-electron hydride or dihydride. The pK(a) of CpW(CO)(2)(IMes)H in MeCN was determined to be 31.9(1), significantly higher than the 26.6 reported for the related phosphine complex, CpW(CO)(2)(PMe(3))H. This difference is attributed to the electron donor strength of IMes greatly exceeding that of PMe(3). The pK(a) values for [CpW(CO)(2)(IMes)H](•+) and [CpW(CO)(2)(IMes)(H)(2)](+) were determined to be 6.3(5) and 6.3(8), much closer to the pK(a) values reported for the PMe(3) analogues. The free energy of hydride abstraction from CpW(CO)(2)(IMes)H is 74(1) kcal mol(-1), and the resultant [CpW(CO)(2)(IMes)](+) cation is significantly stabilized by binding MeCN to form [CpW(CO)(2)(IMes)(MeCN)](+), giving an effective hydride donor ability of 57(1) kcal mol(-1) in MeCN. Electrochemical oxidation of [CpW(CO)(2)(IMes)](-) is fully reversible at all observed scan rates in cyclic voltammetry experiments (E° = -1.65 V vs Cp(2)Fe(+/0) in MeCN), whereas CpW(CO)(2)(IMes)H is reversibly oxidized (E° = -0.13(3) V) only at high scan rates (800 V s(-1)). For [CpW(CO)(2)(IMes)(MeCN)](+), high-pressure NMR experiments provide an estimate of ΔG° = 10.3(4) kcal mol(-1) for the displacement of MeCN by H(2) to give [CpW(CO)(2)(IMes)(H)(2)](+).

  3. Hybrid Catalysis Enabling Room-Temperature Hydrogen Gas Release from N-Heterocycles and Tetrahydronaphthalenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shota; Saga, Yutaka; Kojima, Masahiro; Fuse, Hiromu; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Fukatsu, Arisa; Kondo, Mio; Masaoka, Shigeyuki; Kanai, Motomu

    2017-02-15

    Hybrid catalyst systems to achieve acceptorless dehydrogenation of N-heterocycles and tetrahydronaphthalenes-model substrates for liquid organic hydrogen carriers-were developed. A binary hybrid catalysis comprising an acridinium photoredox catalyst and a Pd metal catalyst was effective for the dehydrogenation of N-heterocycles, whereas a ternary hybrid catalysis comprising an acridinium photoredox catalyst, a Pd metal catalyst, and a thiophosphoric imide organocatalyst achieved dehydrogenation of tetrahydronaphthalenes. These hybrid catalyst systems allowed for 2 molar equiv of H2 gas release from six-membered N-heterocycles and tetrahydronaphthalenes under mild conditions, i.e., visible light irradiation at rt. The combined use of two or three different catalyst types was essential for the catalytic activity.

  4. Ionic Liquid Promoted Diazenylation of N-Heterocyclic Compounds with Aryltriazenes under Mild Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dawei; Zhang, Yonghong; Liu, Chenjiang; Wang, Bin; Sun, Yadong; Abdukadera, Ablimit; Hu, Haiyan; Liu, Qiang

    2016-05-06

    An efficient, mild, and metal-free approach to direct diazenylation of N-heterocyclic compounds with aryltriazenes using Brønsted ionic liquid as a promoter has been developed for the first time. Many N-heterocyclic azo compounds were synthesized in good to excellent yields at room temperature under an open atmosphere. Notably, the promoter 1,3-bis(4-sulfobutyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium hydrogen sulfate could be conveniently recycled and reused with the same efficacies for at least four cycles.

  5. Rapid synthesis of fused N-heterocycles by transition-metal-free electrophilic amination of arene C-H bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongyin; Xu, Qing-Long; Yousufuddin, Muhammed; Ess, Daniel H; Kürti, László

    2014-03-03

    We disclose an efficient and operationally simple protocol for the preparation of fused N-heterocycles starting from readily available 2-nitrobiaryls and PhMgBr under mild conditions. More than two dozen N-heterocycles, including two bioactive natural products, have been synthesized using this method. A stepwise electrophilic aromatic cyclization mechanism was proposed by DFT calculations.

  6. 氮杂环卡宾前体的合成%Syntheis of N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) Predecessor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 迟兴宝

    2012-01-01

    利用三(2-氯乙基)胺[tris(2 - chloroethyl)amine]和N-乙基苯并咪唑的亲核反应,成功的合成了新颖的氮杂环卡宾前体tris - [2 -(3- alkylmethylbenzimidazolium -1 - yl) ethyl] amine trichloride[ H3TIEtNR] - (Cl)3(R-=Et)},再进行离子交换得到{tris -[2-(3- alkylmethylbenzimidazolium -1 - yl)ethyl]amine trichlofide[ H3TIEtNR] -(PF6)3(R=Et)}.该化合物通过了核磁验证.

  7. Dehydrogenative Coupling of Primary Alcohols To Form Esters Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølvhøj, Amanda Birgitte; Madsen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The ruthenium complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] catalyzes the direct condensation of primary alcohols into esters and lactones with the release of hydrogen gas. The reaction is most effective with linear aliphatic alcohols and 1,4-diols and is believed to proceed with a ruthenium dihydride as the c...

  8. Efficient C-F and C-C activation by a novel N-heterocyclic carbene-nickel(0) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Thomas; Radius, Udo

    2005-08-19

    The NHC-stabilized complex [Ni2(iPr2Im)4(cod)] (1) was isolated in good yield from the reaction of [Ni(cod)2] with 1,3-diisopropylimidazole-2-ylidene (iPr2Im). Compound 1 is a source of the [Ni(iPr2Im)2] complex fragment in stoichiometric and catalytic transformations. The reactions of 1 with ethylene and CO under atmospheric pressure or with equimolar amounts of diphenylacetylene lead to the compounds [Ni(iPr2Im)2(eta2-C2H4)] (2), [Ni(iPr2Im)2(eta2-C2Ph2)] (3), and [Ni(iPr2Im)2(CO)2] (4) in good yields. In all cases the [Ni(iPr2Im)2] complex fragment is readily transferred without decomposition or fragmentation. In the infrared spectrum of carbonyl complex 4, the CO stretching frequencies are observed at 1847 and 1921 cm(-1), and are significantly shifted to lower wavenumbers compared with other nickel(0) carbonyl complexes of the type [NiL2(CO)2]. Complex 1 activates the C--F bond of hexafluorobenzene very efficiently to give [Ni(iPr2Im)2(F)(C6F5)] (5). Furthermore, [Ni2(iPr2Im)4(cod)] (1) is also an excellent catalyst for the catalytic insertion of diphenylacetylene into the 2,2' bond of biphenylene. The reaction of 1 with equimolar amounts of biphenylene at low temperature leads to [Ni(iPr2Im)2(2,2'-biphenyl)] (6), which is formed by insertion into the strained 2,2' bond. The reaction of diphenylacetylene and biphenylene at 80 degrees C in the presence of 2 mol % of 1 as catalyst yields diphenylphenanthrene quantitatively and is complete within 30 minutes.

  9. Dehydrogenative Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids from Primary Alcohols and Hydroxide Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santilli, Carola; Makarov, Ilya; Fristrup, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    Primary alcohols have been reacted with hydroxide and the ruthenium complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] to afford carboxylic acids and dihydrogen. The dehydrogenative reaction is performed in toluene, which allows for a simple isolation of the products by precipitation and extraction. The transformat...

  10. Crystal structure of bis(1,3-dimethoxyimidazolin-2-ylidenesilver(I hexafluoridophosphate, N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Rietzler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, [Ag(C5H8N2O22]PF6, was obtained by deprotonation and metalation of 1,3-dimethoxyimidazolium hexafluoridophosphate using silver(I oxide in methanol. The C—Ag—C angle in the cation is 178.1 (2°, and the N—C—N angles are 101.1 (4 and 100.5 (4°. The methoxy groups adopt an anti conformation. In the crystal, anions (A are sandwiched between cations (C in a layered arrangement {C…A…C}n stacked along [001]. Within a C…A…C layer, the hexafluoridophosphate anions accept several C—H...F hydrogen bonds from the cationic complex.

  11. Straightforward synthesis of [Au(NHC)X] (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene, X = Cl, Br, I) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Alba; Gómez-Suárez, Adrián; Martin, Anthony R; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Nolan, Steven P

    2013-06-21

    An improved protocol for the synthesis of [Au(NHC)X] (X = Cl, Br, I) complexes is reported. This versatile one-step synthetic methodology proceeds under mild conditions, in air, using technical grade solvents, is scalable and is applicable to a wide range of imidazolium and imidazolidinium salts.

  12. Mechanistic insights on N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed annulations: the role of base-assisted proton transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pragya; Patni, Priya A; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2011-07-15

    The density functional theory investigation on the mechanism of NHC-catalyzed cycloannulation reaction of the homoenolate derived from butenal with pentenone is studied. The M06-2X/6-31+G** and B3LYP/6-31+G** levels of theory, including the effect of continuum solvation in dichloromethane and tetrahydrofuran, are employed. Several mechanistic scenarios are examined for each elementary step by identifying the key intermediates and the corresponding transition states interconnecting them on the respective potential energy surfaces. Both assisted and unassisted pathways for important proton transfer steps are considered, respectively, with and without the explicit inclusion of base (DBU) in the corresponding transition states. The barrier for the crucial proton transfer steps involved in the formation of the Breslow intermediate as well as in the subsequent steps is found to be significantly lowered by explicit inclusion of DBU. The energetic comparison between two key pathways, depicted as path A and path B, respectively, leading to cyclopentene and cyclopentanone derivatives, is performed. The major mechanistic bifurcation has been identified as emanating from the site of enolization of the initial zwitterionic intermediate resulting from the addition of a homoenolate equivalent to enone. If the enolization occurs nearer to the NHC moiety, the reaction is likely to proceed through path A, leading to cyclopentene. The enolization away from NHC leads to cyclopentanone product through path B. The computed results are generally in good agreement with the reported experimental results.

  13. Computational chemistry insights in the REDOX Behaviour of Cr and W Fischer carbene complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Marile; Conradie, Jeanet; van Rooyen, Petrus H.

    2015-09-01

    An electrochemical study of a series of Fischer carbene complexes containing a hetero-aryl group showed that Cr and W carbenes exhibit different electrochemical behaviour. The Cr carbenes are oxidized in two one electron oxidation processes, namely Cr(0) to Cr(I) and Cr(I) to Cr(II). On the contrary, Fischer carbene complexes of tungsten are directly oxidized from W(0) to W(II). The first reduction process observed for both W- and Cr- carbenes, is a one electron process. A density functional theory (DFT) computational chemistry study of the electronic structure of the Cr- and W-carbenes, showed that the oxidation is metal based and the reduction is located on the carbene ligand. The DFT calculations further showed that the Cr(II) species is a triplet and the W(II) species a closed shell singlet. The DFT calculated energies of the HOMO and LUMO of the neutral carbenes relate linearly to the experimental oxidation and reduction potential, respectively. These mathematical relationships obtained can be used to predict experimentally measured potentials of related Fischer carbene complexes.

  14. Cooperative dehydrogenation of N-heterocycles using a carbon nanotube-rhodium nanohybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawale, Dhanaji V; Gravel, Edmond; Shah, Nimesh; Dauvois, Vincent; Li, Haiyan; Namboothiri, Irishi N N; Doris, Eric

    2015-05-04

    Rhodium nanoparticles were anchored on carbon nanotubes and the resulting nanohybrid was studied as co-catalyst, along with tert-butylcatechol, for the dehydrogenation of various N-heterocycles. The co-catalytic system operates in high yields, under the mildest conditions reported so far, and can be applied to a wide variety of secondary amine-containing scaffolds.

  15. A planar chiral [2.2]paracyclophane derived N-heterocyclic stannylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Isabel; Dickschat, Julia V; Pape, Tania; Hahn, F Ekkehardt; Glorius, Frank

    2012-12-07

    The reaction of pseudo-ortho-4,12-N,N'-diphenyldiamino-[2.2]paracyclophane ((±)-3) with Sn[N(SiMe(3))(2)](2) results in the formation of the monomeric planar chiral N-heterocyclic stannylene (±)-4, featuring a unique [2.2]paracyclophane backbone, which has been characterized by an X-ray diffraction study.

  16. Acceptorless Dehydrogenation of N-Heterocycles by Merging Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis and Cobalt Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke-Han; Tan, Fang-Fang; Zhou, Chao-Zheng; Zhou, Gui-Jiang; Yang, Xiao-Long; Li, Yang

    2017-03-06

    Herein, the first acceptorless dehydrogenation of tetrahydroquinolines (THQs), indolines, and other related N-heterocycles, by merging visible-light photoredox catalysis and cobalt catalysis at ambient temperature, is described. The potential applications to organic transformations and hydrogen-storage materials are demonstrated. Primary mechanistic investigations indicate that the catalytic cycle occurs predominantly by an oxidative quenching pathway.

  17. Ionic Liquids as Carbene Catalyst Precursors in the One-Pot Four-Component Assembly of Oxo Triphenylhexanoates (OTHOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Axelsson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs are a convenient and inexpensive source of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs. In this study, dialkyl imidazolium-based ILs are used as carbene precursors in a four-component synthesis of oxo triphenylhexanoates (OTHOs, where it was found that IL outperformed commonly used NHC precatalysts in terms of reaction efficiency. The reaction is highly stereoselective, delivering the anti-diastereomer (20:1 dr, and the OTHOs can be obtained in high-to-excellent yields. By virtue of the four-component reaction-setup, facile construction of the OTHO scaffold with a diverse set of functional groups (21 examples can be achieved. In the context of sustainability, the IL can be recovered and reused several times without affecting selectivity or yield. Moreover, most compounds can be isolated by precipitation and filtration, mitigating the use of solvent-demanding chromatography.

  18. Flash kinetics in liquefied noble gases: Studies of alkane activation and ligand dynamics at rhodium carbonyl centers, and a search for xenon-carbene adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeston, Jake Simon [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    A general introduction is given to place the subsequent chapters in context for the nonspecialist. Results are presented from a low temperature infrared (IR) flash kinetic study of C-H bond activation via photoinduced reaction of Cp*Rh(CO)2 (1) with linear and cyclic alkanes in liquid krypton and liquid xenon solution. No reaction was observed with methane; for all other hydrocarbons studied, the rate law supports fragmentation of the overall reaction into an alkane binding step followed by an oxidative addition step. For the binding step, larger alkanes within each series (linear and cyclic) interact more strongly than smaller alkanes with the Rh center. The second step, oxidative addition of the C-H bond across Rh, exhibits very little variance in the series of linear alkanes, while in the cyclic series the rate decreases with increasing alkane size. Results are presented from an IR flash kinetic study of the photoinduced chemistry of Tp*Rh(CO)2 (5; Tp* = hydridotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borato) in liquid xenon solution at –50 °C. IR spectra of the solution taken 2 μs after 308 nm photolysis exhibit two transient bands at 1972-1980 cm-1 and 1992-2000 cm-1, respectively. These bands were assigned to (η3-Tp*)Rh(CO)•Xe and (η2-Tp*)Rh(CO)•Xe solvates on the basis of companion studies using Bp*Rh(CO)2 (9; Bp* = dihydridobis(3,5-dimethyl pyrazolyl)borato). Preliminary kinetic data for reaction of 5 with cyclohexane in xenon solution indicate that both transient bands still appear and that their rates of decay correlate with formation of the product Tp*Rh(CO)(C6H11)(H). The preparation and reactivity of the new complex Bp*Rh(CO)(pyridine) (11) are described. The complex reacts with CH3I to yield the novel Rh carbene hydride complex HB(Me2pz)2Rh(H)(I)(C5H5N)(C(O)Me) (12), resulting from formal addition of CH

  19. Synthesis and tunable reactivity of N-heterocyclic germylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yun; Yao, Shenglai; Driess, Matthias

    2012-09-01

    Modifying the β-diketimine ligand LH 1 (LH=[ArN=C(Me)-CH=C(Me)-NHAr], Ar=2,6-iPr(2)C(6)H(3)) through replacement of the proton in 3-position by a benzyl group (Bz) leads to the new (Bz)LH ligand 2, which could be isolated in 77% yield. According to (1) H NMR spectroscopy, 2 is a mixture of the bis(imino) form [(ArN=C(Me)](2)CH(Bz) 2a and its tautomer [ArN=C(Me)-C(Bz)=C(Me)NHAr] 2b. Nevertheless, lithiation of the mixture of 2a and 2b affords solely the N-lithiated β-diketiminate [ArN=C(Me)-C(Bz)=C(Me)-NLiAr], (Bz)LLi 3. The latter reacts readily with GeCl(2)· dioxane to form the chlorogermylene (Bz)LGeCl 4, which serves as a precursor for a new zwitterionic germylene by dehydrochlorination with LiN(SiMe(3))(2). This reaction leads to the zwitterionic germylene (Bz)L'Ge: 5 ((Bz)L'=ArNC(=CH(2))C(Bz)=C(Me)NAr) which could be isolated in 83% yield. The benzyl group has a distinct influence on the reactivity of zwitterionic 5 in comparison to its benzyl-free analogue, as shown by the reaction of 5 with phenylacetylene, which yields solely the 1,4-addition product 6, that is, the alkynyl germylene (Bz)LGeCCPh. Compounds 2-6 have been fully characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, elemental analyses, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses.

  20. 2-Alkynylbenzaldoxime: a versatile building block for the generation of N-heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Linman; Nie, Hongming; Qiu, Guanyinsheng; Gao, Yueqiu; Wu, Jie

    2014-12-07

    2-Alkynylbenzaldoxime as a versatile building block has been applied widely for the construction of N-heterocycles in organic synthesis. Since it could be easily transferred to isoquinoline N-oxide via intramolecular 6-endo cyclization in the presence of metal catalysts or electrophiles, the subsequent [3 + 2] cycloaddition/nucleophilic addition and rearrangement could be expected. On the other hand, a Beckmann rearrangement could occur first since an oxime moiety is present in the molecule, which would then undergo an intramolecular cyclization to furnish nitrogen-containing heterocycles. This review reports the recent advancement in the generation of N-heterocycles starting from 2-alkynylbenzaldoximes via tandem reactions based on different reaction types.

  1. Enantioselective construction of quaternary N-heterocycles by palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of lactams

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.

    2011-12-18

    The enantioselective synthesis of nitrogen-containing heterocycles (N-heterocycles) represents a substantial chemical research effort and resonates across numerous disciplines, including the total synthesis of natural products and medicinal chemistry. In this Article, we describe the highly enantioselective palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of readily available lactams to form 3,3-disubstituted pyrrolidinones, piperidinones, caprolactams and structurally related lactams. Given the prevalence of quaternary N-heterocycles in biologically active alkaloids and pharmaceutical agents, we envisage that our method will provide a synthetic entry into the de novo asymmetric synthesis of such structures. As an entry for these investigations we demonstrate how the described catalysis affords enantiopure quaternary lactams that intercept synthetic intermediates previously used in the synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloids quebrachamine and rhazinilam, but that were previously only available by chiral auxiliary approaches or as racemic mixtures. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. N-Heterocyclic molecule-capped gold nanoparticles as effective antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Chen, Wenwen; Jia, Yuexiao; Tian, Yue; Zhao, Yuyun; Long, Fei; Rui, Yukui; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that N-heterocyclic molecule-capped gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Optimized antibacterial activity can be achieved by using different initial molar ratios (1 : 1 and 10 : 1) of N-heterocyclic prodrugs and the precursor of Au NPs (HAuCl4). This work opens up new avenues for antibiotics based on Au NPs.We demonstrate that N-heterocyclic molecule-capped gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Optimized antibacterial activity can be achieved by using different initial molar ratios (1 : 1 and 10 : 1) of N-heterocyclic prodrugs and the precursor of Au NPs (HAuCl4). This work opens up new avenues for antibiotics based on Au NPs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03317b

  3. Installing amino acids and peptides on N-heterocycles under visible-light assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yunhe; Jiang, Min; Wang, Hui; Fu, Hua

    2016-02-02

    Readily available natural α-amino acids are one of nature's most attractive and versatile building blocks in synthesis of natural products and biomolecules. Peptides and N-heterocycles exhibit various biological and pharmaceutical functions. Conjugation of amino acids or peptides with N-heterocycles provides boundless potentiality for screening and discovery of diverse biologically active molecules. However, it is a great challenge to install amino acids or peptides on N-heterocycles through formation of carbon-carbon bonds under mild conditions. In this article, eighteen N-protected α-amino acids and three peptides were well assembled on phenanthridine derivatives via couplings of N-protected α-amino acid and peptide active esters with substituted 2-isocyanobiphenyls at room temperature under visible-light assistance. Furthermore, N-Boc-proline residue was successfully conjugated with oxindole derivatives using similar procedures. The simple protocol, mild reaction conditions, fast reaction, and high efficiency of this method make it an important strategy for synthesis of diverse molecules containing amino acid and peptide fragments.

  4. Tip-induced gating of molecular levels in carbene-based junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Giuseppe; Vázquez, Héctor

    2016-03-01

    We study the conductance of N-heterocyclic carbene-based (NHC) molecules on gold by means of first-principles calculations based on density-functional theory and non-equilibrium Green’s functions. We consider several tip structures and find a strong dependence of the position of the NHC molecular levels with the atomistic structure of the tip. The position of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) can change by almost 0.8 eV with tip shape. Through an analysis of the net charge transfer, electron redistribution and work function for each tip structure, we rationalize the LUMO shifts in terms of the sum of the work function and the maximum electrostatic potential arising from charge rearrangement. These differences in the LUMO position, effectively gating the molecular levels, result in large conductance variations. These findings open the way to modulating the conductance of NHC-based molecular circuits through the controlled design of the tip atomistic structure.

  5. Chirality Synchronization of Hydrogen-Bonded Complexes of Achiral N-Heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, Jens; Vogel, Laura; Janietz, Dietmar; Prehm, Marko; Tschierske, Carsten

    2017-01-02

    2,4-Diamino-6-phenyl-1,3,5-triazines carrying a single oligo(ethylene oxide) (EO) chain form an optically isotropic mesophase composed of a conglomerate of macroscopic chiral domains with opposite sense of chirality even though the constituent molecules are achiral. This mesophase was proposed to result from the helical packing of hydrogen-bonded triazine aggregates, providing long-range chirality synchronization. The results provide first evidence for macroscopic achiral symmetry breaking upon conglomerate formation in an amorphous isotropic phase formed by hydrogen-bonded associates of simple N-heterocycles that are related to prebiotic molecules.

  6. 1-Azadienes in cycloaddition and multicomponent reactions towards N-heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendaal, Bas; Ruijter, Eelco; Orru, Romano V A

    2008-11-21

    1-Azadienes are versatile building blocks for the efficient construction of various N-heterocycles. Depending on the substitution pattern and reaction partner, they may participate in a range of different reactions. An overview of recent methods for the generation of 1-azadienes is presented, as well as their application in cycloaddition, electrocyclization, and multicomponent reactions. Considering the broad range of reactivities and resulting heterocyclic scaffold structures, 1-azadienes are very useful reactive intermediates for the development of modular reaction sequences in diversity-oriented synthesis.

  7. Palladium/Imidazolium Salts: A General and Highly Efficient Catalytic System for Coupling Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chu-Luo; Steven P. Nolan

    2003-01-01

    @@ Nucleophilic N-heterocyclic carbenes have attracted considerable attention. These ligands are strong σ-donor with negligible π-accepting ability, and in this regard, they resemble electron-donor phosphines and can be addressed as "phosphine mimics". [ 1

  8. Rhenium carbene complexes and their applications; Rhenium-Carben-Komplexe und ihre Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hille, Claudia Heidi

    2016-01-25

    New pharmaceutically suitable metal complexes play an important role in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic agents for cancer treatment. One option concerning new radiopharmaceuticals, is the application of the rhenium isotopes {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re. Therefore, water soluble but at the same time stable complexes, which can be synthesized straightforward, are required. In this thesis, several synthetic pathways to such rhenium complexes bearing Nheterocyclic carbenes are presented and applicability tests of literature known complexes conducted. The selected target structures based on monocarbenes turned out to be inappropriate for use in radiopharmaceutical applications, due to their long reaction times and purification issues. Additionally, sterical and electronical effects of the carbene ligands concerning complex formation have been investigated. Possibilities of functionalization at different positions on the heterocycle as well as hydrophilic wingtips - to achieve a better stability in an aqueous media - have been examined to gain information about chemical and physical properties of the resulting complexes. Furthermore, experiments regarding the coordination of various biscarbene ligands, which provides besides the stable chelatisation additionally the possibility of varying the linking bridge, to rhenium(I/V) precursors, have been performed. Dioxo-bis-(1,1{sup '}-methylene-bis(3,3{sup '}-diisopropylimidazolium-2-ylidene)) rhenium(V )-hexafluorophosphate was synthesized via a transmetalation reaction of the corresponding silver carbene with ReOCl{sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2} and silver hexafluorophosphate. This complex provided the basis for the first radiolabeled {sup 188}Rhenium NHC complex later on. An enhancement of the kinetic and thermodynamic stability of potential rhenium biscarbene complexes based on modifications concerning the length and character of the bridging moiety between the chelating NHC rings as well as the nature of

  9. SnAP reagents for the one-step synthesis of medium-ring saturated N-heterocycles from aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Cam-Van T; Luescher, Michael U; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2014-04-01

    Interest in saturated N-heterocycles as scaffolds for the synthesis of bioactive molecules is increasing. Reliable and predictable synthetic methods for the preparation of these compounds, especially medium-sized rings, are limited. We describe the development of SnAP (Sn amino protocol) reagents for the transformation of aldehydes into seven-, eight- and nine-membered saturated N-heterocycles. This process occurs under mild, room-temperature conditions and offers exceptional substrate scope and functional-group tolerance. Air- and moisture-stable SnAP reagents are prepared on a multigram scale from inexpensive starting materials by simple reaction sequences. These new reagents and processes allow widely available aryl, heteroaryl and aliphatic aldehydes to be converted into diverse N-heterocycles, including diazepanes, oxazepanes, diazocanes, oxazocanes and hexahydrobenzoxazonines, by a single synthetic operation.

  10. Advancements in the Synthesis and Applications of Cationic N-Heterocycles through Transition Metal-Catalyzed C-H Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandeepan, Parthasarathy; Cheng, Chien-Hong

    2016-02-18

    Cationic N-heterocycles are an important class of organic compounds largely present in natural and bioactive molecules. They are widely used as fluorescent dyes for biological studies, as well as in spectroscopic and microscopic methods. These compounds are key intermediates in many natural and pharmaceutical syntheses. They are also a potential candidate for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Because of these useful applications, the development of new methods for the synthesis of cationic N-heterocycles has received a lot of attention. In particular, many C-H activation methodologies that realize high step- and atom-economies toward these compounds have been developed. In this review, recent advancements in the synthesis and applications of cationic N-heterocycles through C-H activation reactions are summarized. The new C-H activation reactions described in this review are preferred over their classical analogs.

  11. Metal-Free Hydrogen Atom Transfer from Water: Expeditious Hydrogenation of N-Heterocycles Mediated by Diboronic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun-Tao; Sun, Xiao-Tao; Zhang, Ling; Luo, Kai; Wu, Lei

    2016-11-21

    A hydrogenation of N-heterocycles mediated by diboronic acid with water as the hydrogen atom source is reported. A variety of N-heterocycles can be hydrogenated with medium to excellent yields within 10 min. Complete deuterium incorporation from stoichiometric D2 O onto substrates further exemplifies the H/D atom sources. Mechanism studies reveal that the reduction proceeds with initial 1,2-addition, in which diboronic acid synergistically activates substrates and water via a six-membered ring transition state.

  12. A Free-Radical-Promoted Site-Specific Cross-Dehydrogenative-Coupling of N-Heterocycles with Fluorinated Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhengbao; Hang, Zhaojia; Chai, Li; Liu, Zhong-Quan

    2016-09-16

    A C-C formation of an electron-rich N-heterocycle with fluorinated alcohol is developed. Through this radical-triggered cross-dehydrogenative coupling strategy, a wide range of useful building blocks such as C3 hydroxyfluoroalkylated indoles and pyrroles can be site-specifically synthesized. Mechanistic studies indicate a single-electron-transfer initiated radical cycle would be involved.

  13. Structural insights into the specific recognition of N-heterocycle biodenitrogenation-derived substrates by microbial amide hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geng; Chen, Duoduo; Tang, Hongzhi; Ren, Yiling; Chen, Qihua; Lv, Yang; Zhang, Zhenyi; Zhao, Yi-Lei; Yao, Yuxiang; Xu, Ping

    2014-03-01

    N-heterocyclic compounds from industrial wastes, including nicotine, are environmental pollutants or toxicants responsible for a variety of health problems. Microbial biodegradation is an attractive strategy for the removal of N-heterocyclic pollutants, during which carbon-nitrogen bonds in N-heterocycles are converted to amide bonds and subsequently severed by amide hydrolases. Previous studies have failed to clarify the molecular mechanism through which amide hydrolases selectively recognize diverse amide substrates and complete the biodenitrogenation process. In this study, structural, computational and enzymatic analyses showed how the N-formylmaleamate deformylase Nfo and the maleamate amidase Ami, two pivotal amide hydrolases in the nicotine catabolic pathway of Pseudomonas putida S16, specifically recognize their respective substrates. In addition, comparison of the α-β-α groups of amidases, which include Ami, pinpointed several subgroup-characteristic residues differentiating the two classes of amide substrates as containing either carboxylate groups or aromatic rings. Furthermore, this study reveals the molecular mechanism through which the specially tailored active sites of deformylases and amidases selectively recognize their unique substrates. Our work thus provides a thorough elucidation of the molecular mechanism through which amide hydrolases accomplish substrate-specific recognition in the microbial N-heterocycles biodenitrogenation pathway.

  14. Utilization of N-X bonds in the synthesis of N-heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Satoshi

    2009-08-18

    Nitrogen-containing heterocycles--such as aziridines, pyrrolidines, piperidines, and oxazolines--frequently show up as substructures in natural products. In addition, some of these species show potent biological activities. Therefore, researchers would like to develop practical and convenient methods for constructing these heterocycles. Among the available methods, the transfer of N(1) units to organic molecules, especially olefins, is a versatile method for the synthesis of N-heterocycles. This Account reviews some of our recent work on the synthesis of N-heterocycles using the N-X bond. A nitrogen-halogen bond bearing an electron-withdrawing group on the nitrogen can be converted to a halonium ion. In the presence of C-C double bonds, these species produce three-membered cyclic halonium intermediates, which can be strong electrophiles and can produce stereocontrolled products. N-Halosuccinimides are representative sources of halonium ions, and the nitrogen of succinimide is rarely used in organic synthesis. If the nitrogen could act as a nucleophile, after releasing halonium ions to C-C double bonds, we expect great advances would be possible in the stereoselective functionalization of olefins. We chose N-chloro-N-sodio-p-toluenesulfonamide (chloramine-T, CT), an inexpensive and commercially available reagent, as our desired reactant. In the presence of a catalytic amount of CuCl or I(2) and AgNO(3), we achieved the direct aziridination of olefins with CT. The reaction catalyzed by I(2) could be carried out in water or silica-water as a green process. The reaction of iodoolefins with CT gave pyrrolidine derivatives under extremely mild conditions with complete stereoselectivity. We also extended the utility of the N-chloro-N-metallo reagent, which is often unstable and difficult to work with. Although CT does not react with electron-deficient olefins without a metal catalyst or an additive, we found that N-chloro-N-sodiocarbamates react with electron

  15. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane-Catalyzed Acceptorless Dehydrogenation of N-Heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Masahiro; Kanai, Motomu

    2016-09-26

    Catalytic acceptorless dehydrogenation is an environmentally benign way to desaturate organic compounds. This process is traditionally accomplished with transition-metal-based catalysts. Herein, a borane-catalyzed, metal-free acceptorless dehydrogenation of saturated N-heterocycles is disclosed. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane was identified as a versatile catalyst, which afforded several synthetically important N-heteroarenes in up to quantitative yield. Specifically, the present metal-free catalytic system exhibited a uniquely high tolerance toward sulfur functionalities, and demonstrated superior reactivity in the synthesis of benzothiazoles compared to conventional metal-catalyzed systems. This protocol can thus be regarded as the first example of metal-free acceptorless dehydrogenation in synthetic organic chemistry.

  16. Bi- and trinuclear copper(I) complexes of 1,2,3-triazole-tethered NHC ligands: synthesis, structure, and catalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiehao; Huang, Jingjing; Xia, Huan; Yang, Ling; Xu, Weilin

    2016-01-01

    Summary A series of copper complexes (3–6) stabilized by 1,2,3-triazole-tethered N-heterocyclic carbene ligands have been prepared via simple reaction of imidazolium salts with copper powder in good yields. The structures of bi- and trinuclear copper complexes were fully characterized by NMR, elemental analysis (EA), and X-ray crystallography. In particular, [Cu2(L2)2](PF6)2 (3) and [Cu2(L3)2](PF6)2 (4) were dinuclear copper complexes. Complexes [Cu3(L4)2](PF6)3 (5) and [Cu3(L5)2](PF6)3 (6) consist of a triangular Cu3 core. These structures vary depending on the imidazolium backbone and N substituents. The copper–NHC complexes tested are highly active for the Cu-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction in an air atmosphere at room temperature in a CH3CN solution. Complex 4 is the most efficient catalyst among these polynuclear complexes in an air atmosphere at room temperature. PMID:27340477

  17. A Three-Step Laboratory Sequence to Prepare a Carbene Complex of Silver(I) Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, John P.; Ramnial, Taramatee; Langlois, Lisa D.; Abernethy, Colin D.; Clyburne, Jason A. C.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a multistep inorganic synthesis experiment for our second-year undergraduate teaching laboratory that introduces students to modern organometallic chemistry. The ligands are prepared in two simple steps and the preparation of an air-stable silver carbene complex is accomplished in the third step. The students are introduced to…

  18. Highly selective palladium–benzothiazole carbene-catalyzed allylation of active methylene compounds under neutral conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Monopoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pd–benzothiazol-2-ylidene complex I was found to be a chemoselective catalyst for the Tsuji–Trost allylation of active methylene compounds carried out under neutral conditions and using carbonates as allylating agents. The proposed protocol consists in a simplified procedure adopting an in situ prepared catalyst from Pd2dba3 and 3-methylbenzothiazolium salt V as precursors. A comparison of the performance of benzothiazole carbene with phosphanes and an analogous imidazolium carbene ligand is also proposed.

  19. Catalytic Kinetic Resolution of Saturated N-Heterocycles by Enantioselective Amidation with Chiral Hydroxamic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreituss, Imants; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2016-12-20

    The preparation of enantioenriched chiral compounds by kinetic resolution dates back to the laboratories of Louis Pasteur in the middle of the 19th century. Unlike asymmetric synthesis, this process can always deliver enantiopure material (ee > 99%) if the reactions are allowed to proceed to sufficient conversion and the selectivity of the process is not unity (s > 1). One of the most appealing and practical variants is acylative kinetic resolution, which affords easily separable reaction products, and several highly efficient enzymatic and small molecule catalysts are available. Unfortunately, this method is applicable to limited substrate classes such as alcohols and primary benzylamines. This Account focuses on our work in catalytic acylative kinetic resolution of saturated N-heterocycles, a class of molecules that has been notoriously difficult to access via asymmetric synthesis. We document the development of hydroxamic acids as suitable catalysts for enantioselective acylation of amines through relay catalysis. Alongside catalyst optimization and reaction development, we present mechanistic studies and theoretical calculation accounting for the origins of selectivity and revealing the concerted nature of many amide-bond forming reactions. Immobilization of the hydroxamic acid to form a polymer supported reagent allows simplification of the experimental setup, improvement in product purification, and extension of the substrate scope. The kinetic resolutions are operationally straight forward: reactions proceed at room temperature and open to air conditions, without generation of difficult-to-remove side products. This was utilized to achieve decagram scale resolution of antimalarial drug mefloquine to prepare more than 50 g of (+)-erythro-meflqouine (er > 99:1) from the racemate. The immobilized quasienantiomeric acyl hydroxamic acid reagents were also exploited for a rare practical implementation of parallel kinetic resolution that affords both enantiomers of

  20. Single-catalyst high-weight% hydrogen storage in an N-heterocycle synthesized from lignin hydrogenolysis products and ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forberg, Daniel; Schwob, Tobias; Zaheer, Muhammad; Friedrich, Martin; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Kempe, Rhett

    2016-10-01

    Large-scale energy storage and the utilization of biomass as a sustainable carbon source are global challenges of this century. The reversible storage of hydrogen covalently bound in chemical compounds is a particularly promising energy storage technology. For this, compounds that can be sustainably synthesized and that permit high-weight% hydrogen storage would be highly desirable. Herein, we report that catalytically modified lignin, an indigestible, abundantly available and hitherto barely used biomass, can be harnessed to reversibly store hydrogen. A novel reusable bimetallic catalyst has been developed, which is able to hydrogenate and dehydrogenate N-heterocycles most efficiently. Furthermore, a particular N-heterocycle has been identified that can be synthesized catalytically in one step from the main lignin hydrogenolysis product and ammonia, and in which the new bimetallic catalyst allows multiple cycles of high-weight% hydrogen storage.

  1. Single-catalyst high-weight% hydrogen storage in an N-heterocycle synthesized from lignin hydrogenolysis products and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forberg, Daniel; Schwob, Tobias; Zaheer, Muhammad; Friedrich, Martin; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Kempe, Rhett

    2016-10-20

    Large-scale energy storage and the utilization of biomass as a sustainable carbon source are global challenges of this century. The reversible storage of hydrogen covalently bound in chemical compounds is a particularly promising energy storage technology. For this, compounds that can be sustainably synthesized and that permit high-weight% hydrogen storage would be highly desirable. Herein, we report that catalytically modified lignin, an indigestible, abundantly available and hitherto barely used biomass, can be harnessed to reversibly store hydrogen. A novel reusable bimetallic catalyst has been developed, which is able to hydrogenate and dehydrogenate N-heterocycles most efficiently. Furthermore, a particular N-heterocycle has been identified that can be synthesized catalytically in one step from the main lignin hydrogenolysis product and ammonia, and in which the new bimetallic catalyst allows multiple cycles of high-weight% hydrogen storage.

  2. Facile Access to Stable Silylium Ions Stabilized by N-Heterocyclic Imines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsumi Ochiai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel silylium ions with N-heterocyclic imines were successfully synthesized. The reaction of trimethylsilyl imidazolin-2-imine Me3SiNIPr (NIPr = bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl-imidazolin-2-imino with B(C6F53 leads to dimeric imino-substituted silylium ions through a methyl group abstraction on the silicon atom. Meanwhile, the intermolecular imino-coordinated silylium ion is formed by using the less sterically crowded imine Me3SiNItBu (NItBu = bis(tert-butyl-imidazolin-2-imino. Furthermore, the treatment of dimethylchlorosilane Me2(ClSiNIPr with AgOTf affords the contact ion pair Me2(OTfSiNIPr by substitution of the chloride. A novel complex with the formula [Me2(DMAPSiNIPr][OTf] was prepared by coordination with 4-dimethylamino-pyridine (DMAP. In the solid state, the DMAP adduct [Me2(DMAPSiNIPr][OTf] contains a distinct [Me2(DMAPSiNIPr]+ moiety.

  3. Generation of N-Heterocycles via Tandem Reactions of N '-(2-Alkynylbenzylidene)hydrazides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guanyinsheng; Wu, Jie

    2016-02-01

    As a powerful synthon, N '-(2-alkynylbenzylidene)hydrazides have been utilized efficiently for the construction of N-heterocycles. Since N '-(2-alkynylbenzylidene)hydrazides can easily undergo intramolecular 6-endo cyclization promoted by silver triflate or electrophiles, the resulting isoquinolinium-2-yl amides can proceed through subsequent transformations including [3 + 2] cycloaddition, nucleophilic addition, and [3 + 3] cycloaddition. Several unexpected rearrangements via radical processes were observed in some cases, which afforded nitrogen-containing heterocycles with molecular complexity. Reactive partners including internal alkynes, arynes, ketenimines, ketenes, allenoates, and activated alkenes reacted through [3 + 2] cycloaddition and subsequent aromatization, leading to diverse H-pyrazolo[5,1-a]isoquinolines with high efficiency. Nucleophilic addition to the in situ generated isoquinolinium-2-yl amide followed by aromatization also produced H-pyrazolo[5,1-a]isoquinoline derivatives when terminal alkynes, carbonyls, enamines, and activated methylene compounds were used as nucleophiles. Isoquinoline derivatives were obtained when indoles or phosphites were employed as nucleophiles in the reactions of N '-(2-alkynylbenzylidene)hydrazides. A tandem 6-endo cyclization and [3 + 3] cycloaddition of cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxylates with N '-(2-alkynylbenzylidene)hydrazides was observed as well. Small libraries of these compounds were constructed. Biological evaluation suggested that some compounds showed promising activities for inhibition of CDC25B, TC-PTP, HCT-116, and PTP1B.

  4. Investigation on reactivity of non-classical carbenes with sterically hindered Lewis acid, B(C6F5)3 under inert and open conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arunabha Thakur; Pavan K Vardhanapu; Gonela Vijaykumar; Sushil Ranjan Bhatta

    2016-04-01

    Reactions of B(C6F5)3 with abnormal N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC), L1 and cyclic (alkyl)(amino) carbene (AAC), L2 in the presence of moisture as well as in its absence, have been investigated in toluene. Reaction of NHC with 1 equivalent of B(C6F5)3 under inert condition produced classical Lewis acid-base adduct, [L1.B(C6F5)3], 1. Further, probing the same reaction with cyclic (alkyl)(amino) carbene (AAC), having different electronic property, led to the isolation of [L2.B(C6F5)3], 2 under inert condition. Interestingly, reaction of NHC or AAC with 1 equivalent of B(C6F5)3 in the presence of moisture resulted in water splitting leading to the formation of [L1-H][(OH)B(C6F5)3], 3 and [L2-H][(OH)B(C6F5)3, 4. All these compounds (1-4) were characterized in solution by 1H, 13C, 19F and 11B NMR spectroscopy. Additionally, the solid-state structures were unambiguously established by crystallographic analysis of compounds 1-4.

  5. The isolation of [Pd{OC(O)H}(H)(NHC)(PR3)] (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) and its role in alkene and alkyne reductions using formic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Broggi, Julie

    2013-03-27

    The [Pd(SIPr)(PCy3)] complex efficiently promotes a tandem process involving dehydrogenation of formic acid and hydrogenation of C-C multiple bonds using H2 formed in situ. The isolation of a key catalytic hydridoformatopalladium species, [Pd{OC(O)H}(H)(IPr)(PCy 3)], is reported. The complex plays a key role in the Pd(0)-mediated formation of hydrogen from formic acid. Mechanistic and computational studies delineate the operational role of the palladium complex in this efficient tandem sequence. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  6. Crystal structure of bis-(1,3-di-meth-oxy-imidazolin-2-yl-idene)silver(I) hexa-fluorido-phosphate, N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietzler, Barbara; Laus, Gerhard; Kahlenberg, Volker; Schottenberger, Herwig

    2015-12-01

    The title salt, [Ag(C5H8N2O2)2]PF6, was obtained by deprotonation and metalation of 1,3-di-meth-oxy-imidazolium hexa-fluorido-phosphate using silver(I) oxide in methanol. The C-Ag-C angle in the cation is 178.1 (2)°, and the N-C-N angles are 101.1 (4) and 100.5 (4)°. The meth-oxy groups adopt an anti conformation. In the crystal, anions (A) are sandwiched between cations (C) in a layered arrangement {C…A…C} n stacked along [001]. Within a C…A…C layer, the hexafluoridophosphate anions accept several C-H⋯F hydrogen bonds from the cationic complex.

  7. Computational Chemistry Studies on the Carbene Hydroxymethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzzacco, Charles J.; Baum, J. Clayton

    2011-01-01

    A density functional theory computational chemistry exercise on the structure and vibrational spectrum of the carbene hydroxymethylene is presented. The potential energy curve for the decomposition reaction of the carbene to formaldehyde and the geometry of the transition state are explored. The results are in good agreement with recent…

  8. A DFT and structural investigation of the conformations of Fischer carbene complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Marilé

    2015-09-01

    A set of different Fischer carbene complexes of group VI and VII metals, with varied heteroatom and heteroaromatic substituents on the carbene carbon atom, was studied. Density functional theory as well as single crystal diffraction techniques were employed to investigated the most stable conformation of these complexes. The complexes studied, [M(CO)4L{C(X)Z}], with L = PPh3 or CO, X = ethoxy (-OCH2CH3) or amino (-NH2 or NHCy) substituents as the heteroatom carbene substituents, Z = 2-furyl (-C4H3O), 2-thienyl (-C4H3S), 2-(N-methyl)pyrrolyl (-C4H3NCH3) as the second carbene substituent had their substituents varied systematically to give all the possible conformations of these complexes. The conformations of the complexes, in particular the relative orientations of the heteroatoms in the molecule (syn vs. anti), E/Z isomerism in the aminocarbene complexes and cis/trans isomerism in the ligand substituted complexes as well as various combinations of these aspects, were studied. In general, it was found that the most stable conformation theoretically as well as in the solid state for most of the complexes preferred the syn conformation. The Z-isomer is generally preferred over the E isomer while the cis is more predominant than the trans isomer. Using DFT and NBO calculations, explanations for the preferred conformations were explored. It was concluded that both steric and electronic factors influence the conformations of the carbene complexes, with the extent of contribution of these two factors varying for each of the different carbene substituents.

  9. Coinage metal complexes with bridging hybrid phosphine-NHC ligands: synthesis of di- and tetra-nuclear complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simler, Thomas; Braunstein, Pierre; Danopoulos, Andreas A

    2016-03-28

    A series of P-NHC-type hybrid ligands containing both PR2 and N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) donors on meta-bis-substituted phenylene backbones, L(Cy), L(tBu) and L(Ph) (R = Cy, tBu, Ph, respectively), was accessed through a modular synthesis from a common precursor, and their coordination chemistry with coinage metals was explored and compared. Metallation of L(Ph)·n(HBr) (n = 1, 2) with Ag2O gave the pseudo-cubane [Ag4Br4(L(Ph))2], isostructural to [Ag4Br4(L(R))2] (R = Cy, tBu) (T. Simler, P. Braunstein and A. A. Danopoulos, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2015, 54, 13691), whereas metallation of ·HBF4 (R = Ph, tBu) led to the dinuclear complexes [Ag2(L(R))2](BF4)2 which, in the solid state, feature heteroleptic Ag centres and a 'head-to-tail' (HT) arrangement of the bridging ligands. In solution, interconversion with the homoleptic 'head-to-head' (HH) isomers is facilitated by ligand fluxionality. 'Head-to-tail' [Cu2Br2(L(R))2] (R = Cy, tBu) dinuclear complexes were obtained from L(R)·HBr and [Cu5(Mes)5], Mes = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl, which also feature bridging ligands and heteroleptic Cu centres. Although the various ligands L(R)l ed to structurally analogous complexes for R = Cy, tBu and Ph, the rates of dynamic processes occurring in solution are dependent on R, with faster rates for R = Ph. Transmetallation of both NHC and P donor groups from [Ag4Br4(L(tBu))2] to AuI by reaction with [AuCl(THT)] (THT = tetrahydrothiophene) led to L(tBu) transfer and to the dinuclear complex [Au2Cl2L(tBu)] with one L(tBu) ligand bridging the two Au centres. Except for the silver pseudo-cubanes, all other complexes do not exhibit metallophilic interactions.

  10. CO2 capture in ionic liquid 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate: a concerted mechanism without carbene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fangyong; Dhumal, Nilesh R; Kim, Hyung J

    2017-01-04

    Ionic liquids (ILs) provide a promising medium for CO2 capture. Recently, the family of ILs comprising imidazolium-based cations and acetate anions, such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMI(+)OAc(-)), has been found to react with CO2 and form carboxylate compounds. N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC) is widely assumed to be responsible by directly reacting with CO2 though NHC has not been detected in these ILs. Herein, a computational analysis of CO2 capture in EMI(+)OAc(-) is presented. Quantum chemistry calculations predict that NHC is unstable in a polar environment, suggesting that NHC is not formed in EMI(+)OAc(-). Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations indicate that an EMI(+) ion "activated" by the approach of a CO2 molecule can donate its acidic proton to a neighboring OAc(-) anion and form a carboxylate compound with the CO2 molecule. Analysis of this termolecular process indicates that the EMI(+)-to-OAc(-) proton transfer and the formation of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-2-carboxylate occur essentially concurrently. Based on these findings, a novel concerted mechanism that does not involve NHC is proposed for CO2 capture.

  11. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of A Novel Cd(II) Coordination Polymer with Bis-imidazole Ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yong Hong [Huaibei Normal Univ., Huaibei (China)

    2013-04-15

    The key to the successful design of metal-organic coordination polymers is the judicious selection of organic ligand. Recently, polydentate aromatic nitrogen heterocyclic ligands with five-membered rings have been well-studied in the construction of supramolecular structure for their N-coordinated sites apt to coordinating to transition metals. Similar to six-membered N-heterocyclic ligands, the azole-based five-membered N-heterocyclic ligands, such as imidazoles, triazoles and tetrazoles have been extensively employed in the construction of various coordination polymers with diverse topologies and interesting properties. The bis(azole) ligands in which N-donor azole rings (imidazole, triazole, or tetrazole) are separated by alkyl, (CH{sub 2}){sub n}, spacers are good choices for flexible bridging ligands. The conformational flexibility of the spacers makes the ligands adaptable to various coordination networks with one-, two-, and three dimensional structures.

  12. Assessing the ligand properties of 1,3-dimesitylbenzimidazol-2-ylidene in ruthenium-catalyzed olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borguet, Yannick; Zaragoza, Guillermo; Demonceau, Albert; Delaude, Lionel

    2013-05-28

    The deprotonation of 1,3-dimesitylbenzimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with a strong base afforded 1,3-dimesitylbenzimidazol-2-ylidene (BMes), which was further reacted in situ with rhodium or ruthenium complexes to afford three new organometallic products. The compounds [RhCl(COD)(BMes)] (COD is 1,5-cyclooctadiene) and cis-[RhCl(CO)2(BMes)] were used to probe the steric and electronic parameters of BMes. Comparison of the percentage of buried volume (%V(Bur)) and of the Tolman electronic parameter (TEP) of BMes with those determined previously for 1,3-dimesitylimidazol-2-ylidene (IMes) and 1,3-dimesitylimidazolin-2-ylidene (SIMes) revealed that the three N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) had very similar profiles. Nonetheless, changes in the hydrocarbon backbone subtly affected the stereoelectronic properties of these ligands. Accordingly, the corresponding [RuCl2(PCy3)(NHC)(=CHPh)] complexes displayed different catalytic behaviors in the ring-closing metathesis (RCM) of α,ω-dienes. In the benchmark cyclization of diethyl 2,2-diallylmalonate, the new [RuCl2(PCy3)(BMes)(=CHPh)] compound (1d) performed slightly better than the Grubbs second-generation catalyst (1a), which was in turn significantly more active than the related [RuCl2(PCy3)(IMes)(=CHPh)] initiator (1b). For the formation of a model trisubstituted cycloolefin, complex 1d ranked in-between catalyst precursors 1a and 1b, whereas in the RCM of tetrasubstituted cycloalkenes it lost its catalytic efficiency much more rapidly.

  13. Convenient Synthesis of Multi-dentate P,N-Ligand by HCl Elimination of N-Hetrocycle with Organophosphine Reagent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Qing-Shan; WAN,Chong-Qing; XU,Feng-Bo; ZHANG,Zheng-Zhi

    2004-01-01

    @@ The multi-dentate ligands and their complexes have attracted more and more interests in supramolecular chemistry and catalysis.[1,2] Recently, we found a convenient and efficient method to synthesize this kind of P,N-ligands. The C-Hor C-Cl bond in N-heterocycle was activated in presence of corresponding organophospine reagent and the HCl elimination was fluent, giving the multi-dentate P,N-ligands.

  14. Rh-Catalyzed rearrangement of vinylcyclopropane to 1,3-diene units attached to N-heterocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Brandi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dienes embedded in quinolizidine and indolizidine structures can be prepared in four steps from cyclic nitrones and bicyclopropylidene. The key intermediates α-spirocyclopropanated N-heterocyclic ketones, generated via a domino 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition/thermal rearrangement sequence, were converted by Wittig methylenation to the corresponding vinylcyclopropanes (VCPs, which underwent rearrangement to 1,3-dienes in the presence of the Wilkinson Rh(I complex under microwave heating. The previously unexplored Rh(I-catalyzed opening of the VCP moiety embedded in an azapolycyclic system occurs at high temperature (110–130 °C to afford the corresponding 1,3-dienes in moderate yield (34–53%.

  15. Ring opening of donor-acceptor cyclopropanes with the azide ion: a tool for construction of N-heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Konstantin L; Villemson, Elena V; Budynina, Ekaterina M; Ivanova, Olga A; Trushkov, Igor V; Melnikov, Mikhail Ya

    2015-03-23

    A general method for ring opening of various donor-acceptor cyclopropanes with the azide ion through an SN 2-like reaction has been developed. This highly regioselective and stereospecific process proceeds through nucleophilic attack on the more-substituted C2 atom of a cyclopropane with complete inversion of configuration at this center. Results of DFT calculations support the SN 2 mechanism and demonstrate good qualitative correlation between the relative experimental reactivity of cyclopropanes and the calculated energy barriers. The reaction provides a straightforward approach to a variety of polyfunctional azides in up to 91 % yield. The high synthetic utility of these azides and the possibilities of their involvement in diversity-oriented synthesis were demonstrated by the developed multipath strategy of their transformations into five-, six-, and seven-membered N-heterocycles, as well as complex annulated compounds, including natural products and medicines such as (-)-nicotine and atorvastatin.

  16. Properties and reactions of manganese methylene complexes in the gas phase. The importance of strong metal: carbene bonds for effective olefin metathesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, A.E.; Beauchamp, J.L.

    1979-10-10

    In this communication the formation, properties and reactions of the gas phase carbenes MnCH/sub 2//sup +/, (CO)/sub 5/MnCH/sub 2//sup +/, and (CO)/sub 4/MnCH/sub 2//sup +/ are described. Reported results include observation of metathesis and abstraction reactions of the methylene ligand with olefins and the first experimental determination of metal-carbene bond dissociation energies. Important points are that: (a) metal-methylene bond energies are extremely strong; and (b) the Mn/sup +/-methylene bond energy is decreased substantially on addition of five carbonyls to the metal center. If the metal-carbene bond energy exceeds 100 kcal/mol, then transfer of the carbene to an olefin to give a cyclopropane or new olefin will be endothermic and thus will not compete with the metathesis reaction. In order to avoid low turnover numbers resulting from consumption of carbene intermediates, strong metal-carbene bonds are a desirable feature of practical metathesis catalysts. (DP)

  17. Interaction of cyclohexadienone carbene with piperylene oligomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorotnikov, A.P.; Dauydou, E.Y.; Toptygin, D.Y.

    1985-12-10

    The authors report on an investigation of the mechanism of conversion, in a PO matrix, of cyclohexadienone carbene C/sub 6/H/sub 4/O (CHC), obtained by photodecomposition of p-benzoquinonediazide (QDA). In the ground triplet state, one unpaired electron of CHC is localized in the o-orbital, and the other is delocalized through the ..pi..-orbital of the ring. Thus, the electronic structure of this carbene is similar to those of phenyl and phenoxyl radicals. A tunneling mechanism of H atom transfer has been proposed in the reaction of the carbene with the matrix. Estimates of the height and width of the potential barrier of the reaction are given.

  18. The Stabilizing Effects in Gold Carbene Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes Dos Santos Comprido, Laura; Klein, Johannes E M N; Knizia, Gerald; Kästner, Johannes; Hashmi, A Stephen K

    2015-08-24

    Bonding and stabilizing effects in gold carbene complexes are investigated by using Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) and the intrinsic bond orbital (IBO) approach. The π-stabilizing effects of organic substituents at the carbene carbon atom coordinated to the gold atom are evaluated for a series of recently isolated and characterized complexes, as well as intermediates of prototypical 1,6-enyne cyclization reactions. The results indicate that these effects are of particular importance for gold complexes especially because of the low π-backbonding contribution from the gold atom.

  19. Studies of coal structure using carbene chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The object of this grant was to react coal, derivatized forms of coal, and solvent swelled coal with carbenes (divalent carbon species) under mild conditions. These carbenes were to be prepared by treating the coal with several diazo compounds and then thermally decomposing them at relatively low temperatures (80--130{degree}C). The carbenes were to be chosen to show varying selectively toward aromatic rings containing heteroatom functionalities and toward polynuclear aromatic systems. In some instances, where selectivities toward aromatic and heteroaromatic ring systems were not known, model studies were to be carried out. Because of the generally mild conditions employed and the good selectivity anticipated, and actually observed with one particular system, it was expected that this methodology would provide structural information about the coal, along with data on the extent of occurrence and type of aromatic systems. After carbene reactions, treatment of the coal samples was to include extractions and thermolysis. Physical studies included thermogravimetric analysis, diffuse reflectance FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) spectroscopy, gas chromatography, GC/MS and GC/FT-IR. 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Regiospecific Photocyclization of Mono- and Bis-Styryl-Substituted N-Heterocycles: A Synthesis of DNA-Binding Benzo[c]quinolizinium Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyeu, Tseimur M; Berdnikova, Daria V; Fedorova, Olga A; Gulakova, Elena N; Stremmel, Christopher; Ihmels, Heiko

    2016-10-07

    Regiospecific C-N photocyclization of mono- and bis-styryl-substituted N-heterocycles was investigated. We demonstrated that the C-N regiospecificity of the photoinduced electrocyclization is a general feature of ortho-styryl-substituted N-heterocycles comprising one and two nitrogen atoms. This phototransformation provides a straightforward synthesis of the pharmaceutically important benzo[c]quinolizinium cation and its aza-analogues. Noticeably, bis-styryl derivatives undergo only one-fold cyclization with the second styryl fragment remaining uninvolved in the cyclization process. Photocyclization products of monostyryl derivativatives intercalate into calf thymus DNA (ct DNA), whereas photocyclization products of bis-styryl derivativatives possess a mixed binding mechanism with ct DNA. The results can be used for development of novel DNA-targeting chemotherapeutics based on benzo[c]quinolizinium derivatives.

  1. Interfacial charge separation and photovoltaic efficiency in Fe(ii)-carbene sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Mariachiara; Duchanois, Thibaut; Liu, Li; Monari, Antonio; Assfeld, Xavier; Haacke, Stefan; Gros, Philippe C

    2016-10-12

    The first combined theoretical and photovoltaic characterization of both homoleptic and heteroleptic Fe(ii)-carbene sensitized photoanodes in working dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been performed. Three new heteroleptic Fe(ii)-NHC dye sensitizers have been synthesized, characterized and tested. Despite an improved interfacial charge separation in comparison to the homoleptic compounds, the heteroleptic complexes did not show boosted photovoltaic performances. The ab initio quantitative analysis of the interfacial electron and hole transfers and the measured photovoltaic data clearly evidenced fast recombination reactions for heteroleptics, even associated with un unfavorable directional electron flow, and hence slower injection rates, in the case of homoleptics. Notably, quantum mechanics calculations revealed that deprotonation of the not anchored carboxylic function in the homoleptic complex can effectively accelerate the electron injection rate and completely suppress the electron recombination to the oxidized dye. This result suggests that introduction of strong electron-donating substituents on the not-anchored carbene ligand in heteroleptic complexes, in such a way of mimicking the electronic effects of the carboxylate functionality, should yield markedly improved interfacial charge generation properties. The present results, providing for the first time a detailed understanding of the interfacial electron transfers and photovoltaic characterization in Fe(ii)-carbene sensitized solar cells, open the way to a rational molecular engineering of efficient iron-based dyes for photoelectrochemical applications.

  2. Pyrrole PMOs, incorporating new N-heterocyclic compounds on an ethene-PMO through Diels–Alder reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel, Dolores; De Canck, Els [Center for Ordered Materials, Organometallics and Catalysis, Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César [Department of Organic Chemistry, Nanochemistry and Fine Chemistry Research Institute (IUIQFN), Faculty of Sciences, University of Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Marie Curie Building, Ctra. Nnal. IV, km 396, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); Romero-Salguero, Francisco J., E-mail: qo2rosaf@uco.es [Department of Organic Chemistry, Nanochemistry and Fine Chemistry Research Institute (IUIQFN), Faculty of Sciences, University of Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Marie Curie Building, Ctra. Nnal. IV, km 396, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); Van Der Voort, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.vandervoort@ugent.be [Center for Ordered Materials, Organometallics and Catalysis, Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-11-14

    The ethenylene bridges on the walls of an ethenylene-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilica were successfully modified with a variety of pyrrole derivatives – pyrrole, methylpyrrole, dimethylpyrrole, trimethylpyrrole and 1-phenylpyrrole – through Diels–Alder reactions. X-ray diffraction measurements and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption analysis confirmed the preservation of the ordering and mesoporosity of the parent material as well as the decoration of the pores with the surface Diels–Alder adducts. Moreover, other techniques such as DRIFT, {sup 13}C and {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonances revealed the formation of the surface N-heterocyclic compounds at the parent ethenylene sites. - Highlights: • Chemical modification of the double bonds on an ethene-PMO through the Diels–Alder reaction. • A family of pyrrole derivatives act as dienes in the Diels–Alder reaction. • Well-ordering and mesoporosity are retained after the post-functionalization. • N-containing compounds on the surface of ethene-PMO are present after the Diels–Alder reaction.

  3. Blue-emitting dinuclear N-heterocyclic dicarbene gold(I) complex featuring a nearly unit quantum yield

    KAUST Repository

    Baron, Marco

    2012-02-06

    Dinuclear N-heterocyclic dicarbene gold(I) complexes of general formula [Au 2(RIm-Y-ImR) 2](PF 6) 2 (R = Me, Cy; Y = (CH 2) 1-4, o-xylylene, m-xylylene) have been synthesized and screened for their luminescence properties. All the complexes are weakly emissive in solution whereas in the solid state some of them show significant luminescence intensities. In particular, crystals or powders of the complex with R = Me, Y = (CH 2) 3 exhibit an intense blue emission (λ max = 450 nm) with a high quantum yield (Φ em = 0.96). The X-ray crystal structure of this complex is characterized by a rather short intramolecular Au•••Au distance (3.272 Ǻ). Time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been used to calculate the UV/vis properties of the ground state as well as of the first excited state of the complex, the latter featuring a significantly shorter Au•••Au distance. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. Effects of halogenated aromatics/aliphatics and nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics on estimating the persistence of future pharmaceutical compounds using a modified QSAR model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung Joo; Fox, Peter

    2014-02-01

    The effects of halogenated aromatics/aliphatics and nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics on estimating the persistence of future pharmaceutical compounds were investigated using a modified half life equation. The potential future pharmaceutical compounds investigated were approximately 2000 pharmaceutical drugs currently undergoing the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) testing. EPI Suite (BIOWIN) model estimates the fates of compounds based on the biodegradability under aerobic conditions. While BIOWIN considered the biodegradability of a compound only, the half life equation used in this study was modified by biodegradability, sorption and cometabolic oxidation. It was possible that the potential future pharmaceutical compounds were more accurately estimated using the modified half life equation. The modified half life equation considered sorption and cometabolic oxidation of halogenated aromatic/aliphatics and nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics in the sub-surface, while EPI Suite (BIOWIN) did not. Halogenated aliphatics in chemicals were more persistent than halogenated aromatics in the sub-surface. In addition, in the sub-surface environment, the fates of organic chemicals were much more affected by halogenation in chemicals than by nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics.

  5. Ruthenium catalysts bearing a benzimidazolylidene ligand for the metathetical ring-closure of tetrasubstituted cycloolefins

    KAUST Repository

    Borguet, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Deprotonation of 1,3-di(2-tolyl)benzimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with a strong base afforded 1,3-di(2-tolyl)benzimidazol-2-ylidene (BTol), which dimerized progressively into the corresponding dibenzotetraazafulvalene. The complexes [RhCl(COD)(BTol)] (COD is 1,5-cyclooctadiene) and cis-[RhCl(CO)2(BTol)] were synthesized to probe the steric and electronic parameters of BTol. Comparison of the percentage of buried volume (%VBur) and of the Tolman electronic parameter (TEP) of BTol with those determined previously for 1,3-dimesitylbenzimidazol-2-ylidene (BMes) revealed that the two N-heterocyclic carbenes displayed similar electron donicities, yet the 2-tolyl substituents took a slightly greater share of the rhodium coordination sphere than the mesityl groups, due to a more pronounced tilt. The anti,anti conformation adopted by BTol in the molecular structure of [RhCl(COD)(BTol)] ensured nonetheless a remarkably unhindered access to the metal center, as evidenced by steric maps. Second-generation ruthenium-benzylidene and isopropoxybenzylidene complexes featuring the BTol ligand were obtained via phosphine exchange from the first generation Grubbs and Hoveyda-Grubbs catalysts, respectively. The atropisomerism of the 2-tolyl substituents within [RuCl2(=CHPh)(PCy3)(BTol)] was investigated by using variable temperature NMR spectroscopy, and the molecular structures of all four possible rotamers of [RuCl2(=CH-o-OiPrC6H4)(BTol)] were determined by X-ray crystallography. Both complexes were highly active at promoting the ring-closing metathesis (RCM) of model α,ω-dienes. The replacement of BMes with BTol was particularly beneficial to achieve the ring-closure of tetrasubstituted cycloalkenes. More specifically, the stable isopropoxybenzylidene chelate enabled an almost quantitative RCM of two challenging substrates, viz., diethyl 2,2-bis(2-methylallyl

  6. Chemistry of Stable Carbenes and «Green» Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh, N.I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Brief analysis of fundamental research in the chemistry of stable carbenes and applications in the field of «green» chemistry on their basis carried out at the L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical Organic & Coal Chemistry of NAS of Ukraine over the last decade is given. Carbene versions of ester Claisen condensation to form zwitterionic compounds, the Leuckart-Wallach reaction with the autoreduction of carbenoid azolium salts, Hofmann cleavage of aminocarbene insertion products, an induced tandem autotransformation of 1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidenes into 5-amidino-1,2,4-triazoles were found. New carbene reactions of ad dition, deesterification, oxidation and complexation were revealed. Effective methods of obtaining stable carbenes and carbenoids were suggested. New types of carbenes, namely benzimidazolylidenes, superstable conjugated biscarbenes and new types of carbenoids were synthesized. The existence of hypernucleophilic carbenes was theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed. The prospects of the use of carbenes and their derivatives, in particular, carbene complexes of transition metals in catalysis of organic reactions and the search of biologically active compounds were shown.

  7. Cis/trans Coordination in olefin metathesis by static and molecular dynamic DFT calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert

    2014-05-25

    In regard to [(N-heterocyclic carbene)Ru]-based catalysts, it is still a matter of debate if the substrate binding is preferentially cis or trans to the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand. By means of static and molecular dynamic DFT calculations, a simple olefin, like ethylene, is shown to be prone to the trans binding. Bearing in mind the higher reactivity of trans isomers in olefin metathesis, this insight helps to construct small alkene substrates with increased reactivity. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  8. Chromophores and Materials for Temporal and Frequency Agile Non-Linear Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-31

    S. Synthesis and Photophyscial Properties of Trans-Platinum Acetylide Complexes Featuring N- Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands. Dalton Transactions 2014...Effects on Two-Photon Absorbing Platinum Acetylides. submitted to Inorganic Chemistry . (7) Shelton, A. H.; Price, R. S.; Brokmann, L.; Dettlaff, B

  9. High-Efficiency Iron Photosensitizer Explained with Quantum Wavepacket Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pápai, Mátyás Imre; Vankó, György; Rozgonyi, Tamas;

    2016-01-01

    Fe(II) complexes have long been assumed unsuitable as photosensitizers because of their low-lying nonemissive metal centered (MC) states, which inhibit electron transfer. Herein, we describe the excited-state relaxation of a novel Fe(II) complex that incorporates N-heterocyclic carbene ligands de...

  10. Copper-Catalyzed SN2'-Selective Allylic Substitution Reaction of gem-Diborylalkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Qi; Zhang, Ben; Lu, Xi; Liu, Jing-Hui; Lu, Xiao-Yu; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao

    2016-03-04

    A Cu/(NHC)-catalyzed SN2'-selective substitution reaction of allylic electrophiles with gem-diborylalkanes is reported. Different substituted gem-diborylalkanes and allylic electrophiles can be employed in this reaction, and various synthetic valuable functional groups can be tolerated. The asymmetric version of this reaction was initially researched with chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands.

  11. NHC Backbone Configuration in Ruthenium-Catalyzed Olefin Metathesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Paradiso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic properties of olefin metathesis ruthenium complexes bearing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands with stereogenic centers on the backbone are described. Differences in catalytic behavior depending on the backbone configurations of symmetrical and unsymmetrical NHCs are discussed. In addition, an overview on asymmetric olefin metathesis promoted by chiral catalysts bearing C2-symmetric and C1-symmetric NHCs is provided.

  12. NHC Backbone Configuration in Ruthenium-Catalyzed Olefin Metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Veronica; Costabile, Chiara; Grisi, Fabia

    2016-01-20

    The catalytic properties of olefin metathesis ruthenium complexes bearing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands with stereogenic centers on the backbone are described. Differences in catalytic behavior depending on the backbone configurations of symmetrical and unsymmetrical NHCs are discussed. In addition, an overview on asymmetric olefin metathesis promoted by chiral catalysts bearing C₂-symmetric and C₁-symmetric NHCs is provided.

  13. The Use of Tertiary Alkylmagnesium Nucleophiles in Ni-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi-Pangu, Amruta; Biscoe, Mark R

    2012-05-14

    Nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of unactivated tertiary alkyl nucleophiles and aryl bromides have been developed using N-heterocyclic carbene ligands. These processes are reviewed alongside earlier attempts to employ unactivated tertiary alkyl nucleophiles in cross-coupling reactions. Potential mechanisms for the transformations, and future challenges in this field are discussed.

  14. Gold(I) NHC-based homo- and heterobimetallic complexes : synthesis, characterization and evaluation as potential anticancer agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, Benoit; Citta, Anna; Franken, Inge L.; Picquet, Michel; Folda, Alessandra; Scalcon, Valeria; Rigobello, Maria Pia; Le Gendre, Pierre; Casini, Angela; Bodio, Ewen

    2015-01-01

    While N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) are ubiquitous ligands in catalysis for organic or industrial syntheses, their potential to form transition metal complexes for medicinal applications has still to be exploited. Within this frame, we synthesized new homo- and heterobimetallic complexes based on th

  15. 1,2 Migration in Carbenoid and Carbene Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ming; JIANG Nan; SHI Wei-Feng; WANG Jian-Bo

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1,2-Hydride, 1,2-alkyl and 1,2-aryl migrations are common in free carbene chemistry, and they are also fre quently encountered in the reactions of metal carbenes. In some cases, these migration reactions can compete with the typical reactions of metal carbenes, such as X-H (X = Si, C, O, N, S, etc. ) insertions and cyclopropanations. [1] The 1,2-migration also found synthetic application. An example is the SnCl2-promoted 1,2-hydride migration of α-diazo-β-hydroxy esters, known as Roskamp homologation, which leads to the formation of β-keto esters. [2

  16. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and electronic structure of some new Cu(I) carbene complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chinnappan Sivasankar; Christina Baskaran; Ashoka G Samuelson

    2006-05-01

    Reaction of oligomeric Cu(I) complexes [Cu{-S-C(=NR)(O-Ar-CH3)}] with Lewis acids gave Cu(I) carbene complexes, which were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Cu(I) carbene complexes could be directly generated from RNCS, Cu(I)-OAr and Lewis acids; this method can be used to prepare Cu(I) carbene complexes with different substitutents on the carbene carbon. The complexes were unreactive towards olefins and do not undergo cyclopropanation. Electronic structure calculations (DFT) show that the charge on the carbene carbon plays an important role in controlling the reactivity of the carbene complex.

  17. Thermal and Photolytic Transformation of NHC-B,N-Heterocycles: Controlled Generation of Blue Fluorescent 1,3-Azaborinine Derivatives and 1H-Imidazo[1,2-a]indoles by External Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sean M; Mellerup, Soren K; Peng, Jinbao; Yang, Dengtao; Li, Quan-Song; Wang, Suning

    2015-09-28

    NHC-B,N-heterocyclic compounds have been found to act as convenient precursors for obtaining either 1,3-azaborinine or 1H-imidazo[1,2-a]indole derivatives, which are two different and rare classes of compounds. The formation of these two classes of compounds from the NHC-B,N-heterocycles is highly selective depending on the external stimuli employed, and the resulting products have been studied for their interesting chemical and photophysical properties. The mechanism and possible reaction pathways of the unusual transformation are established by computational studies.

  18. Enantiocontrol in Macrocycle Formation from Catalytic MetalCarbene Transformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOYLE, Michael P.; DOYLE, Michael P; HU, Wen-Hao(胡文浩); 胡文浩

    2001-01-01

    The development of catalytic metal carbene transformations for the construction of macrocyclic lactones has dramatically increased their synthetic advantages.This is the first review of this developing methodology.

  19. Rhodium catalysed conversion of carbenes into ketenes and ketene imines using PNN pincer complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Z.; Mandal, S.; Paul, N.D.; Lutz, M.; Li, P.; van der Vlugt, J.I.; de Bruin, B.

    2015-01-01

    Ketene synthesis involving catalytic carbonylation of carbenes is an interesting alternative to traditional synthetic protocols, offering milder conditions to diversified products. Analogous catalytic ketene imine production from carbenes and isocyanides is also a promising reaction. However, both m

  20. Iron(II) cage complexes of N-heterocyclic amide and bis(trimethylsilyl)amide ligands: synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulway, Scott A; Collison, David; McDouall, Joseph J W; Tuna, Floriana; Layfield, Richard A

    2011-03-21

    Metallation of hexahydropyrimidopyrimidine (hppH) by [Fe{N(SiMe(3))(2)}(2)] (1) produces the trimetallic iron(II) amide cage complex [{(Me(3)Si)(2)NFe}(2)(hpp)(4)Fe] (2), which contains three iron(II) centers, each of which resides in a distorted tetrahedral environment. An alternative, one-pot route that avoids use of the highly air-sensitive complex 1 is described for the synthesis of the iron(II)-lithium complex [{(Me(3)Si)(2)N}(2)Fe{Li(bta)}](2) (3) (where btaH = benzotriazole), in which both iron(II) centers reside in 3-coordinated pyramidal environments. The structure of 3 is also interpreted in terms of the ring laddering principle developed for alkali metal amides. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that both compounds display very weak antiferromagnetic exchange between the iron(II) centers, and that the iron(II) centers in 2 and 3 possess large negative axial zero-field splittings.

  1. Chelated Ruthenium Catalysts for Z-Selective Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Koji; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    We report the development of ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts with chelating N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands which catalyze highly Z-selective olefin metathesis. A very simple and convenient synthetic procedure of such a catalyst has been developed. An intramolecular C-H bond activation of the NHC ligand, which is promoted by anion ligand substitution, forms the appropriate chelate for stereo- controlled olefin metathesis. PMID:21563826

  2. Bonding, Luminescence, Metallophilicity in Linear Au3 and Au2Ag Chains Stabilized by Rigid Diphosphanyl NHC Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Pengfei; Mauro, Matteo; Gourlaouen, Christophe; Carrara, Serena; De Cola, Luisa; Tobon, Yeny; Giovanella, Umberto; Botta, Chiara; Danopoulos, Andreas A; Braunstein, Pierre

    2016-09-06

    The heterofunctional and rigid ligand N,N'-diphosphanyl-imidazol-2-ylidene (PCNHCP; P = P(t-Bu)2), through its phosphorus and two N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) donors, stabilizes trinuclear chain complexes, with either Au3 or AgAu2 cores, and dinuclear Au2 complexes. The two oppositely situated PCNHCP (L) ligands that "sandwich" the metal chain can support linear and rigid structures, as found in the known tricationic Au(I) complex [Au3(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 (OTf = CF3SO3; [Au3L2](OTf)3; Chem. Commun. 2014, 50, 103-105) now also obtained by transmetalation from [Ag3(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 ([Ag3L2](OTf)3), or in the mixed-metal tricationic [Au2Ag(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 ([Au2AgL2](OTf)3). The latter was obtained stepwise by the addition of AgOTf to the digold(I) complex [Au2(μ2-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC)2](OTf)2 ([Au2L2](OTf)2). The latter contains two dangling P donors and displays fluxional behavior in solution, and the Au···Au separation of 2.8320(6) Å in the solid state is consistent with metallophilic interactions. In the solvento complex [Au3Cl2(tht)(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)](OTf)·MeCN ([Au3Cl2(tht)L](OTf)·MeCN), which contains only one L and one tht ligand (tht = tetrahydrothiophene), the metal chain is bent (148.94(2)°), and the longer Au···Au separation (2.9710(4) Å) is in line with relaxation of the rigidity due to a more "open" structure. Similar features were observed in [Au3Cl2(SMe2)L](OTf)·2MeCN. A detailed study of the emission properties of [Au3L2](OTf)3, [Au3Cl2(tht)L](OTf)·MeCN, [Au2L2](OTf)2, and [Au2AgL2](OTf)3 was performed by means of steady state and time-resolved photophysical techniques. The complex [Au3L2](OTf)3 displays a bright (photoluminescence quantum yield = 80%) and narrow emission band centered at 446 nm with a relatively small Stokes' shift and long-lived excited-state lifetime on the microsecond timescale, both in solution and in the solid state. In line with the very narrow emission

  3. Supramolecular assemblies of tetrafluoroterephthalic acid and N-heterocycles via various strong hydrogen bonds and weak Csbnd H⋯F interactions: Synthons cooperation, robust motifs and structural diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanjing; Hu, Hanbin; Li, Yingying; Chen, Ruixin; Yang, Yu; Wang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    A series of organic solid states including three salts, two co-crystals, and three hydrates based on tetrafluoroterephthalic acid (H2tfBDC) and N-bearing ligands (2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidine dione (PID), 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methyl pyrimidine (DHMPI), 2-amino-4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine (ADMPI), 2-amino-4,6-dimenthoxy pyrimidine (ADMOPI), 5,6-dimenthyl benzimidazole (DMBI), 2-aminobenzimidazole (ABI), 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole (DMP), and 3-cyanopyridine (3-CNpy)), namely, [(PID)2·(H2tfBDC)] (1), [(DHMPI)2·(H2tfBDC)] (2), [(H-ADMPI+)2·(tfBDC2-)·2(H2O)] (3), [(H-ADMOPI+)2·(tfBDC2-)·(H2O)] (4), [(H-DMBI+)2·(tfBDC2-)·2(H2O)] (5), [(H-ABI+)2·(tfBDC2-)] (6), [(H-DMP+)·(HtfBDC-)] (7), and [(H-3-CNpy+)·(HtfBDC-)] (8), were synthesized by solvent evaporation method. Crystal structures analyses show that the F atom of the H2tfBDC participates in multiple Csbnd H⋯F hydrogen bond formations, producing different supramolecular synthons. The weak hydrogen bonding Csbnd H⋯F and Nsbnd H⋯F play an important part in constructing the diversity structures 2-8, except in crystal 1. In complexes 1-3, they present the same synthon R22(8) with different N-heterocyclic compounds, which may show the strategy in constructing the supramolecular. Meanwhile, the complex 3 exhibits a 2D layer, and the independent molecules of water exist in the adjacent layers. In complexes 4 and 5, the water molecules connect the neighboring layers to form 3D network by strong Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding. These crystals 1-8 were fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography, elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  4. The inverse-trans-influence in tetravalent lanthanide and actinide bis(carbene) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; Mills, David P.; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Hennig, Christoph; Scheinost, Andreas C.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Kerridge, Andrew; Liddle, Stephen T.

    2017-02-01

    Across the periodic table the trans-influence operates, whereby tightly bonded ligands selectively lengthen mutually trans metal-ligand bonds. Conversely, in high oxidation state actinide complexes the inverse-trans-influence operates, where normally cis strongly donating ligands instead reside trans and actually reinforce each other. However, because the inverse-trans-influence is restricted to high-valent actinyls and a few uranium(V/VI) complexes, it has had limited scope in an area with few unifying rules. Here we report tetravalent cerium, uranium and thorium bis(carbene) complexes with trans C=M=C cores where experimental and theoretical data suggest the presence of an inverse-trans-influence. Studies of hypothetical praseodymium(IV) and terbium(IV) analogues suggest the inverse-trans-influence may extend to these ions but it also diminishes significantly as the 4f orbitals are populated. This work suggests that the inverse-trans-influence may occur beyond high oxidation state 5f metals and hence could encompass mid-range oxidation state actinides and lanthanides. Thus, the inverse-trans-influence might be a more general f-block principle.

  5. Group 4 Transition-Metal Complexes of an Aniline–Carbene–Phenol Ligand

    KAUST Repository

    Despagnet-Ayoub, Emmanuelle

    2013-05-24

    Attempts to install a tridentate aniline-NHC-phenol (NCO) ligand on titanium and zirconium led instead to complexes resulting from unexpected rearrangement pathways that illustrate common behavior in carbene-early- transition-metal chemistry. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  6. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-03-12

    Determination of bond dissociation energies and heats of formation of hydrocarbon radicals and carbenes requires knowledge of their structures, but this is not provided by standard mass spectrometric studies; what is needed is high-resolution spectroscopy, often best achieved at centimeter and millimeter wavelengths. Nearly 60 reactive organic molecules were investigated in the period from 1988--1998.

  7. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlieb, C.A.; Thaddeus, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Highly reactive carbenes and carbon-chain radicals are studied at millimeter wavelengths by observing their rotational spectra. The purpose is to provide definitive spectroscopic identification, accurate spectroscopic constants in the lowest vibrational states, and reliable structures of the key intermediates in reactions leading to aromatic hydrocarbons and soot particles in combustion.

  8. An Efficient Synthesis of [1,2,4]Triazolo[3,2-d][1,5]benzoxazepin-2-thiones,a Kind of Novel Tricyclic O,N-Heterocycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI, Zheng(李诤); MENG, Qing-Qing(孟青青); WANG, Quan-Rui(王全瑞); TAO, Feng-Gang(陶凤岗)

    2004-01-01

    A series of novel tricyclic O,N-heterocycles, [1,2,4]triazolo[3,2-d][1,5]benzoxazepin-2-thiones 7 were achieved via acid-induced ring closure of the geminal arylazo isothiocyanate compounds 5 which were derived from substituted chroman-4-ones, followed by feasible ring expansion with simultaneous insertion of the nitrogen atom into the carbon skeleton. The X-ray crystal structure of 7d was also described.

  9. Adsorbed States of phosphonate derivatives of N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds, imidazole, thiazole, and pyridine on colloidal silver: comparison with a silver electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podstawka, Edyta; Olszewski, Tomasz K; Boduszek, Bogdan; Proniewicz, Leonard M

    2009-09-03

    Here, we report a systematic surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) study of the structures of phosphonate derivatives of the N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds imidazole (ImMeP ([hydroxy(1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]phosphonic acid) and (ImMe)(2)P (bis[hydroxy-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)-methyl]phosphinic acid)), thiazole (BAThMeP (butylaminothiazol-2-yl-methyl)phosphonic acid) and BzAThMeP (benzylaminothiazol-2-yl-methyl)phosphonic acid)), and pyridine ((PyMe)(2)P (bis[(hydroxypyridin-3-yl-methyl)]phosphinic acid)) adsorbed on nanometer-sized colloidal particles. We compared these structures to those on a roughened silver electrode surface to determine the relationship between the adsorption strength and the geometry. For example, we showed that all of these biomolecules interact with the colloidal surface through aromatic rings. However, for BzAThMeP, a preferential interaction between the benzene ring and the colloidal silver surface is observed more so than that between the thiazole ring and this substrate. The PC(OH)C fragment does not take part in the adsorption process, and the phosphonate moiety of ImMeP and (ImMe)(2)P, being removed from the surface, only assists in this process.

  10. Unusual NHC-Iridium(I) Complexes and Their Use in the Intramolecular Hydroamination of Unactivated Aminoalkenes

    KAUST Repository

    Sipos, Gellért

    2016-04-10

    N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands with naphthyl side chains were employed for the synthesis of unsaturated, yet isolable [(NHC)Ir(cod)]+ (cod=1,5-cyclooctadiene) complexes. These compounds are stabilised by an interaction of the aromatic wingtip that leads to a sideways tilt of the NHC-Ir bond. Detailed studies show how the tilting of such N-heterocyclic carbenes affects the electronic shielding properties of the carbene carbon atom and how this is reflected by significant upfield shifts in the 13CNMR signals. When employed in the intramolecular hydroamination, these [(NHC)Ir(cod)]+ species show very high catalytic activity under mild reaction conditions. An enantiopure version of the catalyst system produces pyrrolidines with excellent enantioselectivities. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Chiral PEPPSI Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization, and Application in Asymmetric Suzuki–Miyaura Coupling Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Benhamou, Laure

    2014-01-13

    PEPPSI complexes incorporating chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands based on 2,2-dimethyl-1-(o-substituted aryl)propan-1-amines were synthesized. Two complexes, with one saturated and one unsaturated NHC ligand, were structurally characterized. The chiral PEPPSI complexes were used in asymmetric Suzuki-Miyaura reactions, giving atropisomeric biaryl products in modest to good enantiomeric ratios. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. Synthesis of 3-fluoro-3-aryl oxindoles: Direct enantioselective α arylation of amides

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Linglin

    2012-02-06

    Modus operandi: Catalytic access to the title compounds through a new asymmetric α-arylation protocol is reported (see scheme). These products are formed in good yields and excellent enantioselectivities by using a new and easily synthesized chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand. Advanced DFT calculations reveal the properties of the NHC ligand and the mode of operation of the catalyst. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Arrested α-hydride migration activates a phosphido ligand for C–H insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, Anne K. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Muñoz, Salvador B. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Lutz, Sean A. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Pink, Maren [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Chen, Chun-Hsing [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Smith, Jeremy M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2016-12-05

    Bulky tris(carbene)borate ligands provide access to high spin iron(II) phosphido complexes. The complex PhB(MesIm)3FeP(H)Ph is thermally unstable, and we observed [PPh] group insertion into a C–H bond of the supporting ligand. An arrested α-hydride migration mechanism suggests increased nucleophilicity of the phosphorus atom facilitates [PPh] group transfer reactivity.

  14. Microwave-assisted syntheses of N-heterocycles using alkenone-, alkynone- and aryl-carbonyl O-phenyl oximes: formal synthesis of neocryptolepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela-Cubillo, Fernando; Scott, Jackie S; Walton, John C

    2008-07-18

    This research aimed to provide a new and "clean" synthetic method that would enable both known and novel N-heterocycles to be prepared efficiently. O-Phenyl oximes were found to be excellent precursors for iminyl radicals with a variety of acceptor side chains. Dihyropyrroles were made in good yields from O-phenyl oximes containing pent-4-ene acceptors. The analogous process with a hex-5-enyl acceptor did not yield a dihydropyridine, probably because the 6-exo-trig ring closure of the iminyl radical was too slow to compete with H-atom abstraction. The iminyl radical from a precursor with a pent-4-yne type side chain underwent ring closure followed by rearrangement to afford a pyrrole derivative. Suitably substituted iminyl radicals ring closed readily onto aromatic acceptors, thus enabling several polycyclic systems to be accessed. Quinolines were made from 3-phenylpropanones via their O-phenyl oximes. Syntheses of phenanthridines starting from 2-formylbiphenyls were particularly efficient, and this approach enabled the natural product trisphaeridine to be made. Starting from 2-phenylnicotinaldehyde derivatives, ring closures of the derived iminyl radicals onto the phenyl rings yielded benzo[h][1,6]naphthyridines. Similarly, ring closure onto a phenyl ring from a benzothiophene-based iminyl yielded a benzo[b]thieno[2,3-c]quinoline. By way of contrast, iminyl radical ring closure onto pyridine rings was not observed. However, iminyl radicals did cyclize onto indoles, enabling indolopyridines to be prepared. The latter route was exploited in a short formal synthesis of neocryptolepine starting from 2-((1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)cyclohexanone.

  15. Dinuclear thiazolylidene copper complex as highly active catalyst for azid–alkyne cycloadditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffler, Anne L; Makarem, Ata; Rominger, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Summary A dinuclear N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) copper complex efficiently catalyzes azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) “click” reactions. The ancillary ligand comprises two 4,5-dimethyl-1,3-thiazol-2-ylidene units and an ethylene linker. The three-step preparation of the complex from commercially available starting compounds is more straightforward and cost-efficient than that of the previously described 1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene derivatives. Kinetic experiments revealed its high catalytic CuAAC activity in organic solvents at room temperature. The activity increases upon addition of acetic acid, particularly for more acidic alkyne substrates. The modular catalyst design renders possible the exchange of N-heterocyclic carbene, linker, sacrificial ligand, and counter ion. PMID:27559407

  16. The reactivity of [PhP(Se)(mu-Se)]2 and (PhP)3Se2 towards acetylenes and cyanamides: X-ray crystal structures of some P-Se-C and P-Se-C-N heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Pravat; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Woollins, J Derek

    2002-06-17

    Several unusual P-Se-C and P-Se-C-N heterocycles are formed by the reaction of [PhP(Se)(mu-Se)]2 or (PhP)3Se2 with alkynes or cyanamides, generated by the fragmentation of the organophosphorus-selenium compound and addition across the C identical to C or C identical to N triple bond of the organic substrate. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals an unexpected diversity of structural motifs within these heterocyclic systems, including P2SeCN, P2C2Se and PC2Se2 rings.

  17. Actinide metals with multiple bonds to carbon: synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of U(IV) and Th(IV) bis(iminophosphorano)methandiide pincer carbene complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guibin; Ferguson, Michael J; McDonald, Robert; Cavell, Ronald G

    2011-07-18

    Treatment of ThCl(4)(DME)(2) or UCl(4) with 1 equiv of dilithiumbis(iminophosphorano) methandiide, [Li(2)C(Ph(2)P═NSiMe(3))(2)] (1), afforded the chloro actinide carbene complexes [Cl(2)M(C(Ph(2)P═NSiMe(3))(2))] (2 (M = Th) and 3 (M = U)) in situ. Stable PCP metal-carbene complexes [Cp(2)Th(C(Ph(2)P═NSiMe(3))(2))] (4), [Cp(2)U(C(Ph(2)P═NSiMe(3))(2))] (5), [TpTh(C(Ph(2)P═NSiMe(3))(2))Cl] (6), and [TpU(C(Ph(2)P═NSiMe(3))(2))Cl] (7) were generated from 2 or 3 by further reaction with 2 equiv of thallium(I) cyclopentadienide (CpTl) in THF to yield 4 or 5 or with 1 equiv of potassium hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl) borate (TpK) also in THF to give 6 or 7, respectively. The derivative complexes were isolated, and their crystal structures were determined by X-ray diffraction. All of these U (or Th)-carbene complexes (4-7) possess a very short M (Th or U)═carbene bond with evidence for multiple bond character. Gaussian 03 DFT calculations indicate that the M═C double bond is constructed by interaction of the 5f and 6d orbitals of the actinide metal with carbene 2p orbitals of both π and σ character. Complex 3 reacted with acetonitrile or benzonitrile to cyclo-add C≡N to the U═carbon double bond, thereby forming a new C-C bond in a new chelated quadridentate ligand in the bridged dimetallic complexes (9 and 10). A single carbon-U bond is retained. The newly coordinated uranium complex dimerizes with one equivalent of unconverted 3 using two chlorides and the newly formed imine derived from the nitrile as three connecting bridges. In addition, a new crystal structure of [CpUCl(3)(THF)(2)] (8) was determined by X-ray diffraction.

  18. Synthesis, crystal, and biological activity of a novel carbene silver(I) complex with imidazole derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiu-Fu, Lu, E-mail: jiufulu@163.com; Hong-Guang, Ge; Juan, Shi [Chemical Engineering College, Shaanxi University of Technology (China)

    2015-12-15

    Reaction of 2-(1-methyl-1,2-dihydroimidazol-3-yl)acetonitrile tetrafluoroborate with silver oxide in dichloromethane readily yields [Ag(DIM){sub 2}]BF{sub 4}, where DIM is 2-(1-methyl-1, 2-dihydroimidazol-3-yl)acetonitrile, representing a carbene organic ligand. The title compound was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, MS and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal is of monoclinic system, space group C2/c with a = 14.010(18), b = 8.303(11), c = 14.936(20) Å, β = 93.910(4)°, V = 1639(4) Å{sup 3}, Z = 4, D{sub x} = 1.771 g/cm{sup 3}, F (000) = 864, µ(MoK{sub α}) = 1.278 mm{sup –1}. The final R{sup 1} = 0.0711 and wR{sup 2} = 0.1903 for reflections with I > 2σ(I). In addition, the preliminary biological test showed that the title compound had anti-fungus yeast activity.

  19. Comparing Ru and Fe-catalyzed olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poater, Albert; Chaitanya Vummaleti, Sai Vikrama; Pump, Eva; Cavallo, Luigi

    2014-08-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to explore the potential of Fe-based complexes with an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand, as olefin metathesis catalysts. Apart from a less endothermic reaction energy profile, a small reduction in the predicted upper energy barriers (≈ 2 kcal mol(-1)) is calculated in the Fe catalyzed profile with respect to the Ru catalysed profile. Overall, this study indicates that Fe-based catalysts have the potential to be very effective olefin metathesis catalysts.

  20. Fluoride, bifluoride and trifluoromethyl complexes of iridium(I) and rhodium(I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, Byron J; Nahra, Fady; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Cordes, David B; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Herein we report robust methods for the preparation and full characterisation of a range of Ir(I) and Rh(I) fluoride and bifluoride complexes using N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) as ancillary ligands. The processes that link the fluoride and the bifluoride species are investigated and reports of the first Ir-bifluoride and Ir(I)-NHC and Rh(I)-NHC trifluoromethyl complexes are revealed.

  1. Heterolysis of Dihydrogen by Silver Alkoxides and Fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Brandon K; Nguyen, Jenna T; Bacsa, John; Sadighi, Joseph P

    2015-07-01

    Alkoxide-bridged disilver cations react with dihydrogen to form hydride-bridged cations, releasing free alcohol. Hydrogenolysis of neutral silver fluorides affords hydride-bridged disilver cations as their bifluoride salts. These reactions proceed most efficiently when the supporting ligands are expanded N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) derived from 6- and 7-membered cyclic amidinium salts. Kinetics studies show that silver fluoride hydrogenolysis is first-order in both silver and dihydrogen.

  2. Highly Active Carbene Ruthenium Catalyst for Metathesis of 1-Hexene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Chen-Xi; ZHANG Zhi-Qiang; L(U) Xiao-Bing; HE Ren; ZHANG Wen-Zhen; LU Shu-Lai

    2006-01-01

    A new carbene ruthenium complex, 1,3-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene)(PPh3)Cl2-Ru=CHPh, was synthesized and used as catalyst for the metathesis of 1-hexene. The resulting complex exhibited very high catalytic activity whose TOF is up to 6680 h-1. However, at the same time significant olefin isomerization was observed and could be surpressed by changing reaction conditions, such as temperature, time, alkene/Ru molar ratio and solvent.

  3. A latent ruthenium based olefin metathesis catalyst with a sterically demanding NHC ligand

    KAUST Repository

    Leitgeb, Anita

    2012-01-01

    An olefin metathesis catalyst featuring a SIPr NHC and an ester chelating carbene ligand is introduced. In contrast to its previously published SIMes analogue, only the trans dichloro configurated isomer was obtained. The two counterparts are tested in various olefin metathesis reactions, revealing a striking superiority of the new complex in the cross metathesis of olefins with methyl vinyl ketone allowing for full conversion with only 500 ppm catalyst loading. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Gold-Catalyzed Reactions via Cyclopropyl Gold Carbene-like Intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorel, Ruth; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2015-08-07

    Cycloisomerizations of 1,n-enynes catalyzed by gold(I) proceed via electrophilic species with a highly distorted cyclopropyl gold(I) carbene-like structure, which can react with different nucleophiles to form a wide variety of products by attack at the cyclopropane or the carbene carbons. Particularly important are reactions in which the gold(I) carbene reacts with alkenes to form cyclopropanes either intra- or intermolecularly. In the absence of nucleophiles, 1,n-enynes lead to a variety of cycloisomerized products including those resulting from skeletal rearrangements. Reactions proceeding through cyclopropyl gold(I) carbene-like intermediates are ideally suited for the bioinspired synthesis of terpenoid natural products by the selective activation of the alkyne in highly functionalized enynes or polyenynes.

  5. Ionic liquid effects on Mizoroki-Heck reactions: more than just carbene complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyton, Matthew R; Cole, Marcus L; Harper, Jason B

    2011-08-28

    Reaction profiles for a Mizoroki-Heck reaction in either an ionic liquid or a molecular solvent with different palladium sources demonstrate that the rate enhancements observed in ionic liquids cannot be solely attributed to Pd-carbene complex formation.

  6. Protonolysis of a Ruthenium-Carbene Bond and Applications in Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitz, Benjamin K.; Bouffard, Jean; Bertrand, Guy; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of a ruthenium complex containing an N-heterocylic carbene (NHC) and a mesoionic carbene (MIC) is described wherein addition of a Brønsted acid results in protonolysis of the Ru-MIC bond to generate an extremely active metathesis catalyst. Mechanistic studies implicate a rate-determining protonation step to generate the metathesis active species. The NHC/MIC catalyst was found to have activity exceeding current commercial ruthenium catalysts. PMID:21574621

  7. Nitrene-carbene-carbene rearrangement. Photolysis and thermolysis of tetrazolo[5,1- a ]phthalazine with formation of 1-phthalazinylnitrene, o-cyanophenylcarbene, and phenylcyanocarbene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høj, Martin; Kvaskoff, David; Wentrup, Curt

    2014-01-01

    1-Azidophthalazine 9A is generated in trace amount by mild FVT of tetrazolo[5,1-a]phthalazine 9T and is observable by its absorption at 2121 cm-1 in the Ar matrix IR spectrum. Ar matrix photolysis of 9T/9A at 254 nm causes ring opening to generate two conformers of (o-cyanophenyl) diazomethane 11...... (2079 and 2075 cm-1), followed by (o-cyanophenyl)carbene 312, cyanocycloheptatetraene 13, and finally cyano(phenyl)carbene 314 as evaluated by IR spectroscopy. The two carbenes 312 and 314 were observed by ESR spectroscopy (D|hc = 0.5078, E|hc = 0.0236 and D|hc = 0.6488, E|hc = 0.0195 cm-1, respectively...

  8. Ab initio study of the transition-metal carbene cations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李吉海; 冯大诚; 冯圣玉

    1999-01-01

    The geometries and bonding characteristics of the first-row transition-metal carbene cations MCH2+ were investigated by ab initio molecular orbital theory (HF/LANL2DZ). All of MCH2+ are coplanar. In the closed shell structures the C bonds to M with double bonds; while in the open shell structures the partial double bonds are formed, because one of the σ and π orbitals is singly occupied. It is mainly the π-type overlap between the 2px orbital of C and 4px, 3dxz, orbitals of M+ that forms the π orbitals. The dissociation energies of C—M bond appear in periodic trend from Sc to Cu. Most of the calculated bond dissociation energies are close to the experimental ones.

  9. Copper(I Complexes of Mesoionic Carbene: Structural Characterization and Catalytic Hydrosilylation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Hohloch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two series of different Cu(I-complexes of “click” derived mesoionic carbenes are reported. Halide complexes of the type (MICCuI (with MIC = 1,4-(2,6-diisopropyl-phenyl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene (for 1b, 1-benzyl-3-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene (for 1c and cationic complexes of the general formula [Cu(MIC2]X (with MIC =1,4-dimesityl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene, X = CuI2− (for 2á, 1,4-dimesityl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene, X = BF4− (for 2a, 1,4-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene, X = BF4− (for 2b, 1-benzyl-3-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene, X = BF4− (for 2c have been prepared from CuI or [Cu(CH3CN4](BF4 and the corresponding ligands, respectively. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and standard spectroscopic methods. Complexes 2á and 1b were studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Structural analysis revealed 2á to adopt a cationic form as [Cu(MIC2](CuI2 and comparison of the NMR spectra of 2á and 2a confirmed this conformation in solution. In contrast, after crystallization complex 1b was found to adopt the desired neutral form. All complexes were tested for the reduction of cyclohexanone under hydrosilylation condition at elevated temperatures. These complexes were found to be efficient catalysts for this reaction. 2c was also found to catalyze this reaction at room temperature. Mechanistic studies have been carried out as well.

  10. Synthesis, Structure and Catalytic Activity of NHC-AgICarboxylate Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Valerie H. L.

    2016-08-03

    A general synthetic route was used to prepare 15 new N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)–AgI complexes bearing anionic carboxylate ligands [Ag(NHC)(O2CR)], including a homologous series of complexes of sterically flexible ITent ligands, which permit a systematic spectroscopic and theoretical study of the structural and electronic features of these compounds. The complexes displayed a significant ligand-accelerated effect in the intramolecular cyclisation of propargylic amides to oxazolidines. The substrate scope is highly complementary to that previously achieved by NHC–Au and pyridyl–AgI complexes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  11. 4-Amino-l,2,4-triazole Resin-supported Palladium Complex as Phosphine-free Catalyst for Suzuki Reaction in Aqueous Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiang-mei; WANG Yan; GUO Sheng-rong

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction The Suzuki cross-coupling reaction is a powerful and versatile method for the generation of unsymme-trical biaryls from arylboronic acids and aryl halides in a single step~([1-3]).However,the reaction is usually performed in the presence of Pd catalyst along with phosphine ligand,which sometimes creates practical problems because organophosphines tend to be expensive,poisonous,and air sensitive.Recently,phosphine-free ligands,such as nitrogen or sulfur-containing ligands~([4-6]) and N-heterocyclic car-benes~([7-12]) have been applied in Suzuki reaction effectively.

  12. Artificial Diels–Alderase based on the transmembrane protein FhuA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerle, Klaus; Arlt, Marcus; Himiyama, Tomoki; Polen, Tino; Onoda, Akira; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Hayashi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Summary Copper(I) and copper(II) complexes were covalently linked to an engineered variant of the transmembrane protein Ferric hydroxamate uptake protein component A (FhuA ΔCVFtev). Copper(I) was incorporated using an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand equipped with a maleimide group on the side arm at the imidazole nitrogen. Copper(II) was attached by coordination to a terpyridyl ligand. The spacer length was varied in the back of the ligand framework. These biohybrid catalysts were shown to be active in the Diels–Alder reaction of a chalcone derivative with cyclopentadiene to preferentially give the endo product. PMID:27559380

  13. Artificial Diels-Alderase based on the transmembrane protein FhuA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osseili, Hassan; Sauer, Daniel F; Beckerle, Klaus; Arlt, Marcus; Himiyama, Tomoki; Polen, Tino; Onoda, Akira; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Hayashi, Takashi; Okuda, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Copper(I) and copper(II) complexes were covalently linked to an engineered variant of the transmembrane protein Ferric hydroxamate uptake protein component A (FhuA ΔCVF(tev)). Copper(I) was incorporated using an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand equipped with a maleimide group on the side arm at the imidazole nitrogen. Copper(II) was attached by coordination to a terpyridyl ligand. The spacer length was varied in the back of the ligand framework. These biohybrid catalysts were shown to be active in the Diels-Alder reaction of a chalcone derivative with cyclopentadiene to preferentially give the endo product.

  14. Artificial Diels–Alderase based on the transmembrane protein FhuA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Osseili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper(I and copper(II complexes were covalently linked to an engineered variant of the transmembrane protein Ferric hydroxamate uptake protein component A (FhuA ΔCVFtev. Copper(I was incorporated using an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC ligand equipped with a maleimide group on the side arm at the imidazole nitrogen. Copper(II was attached by coordination to a terpyridyl ligand. The spacer length was varied in the back of the ligand framework. These biohybrid catalysts were shown to be active in the Diels–Alder reaction of a chalcone derivative with cyclopentadiene to preferentially give the endo product.

  15. Reactivity of Tp(Me2) -supported yttrium alkyl complexes toward aromatic N-heterocycles: ring-opening or C-C bond formation directed by C-H activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Weiyin; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Shujian; Weng, Linhong; Zhou, Xigeng

    2014-01-13

    Unusual chemical transformations such as three-component combination and ring-opening of N-heterocycles or formation of a carbon-carbon double bond through multiple C-H activation were observed in the reactions of Tp(Me2) -supported yttrium alkyl complexes with aromatic N-heterocycles. The scorpionate-anchored yttrium dialkyl complex [Tp(Me2) Y(CH2 Ph)2 (THF)] reacted with 1-methylimidazole in 1:2 molar ratio to give a rare hexanuclear 24-membered rare-earth metallomacrocyclic compound [Tp(Me2) Y(μ-N,C-Im)(η(2) -N,C-Im)]6 (1; Im=1-methylimidazolyl) through two kinds of C-H activations at the C2- and C5-positions of the imidazole ring. However, [Tp(Me2) Y(CH2 Ph)2 (THF)] reacted with two equivalents of 1-methylbenzimidazole to afford a C-C coupling/ring-opening/C-C coupling product [Tp(Me2) Y{η(3) -(N,N,N)-N(CH3 )C6 H4 NHCHC(Ph)CN(CH3 )C6 H4 NH}] (2). Further investigations indicated that [Tp(Me2) Y(CH2 Ph)2 (THF)] reacted with benzothiazole in 1:1 or 1:2 molar ratio to produce a C-C coupling/ring-opening product {(Tp(Me2) )Y[μ-η(2) :η(1) -SC6 H4 N(CHCHPh)](THF)}2 (3). Moreover, the mixed Tp(Me2) /Cp yttrium monoalkyl complex [(Tp(Me2) )CpYCH2 Ph(THF)] reacted with two equivalents of 1-methylimidazole in THF at room temperature to afford a trinuclear yttrium complex [Tp(Me2) CpY(μ-N,C-Im)]3 (5), whereas when the above reaction was carried out at 55 °C for two days, two structurally characterized metal complexes [Tp(Me2) Y(Im-Tp(Me2) )] (7; Im-Tp(Me2) =1-methyl-imidazolyl-Tp(Me2) ) and [Cp3 Y(HIm)] (8; HIm=1-methylimidazole) were obtained in 26 and 17 % isolated yields, respectively, accompanied by some unidentified materials. The formation of 7 reveals an uncommon example of construction of a CC bond through multiple C-H activations.

  16. Fullerene–Carbene Lewis Acid–Base Adducts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huaping

    2011-08-17

    The reaction between a bulky N-heterocylic carbene (NHC) and C60 leads to the formation of a thermally stable zwitterionic Lewis acid-base adduct that is connected via a C-C single bond. Low-energy absorption bands with weak oscillator strengths similar to those of n-doped fullerenes were observed for the product, consistent with a net transfer of electron density to the C60 core. Corroborating information was obtained using UV photoelectron spectroscopy, which revealed that the adduct has an ionization potential ∼1.5 eV lower than that of C60. Density functional theory calculations showed that the C-C bond is polarized, with a total charge of +0.84e located on the NHC framework and -0.84e delocalized on the C 60 cage. The combination of reactivity, characterization, and theoretical studies demonstrates that fullerenes can behave as Lewis acids that react with C-based Lewis bases and that the overall process describes n-doping via C-C bond formation. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. On the mechanism of imine elimination from Fischer tungsten carbene complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Veit; Christoph Förster; Katja Heinze

    2016-01-01

    (Aminoferrocenyl)(ferrocenyl)carbene(pentacarbonyl)tungsten(0) (CO)5W=C(NHFc)Fc (W(CO)5(E-2)) is synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of the ethoxy group of (CO)5W=C(OEt)Fc (M(CO)5(1Et)) by ferrocenyl amide Fc-NH– (Fc = ferrocenyl). W(CO)5(E-2) thermally and photochemically eliminates bulky E-1,2-diferrocenylimine (E-3) via a formal 1,2-H shift from the N to the carbene C atom. Kinetic and mechanistic studies to the formation of imine E-3 are performed by NMR, IR and UV–vis spectroscopy a...

  18. Singlet-triplet gaps in substituted carbenes predicted from block-correlated coupled cluster method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The block correlated coupled cluster (BCCC) method, with the complete active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) reference function, has been applied to investigating the singlet-triplet gaps in several substituted carbenes including four halocarbenes (CHCl, CF2, CCl2, and CBr2) and two hydroxycar-benes (CHOH and C(OH)2). A comparison of our results with the experimental data and other theoretical estimates shows that the present approach can provide quantitative descriptions for all the studied carbenes. It is demonstrated that the CAS-BCCC method is a promising theoretical tool for calculating the electronic structures of diradicals.

  19. Toward new organometallic architectures: synthesis of carbene-centered rhodium and palladium bisphosphine complexes. stability and reactivity of [PC(BIm)PRh(L)][PF6] pincers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plikhta, Andriy; Pöthig, Alexander; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Rieger, Bernhard

    2015-10-05

    In this article, we report the synthesis of a tridentate carbene-centered bisphosphine ligand precursor and its complexes. The developed four-step synthetic strategy of a new PC(BIm)P pincer ligand represents the derivatization of benzimidazole in the first and third positions by (diphenylphosphoryl)methylene synthone, followed by phosphine deprotection and subsequent insertion of a noncoordinating anion. The obtained ligand precursor undergoes complexation, with PdCl2 and [μ-OCH3Rh(COD)]2 smoothly forming the target organometallics [PC(BIm)PPdCl][PF6] and [PC(BIm)PRh(L)][PF6] under mild hydrogenation conditions. A more detailed study of the rhodium complexes [PC(BIm)PRh(L)][PF6] reveals significant thermal stability of the PC(BIm)PRh moiety in the solid state as well as in solution. The chemical behavior of 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphinomethylene)benzimidazol-2-ylrhodium acetonitrile hexafluorophosphate has been screened under decarbonylation, hydrogenation, and hydroboration reaction conditions. Thus, the PC(BIm)PRh(I) complex is a sufficiently stable compound, with the potential to be applied in catalysis.

  20. Synthesis and Structure-Activity Correlation Studies of Metal Complexes of α-N-heterocyclic Carboxaldehyde Thiosemicarbazones in Shewanella oneidensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintell Tillison

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This investigation involved the synthesis of metal complexes to test the hypothesis that structural changes and metal coordination in pyridine thiosemicarbazones affect cell growth and cell proliferation in vitro. Thiosemicarbazones are well known to possess antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial, antimalarial, and other activities. Extensive research has been carried out on aliphatic, aromatic, heterocyclic and other types of thiosemicarbazones and their metal complexes. Due to the pronounced reactivity exhibited by metal complexes of heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones, synthesis and structural characterization of di-2-pyridylketone 4N-phenyl thiosemicarbazone and diphenyl tin (Sn and platinum (Pt complexes were undertaken. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a metal ion-reducing bacterium, was used as a model organism to explore the biological activity under aerobic conditions. A comparision of the cytotoxic potential of selected ligand and metal-complex thiosemicarbazones on cell growth in wild type MR-1 and mutant DSP-010 Shewanella oneidensis strains at various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 25 ppm was performed. The wild type (MR-1 grown in the presence of increasing concentrations of Sn- thiosemicarbazone complexes was comparatively more sensitive (mean cell number = 4.8 X 108 + 4.3 X 107 SD than the DSP-010, a spontaneous rifampicillin derivative of the parent strain (mean cell number = 5.6 x 108 + 6.4 X 107 SD under comparable aerobic conditions (p=0.0004. No differences were observed in the sensitivity of the wild and mutant types when exposed to various concentrations of diphenyl Pt- thiosemicarbazone complex (p= 0.425 or the thiosemicarbazone ligand (p=0.313. Growth of MR-1 in the presence of diphenyl Sn- thiosemicarbazone was significantly different among treatment groups (p=0.012. MR-1 cell numbers were significantly higher at 5ppm than at 10 to 20ppm (p = 0.05. The mean number of DSP-010 variant strain cells also differed among diphenyl Sn

  1. Synthesis, structural characterization and thermal properties of copper and silver silyl complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgro, Michael J; Piers, Warren E; Romero, Patricio E

    2015-02-28

    The synthesis of copper and silver silyl complexes containing either N-heterocyclic carbenes or nitrogen donors is described. Alterations made to both the neutral donor ligands as well as the silyl group provided access to a number of different compounds. Many of the complexes synthesized were studied in the solid state and the effect of the donor ligand on the final structure of the complexes was examined. The thermal properties of the complexes were explored using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and sublimations. Some of the complexes synthesized were demonstrated to be promising volatile metal precursors.

  2. Exploring new generations of ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts: The reactivity of a bis-ylidene ruthenium complex by DFT

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations were used to predict the behaviour of a potential novel architecture of olefin metathesis catalysts, in which one of the neutral ligands of classical Ru-based catalysts, e.g. a phosphine or an N-heterocyclic carbene, is replaced by an alkylidene group. Introduction of a second alkylidene ligand favors dissociation of the remaining phosphine and the overall energy profile for the metathesis using ethylene as the probe substrate reveals that the proposed bis-alkylidene complexes might match the requirements of a good performing olefin metathesis catalyst. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Synthesis in situ of gold nanoparticles by a dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex anchored to glass surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolino, María Candelaria, E-mail: cbertolino@fcq.unc.edu.ar; Granados, Alejandro Manuel, E-mail: ale@fcq.unc.edu.ar

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Fischer carbene 1-W reacts via cycloaddition without Cu(I) with azide terminal surface. • This reaction on the surface is regioselective to internal triple bond of 1-W. • 1-W bound to glass surface produce AuNps in situ fixed to the surface. • This ability is independent of how 1-W is bonded to the surface. • This hybrid surface can be valuable as SERS substrate or in heterogeneous catalysis. - Abstract: In this work we present a detailed study of classic reactions such as “click reaction” and nucleophilic substitution reaction but on glass solid surface (slides). We used different reactive center of a dialkynylalcoxy Fischer carbene complex of tungsten(0) to be anchored to modified glass surface with amine, to obtain aminocarbene, and azide terminal groups. These cycloaddition reaction showed regioselectivity to internal triple bond of dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex without Cu(I) as catalyst. Anyway the carbene anchored was able to act as a reducing agent to produce in situ very stable gold nanoparticles fixed on surface. We showed the characterization of modified glasses by contact angle measurements and XPS. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XPS, EDS and UV–vis. The modified glasses showed an important enhancement Raman-SERS. This simple, fast and robust method to create a polifunctional and hybrid surfaces can be valuable in a wide range of applications such as Raman-SERS substrates and other optical fields.

  4. Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of Podophyllotoxin Five-Membered N-Heterocyclic Derivatives%鬼臼毒素五元氮杂环类衍生物的合成及细胞毒活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱培芳; 赵静峰; 羊晓东; 张洪彬

    2014-01-01

    Nine novel podophyllotoxin five-membered N-heterocyclic derivatives have been prepared from commercially podophyllotoxin. Their structures were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, HR-ESI-MS and X-ray crystallographic analy-sis. These derivatives have been evaluated in vitro against a panel of human tumor cell lines. Compound 10 (IC50:2.63~4.73μmol/L) showed superior cytotoxic activity compared with DDP (a clinically available anticancer drug) in four human tumor cell lines investigation, which is to be a lead compound for further structural modifications and activity research.%从鬼臼毒素出发,通过简洁的合成路线合成了9个新型的鬼臼毒素五元氮杂环类衍生物,其结构经1H NMR,13C NMR, IR, HR-ESI-MS以及X单晶衍射确定.对合成的新化合物进行了体外抗肿瘤活性的筛选,结果表明,化合物10具有较好的细胞毒活性, IC50值为2.63~4.73μmol/L,对4种细胞株的活性均优于顺铂,可以作为先导化合物作进一步的结构修饰和更深入的活性研究.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of nitrogen-rich macrocyclic ligands and an investigation of their coordination chemistry with lanthanum(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Justin J; Birnbaum, Eva R; Batista, Enrique R; Martin, Richard L; John, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Derivatives of the ligand 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (cyclen) containing pendant N-heterocyclic donors were prepared. The heterocycles pyridine, pyridazine, pyrimidine, and pyrazine were conjugated to cyclen to give 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (L(py)), 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(3-pyridazylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (L(pyd)), 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(4-pyrimidylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (L(pyr)), and 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(2-pyrazinylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (L(pz)), respectively. The coordination chemistry of these ligands was explored using the La(3+) ion. Accordingly, complexes of the general formula [La(L)(OTf)](OTf)2, where OTf = trifluoromethanesulfonate and L = L(py) (1), L(pyd) (2), L(pyr) (3), and L(pz) (4), were synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy. Crystal structures of 1 and 2 were also determined by X-ray diffraction studies, which revealed 9-coordinate capped, twisted square-antiprismatic coordination geometries for the central La(3+) ion. The conformational dynamics of 1-4 in solution were investigated by variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy. Dynamic line-shape and Eyring analyses enabled the determination of the activation parameters for the interconversion of enantiomeric forms of the complexes. Unexpectedly, the different pendant N-heterocycles of 1-4 give rise to varying values for the enthalpies and entropies of activation for this process. Density functional theory calculations were carried out to investigate the mechanism of this enantiomeric interconversion. Computed activation parameters were consistent with those experimentally determined for 1 but differed somewhat from those of 2-4.

  6. Ruthenium complexes with chiral tetradentate PNNP ligands: asymmetric catalysis from the viewpoint of inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetti, Antonio

    2010-09-14

    This is a personal account of the application of ruthenium complexes containing chiral tetradentate ligands with a P(2)N(2) ligand set (PNNP) as catalyst precursors for enantioselective "atom transfer" reactions. Therewith are meant reactions that involve bond formation between a metal-coordinated molecule and a free reagent. The reactive fragment (e.g. carbene) is transferred either from the metal to the non-coordinated substrate (e.g. olefin) or from the free reagent (e.g. F(+)) to the metal-bound substrate (e.g.beta-ketoester), depending on the class of catalyst (monocationic, Class A; or dicationic, Class B). The monocationic five-coordinate species [RuCl(PNNP)](+) and the six-coordinate complexes [RuCl(L)(PNNP)](+) (L = Et(2)O, H(2)O) of Class A catalyse asymmetric epoxidation, cyclopropanation (carbene transfer from the metal to the free olefin), and imine aziridination. Alternatively, the dicationic complexes [Ru(L-L)(PNNP)](2+) (Class B), which contain substrates that act as neutral bidentate ligands L-L (e.g., beta-ketoesters), catalyse Michael addition, electrophilic fluorination, and hydroxylation reactions. Additionally, unsaturated beta-ketoesters form dicationic complexes of Class B that catalyse Diels-Alder reactions with acyclic dienes to produce tetrahydro-1-indanones and estrone derivatives. Excellent enantioselectivity has been achieved in several of the catalytic reactions mentioned above. The study of key reaction intermediates (both in the solid state and in solution) has revealed significant mechanistic aspects of the catalytic reactions.

  7. Singlet-triplet gaps in substituted carbenes predicted from block-correlated coupled cluster method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jun; FANG Tao; LI Shuhua

    2008-01-01

    Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, ChinaThe block correlated coupled cluster (BCCC) method, with the complete active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) reference function, has been applied to investigating the singlet-triplet gaps in several substituted carbenes including four halocarbenes (CHCl, CF2, CCl2, and CBr2) and two hydroxycar-bones (CHOH and C(OH)2). A comparison of our results with the experimental data and other theoretical estimates shows that the present approach can provide quantitative descriptions for all the studied carbenes. It is demonstrated that the CAS-BCCC method is a promising theoretical tool for calculating the electronic structures of diradicals.

  8. Nucleophilic addition/double cyclization cascade processes between enynyl Fischer carbene complexes and alkynyl malonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Fernández, Ana; Suárez-Rodríguez, Tatiana; Suárez-Sobrino, Ángel L

    2014-07-18

    Two new selective cascade processes for enynyl Fischer carbene complexes 1 are described in their reaction with alkynyl malonates. When carbene complexes 1 react with the sodium enolate of homopropargyl malonates 3 a consecutive Michael-type addition/cyclopentannulation/6-exo cyclization takes place leading, in a regio- and stereoselective way, to n/5/6 angular tricyclic compounds 5. Furthermore, when propargylic malonates are used, a delayed protonation of the reaction mixture allows intermediate 1,4-addition adduct Ia to evolve through a 5-exo cyclization, consisting of an intramolecular nucleophilic attack from the central carbon of the allenylmetallate over the triple C-C bond. Further spontaneous cyclopentannulation of the resulting metallatriene gives rise to bicyclic and linear polycyclic compounds 6 and 7, some of them bearing a polyquinane framework.

  9. Theoretical Study on the Mechanism of the Cycloaddition Reaction between Alkylidene Carbene and Ethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU,Xiu-Hui(卢秀慧); ZHAI,Li-Min(翟利民); WU,Wei-Rong(武卫荣)

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of cycloaddition reaction between singlet alkylidene carbene and ethylene has been investigated with second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). By using 6-31G* basis , geometry optimization, vibrational analysis and energetics have been calculated for the involved stationary points on the potential energy surface. The results show that the title reaction has two major competition channels. An energy-rich intermediate (INT) is firstly formed between alkylidene carbene and ethylene through a barrier-free exothermic reaction of 63.62 kJ/mol, and the intermediate then isomerizes to a three-membered ring product (P1) and a four-memberd ring product (P2) via transition state TS1 and TS2, in which energy barriers are 47.00 and 51.02 kJ/mol, respectively. P1 is the main product.

  10. Rhodium, iridium and nickel complexes with a 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene tris-MIC ligand. Study of the electronic properties and catalytic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mejuto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The coordination versatility of a 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene-tris-mesoionic carbene ligand is illustrated by the preparation of complexes with three different metals: rhodium, iridium and nickel. The rhodium and iridium complexes contained the [MCl(COD] fragments, while the nickel compound contained [NiCpCl]. The preparation of the tris-MIC (MIC = mesoionic carbene complex with three [IrCl(CO2] fragments, allowed the estimation of the Tolman electronic parameter (TEP for the ligand, which was compared with the TEP value for a related 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene-tris-NHC ligand. The electronic properties of the tris-MIC ligand were studied by cyclic voltammetry measurements. In all cases, the tris-MIC ligand showed a stronger electron-donating character than the corresponding NHC-based ligands. The catalytic activity of the tri-rhodium complex was tested in the addition reaction of arylboronic acids to α,β-unsaturated ketones.

  11. Towards New Generations of Metathesis Metal-Carbene Pre-catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaert, Bart; Dieltiens, Nicolai; Stevens, Chris; Drozdzak, Renata; Dragutan, Ileana; Dragutan, Valerian; Verpoort, Francis

    : A short general introduction combined with some historical milestones in the field of olefin metathesis is presented followed by an overview of recent representatives of metal carbene initiators. This paper attempts to relief the many superb contributions and overwhelming work invested in intelligent design and innovative synthesis in this area. Despites of recent advances there is still a great interest in the generation of new, better performing, and more environment friendly metathesis.

  12. Supported ruthenium-carbene catalyst on ionic magnetic nanoparticles for olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Ma, Miaofeng; Zhong, Chong-Min; Lee, Sang-gi

    2014-10-01

    The Grubbs-Hoveyda ruthenium-carbene complex has been covalently immobilized on ionic magnetic nanoparticles utilizing an imidazolium salt linker. The supported catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity for ring-closing metathesis (RCM) and cross-metathesis (CM) in the presence of less than 1 mol % of ruthenium. The catalysts can easily be recovered magnetically and reused up to seven times with minimal leaching of ruthenium species.

  13. SNAr-Derived Decomposition By-products Involving Pentafluorophenyl Triazolium Carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaodan; Glover, Garrett S; Oberg, Kevin M; Dalton, Derek M; Rovis, Tomislav

    2013-06-17

    Pentafluorophenyl triazolium carbenes, widely used in NHC-catalysis, can decompose by several mechanisms. Under high concentration conditions, the azolium may undergo a pentafluorophenyl exchange by a proposed SNAr mechanism to give an inactive salt. In the presence of appropriate substrates, cyclization on the ortho-position of the arene can occur, also by SNAr. These adducts provide a potential pathway for catalyst decomposition and serve as a caveat to the development of new reactions and catalysts.

  14. Suzuki偶联反应中钯配合物催化剂的研究进展%Research Progress in Palladium Ligand Catalysts on Suzuki Coupling Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞; 白雪峰

    2011-01-01

    Suzuki偶联反应是在零价钯配合物催化剂的催化下,芳基硼酸与卤代芳烃进行的交叉偶联反应,可以高效、高选择性地构建C-C键.钯配合物催化剂对Suzuki偶联反应的活性和选择性起着决定性的影响,是研究Suzuki偶联反应的关键.对含有膦配体、N-卡宾配体、亚胺配体、胺配体和其它配体的钯配合物催化剂催化效果进行了综述.%Suzuki coupling reactions are a kind of reactions between organic arylboronic acid and aryl halides to construct C-C bond over the ze-ro-valent palladium catalysts with high efficiency and selectivity. Palladium ligand catalysts, which are the key of study on Suzuki coupling reaction, play an important role in the activity of Suzuki coupling reaction. The catalytic properties of phosphine ligand, N-heterocyclic carbine ligand, inline ligand, amine ligand and other ligands of palladium complex are summarized.

  15. Synthesis in situ of gold nanoparticles by a dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex anchored to glass surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, María Candelaria; Granados, Alejandro Manuel

    2016-10-01

    In this work we present a detailed study of classic reactions such as "click reaction" and nucleophilic substitution reaction but on glass solid surface (slides). We used different reactive center of a dialkynylalcoxy Fischer carbene complex of tungsten(0) to be anchored to modified glass surface with amine, to obtain aminocarbene, and azide terminal groups. These cycloaddition reaction showed regioselectivity to internal triple bond of dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex without Cu(I) as catalyst. Anyway the carbene anchored was able to act as a reducing agent to produce in situ very stable gold nanoparticles fixed on surface. We showed the characterization of modified glasses by contact angle measurements and XPS. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XPS, EDS and UV-vis. The modified glasses showed an important enhancement Raman-SERS. This simple, fast and robust method to create a polifunctional and hybrid surfaces can be valuable in a wide range of applications such as Raman-SERS substrates and other optical fields.

  16. A Light-Activated Olefin Metathesis Catalyst Equipped with a Chromatic Orthogonal Self-Destruct Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutar, Revannath L; Levin, Efrat; Butilkov, Danielle; Goldberg, Israel; Reany, Ofer; Lemcoff, N Gabriel

    2016-01-11

    A sulfur-chelated photolatent ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst has been equipped with supersilyl protecting groups on the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand. The silyl groups function as an irreversible chromatic kill switch, thus decomposing the catalyst when it is irradiated with 254 nm UV light. Therefore, different types of olefin metathesis reactions may be started by irradiation with 350 nm UV light and prevented by irradiation with shorter wavelengths. The possibility to induce and impede catalysis just by using light of different frequencies opens the pathway for stereolithographic applications and novel light-guided chemical sequences.

  17. The activation mechanism of Fe-based olefin metathesis catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poater, Albert; Pump, Eva; Vummaleti, Sai Vikrama Chaitanya; Cavallo, Luigi

    2014-08-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to describe the first turnover for olefin metathesis reaction of a homogenous Fe-based catalyst bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene ligand with methoxyethene as a substrate. Equal to conventional Ru-based catalysts, the activation of its Fe congener occurs through a dissociative mechanism, however with a more exothermic reaction energy profile. Predicted upper energy barriers were calculated to be on average ∼2 kcal/mol more beneficial for Fe catalyzed metathesis. Overall, this present computational study emphasises on advantages of Fe-based metathesis and gives a potential recipe for the design of an efficient Fe-based olefin metathesis catalysts.

  18. Comparing Ru and Fe-catalyzed olefin metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to explore the potential of Fe-based complexes with an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand, as olefin metathesis catalysts. Apart from a less endothermic reaction energy profile, a small reduction in the predicted upper energy barriers (≈ 2 kcal mol -1) is calculated in the Fe catalyzed profile with respect to the Ru catalysed profile. Overall, this study indicates that Fe-based catalysts have the potential to be very effective olefin metathesis catalysts. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  19. Fluoride, bifluoride and trifluoromethyl complexes of iridium(I) and rhodium(I)

    OpenAIRE

    Truscott, Byron; Nahra, Fady; Slawin, Alexandra Martha Zoya; Cordes, David Bradford; Nolan, Steven Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The ERC (Advanced Researcher Award FUNCAT to SPN), the EPSRC and Sasol (Stipend to BJT) are gratefully acknowledged for support. Herein we report robust methods for the preparation and full characterisation of a range of Ir(I) and Rh(I) fluoride and bifluoride complexes using N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) as ancillary ligands. The processes that link the fluoride and the bifluoride species are investigated and reports of the first Ir–bifluoride and Ir(I)–NHC and Rh(I)–NHC trifluoromethyl ...

  20. Synthesis of iridium and rhodium complexes with new chiral phosphine-NHC ligands based on 1,1'-binaphthyl framework and their application in asymmetric hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Qin; Shi, Min

    2013-10-07

    The first series of chiral phosphine-imidazole carbene ligands based on a 1,1'-binaphthyl framework were synthesized from (R)-2-amine-2'-(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthyl (1) in a four-step pathway. After deprotonation of these phosphine-imidazolium salts with LiO(t)Bu, and subsequent complexation with [Ir(COD)Cl]2 and anion exchange with NaBArF, phosphine-carbene chelated iridium complexes (R)-6a and (R)-6b were obtained. Their structures have been characterized by NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis. The NHC-phosphine rhodium complex (R)-6c has been also obtained by a similar synthetic method. These iridium complexes have been applied to catalyze the asymmetric hydrogenation of alkenes to give the corresponding products in moderate to excellent conversion (up to 99%) and moderate enantioselectivities under mild conditions (up to 61% ee).

  1. Synthesis of donor-acceptor alkynylcyclopropanes by diastereoselective cyclopropanation of electron-deficient alkenes with alkoxyalkynyl Fischer carbene complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barluenga, José; Fernández-Rodríguez, Manuel A; García-García, Patricia; Aguilar, Enrique; Merino, Isabel

    2005-12-16

    The reaction of electron-deficient alkenes with alkoxyalkynyl Fischer carbene complexes (FCCs) represents a straightforward route to a new type of captodative (donor-acceptor) alkynylcyclopropanes, which have been prepared in moderate to high yields and in a diastereoselective manner. Some studies regarding the employment of additives to facilitate the recovery of the metal moiety after the reaction are also described. Finally, the first example of a cyclopropanation reaction through employing Fischer carbene complexes under microwave irradiation is presented; this method proved to be an advantageous alternative to the thermal reaction.

  2. Electronic spectra of linear HC$_5$H and cumulene carbene H$_2$C$_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Steglich, M; Maity, S; Nagy, A; Maier, J P

    2015-01-01

    The $1 ^3\\Sigma_u^- \\leftarrow X^3\\Sigma_g^-$ transition of linear HC$_5$H (A) has been observed in a neon matrix and gas phase. The assignment is based on mass-selective experiments, extrapolation of previous results of the longer HC$_{2n+1}$H homologues, and density functional and multi-state CASPT2 theoretical methods. Another band system starting at 303 nm in neon is assigned as the $1 ^1 A_1 \\leftarrow X ^1 A_1$ transition of the cumulene carbene pentatetraenylidene H$_2$C$_5$ (B).

  3. Synthesis of cyclic carbonates from diols and CO2 catalyzed by carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbink, Felix D; Gruszka, Weronika; Hulla, Martin; Das, Shoubhik; Dyson, Paul J

    2016-09-14

    The synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and CO2 is a well-established reaction, whereas the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from diols and CO2 is considerably more challenging, and few efficient catalysts are available. Here, we describe heterocyclic carbene catalysts, including one derived from a cheap and efficient thiazolium salt, for this latter reaction. The reaction proceeds at atmospheric pressure in the presence of an alkyl halide and Cs2CO3. Reaction mechanisms for the transformations involved are also proposed.

  4. Efficient Removal of Ruthenium Byproducts from Olefin Metathesis Products by Simple Aqueous Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon Hyeok; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    Simple aqueous extraction removed ruthenium byproducts efficiently from ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reactions catalyzed by a PEG-supported N-heterocyclic carbene-based ruthenium complex. PMID:17428062

  5. Palladium-Catalyzed Heck Coupling Reaction of Aryl Bromides in Aqueous Media Using Tetrahydropyrimidinium Salts as Carbene Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özdemir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and stereoselective catalytic system for the Heck cross coupling reaction using novel 1,3-dialkyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidinium salts (1, LHX and Pd(OAc2 loading has been reported. The palladium complexes derived from the salts 1a-f prepared in situ exhibit good catalytic activity in the Heck coupling reaction of aryl bromides under mild conditions.

  6. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Heterocycles and Related Substances Based on α-Imino Rhodium Carbene Complexes Derived from N-Sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Sun, Run; Tang, Xiang-Ying; Shi, Min

    2016-12-12

    In recent years, α-imino rhodium carbene complexes derived by ring-opening of N-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles have attracted much attention from organic chemists. Many transformations of these species have been reported that involve, in most cases, nucleophilic attack at the carbene center of the α-imino rhodium carbene, facilitating the synthesis of a wide range of novel and useful compounds, particularly heterocycles. This Minireview mainly focuses on advances in the transformation of N-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles during the past two years.

  7. Bis-mixed-carbene ruthenium-thiolate-alkylidene complexes: synthesis and olefin metathesis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahcheh, Fatme; Stephan, Douglas W

    2015-01-28

    A series of bis-carbene Ru-hydride species, including (IMes)(Im(OMe)2)(PPh3)RuHCl (1) and (SIMes)(Me2Im(OMe)2)(PPh3)RuHCl (2) were prepared and subsequently shown to react with aryl-vinyl-sulfides to give the bis-carbene-alkylidene complexes: Im(OMe)2(SIMes)RuCl(SR)(=CHCH3) (R = p-FC6H4 (3), p-(NO2)C6H4 (4)), Im(OMe)2(IMes)RuCl(=CHCH3)(SPh) (5), Me2Im(OMe)2(SIMes)RuCl(=CHCH3)(SPh) (6), Im(OMe)2(SIMes)(F5C6S)RuCl(=CHR) (R = C4H9 (9), C5H11 (10)). The activity of these species in the standard Grubbs' tests for ring-opening metathesis polymerization, ring-closing and cross-metathesis are reported. Although these thiolate derivatives are shown to exhibit modest metathesis activities, the reactivity is enhanced in the presence of BCl3.

  8. Theoretical study on the mechanism of cycloaddition between dimethyl methylene carbene and acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiuhui; WU Weirong; YU Haibin; XU Yuehua

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of the cycloaddition reaction of singlet dimethyl methylene carbene and acetone has been studied by using second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation and density functional theory. The geometrical parameters, harmonic vibrational frequencies and energy of stationary points on the potential energy surface are calculated by MP2/6-31G* and B3LYP/6-31G* methods. The results show that path b of the cycloaddition reaction (1) would be the major reactive channel of the cycloaddition reaction between singlet dimethyl methylene carbene and acetone, which proceeds in two steps: i) The two reactants form an energy-rich intermediate (INT1b), which is an exothermic reaction of 23.3 kJ/mol with no energy barrier. ii) The intermediate INT1b isomerizes to a three-membered ring product (P1) via transition state TS1b with energy barrier of 22.2 kJ/mol. The reaction rate of this reaction and its competitive reactions do greatly differ, with excellent selectivity. In view of dynamics and thermodynamics, this reaction is suitable for occurring at 1 atm and temperature range of 300―800 K, in which the reaction will have not only the larger spontaneous tendency and equilibrium constant but also the faster reaction rate.

  9. On the mechanism of imine elimination from Fischer tungsten carbene complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Summary (Aminoferrocenyl)(ferrocenyl)carbene(pentacarbonyl)tungsten(0) (CO)5W=C(NHFc)Fc (W(CO) 5 ( E -2)) is synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of the ethoxy group of (CO)5W=C(OEt)Fc (M(CO) 5 (1 Et )) by ferrocenyl amide Fc-NH– (Fc = ferrocenyl). W(CO) 5 ( E -2) thermally and photochemically eliminates bulky E-1,2-diferrocenylimine (E -3) via a formal 1,2-H shift from the N to the carbene C atom. Kinetic and mechanistic studies to the formation of imine E -3 are performed by NMR, IR and UV–vis spectroscopy and liquid injection field desorption ionization (LIFDI) mass spectrometry as well as by trapping experiments for low-coordinate tungsten complexes with triphenylphosphane. W(CO) 5 ( E -2) decays thermally in a first-order rate-law with a Gibbs free energy of activation of ΔG ‡ 298K = 112 kJ mol−1. Three proposed mechanistic pathways are taken into account and supported by detailed (time-dependent) densitiy functional theory [(TD)-DFT] calculations. The preferred pathway is initiated by an irreversible CO dissociation, followed by an oxidative addition/pseudorotation/reductive elimination pathway with short-lived, elusive seven-coordinate hydrido tungsten(II) intermediates cis (N,H)-W(CO) 4 (H)( Z -15) and cis (C,H)-W(CO) 4 (H)( Z -15). PMID:27559381

  10. {3,3′-Bis[(anthracen-9-ylmethyl]-1,1′-[(ethane-1,2-diyldioxybis(ethane-1,2-diyl]bis(imidazol-2-ylidene}mercury(II bis(hexafluoridophosphate acetonitrile disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di-Si Bai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Hg(C42H38N4O2](PF62·2CH3CN, the HgII cation lies on a twofold axis which is also the internal symmetry element of the complete cationic complex. The HgII cation is coordinated by two symmetry-related C(carbene atoms [Hg—C = 2.058 (9 Å] in a nearly linear geometry, with a C—Hg—C angle of 175.8 (5°. There are weak intermolecular C—H...F interactions in the crystal packing between an F atom of a hexafluoridophosphate anion and a –CH2– group of the bis-N-heterocyclic carbene ligand.

  11. Development of catalysts and ligands for enantioselective gold catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Ming; Lackner, Aaron D; Toste, F Dean

    2014-03-18

    utilized phosphines. However, we needed to judiciously design the steric environment to create "walls" that enclose the gold center. We also successfully applied these same considerations to the development of binuclear carbene ligands for gold. Finally, we describe the design of bifunctional urea-monophosphine ligands used in a gold-catalyzed three-component coupling.

  12. Improved Ruthenium Catalysts for Z-Selective Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitz, Benjamin K.; Endo, Koji; Patel, Paresma R.; Herbert, Myles B.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Several new C-H activated ruthenium catalysts for Z-selective olefin metathesis have been synthesized. Both the carboxylate ligand and the aryl group of the N-heterocyclic carbene have been altered and the resulting catalysts were evaluated using a range of metathesis reactions. Substitution of bidentate with monodentate X-type ligands led to a severe attenuation of metathesis activity and selectivity, while minor differences were observed between bidentate ligands within the same family (e.g. carboxylates). The use of nitrato-type ligands, in place of carboxylates, afforded a significant improvement in metathesis activity and selectivity. With these catalysts, turnover numbers approaching 1000 were possible for a variety of cross-metathesis reactions, including the synthesis of industrially-relevant products. PMID:22097946

  13. Making oxidation potentials predictable: Coordination of additives applied to the electronic fine tuning of an iron(II) complex

    KAUST Repository

    Haslinger, Stefan

    2014-11-03

    This work examines the impact of axially coordinating additives on the electronic structure of a bioinspired octahedral low-spin iron(II) N-heterocyclic carbene (Fe-NHC) complex. Bearing two labile trans-acetonitrile ligands, the Fe-NHC complex, which is also an excellent oxidation catalyst, is prone to axial ligand exchange. Phosphine- and pyridine-based additives are used for substitution of the acetonitrile ligands. On the basis of the resulting defined complexes, predictability of the oxidation potentials is demonstrated, based on a correlation between cyclic voltammetry experiments and density functional theory calculated molecular orbital energies. Fundamental insights into changes of the electronic properties upon axial ligand exchange and the impact on related attributes will finally lead to target-oriented manipulation of the electronic properties and consequently to the effective tuning of the reactivity of bioinspired systems.

  14. Unusual dimer formation of cyclometalated ruthenium NHC p-cymene complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, David; Tronnier, Alexander; Leopold, Hendrik; Borrmann, Horst; Strassner, Thomas

    2016-02-28

    We present the synthesis and structural characterization of novel ruthenium complexes containing C^C* cyclometalated N-heterocyclic carbene ligands, η(6)-arene (p-cymene) ligands and one bridging chlorine ion. Complexes of the general formula [Ru(p-cymene)(C^C*)Cl] were prepared via a one-pot synthesis using in situ transmetalation from the correspondent silver NHC complexes. These complexes react with sodium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate (NaBAr(F)4) to form dinuclear complexes of the general structure [Ru(p-cymene)(C^C*)-μ-Cl-(p-cymene)(C^C*)Ru](+)[BAr(F)4](-). Solid-state structures confirm that the pseudo-tetrahedral coordination around the metal center with the η(6)-ligand aligned perpendicularly to the C^C* ligand and the i-Pr group "atop" is retained in the bimetallic complexes.

  15. Low-spin hexacoordinate Mn(III): synthesis and spectroscopic investigation of homoleptic tris(pyrazolyl)borate and tris(carbene)borate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, Adam P; Smith, Jeremy M; Ozarowski, Andrew; Krzystek, J; Smirnov, Dmitry; Zvyagin, S A; Harris, T David; Karunadasa, Hemamala I; Zadrozny, Joseph M; Schnegg, Alexander; Holldack, Karsten; Jackson, Timothy A; Alamiri, Ahmad; Barnes, Diane M; Telser, Joshua

    2013-01-07

    unrestricted Hartree-Fock methods. This analysis also shows that spin-crossover behavior is not thermally accessible for these complexes as solids. The donor properties of the three different scorpionate ligands were further characterized using the LFT model that suggests that the tris(carbene)borate is a strong σ-donor with little or no π-bonding.

  16. A stable dimer of SiS2 arranged between two carbene molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Chandrajeet; Mondal, Kartik Chandra; Samuel, Prinson P; Keil, Helena; Niepötter, Benedikt; Herbst-Irmer, Regine; Stalke, Dietmar; Dutta, Sayan; Koley, Debasis; Roesky, Herbert W

    2015-09-01

    The Me-cAAC:-stabilized dimer of silicon disulfide (SiS2 ) has been isolated in the molecular form as (Me-cAAC:)2 Si2 S4 (2) at room temperature [Me-cAAC:=cyclic alkyl(amino) carbene]. Compound 2 has been synthesized from the reaction of (Me-cAAC:)2 Si2 with elemental sulfur in a 1:4 molar ratio under oxidative addition. This is the smallest molecular unit of silicon disulfide characterized by X-ray crystallography, electron ionization mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy. Structures with three sulfur atoms arranged around a silicon atom are known; however, 2 is the first structurally characterized silicon-sulfur compound containing one terminal and two bridging sulfur atoms at each silicon atom. Compound 2 shows no decomposition after storing for three months in an inert atmosphere at ambient temperature. The bonding of 2 has been further studied by theoretical calculations.

  17. Kinetic Selectivity of Olefin Metathesis Catalysts Bearing Cyclic (Alkyl)(Amino)Carbenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donde R.; Ung, Thay; Mkrtumyan, Garik; Bertrand, Guy; Grubbs, Robert H.; Schrodi, Yann

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts 4–6 bearing cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbenes (CAACs) in the cross-metathesis of cis-1,4-diacetoxy-2-butene (7) with allylbenzene (8) and the ethenolysis of methyl oleate (11) is reported. Relative to most NHC-substituted complexes, CAAC-substituted catalysts exhibit lower E/Z ratios (3:1 at 70% conversion) in the cross-metathesis of 7 and 8. Additionally, complexes 4–6 demonstrate good selectivity for the formation of terminal olefins versus internal olefins in the ethenolysis of 11. Indeed, complex 6 achieved 35 000 TONs, the highest recorded to date. CAAC-substituted complexes exhibit markedly different kinetic selectivity than most NHC-substituted complexes. PMID:18584055

  18. DFT Study on Structural and Mechanical Properties of Single-walled Carbon and Boron Nitride Nanotubes Functionalized with Carbenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K. Petrushenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents quantum chemistry study on structural and mechanical properties of a series of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs functionalized with carbenes. At the PBE/SVP level, the obtained data on pristine nanotubes are in good accordance with the results of previous experimental and theoretical studies. The calculations show that carbenes functionalization, in general, distorts both SWNCTs and BNNTs frameworks, but there exists the difference between ‘axial’ and ‘circumferential’ functionalization. It turns out that in both cases elastic properties diminish with increasing concentration of adsorbents, however, the functionalized SWCNTs and BNNTs remain strong enough to be suitable for reinforcement of composites.

  19. One-pot three-component synthesis of quinoxaline and phenazine ring systems using Fischer carbene complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyabrata Roy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available One-pot three-component coupling of o-alkynylheteroaryl carbonyl derivatives with Fischer carbene complexes and dienophiles leading to the synthesis of quinoxaline and phenazine ring systems has been investigated. This involves the generation of furo[3,4-b]pyrazine and furo[3,4-b]quinoxaline as transient intermediates, which were trapped with Diels–Alder dienophiles. This is the first report on furo[3,4-b]pyrazine intermediates.

  20. Carbene Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, R. W.; Barth, W.; Carlsen, Lars

    1983-01-01

    The gas-phase thermolysis of the norbornadienespirodithiolane S-oxides (5) and (7) led to benzene, ethylene, and carbon disulphide as the major products, possibly involving carbon disulphide oxides as intermediates. Thermolyses of the related sulphones (9) or (14) led to completely different prod...

  1. Copolymerization of Propylene and Polar Monomers Using Pd/IzQO Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ryo; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2015-09-02

    Palladium catalysts bearing imidazo[1,5-a]quinolin-9-olate-1-ylidene (IzQO) ligands polymerize α-olefins while incorporating polar monomers. The steric environment provided by N-heterocyclic-carbene (NHC) enables regioselective insertion of α-olefins and polar monomers, yielding polypropylene, propylene/allyl carboxylate copolymers, and propylene/methyl acrylate copolymer. Known polymerization catalysts bearing NHC-based ligands decompose rapidly, whereas the present catalyst is durable because of structural confinement, wherein the NHC-plane is coplanar to the metal square plane. The present catalyst system enables facile access to a new class of functionalized polyolefins and helps conceive a new fundamental principle for designing NHC-based ligands.

  2. Density functional computations of the cyclopropanation of ethene catalyzed by iron (II) carbene complexes Cp(CO)(L)Fe=CHR, L D CO, PMe3, R D Me, OMe, ph, CO2Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Meng, Qingxi; Li, Ming

    Density functional theory has been used to study the Fe-catalyzed cyclopropanation of Fe-carbene complexes with ethene. All the intermediates and transition states were optimized completely at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level. Calculation results confirm that the cyclopropanation of Fe-carbene complexes with ethene involves the two reaction paths I and II. In the reaction path I, the double bond of ethene attacks directly on the carbene carbon of Fe-carbene complexes to generate the cyclopropane. In the reaction path II, ethene substitution for PMe3 or CO in the Fe-carbene complexes leads to the complexes M2; and the attack of one carbon of ethene on the carbene carbon results in the complexes M3 with a Fe bond C bond C bond C four-membered ring, and then generates the cyclopropane via the elimination reaction. For Fe-carbene complexes A, C, D, E, and H, the main reaction mode is the reaction path I; for Fe-carbene complexes B, F, and G, the main reaction mode is the reaction path II.0

  3. Mesoionic oxides: facile access from triazolium salts or triazolylidene copper precursors, and catalytic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronilho, Ana; Müller-Bunz, Helge; Albrecht, Martin

    2012-07-04

    Reaction of CsOH with triazolium salts affords mesoionic compounds containing an exocyclic oxygen; the same product is obtained by reaction of the corresponding Cu(I) triazolylidenes with CsOH and represents an unusual reactivity pattern of N-heterocyclic carbene precursors that has implications for carbene copper-catalyzed reactions.

  4. N, N'-Olefin functionalized bis-imidazolium gold(I salt is an efficient candidate to control keratitis-associated eye infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapastaru Samanta

    Full Text Available Keratitis treatment has become more complicated due to the emergence of bacterial or fungal pathogens with enhanced antibiotic resistance. The pharmaceutical applications of N-heterocyclic carbene complexes have received remarkable attention due to their antimicrobial properties. In this paper, the new precursor, 3,3'-(p-phenylenedimethylene bis{1-(2- methyl-allylimidazolium} bromide (1a and its analogous PF6 salt (1b were synthesized. Furthermore, silver(I and gold(I -N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC complexes [Ag2LBr2/Au2LBr2; 2a/3a], [(Ag2L2(PF62/(Au2L2(PF62; 2b/3b] were developed from their corresponding ligands. All compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities against multiple keratitis-associated human eye pathogens, including bacteria and fungi. Complexes 2a and 3a showed highest activity, and the effectiveness of 3a was also studied, focusing eradication of pathogen biofilm. Furthermore, the structures of 1a, 2a and 3b were determined using single crystal X-ray analysis, 2b and 3a were optimized theoretically. The mechanism of action of 3a was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and docking experiments, suggesting that its target is the cell membrane. In summary, 3a may be helpful in developing antimicrobial therapies in patients suffering from keratitis-associated eye infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens.

  5. Intramolecular Insertions into Unactivated C(sp³)-H Bonds by Oxidatively Generated β-Diketone-α-Gold Carbenes: Synthesis of Cyclopentanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youliang; Zheng, Zhitong; Zhang, Liming

    2015-04-29

    Generation of reactive α-oxo gold carbene intermediates via gold-catalyzed oxidation of alkynes has become an increasing versatile strategy of replacing hazardous diazo carbonyl compounds with benign and readily available alkynes in the development of efficient synthetic methods. However, one of the hallmarks of metal carbene/carbenoid chemistry, i.e., insertion into an unactivated C(sp(3))-H bond, has not be realized. This study reveals for the first time that this highly valuable transformation can be readily realized intramolecularly by oxidatively generated β-diketone-α-gold carbenes using ynones as substrates. Substrate conformation control via the Thorpe-Ingold effect is the key design feature that enables generally good to excellent efficiencies, and synthetically versatile cyclopentanones including spiro-, bridged, and fused bicyclic ones can be readily accessed.

  6. Insertion of O-H Bond of Rh(Ⅱ)-methylene Carbene into Alcohols: A Stepwise Mechanism More Plausible than a Concerted Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of insertion of O-H bond of Rh( Ⅱ ) -methylene carbene into methanol and ethanol were studied by using B3LYP functional both in gas phase and in CH2Cl2. The formation of free alcoholic oxonium ylides is found to be impossible. Alcoholic oxonium ylide are formed as the intermediates before both the stepwise and the concerted transition states of insertion of O-H bond of Rh( Ⅱ ) -methylene carbene into methanol and ethanol. With regard to the mechanisms of insertion of O-H of Rh( Ⅱ ) -methylene carbene into alcohols, analysis of the energy barriers of the two mechanisms indicate that the stepwise mechanism is more plausible than the concerted mechanism.

  7. The first crystal structures of six- and seven-membered tellurium- and nitrogen-containing (Te-N) heterocycles: 2H-1,4-benzotellurazin-3(4H)-one and 2,3-dihydro-1,5-benzotellurazepin-4(5H)-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Joshua P; Fronczek, Frank R; Junk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data concerning the structures of six- and seven-membered tellurium- and nitrogen-containing (Te-N) heterocycles. The title compounds, C8H7NOTe, (I), and C9H9NOTe, (II), represent the first structurally characterized members of their respective classes. Both crystallize with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. When compared to their sulfur analogs, they exhibit slightly greater deviations from planarity to accommodate the larger chalcogenide atom, with (II) adopting a pronounced twist-boat conformation. The C-Te-C angles of 85.49 (15) and 85.89 (15)° for the two independent molecules of (I) were found to be somewhat smaller than those of 97.4 (2) and 97.77 (19)° for the two independent molecules of (II). The C-Te bond lengths [2.109 (4)-2.158 (5) Å] are in good agreement with those predicted by the covalent radii. Intermolecular N-H...O hydrogen bonding in (I) forms centrosymmetric R2(2)(8) dimers, while that in (II) forms chains. In addition, intermolecular Te...O contacts [3.159 (3)-3.200 (3) Å] exist in (I).

  8. Ligand modeling and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, B.P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop and implement a molecular design basis for selecting organic ligands that would be used in the cost-effective removal of specific radionuclides from nuclear waste streams. Organic ligands with metal ion specificity are critical components in the development of solvent extraction and ion exchange processes that are highly selective for targeted radionuclides. The traditional approach to the development of such ligands involves lengthy programs of organic synthesis and testing, which in the absence of reliable methods for screening compounds before synthesis, results in wasted research effort. The author`s approach breaks down and simplifies this costly process with the aid of computer-based molecular modeling techniques. Commercial software for organic molecular modeling is being configured to examine the interactions between organic ligands and metal ions, yielding an inexpensive, commercially or readily available computational tool that can be used to predict the structures and energies of ligand-metal complexes. Users will be able to correlate the large body of existing experimental data on structure, solution binding affinity, and metal ion selectivity to develop structural design criteria. These criteria will provide a basis for selecting ligands that can be implemented in separations technologies through collaboration with other DOE national laboratories and private industry. The initial focus will be to select ether-based ligands that can be applied to the recovery and concentration of the alkali and alkaline earth metal ions including cesium, strontium, and radium.

  9. Carbene supported dimer of heavier ketenimine analogue with p and si atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sudipta; Dittrich, Birger; Mondal, Totan; Koley, Debasis; Stückl, A Claudia; Schwederski, Brigitte; Kaim, Wolfgang; John, Michael; Vasa, Suresh Kumar; Linser, Rasmus; Roesky, Herbert W

    2015-05-20

    A cyclic alkyl(amino) carbene (cAAC) stabilized dimer [(cAAC)Si(P-Tip)]2 (2) (Tip = 2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl) is reported. 2 can be considered as a dimer of the heavier ketenimine (R2C═C═N-R) analogue. The dark-red rod-shaped crystals of 2 were synthesized by reduction of the precursor, cAAC-dichlorosilylene-stabilized phosphinidene (cAAC)SiCl2→P-Tip with sodium napthalenide. The crystals of 2 are storable at room temperature for several months and stable up to 215 °C under an inert atmosphere. X-ray single-crystal diffraction revealed that 2 contains a cyclic nonplanar four-membered SiPSiP ring. Magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the singlet spin ground state of 2. Cyclic voltammetry of 2 showed a quasi-reversible one-electron reduction indicating the formation of the corresponding radical anion 2(•-), which was further characterized by EPR measurements in solution. The electronic structure and bonding of 2 and 2(•-) were studied by theoretical calculations. The experimentally obtained data are in good agreement with the calculated values.

  10. A ligand-directed divergent catalytic approach to establish structural and functional scaffold diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yen-Chun; Patil, Sumersing; Golz, Christopher; Strohmann, Carsten; Ziegler, Slava; Kumar, Kamal; Waldmann, Herbert

    2017-02-01

    The selective transformation of different starting materials by different metal catalysts under individually optimized reaction conditions to structurally different intermediates and products is a powerful approach to generate diverse molecular scaffolds. In a more unified albeit synthetically challenging strategy, common starting materials would be exposed to a common metal catalysis, leading to a common intermediate and giving rise to different scaffolds by tuning the reactivity of the metal catalyst through different ligands. Herein we present a ligand-directed synthesis approach for the gold(I)-catalysed cycloisomerization of oxindole-derived 1,6-enynes that affords distinct molecular scaffolds following different catalytic reaction pathways. Varying electronic properties and the steric demand of the gold(I) ligands steers the fate of a common intermediary gold carbene to selectively form spirooxindoles, quinolones or df-oxindoles. Investigation of a synthesized compound collection in cell-based assays delivers structurally novel, selective modulators of the Hedgehog and Wnt signalling pathways, autophagy and of cellular proliferation.

  11. Production of propylene from 1-butene on highly active "bi-functional single active site" catalyst: Tungsten carbene-hydride supported on alumina

    KAUST Repository

    Mazoyer, Etienne

    2011-12-02

    1-Butene is transformed in a continuous flow reactor over tungsten hydrides precursor W-H/Al2O3, 1, giving a promising yield into propylene at 150 °C and different pressures. Tungsten carbene-hydride single active site operates as a "bi-functional catalyst" through 1-butene isomerization on W-hydride and 1-butene/2-butenes cross-metathesis on W-carbene. This active moiety is generated in situ at the initiation steps by insertion of 1-butene on tungsten hydrides precursor W-H/Al2O3, 1 followed by α-H and β-H abstraction. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Ligand modeling and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop and implement a molecular design basis for selecting organic ligands that would be used tin applications for the cost-effective removal of specific radionuclides from nuclear waste streams.

  13. Functionalization of Krebs-type polyoxometalates with N,O-chelating ligands: a systematic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artetxe, Beñat; Reinoso, Santiago; San Felices, Leire; Vitoria, Pablo; Pache, Aroa; Martín-Caballero, Jagoba; Gutiérrez-Zorrilla, Juan M

    2015-01-01

    The first organic derivatives of 3d-metal-disubstituted Krebs-type polyoxometalates have been synthesized under mild bench conditions via straightforward replacement of labile aqua ligands with N,O-chelating planar anions on either preformed or in situ-generated precursors. Nine hybrid clusters containing carboxylate derivatives of five- or six-membered aromatic N-heterocycles as antenna ligands have been obtained as pure crystalline phases and characterized by elemental and thermal analyses, infrared spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. They all show the general formula [{M(II)L(H2O)}2(WO2)2(B-β-XW9O33)2](n-) and can be classified as follows: 1-SbM, where L = 1H-imidazole-4-carboxylate (imc), X = Sb(III), n = 12, and M(II) = Mn, Co, Ni, Zn; 1-TeM, where L = imc, X = Te(IV), n = 10, and M(II) = Mn, Co; 2-SbNi, where L = 1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate (pzc), X = Sb(III), n = 12, and M(II) = Ni; and 3-SbM, where L = pyrazine-2-carboxylate (pyzc), X =Sb(III), n = 12, and M(II) = Co, Zn. The 3d-metal-disubstituted tungstotellurate(IV) skeleton of compounds 1-TeM is unprecedented in polyoxometalate chemistry. The stability of these hybrid Krebs-type species in aqueous solution has been confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy performed on the diamagnetic 1-SbZn and 3-SbZn derivatives. Our systematic study of the reactivity of disubtituted Krebs-type polyoxotungstates toward diazole-, pyridine-, and diazinecarboxylates demonstrates that organic derivatization is strongly dependent on the nature of the ligand, as follows: imc displays a "universal ligand" character, as functionalization takes place regardless of the external 3d metal and heteroatom; pzc and pyzc show selectivity toward specific 3d metals; pyridazine-3-carboxylate and pyrimidine-4-carboxylate promote partial decomposition of specific precursors, leading to [M(II)L2(H2O)2] complexes; and picolinate is inert under all conditions tested.

  14. The Effects of NHC-Backbone Substitution on Efficiency in Ruthenium-based Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Kevin M.; Bourg, Jean-Baptiste; Chung, Cheol K.; Virgil, Scott C.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    A series of ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts bearing N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands with varying degrees of backbone and N-aryl substitution have been prepared. These complexes show greater resistance to decomposition through C–H activation of the N-aryl group, resulting in increased catalyst lifetimes. This work has utilized robotic technology to examine the activity and stability of each catalyst in metathesis, providing insights into the relationship between ligand architecture and enhanced efficiency. The development of this robotic methodology has also shown that, under optimized conditions, catalyst loadings as low as 25 ppm can lead to 100% conversion in the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. PMID:19351207

  15. Synthesis, characterization, and photophysical and electroluminescent properties of blue-emitting cationic iridium(III) complexes bearing nonconjugated ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuli; Ma, Dongxin; Duan, Lian; Qiao, Juan; Dong, Guifang; Wang, Liduo; Qiu, Yong

    2014-07-07

    The development of pure-blue-to-deep-blue-emitting ionic phosphors is an ultimate challenge for full-color displays and white-light sources. Herein we report two series of short-wavelength light-emitting cationic iridium(III) complexes with nonconjugated ancillary and cyclometalating ligands, respectively. In the first series, nonconjugated 1-[(diphenylphosphino)methyl]-3-methylimidazolin-2-ylidene-C,C2' (dppmmi) is used as the ancillary ligand and 2-phenylpyridine (ppy), 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (dfppy), and 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazole (dfppz) are used as cyclometalating ligands. In the second one, nonconjugated 2,4-difluorobenzyl-N-pyrazole (dfbpz) is used as the cyclometalating ligand and 3-methyl-1-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazolin-2-ylidene-C,C(2)' (pymbi) as the ancillary ligand. The synthesis and photophysical and electrochemical properties, together with the X-ray crystal structures of these complexes, have been investigated. At room temperature, blue-emitting complexes [Ir(ppy)2(dppmmi)]PF6 (1) and [Ir(dfppy)2(dppmmi)]PF6 (2; PF6(-) is hexafluorophosphate) show much larger photoluminescence quantum yields of 24% and 46%, respectively. On the contrary, for complexes [Ir(dfppz)2(dppmmi)]PF6 (3) and [Ir(dfbpz)2(pymbi)]PF6 (4), deep-blue luminescence is only observed at low temperature (77 K). Density functional theory calculations are used to rationalize the differences in the photophysical behavior observed upon changes of the ligands. It is shown that the electronic transition dipoles of cationic iridium complexes 1 and 2 are mainly confined to cyclometalated ligands ((3)MLCT and LC (3)π-π*) and those of complex 3 are confined to all of the ligands ((3)MLCT, LC (3)π-π*, and (3)LLCT) because of the high LUMO energy level of dfppz. The emission of 4 mainly originates from the central iridium(III) ion and cyclometalated ligand to ancillary ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT and (3)LLCT), in contrast to commonly designed cationic complexes using carbene

  16. Aerosolized antimicrobial agents based on degradable dextran nanoparticles loaded with silver carbene complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Ornelas-Megiatto, Cátia

    2012-11-05

    Degradable acetalated dextran (Ac-DEX) nanoparticles were prepared and loaded with a hydrophobic silver carbene complex (SCC) by a single-emulsion process. The resulting particles were characterized for morphology and size distribution using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The average particle size and particle size distribution were found to be a function of the ratio of the organic phase to the surfactant containing aqueous phase with a 1:5 volume ratio of Ac-DEX CH2Cl2 (organic):PBS (aqueous) being optimal for the formulation of nanoparticles with an average size of 100 ± 40 nm and a low polydispersity. The SCC loading was found to increase with an increase in the SCC quantity in the initial feed used during particle formulation up to 30% (w/w); however, the encapsulation efficiency was observed to be the best at a feed ratio of 20% (w/w). In vitro efficacy testing of the SCC loaded Ac-DEX nanoparticles demonstrated their activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria; the nanoparticles inhibited the growth of every bacterial species tested. As expected, a higher concentration of drug was required to inhibit bacterial growth when the drug was encapsulated within the nanoparticle formulations compared with the free drug illustrating the desired depot release. Compared with free drug, the Ac-DEX nanoparticles were much more readily suspended in an aqueous phase and subsequently aerosolized, thus providing an effective method of pulmonary drug delivery. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. A new type of self-supported, polymeric Ru-carbene complex for homogeneous catalysis and heterogeneous recovery: synthesis and catalytic activities for ring-closing metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Wei; Kim, Ju Hyun; Shin, Hyunik; Lee, Sang-Gi

    2008-08-01

    A novel 2nd generation Grubbs-type catalyst tethering an isopropoxystyrene has been synthesized and automatically polymerized in solution to form a self-supported polymeric Ru-carbene complex, which catalyzed ring-closing metathesis homogeneously, but was recovered heterogeneously.

  18. Electronic Structure and Excited-State Dynamics of an Arduengo-Type Carbene and its Imidazolone Oxidation Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Hans-Christian; Flock, Marco; Welz, Eileen; Engels, Bernd; Schneider, Heidi; Radius, Udo; Fischer, Ingo

    2017-03-02

    We describe an investigation of the excited-state dynamics of isolated 1,3-di-tert-butyl-imidazoline-2-ylidene (tBu2 Im, C11 H20 N2 , m/z=180), an Arduengo-type carbene, by time- and frequency-resolved photoionization using a picosecond laser system. The energies of several singlet and triplet excited states were calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The S1 state of the carbene deactivates on a 100 ps time scale possibly by intersystem crossing. In the experiments we observed an additional signal at m/z=196, that was assigned to the oxidation product 1,3-di-tert-butyl-imidazolone, tBu2 ImO. It shows a well-resolved resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectrum with an origin located at 36951 cm(-1) . Several low-lying vibrational bands could be assigned, with a lifetime that depends strongly on the excitation energy. At the origin the lifetime is longer than 3 ns, but drops to 49 ps at higher excess energies. To confirm formation of the imidazolone we also performed experiments on benzimidazolone (BzImO) for comparison. Apart from a redshift for BzImO the spectra of the two compounds are very similar. The TD-DFT values display a very good agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Ligand fitting with CCP4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Crystal structures of protein–ligand complexes are often used to infer biology and inform structure-based drug discovery. Hence, it is important to build accurate, reliable models of ligands that give confidence in the interpretation of the respective protein–ligand complex. This paper discusses key stages in the ligand-fitting process, including ligand binding-site identification, ligand description and conformer generation, ligand fitting, refinement and subsequent validation. The CCP4 suite contains a number of software tools that facilitate this task: AceDRG for the creation of ligand descriptions and conformers, Lidia and JLigand for two-dimensional and three-dimensional ligand editing and visual analysis, Coot for density interpretation, ligand fitting, analysis and validation, and REFMAC5 for macromolecular refinement. In addition to recent advancements in automatic carbohydrate building in Coot (LO/Carb) and ligand-validation tools (FLEV), the release of the CCP4i2 GUI provides an integrated solution that streamlines the ligand-fitting workflow, seamlessly passing results from one program to the next. The ligand-fitting process is illustrated using instructive practical examples, including problematic cases such as post-translational modifications, highlighting the need for careful analysis and rigorous validation. PMID:28177312

  20. Synthesis, Structure, and Photophysical Properties of Two Four-Coordinate Cu(I)-NHC Complexes with Efficient Delayed Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Caijun; Wang, Weizhou; Xu, Chen; Ji, Baoming; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2016-03-07

    Two luminescent cationic heteroleptic four-coordinate Cu(I) complexes supported by N-heterocyclic carbene ligand and diphosphine ligand were successfully prepared and characterized. These complexes adopt typical distorted tetrahedral configuration and have high stability in solid state. Quantum chemical calculations show carbene units have contributions to both highest occupied molecular orbitals and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of these Cu(I)-NHC complexes, the lowest-lying singlet and triplet excitations (S0 → S1 and S0 → T1) of [Cu(Pyim)(POP)](PF6) are dominated by metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transition, while the S0 → S1 and S0 → T1 excitations of [Cu(Qbim)(POP)](PF6) are mainly MLCT and ligand-centered transitions, respectively. These Cu(I)-NHC complexes show efficient long-lifetime emissions (λem = 520 nm, τ = 79.8 μs, Φ = 0.56 for [Cu(Pyim)(POP)](PF6), λem = 570 nm, τ = 31.97 μs (78.99%) and 252.2 μs (21.01%), Φ = 0.35 for [Cu(Qbim)(POP)](PF6)) in solid state at room temperature, which are confirmed as delayed fluorescence by investigating the emissions at 77 K.

  1. LigandRNA: computational predictor of RNA-ligand interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Anna; Milanowska, Kaja; Lach, Grzegorz; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2013-12-01

    RNA molecules have recently become attractive as potential drug targets due to the increased awareness of their importance in key biological processes. The increase of the number of experimentally determined RNA 3D structures enabled structure-based searches for small molecules that can specifically bind to defined sites in RNA molecules, thereby blocking or otherwise modulating their function. However, as of yet, computational methods for structure-based docking of small molecule ligands to RNA molecules are not as well established as analogous methods for protein-ligand docking. This motivated us to create LigandRNA, a scoring function for the prediction of RNA-small molecule interactions. Our method employs a grid-based algorithm and a knowledge-based potential derived from ligand-binding sites in the experimentally solved RNA-ligand complexes. As an input, LigandRNA takes an RNA receptor file and a file with ligand poses. As an output, it returns a ranking of the poses according to their score. The predictive power of LigandRNA favorably compares to five other publicly available methods. We found that the combination of LigandRNA and Dock6 into a "meta-predictor" leads to further improvement in the identification of near-native ligand poses. The LigandRNA program is available free of charge as a web server at http://ligandrna.genesilico.pl.

  2. Ligand-Receptor Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bongrand, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The formation and dissociation of specific noncovalent interactions between a variety of macromolecules play a crucial role in the function of biological systems. During the last few years, three main lines of research led to a dramatic improvement of our understanding of these important phenomena. First, combination of genetic engineering and X ray cristallography made available a simultaneous knowledg of the precise structure and affinity of series or related ligand-receptor systems differing by a few well-defined atoms. Second, improvement of computer power and simulation techniques allowed extended exploration of the interaction of realistic macromolecules. Third, simultaneous development of a variety of techniques based on atomic force microscopy, hydrodynamic flow, biomembrane probes, optical tweezers, magnetic fields or flexible transducers yielded direct experimental information of the behavior of single ligand receptor bonds. At the same time, investigation of well defined cellular models raised the ...

  3. Design, Synthesis, and Structural Analysis of Divalent N(I) Compounds and Identification of a New Electron-Donating Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharatam, Prasad V; Arfeen, Minhajul; Patel, Neha; Jain, Priyanka; Bhatia, Sonam; Chakraborti, Asit K; Khullar, Sadhika; Gupta, Vijay; Mandal, Sanjay K

    2016-01-18

    The dative-bond representation (L→E) in compounds with main group elements (E) has triggered extensive debate in the recent past. The scope and limits of this nonclassical coordination bond warrant comprehensive exploration. Particularly compounds with (L→N←L')(+) arrangement are of special interest because of their therapeutic importance. This work reports the design and synthesis of novel chemical species with the general structural formula (L→N←L')(+) carrying the unusual ligand cyclohexa-2,5-diene-4-(diaminomethynyl)-1-ylidene. Four species belonging to the (L→N←L')(+) class carrying this unconventional ligand were synthesized. Quantum chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the electronic and geometric parameters are consistent with those of already reported divalent N(I) compounds. The molecular orbital analysis, geometric parameters, and spectral data clearly support the L→N and N←L' interactions in these species. The newly identified ligand has the properties of a reactive carbene and high nucleophilicity.

  4. Metal-metal interaction in Fischer carbene complexes: a study of ferrocenyl and biferrocenyl tungsten alkylidene complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, Belinda; Speck, J Matthäus; Korb, Marcus; Friedrich, Joachim; Bezuidenhout, Daniela I; Lang, Heinrich

    2013-12-16

    A series of ferrocenyl (Fc = ferrocenyl; fc = ferrocen-1,1'-diyl) and biferrocenyl (Bfc = 1',1″-biferrocenyl; bfc = 1',1″-biferrocen-1,1‴-diyl) mono- and biscarbene tungsten(0) complexes of the type [(CO)5W═C(OMe)R] (1, R = Fc; 3, R = Bfc) and [(CO)5W═C(OMe)-R'-(OMe)C═W(CO)5] (2, R' = fc; 4, R' = bfc) were synthesized according to the classical synthetic methodology by reacting W(CO)6 with LiR (R = Fc, fc, bfc), followed by a subsequent alkylation using methyl trifluoromethanesulfonate. Electrochemical investigations were carried out on these complexes to get a closer insight into the electronic properties of 1-4. The ferrocenyl and biferrocenyl moieties in 1-4 show reversible one-electron redox events. It was further found that the Fischer carbene unit is reducible in an electrochemical one-electron transfer process. For the tungsten carbonyl moieties, irreversible oxidation processes were found. In addition, charge transfer studies were performed on 1-4 using in situ UV-vis-NIR and infrared spectroelectrochemical techniques. During the UV-vis-NIR investigations, typical low energy transitions for the mixed-valent biferrocenyl unit were found. A further observed high energy NIR absorption is attributed to a metal-metal charge transfer transition between the tungsten carbonyl fragment and the ferrocenyl/biferrocenyl group in the corresponding oxidized states, which can be described as class II systems according to Robin and Day. This assignment was verified by infrared spectroelectrochemical studies. The electrochemical investigations are supported by density functional theory calculations. The structural properties of 1-4 in the solid state were investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies showing no substituent effects on bond lengths and angles. The biferrocenyl derivatives exhibit syn-conformation of the ferrocenyl and carbene building blocks.

  5. Trichloromethylthiolation of N-Heterocycles: Practical and Completely Regioselective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Johannes B; Rühling, Andreas; Wibbeling, Birgit; Glorius, Frank

    2016-03-18

    The first trichloromethylthiolation of a broad range of indoles and pyrroles is reported employing bench-stable N-trichloromethylthiosaccharin as reagent. This methodology is highly regioselective, exhibits high functional group tolerance, and provides access to two previously unknown classes of potentially bioactive compounds.

  6. A Comprehensive Review of N-Heterocycles as Cytotoxic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Jain, Subheet Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Scientific community is striving to understand the role of heterocycles and fused heterocycles in drug discovery programme due to its impact on multi-drug resistance (MDR) of anticancer drugs. Architecting of various scaffolds for cancer treatment has become gradually increased in many years. Till now there is no treatment which is so proficient that it can cure the cancer from the roots. Hence, it is very necessary to design novel anticancer agents with minimum side effects. Synthesis of hybrids from natural leads is one of the rationale approaches in medicinal chemistry. It remains a big challenge to invent new efficient drugs to beat cancer. The design and synthesis of fused molecules as anticancer agents is one of the great innovations of modern era. In drug discovery archetype, a variety of heterocycles have been considered for the development of novel lead compounds. This article presents some recent advancements in the field of anticancer heterocyclic agents all around the world and also attracted the structure activity relationship along with the structure of the most promising molecules along with IC50 values against various human cancer cell lines.

  7. Aryl-NHC-group 13 trimethyl complexes: structural, stability and bonding insights

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Melissa M.

    2016-12-14

    Treatment of aromatic N-substituted N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) with trimethyl-gallium and -indium yielded the new Lewis acid-base adducts, IMes·GaMe3 (1), SIMes·GaMe3 (2), IPr·GaMe3 (3), SIPr·GaMe3 (4), IMes·InMe3 (5), SIMes·InMe3 (6), IPr·InMe3 (7), and SIPr·InMe3 (8), with all complexes being identified by X-ray diffraction, IR, and multinuclear NMR analyses. Complex stability was found to be largely dependent on the nature of the constituent NHC ligands. Percent buried volume (%VBur) and topographic steric map analyses were employed to quantify and elucidate the observed trends. Additionally, a detailed bond snapping energy (BSE) decomposition analysis focusing on both steric and orbital interactions of the M-NHC bond (M = Al, Ga and In) has been performed.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and luminescence studies of gold(I–NHC amide complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Gómez-Suárez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A flexible, efficient and straightforward methodology for the synthesis of N-heterocyclic carbene gold(I–amide complexes is reported. Reaction of the versatile building block [Au(OH(IPr] (1 (IPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenylimidazol-2-ylidene with a series of commercially available (heteroaromatic amines leads to the synthesis of several [Au(NRR’(IPr] complexes in good yields and with water as the sole byproduct. Interestingly, these complexes present luminescence properties. UV–vis and fluorescence measurements have allowed the identification of their excitation and emission wavelengths (λmax. These studies revealed that by selecting the appropriate amine ligand the emission can be easily tuned to achieve a variety of colors, from violet to green.

  9. A Ruthenium(III)-Oxyl Complex Bearing Strong Radical Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Yoshihiro; Ishizuka, Tomoya; Kotani, Hiroaki; Shiota, Yoshihito; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Mieda, Kaoru; Ogura, Takashi; Okajima, Toshihiro; Nozawa, Shunsuke; Kojima, Takahiko

    2016-11-02

    Proton-coupled electron-transfer oxidation of a Ru(II) -OH2 complex, having an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand, gives a Ru(III) -O(.) species, which has an electronically equivalent structure of the Ru(IV) =O species, in an acidic aqueous solution. The Ru(III) -O(.) complex was characterized by spectroscopic methods and DFT calculations. The oxidation state of the Ru center was shown to be close to +3; the Ru-O bond showed a lower-energy Raman scattering at 732 cm(-1) and the Ru-O bond length was estimated to be 1.77(1) Å. The Ru(III) -O(.) complex exhibits high reactivity in substrate oxidation under catalytic conditions; particularly, benzaldehyde and the derivatives are oxidized to the corresponding benzoic acid through C-H abstraction from the formyl group by the Ru(III) -O(.) complex bearing a strong radical character as the active species.

  10. Reversible Covalent and Supramolecular Functionalization of Water-Soluble Gold(I) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Benedict; von Gröning, Maximilian; Lewe, Vanessa; Spitzer, Daniel; Otremba, Tobias; Stergiou, Natascha; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Schmitt, Edgar; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Besenius, Pol

    2017-02-09

    The ligation of gold(I) metalloamphiphiles with biomolecules is reported, using water-soluble Au(I) -N-alkynyl substituted maleimide complexes. For this purpose, two different polar ligands were applied: 1) a neutral, dendritic tetraethylene glycol-functionalized phosphane and 2) a charged, sulfonated N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC). The retro Diels-Alder reaction of a furan-protected maleimide gold(I) complex, followed by cycloaddition with a diene-functionalized biotin under mild conditions leads to a novel gold(I) metalloamphiphile. The strong streptavidin-biotin binding affinity in buffered aqueous solution of the resulting biotin alkynyl gold(I) phosphane conjugate remains intact. The cytotoxicity of the biotinylated gold(I) complex against a T47D human breast cancer cell line is higher than for cisplatin.

  11. Ring-Closing and Cross-Metathesis with Artificial Metalloenzymes Created by Covalent Active Site-Directed Hybridization of a Lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basauri-Molina, Manuel; Verhoeven, Dide G A; van Schaik, Arnoldus J; Kleijn, Henk; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M

    2015-10-26

    A series of Grubbs-type catalysts that contain lipase-inhibiting phosphoester functionalities have been synthesized and reacted with the lipase cutinase, which leads to artificial metalloenzymes for olefin metathesis. The resulting hybrids comprise the organometallic fragment that is covalently bound to the active amino acid residue of the enzyme host in an orthogonal orientation. Differences in reactivity as well as accessibility of the active site by the functionalized inhibitor became evident through variation of the anchoring motif and substituents on the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand. Such observations led to the design of a hybrid that is active in the ring-closing metathesis and the cross-metathesis of N,N-diallyl-p-toluenesulfonamide and allylbenzene, respectively, the latter being the first example of its kind in the field of artificial metalloenzymes.

  12. Mono- and Bimetallic Ruthenium—Arene Catalysts for Olefin Metathesis: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borguet, Yannick; Sauvage, Xavier; Demonceau, Albert; Delaude, Lionel

    In this chapter, we summarize the main achievements of our group toward the development of easily accessible, highly efficient ruthenium—arene catalyst precursors for olefin metathesis. Major advances in this field are presented chronologically, with an emphasis on catalyst design and mechanistic details. The first part of this survey focuses on monometallic complexes with the general formula RuCl2(p-cymene)(L), where L is a phosphine or N-heterocyclic carbene ancillary ligand. In the second part, we disclose recent developments in the synthesis and catalytic applications of homobimetallic ruthenium—arene complexes of generic formula (p-cymene)Ru(μ-Cl)3RuCl(η2-C2H4)(L) and their derivatives resulting from the substitution of the labile ethylene moiety with vinylidene, allenylidene, or indenylidene units

  13. The activation mechanism of Fe-based olefin metathesis catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert

    2014-08-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to describe the first turnover for olefin metathesis reaction of a homogenous Fe-based catalyst bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene ligand with methoxyethene as a substrate. Equal to conventional Ru-based catalysts, the activation of its Fe congener occurs through a dissociative mechanism, however with a more exothermic reaction energy profile. Predicted upper energy barriers were calculated to be on average ∼2 kcal/mol more beneficial for Fe catalyzed metathesis. Overall, this present computational study emphasises on advantages of Fe-based metathesis and gives a potential recipe for the design of an efficient Fe-based olefin metathesis catalysts. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  14. A golden future in medicinal inorganic chemistry: the promise of anticancer gold organometallic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Benoît; Casini, Angela

    2014-03-21

    From wedding rings on fingers to stained glass windows, by way of Olympic medals, gold has been highly prized for millennia. Nowadays, organometallic gold compounds occupy an important place in the field of medicinal inorganic chemistry due to their unique chemical properties with respect to gold coordination compounds. In fact, several studies have proved that they can be used to develop highly efficient metal-based drugs with possible applications in the treatment of cancer. This Perspective summarizes the results obtained for different families of bioactive organometallic gold compounds including cyclometallated gold(iii) complexes with C,N-donor ligands, gold(I) and gold(I/III) N-heterocyclic (NHC) carbene complexes, as well as gold(I) alkynyl complexes, with promising anticancer effects. Most importantly, we will focus on recent developments in the field and discuss the potential of this class of organometallic compounds in relation to their versatile chemistry and innovative mechanisms of action.

  15. Bexarotene ligand pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, R E

    2000-12-01

    Bexarotene (LGD-1069), from Ligand, was the first retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective, antitumor retinoid to enter clinical trials. The company launched the drug for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), as Targretin capsules, in the US in January 2000 [359023]. The company filed an NDA for Targretin capsules in June 1999, and for topical gel in December 1999 [329011], [349982] specifically for once-daily oral administration for the treatment of patients with early-stage CTCL who have not tolerated other therapies, patients with refractory or persistent early stage CTCL and patients with refractory advanced stage CTCL. The FDA approved Targretin capsules at the end of December 1999 for once-daily oral treatment of all stages of CTCL in patients refractory to at least one prior systemic therapy, at an initial dose of 300 mg/m2/day. After an NDA was submitted in December 1999 for Targretin gel, the drug received Priority Review status for use as a treatment of cutaneous lesions in patients with stage IA, IB or IIA CTCL [354836]. The FDA issued an approvable letter in June 2000, and granted marketing clearance for CTCL in the same month [370687], [372768], [372769], [373279]. Ligand had received Orphan Drug designation for this indication [329011]. At the request of the FDA, Ligand agreed to carry out certain post-approval phase IV and pharmacokinetic studies [351604]. The company filed an MAA with the EMEA for Targretin Capsules to treat lymphoma in November 1999 [348944]. The NDA for Targretin gel is based on a multicenter phase III trial that was conducted in the US, Canada, Europe and Australia involving 50 patients and a multicenter phase I/II clinical program involving 67 patients. Targretin gel was evaluated for the treatment of patients with early stage CTCL (IA-IIA) who were refractory to, intolerant to, or reached a response plateau for at least 6 months on at least two prior therapies. Efficacy results exceeded the protocol-defined response

  16. A DFT Study on Selected Physical Organic Aspects of the Fischer Carbene Intermediates [(M(CO4(C(OMeMe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq Irshaidat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fischer carbenes are important starting materials for C-C bond formation via coupling reactions between carbene and wide variety of substituted alkenes or alkynes. This DFT study shed light on unique fundamental organic/organometallic aspects for the C(OMeMe carbene in the free form and in case of bonding with M(CO4 (M= Cr, Mo, W. The data illustrate that the structures of the title intermediates include a unique structure stabilizing intramolecular M…C-H interaction (agostic interaction. This conclusion was made based on calculated NMR data (for carbon and hydrogen, structural parameters, energy calculations of conformers (C-C conformation, selected IR stretching frequencies (C-O, C-C, and C-H, and atomic charges. The agostic interaction is most efficient in case of chromium and in general is described as an overlap between the σ-bond electron pair of C-H with an empty d-orbital of the metal. These characterized examples are new addition to the orbital interaction theory.

  17. 3,3′-Di-n-butyl-1,1′-(p-phenylenedimethylenediimidazolium bis(hexafluorophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenani A. Haque

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title N-heterocyclic carbene compound, C22H32N42+·2PF6−, consists of one half of the N-heterocyclic carbene dication and one hexafluorophosphate anion. The dication lies across a crystallographic inversion center. The imidazole ring is twisted away from the central benzene ring, making a dihedral angle of 76.23 (6°. The hexafluorophosphate anions link the cations into a three-dimensional network via intermolecular C—H...F hydrogen bonds. A weak C—H...π interaction further stabilizes the crystal structure.

  18. Hydrofluorination of Alkynes Catalysed by Gold Bifluorides

    OpenAIRE

    Nahra, Fady; Patrick, Scott R.; Bello, Davide; Brill, Marcel; Obled, Alan; Cordes, David B.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; O'Hagan, David; Steven P. Nolan

    2014-01-01

    We report the synthesis of nine new N-heterocyclic carbene gold bifluoride complexes starting from the corresponding N-heterocyclic carbene gold hydroxides. A new methodology to access N,N′-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene gold(I) fluoride starting from N,N′-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene gold(I) hydroxide and readily available potassium bifluoride is also reported. These gold bifluorides were shown to be efficient catalysts in the hydrofluorination of symmetrical an...

  19. 1. Medicinal chemistry of a small molecule drug lead: Tamoxilog 2. Electronic communication through ruthenium nanoparticles: Synthesis of custom ligands and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Nathaniel Benjamin

    1. Compound NSC-670224, previously shown to be toxic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae at low micromolar concentrations, potentially acts via a mechanism of action related to that of tamoxifen (NSC 180973), a widely utilized breast cancer drug. The structure of NSC-670224, previously thought to be a 2,4-dichloro arene, was established as the 3,4-dichloro arene, and a focused library of analogues were synthesized and biologically evaluated in conjunction with the UCSC Chemical Screening Center. The synthesis of a biotinylated affinity probe was also completed in order to extract the protein target(s) of NSC-670224 from yeast and human cell lines in collaboration with the Hartzog lab (UCSC MCD Biology) 2. Stabilization of ruthenium nanoparticles (Ru NPs) through carbene bound ligands has led to a simple and effective means to generate new materials with unique optoelectronic properties. The affinity of freshly prepared Ru NPs to diazo compounds, specifically octyl diazoacetate (ODA), provides a robust nanostructure that can be further functionalized via metathesis of terminal olefins to generate these unique materials. Carbene-stabilized Ru NPs have provided insights into the nature of extended conjugation and intraparticle charge delocalization through covalently bound probes (e.g., ferrocene and pyrene). The growing interest to study electronic communication through Ru NPs has lead to collaborative, multidisciplinary efforts between analytical (Shaowei Chen lab, UCSC), theoretical (Haobin Wang Lab, NMSU), and synthetic organic chemists (Konopelski Lab, UCSC). With this powerful collaboration, new methods to generate stabilized Ru NPs, testing theory with experiment, and efficient means to functionalize NPs have been investigated. The syntheses of custom ligands and their applications to nanoparticle-mediated electronic communication are reported.

  20. Melatonin: functions and ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahaveer; Jadhav, Hemant R

    2014-09-01

    Melatonin is a chronobiotic substance that acts as synchronizer by stabilizing bodily rhythms. Its synthesis occurs in various locations throughout the body, including the pineal gland, skin, lymphocytes and gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Its synthesis and secretion is controlled by light and dark conditions, whereby light decreases and darkness increases its production. Thus, melatonin is also known as the 'hormone of darkness'. Melatonin and analogs that bind to the melatonin receptors are important because of their role in the management of depression, insomnia, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease (AD), diabetes, obesity, alopecia, migraine, cancer, and immune and cardiac disorders. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of action of melatonin in these disorders, which could aid in the design of novel melatonin receptor ligands.

  1. Macrocyclic G-quadruplex ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M C; Ulven, Trond

    2010-01-01

    G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds have recently received increased interest due to their potential application as anticancer therapeutics. A significant number of structurally diverse G-quadruplex ligands have been developed. Some of the most potent and selective ligands currently known are macr...

  2. Glutamate receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandt, Mette; Johansen, Tommy N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea;

    2002-01-01

    Homologation and substitution on the carbon backbone of (S)-glutamic acid [(S)-Glu, 1], as well as absolute stereochemistry, are structural parameters of key importance for the pharmacological profile of (S)-Glu receptor ligands. We describe a series of methyl-substituted 2-aminoadipic acid (AA......-ray crystallographic analyses, chemical correlation, and CD spectral analyses. The effects of the individual stereoisomers at ionotropic and metabotropic (S)-Glu receptors (iGluRs and mGluRs) were characterized. Compounds with S-configuration at the alpha-carbon generally showed mGluR2 agonist activity of similar...... limited effect on pharmacology. Structure-activity relationships at iGluRs in the rat cortical wedge preparation showed a complex pattern, some compounds being NMDA receptor agonists [e.g., EC(50) =110 microM for (2S,5RS)-5-methyl-AA (6a,b)] and some compounds showing NMDA receptor antagonist effects [e...

  3. Thin films of molecular materials synthesized from fisher's carbene ferrocenyl: Film formation and electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Vergara, M.E. [Coordinacion de Ingenieria Mecatronica. Escuela de Ingenieria, Universidad Anahuac del Norte. Avenida Lomas de la Anahuac s/n, Col. Lomas Anahuac, 52786, Huixquilucan (Mexico)], E-mail: elena.sanchez@anahuac.mx; Ortiz, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. A. P. 70-360, 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Alvarez-Toledano, C.; Moreno, A. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Alvarez, J.R. [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Ciudad de Mexico. Calle del Puente 222, Col. Ejidos de Huipulco, 14380, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2008-07-31

    The synthesis of materials from Fisher's carbene ferrocenyl of the elements chromium, molybdenum and tungsten was carried out. The Fisher's compounds that were synthesized included the following combinations of two different metallic atoms: iron with chromium, iron with molybdenum and iron with tungsten. The molecular solids' preparation was done in electro-synthesis cells with platinum electrodes. Thin films were prepared by vacuum thermal evaporation on quartz substrates and crystalline silicon wafers. Pellets and thin films from these compounds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry. The powder and thin films synthesized from these materials show the same intra-molecular bonds shown by infrared spectroscopy results, suggesting that thermal evaporation does not alter these bonds in spite of the thin films being amorphous, in contrast with other bimetallic complexes where material decomposition occurs. The differences in the conductivity values of the prepared films are very small, so they may be attributed to the different metallic ions employed in each case. The tungsten complex exhibits a higher conductivity than the molybdenum and chromium complexes at room temperature. Electrical conductivity values found for thin films are higher than for pellets made of the same molecular materials.

  4. Unimolecular reaction mechanism of an imidazolin-2-ylidene: an iPEPICO study on the complex dissociation of an Arduengo-type carbene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemberger, Patrick; Bodi, Andras; Gerber, Thomas; Würtemberger, Max; Radius, Udo

    2013-05-27

    The photoionization and dissociative photoionization of Im(iPr)2, 1,3-diisopropylimidazolin-2-ylidene, was investigated by imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence (iPEPICO) with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation. A lone-pair electron of the carbene carbon atom is removed upon ionization and the molecular geometry changes significantly. Only 0.5 eV above the adiabatic ionization energy, IEad =7.52±0.1 eV, the carbene cation fragments, yielding propene or a methyl radical in parallel dissociation reactions with appearance energies of 8.22 and 8.17 eV, respectively. Both reaction channels appear at almost the same photon energy, suggesting a shared transition state. This is confirmed by calculations, which reveal the rate-determining step as hydrogen-atom migration from the isopropyl group to the carbene carbon center forming a resonance-stabilized imidazolium ion. Above 10.5 eV, analogous sequential dissociation channels open up. The first propene-loss fragment ion dissociates further and another methyl or propene is abstracted. Again, a resonance-stabilized imidazolium ion acts as intermediate. The aromaticity of the system is enhanced even in vertical ionization. Indeed, the coincidence technique confirms that a real imidazolium ion is produced by hydrogen transfer over a small barrier. The simple analysis of the breakdown diagram yields all the clues to disentangle the complex dissociative photoionization mechanism of this intermediate-sized molecule. Photoelectron photoion coincidence is a promising tool to unveil the fragmentation mechanism of larger molecules in mass spectrometry.

  5. α,β-Unsaturated Gold(I) Carbenes by Tandem Cyclization and 1,5-Alkoxy Migration of 1,6-Enynes: Mechanisms and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, Pilar; Pablo, Óscar; Ranieri, Beatrice; Gaydou, Morgane; Pitaval, Anthony; Moreno, María; Raducan, Mihai; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2016-09-12

    1,6-Enynes bearing OR groups at the propargyl position generate α,β-unsaturated gold(I)-carbenes/ gold(I) stabilized allyl cations that can be trapped by alkenes to form cyclopropanes or 1,3-diketones to give products of α-alkylation. The best migrating group is p-nitrophenyl ether, which leads to the corresponding products without racemization. Thus, an improved formal synthesis of (+)-schisanwilsonene A has been accomplished. The different competitive reaction pathways have been delineated computationally.

  6. Visualization of Metal-to-Ligand and Ligand-to-Ligand Charge Transfer in Metal-Ligand Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Ding; Jian-xiu Guo; Xiang-si Wang; Sha-sha Liu; Feng-cai Ma

    2009-01-01

    Three methods including the atomic resolved density of state, charge difference density, and the transition density matrix are used to visualize metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) in ruthenium(Ⅱ) ammine complex. The atomic resolved density of state shows that there is density of Ru on the HOMOs. All the density is localized on the ammine, which reveals that the excited electrons in the Ru complex are delocalized over the ammine ligand. The charge difference density shows that all the holes are localized on the Ru and the electrons on the ammine. The localization explains the MLCT on excitation. The transition density matrix shows that there is electron-hole coherence between Ru and ammine. These methods are also used to examine the MLCT in Os(bpy)(p0p)Cl ("Osp0p"; bpy=2,2'-bipyridyl; p0p=4,4'-bipyridyl) and the ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (LLCT) in Alq3. The calculated results show that these methods are powerful to examine MLCT and LLCT in the metal-ligand system.

  7. Computational Study on the Intramolecular Carbene-CO Coupling in M(CH2(CO3 Radicals (M = Co, Rh, Ir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Tollár

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The intramolecular carbene-carbonyl coupling has been investigated for the simple M(CH2(CO3 (M = Co, Rh, Ir radical complexes at the DFT PBEPBE/TZVP level of theory. The coupling is predicted to be very fast for the cobalt-containing system, but it is still feasible for the systems based on the other two metals. The back-way reaction, that is, the conversion of the ketene complex into carbonyl-carbene complex, cannot be excluded from the Ir-containing system in CH2Cl2, and it is even favored in gas phase. The intermolecular ketene formation by the addition of external CO onto the CH2 moiety is the favored pathway for the Ir-complex. The Laplacian distribution, as well as the natural spin density distribution of all the species, being involved in the reaction, gives explanation for the significant difference between the nature of the Co-complex and the Rh- and Ir-systems.

  8. Why mercury prefers soft ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, Demian M [ORNL; Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Summers, Anne [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Miller, S [University of California, San Francisco; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Defining the factors that determine the relative affinities of different ligands for the mercuric ion, Hg2+, is critical to understanding its speciation, transformation, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Here, we use quantum chemistry to dissect the relative binding free energies for a series of inorganic anion complexes of Hg2+. Comparison of Hg2+ ligand interactions in the gaseous and aqueous phases shows that differences in interactions with a few, local water molecules led to a clear periodic trend within the chalcogenide and halide groups and resulted in the well-known experimentally observed preference of Hg2+ for soft ligands such as thiols. Our approach establishes a basis for understanding Hg speciation in the biosphere.

  9. Molecular Recognition and Ligand Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Riccardo; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2013-04-01

    We review recent developments in our understanding of molecular recognition and ligand association, focusing on two major viewpoints: (a) studies that highlight new physical insight into the molecular recognition process and the driving forces determining thermodynamic signatures of binding and (b) recent methodological advances in applications to protein-ligand binding. In particular, we highlight the challenges posed by compensating enthalpic and entropic terms, competing solute and solvent contributions, and the relevance of complex configurational ensembles comprising multiple protein, ligand, and solvent intermediate states. As more complete physics is taken into account, computational approaches increase their ability to complement experimental measurements, by providing a microscopic, dynamic view of ensemble-averaged experimental observables. Physics-based approaches are increasingly expanding their power in pharmacology applications.

  10. Synthesis of isocoumarins through three-component couplings of arynes, terminal alkynes, and carbon dioxide catalyzed by an NHC-copper complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Woo-Jin; Nguyen, Thanh V Q; Kobayashi, Shū

    2014-09-15

    A copper-catalyzed multicomponent coupling reaction between in situ generated ortho-arynes, terminal alkynes, and carbon dioxide was developed to access isocoumarins in moderate to good yields. The key to this CO2-incorporating reaction was the use of a versatile N-heterocyclic carbene/copper complex that was able to catalyze multiple transformations within the three-component reaction.

  11. Lutidine-derived Ru-CNC hydrogenation pincer catalysts with versatile coordination properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filonenko, Georgy A.; Cosimi, Elena; Lefort, Laurent; Conley, Matthew P.; Copéret, Christophe; Lutz, Martin; Hensen, Emiel J M; Pidko, Evgeny A.

    2014-01-01

    Lutidine-derived bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium CNC-pincer complexes (Ru-CNC's) were prepared. Depending on the synthetic procedure, normal (1, 2) or mixed normal/abnormal NHC-complexes (3) are formed. In the presence of phosphazene base, Ru-CNC complexes activate nitriles to give ketimi

  12. Catalytic α-arylation of imines leading to N-unprotected indoles and azaindoles

    KAUST Repository

    Marelli, Enrico

    2016-03-30

    A Palladium-N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed methodology for the synthesis of substituted, N-unprotected indoles and azaindoles is reported. The protocol permits access to various, highly substituted members of these classes of compounds. Although two possible reactions pathways (deprotonative and Heck-like) can be proposed, control experiments, supported by computational studies, point towards a deprotonative mechanism being operative.

  13. Dinuclear NHC-palladium complexes containing phosphine spacers: synthesis, X-ray structures and their catalytic activities towards the Hiyama coupling reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Li, Pinhua; Zhang, Yicheng; Wang, Lei

    2014-05-21

    Six dinuclear N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) palladium complexes, [PdCl2(IMes)]2(μ-dppe) (1), [PdCl2(IPr)]2(μ-dppe) (2), [PdCl2(IMes)]2(μ-dppb) (3), [PdCl2(IPr)]2(μ-dppb) (4), [PdCl2(IMes)]2(μ-dpph) (5), and [PdCl2(IPr)]2(μ-dpph) (6) [IMes = N,N'-bis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene; IPr = N,N'-bis-(2,6-di(iso-propyl)phenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene; dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane, dppb = 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane; and dpph = 1,6-bis(diphenylphosphino)hexane], have been synthesized through bridge-cleavage reactions of chloro-bridged dimeric compounds, [Pd(μ-Cl)(Cl)(NHC)]2, with the corresponding diphosphine ligands. The obtained compounds were fully characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and (31)P NMR spectroscopy, FT-IR, elemental analysis and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Moreover, further explorations of the catalytic potential of the dinuclear carbene palladium complexes as catalysts for the Pd-catalyzed transformations have been performed under microwave irradiation conditions, and the complexes exhibited moderate to good catalytic activity in the Hiyama coupling reaction of trimethoxyphenylsilane with aryl chlorides.

  14. A race for RAGE ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Erwin D

    2010-08-01

    In experimental animals a causal involvement of the multiligand receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in the development of diabetic vascular complications has been demonstrated. However, the nature of RAGE ligands present in patients with diabetic nephropathy has not yet been defined; this leaves open the relevance of the RAGE system to the human disease.

  15. Controlled-deactivation cannabinergic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rishi; Nikas, Spyros P; Paronis, Carol A; Wood, Jodianne T; Halikhedkar, Aneetha; Guo, Jason Jianxin; Thakur, Ganesh A; Kulkarni, Shashank; Benchama, Othman; Raghav, Jimit Girish; Gifford, Roger S; Järbe, Torbjörn U C; Bergman, Jack; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2013-12-27

    We report an approach for obtaining novel cannabinoid analogues with controllable deactivation and improved druggability. Our design involves the incorporation of a metabolically labile ester group at the 2'-position on a series of (-)-Δ(8)-THC analogues. We have sought to introduce benzylic substituents α to the ester group which affect the half-lives of deactivation through enzymatic activity while enhancing the affinities and efficacies of individual ligands for the CB1 and CB2 receptors. The 1'-(S)-methyl, 1'-gem-dimethyl, and 1'-cyclobutyl analogues exhibit remarkably high affinities for both CB receptors. The novel ligands are susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis by plasma esterases in a controllable manner, while their metabolites are inactive at the CB receptors. In further in vitro and in vivo experiments key analogues were shown to be potent CB1 receptor agonists and to exhibit CB1-mediated hypothermic and analgesic effects.

  16. Versatile deprotonated NHC: C,N-bridged dinuclear iridium and rhodium complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Poater

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing the versatility of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC ligands, here density functional theory (DFT calculations unravel the capacity of coordination of a deprotonated NHC ligand (pNHC to generate a doubly C2,N3-bridged dinuclear complex. Here, in particular the discussion is based on the combination of the deprotonated 1-arylimidazol (aryl = mesityl (Mes with [M(cod(μ-Cl] (M = Ir, Rh generated two geometrical isomers of complex [M(cod{µ-C3H2N2(Mes-κC2,κN3}]2. The latter two isomers display conformations head-to-head (H-H and head-to-tail (H-T of CS and C2 symmetry, respectively. The isomerization from the H-H to the H-T conformation is feasible, whereas next substitutions of the cod ligand by CO first, and PMe3 later confirm the H-T coordination as the thermodynamically preferred. It is envisaged the exchange of the metal, from iridium to rhodium, confirming here the innocence of the nature of the metal for such arrangements of the bridging ligands.

  17. Privileged chiral ligands and catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Qi-Lin

    2011-01-01

    This ultimate ""must have"" and long awaited reference for every chemist working in the field of asymmetric catalysis starts with the core structure of the catalysts, explaining why a certain ligand or catalyst is so successful. It describes in detail the history, the basic structural characteristics, and the applications of these ""privileged catalysts"". A novel concept that gives readers a much deeper insight into the topic.

  18. Tumor targeting via integrin ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya Kiran eMarelli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells.

  19. Cyclic(alkyl)(amino)carbenes and the Research Prospect in Olefin Metathesis Reaction%环(烷基)(氨基)卡宾及其在烯烃复分解反应中的研究展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡援; 开铖; 黄毅勇; Verpoort Francis

    2014-01-01

    Olefin metathesis has been one of the most important methods to construct carbon-carbon double bonds, which has been enabled by development of well-defined transition-metal catalysts (e.g. [L2X2Ru=CHR], L=PCy3). A significant gain to increase the catalyst stability and activity was achieved after replacing a single PCy3 ligand of L2X2Ru=CHR (L=PCy3) with cyclic biamino cabene, such as 1,3-dimesityl-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene (H2IMes). In 2005, Bertrand et al. discovered a novel ligand-yclic(alkyl)(amino)cabene (CAAC), which displayed more electron donating and more electrophilic in compari-son with cyclic diamino cabene. It is logic that more electronegative amino group is replaced by alkyl group in CAAC. Fur-thermore, a quaternary carbon at theαposition of carbene center of CAAC may make a big difference from cyclic diamino cabene, which can change the steric environment of CAAC easily and creat a chiral center next to the carbene. In this research prospect, synthesis, property and application of CAACs in olefin metathesis catalysis are introduced. Finally, the issues re-mained in this research area are summarized and an outlook for the development in the future is given.%烯烃复分解反应是形成碳碳双键的重要反应之一,其发展与结构明确的钌催化剂[L2X2Ru=CHR]中配体的创制密切相关.1999年,环二氨基卡宾配体的引入极大提高了催化剂的活性、稳定性以及官能团适用性.2005年, Bertrand等发展了一种比环二氨基卡宾具有更强给电子能力的配体──环(烷基)(氨基)卡宾(CAACs)配体,且卡宾中心α位为一季碳原子,这使得其空间环境与其他类型卡宾配体有很大差异.首先概述了CAACs配体的合成及性质,紧接着讨论了其在烯烃复分解催化反应中的研究进展,最后对该领域所存在的问题进行简要分析并对其发展作了展望.

  20. DFT Study of Mechanism of Extraction Reaction Between Germylene Carbene (H2Ge=C:) and Its Derivatives and Ethylene Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-hui Lu; Xin Che; Yong-qing Li; Zhi-na Wang

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of the oxide extraction reaction between singlet germylene carbene and its derivatives X2Ge=C: (X=H, F, C1, CH3) and ethylene oxide has been investigated with B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) method. The results show that this kind of reaction has similar mechanism, the shift of 2p lone electron pair of O in ethylene oxide to the 2p unoccupied orbital of C in X2Ge=C: gives a p→p donor-acceptor bond, thereby leading to the formation of intermediate. As the p→p donor-acceptor bond continues to strengthen, that is the C-O bond continues to shorten, the intermediate generates product (P+C2H4) via transition state. It is the substituent electronegativity that mainly affect the extraction reactions. When the substituent electronegativity is greater, the energy barrier is lower, and the reaction rate is greater.

  1. Ligand placement based on prior structures: the guided ligand-replacement method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klei, Herbert E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543-4000 (United States); Moriarty, Nigel W., E-mail: nwmoriarty@lbl.gov; Echols, Nathaniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545-0001 (United States); Baldwin, Eric T. [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543-4000 (United States); Natural Discovery LLC, Princeton, NJ 08542-0096 (United States); Pokross, Matt; Posy, Shana [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543-4000 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1762 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A new module, Guided Ligand Replacement (GLR), has been developed in Phenix to increase the ease and success rate of ligand placement when prior protein-ligand complexes are available. The process of iterative structure-based drug design involves the X-ray crystal structure determination of upwards of 100 ligands with the same general scaffold (i.e. chemotype) complexed with very similar, if not identical, protein targets. In conjunction with insights from computational models and assays, this collection of crystal structures is analyzed to improve potency, to achieve better selectivity and to reduce liabilities such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicology. Current methods for modeling ligands into electron-density maps typically do not utilize information on how similar ligands bound in related structures. Even if the electron density is of sufficient quality and resolution to allow de novo placement, the process can take considerable time as the size, complexity and torsional degrees of freedom of the ligands increase. A new module, Guided Ligand Replacement (GLR), was developed in Phenix to increase the ease and success rate of ligand placement when prior protein–ligand complexes are available. At the heart of GLR is an algorithm based on graph theory that associates atoms in the target ligand with analogous atoms in the reference ligand. Based on this correspondence, a set of coordinates is generated for the target ligand. GLR is especially useful in two situations: (i) modeling a series of large, flexible, complicated or macrocyclic ligands in successive structures and (ii) modeling ligands as part of a refinement pipeline that can automatically select a reference structure. Even in those cases for which no reference structure is available, if there are multiple copies of the bound ligand per asymmetric unit GLR offers an efficient way to complete the model after the first ligand has been placed. In all of these applications, GLR

  2. CB receptor ligands from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelkart, Karin; Salo-Ahen, Outi M H; Bauer, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Advances in understanding the physiology and pharmacology of the endogenous cannabinoid system have potentiated the interest of cannabinoid receptors as potential therapeutic targets. Cannabinoids have been shown to modulate a variety of immune cell functions and have therapeutic implications on central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, chronic inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, and may be therapeutically useful in treating autoimmune conditions such as multiple sclerosis. Many of these drug effects occur through cannabinoid receptor signalling mechanisms and the modulation of cytokines and other gene products. Further, endocannabinoids have been found to have many physiological and patho-physiological functions, including mood alteration and analgesia, control of energy balance, gut motility, motor and co-ordination activities, as well as alleviation of neurological, psychiatric and eating disorders. Plants offer a wide range of chemical diversity and have been a growing domain in the search for effective cannabinoid ligands. Cannabis sativa L. with the known plant cannabinoid, Delta(9-)tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Echinacea species with the cannabinoid (CB) receptor-binding lipophilic alkamides are the best known herbal cannabimimetics. This review focuses on the state of the art in CB ligands from plants, as well their possible therapeutic and immunomodulatory effects.

  3. Ligand photo-isomerization triggers conformational changes in iGluR2 ligand binding domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tino Wolter

    Full Text Available Neurological glutamate receptors bind a variety of artificial ligands, both agonistic and antagonistic, in addition to glutamate. Studying their small molecule binding properties increases our understanding of the central nervous system and a variety of associated pathologies. The large, oligomeric multidomain membrane protein contains a large and flexible ligand binding domains which undergoes large conformational changes upon binding different ligands. A recent application of glutamate receptors is their activation or inhibition via photo-switchable ligands, making them key systems in the emerging field of optochemical genetics. In this work, we present a theoretical study on the binding mode and complex stability of a novel photo-switchable ligand, ATA-3, which reversibly binds to glutamate receptors ligand binding domains (LBDs. We propose two possible binding modes for this ligand based on flexible ligand docking calculations and show one of them to be analogues to the binding mode of a similar ligand, 2-BnTetAMPA. In long MD simulations, it was observed that transitions between both binding poses involve breaking and reforming the T686-E402 protein hydrogen bond. Simulating the ligand photo-isomerization process shows that the two possible configurations of the ligand azo-group have markedly different complex stabilities and equilibrium binding modes. A strong but slow protein response is observed after ligand configuration changes. This provides a microscopic foundation for the observed difference in ligand activity upon light-switching.

  4. Measurement of protein-ligand complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Peter N; Vaughan, Cara K; Daviter, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Experimental approaches to detect, measure, and quantify protein-ligand binding, along with their theoretical bases, are described. A range of methods for detection of protein-ligand interactions is summarized. Specific protocols are provided for a nonequilibrium procedure pull-down assay, for an equilibrium direct binding method and its modification into a competition-based measurement and for steady-state measurements based on the effects of ligands on enzyme catalysis.

  5. Thermally Stable, Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Renee M.; Fedorov, Alexey; Keitz, Benjamin K.

    2011-01-01

    Highly thermally stable N-aryl,N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium catalysts were designed and synthesized for latent olefin metathesis. These catalysts showed excellent latent behavior toward metathesis reactions, whereby the complexes were inactive at ambient temperature and initiated at elevated temperatures, a challenging property to achieve with second generation catalysts. A sterically hindered N-tert-butyl substituent on the NHC ligand of the ruthenium complex was found to induce latent behavior toward cross-metathesis reactions, and exchange of the chloride ligands for iodide ligands was necessary to attain latent behavior during ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Iodide-based catalysts showed no reactivity toward ROMP of norbornene-derived monomers at 25 °C, and upon heating to 85 °C gave complete conversion of monomer to polymer in less than 2 hours. All of the complexes were very stable to air, moisture, and elevated temperatures up to at least 90 °C, and exhibited a long catalyst lifetime in solution at elevated temperatures. PMID:22282652

  6. Synthesis and crystal structure of trans-di-chlorido[3-methyl-1-(4-vinyl-benz-yl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium-2-yl-κC (2)](4-phenyl-pyridine-κN)palladium(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Maitham H; Wendt, Ola F

    2016-04-01

    The title compound, [PdCl2(C11H9N)(C13H14N2)], represents a new class of palladium-based polymerizable monomer which could give a potentially catalytically active polymer. It was synthesized via transmetallation from the corresponding silver complex. The Pd(II) ion coordinates two Cl anions, one C atom from the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand and one N atom from the 4-phenyl-pyridine ligand, displaying a slightly distorted square-planar geometry. The dihedral angle between the imidazole ring and the pyridine ring is 34.53 (8)°. The Pd-C bond length between the NHC ligand and the Pd(II) ion is 1.9532 (16) Å. In the crystal, weak non-classical C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into a tape structure along [101]. A weak π-π inter-action is also observed [centroid-centroid distance = 3.9117 (11) Å].

  7. Rhodium olefin complexes of diiminate type ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Sander Theodorus Hermanus

    2003-01-01

    The mono-anionic beta-diiminate ligand (ArNC(CH3)CHC(CH3)NAr) on several previous occasions proved useful in stabilising low coordination numbers for both early and late transition metals. In this thesis the reactivity of the rhodium olefin complexes of one of these beta-diiminate ligands (Ar = 2,6-

  8. Ligand sphere conversions in terminal carbide complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Thorbjørn Juul; Reinholdt, Anders; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Metathesis is introduced as a preparative route to terminal carbide complexes. The chloride ligands of the terminal carbide complex [RuC(Cl)2(PCy3)2] (RuC) can be exchanged, paving the way for a systematic variation of the ligand sphere. A series of substituted complexes, including the first exam...

  9. Flexible Ligand Docking Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rene

    2003-01-01

    The docking of ligands to proteins can be formulated as a computational problem where the task is to find the most favorable energetic conformation among the large space of possible protein–ligand complexes. Stochastic search methods such as evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to sample large...

  10. Ligand binding mechanics of maltose binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertz, Morten; Rief, Matthias

    2009-11-13

    In the past decade, single-molecule force spectroscopy has provided new insights into the key interactions stabilizing folded proteins. A few recent studies probing the effects of ligand binding on mechanical protein stability have come to quite different conclusions. While some proteins seem to be stabilized considerably by a bound ligand, others appear to be unaffected. Since force acts as a vector in space, it is conceivable that mechanical stabilization by ligand binding is dependent on the direction of force application. In this study, we vary the direction of the force to investigate the effect of ligand binding on the stability of maltose binding protein (MBP). MBP consists of two lobes connected by a hinge region that move from an open to a closed conformation when the ligand maltose binds. Previous mechanical experiments, where load was applied to the N and C termini, have demonstrated that MBP is built up of four building blocks (unfoldons) that sequentially detach from the folded structure. In this study, we design the pulling direction so that force application moves the two MBP lobes apart along the hinge axis. Mechanical unfolding in this geometry proceeds via an intermediate state whose boundaries coincide with previously reported MBP unfoldons. We find that in contrast to N-C-terminal pulling experiments, the mechanical stability of MBP is increased by ligand binding when load is applied to the two lobes and force breaks the protein-ligand interactions directly. Contour length measurements indicate that MBP is forced into an open conformation before unfolding even if ligand is bound. Using mutagenesis experiments, we demonstrate that the mechanical stabilization effect is due to only a few key interactions of the protein with its ligand. This work illustrates how varying the direction of the applied force allows revealing important details about the ligand binding mechanics of a large protein.

  11. Correcting ligands, metabolites, and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vriend Gert

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of research areas in bioinformatics, molecular biology and medicinal chemistry require precise chemical structure information about molecules and reactions, e.g. drug design, ligand docking, metabolic network reconstruction, and systems biology. Most available databases, however, treat chemical structures more as illustrations than as a datafield in its own right. Lack of chemical accuracy impedes progress in the areas mentioned above. We present a database of metabolites called BioMeta that augments the existing pathway databases by explicitly assessing the validity, correctness, and completeness of chemical structure and reaction information. Description The main bulk of the data in BioMeta were obtained from the KEGG Ligand database. We developed a tool for chemical structure validation which assesses the chemical validity and stereochemical completeness of a molecule description. The validation tool was used to examine the compounds in BioMeta, showing that a relatively small number of compounds had an incorrect constitution (connectivity only, not considering stereochemistry and that a considerable number (about one third had incomplete or even incorrect stereochemistry. We made a large effort to correct the errors and to complete the structural descriptions. A total of 1468 structures were corrected and/or completed. We also established the reaction balance of the reactions in BioMeta and corrected 55% of the unbalanced (stoichiometrically incorrect reactions in an automatic procedure. The BioMeta database was implemented in PostgreSQL and provided with a web-based interface. Conclusion We demonstrate that the validation of metabolite structures and reactions is a feasible and worthwhile undertaking, and that the validation results can be used to trigger corrections and improvements to BioMeta, our metabolite database. BioMeta provides some tools for rational drug design, reaction searches, and

  12. Calcium carbene complexes with boranophosphorano side-arms: CaC[P(Ph)(2)BH(3)](2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowski, Lars; Jansen, Georg; Lutz, Martin; Harder, Sjoerd

    2009-04-28

    The ligand H(2)C(PPh(2)BH(3))(2) (-H(2)) reacted with one or a half equivalent of (para-tBu-C(6)H(4)CH(2))(2)Ca.(THF)(4) to form the calcium complexes Ca[HC(PPh(2)BH(3))(2)](2) (-H)(2)Ca and CaC(PPh(2)BH(3))(2) (-Ca), respectively. The crystal structures of their THF adducts (-H)(2)Ca.THF and [-Ca.(THF)](2) follow the same trends as observed for the corresponding iminophosphorano substituted complexes Ca[HC(PPh(2)NR)(2)](2) and [CaC(PPh(2)NR)(2)](2). The P-C bonds shorten upon gradual deprotonation, whereas the P-B and P-N bonds elongate. The geometries of DFT-optimized model systems and complete molecular structures show similar trends. Also the charge distribution within the boranophosphorano complexes is similar to that in the iminophosphorano complexes. The high positive charges on Ca (1.74-1.75) indicate a predominantly ionic ligand-Ca bonding. High negative charges on the central carbon atom (-1.103 in Ca[HC(PH(2)BH(3))(2)](2) and -1.775 in [CaC(PH(2)BH(3))(2)](2)) compare well to those calculated for analogous iminophosphorano complexes (-1.126 Ca[HC(PH(2)NH)(2)](2) and -1.847 [CaC(PH(2)NH)(2)](2), respectively). Thus, in both types of complexes delocalization of electron density over the boranophosphorano or iminophosphorano substituents does not play a major role. Complex [-Ca.(THF)](2) does not react with adamantyl cyanide. Instead the adduct (-Ca)(2).(THF).(adamantyl-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]N) formed (a crystal structure has been determined).

  13. Multicomponent mixtures for cryoprotection and ligand solubilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Ciccone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mixed cryoprotectants have been developed for the solubilization of ligands for crystallization of protein–ligand complexes and for crystal soaking. Low affinity lead compounds with poor solubility are problematic for structural studies. Complete ligand solubilization is required for co-crystallization and crystal soaking experiments to obtain interpretable electron density maps for the ligand. Mixed cryo-preserving compounds are needed prior to X-ray data collection to reduce radiation damage at synchrotron sources. Here we present dual-use mixes that act as cryoprotectants and also promote the aqueous solubility of hydrophobic ligands. Unlike glycerol that increases protein solubility and can cause crystal melting the mixed solutions of cryo-preserving compounds that include precipitants and solubilizers, allow for worry-free crystal preservation while simultaneously solubilizing relatively hydrophobic ligands, typical of ligands obtained in high-throughput screening. The effectiveness of these mixture has been confirmed on a human transthyretin crystals both during crystallization and in flash freezing of crystals.

  14. Coordinate unsaturation with fluorinated ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rack, J.L.; Hurlburt, P.K.; Anderson, O.P.; Strauss, S.H. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The preparation and characterization of Zn(OTeF{sub 5}){sub 2} has resulted in a model compound with which to explore the concept of coordinative unsaturation. The coordination of solvents of varying donicity and dielectric constant to the Zn(II) ions in Zn(OTeF{sub 5}){sub 2} was studied by vapor phase monometry, NMR and IR spectroscopy, conductimetry, and X-Ray crystallography. The structures of [Zn(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}NO{sub 2}){sub 2}(OTeF{sub 5})2]2 and Zn(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}NO{sub 2}){sub 3}(OTEF{sub 5}){sub 2} demonstrate the electronic flexibility of some weakly coordinating solvents in that nitrobenzene can function as either an {eta}{sup 1}O or {eta}{sup 2}O,O`-ligand. The dependence of the number of bound solvent molecules and the degree of OTeF{sub 5}{minus} dissociation on solvent donor number and dielectric constant will be presented.

  15. Synthesis of 3,3-Disubstituted Oxindoles by Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Intramolecular α-Arylation of Amides: Reaction Development and Mechanistic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayev, Dmitry; Jia, Yi-Xia; Sharma, Akhilesh K; Banerjee, Dipshikha; Besnard, Céline; Sunoj, Raghavan B; Kündig, E Peter

    2013-09-02

    Palladium complexes incorporating chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands catalyze the asymmetric intramolecular α-arylation of amides producing 3,3-disubstituted oxindoles. Comprehensive DFT studies have been performed to gain insight into the mechanism of this transformation. Oxidative addition is shown to be rate-determining and reductive elimination to be enantioselectivity-determining. The synthesis of seven new NHC ligands is detailed and their performance is compared. One of them, L8, containing a tBu and a 1-naphthyl group at the stereogenic centre, proved superior and was very efficient in the asymmetric synthesis of fifteen new spiro-oxindoles and three azaspiro-oxindoles often in high yields (up to 99 %) and enantioselectivities (up to 97 % ee; ee=enantiomeric excess). Three palladacycle intermediates resulting from the oxidative addition of [Pd(NHC)] into the aryl halide bond were isolated and structurally characterized (X-ray). Using these intermediates as catalysts showed alkene additives to play an important role in increasing turnover number and frequency.

  16. Gold(I) NHC-based homo- and heterobimetallic complexes: synthesis, characterization and evaluation as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Benoît; Citta, Anna; Franken, Inge L; Picquet, Michel; Folda, Alessandra; Scalcon, Valeria; Rigobello, Maria Pia; Le Gendre, Pierre; Casini, Angela; Bodio, Ewen

    2015-09-01

    While N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) are ubiquitous ligands in catalysis for organic or industrial syntheses, their potential to form transition metal complexes for medicinal applications has still to be exploited. Within this frame, we synthesized new homo- and heterobimetallic complexes based on the Au(I)-NHC scaffold. The compounds were synthesized via a microwave-assisted method developed in our laboratories using Au(I)-NHC complexes carrying a pentafluorophenol ester moiety and another Au(I) phosphane complex or a bipyridine ligand bearing a pendant amine function. Thus, we developed two different methods to prepare homo- and heterobimetallic complexes (Au(I)/Au(I) or Au(I)/Cu(II), Au(I)/Ru(II), respectively). All the compounds were fully characterized by several spectroscopic techniques including far infrared, and were tested for their antiproliferative effects in a series of human cancer cells. They showed moderate anticancer properties. Their toxic effects were also studied ex vivo using the precision-cut tissue slices (PCTS) technique and initial results concerning their reactivity with the seleno-enzyme thioredoxin reductase were obtained.

  17. Ligand inducible assembly of a DNA tetrahedron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohno, Chikara; Atsumi, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Kazuhiko

    2011-03-28

    Here we show that a small synthetic ligand can be used as a key building component for DNA nanofabrication. Using naphthyridinecarbamate dimer (NCD) as a molecular glue for DNA hybridization, we demonstrate NCD-triggered formation of a DNA tetrahedron.

  18. Nye ligander for Pt-MOF strukturer

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Metalorganic frameworks (MOFs) are a new type of compounds which have been intensely investigated during the last few years. They have been synthesized using a wide variety of metals and ligands constructing a vast number of 1, 2 and 3 dimensional structures, some of which possess zeolite-type physics and chemistry. Our approach is to incorporate platinum metal sites into the structures making them bimetallic and potentially catalytically active. Therefore a number of N-N-type ligands (dii...

  19. Designer TGFβ superfamily ligands with diversified functionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P Allendorph

    Full Text Available Transforming Growth Factor--beta (TGFβ superfamily ligands, including Activins, Growth and Differentiation Factors (GDFs, and Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs, are excellent targets for protein-based therapeutics because of their pervasiveness in numerous developmental and cellular processes. We developed a strategy termed RASCH (Random Assembly of Segmental Chimera and Heteromer, to engineer chemically-refoldable TGFβ superfamily ligands with unique signaling properties. One of these engineered ligands, AB208, created from Activin-βA and BMP-2 sequences, exhibits the refolding characteristics of BMP-2 while possessing Activin-like signaling attributes. Further, we find several additional ligands, AB204, AB211, and AB215, which initiate the intracellular Smad1-mediated signaling pathways more strongly than BMP-2 but show no sensitivity to the natural BMP antagonist Noggin unlike natural BMP-2. In another design, incorporation of a short N-terminal segment from BMP-2 was sufficient to enable chemical refolding of BMP-9, without which was never produced nor refolded. Our studies show that the RASCH strategy enables us to expand the functional repertoire of TGFβ superfamily ligands through development of novel chimeric TGFβ ligands with diverse biological and clinical values.

  20. α,β‐Unsaturated Gold(I) Carbenes by Tandem Cyclization and 1,5‐Alkoxy Migration of 1,6‐Enynes: Mechanisms and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, Pilar; Pablo, Óscar; Ranieri, Beatrice; Gaydou, Morgane; Pitaval, Anthony; Moreno, María; Raducan, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract 1,6‐Enynes bearing OR groups at the propargyl position generate α,β‐unsaturated gold(I)‐carbenes/ gold(I) stabilized allyl cations that can be trapped by alkenes to form cyclopropanes or 1,3‐diketones to give products of α‐alkylation. The best migrating group is p‐nitrophenyl ether, which leads to the corresponding products without racemization. Thus, an improved formal synthesis of (+)‐schisanwilsonene A has been accomplished. The different competitive reaction pathways have been delineated computationally. PMID:27527611

  1. Fully Flexible Docking of Medium Sized Ligand Libraries with RosettaLigand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel DeLuca

    Full Text Available RosettaLigand has been successfully used to predict binding poses in protein-small molecule complexes. However, the RosettaLigand docking protocol is comparatively slow in identifying an initial starting pose for the small molecule (ligand making it unfeasible for use in virtual High Throughput Screening (vHTS. To overcome this limitation, we developed a new sampling approach for placing the ligand in the protein binding site during the initial 'low-resolution' docking step. It combines the translational and rotational adjustments to the ligand pose in a single transformation step. The new algorithm is both more accurate and more time-efficient. The docking success rate is improved by 10-15% in a benchmark set of 43 protein/ligand complexes, reducing the number of models that typically need to be generated from 1000 to 150. The average time to generate a model is reduced from 50 seconds to 10 seconds. As a result we observe an effective 30-fold speed increase, making RosettaLigand appropriate for docking medium sized ligand libraries. We demonstrate that this improved initial placement of the ligand is critical for successful prediction of an accurate binding position in the 'high-resolution' full atom refinement step.

  2. LigandRFs: random forest ensemble to identify ligand-binding residues from sequence information alone

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Peng

    2014-12-03

    Background Protein-ligand binding is important for some proteins to perform their functions. Protein-ligand binding sites are the residues of proteins that physically bind to ligands. Despite of the recent advances in computational prediction for protein-ligand binding sites, the state-of-the-art methods search for similar, known structures of the query and predict the binding sites based on the solved structures. However, such structural information is not commonly available. Results In this paper, we propose a sequence-based approach to identify protein-ligand binding residues. We propose a combination technique to reduce the effects of different sliding residue windows in the process of encoding input feature vectors. Moreover, due to the highly imbalanced samples between the ligand-binding sites and non ligand-binding sites, we construct several balanced data sets, for each of which a random forest (RF)-based classifier is trained. The ensemble of these RF classifiers forms a sequence-based protein-ligand binding site predictor. Conclusions Experimental results on CASP9 and CASP8 data sets demonstrate that our method compares favorably with the state-of-the-art protein-ligand binding site prediction methods.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligand chiral nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Guven, Zekiye P.

    2016-06-22

    Chiral mixed ligand silver nanoclusters were synthesized in the presence of a chiral and an achiral ligand. While the chiral ligand led mostly to the formation of nanoparticles, the presence of the achiral ligand drastically increased the yield of nanoclusters with enhanced chiral properties. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Immobilisation of ligands by radio-derivatized polymers; Immobilisering av ligander med radioderiverte polymerer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, J.M.; Fritsch, P.

    1995-01-30

    The invention relates to radio-derivatized polymers and a method of producing them by contacting non-polymerizable conjugands with radiolysable polymers in the presence of irradiation. The resulting radio-derivatized polymers can be further linked with ligand of organic or inorganic nature to immobilize such ligands. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Multiple ligand simultaneous docking: orchestrated dancing of ligands in binding sites of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huameng; Li, Chenglong

    2010-07-30

    Present docking methodologies simulate only one single ligand at a time during docking process. In reality, the molecular recognition process always involves multiple molecular species. Typical protein-ligand interactions are, for example, substrate and cofactor in catalytic cycle; metal ion coordination together with ligand(s); and ligand binding with water molecules. To simulate the real molecular binding processes, we propose a novel multiple ligand simultaneous docking (MLSD) strategy, which can deal with all the above processes, vastly improving docking sampling and binding free energy scoring. The work also compares two search strategies: Lamarckian genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization, which have respective advantages depending on the specific systems. The methodology proves robust through systematic testing against several diverse model systems: E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) complex with two substrates, SHP2NSH2 complex with two peptides and Bcl-xL complex with ABT-737 fragments. In all cases, the final correct docking poses and relative binding free energies were obtained. In PNP case, the simulations also capture the binding intermediates and reveal the binding dynamics during the recognition processes, which are consistent with the proposed enzymatic mechanism. In the other two cases, conventional single-ligand docking fails due to energetic and dynamic coupling among ligands, whereas MLSD results in the correct binding modes. These three cases also represent potential applications in the areas of exploring enzymatic mechanism, interpreting noisy X-ray crystallographic maps, and aiding fragment-based drug design, respectively.

  6. Organotellurium ligands - designing and complexation reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ajai K Singh

    2002-08-01

    A variety of tellurium ligands has been designed and studied for their complexation reactions in the last decade. Of these hybrid telluroethers, halotellurium ligands and polytellurides are the most notable ones. RTe- and polytelluride ions have also been used to design clusters. Ligation of ditelluroethers and several hybrid telluroethers is extensively studied in our laboratories. The ditelluroether ligand RTeCH2TeR (where R = 4-MeOC6H4) (1), similar to dppm [1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino) methane], has been synthesized in good yield (∼80 %) by reacting CHCl3 with RTe- (generated in situ by borohydride reduction of R2Te2). Iodine reacts with 1 to give tetra-iodo derivative, which has intermolecular Te$\\cdots$I interactions resulting in a macro structure containing rectangular Te-I$\\cdots$Te bridges. 1 readily forms four membered rings with Pd(II) and Ru(II). On the formation of this chelate ring, the signal in 125Te NMR spectra shifts significantly upfield (50-60 ppm). The bridging mode of 1 has been shown in [Ru(-cymene)Cl2](-1)[Ru(-cymene)Cl2]. The hybrid telluroether ligands explored are of the types (Te, S), (Te, N) and (Te, O). The tellurium donor site has strong trans influence, which is manifested more strongly in square planar complexes of palladium(II). The morpholine N-donor site has been found to have weaker donor characteristics in (Te, N) ligands than pyridine and alkylamine donor sites of analogous ligands. The singlet oxygen readily oxidises the coordinated Te. This oxidation follows first order kinetics. The complexation reaction of RuCl3.H2O with N-[2-(4-methoxyphenyltelluro)ethyl]phthalimide (2) results in a novel (Te, N, O)-heterocycle, Te-chloro,Te-anisyl-1a-aza-4-oxa-3-tellura-1H, 2H, 4aH-9 fluorenone. The (Te, O) ligands can be used as hemilabile ligands, the oxygen atom temporarily protects the vacant coordination site before the arrival of the substrate. The chelate shifts observed in 125Te NMR spectra of metal complexes of Te-ligands have

  7. Polymerization of Polar Monomers from a Theoretical Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Miasser

    2016-10-11

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate catalytic mechanism of polymer formation containing polar groups, from the synthesis of the monomer to the synthesis of the macromolecule. In the spirit of a sustainable and green chemistry, we initially focused attention on the coupling of CO2 as economically convenient and recyclable C1 source with C2H4 to form acrylate and/or butirro-lactone, two important polar monomers. In this process formation of a mettallolactone via oxidative coupling of CO2 and C2H4 is an important intermediate. Given this background, we explored in detail (chapter-3) several Ni based catalysts for CO2 coupling with C2H4 to form acrylate. In this thesis we report on the competitive reaction mechanisms (inner vs outer sphere) for the oxidative coupling of CO2 and ethylene for a set of 11 Ni-based complexes containing bisphosphine ligands. In another effort, considering incorporation of a C=C bond into a metal-oxygen-Functional-Group moiety is a challenging step in several polymerization reactions, we explored the details of this reaction (chapter4) using two different catalysts that are capable to perform this reaction in the synthesis of heterocycles. Specifically, the [Rh]-catalyzed intramolecular alkoxyacylation ([Rh] = [RhI(dppp)+] (dppp, 1,3-Bis-diphenylphosphino-propane), and the [Pd]/BPh3 intramolecular alkoxyfunctionalizations. Rest of the thesis we worked on understanding the details of the polymerization of polar monomers using organocatalysts based on N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) or N-heterocyclic olefins (NHO). In particular (chapter-5) we studied the polymerization of N-methyl N-carboxy- anhydrides, towards cyclic poly(N-substituted glycine)s, promoted by NHC catalysts. In good agreement with the experimental findings, we demonstrated that NHC promoted ring opening polymerization of N-Me N-Carboxyanhydrides may proceed via two different catalytic pathways. In a similar effort we studied polymerization of

  8. Dockomatic - automated ligand creation and docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hampikian Greg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of computational modeling to rationally design drugs and characterize macro biomolecular receptors has proven increasingly useful due to the accessibility of computing clusters and clouds. AutoDock is a well-known and powerful software program used to model ligand to receptor binding interactions. In its current version, AutoDock requires significant amounts of user time to setup and run jobs, and collect results. This paper presents DockoMatic, a user friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI application that eases and automates the creation and management of AutoDock jobs for high throughput screening of ligand to receptor interactions. Results DockoMatic allows the user to invoke and manage AutoDock jobs on a single computer or cluster, including jobs for evaluating secondary ligand interactions. It also automates the process of collecting, summarizing, and viewing results. In addition, DockoMatic automates creation of peptide ligand .pdb files from strings of single-letter amino acid abbreviations. Conclusions DockoMatic significantly reduces the complexity of managing multiple AutoDock jobs by facilitating ligand and AutoDock job creation and management.

  9. A new class of PN3-pincer ligands for metal–ligand cooperative catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huaifeng

    2014-12-01

    Work on a new class of PN3-pincer ligands for metal-ligand cooperative catalysis is reviewed. While the field of the pyridine-based PN3-transition metal pincer complexes is still relatively young, many important applications of these complexes have already emerged. In several cases, the PN3-pincer complexes for metal-ligand cooperative catalysis result in significantly improved or unprecedented activities. The synthesis and coordination chemistry of PN3-pincer ligands are briefly summarized first to cover the synthetic routes for their preparation, followed by a focus review on their applications in catalysis. A specific emphasis is placed on the later section about the role of PN3-pincer ligands\\' dearomatization-rearomatization steps during the catalytic cycles. The mechanistic insights from density functional theory (DFT) calculations are also discussed.

  10. Sliding tethered ligands add topological interactions to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Martin; Kékicheff, Patrick; Iss, Jean; Fajolles, Christophe; Charitat, Thierry; Daillant, Jean; Marques, Carlos M.

    2015-09-01

    Adhesion in the biological realm is mediated by specific lock-and-key interactions between ligand-receptor pairs. These complementary moieties are ubiquitously anchored to substrates by tethers that control the interaction range and the mobility of the ligands and receptors, thus tuning the kinetics and strength of the binding events. Here we add sliding anchoring to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design by developing a family of tethered ligands for which the spacer can slide at the anchoring point. Our results show that this additional sliding degree of freedom changes the nature of the adhesive contact by extending the spatial range over which binding may sustain a significant force. By introducing sliding tethered ligands with self-regulating length, this work paves the way for the development of versatile and reusable bio-adhesive substrates with potential applications for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  11. Singlet-triplet energy differences in divalent five membered cyclic conjugated Arduengo-type carbenes XC2HN2M (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb; X = F, Cl, Br, and I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessally, Esmail; Dehbandi, Behnam; Ahmadi, Elaheh

    2016-09-01

    Singlet-triplet energy differences in Arduengo-type carbenes XC2HN2C compared and contrasted with their sila, germa, stana and plumba analogues; at B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. Free Gibbs energy differences between triplet (t) and singlet (s) states (Δ G(t-s)) change in the following order: plumbylenes > stannylenes > germylenes > silylenes > carbenes. The singlet states in XC2HN2C are generally more stable when the electron withdrawing groups such as-F was used at β-position. However, the singlet states in XC2N2HM (M = Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb) are generally more stable when the withdrawing groups such as-F was placed. The puckering energy is investigated for each the singlet and triplet states. The DFT calculations found the linear correlation to size of the group 14 divalent element (M), the ∠N-M-N angle, and the Δ(LUMO-HOMO) of XC2HN2M.

  12. Cationic ruthenium alkylidene catalysts bearing phosphine ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Koji; Grubbs, Robert H

    2016-02-28

    The discovery of highly active catalysts and the success of ionic liquid immobilized systems have accelerated attention to a new class of cationic metathesis catalysts. We herein report the facile syntheses of cationic ruthenium catalysts bearing bulky phosphine ligands. Simple ligand exchange using silver(i) salts of non-coordinating or weakly coordinating anions provided either PPh3 or chelating Ph2P(CH2)nPPh2 (n = 2 or 3) ligated cationic catalysts. The structures of these newly reported catalysts feature unique geometries caused by ligation of the bulky phosphine ligands. Their activities and selectivities in standard metathesis reactions were also investigated. These cationic ruthenium alkylidene catalysts reported here showed moderate activity and very similar stereoselectivity when compared to the second generation ruthenium dichloride catalyst in ring-closing metathesis, cross metathesis, and ring-opening metathesis polymerization assays.

  13. 3,4-Diamino naphthalimides and their respective imidazoles - Synthesis, spectroscopic and theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangalov, Miroslav; Yordanova, Stanislava; Stoyanova, Malinka; Cheshmedzhieva, Diana; Petrov, Petar; Stoyanov, Stanimir

    2016-12-01

    A series of compounds containing 1,8-naphthalimide photoactive core were synthesized and studied with respect to their optical properties and applications. Combined spectral measurements and quantum chemical calculations allowed better understanding of the electronic effects in any particular substitution pattern starting from 3,4-diamino naphthalimides, through their respective imidazoles and quaternary N-heterocyclic carbene precursors, to corresponding carbene dimer (tetraaminoethylene). The absorption and fluorescence energies have been calculated with the PCM TDDFT formalism. PBE0 and M06 functionals were found to accurately model the distinctly different photophysical characteristics of the newly synthesized compounds.

  14. Efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of chiral pincer ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felluga, Fulvia; Baratta, Walter; Fanfoni, Lidia; Pitacco, Giuliana; Rigo, Pierluigi; Benedetti, Fabio

    2009-05-01

    Chiral, nonracemic pincer ligands based on the 6-phenyl-2-aminomethylpyridine and 2-aminomethylbenzo[h]quinoline scaffolds were obtained by a chemoenzymatic approach starting from 2-pyridyl and 2-benzoquinolyl ethanone. In the enantiodifferentiating step, secondary alcohols of opposite absolute configuration were obtained by a baker's yeast reduction of the ketones and by lipase-mediated dynamic kinetic resolution of the racemic alcohols. Their transformation into homochiral 1-methyl-1-heteroarylethanamines occurred without loss of optical purity, giving access to pincer ligands used in enantioselective catalysis.

  15. CLiBE: a database of computed ligand binding energy for ligand-receptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Ji, Z L; Zhi, D G; Chen, Y Z

    2002-11-01

    Consideration of binding competitiveness of a drug candidate against natural ligands and other drugs that bind to the same receptor site may facilitate the rational development of a candidate into a potent drug. A strategy that can be applied to computer-aided drug design is to evaluate ligand-receptor interaction energy or other scoring functions of a designed drug with that of the relevant ligands known to bind to the same binding site. As a tool to facilitate such a strategy, a database of ligand-receptor interaction energy is developed from known ligand-receptor 3D structural entries in the Protein Databank (PDB). The Energy is computed based on a molecular mechanics force field that has been used in the prediction of therapeutic and toxicity targets of drugs. This database also contains information about ligand function and other properties and it can be accessed at http://xin.cz3.nus.edu.sg/group/CLiBE.asp. The computed energy components may facilitate the probing of the mode of action and other profiles of binding. A number of computed energies of some PDB ligand-receptor complexes in this database are studied and compared to experimental binding affinity. A certain degree of correlation between the computed energy and experimental binding affinity is found, which suggests that the computed energy may be useful in facilitating a qualitative analysis of drug binding competitiveness.

  16. Synthesis of New Chiral Benzimidazolylidene–Rh Complexes and Their Application in Asymmetric Addition Reactions of Organoboronic Acids to Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel chiral N-heterocyclic carbene rhodium complexes (NHC–Rh based on benzimidazole have been prepared, and all of the NHC–Rh complexes were fully characterized by NMR and mass spectrometry. These complexes could be used as catalysts for the asymmetric 1,2-addition of organoboronic acids to aldehydes, affording chiral diarylmethanols with high yields and moderate enantioselectivities.

  17. Asymmetric NHC-catalyzed aza-Diels-Alder reactions: Highly enantioselective route to α-amino acid derivatives and DFT calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Limin

    2014-08-01

    A facile N-heterocyclic carbene catalytic enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reaction of oxodiazenes with α-chloroaldehydes as dienophile precursors is reported, with excellent enantioselectivity (ee > 99%) and excellent yield (up to 93%). DFT study showed that cis-TSa, formed from a top face approach of oxodiazene to cis-IIa, is the most favorable transition state and is consistent with the experimental observations. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  18. Unprecedented copper(I) bifluoride complexes: synthesis, characterization and reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergote, Thomas; Nahra, Fady; Welle, Alexandre; Luhmer, Michel; Wouters, Johan; Mager, Nathalie; Riant, Olivier; Leyssens, Tom

    2012-01-16

    To be or not to bifluoride: Two synthetic pathways to unprecedented N-heterocyclic carbene copper(I) bifluoride complexes have been developed. Catalytic tests demonstrated that copper(I) bifluorides are very efficient catalysts, which do not require any additional activating agent. The first Cu-catalyzed diastereoselective allylation of (R)-N-tert-butanesulfinyl aldimines was also established. The method enables efficient, simple and general synthesis of enantiomerically enriched homoallylic amines at room temperature in high yields.

  19. Supramolecular architectures constructed using angular bipyridyl ligands

    CERN Document Server

    Barnett, S A

    2003-01-01

    This work details the synthesis and characterization of a series of coordination frameworks that are formed using bidentate angular N-donor ligands. Pyrimidine was reacted with metal(ll) nitrate salts. Reactions using Cd(NO sub 3) sub 2 receive particular focus and the analogous reactions using the linear ligand, pyrazine, were studied for comparison. In all cases, two-dimensional coordination networks were prepared. Structural diversity is observed for the Cd(ll) centres including metal-nitrate bridging. In contrast, first row transition metal nitrates form isostructural one-dimensional chains with only the bridging N-donor ligands generating polymeric propagation. The angular ligand, 2,4-bis(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (dpt), was reacted with Cd(NO sub 3) sub 2 and Zn(NO sub 3) sub 2. Whereas Zn(NO sub 3) sub 2 compounds exhibit solvent mediated polymorphism, a range of structures were obtained for the reactions with Cd(NO sub 3) sub 2 , including the first example of a doubly parallel interpenetrated 4.8 sup...

  20. [Functional selectivity of opioid receptors ligands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Nicolas; Archer-Lahlou, Elodie; Richard-Lalonde, Mélissa; Piñeyro-Filpo, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    Opiates are the most effective analgesics available for the treatment of severe pain. However, their clinical use is restricted by unwanted side effects such as tolerance, physical dependence and respiratory depression. The strategy to develop new opiates with reduced side effects has mainly focused on the study and production of ligands that specifically bind to different opiate receptors subtypes. However, this strategy has not allowed the production of novel therapeutic ligands with a better side effects profile. Thus, other research strategies need to be explored. One which is receiving increasing attention is the possibility of exploiting ligand ability to stabilize different receptor conformations with distinct signalling profiles. This newly described property, termed functional selectivity, provides a potential means of directing the stimulus generated by an activated receptor towards a specific cellular response. Here we summarize evidence supporting the existence of ligand-specific active conformations for two opioid receptors subtypes (delta and mu), and analyze how functional selectivity may contribute in the production of longer lasting, better tolerated opiate analgesics. double dagger.