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Sample records for n-alkylated imino sugar

  1. N-Alkylation by Hydrogen Autotransfer Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiantao; Su, Chenliang; Xu, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Owing to the importance of amine/amide derivatives in all fields of chemistry, and also the green and environmentally benign features of using alcohols as alkylating reagents, the relatively high atom economic dehydrative N-alkylation reactions of amines/amides with alcohols through hydrogen autotransfer processes have received much attention and have developed rapidly in recent decades. Various efficient homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal catalysts, nano materials, electrochemical methods, biomimetic methods, asymmetric N-alkylation reactions, aerobic oxidative methods, and even certain transition metal-free, catalyst-free, or autocatalyzed methods, have also been developed in recent years. With a brief introduction to the background and developments in this area of research, this chapter focuses mainly on recent progress and technical and conceptual advances contributing to the development of this research in the last decade. In addition to mainstream research on homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal-catalyzed reactions, possible mechanistic routes for hydrogen transfer and alcohol activation, which are key processes in N-alkylation reactions but seldom discussed in the past, the recent reports on computational mechanistic studies of the N-alkylation reactions, and the newly emerged N-alkylation methods based on novel alcohol activation protocols such as air-promoted reactions and transition metal-free methods, are also reviewed in this chapter. Problems and bottlenecks that remained to be solved in the field, and promising new research that deserves greater future attention and effort, are also reviewed and discussed.

  2. Mechanochemical N-alkylation of imides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Briš

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanochemical N-alkylation of imide derivatives was studied. Reactions under solvent-free conditions in a ball mill gave good yields and could be put in place of the classical solution conditions. The method is general and can be applied to various imides and alkyl halides. Phthalimides prepared under ball milling conditions were used in a mechanochemical Gabriel synthesis of amines by their reaction with 1,2-diaminoethane.

  3. Direct N-alkylation of unprotected amino acids with alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Tao; Feringa, Ben L; Barta, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    N-alkyl amino acids find widespread application as highly valuable, renewable building blocks. However, traditional synthesis methodologies to obtain these suffer from serious limitations, providing a major challenge to develop sustainable alternatives. We report the first powerful catalytic

  4. Ionic liquid containing hydroxamate and N-alkyl sulfamate ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan

    2016-03-15

    Embodiments of the invention are related to ionic liquids and more specifically to ionic liquids used in electrochemical metal-air cells in which the ionic liquid includes a cation and an anion selected from hydroxamate and/or N-alkyl sulfamate anions.

  5. Direct, Regioselective N-Alkylation of 1,3-Azoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuai; Graceffa, Russell F; Boezio, Alessandro A

    2016-01-04

    Regioselective N-alkylation of 1,3-azoles is a valuable transformation. Organomagnesium reagents were discovered to be competent bases to affect regioselective alkylation of various 1,3-azoles. Counterintuitively, substitution selectively occurred at the more sterically hindered nitrogen atom. Numerous examples are provided, on varying 1,3-azole scaffolds, with yields ranging from 25 to 95%.

  6. 40 CFR 721.520 - Alanine, N-(2-carboxyethyl)-N-alkyl-, salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alanine, N-(2-carboxyethyl)-N-alkyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.520 Alanine, N-(2-carboxyethyl)-N-alkyl-, salt. (a) Chemical substance... alanine, N-(2-carboxyethyl)-N- alkyl-, salt (P-89-336) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  7. Regioselective 1-N-Alkylation and Rearrangement of Adenosine Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslovsky, Vladimir E; Drenichev, Mikhail S; Mikhailov, Sergey N

    2015-01-01

    Several methods for the preparation of some N(6)-substituted adenosines based on selective 1-N-alkylation with subsequent Dimroth rearrangement were developed. The proposed methods seem to be effective for the preparation of natural N(6)-isopentenyl- and N(6)-benzyladenosines, which are known to possess pronounced biological activities. Direct 1-N-alkylation of 2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyladenosine and 3',5'-di-O-acetyl-2'-deoxyadenosine with alkyl halides in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in the presence of BaCO3 and KI gave 1-N-substituted derivatives with quantitative yields, whereas 1-N-alkylation of adenosine was accompanied by significant O-alkylation. Moreover, the reaction of trimethylsilyl derivatives of N(6)-acetyl-2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyladenosine and N(6)-acetyl-3',5'-di-O-acetyl-2'-deoxyadenosine with alkyl halides leads to the formation of the stable 1-N-substituted adenosines. Dimroth rearrangement of 1-N-substituted adenosines in aqueous ammonia yields pure N(6)-substituted adenosines.

  8. Microbial degradation of n-alkyl tetrahydrothiophenes found in petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorak, P.M.; Payzant, J.D.; Montgomery, D.S.; Westlake, D.W.S.

    1988-05-01

    Although n-alkyl-substituted tetrahydrothiophenes are found in nonbiodegraded petroleums, they are not found in petroleums which have undergone biodegradation in their reservoirs. These observations suggested that this group of compounds with alkyl chain lengths from approximately C/sub 10/ to at least C/sub 30/ is biodegradable. Two of these sulfides, 2-n-dodecyltetrahydrothiophene (DTHT) and 2-n-undecyltetrahydrothiophene, were synthesized, and their biodegradabilities were tested by using five gram-positive, n-alkane-degrading bacterial isolates. The alkyl side chains of these compounds were oxidized, and the major intermediates found in 2-n-undecyltetrahydrothiophene- and DTHT-metabolizing cultures were 2-tetrahydrothiophenecarboxylic acid (THTC) and 2-tetrahydrothiopheneacetic acid (THTA), respectively. Four n-alkane-degrading fungi were also shown to degrade DTHT, yielding both THTA and THTC. Quantitation of tetrahydrothiophene ring-containing products in 28-day-old bacterial and fungal cultures suggested that THTC and THTA were metabolized further to unidentified products. In addition, two of the bacterial isolates were shown to degrade a mixture of n-alkyl tetrahydrothiophenes isolated from Bellshill Lake crude oil.

  9. Antimicrobial and diffusional correlation of N-alkyl betaines and N-alkyl-N,N-dimethylamine oxides from semisolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, C R; Malamud, D; Thomulka, K W; Schwartz, J B; Schnaare, R L

    2001-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that two classes of amphoteric surfactants, N-alkyl betaines and N-alkyl-N,N-dimethylamine oxides, exhibit pronounced antimicrobial activity in combination and have potential for use in a semisolid formulation for topical or vaginal delivery. In this work, several potential delivery systems were prepared and evaluated for antimicrobial activity and diffusional properties. A novel antimicrobial test for semisolids was proposed that determined the contact time needed to kill microorganisms. The unformulated agents in solution exhibited the faster kill within 60 min, followed by the hydroxyethylcellulose gel formulation in 90 min, and the poloxamer gel and a cream that required several hours. Diffusion from the dosage form utilized a Slide-A-Lyzer diffusion cassette with a 10,000 MWCO membrane with (14)C-labeled active species added to the aforementioned antimicrobial formulations. Diffusion of the individual betaine and amine oxide derivatives were tracked over time to determine the diffusion rates and profiles of the components in each formulation and in solution. The betaine derivative diffused up to three times faster than the amine oxide derivative within the first 2 h, but the amount diffused was approximately equivalent at 24 h. The formulations delayed release in the same rank order as the contact time kill analysis: hydroxyethylcellulose gel > poloxamer gel > cream. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association

  10. Synthesis and Antiangiogenic Activity of N-Alkylated Levamisole Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders N.; Bendiksen, Christine D.; Sylvest, Lene

    2012-01-01

    less effective than antibody treatment and are also associated with serious side effects. The discovery of new chemotypes with efficient antiangiogenic activity is therefore of pertinent interest. (S)-Levamisole hydrochloride, an anthelminthic drug approved for human use and with a known clinical...... profile, was recently shown to be an inhibitor of angiogenesis in vitro and exhibited tumor growth inhibition in mice. Here we describe the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a series of N-alkylated analogues of levamisole with the aim of characterizing structure-activity relationships with regard...... to inhibition of angiogenesis. N-Methyllevamisole and p-bromolevamisole proved more effective than the parent compound, (S)-levamisole hydrochloride, with respect to inhibition of angiogenesis and induction of undifferentiated cluster morphology in human umbilical vein endothelial cells grown in co...

  11. Nanostructured poly(benzimidazole membranes by N-alkylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Weber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of poly(benzimidazole (PBI by N-alkylation leads to polymers capable of undergoing microphase separation. Polymers with different amounts of C18 alkyl chains have been prepared. The polymers were analyzed by spectroscopy, thermal analysis, electron microscopy and X-ray scattering. The impact of the amount of alkyl chains on the observed microphase separation was analyzed. Membranes prepared from the polymers do show microphase separation, as evidenced by scattering experiments. While no clear morphology could be derived for the domains in the native state, evidence for the formation of lamellar morphologies upon doping with phosphoric acid is provided. Finally, the proton conductivity of alkyl-modified PBI is compared with that of pure PBI, showing that the introduction of alkyl side chains does not result in significant conductivity changes.

  12. Vesicular catalysis of the decarboxylation of 6-nitrobenzisoxazole-3-carboxylate. The effects of sugars, long-tailed sugars, cholesterol and alcohol additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongejan, Mahthild G. M.; Klijn, Jaap E.; Engberts, Jan. B. F. N.; Kiijn, J.E.

    The effects of the addition of sugars, long-tailed n-alkyl pyranosides, n-alkyl glycerol ethers and n-alcohols on the properties of di-n-hexadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DHAB) vesicles have been studied. Properties that were examined include the stability, morphology, phase of the tails, and

  13. N-Alkylation Using Sodium Triacetoxyborohydride with Carboxylic Acids as Alkyl Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Satoru; Sato, Keigo; Kawano, Tomikazu

    2018-01-01

    A versatile N-alkylation was performed using sodium triacetoxyborohydride and carboxylic acid as an alkyl source. The combination of these reagents furnished products different from those given previously by a similar reaction. Moreover, the mild conditions of our method allowed some functional groups to remain through the reaction, whereas they would react and be converted into other moieties in the similar reductive N-alkylation reported previously. Herein, we provide a new procedure for the preparation of various compounds containing nitrogen atoms.

  14. Synthesis of N-Alkyl-2-thiomethyl Benzimidazoles: A Green Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, S. Srinivas; Reddy, Ch. Venkata Ramana; Dubey, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    A green approach for the synthesis of N-alkyl-2-thiomethyl benzimidazoles 2 (R=CH3, C2H5, CH2Ph) under different conditions has been developed from N-alkyl-2-chloromethyl benzimidazole (i.e., CH3, C2H5, CH2Ph) 1 by reaction with thiourea by physical grinding, or by using green solvents like ethanol and PEG-600, or by using microwave irradiation technique.

  15. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Protonation of the imino ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashish

    SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. Protonation of the imino nitrogen deactivates the excited state of imidazolin-5-one in the solid state. ASHISH SINGH, KHALID BADI-UZ ZAMA and GURUNATH RAMANATHAN*. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh India. 208 016.

  16. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of N-Alkyl-3-(alkylamino-pyrazine-2-carboxamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Semelkova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of N-alkyl-3-(alkylaminopyrazine-2-carboxamides and their N-alkyl-3-chloropyrazine-2-carboxamide precursors were prepared. All compounds were characterized by analytical methods and tested for antimicrobial and antiviral activity. The antimycobacterial MIC values against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv of the most effective compounds, 3-(hexylamino-, 3-(heptylamino- and 3-(octylamino-N-methyl-pyrazine-2-carboxamides 14‒16, was 25 μg/mL. The compounds inhibited photosystem 2 photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach chloroplasts. This activity was strongly connected with the lipophilicity of the compounds. For effective PET inhibition longer alkyl chains in the 3-(alkylamino substituent in the N-alkyl-3-(alkylaminopyrazine-2-carboxamide molecule were more favourable than two shorter alkyl chains.

  17. Building blocks for ionic liquids: Vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Portnova, Svetlana V.; Verevkin, Sergey P.; Skrzypczak, Andrzej; Schubert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We measured vapor pressures of the 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles by transpiration method. → Variations on the alkyl chain length n were C 3 , C 5 -C 7 , and C 9 -C 10 . → Enthalpies of vaporization were derived from (p, T) dependencies. → Enthalpies of vaporization at 298.15 K were linear dependent on the chain length. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of the linear 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles with the alkyl chain C 3 , C 5 -C 7 , and C 9 -C 10 have been measured by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization Δ l g H m of these compounds were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressures. A linear correlation of enthalpies of vaporization Δ l g H m (298.15 K) of the 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles with the chain length has been found.

  18. Synthesis of no-carrier-added radiobrominated n-alkylated analogues of spiperone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerlein, S.M.; Laufer, P.; Stoecklin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of a series of p-bromo-3-N-alkyl spiperone analogues is described. N-alkylation was achieved via reaction of the potassium salt of the spiperone lactam ring with alkyl iodide; subsequent reactions with elemental bromine gave the p-brominated isomers. Optimization studies using no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) 77 Br - indicated that radio-bromination of N-alkyl spiperone analogues occurs with higher yields and in shorter reaction times when dichloramine-T (DCT) is used rather than H 2 0 2 /acetic acid as an oxidant. The production of the title compounds in high effective specific activity with radiochemical yields of 20-30 % using n.c.a. 77 Br - and DCT is reported. (author)

  19. Design rules for carbazole derivatized n-alkyl methacrylate polymeric memristors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McFarlane, T. M.; Zdyrko, B.; Bandera, Y.; Worley, D.; Klep, O.; Jurča, M.; Tonkin, C.; Foulger, S. H.; Vilčáková, J.; Sáha, P.; Pfleger, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 10 (2018), s. 2533-2545 ISSN 2050-7526 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : n-alkyl methacrylate polymers * charge transport * composites Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 5.256, year: 2016

  20. Iridium- and Ruthenium-Catalyzed N-alkylation of Amines with Alcohols and Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentz-Petersen, Linda Luise Reeh

    Many biologically active molecules contain one or more nitrogen atoms. Consequently, CN bond formation is a crucial area in the development of pharmaceuticals. The main part of this thesis is devoted to environmentally benign syntheses of different nitrogen scaffolds. Iridium and ruthenium...... experiments of the iridium catalyzed reactions revealed that the Voigt isomerization of the α-imino alcohol intermediate to the corresponding α-imino ketone plays a significant role. Synthesis of indoles Anilines and vicinal diols were reacted in the presence of a ruthenium complex (RuCl3 with PPh3...

  1. Determination of rate constants of N-alkylation of primary amines by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenghong

    2013-09-05

    Macromolecules containing N-diazeniumdiolates of secondary amines are proposed scaffolds for controlled nitrogen oxide (NO) release medical applications. Preparation of these compounds often involves converting primary amine groups to secondary amine groups through N-alkylation. However, N-alkylation results in not only secondary amines but tertiary amines as well. Only N-diazeniumdiolates of secondary amines are suitable for controlled NO release; therefore, the yield of secondary amines is crucial to the total NO load of the carrier. In this paper, (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used to estimate the rate constants for formation of secondary amine (k1) and tertiary amine (k2) for alkylation reagents such as propylene oxide (PO), methyl acrylate (MA), and acrylonitrile (ACN). At room temperature, the ratio of k2/k1 for the three reactions was found to be around 0.50, 0.026, and 0.0072.

  2. Ring positional differentiation of isomeric N-alkylated fluorocathinones by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Folker; Junge, Thomas

    2012-11-30

    In analogy to our previously published procedure for the differentiation of regioisomeric fluoroamphetamines a method was developed, to differentiate ring positional isomeric fluorocathinones by product ion spectrometry of ions generated by chemical ionization (CI) under GC-MS conditions using methane as reagent gas. N-alkylated ortho-, meta- and para-fluorocathinones could be unequivocally differentiated by product ion spectrometry of the hydrogen fluoride loss ions [M+H-HF](+) using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with argon as collision gas under normalized collision conditions. This method enables the differentiation of ring positional isomers of fluorocathinones even in complex mixtures and low concentrations. The applicability of the method was shown by the analysis of synthesized N-alkylated ortho-, meta- and para-fluorocathinones and seized designer drug mixtures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reductive N-alkylation of chitosan with acetone and levulinic acid in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Y; Isogai, A

    2010-08-01

    Reductive N-alkylation with acetone and levulinic acid in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride was applied to chitosan to prepare N-isopropyl and 5-methyl-pyrrolidinone chitosans, respectively. These chitosan derivatives were obtained quantitatively, and the highest degrees of substitution (DS) were achieved for chitosan solutions at the initial pH 4.5-5.0. When the molar ratio of the primary amino groups of chitosan, NaBH(3)CN and either acetone or levulinic acid was 1:10:3, reaction ratios at the primary amino groups reached about 100% and 41% for N-isopropyl and 5-methyl-pyrrolidinone chitosans, respectively, after the reaction at room temperature for 72h. No depolymerization occurred on chitosan molecules under the reductive N-alkylation conditions used. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation of the Pyridinium Salts Differing in the Length of the N-Alkyl Substituent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Musilek

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Quaternary pyridinium salts with chains ranging from C8 to C20 belong in the large group of cationic surfactants. In this paper, the preparation of such cationic surface active agents based on the pyridinium moiety and differing in the length of the N-alkyl chain is described. Additionally, HPLC technique was established to distinguish each prepared pyridinium analogue. This study represents universal method for preparation and identification of quaternary pyridinium detergents.

  5. Amphetamine in rat brain after intraperitoneal injection of N-alkylated analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarali, A J; Baker, G B; Coutts, R T; Pasutto, F M

    1983-01-01

    Three N-alkylated analogues of amphetamine were administered intraperitoneally to male Sprague-Dawley rats and whole brain levels of amphetamine (AM) and the N-alkyl analogue were determined one hour after injection of the N-alkylated compounds. The drugs administered were the N-2-cyanoethyl-(I) (fenproporex), the N-3-chloropropyl-(II) (mefenorex) and the N-n-propyl-(III) derivatives of AM: the first two of these are used clinically as anorexiants, and the latter has been used extensively to study aspects of metabolism of AM-like compounds. Analysis of AM, I, II and III was performed using electron-capture gas chromatography with a capillary column after reaction of compounds with pentafluorobenzoyl chloride under aqueous conditions. In a second comparative study, equimolar doses (0.05 mMole/kg) of I or AM were administered intraperitoneally to the rats and brain levels determined after one hour. Results indicate extensive N-dealkylation occurs for compounds I, II and III in the rat.

  6. Photoionization of N-Alkyl N, N', - in Organized Molecular Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenland, Christopher John

    The electron donors N-Alkyl N,N^ ',N^' -trimethylbenzidines (C_{rm n }TMB with n = 1 to 16) were synthesized then photoionized in rapidly frozen micellar, vesicular and reversed micellar solutions. The N-alkyl functionalization of these electron donors alters the solubilization location of C_{rm n}TMB with respect to the aqueous interface in these organized molecular assemblies. The alteration of the solubilization location affects the, relative photoyield. Electron spin resonance is used to quantify and identify the photoproduced radicals in these rapidly frozen solution. Electron spin echo modulation spectroscopy is used to monitor the distance of the cation radical of C_{rm n}TMB to the deuterated aqueous interface. In micelles, longer N-alkyl chains on C _{rm n}TMB push the benzidine moiety towards the aqueous interface. However the photoyield remains constant versus the C_{rm n}TMB alkyl chain length. The lack of a photoyield trend is interpreted in terms of the solubilization geometry which determines the paths of electron escape to form charge separated products. In vesicles, the longer the alkyl chain on C _{rm n}TMB, the deeper the benzidine moiety is located, and the lower the photoyield. The relative photoyield in bilayer vesicles depends on the proximity of the electron donor to the interface. In Aerosol dioctyl reversed micelles in isooctane, a negligible C_{rm n}TMB alkyl chain length effect is observed. Instead the water pool size, which can be manipulated by altering the mole ratio of water to surfactant, is the dominant factor which controls the net photoyield.

  7. N-Alkyl Carbazole Derivatives as New Tools for Alzheimer’s Disease: Preliminary Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Saturnino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a progressive and age-related neurodegenerative disorder affecting brain cells and is the most common form of “dementia”, because of the cognitive detriment which takes place. Neuronal disruption represents its major feature, due to the cytosolic accumulation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ which leads to senile plaques formation and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Many studies have focused on the design and therapeutic use of new molecules able to inhibit Aβ aggregation. In this context, we evaluated the ability of two recently synthesized series of N-alkyl carbazole derivatives to increase the Aβ soluble forms, through molecular docking simulations and in vitro experiments. Our data evidenced that two carbazole derivatives, the most active, adopt distinct binding modes involving key residues for Aβ fibrillization. They exhibit a good interfering activity on Aβ aggregation in mouse (N2a cells, stably expressing wild-type human amyloid precursor protein (APP 695. These preliminary results are promising and we are confident that the N-alkyl carbazole derivatives may encourage next future studies needed for enlarging the knowledge about the AD disease approach.

  8. 75 FR 50891 - N-alkyl (C8-C18) Primary Amines and Acetate Salts; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0046; FRL-8836-4] N-alkyl (C8-C18... requirement of a tolerance for residues of N-alkyl (C8-C18) primary amines and acetate salts where the alkyl... at http://www.regulations.gov in the document ``N-Alkyl (C8-C18) Primary Amines and Acetate Salts...

  9. Production of n-alkyl lipids in living plants and implications for the geologic past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefendorf, Aaron F.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Wing, Scott L.; Graham, Heather V.

    2011-12-01

    Leaf waxes (i.e., n-alkyl lipids or n-alkanes) are land-plant biomarkers widely used to reconstruct changes in climate and the carbon isotopic composition of the atmosphere. There is little information available, however, on how the production of leaf waxes by different kinds of plants might influence the abundance and isotopic composition of n-alkanes in sedimentary archives. This lack of information increases uncertainty in interpreting n-alkyl lipid abundance and δ 13C signals in ancient settings. We provide here n-alkyl abundance distributions and carbon isotope fractionation data for deciduous and evergreen angiosperm and gymnosperm leaves from 46 tree species, representing 24 families. n-Alkane abundances are significantly higher in angiosperms than gymnosperms; many of the gymnosperm species investigated did not produce any n-alkanes. On average, deciduous angiosperms produce 200 times more n-alkanes than deciduous gymnosperms. Although differences between angiosperms and gymnosperms dominate the variance in n-alkane abundance, leaf life-span is also important, with higher n-alkane abundances in longer-lived leaves. n-Alkanol abundances covary with n-alkanes, but n-alkanoic acids have similar abundances across all plant groups. Isotopic fractionation between leaf tissue and individual alkanes ( ɛlipid) varies by as much as 10‰ among different chain lengths. Overall, ɛlipid values are slightly lower (-4.5‰) for angiosperm than for gymnosperm (-2.5‰) n-alkanes. Angiosperms commonly express slightly higher Δleaf (photosynthetic discrimination) relative to gymnosperms under similar growth conditions. As a result, angiosperm n-alkanes are expected to be generally 3-5‰ more depleted in 13C relative to gymnosperm alkanes for the same locality. Differences in n-alkane production indicate the biomarker record will largely (but not exclusively) reflect angiosperms if both groups were present, and also that evergreen plants will likely be overrepresented

  10. A Novel and Chemoselective Process of N-Alkylation of Aromatic Nitrogen Compounds Using Quaternary Ammonium Salts as Starting Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. González-González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of N-alkylation of several pyrroles, indoles, and derivative heterocycles is herein described, using quaternary ammonium salts as the source of an alkylating agent. These reactions were carried out on several heterocyclic rings with triethylbenzylammonium chloride or tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide and an NaOH solution at 50%, leading to a chemoselective N-alkylated product and an average yield of 73%. This is an alternative process to the traditional benzylation and methylation of N-heterocycles with direct handling of alkyl halides.

  11. Ag@polypyrrole: A highly efficient nanocatalyst for the N-alkylation of amines using alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandi, Usha; Kundu, Sudipta K; Salam, Noor; Bhaumik, Asim; Islam, Sk Manirul

    2016-04-01

    We have synthesized Ag@polypyrrole nanomaterial by dispersing ultrafine silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) over the organic polymer polypyrrole. The Ag@polypyrrole material has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible absorption (UV-vis) and atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD pattern suggested the cubic crystalline phase of Ag NPs in Ag@polypyrrole. TEM image analysis revealed that silver nanoparticles are highly dispersed in the polymer matrix. The Ag@polypyrrole acts as an efficient and versatile heterogeneous nanocatalyst in the N-alkylation of amines using alcohols. The catalyst can be easily prepared, highly robust and reused several times without decrease in its catalytic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficient and selective N-alkylation of amines with alcohols catalysed by manganese pincer complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Saravanakumar; Neumann, Jacob; Sortais, Jean-Baptiste; Junge, Kathrin; Darcel, Christophe; Beller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Borrowing hydrogen (or hydrogen autotransfer) reactions represent straightforward and sustainable C–N bond-forming processes. In general, precious metal-based catalysts are employed for this effective transformation. In recent years, the use of earth abundant and cheap non-noble metal catalysts for this process attracted considerable attention in the scientific community. Here we show that the selective N-alkylation of amines with alcohols can be catalysed by defined PNP manganese pincer complexes. A variety of substituted anilines are monoalkylated with different (hetero)aromatic and aliphatic alcohols even in the presence of other sensitive reducible functional groups. As a special highlight, we report the chemoselective monomethylation of primary amines using methanol under mild conditions. PMID:27708259

  13. Dynamic studies of poly(di-n-alkyl itaconate)s

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, V; Gagliardi, S; McEwen, I J; Telling, M T F

    2002-01-01

    We report a preliminary dynamic study of poly(di-n-alkyl itaconate)s with varying side chain length n. QENS measurements were carried out on two backscattering spectrometers, IRIS at ISIS and IN10 at the ILL in the temperature range of 4 to 350 K. We show that molecular motion can be detected well below the polymer glass transition for all samples. It is possible to distinguish different dynamic processes. The temperature range over which these are observed is dependent on the length of the side chain, n. The intermediate scattering function, I(Q,t), was determined from the IRIS and found to obey time-temperature superposition. We show that the I(Q,t) data at different temperatures can be overlapped using the same time-scale shift factors, indicating that the relaxation process is common to all the polymers investigated. (orig.)

  14. Labelling in vivo and chirality of griseofulvin-derived N-alkylated protoporphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matteis, F; Gibbs, A H; Martin, S R; Milek, R L

    1991-01-01

    1. We have compared the response to griseofulvin of rats and mice and, in mice, the effect of griseofulvin itself with that of two of its analogues. The severity of protoporphyria shows a correlation with the accumulation of both types of N-alkylated porphyrins previously described after treatment with this drug, namely N-methylproptoporphyrin and the N-griseofulvin protoporphyrin adduct. 2. Both N-alkylporphyrins are chiral, are labelled from 5-amino[4-14C]laevulinate, and their liver accumulation can be inhibited by pretreatment with a suicide substrate of cytochrome P-450, which also prevents porphyria. 3. These findings suggest that cytochrome P-450 is involved in the mechanism of griseofulvin-induced protoporphyria by generating N-methylprotoporphyrin. The N-griseofulvin protoporphyrin adduct may also originate from cytochrome P-450, but more work is necessary to elucidate whether it acts as the precursor for N-methylprotoporphyrin. PMID:1764043

  15. Efficient and selective N-alkylation of amines with alcohols catalysed by manganese pincer complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Saravanakumar; Neumann, Jacob; Sortais, Jean-Baptiste; Junge, Kathrin; Darcel, Christophe; Beller, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    Borrowing hydrogen (or hydrogen autotransfer) reactions represent straightforward and sustainable C-N bond-forming processes. In general, precious metal-based catalysts are employed for this effective transformation. In recent years, the use of earth abundant and cheap non-noble metal catalysts for this process attracted considerable attention in the scientific community. Here we show that the selective N-alkylation of amines with alcohols can be catalysed by defined PNP manganese pincer complexes. A variety of substituted anilines are monoalkylated with different (hetero)aromatic and aliphatic alcohols even in the presence of other sensitive reducible functional groups. As a special highlight, we report the chemoselective monomethylation of primary amines using methanol under mild conditions.

  16. Pd@[nBu₄][Br] as a Simple Catalytic System for N-Alkylation Reactions with Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciuttolo, Bastien; Pascu, Oana; Aymonier, Cyril; Pucheault, Mathieu

    2016-08-10

    Palladium nanoparticles, simply and briefly generated in commercial and cheap onium salts using supercritical carbon dioxide, have been found to be an effective catalytic system for additive free N-alkylation reaction using alcohols via cascade oxidation/condensation/reduction steps.

  17. Bis(trialkylsilyl) peroxides as alkylating agents in the copper-catalyzed selective mono-N-alkylation of primary amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Ryu; Sakurai, Shunya; Maruoka, Keiji

    2017-06-13

    The copper-catalyzed selective mono-N-alkylation of primary amides with bis(trialkylsilyl) peroxides as alkylating agents was reported. The results of a mechanistic study suggest that this reaction should proceed via a free radical process that includes the generation of alkyl radicals from bis(trialkylsilyl) peroxides.

  18. Tripodal (N-alkylated) CMP(O) and malonamide ligands: synthesis, extraction of metal ions, and potentiometric studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janczewski, D.J.; Reinhoudt, David; Verboom, Willem; Malinowska, Elzbieta; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Hill, Clement; Allignol, Cecile

    2007-01-01

    Tripodal ligands build on the C-pivot ( 9b–e, 13b–d, and 17a–d) and trialkylbenzene platforms ( 10a,b, 11, 12, 14a,b, and 18a,b) bearing (N-alkylated) carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), carbamoylmethylphosphonate (CMP), and malonamide moieties were synthesized. Extraction studies with Am3+ and

  19. Tripodal (N-alkylated) CMP(O) and malonamide ligands: synthesis, extraction of metal ions, and potentiometric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczewski, D.; Reinhoudt, D.N.; Verboom, W.; Malinowska, E.; Pietrzak, M.; Hill, C.; Allignol, C.

    2007-01-01

    Tripodal ligands build on the C-pivot (9b-e, 13b-d, and 17a-d) and tri-alkyl-benzene platforms (10a,b, 11, 12, 14a,b, and 18a,b) bearing (N-alkylated) carbamoyl-methyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO), carbamoyl-methyl-phosphonate (CMP), and malonamide moieties were synthesized. Extraction studies with Am 3+ and Eu 3+ show that in general there is a positive influence of the N-alkyl substituents in C-pivot CMP(O) ligands on the D(distribution) coefficients. The tri-alkyl-benzene CMPO ligands 10a,b, 11, and 12 have considerably larger D coefficients than the corresponding C-pivot analogues 9a-e, although hardly having any selectivity, while N-alkylation gives rise to smaller D coefficients. Although less effective the extraction behavior of the C-pivot CMP analogues 13b-d shows more or less the same trend as the corresponding CMPO ligands 9b-e upon substitution of the carboxamide N-atom with different alkyl chains. The different malonamide ligands 17a-d and 18a,b are bad extractants, while N-alkylation makes them even worse. Potentiometric studies of CMP(O) and malonamide ligands in polymeric membranes on Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , and K + salts revealed that N-alkyl substituents increase the stability constants of ion-ionophore complexes compared to unsubstituted ligands. In polymeric membrane electrodes the ligands induce a selectivity pattern that differs significantly from the so-called Hofmeister series, giving the highest selectivity coefficients for UO 2 2+ among all examined cations (Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + ). (authors)

  20. N-fluoroalkylated and N-alkylated analogues of the dopaminergic D-2 receptor antagonist raclopride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannoye, G.S.; Moerlein, S.M.; Parkinson, D.; Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    A series of raclopride [(S)-2-[(3,5-dichloro-6-methoxy-2- hydroxybenzamido)methyl]-1-ethylpyrrolidine] derivatives bearing pyrrolidino N-fluoroalkyl or -alkyl substituents were synthesized and evaluated as potential dopaminergic receptor-based positron tomography radiopharmaceuticals. Radiosynthetic procedures for producing the corresponding N-[18F]fluoroalkylated analogues of raclopride from 18F- (beta+, t1/2 = 110 min) in high specific activity were also developed. In vitro binding assays using competitive displacement of [3H]spiperone from primate caudate tissue indicated that the N-alkylated analogues of raclopride had Ki values of 5-40 nM, whereas the corresponding values for analogous N-fluoroalkylated derivatives ranged from 90-160 nM. The relatively low D-2 binding affinity of these fluorinated salicylamides was corroborated by in vivo tissue biodistribution results in rodents. On the basis of structure-binding correlations, the impact of intramolecular hydrogen bonding, ligand basicity, and steric bulk on the affinity of the benzamides for D-2 receptor binding are discussed. Strategies are presented for the development of alternative fluorinated salicylamides that are both receptor active and metabolically stable

  1. Thermal phase behaviour of N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium and piperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, W A; Jr, V G Young; Pearson, W; Passerini, S; Long, H C De; Trulove, P C

    2006-01-01

    The phases, ion crystal packing and thermal properties of the N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium and piperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR 1R TFSI and PIP 1R TFSI (subscript R = 1 for methyl and 2 for ethyl), respectively) salts are compared using powder and single-crystal x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The crystal structure of PIP 12 TFSI has been determined at 123 K. The salt crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1-bar with Z 8. Structural data are also reported for PYR 11 TFSI at 153 K and PIP 12 TFSI at 223 K. PIP 11 TFSI has identical ion crystal packing to the analogous pyrrolidinium salt PYR 11 TFSI. Since increasing the cation alkyl chain length to propyl or butyl (R = 3 or 4) reduces the melting point of the salts below room temperature, this study may provide valuable insight into why these pyrrolidinium and piperidinium salts form room-temperature ionic liquids

  2. Smiles Rearrangement Based Practical One-pot Synthesis of N-Alkyl/aryl-6-aminoquinolines from 6-Hydroxylquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yongsheng; Vijaykumar, B. V. D.; Jang, Kiwan; Choi, Kyungmin; Shin, Dongsoo; Zuo, Hua; Yoon, Yongjin

    2013-01-01

    The C-N coupling protocol reported herein represents a convenient and practical synthesis of N-alkyl/aryl-6-aminoquinolines in a three-step one-pot manner by simple addition of 6-hydroxyquinoline and N-alkyl/aryl-2-chloroacetamides with Cs 2 CO 3 or K 2 CO 3 in DMF at 150 .deg. C via Smiles rearrangement. An electron donating substituent on the nitrogen counterpart would accelerate the rearrangement process to achieve various anilines in good yields. We currently engaged in making a chemical library including multifarious N-substituted-6-aminoquinolines, to be used in the screening for specific AChEI activity. Furthermore, this work extends the scope of preparing different heterocyclic synthons in drug design for various biological activities. Aminoquinolines and their derivatives are important chemical entities that are widely used as pro-drugs and drugs due to their antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anti-malarial activities etc

  3. S - and N-alkylating agents diminish the fluorescence of fluorescent dye-stained DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesche, Robert; John, Harald; Kehe, Kai; Schmidt, Annette; Popp, Tanja; Balzuweit, Frank; Thiermann, Horst; Gudermann, Thomas; Steinritz, Dirk

    2017-01-25

    Sulfur mustard (SM), a chemical warfare agent, causes DNA alkylation, which is believed to be the main cause of its toxicity. SM DNA adducts are commonly used to verify exposure to this vesicant. However, the required analytical state-of-the-art mass-spectrometry methods are complex, use delicate instruments, are not mobile, and require laboratory infrastructure that is most likely not available in conflict zones. Attempts have thus been made to develop rapid detection methods that can be used in the field. The analysis of SM DNA adducts (HETE-G) by immunodetection is a convenient and suitable method. For a diagnostic assessment, HETE-G levels must be determined in relation to the total DNA in the sample. Total DNA can be easily visualized by the use of fluorescent DNA dyes. This study examines whether SM and related compounds affect total DNA staining, an issue that has not been investigated before. After pure DNA was extracted from human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), DNA was exposed to different S- and N-alkylating agents. Our experiments revealed a significant, dose-dependent decrease in the fluorescence signal of fluorescent dye-stained DNA after exposure to alkylating agents. After mass spectrometry and additional fluorescence measurements ruled out covalent modifications of ethidium bromide (EthBr) by SM, we assumed that DNA crosslinks caused DNA condensation and thereby impaired access of the fluorescent dyes to the DNA. DNA digestion by restriction enzymes restored fluorescence, a fact that strengthened our hypothesis. However, monofunctional agents, which are unable to crosslink DNA, also decreased the fluorescence signal. In subsequent experiments, we demonstrated that protons produced during DNA alkylation caused a pH decrease that was found responsible for the reduction in fluorescence. The use of an appropriate buffer system eliminated the adverse effect of alkylating agents on DNA staining with fluorescent dyes. An appropriate buffer system is thus

  4. Alkylsilyl Peroxides as Alkylating Agents in the Copper-Catalyzed Selective Mono-N-Alkylation of Primary Amides and Arylamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Ryu; Sakurai, Shunya; Maruoka, Keiji

    2017-07-06

    The copper-catalyzed selective mono-N-alkylation of primary amides or arylamines using alkylsilyl peroxides as alkylating agents is reported. The reaction proceeds under mild reaction conditions and exhibits a broad substrate scope with respect to the alkylsilyl peroxides, as well as to the primary amides and arylamines. Mechanistic studies suggest that the present reaction should proceed through a free-radical process that includes alkyl radicals generated from the alkylsilyl peroxides. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. One-pot cascade synthesis of azabicycles via the nitro-Mannich reaction and N-alkylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disadee, Wannaporn; Ruchirawat, Somsak

    2018-01-31

    A one-pot, metal-free process for the synthesis of azabicycles is developed. The key transformations involved a cascade of double intramolecular cyclizations via the nitro-Mannich reaction and N-alkylation, providing various ring systems of azabicycles in yields up to 81% and an isomeric ratio of 62 : 1. This approach offers considerable advantages in terms of the handling of small molecules, the flexibility to introduce a functionalized side chain, and gives direct access to various azabicycles.

  6. Kinetics of the intestinal brush border proline (Imino) carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, B R; Wright, E M

    1987-05-15

    The kinetics of L-proline transport across intestinal brush borders via the Imino carrier were studied using membrane vesicles. The Imino carrier is defined as the agent responsible for L-alanine insensitive. Na+-dependent uptake of L-proline. Initial rate measurements were made under voltage clamped conditions (pD = 0) to investigate L-proline transport as a function of cis and trans Na+ and proline concentrations. Under zero-trans conditions, increasing cis Na+ activated proline uptake with a Hill coefficient of 1.7 and decreased the apparent Kt with no change in Jimax. The Jimax was approximately 60 pmol mg-1 s-1 and the apparent Kt ranged from 0.25 mM at cis Na = 100 to 1.0 mM at cis Na+ = 30 mM. Trans Na inhibited proline uptake via a reduction in Jimax. Trans proline had no significant effect in the absence of trans Na+, but it relieved the trans Na+ inhibition. Under equilibrium exchange conditions, the Jimax was twice that observed under zero-trans conditions. These kinetics of L-proline transport suggest a model in which uptake occurs by a rapid equilibrium iso-ordered ter ter system. Two Na+ ions bind first to the carrier on the cis face of the membrane to increase the affinity of the carrier for proline. The fully loaded complex then isomerizes to release the substrates to the trans side. The partially loaded Na+-only forms are unable to translocate across the membrane. A rate-limiting step appears to be the isomerization of unloaded carrier from the trans to the cis side of the membrane.

  7. N-alkyl functionalised expanded ring N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of rhodium(I) and iridium(I): structural investigations and preliminary catalytic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsford, Jay J; Tromp, Dorette S; Cavell, Kingsley J; Elsevier, Cornelis J; Kariuki, Benson M

    2013-05-28

    A series of new N-alkyl functionalised 6- and 7-membered expanded ring N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) pro-ligands 3-6 and their corresponding complexes of rhodium(I) and iridium(I), [M(NHC)(COD)Cl] 7-14 and [M(NHC)(CO)2Cl] 15-22 are described. The complexes have been characterised by (1)H and (13)C{(1)H} NMR, mass spectrometry, IR and X-ray diffraction. It is noted from X-ray diffraction studies that the N-alkyl substituents are found to orientate themselves away from the metal centre due to unfavourable steric interactions resulting in low percent buried volume (%V(bur)) values in the solid state. The heterocycle ring size is also found to dictate the spatial orientation of the N-alkyl substituents in the neopentyl functionalised derivatives 10 and 14. The 7-membered derivative 14 allows for a conformational 'twist' of the heterocycle ring with the N-alkyl substituents adopting a mutually trans configuration with respect to each other, while the more rigid 6-membered system 10 does not allow for this conformational 'twist' and consequently the N-alkyl substituents adopt a mutually cis configuration. The σ-donor function of this new class of expanded ring NHC ligand has also been probed by measured IR stretching frequencies of the [M(NHC)(CO)2Cl] complexes 15-22. A preliminary catalytic survey of the hydrogenation of functionalised alkenes with molecular hydrogen under mild conditions has also been undertaken with complex , affording an insight into the application of large ring NHC ancillary ligands bearing N-alkyl substituents in hydrogenation transformations.

  8. Asymmetric Synthesis of N-Boc-(R)-Silaproline via Rh-Catalyzed Intramolecular Hydrosilylation of Dehydroalanine and Continuous Flow N-Alkylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, John Y L; Shevlin, Michael; Klapars, Artis; Journet, Michel

    2016-04-15

    An asymmetric synthesis of a silicon-containing proline surrogate, N-Boc-(R)-silaproline (1), is described. Starting from N-Boc-dehydroalanine ester, deprotonation, followed by N-alkylation with chloromethyldimethylsilane under flow conditions, afforded the N-alkylated product 8 in 91% yield. An unprecedented enantioselective (NBD)2RhBF4/Josiphos 404-1 catalyzed 5-endo-trig hydrosilylation afforded the silaproline ester in 85-90% yield and >95% ee. Subsequent saponification and salt formation upgraded 1 to >99% ee.

  9. Experimental and theoretical study of surface tension of binary mixtures of (n-alkyl acetates + heptane, benzene, and toluene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafati, Amir Abbas; Ghasemian, Ensieh

    2009-01-01

    Surface properties of binary mixtures of (n-alkyl acetates + heptane, benzene, and toluene) have been measured by surface tension method at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Also, the surface tension has been predicted based on the Suarez method. This method combines a model for the description of surface tension of liquid mixtures with a group contribution method for the calculation of activity coefficient. The mean relative standard deviations obtained from the comparison of experimental (measured) and calculated surface tension values for the eight binary systems are less than 1.5%, which leads to concluding that the model shows a good accuracy in different situations in comparison with other predicted equations. In addition, the relative Gibbs adsorption and the surface mole fraction have been evaluated using this model. The surface tension deviations were calculated from experimental results and have been fitted to the Redlich-Kister type polynomial relation

  10. Toxicokinetics of amphetamines: metabolism and toxicokinetic data of designer drugs, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and their N-alkyl derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Thomas; Maurer, Hans H

    2002-04-01

    This paper reviews the toxicokinetics of amphetamines. The designer drugs MDA (methylenedioxy-amphetamine, R,S-1-(3;,4;-methylenedioxyphenyl)2-propanamine), MDMA (R,S-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), and MDE (R,S-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine), as well as BDB (benzodioxolylbutanamine; R,S-1-(1;,3;-benzodioxol-5;-yl)-2-butanamine or R,S-1-(3;,4;-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine) and MBDB (R,S-N-methyl-benzodioxolylbutanamine), were taken into consideration, as were the following N-alkylated amphetamine derivatives: amphetaminil, benzphetamine, clobenzorex, dimethylamphetamine, ethylamphetamine, famprofazone, fencamine, fenethylline, fenproporex, furfenorex, mefenorex, mesocarb, methamphetamine, prenylamine, and selegiline. English-language publications from 1995 to 2000 were reviewed. Papers describing identification of metabolites or cytochrome P450 isoenzyme-dependent metabolism and papers containing pharmacokinetic/toxicokinetic data were considered and summarized. The implications of toxicokinetics for toxicologic assessment or for interpretation in forensic cases are discussed.

  11. New method for synthesis of N-alkyl and N,N-dialkyl-O-ethyl and O-isopropylthiocarbamates by oxidation of ammonium salt of xhantogenic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Smiljka S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of N-alkyl and N,N-dialkyl-O-ethyl and O-isopropyl thiocarbamates by oxidation of ammonium salt of ethyl and isopropylxanthogenic acid in a presence of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide were performed. Ammonium salt of ethyl and isopropylxanthogenic acid was obtained by the reaction of alkylammonium sulfate and sodium ethyl and isopropyl xanthate. Studies on a dependence of N-ethyl-O-isopropylthiocarbamate yield and purity with respect to reaction parameters (reaction time, molar ratio of oxidant and ethylamonium salt of isopropylxanthogenic acid were performed. Optimal reaction conditions for synthesis of N-alkyl and N,N-dialkyl-O-ethyl and O-isopropyl thiocarbamates were established. Synthesized compounds have been fully characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and MS data, while purity has been determined by GC method. A plausible pathway for the N-alkyl and N,N-dialkyl-O-ethyl and O-isopropyl thiocarbamates synthesis, in the presence of the oxidative agents sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide, was proposed. The presented synthetic methods has been developed at laboratory and applied at semi-industrial level. The developed optimal method provides a powerful and versatile method for the preparation of N-alkyl and N,N-dialkyl-O-ethyl and O-isopropyl thiocarbamates. This new optimized method offer several benefits, namely, simple operation, mild reaction conditions, bypass of hazardous organic solvents, moderately toxic and inexpensive reagents, and also short reaction times and high product yields.

  12. Cs2CO3/[bmim]Br as an Efficient, Green, and Reusable Catalytic System for the Synthesis of N-Alkyl Derivatives of Phthalimide under Mild Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hasaninejad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aza-conjugate addition of phthalimide to α,β-unsaturated esters efficiently achieves in the presence of catalytic amount of Cs2CO3 and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim]Br under mild reaction conditions (70°C to afford N-alkyl phthalimides in high yields and relatively short reaction times.

  13. Identification of a red-pigmented bacterium producing a potent anti-tumor N-alkylated prodigiosin as Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deorukhkar, Amit A; Chander, Ramesh; Ghosh, Sukhendu B; Sainis, Krishna B

    2007-06-01

    A bacterial strain producing a novel prodigiosin analogue 2,2'-[3-methoxy-1'amyl-5'-methyl-4-(1''-pyrryl)] dipyrrylmethene (MAMPDM) possessing potent cytotoxic activity towards cancer cells was isolated and identified. The bacterial cells were spherical and occurred singly, and some of the biochemical tests matched with Micrococcus. Therefore, the isolate was earlier tentatively reported to be Micrococcus sp. In the present studies, analytical profile index (API) suggested this organism to be Klebsiella. However, Klebsiella is not known to produce the red pigment prodigiosin, which is produced by Serratia species and some other bacteria. Based on other biochemical characteristics, particularly DNase, gelatinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, presence of a cell-associated N-alkylated prodigiosin (MAMPDM) and organic solvent tolerance, the strain has now been identified as a variant of Serratia marcescens. 16S rRNA gene analysis conclusively established this organism as S. marcescens ost3. The red pigment (MAMPDM) of this organism showed selective cytotoxic activity in cancer cell lines of different origin (LS-A and U937) and reduced toxicity to non-malignant cells. The LC50 of MAMPDM was 1.59 microM and 0.176 microM for U937 and LS-A cells, respectively, while there was no effect on the viability of L929, a non-malignant cell line, at these concentrations. Thus, S. marcescens ost3 may serve as a source of a new anti-cancer compound.

  14. Selective N-alkylation of amines using nitriles under hydrogenation conditions: facile synthesis of secondary and tertiary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Takashi; Fujita, Yuki; Mizusaki, Tomoteru; Betsuin, Sae; Takamatsu, Haruki; Maegawa, Tomohiro; Monguchi, Yasunari; Sajiki, Hironao

    2012-01-14

    Nitriles were found to be highly effective alkylating reagents for the selective N-alkylation of amines under catalytic hydrogenation conditions. For the aromatic primary amines, the corresponding secondary amines were selectively obtained under Pd/C-catalyzed hydrogenation conditions. Although the use of electron poor aromatic amines or bulky nitriles showed a lower reactivity toward the reductive alkylation, the addition of NH(4)OAc enhanced the reactivity to give secondary aromatic amines in good to excellent yields. Under the same reaction conditions, aromatic nitro compounds instead of the aromatic primary amines could be directly transformed into secondary amines via a domino reaction involving the one-pot hydrogenation of the nitro group and the reductive alkylation of the amines. While aliphatic amines were effectively converted to the corresponding tertiary amines under Pd/C-catalyzed conditions, Rh/C was a highly effective catalyst for the N-monoalkylation of aliphatic primary amines without over-alkylation to the tertiary amines. Furthermore, the combination of the Rh/C-catalyzed N-monoalkylation of the aliphatic primary amines and additional Pd/C-catalyzed alkylation of the resulting secondary aliphatic amines could selectively prepare aliphatic tertiary amines possessing three different alkyl groups. According to the mechanistic studies, it seems reasonable to conclude that nitriles were reduced to aldimines before the nucleophilic attack of the amine during the first step of the reaction.

  15. Read-across of ready biodegradability based on the substrate specificity of N-alkyl polypropylene polyamine-degrading microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, R; van Ginkel, C G; Plugge, C M

    2017-04-01

    The biodegradation of N-alkyl polypropylene polyamines (NAPPs) was studied using pure and mixed cultures to enable read-across of ready biodegradability test results. Two Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from activated sludge with N-oleyl alkyl propylene diamine and N-coco alkyl dipropylene triamine, respectively. Both strains utilized all NAPPs tested as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy for growth. Mineralization of NAPPs was independent of the alkyl chain length and the size of the polyamine moiety. NAPPs degraded in closed bottle tests (CBTs) using both river water and activated sludge. However, ready biodegradability of NAPPs with alkyl chain lengths of 16-18 carbon atoms and polyamine moieties with three and four nitrogen atoms could not be demonstrated. Biodegradation in the CBT was hampered by their limited bioavailability, making assessment of the true ready biodegradability of these highly adsorptive surfactants impossible. All NAPPs are therefore classified as readily biodegradable through read-across. Read-across is justified by the broad substrate specificity of NAPP-degrading microorganisms, their omnipresence and the mineralization of NAPPs.

  16. Assessment of the combined approach of N-alkylation and salt formation to enhance aqueous solubility of tertiary amines using bupivacaine as a model drug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Bach; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Liljefors, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Quaternary prodrug types of poorly water-soluble tertiary amines have been shown to exhibit significantly enhanced solubilities as compared to the parent amine. In the present study the combined effect of N-alkylation and salt formation to enhance aqueous solubility of tertiary amines have been...... as their iodide salts. Chloride, mesylate, formate, acetate, glycolate, and tosylate salts were obtained by anion exchange of the N-methyl-bupivacaine derivative. N-Alkylation and salt formation afforded quaternary ammonium salts possessing pH-independent aqueous solubilities far exceeding that of the parent...... investigated using bupivacaine as a model compound. X-ray structure analyses of selected salts were included to investigate the potential existence of correlations between salt solubility and crystal packing modes. Alkyl groups were methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl and the derivatives were isolated...

  17. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of N-alkyl Gly-boro-Pro inhibitors of DPP4, FAP, and DPP7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Ma, Lifu; Wu, Min; Wong, Melissa S; Li, Bei; Corral, Sergio; Yu, Zhizhou; Nomanbhoy, Tyzoon; Alemayehu, Senaiet; Fuller, Stacy R; Rosenblum, Jonathan S; Rozenkrants, Natasha; Minimo, Lauro C; Ripka, William C; Szardenings, Anna K; Kozarich, John W; Shreder, Kevin R

    2005-10-01

    The structure-activity relationship of various N-alkyl Gly-boro-Pro derivatives against three dipeptidyl peptidases (DPPs) was studied. In a series of N-cycloalkyl analogs, DPP4 and fibroblast activation protein-alpha (FAP) optimally preferred N-cycloheptyl whereas DPP7 tolerated even larger cycloalkyl rings. Gly alpha-carbon derivatization of N-cyclohexyl or N-(2-adamantyl) Gly-boro-Pro resulted in a significant decrease in potency against all the three DPPs.

  18. Rational design of novel N-alkyl-N capped biostable RNA nanostructures for efficient long-term inhibition of gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, Montserrat; Ivani, Ivan; Villegas, Núria; Paris, Clément; Salvans, Cándida; Brun-Heath, Isabelle; Orozco, Modesto

    2016-01-01

    Computational techniques have been used to design a novel class of RNA architecture with expected improved resistance to nuclease degradation, while showing interference RNA activity. The in silico designed structure consists of a 24–29 bp duplex RNA region linked on both ends by N-alkyl-N dimeric nucleotides (BCn dimers; n = number of carbon atoms of the alkyl chain). A series of N-alkyl-N capped dumbbell-shaped structures were efficiently synthesized by double ligation of BCn-loop hairpins. The resulting BCn-loop dumbbells displayed experimentally higher biostability than their 3′-N-alkyl-N linear version, and were active against a range of mRNA targets. We studied first the effect of the alkyl chain and stem lengths on RNAi activity in a screen involving two series of dumbbell analogues targeting Renilla and Firefly luciferase genes. The best dumbbell design (containing BC6 loops and 29 bp) was successfully used to silence GRB7 expression in HER2+ breast cancer cells for longer periods of time than natural siRNAs and known biostable dumbbells. This BC6-loop dumbbell-shaped structure displayed greater anti-proliferative activity than natural siRNAs. PMID:26975656

  19. Chemistry of the diazeniumdiolates. O- versus N-alkylation of the RNH[N(O)NO](-) ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Joseph E; Bohle, D Scott; Smith, Kamilah N; George, Clifford; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Parrish, Damon; Ivanic, Joseph; Wang, Yan-Ni; Citro, Michael L; Keefer, Larry K

    2004-10-13

    Monomethylation of the potentially ambident RNH[N(O)NO](-) ion (R = isopropyl or cyclohexyl) has been shown to occur at the terminal oxygen to yield the novel diazeniumdiolate structural unit, RNHN(O)=NOMe. The NH bond of the product proved acidic, with a pK(a) of 12.3 in aqueous solution. The ultraviolet spectrum showed a large bathochromic shift on ionization (lambda(max) 244 --> 284 nm, epsilon(max) 6.9 --> 9.8 mM(-1) cm(-1)). Deprotonation led to a pH-dependent line broadening in the (1)H NMR spectrum of iPrNHN(O)=NOMe, suggesting a complex fluxionality possibly involving isomerizations around the N-N bonds. Consistent with this interpretation, evidence for extensive delocalization and associated changes in bond order on ionizing RNHN(O)=NOR' were found in density functional theory calculations using Gaussian 03 with B3LYP/6-311++G basis sets. With MeNHN(O)=NOMe as a model, all N-N and N-O bonds lengthened by 0.04-0.07 A as a result of ionization except for the MeN-N linkage, which shortened by 7%. These anions can be N-alkylated to generate R(1)R(2)NN(O)=NOR(3) derivatives that would otherwise be difficult to access synthetically. Additionally, some RNHN(O)=NOR' species may display unique and beneficial pharmacological properties. As one example, an agent with R = isopropyl and R' = beta-D-glucosyl was prepared and shown to generate nitric oxide in the presence of glucosidase at pH 5.

  20. Electrical conductivity in Langmuir-Blodgett films of n-alkyl cyanobiphenyls using current sensing atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayathri, H. N.; Suresh, K. A., E-mail: suresh@cnsms.res.in [Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences, P. B. No. 1329, Jalahalli, Bangalore 560013 (India)

    2015-06-28

    We report our studies on the nanoscale electrical conductivity in monolayers of n-alkyl cyanobiphenyl materials deposited on solid surface. Initially, the 8CB, 9CB, and 10CB monolayer films were prepared by the Langmuir technique at air-water interface and characterized by surface manometry and Brewster angle microscopy. The monolayer films were transferred on to solid substrates by the Langmuir-Blodgett (L-B) technique. The 8CB, 9CB, and 10CB monolayer L-B films were deposited on freshly cleaved mica and studied by atomic force microscope (AFM), thereby measuring the film thickness as ∼1.5 nm. The electrical conductivity measurements were carried out on 9CB and 10CB monolayer L-B films deposited onto highly ordered pyrolytic graphite using current sensing AFM. The nanoscale current-voltage (I-V) measurements show a non-linear variation. The nature of the curve indicates electron tunneling to be the mechanism for electrical conduction. Furthermore, analysis of the I-V curve reveals a transition in the electron conduction mechanism from direct tunneling to injection tunneling. From the transition voltage, we have estimated the values of barrier height for 9CB and 10CB to be 0.71 eV and 0.37 eV, respectively. For both 9CB and 10CB, the effective mass of electron was calculated to be 0.021 m{sub e} and 0.065 m{sub e}, respectively. These parameters are important in the design of molecular electronic devices.

  1. "Decarbonization" of an imino N-heterocyclic carbene via triple benzyl migration from hafnium

    Science.gov (United States)

    An imino N-heterocyclic carbene underwent three sequential benzyl migrations upon reaction with tetrabenzylhafnium, resulting in complete removal of the carbene carbon from the ligand. The resulting eneamido-amidinato hafnium complex showed alkene polymerization activity comparable to that of a prec...

  2. Bis(imino)pyridine (BIMP) Fe(II) catalyses one-pot green ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    483–486. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Bis(imino)pyridine (BIMP) Fe(II) catalyses one-pot green condensation of resorcinol, malononitrile, aromatic aldehydes and cyclohexanone. SAMAN DAMAVANDIa,∗ and REZA SANDAROOSb. aDepartment of Chemistry, Sarvestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sarvestan, Iran.

  3. Solid-state NMR and DFT predictions of differences in COOH hydrogen bonding in odd and even numbered n-alkyl fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jacob; Kalakewich, Keyton; Uribe-Romo, Fernando J; Harper, James K

    2016-05-14

    For nearly 140 years n-alkyl monocarboxylic acids have been known to exhibit unusual non-monotonic melting between odd and even numbered acids. This behavior has been rationalized in terms of packing density at the hydrocarbon tails, with COOH hydrogen bonding considered to be invariant among different acids. A recent ambiguity involving the COOH conformation between two crystal structures of lauric acid suggests that COOH structure and hydrogen bonding may play a role in these differences. Here, the two conflicting lauric acid crystal structures are further refined using lattice-including DFT refinement methods. Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) (13)C chemical shift tensor data are employed to monitor refinement quality by comparing experimental and computed tensors. This comparison provides a more sensitive measure of structure than X-ray data due to SSNMR's ability to accurately locate hydrogens. Neither diffraction structure agrees with SSNMR data and an alternative is proposed involving a hydrogen disordered COOH moiety. The disordered hydrogen dynamically samples two most probable positions on the NMR timescale with O-H bond lengths of 1.16 and 1.46 Å. This disordered structure is consistent with SSNMR, IR and X-ray C-O and C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bond lengths. The hydrogen disorder appears to be restricted to even numbered acids based on undecanoic acid's (13)COOH tensor data and C-O and C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bond lengths for other n-alkyl acids. This disorder in even numbered acids results in stronger hydrogen bonds than are found in odd acids and invites a reevaluation of the melting behavior of n-alkyl acids that includes these differences in hydrogen bonding.

  4. Sugar Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and drinks. You may have heard them called “artificial sweeteners” or “non-caloric sweeteners.” They can be used ... a food or drink contains. What sugar substitutes/artificial sweeteners are approved by the FDA? The following sugar ...

  5. Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your body's cells to use for energy. Diabetes is a disease in which your blood sugar levels are too high. Over time, having too ... serious problems. Even if you don't have diabetes, sometimes you may have problems with blood sugar that is too low or too high. Keeping ...

  6. Ethylene oligomerization using iron complexes: beyond the discovery of bis(imino)pyridine ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudier, Adrien; Breuil, Pierre-Alain R; Magna, Lionel; Olivier-Bourbigou, Hélène; Braunstein, Pierre

    2014-02-11

    Since the discovery that bis(imino)pyridine ligands are able to confer high activities in ethylene oligomerization and polymerization to their iron complexes, considerable attention has been focused on catalyst design for these reactions and this research constitutes an ever-growing area in molecular catalysis. The tuning of the ligand structures and properties, and thus of catalysts, generally represents the basis for subsequent work contributing to process development and industrialization. Significant effort is therefore devoted to generate structural diversity in order to access the required catalyst stability and selectivity. This feature article outlines nitrogen-containing ligands that have been developed for the iron-catalyzed oligomerization of ethylene since the seminal discovery of the properties of bis(imino)pyridine ligands.

  7. Enhanced NMR signal detection of imino protons in RNA molecules containing 3' dangling nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amborski, Andrew N.; Johnson, Philip E.

    2008-01-01

    We present a method for improving the quality of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra involving exchangeable protons near the base of the stem of RNA hairpin molecules. NMR spectra of five different RNA hairpins were compared. These hairpins consisted of a native RNA structure and four molecules each having different unpaired, or dangling, nucleotides at the 3' end. NMR experiments were acquired in water for each construct and the quality of the imino proton spectral regions were examined. The imino resonances near the base of the stem of the wild type RNA structure were not observed due to breathing motions. However, a significant increase in spectral quality for molecules with dangling 3' adenosine or guanosine nucleotides was observed, with imino protons detected in these constructs that were not observed in the wild type construct. A modest improvement in spectral quality was seen for the construct with a 3' unpaired uridine, whereas no significant improvement was observed for a 3' unpaired cytidine. This improvement in NMR spectral quality mirrors the increased thermodynamic stability observed for 3' unpaired nucleotides which is dependant on the stacking interactions of these nucleotides against the base of the stem. The use of a dangling 3' adenosine nucleotide represents an easy method to significantly improve the quality of NMR spectra of RNA molecules

  8. Synthesis and enzyme inhibitory studies of some new N-alkylated/aralkylated N-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-2,3-drobenzo-(1,4)-dioxin-6-sulfonamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, M.A.; Islam, M.; Rehman, A.U.; Siddiqui, S.Z.

    2016-01-01

    The research endeavor was aimed to synthesize N-alkyl/aralkylated-N-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzo-(1,4)-dioxine-6 sulfonamides and to evaluate their enzyme inhibitory potential. The target molecules were synthesized in two steps. The first step involved the reaction of 4-ethoxyaniline (1) with N-2,3-dihydrobenzo(1,4)-dioxin-6-sulfonyl chloride (2) under dynamic pH control maintained by 10% aqueous Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ to yield N-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzo-(1,4)-dioxine-6-sulfonamide (3). In second step parent compound 3 was reacted with various alkyl/aralkyl halides (4a-l) in N,N'-dimethylformamide and catalytic amount of lithium hydride to accomplish some new N-alkyl/aralkylated-N-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzo-(1,4)-dioxine-6 sulfonamides (5a-l). Probable structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized by contemporary spectral techniques i.e. IR, 1H-NMR and EIMS and were finally evaluated for enzyme inhibitory potential against a-glucosidase and urease. The synthesized compounds exhibited moderate to weak therapeutic potential throughout the series. (author)

  9. Evaporation of sessile droplets of dilute aqueous solutions containing sodium n-alkylates from polymer surfaces: influences of alkyl length and concentration of solute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Ahn, Sung Il; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jong Soo; Cho, Kilwon; Jung, Jin Chul; Chang, Taihyun; Ree, Moonhor; Zin, Wang-Cheol

    2008-10-21

    The evaporation of sessile droplets placed on polymer surfaces was studied by microscopic observation of the changes in shape of aqueous solution droplets in which the alkyl lengths and the initial concentrations of sodium n-alkylates were varied. Although the initial contact angles of the droplets were not significantly different, the evaporation process varied significantly with the alkyl length of the sodium n-alkylate employed. For the sodium dodecanoate (C 12), showing the highest surface activity, the concentration was found to have a significant effect on the evaporation process of the droplets. In the evaporation of water droplets, variations in the three distinct stages were caused by the different concentration of solutes distributed near or at the air/water interface. It is revealed that the concentration of droplet solute near the air/water interface requires not only solvent evaporation but also some affinity of the solute for the interface. The initial C 12 concentration-dependence of the evaporation of C 12 solution droplets is discussed with particular emphasis on the sudden spreading or sudden contraction of the contact area near the end of evaporation. It is suggested that the cluster formation by C 12 molecules at the air/liquid interface during the evaporation causes Marangoni instability in an evaporating droplet, and the clusters are expected to move dynamically, depending on the droplet concentration of C 12, from the droplet center to the contact line and vice versa, showing Marangoni flow along the air/water interface.

  10. Carbon-Oxygen Bond Cleavage by Bis(imino)pyridine Iron Compounds : Catalyst Deactivation Pathways and Observation of Acyl C-O Bond Cleavage in Esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trovitch, Ryan J.; Lobkovsky, Emil; Bouwkamp, Marco W.; Chirik, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Investigations into the substrate scope of bis(imino)pyridine iron-catalyzed hydrogenation and [2 pi + 2 pi]. diene cyclization reactions identified C-O bond cleavage as a principal deactivation pathway. Addition of diallyl or allyl ethyl ether to the bis(imino)pyridine iron dinitrogen complex,

  11. Chain-Length Distribution and Hydrogen Isotopic Fraction of n-alkyl Lipids in Aquatic and Terrestrial Plants: Implications for Paleoclimate Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L.; Littlejohn, S.; Hou, J.; Toney, J.; Huang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that in lacustrine sediments, aquatic plant lipids (e.g., C22-fatty acid) record lake water D/H ratio variation, while long-chain fatty acids (C26-C32, major components of terrestrial plant leaf waxes), record D/H ratios of precipitation (especially in arid regions). However, there are insufficient literature data for the distribution and hydrogen isotopic fractionation of n-alkyl lipids in aquatic and terrestrial plants. In this study, we determined the chain-length distributions and D/H ratios of n-alkyl lipids from 17 aquatic plant species (9 emergent, 4 floating and 4 submerge species) and 13 terrestrial plant species (7 grasses and 6 trees) from Blood Pond, Massachusetts. Our results are consistent with previous studies and provide a solid basis for the paleoclimatic reconstruction using D/H ratios of aquatic and terrestrial plant biomarkers. In addition, systematic hydrogen isotopic analyses on leaf waxes, leaf, stem and soil waters from trees and grasses significantly advance our understanding of our previously observed large D/H ratio difference between tree and grass leaf waxes. Our data indicate that the observed difference is not due to differences in leaf water D/H ratios. In comparison with grasses, trees use greater proportion of D-enriched residual or stored carbohydrates (as opposed to current photosynthetic carbohydrates) for leaf wax biosynthesis, resulting in higher leaf wax D/H ratios. The residual carbohydrates are enriched in deuterium because of the preferential consumption of light-hydrogen substrates during plant metabolism.

  12. 5-Imino-3,4-diphenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatov, Evgeny; Chulkova, Tatiana; Haukka, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C16H12N2O, exists in the crystalline state as the 5-imino-3,4-di­phenyl­-1H-pyrrol-2-one tautomer. The dihedral angles between the pyrrole and phenyl rings are 35.3 (2) and 55.3 (2)°. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds generate a graph-set motif of R 2 2(8) via N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. PMID:24764881

  13. 5-Imino-3,4-diphenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Bulatov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H12N2O, exists in the crystalline state as the 5-imino-3,4-diphenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-one tautomer. The dihedral angles between the pyrrole and phenyl rings are 35.3 (2 and 55.3 (2°. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of N—H...N hydrogen bonds generate a graph-set motif of R22(8 via N—H...N hydrogen bonds.

  14. Sugar 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search By Zipcode Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... Hey Kids, Learn About Blood Sugar and Diabetes Teaching Gardens Teaching Gardens Recognition Teaching Gardens-See Our ...

  15. Added Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search By Zipcode Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... Hey Kids, Learn About Blood Sugar and Diabetes Teaching Gardens Teaching Gardens Recognition Teaching Gardens-See Our ...

  16. Unprecedented head-to-head right-handed cross-links between the antitumor bis(mu-N,N'-di-p-tolylformamidinate) dirhodium(II,II) core and the dinucleotide d(ApA) with the adenine bases in the rare imino form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifotides, Helen T; Dunbar, Kim R

    2007-10-17

    Reactions of the anticancer active compound cis-[Rh2(DTolF)2(CH3CN)6](BF4)2 with 9-ethyladenine (9-EtAdeH) or the dinucleotide d(ApA) proceed with bridging adenine bases in the rare imino form (A*), spanning the Rh-Rh bond at equatorial positions via N7/N6. The inflection points for the pH-dependent H2 and H8 NMR resonance curves of cis-[Rh2(DTolF)2(9-EtAdeH)2](BF4)2 correspond to N1H deprotonation of the metal-stabilized rare imino tautomer, which takes place at pKa approximately 7.5 in CD3CN-d3, a considerably reduced value as compared to that of the imino form of 9-EtAdeH. Similarly, coordination of the metal atoms to the N7/N6 adenine sites in Rh2(DTolF)2{d(ApA)} induces formation of the rare imino tautomer of the bases with a concomitant substantial decrease in the basicity of the N1H sites (pKa approximately 7.0 in CD3CN-d3), as compared to the imino form of the free dinucleotide. The presence of the adenine bases in the rare imino form, due to bidentate metalation of the N6/N7 sites, is further corroborated by DQF-COSY H2/N1H and ROE N1H/N6H cross-peaks in the 2D NMR spectra of Rh2(DTolF)2{d(ApA)} in CD3CN-d3 at -38 degrees C. Due to the N7/N6 bridging mode of the adenine bases in Rh2(DTolF)2{d(ApA)}, only the anti orientation of the imino tautomer is possible. The imino form A* of adenine in DNA may result in AT-->CG transversions or AT-->GC transitions, which can eventually lead to lethal mutations. The HH arrangement of the bases in Rh2(DTolF)2{d(ApA)} is indicated by the H8/H8 NOE cross-peaks in the 2D ROESY NMR spectrum, whereas the formamidinate bridging groups dictate the presence of one right-handed conformer HH1R in solution. Complete characterization of Rh2(DTolF)2{d(ApA)} by 2D NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling supports the presence of the HH1R conformer, anti orientation of both sugar residues about the glycosyl bonds, and N-type conformation for the 5'-A base.

  17. Effect of chemical structure on the volume-phase transition in neutral and weakly charged poly(N-alkyl(meth)acrylamide) hydrogels studied by ultrasmall-angle x-ray scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tirumala, V. R.; Ilavsky, J.; Ilavský, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, - (2006), 234911/1-234911/10 ISSN 0021-9606 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(N-alkyl(meth) acrylamide ) hydrogels * volume phase transition * critical temperature Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  18. Organometallic mediated radical polymerization of vinyl acetate using bis(imino)pyridine vanadium trichloride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mitchell R; Allan, Laura E N; Decken, Andreas; Shaver, Michael P

    2013-07-07

    The synthesis and characterization of one novel proligand and six novel vanadium(III) trichloride complexes is described. The controlled radical polymerization activity towards vinyl acetate of these, and eight other bis(imino)pyridine vanadium trichloride complexes previously reported, is investigated. Those complexes possessing variation at the N-aryl para-position with no steric protection offered by ortho-substituents (4 examples) result in poor control over poly(vinyl acetate) polymerization. Control is improved with increasing steric bulk at the ortho-position of the N-aryl substituent (4 examples) although attempts to increase steric bulk past isopropyl were unsuccessful. Synthesizing bis(imino)pyridine vanadium trichloride complexes with substituted imine backbones restores polymerization control when aliphatic substituents are used (4 examples) but ceases to make any drastic improvements on catalyst lifetime. Modification of the polymerization conditions is also investigated, in an attempt to improve the catalyst lifetime. Expansion of the monomer scope to include other vinyl esters, particularly those derived from renewable resources, shows promising results.

  19. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... than likely, the doctor will order a fasting blood sugar test. The blood glucose test is also used to ...

  20. Cobalt and Nickel Complexes Bearing 2,6-Bis(imino)phenoxy Ligands:Synthesis and Ethylene Oligomerization Study

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Jian-Long; Li, Li-Jun

    2006-01-01

    A series of new cobalt and nickel complexes MLX2 (M = Co or Ni, X = Cl) bearing 2,6-bis(imino)phenoxy ligands have been synthesized. Treatment of the complexes with methylaluminoxane (MAO) leads to active catalysts for ethylene oligomerization. The oligomers are olefins from C4 to C6.

  1. Protecting-Group-Free Synthesis of 2-Deoxy-Aza-Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattie Simon Maria Timmer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The protecting-group-free asymmetric synthesis of 1,2,4-trideoxy-1,4-imino-L-xylitol is readily achieved in five steps from 2-deoxy-D-ribose and with an overall yield of 48%. Key in this synthesis is the application of our recently developed Vasella-reductive amination and carbamate annulation methodologies to the synthesis of 2-deoxy-aza-sugars. The carbamate annulation occurred with excellent yield and diastereoselectively (>20:1 d.r., in favour of the 3,4-cis isomer.

  2. Two isosteric fluorinated derivatives of the powerful glucosidase inhibitors1-deoxynojirimycin and 2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-D-mannitol: Syntheses and glycosidase-inhibitory activities of 1,2,5-trideoxy-2-fluoro-1,5-imino-D-glucitol and of 1,2,5-trideoxy-1-fluoro-2,5-imino-D-mannitol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Møller; Ebner, Michael; Ekhart, Christian W.

    1997-01-01

    ,5-imino-D-mannitol, were synthesised featuring glucose isomerase-catalysed aldose-ketose interconvertion reactions as the key steps of the syntheses.Results of inhibition studies conducted with these compounds and previously obtained deoxyfluoro derivatives of 1-deoxynojirimycin, employing glucosidases...

  3. N-Alkyl/aryl-4-(3-substituted-3-phenylpropyl)piperazine-1-carbothioamide as dual-action vaginal microbicides with reverse transcriptase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Veenu; Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Gupta, Sonal; Jangir, Santosh; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Chhonker, Yashpal S; Chandasana, Hardik; Krishna, Shagun; Rawat, Kavita; Krishna, Atul; Singh, Mala; Sankhwar, Satya N; Shukla, Praveen K; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Bhatta, Rabi S; Siddiqi, Mohammad I; Tripathi, Rajkamal; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2015-08-28

    The growing population and health-care burden (due to STIs and HIV) imposes a particular economic crisis over resource-poor countries. Thus a novel approach as vaginal microbicides emerges as integrated tool to control both population and anti-STIs/HIV. Our continued efforts in this field led to the synthesis of fifteen N-alkyl/aryl-4-(3-substituted-3-phenylpropyl) piperazine-1-carbothioamide (12-26) derivatives as topical vaginal microbicides which were evaluated for anti-Trichomonas, spermicidal, antifungal and reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitory activities. All compounds were also tested for preliminary safety through cytotoxicity assays against human cervical cell line (HeLa) and the vaginal flora, Lactobacillus. Docking studies were performed to gain an insight into the binding mode and interactions of the most promising compound 12 [oxo derivative], comprising of reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitory (72.30%), spermicidal (MEC 0.01%), anti-Trichomonas (MIC 46.72 μM) and antifungal (MIC 9.34-74.8 μM) activities, along with its hydroxyl (17) and O-alkylated 4-trifluoromethylphenoxy (22) derivative, with similar activities. The stability of compound 12 in simulated vaginal fluid (SVF) and its preliminary in vivo pharmacokinetics performed in female NZ-rabbits signifies its clinical safety in comparison to marketed spermicide Nonoxynol-9. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Liposome encapsulation of lipophilic N-alkyl-propanediamine platinum complexes: impact on their cytotoxic activity and influence of the carbon chain length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Heveline; Fontes, Ana Paula S. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Lopes, Miriam Teresa P. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia; Frezard, Frederic, E-mail: frezard@icb.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia e Biofisica

    2010-07-01

    Antitumor platinum(II) complexes derived from N-alkyl-propanediamine differing in the length of their carbon chain (C8, C10, C12 and C14) were incorporated in liposomes and the cytotoxic activity of these formulations was evaluated against tumor (A{sub 549}, MDA-MB-231, B16-F1 and B16-F10) and non-tumor (BHK-21 and CHO) cell lines. Stable and monodisperse liposome suspensions incorporating the platinum complexes were obtained from the lipid composition consisting of distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero- 3-phosphoethanolamine-N-(methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000) at 5:3:0.3 molar ratio. The entrapment efficiency (EE%) of the platinum complexes in liposomes increased with the carbon chain length. EE% was higher than 80% in C12- and C14-derivatives. The effect of liposome encapsulation on the cytotoxic activity of the complexes was found to depend on the carbon chain length. These data indicate that the highest drug bioavailability from liposome formulations was achieved with the complex showing intermediate carbon chain length and partition between the liposome membrane and aqueous phase. (author)

  5. N-alkyl-N-(phosphonoethyl substituted (methacrylamides – new adhesive monomers for self-etching self-priming one part dental adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim E. Klee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Novel N-alkyl-N-(phosphonoethyl substituted mono-, bis- and tris(methacrylamides 3 were synthesized by two different three-step reactions and characterized by IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy as well as refractive index and viscosity. The phosphonoethyl substituted (methacrylamide monomers show improved hydrolytic stability compared to carboxylic esters. The highest stability was found for the phosphonoethyl substituted acrylamide monomers. Acrylamides have a larger polymerization enthalpy ranging from −50 to −70 kJ·mol−1 per double bond compared to methacrylamides which show −8.57 to −25.1 kJ·mol−1 per double bond. Depending on their structure (methacrylamides 3 exhibit an adhesion to enamel and dentin up to 19.5 MPa. The monomer 3c shows the highest adhesion values to both substrates, namely 15.3 ± 3.4 MPa to enamel and 18.5 ± 2.3 MPa to dentin.

  6. Synthesis and inhibition of N-alkyl-2-(4-hydroxybut-2-ynyl) pyridinium bromide for mild steel in acid solution: Box–Behnken design optimization and mechanism probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Tianbin; Chen, Zhengjun; Jiang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Limei; Liao, Yunwen; Duan, Ming; Wang, Hu; Pu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • N-alkyl-2-(4-hydroxybut-2-ynyl) pyridinium bromide prepared is new type of inhibitor. • Box–Behnken experiment design-based optimization model is used to maximize inhibition efficiency. • O-n adsorbing on X70 steel surface enhances the resistance of the steel to acid corrosion. • O-n acts as mix-type inhibitor to suppress both the anodic and cathodic reaction of X70 steel. - Abstract: N-alkyl-2-(4-hydroxybut-2-ynyl) pyridinium bromides (designated as O-n) was synthesized and characterized by 1 H and 13 C NMR and FTIR. Box–Behnken design (BBD)-based optimization was engaged to analyze the factors and the interaction of the factors that influence the corrosion inhibition efficiency of O-n for X70 steel. The inhibition mechanism was also probed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques

  7. Sweeteners - sugar substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial sweeteners are substances that are used in place of sweeteners with sugar (sucrose) or sugar alcohols . They ... foods and drinks without adding extra calories. Using artificial sweeteners in place of sugar can also help prevent ...

  8. Phase behavior of polystyrene-block-poly(n-alkyl methacrylate) copolymers investigated by SANS, SAXS, and temperature-dependent FTIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Du Yeol; Lee, Dong Hyun; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Jin Kon; Jung, Y. M.; Kim, S. B.

    2005-01-01

    The phase behavior of polystyrene-block -poly(n-alkyl methacrylate) (PS-PnAMA) copolymer were investigated by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), and temperature-dependent Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Also, the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the transition temperatures was studied by using SANS with pressure controller. Phase behavior was changed significantly with the change of alkyl number (n). For n = 2∼4, only Lower Disordered-to-Order Tansition (LDOT) was observed, whereas the Ordered-to-Disorder (ODT) was found for n =1 and n =6. Finally, a closed-loop phase behavior was found for n =5. Using incompressible random phase approximation, the segmental interactions (χ) between PS and PnAMA for all n values were obtained. The standard expression of χ = a + b/T (where T is the absolute temperature) was valid only for n =1 and n =6. But, this relationship was not valid any more for n = 2∼4. For n =5, a more complex behavior of χ upon temperature was observed. We investigated, by using temperature-dependent FTIR, the mechanism why as closed loop phase behavior was observed for n =5. Interestingly, the conformation of C-C-O stretching band of the PnPMA chain (n=5) (and thus the directional enthapic gain) was different in the two disordered states, and, therefore, the driving force to induce the disordered state at lower temperatures was different from that at higher temperatures

  9. Correlations of properties and structures at different length scales of hydro- and organo-gels based on N-alkyl-(R)-12-hydroxyoctadecylammonium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, V Ajay; Terech, Pierre; Weiss, Richard G

    2011-11-03

    The self-assembly and gelating ability of a set of N-alkyl-(R)-12-hydroxyoctadecylammonium chlorides (NCl-n, where n = 0-6, 18 is the length of the alkyl chain on nitrogen) are described. Several are found to be ambidextrous (gelating both water and a variety of organic liquids) and very efficient (needing less than ca. 0.5 wt % at room temperature). Structure-property correlations at different distance scales of the NCl-n in their hydro- and organo-gels and neat, solid states have been made using X-ray diffraction, neutron scattering, thermal, optical, cryo-SEM and rheological techniques. The self-assembled fibrillar networks consist of spherulitic objects with fibers whose diameters and degrees of twisting differ in the hydro- and organo-gels. Increasing n (and, thus, the molecular length) increases the width of the fibers in their hydrogels; an irregular, less pronounced trend between n and fiber width is observed in the corresponding toluene gels. Time-dependent, small angle neutron scattering data for the isothermal sol-to-gel transformation of sols of NCl-18/toluene to their gels, treated according to Avrami theory, indicate heterogeneous nucleation involving rodlike growth. Rheological studies of gels of NCl-3 in water and toluene confirm their viscoelastic nature and show that the hydrogel is mechanically stronger than the toluene gel. Models for the different molecular packing arrangements within the fibrillar gel networks of the hydro- and organogels have been inferred from X-ray diffraction. The variations in the fibrillar networks provide a comprehensive picture and detailed insights into why seemingly very similar NCl-n behave very differently during their self-assembly processes in water and organic liquids. It is shown that the NCl-n provide a versatile platform for interrogating fundamental questions regarding the links between molecular structure and one-dimensional self-aggregation, leading to gelation.

  10. Inhibitory properties of 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) derivatives acting on glycogen metabolising enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Lobo, Mireia; Concia, Alda Lisa; Gómez, Livia; Clapés, Pere; Fita, Ignacio; Guinovart, Joan J; Ferrer, Joan C

    2016-09-26

    Glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) are the key enzymes that control, respectively, the synthesis and degradation of glycogen, a multi-branched glucose polymer that serves as a form of energy storage in bacteria, fungi and animals. An abnormal glycogen metabolism is associated with several human diseases. Thus, GS and GP constitute adequate pharmacological targets to modulate cellular glycogen levels by means of their selective inhibition. The compound 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) is a known potent inhibitor of GP. We studied the inhibitory effect of DAB, its enantiomer LAB, and 29 DAB derivatives on the activity of rat muscle glycogen phosphorylase (RMGP) and E. coli glycogen synthase (EcGS). The isoform 4 of sucrose synthase (SuSy4) from Solanum tuberosum L. was also included in the study for comparative purposes. Although these three enzymes possess highly conserved catalytic site architectures, the DAB derivatives analysed showed extremely diverse inhibitory potential. Subtle changes in the positions of crucial residues in their active sites are sufficient to discriminate among the structural differences of the tested inhibitors. For the two Leloir-type enzymes, EcGS and SuSy4, which use sugar nucleotides as donors, the inhibitory potency of the compounds analysed was synergistically enhanced by more than three orders of magnitude in the presence of ADP and UDP, respectively. Our results are consistent with a model in which these compounds bind to the subsite in the active centre of the enzymes that is normally occupied by the glucosyl residue which is transferred between donor and acceptor substrates. The ability to selectively inhibit the catalytic activity of the key enzymes of the glycogen metabolism may represent a new approach for the treatment of disorders of the glycogen metabolism.

  11. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  12. Zirconium and hafnium complexes containing N-alkyl substituted amine biphenolate ligands: coordination chemistry and living ring-opening polymerization catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lan-Chang; Lin, Sheng-Ta; Chien, Chia-Cheng; Chen, Ming-Tsz

    2013-07-07

    The coordination chemistry of zirconium and hafnium complexes containing the tridentate amine biphenolate ligands [RN(CH2-2-O-3,5-C6H2(tBu)2)2](2-) ([R-ONO](2-); R = tBu (1a), iPr (1b), nPr (1c)) featuring distinct N-alkyl substituents is described. Alcoholysis of Zr(OiPr)4(HOiPr) or Hf(OiPr)4(HOiPr) with H2[1a] in diethyl ether solutions at -35 °C generates the corresponding five-coordinate [1a]M(OiPr)2 (M = Zr (2a), Hf (3a)) in high isolated yield. Similar reactions employing H2[1b] produce six-coordinate [1b]M(OiPr)2(HOiPr) (M = Zr (2b·HOiPr), Hf (3b·HOiPr)) as an isopropanol adduct. Repetitive trituration of 2b·HOiPr and 3b·HOiPr with diethyl ether gives five-coordinate 2b and 3b, respectively. Treatment of M(OiPr)4(HOiPr) with H2[1c] under similar conditions affords six-coordinate [1c]M(OiPr)2(HOiPr) (M = Zr (2c·HOiPr), Hf (3c·HOiPr)), subsequent recrystallization of which from acetonitrile-diethyl ether solutions leads to acetonitrile adducts 2c·MeCN and 3c·MeCN. Reactivity studies of these zirconium and hafnium complexes revealed that they are all active catalysts for ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone. Among them, the N-isopropyl derived complexes are most reactive. Polymerizations catalyzed by 2b, 3b and 3c·MeCN were proved to be living. The X-ray structures of 2a·HOiPr, 2a·MeCN, 2c·HOiPr, 2c·MeCN, and 3c·MeCN are presented.

  13. Fabrication and properties of poly(polyethylene glycol n-alkyl ether vinyl ether)s as polymeric phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Dong-fang; Chen, Sai; Li, Shu-qin; Shi, Hai-feng; Li, Wei; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Xing-xiang

    2016-01-01

    A series of poly(polyethylene glycol n-alkyl ether vinyl ether)s (PC m E n VEs) with various lengths of alkyl chains and polyethylene glycol spacers as side chain (m = 16,18; n = 1,2) were synthesized via two steps. First, monomers-ethylene glycol hexadecyl ether vinyl ether (C 16 E 1 VE), ethylene glycol octadecyl ether vinyl ether (C 18 E 1 VE), diethylene glycol hexadecyl ether vinyl ether (C 16 E 2 VE) and diethylene glycol octadecyl ether vinyl ether (C 18 E 2 VE) were synthesized by a modified Williamson etherification. Then, four new types of phase change materials were successfully fabricated by a living cationic polymerization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) were employed to characterize their composition, thermal properties and crystallization behavior. The results show that, the side chains of PC 16 E 1 VE, PC 18 E 1 VE, PC 16 E 2 VE and PC 18 E 2 VE are in a hexagonal lattice, and the onset temperatures for melting of PC 16 E 1 VE, PC 18 E 1 VE, PC 16 E 2 VE and PC 18 E 2 VE are 39.8 °C, 37.4 °C, 51.0 °C and 48.9 °C, the onset temperatures for crystallization are 36.7 °C, 35.2 °C, 47.4 °C and 46.3 °C, respectively. The enthalpy changes of PC 18 E 1 VE, PC 16 E 2 VE and PC 18 E 2 VE are higher than 100 J/g; on the contrary, it is 96 J/g for PC 16 E 1 VE. The enthalpy decrease is no more than 11% after 10 heating and cooling cycles. The 5 wt% mass loss temperatures of PC 18 E 1 VE, PC 16 E 2 VE and PC 18 E 2 VE are higher than 300 °C; on the contrary, it’s 283 °C for PC 16 E 1 VE. Using a weak polarity, flexible alkyl ether chain (-OCH 2 CH 2 O-) as a spacer to link the main chain and side chain is conducive to the crystallization of the alkyl side chain. These new phase change materials can be applied in heat storage, energy conservation, and environmental protection.

  14. N,N'-(Hexane-1,6-diylbis(4-methyl-N-(oxiran-2-ylmethylbenzenesulfonamide: Synthesis via cyclodextrin mediated N-alkylation in aqueous solution and further Prilezhaev epoxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Fischer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available N-alkylation of N,N'-(hexane-1,6-diylbis(4-methylbenzenesulfonamide with allyl bromide and subsequent Prilezhaev reaction with m-chloroperbenzoic acid to give N,N'-(hexane-1,6-diylbis(4-methyl-N-(oxiran-2-ylmethylbenzenesulfonamide is described. This twofold alkylation was performed in aqueous solution, whereby α-, and randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin were used as adequate phase transfer catalysts and the cyclodextrin–guest complexes were characterized by 1H NMR and 2D NMR ROESY spectroscopy. Finally, the curing properties of the diepoxide with lysine-based α-amino-ε-caprolactam were analyzed by rheological measurements.

  15. Tuning redox potentials of bis(imino)pyridine cobalt complexes: an experimental and theoretical study involving solvent and ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, C. Moyses; Doherty, Mark D.; Konezny, Steven J; Luca, Oana R; Usyatinsky, Alex; Grade, Hans; Lobkovsky, Emil B.; Soloveichik, Grigorii; Crabtree, Robert H; Batista, Victor S.

    2012-01-01

    The structure and electrochemical properties of a series of bis(imino)pyridine CoII complexes (NNN)CoX₂ and [(NNN)₂Co][PF₆]₂ (NNN = 2,6-bis[1-(4-R-phenylimino)ethyl]pyridine, with R = CN, CF₃, H, CH₃, OCH₃, N(CH₃)₂; NNN = 2,6-bis[1-(2,6-(iPr)₂-phenylimino)ethyl]pyridine and X = Cl, Br) were studied using a combination of electrochemical and theoretical methods. Cyclic voltammetry measurements and DFT/B3LYP calculations suggest that in solution (NNN)CoCl₂ complexes exist in equilibrium with disproportionation products [(NNN)₂Co]²⁺ [CoCl₄]²⁻ with the position of the equilibrium heavily influenced by both the solvent polarity and the steric and electronic properties of the bis(imino)pyridine ligands. In strong polar solvents (e.g., CH₃CN or H₂O) or with electron donating substituents (R = OCH₃ or N(CH₃)₂) the equilibrium is shifted and only oxidation of the charged products [(NNN)₂Co]²⁺ and [CoCl₄]²⁻ is observed. Conversely, in nonpolar organic solvents such as CH₂Cl₂ or with electron withdrawing substituents (R = CN or CF₃), disproportionation is suppressed and oxidation of the (NNN)CoCl₂ complexes leads to 18e⁻ CoIII complexes stabilized by coordination of a solvent moiety. In addition, the [(NNN)₂Co][PF₆]₂ complexes exhibit reversible CoII/III oxidation potentials that are strongly dependent on the electron withdrawing/donating nature of the N-aryl substituents, spanning nearly 750 mV in acetonitrile. The resulting insight on the regulation of redox properties of a series of bis(imino)pyridine cobalt(II) complexes should be particularly valuable to tune suitable conditions for reactivity.

  16. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You and your provider can look at your blood sugar patterns together and make adjustments to your medicines, if needed. You and your provider should set a target goal for your blood sugar level for different times of the day. ...

  17. Novel one-pot process for the synthesis of ethyl 2-imino-4-methyl-2,3-dihydrothiazole-5-carboxylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyzaei Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile one-pot two-step process for the synthesis of ethyl 2-imino-4-methyl-2,3-dihydrothiazole-5-carboxylates via the cyclocondensation of ethyl 2-thiocyanatoacetoacetate with a variety of hydrazine and hydrazide derivatives has been developed. Ethyl 2-thiocyanatoacetoacetate itself has been synthesized as intermediate from the reaction of ethyl 2-chloroacetoacetate with potassium thiocyanate (KSCN. The molecular structures of these newly synthesized compounds were elucidated on the basis of elemental analysis and spectral data.

  18. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Ovesen, L.

    1998-01-01

    in the diet, primarily because of the high energy density of sugar. Diabetes mellitus and heart diseases do not seem to have any direct connection with a high sugar consumption. Sugar continues to be a risk factor for the development of caries. Further, it cannot be excluded that high sugar consumption...... is a risk factor for cancer in the gastrointestinal tract or for Crohn's disease. It seems reasonable to keep the current recommendations about sugar intake.......The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin...

  19. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of the imino acids (opines) meso-alanopine and D-strombine in muscle extract of invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandee, B.; Schipper, C.A.; Eertman, R.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    A sensitive HPLC method is presented for the determination of the imino acids alanopine and strombine, anaerobic metabolites that are formed in muscle tissue of several species of invertebrates. The separation of alanopine and strombine was achieved using the Alltech OA 2000 cation-exchange column.

  20. N-Guanidino Derivatives of 1,5-Dideoxy-1,5-imino-d-xylitol are Potent, Selective, and Stable Inhibitors of β-Glucocerebrosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevsek, Alen; Šrot, Luka; Rihter, Jakob; Čelan, Maša; van Ufford, Linda Quarles; Moret, Ed E; Martin, Nathaniel I; Pieters, Roland J

    2017-01-01

    A series of lipidated guanidino and urea derivatives of 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-d-xylitol were prepared from d-xylose using a concise synthetic protocol. Inhibition assays with a panel of glycosidases revealed that the guanidino analogues display potent inhibition against human recombinant

  1. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Ovesen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin...... and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement that a diet with both a low sugar content and a low fat content is incompatible, but we will argue...... that this is not the fact. The significance of sugar for the development of obesity is not clarified. A high fat content in the diet seems to promote the development of obesity, while a high carbohydrate content tends to reduce obesity. It is not known if sugar in this connection is comparable to the other carbohydrates...

  2. Sugar from Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders

    Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....

  3. Transport of sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Qing; Cheung, Lily S; Feng, Liang; Tanner, Widmar; Frommer, Wolf B

    2015-01-01

    Soluble sugars serve five main purposes in multicellular organisms: as sources of carbon skeletons, osmolytes, signals, and transient energy storage and as transport molecules. Most sugars are derived from photosynthetic organisms, particularly plants. In multicellular organisms, some cells specialize in providing sugars to other cells (e.g., intestinal and liver cells in animals, photosynthetic cells in plants), whereas others depend completely on an external supply (e.g., brain cells, roots and seeds). This cellular exchange of sugars requires transport proteins to mediate uptake or release from cells or subcellular compartments. Thus, not surprisingly, sugar transport is critical for plants, animals, and humans. At present, three classes of eukaryotic sugar transporters have been characterized, namely the glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium-glucose symporters (SGLTs), and SWEETs. This review presents the history and state of the art of sugar transporter research, covering genetics, biochemistry, and physiology-from their identification and characterization to their structure, function, and physiology. In humans, understanding sugar transport has therapeutic importance (e.g., addressing diabetes or limiting access of cancer cells to sugars), and in plants, these transporters are critical for crop yield and pathogen susceptibility.

  4. Mono- vs. bi-metallic assembly on a bulky bis(imino)terpyridine framework: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champouret, Yohan D M; Maréchal, Jean-Didier; Dadhiwala, Ishaq; Fawcett, John; Palmer, Donna; Singh, Kuldip; Solan, Gregory A

    2006-05-21

    The bis(imino)terpyridine ligands, 6,6''-{(2,6-i-Pr2C6H3)N=CR}2-2,2':6',2''-C15H9N3 (R = H L1, Me L2), have been prepared in high yield from the condensation reaction of the corresponding carbonyl compound with two equivalents of 2,6-diisopropylaniline. The molecular structure of L2 reveals a transoid relationship between the imino and pyridyl nitrogen groups throughout the ligand framework. Treatment of aldimine-containing L1 with one equivalent or an excess of MX2 in n-BuOH at 110 degrees C gives the mononuclear five-coordinate complexes, [(L1)MX2] (M = Fe, X = Cl 1a; M = Ni, X = Br 1b; M = Zn, X = Cl 1c), in which the metal centre occupies the terpyridine cavity and the imino groups pendant. Conversely, reaction of ketimine-containing L2 with excess MX2 in n-BuOH at 110 degrees C affords the binuclear complexes, [(L2)M2X4] (M = Fe, X = Cl 3a; M = Ni, X = Br 3b; M = Zn, X = Cl 3c), in which one metal centre occupies a bidentate pyridylimine cavity while the other a tridentate bipyridylimine cavity. 1H NMR studies on diamagnetic 3c suggests a fluxional process is operational at ambient temperature in which the central pyridine ring undergoes an exchange between metal coordination. Under less forcing conditions (room temperature in dichloromethane), the monometallic counterpart of 1b [(L2)NiBr2] (2b) has been isolated which can be converted to 3b by addition of one equivalent of (DME)NiBr2 (DME = 1,2-dimethoxyethane) in n-BuOH at 110 degrees C. Quantum mechanical calculations (DFT) have been performed on [(L1)ZnCl2] and [(L2)ZnCl2] for different monometallic conformations and show that 1a is the energetically preferred structure for L1 while there is evidence for dynamic behaviour in L2-containing species leading to bimetallic formation. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies have been performed on 1a, 1b, 1c, 2b, 3a, 3b(H2O) and 3c.

  5. The formation of [M-H]+ ions in N-alkyl-substituted thieno[3,4-c]-pyrrole-4,6-dione derivatives during atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sioud, Salim

    2014-10-09

    RESULTS [M-H]+ ions were observed under APPI conditions. The type of dopant and the length of the alkyl chain affected the formation of these ions. MS/MS fragmentation of [M-H]+ and [M + H]+ ions exhibited completely different patterns. Theoretical calculations revealed that the loss of hydrogen molecules from the [M + H]+ ions is the most favourable condition under which to form [M-H]+ ions.CONCLUSIONS [M-H]+ ions were detected in all the TPD derivatives studied here under the special experimental conditions during APPI, using a halogenated benzene dopant, and TPD containing substituted N-alkyl side chains with a minimum of four carbon atoms. Density functional theory calculations showed that for [M-H]+ ions to be formed under these conditions, the loss of hydrogen molecules from the [M + H]+ ions is proposed to be necessary.RATIONALE The formation of ions during atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) mass spectrometry in the positive mode usually provides radical cations and/or protonated species. Intriguingly, during the analysis of some N-alkyl-substituted thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) derivatives synthesized in our laboratory, unusual [M-H]+ ion peaks were observed. In this work we investigate the formation of [M-H]+ ions observed under APPI conditions.METHODS Multiple experimental parameters, including the type of ionization source, the composition of the solvent, the type of dopant, the infusion flow rate, and the length of the alkyl side chain were investigated to determine their effects on the formation of [M-H]+ ions. In addition, a comparison study of the gas-phase tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) fragmentation of [M + H]+ vs [M-H]+ ions and computational approaches were used.

  6. Hyperactivity and sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts disagree with this. Side Effects Some people claim that eating sugar (such as sucrose), aspartame, and artificial flavors and colors lead to hyperactivity and other ...

  7. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  8. N-Guanidino Derivatives of 1,5-Dideoxy-1,5-imino-d-xylitol are Potent, Selective, and Stable Inhibitors of β-Glucocerebrosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevšek, Alen; Šrot, Luka; Rihter, Jakob; Čelan, Maša; van Ufford, Linda Quarles; Moret, Ed E; Martin, Nathaniel I; Pieters, Roland J

    2017-04-06

    A series of lipidated guanidino and urea derivatives of 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-d-xylitol were prepared from d-xylose using a concise synthetic protocol. Inhibition assays with a panel of glycosidases revealed that the guanidino analogues display potent inhibition against human recombinant β-glucocerebrosidase with IC 50 values in the low nanomolar range. Related urea analogues of 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-d-xylitol were also synthesized and evaluated in the same fashion and found to be selective for β-galactosidase from bovine liver. No inhibition of human recombinant β-glucocerebrosidase was observed for the urea analogues. Computational studies provided insight into the potent activity of analogues bearing the substituted guanidine moiety in the inhibition of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GBA). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Low blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a medical emergency. It can cause seizures and brain damage. Severe low blood sugar that causes you to become unconscious is called hypoglycemic or insulin shock. Even one episode of severe low blood ...

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of 3-cyano-4-imino-2-methylthio-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine derivatives as potent antioxidant agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Vartale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The bis (methylthio methylene malononitrile (1 on treatment with 2-amino pyridine (2 in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF and anhydrous potassium carbonate, gives 3-cyano-4-imino-2-(methylthio-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine (3. The latter were further reacted with selected N-, O- and C-nucleophiles such as aryl amines, hetryl amines, substituted phenols and compounds containing active methylene groups.

  11. The Sugar Tax in Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajjaji, Fadoua

    2016-01-01

    This inquiry supports the theory of a sugar tax has a positive influence on the sugar consumption of Dutch individuals. Once a tax is implemented, the sugar consumption declines. Furthermore, this study supported the hypothesis claiming that children have a positive influence on their parental sugar

  12. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  13. Base free N-alkylation of anilines with ArCH2OH and transfer hydrogenation of aldehydes/ketones catalyzed by the complexes of η5-Cp*Ir(iii) with chalcogenated Schiff bases of anthracene-9-carbaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Pooja; Gupta, Sonu; Singh, Ajai K

    2018-03-12

    The condensation of anthracene-9-carbaldehyde with 2-(phenylthio/seleno)ethylamine results in Schiff bases [PhS(CH 2 ) 2 C[double bond, length as m-dash]N-9-C 14 H 9 ](L1) and [PhSe(CH 2 ) 2 C[double bond, length as m-dash]N-9-C 14 H 9 ] (L2). On their reaction with [(η 5 -Cp*)IrCl(μ-Cl)] 2 and CH 3 COONa at 50 °C followed by treatment with NH 4 PF 6 , iridacycles, [(η 5 -Cp*)Ir(L-H)][PF 6 ] (1: L = L1; 2: L = L2), result. The same reaction in the absence of CH 3 COONa gives complexes [(η 5 -Cp*)Ir(L)Cl][PF 6 ] (3-4) in which L = L1(3)/L2(4) ligates in a bidentate mode. The ligands and complexes were authenticated with HR-MS and NMR spectra [ 1 H, 13 C{ 1 H} and 77 Se{ 1 H} (in the case of L2 and its complexes only)]. Single crystal structures of L2 and half sandwich complexes 1-4 were established with X-ray crystallography. Three coordination sites of Ir in each complex are covered with η 5 -Cp* and on the remaining three, donor atoms present are: N, S/Se and C - /Cl - , resulting in a piano-stool structure. The moisture and air insensitive 1-4 act as efficient catalysts under mild conditions for base free N-alkylation of amines with benzyl alcohols and transfer hydrogenation (TH) of aldehydes/ketones. The optimum loading of 1-4 as a catalyst is 0.1-0.5 mol% for both the activations. The best reaction temperature is 80 °C for transfer hydrogenation and 100 °C for N-alkylation. The mercury poisoning test supports a homogeneous pathway for both the reactions catalyzed by 1-4. The two catalytic processes are most efficient with 3 followed by 4 > 1 > 2. The mechanism proposed on the basis of HR-MS of the reaction mixtures of the two catalytic processes taken after 1-2 h involves the formation of an alkoxy and hydrido species. The real catalytic species proposed in the case of iridacycles results due to the loss of the Cp* ring.

  14. The mechanism for catalytic hydrosilylation by bis(imino)pyridine iron olefin complexes supported by broken symmetry density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yan Choi; Nielsen, Robert J; Goddard, William A; Dash, Aswini K

    2017-09-26

    Density functional theory (DFT, B3LYP-D3 with implicit solvation in toluene) was used to investigate the mechanisms of olefin hydrosilylation catalyzed by PDI(Fe) (bis(imino)pyridine iron) complexes, where PDI = 2,6-(ArN[double bond, length as m-dash]CMe) 2 (C 5 H 3 N) with Ar = 2,6-R 2 -C 6 H 3 . We find that the rate-determining step for hydrosilylation is hydride migration from Et 3 SiH onto the Fe-bound olefin to form (PDI)Fe(alkyl)(SiEt 3 ). This differs from the mechanism for the Pt Karstedt catalyst in that there is no prior Si-H oxidative addition onto the Fe center. (PDI)Fe(alkyl)(SiEt 3 ) then undergoes C-Si reductive elimination to form (PDI)Fe, which coordinates an olefin ligand to regenerate the resting state (PDI)Fe(olefin). In agreement with experimental observations, we found that anti-Markovnikov hydride migration has a 5.1 kcal mol -1 lower activation enthalpy than Markovnikov migration. This system has an unusual anti-ferromagnetic coupling between high spin electrons on the Fe center and the unpaired spin in the pi system of the non-innocent redox-active PDI ligand. To describe this with DFT, we used the "broken-symmetry" approach to establish the ground electronic and spin state of intermediates and transition states over the proposed catalytic cycles.

  15. Metabolic engineering of sugars and simple sugar derivatives in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John W; Botha, Frikkie C; Birch, Robert G

    2013-02-01

    Carbon captured through photosynthesis is transported, and sometimes stored in plants, as sugar. All organic compounds in plants trace to carbon from sugars, so sugar metabolism is highly regulated and integrated with development. Sugars stored by plants are important to humans as foods and as renewable feedstocks for industrial conversion to biofuels and biomaterials. For some purposes, sugars have advantages over polymers including starches, cellulose or storage lipids. This review considers progress and prospects in plant metabolic engineering for increased yield of endogenous sugars and for direct production of higher-value sugars and simple sugar derivatives. Opportunities are examined for enhancing export of sugars from leaves. Focus then turns to manipulation of sugar metabolism in sugar-storing sink organs such as fruits, sugarcane culms and sugarbeet tubers. Results from manipulation of suspected 'limiting' enzymes indicate a need for clearer understanding of flux control mechanisms, to achieve enhanced levels of endogenous sugars in crops that are highly selected for this trait. Outcomes from in planta conversion to novel sugars and derivatives range from severe interference with plant development to field demonstration of crops accumulating higher-value sugars at high yields. The differences depend on underlying biological factors including the effects of the novel products on endogenous metabolism, and on biotechnological fine-tuning including developmental expression and compartmentation patterns. Ultimately, osmotic activity may limit the accumulation of sugars to yields below those achievable using polymers; but results indicate the potential for increases above current commercial sugar yields, through metabolic engineering underpinned by improved understanding of plant sugar metabolism. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C [Richland, WA; Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G.

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than 120.degree. C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

  17. Sugar Cane Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Nancy Alpert

    The booklet contains a story for middle-grade students which shows how the roles of men and women change through the years. The main characters are three sixth graders in Hawaii: one girl has Hawaiian ancestors, one girl has Japanese ancestors, and one boy has New England missionary ancestors. The children discover a magic stalk of sugar cane…

  18. Sugars, exercise and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codella, Roberto; Terruzzi, Ileana; Luzi, Livio

    2017-12-15

    There is a direct link between a variety of addictions and mood states to which exercise could be relieving. Sugar addiction has been recently counted as another binge/compulsive/addictive eating behavior, differently induced, leading to a high-significant health problem. Regularly exercising at moderate intensity has been shown to efficiently and positively impact upon physiological imbalances caused by several morbid conditions, including affective disorders. Even in a wider set of physchiatric diseases, physical exercise has been prescribed as a complementary therapeutic strategy. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE databases (search terms: sugar addiction, food craving, exercise therapy, training, physical fitness, physical activity, rehabilitation and aerobic). Seeking high-sugar diets, also in a reward- or craving-addiction fashion, can generate drastic metabolic derangements, often interpolated with affective disorders, for which exercise may represent a valuable, universal, non-pharmachological barrier. More research in humans is needed to confirm potential exercise-mechanisms that may break the bond between sugar over-consumption and affective disorders. The purpose of this review is to address the importance of physical exercise in reversing the gloomy scenario of unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyles in our modern society. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a viable option. These systems use a sensor placed beneath the skin that measures blood sugar ... have diabetes are more likely to get heart disease. Blood sugar that is too high can damage… ...

  20. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  1. Impacts of Sugar Import Policy on Sugar Production in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suryantoro, Agustinus; Susilo, Albertus Magnus; Supriyono, Supriyono

    2013-01-01

    Production of sugar unful lled consumption of Indonesia society. The lack of consumption and productionhave ful lled by import. Assumption national consumption 2,7 million ton, Indonesia will import sugar in 2013predicted about 300.000 ton (Tempo.co, August, 21, 2012).The aims in general of this research are to understand the impact of sugar import policy on sugar production.Especially (1) to understand the factors that in uence sugar import price, (2) to understand impact of sugarimport pric...

  2. PyBidine-Cu(OTf)2 -catalyzed asymmetric [3+2] cycloaddition with imino esters: harmony of Cu-Lewis acid and imidazolidine-NH hydrogen bonding in concerto catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takayoshi; Ogawa, Hiroki; Awata, Atsuko; Sato, Makoto; Watabe, Megumi; Yamanaka, Masahiro

    2015-01-26

    A bis(imidazolidine)pyridine (PyBidine)-Cu(OTf)2 complex catalyzing the endo-selective [3+2] cycloaddition of nitroalkenes with imino esters was applied to the reaction of methyleneindolinones with imino esters to afford spiro[pyrrolidin-3,3'-oxindole]s in up to 98 % ee. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the PyBidine-Cu(OTf)2 complex and DFT calculations suggested that an intermediate Cu enolate of the imino ester reacts with nitroalkenes or methyleneindolinones, which are activated by NH-hydrogen bonding with the PyBidine-Cu(OTf)2 catalyst. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Toxicological evaluation and metabolism of two N-alkyl benzamide umami flavour compounds: N-(heptan-4-ylbenzo[d][1,3]dioxole-5-carboxamide and (R-N-(1-methoxy-4-methylpentan-2-yl-3,4-dimethylbenzamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S. Karanewsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicological evaluations of two N-alkyl benzamide umami flavour compounds, N-(heptan-4-ylbenzo[d][1,3]dioxole-5-carboxamide (S807, CAS 745047-51-2 and (R-N-(1-methoxy-4-methylpentan-2-yl-3,4-dimethylbenzamide (S9229, CAS 851669-60-8, were completed for the purpose of assessing their safety for use in food and beverage applications. Both S807 and S9229 undergo rapid oxidative metabolism by both rat and human liver microsomes in vitro. In pharmacokinetic studies in rats, the systemic exposure to S9229 on oral administration is very low at all doses (% F < 1%, while that of S807 demonstrated a non-linear dose dependence. In metabolism studies in rats, hydroxylation of the C-4 aryl methyl group was found to be the dominant metabolic pathway for S9229. The dominant metabolic pathway for S807 in the rat involved oxidative scission of the methylenedioxy moiety to produce the corresponding 3,4-dihydroxybenamide which is further converted by Phase II metabolic enzymes to the 3- and 4-O-methyl ethers as well as their corresponding glucuronides. Both S807 and S9229 were not found to be mutagenic or clastogenic in vitro, and did not induce micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes in vivo. In a subchronic oral toxicity study in rats, the no-observed-effect-level (NOEL for S807 was 20 mg/kg bw/day when administered in the diet for 13 weeks. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL for S9229 in rats was 100 mg/kg bw/day (highest dose tested when administered in the diet for 28 consecutive days.

  4. Synthesis of chiral N-phosphinyl α-imino esters and their application in asymmetric synthesis of α-amino esters by reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yiwen; Mei, Haibo; Wu, Lingmin; Han, Jianlin; Pan, Yi; Li, Guigen

    2014-01-01

    A variety of chiral N-phosphinyl α-imino esters have been synthesized for the first time from ketoesters and phosphinylamide, which were then reduced by L-selectride to give the corresponding N-phosphinyl-protected α-amino esters. The reduction proceeded very well with excellent chemical yields (88-98%) as well as high diastereoselectivities (96:4 to 99:1). Some of these products could be obtained without column chromatography and recrystallization. The chiral phosphinyl auxiliary could be easily cleaved under acidic conditions.

  5. Synthesis of chiral N-phosphinyl α-imino esters and their application in asymmetric synthesis of α-amino esters by reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Xiong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A variety of chiral N-phosphinyl α-imino esters have been synthesized for the first time from ketoesters and phosphinylamide, which were then reduced by L-selectride to give the corresponding N-phosphinyl-protected α-amino esters. The reduction proceeded very well with excellent chemical yields (88–98% as well as high diastereoselectivities (96:4 to 99:1. Some of these products could be obtained without column chromatography and recrystallization. The chiral phosphinyl auxiliary could be easily cleaved under acidic conditions.

  6. Synthesis of chiral N-phosphinyl α-imino esters and their application in asymmetric synthesis of α-amino esters by reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Yiwen; Mei, Haibo; Wu, Lingmin; Han, Jianlin; Pan, Yi; Li, Guigen

    2014-01-01

    A variety of chiral N-phosphinyl α-imino esters have been synthesized for the first time from ketoesters and phosphinylamide, which were then reduced by L-selectride to give the corresponding N-phosphinyl-protected α-amino esters. The reduction proceeded very well with excellent chemical yields (88–98%) as well as high diastereoselectivities (96:4 to 99:1). Some of these products could be obtained without column chromatography and recrystallization. The chiral phosphinyl auxiliary could be ea...

  7. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  8. Starches, sugars and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Erik E J G; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A

    2011-03-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  9. Free sugar profile in cycads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E.; Lindström, Anders J.

    2014-01-01

    The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date. PMID:25339967

  10. Free Sugar Profile in Cycads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edward Marler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  11. Probing the aglycon binding site of a b-glucosidase: a collection of C-1-modified 2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-D-mannitol derivatives and their structure-activity relationships as competitive inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrodnigg, Tanja; Diness, Frederik; Gruber, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    A range of new C-1 modified derivatives of the powerful glucosidase inhibitor 2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-D-mannitol has been synthesised and their biological activities probed with the b-glucosidase from Agrobacterium sp. Ki values are compared with those of previously prepared close relatives. Findings...

  12. Synthesis, crystal structure, and spectra of 3,3- dimethyl-1-N-(1'-phenyl-2',3'-dimethyl-5'-oxo-3'- pyrazolin-4'-yl)imino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol, V.I.; Ryabov, M.A.; Merkur'eva, N.Yu.; Davydov, V.V.; Zaitsev, B.E.; Shklyaev, Yu.V.; Sergienko, V.S.; Zaitsev, B.E.

    1996-01-01

    The synthesis and the crystal and molecular structure of 3,3-dimethyl-1-N-(1'-phenyl-2',3'- dimethyl-5'-oxo-3'-pyrazolin-4'-yl)imino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline are reported. As is evidenced by the 1H NMR, IR, and electron spectra, the tautomeric form of the compounds observed in the crystal is also retained in solutions

  13. I Mend It With Sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Lindvall, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    I mend it with sugar         Abstract   "Gluttony" and "sloth" is the sugar addictions best friend, or could it be that the addiction comes out of a disturbed hormone production caused by the environment that surrounds us? Trying to understand my own sugar addiction I weave in my personal story into my artistic research around this subject. The sugar might be the cause of the pandemic obesity and that's why it has to bee brought up into the light from its darkness down the basement of the fo...

  14. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to all... sector. CCC distributed the FY 2012 beet sugar allotment of 5,139,472 STRV (54.35 percent of the OAQ...

  15. Anaerobic Treatment of Cane Sugar Effluent from Muhoroni Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was therefore concluded that anaerobic treatment, particularly with pH control and seeding shows potential in first stage management of sugar mill wastewater. Keywords: cane sugar mill effluent, anaerobic treatment, batch reactor, waste stabilization ponds. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  16. Method for determining the composition of the sugar moiety of a sugar containing compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods of labeling sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds including glycopeptides. The compounds presented in the present invention facilitate reliable detection of sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds by a combination of spectroscopy methods...

  17. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Carbohydrates and Sugar KidsHealth / For Parents / Carbohydrates and Sugar ... carbohidratos, el azúcar y su hijo What Are Carbohydrates? Carbohydrates are the body's most important and readily ...

  18. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant.

  19. Sugar Sugar – don’t be misled / laat je niet misleiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2017-01-01

    NRC Handelsblad’s Saturday 25 November issue contains an entry of eleven pages entirely devoted to sugar. It discusses a broad range of topics related to sugar, including the role of sugar throughout the centuries, sugar consumption in the Netherlands, the amount of sugar in bread, and sugar

  20. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar KidsHealth / For Teens / Keeping Track of Your Blood ... levels regularly. Why Should I Check My Blood Sugar Levels? Keeping an eye on blood sugar levels ...

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organisation NOAH has proposed carrying out an environmental assessment of two different sugar productions (using sugar beet or sugar cane) in order to illustrate which of the systems has a higher environmental impact for sugar consumption in Denmark. Therefore a comparison...... will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results...... obtained in the present LCA of sugar produces from sugar canes or sugar beet it is difficult to make an immediate choice between the two possibilities. Indeed, Quantitative results from the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products) software are globally similar for both ways of producing sugar...

  2. Input Quality in the Sugar Beet Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Boland, Michael A.; Marsh, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Using 23 years of data (1978-2000), this study examines seven vertically integrated sugar beet plants representing three different companies in the United States. The objective of this research is to identify the marginal costs of producing sugar beets for vertically integrated sugar beet processors as a way of determining the cost savings from higher quality sugar beets. In doing so, we account for quality differences in the sugar beet input that are used to manufacture the refined sugar out...

  3. Synthesis, characterization and computational studies of (E)-2-{[(2-aminopyridine-3-yl)imino]-methyl}-4,6-di-tert-butylphenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreno, Alexander; Vega, Andres, E-mail: ichavez@uc.cl [Departamento de Ciencias Quimicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Zarate, Ximena; Schott, Eduardo [Lab. Bionanotecnologia, Departamento de Ciencias Quimico-Biologicas, Universidad Bernardo O' Higgins, Santiago (Chile); Gacitua, Manuel; Valenzuela, Ninnette; Manriquez, Juan M.; Chavez, Ivonne [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Preite, Marcelo [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-07-01

    (E)-2-{[(2-Aminopyridine-3-yl)imino]-methyl}-4,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol ( 3: ), a ligand containing an intramolecular hydrogen bond, was prepared according to a previous literature report, with modifications, and was characterized by UV-vis, FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR, HHCOSY, TOCSY and cyclic voltammetry. Computational analyses at the level of DFT and TD-DFT were performed to study its electronic and molecular structures. The results of these analyses elucidated the behaviors of the UV-vis and electrochemical data. Analysis of the transitions in the computed spectrum showed that the most important band is primarily composed of a HOMO→LUMO transition, designated as an intraligand (IL) charge transfer. (author)

  4. Indium Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles Induced Hepatic Damage: Hepatoprotective Role of Novel 2-Imino-4-methyl-1, 2-Dihydropyrimido [5, 4C] Quinoline-5(6H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Bheeman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protective role of 2-imino-4-methyl-1, 2-dihydropyrimido [5, 4C] quinoline-5(6H-one (IMDHPQ in indium titanium oxide nanoparticles (InTiO NPs induced hepatotoxicity was analyzed. InTiO NPs were synthesized and given orally to albino rats to assess their hepatotoxicity. NPs mediated oxidative stress and liver tissue pathology were analyzed. Altered antioxidants (GSH, GPx, and catalase and, biochemical (SGOT, SGPT, ALP, total protein, and total bilirubin and histopathological changes were observed due to the oxidative stress caused by InTiO NPs. Varying effects of IMDHPQ on each parameter were observed in the present study. The altered parameters of InTiO NPs exposed rats might be due to the oxidative stress caused by NPs and hepatoprotective or ameliorative efficacy of quinoline compound IMDHPQ on signaling and molecular mechanism needs further study.

  5. Bis{2-hydroxy­imino-N′-[1-(2-pyrid­yl)ethyl­idene]propanohydrazidato}zinc(II) dihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Yurii S.; Znovjyak, Kateryna O; Golenya, Iryna O.; Pavlova, Svetlana V.; Haukka, Matti

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, [Zn(C10H11N4O2)2]·2H2O, was prepared by the reaction between Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O and 2-hydroxy­imino-N′-[1-(2-pyrid­yl)ethyl­idene]propano­hydrazide (Hpop). The central ZnII atom has a distorted tetra­gonal-bipyramidal coordination geometry formed by two amide O atoms and four N atoms of two azomethine and two pyridine groups. In the crystal, complex mol­ecules form layers parallel to the crystallographic b direction. The layers are connected by O—H⋯N and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the solvent water mol­ecules. PMID:21579695

  6. Theoretical and experimental investigation of (E)-2-([3,4-dimethylphenyl)imino]methyl)-3-methoxyphenol: Enol-keto tautomerism, spectroscopic properties, NLO, NBO and NPA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircioğlu, Zeynep; Albayrak, Çiğdem; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2014-05-01

    The molecular structure and spectroscopic properties of (E)-2-([3,4-dimethylphenyl)imino]methyl)-3-methoxyphenol were investigated by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The vibrational frequencies calculatedusing DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method. Results showed better agreement with the experimental values. The electronic properties was studied and the most prominent transition corresponds to π → π* and n → π*. Two types of intramolecular hydrogen bonds are strong OH⋯N interactions in enol-imine form and NH⋯O interactions in keto-amine form are compared by using density functional theory (DFT) method with B3LYP applying 6-31G(d,p) basis set. Both enol-keto tautomers engender six-membered ring due to intramolecular hydrogen bonded interactions.

  7. Anti-Mycobacterial Evaluation of 7-Chloro-4-Aminoquinolines and Hologram Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship (HQSAR Modeling of Amino–Imino Tautomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle L. F. Bispo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In an ongoing research program for the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs, we synthesized three series (A, B, and C of 7-chloro-4-aminoquinolines, which were evaluated in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB. Now, we report the anti-MTB and cytotoxicity evaluations of a new series, D (D01–D21. Considering the active compounds of series A (A01–A13, B (B01–B13, C (C01–C07, and D (D01–D09, we compose a data set of 42 compounds and carried out hologram quantitative structure–activity relationship (HQSAR analysis. The amino–imino tautomerism of the 4-aminoquinoline moiety was considered using both amino (I and imino (II forms as independent datasets. The best HQSAR model from each dataset was internally validated and both models showed significant statistical indexes. Tautomer I model: leave-one-out (LOO cross-validated correlation coefficient (q2 = 0.80, squared correlation coefficient (r2 = 0.97, standard error (SE = 0.12, cross-validated standard error (SEcv = 0.32. Tautomer II model: q2 = 0.77, r2 = 0.98, SE = 0.10, SEcv = 0.35. Both models were externally validated by predicting the activity values of the corresponding test set, and the tautomer II model, which showed the best external prediction performance, was used to predict the biological activity responses of the compounds that were not evaluated in the anti-MTB trials due to poor solubility, pointing out D21 for further solubility studies to attempt to determine its actual biological activity.

  8. Sugar and Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Michael E J; Te Morenga, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of sugar, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, has been widely held responsible by the media for the global rise in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Systematic reviews and dietary guidelines relating dietary sugars to T2DM. Weight gain and T2DM incidence are associated with diet and lifestyle patterns characterized by high consumptions of any sweetened beverages. High sugar intakes impair risk factors for macrovascular complications of T2DM. Much of the association between sugars and T2DM is eliminated by adjusting data for body mass index (BMI). However, BMI adjustment does not fully account for adiposity (r 2 =0.65-0.75). Excess sugar can promote weight gain, thus T2DM, through extra calories, but has no unique diabetogenic effect at physiological levels. Ethical concerns about caffeine added to sweetened beverages, undetectable by consumers, to increase consumption. Evidence needed for limiting dietary sugar below 10% energy intake. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Young People\\'s Relationships with Sugar Daddies and Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    s relationships with sugar daddies and mummies. It considers definitional, measurement and analytical issues involved in assessing these relationships, their magnitude, patterns, determinants and consequences. The review compares and ...

  10. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RAW SUGAR MATERIAL FOR SUGAR PRODUCER COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gromkovskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the article examines the statistical data on the development of average weight and average sugar content of sugar beet roots. The successful solution of the problem of forecasting these raw indices is essential for solving problems of sugar producing complex control. In the paper by calculating the autocorrelation function demonstrated that the predominant trend component of the growth raw characteristics. For construct the prediction model is proposed to use an autoregressive first and second order. It is shown that despite the small amount of experimental data, which provide raw sugar producing enterprises laboratory, using autoregression is justified. The proposed model allows correctly out properly the dynamics of changes raw indexes in the time, which confirms the estimates. In the article highlighted the fact that in the case the predominance trend components in the dynamics of the studied characteristics of sugar beet proposed prediction models provide the better quality of the forecast. In the presence the oscillations portions of the curve describing the change raw performance, for better construction of the forecast required increase number of measurements data. In the article also presents the results of the use adaptive prediction Brown’s model for predicting sugar beet raw performance. The statistical analysis allowed conclusions about the level of quality sufficient to describe changes raw indices for the forecast development. The optimal discount rates data are identified that determined by the form of the curve of growth sugar content of the beet root and mass in the process of maturation. Formulated conclusions of the quality of the forecast, depending on these factors that determines the expert forecaster. In the article shows the calculated expression, derived from experimental data that allow calculate changes of the raw material feature of sugar beet in the process of maturation.

  11. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  12. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by Customs...

  13. (Tris{2-[(5-hy­droxy­pyridin-2-yl-κN)methyl­idene­imino-κN]eth­yl}amine)­zinc dinitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredyuk, Maksym; Znovjyak, Kateryna O.; Haukka, Matti; Pavlenko, Vadim A.; Bokach, Nadezhda A.

    2011-01-01

    In the complex cation of the title compound, [Zn(C24H27N7O3)](NO3)2, the tripodal tris­{[2-(5-hy­droxy­pyridin-2-yl)methyl­idene­imino]­eth­yl}amine ligand is coordin­ated to the Zn atom through the three pyridine and three imino N atoms. The coordination sphere of the Zn atom is based on an octahedron with a significant distortion towards trigonal prismatic, the twist angle being 45.58 (9)°. The crystal packing is formed by L and D anti­podes arranged in layers disposed parallel to the b axis. Strong O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding exists between the hy­droxy groups of the ligand and the nitrate anion. PMID:22199579

  14. Sugar Price Supports and Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilk, Abby; Savaiano, Dennis A.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic US sugar production has been protected by government policy for the past 82 years, resulting in elevated domestic prices and an estimated annual (2013) $1.4 billion dollar “tax” on consumers. These elevated prices and the simultaneous federal support for domestic corn production have ensured a strong market for high-fructose corn syrup. Americans have dramatically increased their consumption of caloric sweeteners during the same period. Consumption of “empty” calories (ie, foods with low-nutrient/high-caloric density)—sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being the primary sources—is considered by most public health experts to be a key contributing factor to the rise in obesity. There have been substantial efforts to tax sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to both reduce consumption and provide a source of funds for nutrition education, thereby emulating the tobacco tax model. Volume-based SSB taxes levy the tax rate per ounce of liquid, where some are only imposed on beverages with added sugar content exceeding a set threshold. Nonetheless, volume-based taxes have significant limitations in encouraging consumers to reduce their caloric intake due to a lack of transparency at the point of purchase. Thus, it is hypothesized that point-of-purchase, nutrient-specific excise taxes on SSBs would be more effective at reducing sugar consumption. However, all SSB taxes are limited by the possibility that consumers may compensate their decreased intake from SSBs with other high-calorie junk foods. Furthermore, there are no existing studies to provide evidence on how SSB taxes will impact obesity rates in the long term. The paradox of sugar prices is that Americans have paid higher prices for sugar to protect domestic production for more than 80 years, and now, Americans are being asked to pay even more to promote public health. The effective use of sugar taxes should be considered based on their merits in reducing sugar consumption and making available a new

  15. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  16. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes...

  17. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  18. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2013-01-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k 0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  19. Novel halogenated 3-deazapurine, 7-deazapurine and alkylated 9-deazapurine derivatives of L-ascorbic or imino-L-ascorbic acid: Synthesis, antitumour and antiviral activity evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipković Babić, Maja; Makuc, Damjan; Plavec, Janez; Martinović, Tamara; Kraljević Pavelić, Sandra; Pavelić, Krešimir; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela; Schols, Dominique; Wittine, Karlo; Mintas, Mladen

    2015-09-18

    Keeping the potential synergy of biological activity of synthetic anomalous derivatives of deazapurines and l-ascorbic acid (l-AA) in mind, we have synthesized new 3-, 7- and 9-deazapurine derivatives of l-ascorbic (1-4, 8-10, 13-15) and imino-l-ascorbic acid (5-7, 11, 12, 16-19). These novel compounds were evaluated for their cytostatic and antiviral activity in vitro against a panel of human malignant tumour cell lines and normal murine fibroblasts (3T3). Among all evaluated compounds, the 9-deazapurine derivative of l-AA (13) exerted the most potent inhibitory activity on the growth of CEM/0 cells (IC50 = 4.1 ± 1.8 μM) and strong antiproliferative effect against L1210/0 (IC50 = 4.7 ± 0.1 μM) while the 9-deazahypoxanthine derivative of l-AA (15) showed the best effect against HeLa cells (IC50 = 5.6 ± 1.3 μM) and prominent effect on L1210/0 (IC50 = 4.5 ± 0.5 μM). Furthermore, the 9-deazapurine derivative disubstituted with two imino-l-AA moieties (18) showed the best activity against L1210/0 tumour cells (IC50 = 4.4 ± 0.3 μM) and the most pronounced antiproliferative effects against MiaPaCa-2 cells (IC50 = 5.7 ± 0.2 μM). All these compounds showed selective cytostatic effect on tumour cell lines in comparison with embryonal murine fibroblasts (3T3). When evaluating their antiviral activity, the 3-deazapurine derivative of l-AA (3) exhibited the highest activity against both laboratory-adapted strains of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) (AD-169 and Davis) with EC50 values comparable to those of the well-known anti-HCMV drug ganciclovir and without cytotoxic effects on normal human embryonal lung (HEL) cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Chiral and achiral (imino)phenoxy-based cationic group 4 non-metallocene complexes as catalysts for polymerization of renewable α-methylene-γ-butyrolactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Ravikumar R; Chen, Eugene Y-X

    2013-07-07

    Protonolysis of M(Bn)4 (M = Zr, Ti; Bn = benzyl) with equimolar 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-[(2,6-diisopropylphenylimino)methyl]phenol [(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)N=C(3,5-(t)Bu2C6H2)OH] in toluene at -30 °C to 25 °C cleanly affords the corresponding achiral (imino)phenoxy-tribenzyl complexes, [(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)N=C(3,5-(t)Bu2C6H2)O]Zr(Bn)3 (1) and [(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)N=C(3,5-(t)Bu2C6H2)O]Ti(Bn)3 (2). A chiral dibenzyl complex 3 incorporating the unsymmetric, tetradentate amino(imino)bis(phenoxy) ligand, [2,4-Br2C6H2(O)(6-CH2(NC5H9))CH2N=CH(2-adamantyl-4-MeC6H2O)]Zr(Bn)2 (3), has also been prepared using the same protonolysis protocol. Abstractive activation of 1 with B(C6F5)3·THF in CD2Cl2 at room temperature (RT) affords clean, quantitative formation of the corresponding zirconium cation [((2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)N=C(3,5-(t)Bu2C6H2)O)Zr(Bn)2(THF)](+)[BnB(C6F5)3](-) (4). Likewise, benzyl abstraction of 2 with B(C6F5)3·THF in CD2Cl2 at RT generates the cationic titanium complex [((2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)N=C(3,5-(t)Bu2C6H2)O)Ti(Bn)2(THF)](+)[BnB(C6F5)3](-) (5), accompanied by a small amount of decomposed species as a result of C6F5 transfer. The dibenzyl cations 4 and 5 have been characterized spectroscopically, and their structures have been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Characteristics of the coordination polymerization of renewable α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone monomers by the cationic catalysts derived from achiral complexes 1 and 2 as well as chiral complex 3 have been investigated, representing the first study of such polymerization by non-metallocene catalysts.

  1. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  2. Kinetics for exchange of imino protons in the d(C-G-C-G-A-A-T-T-C-G-C-G) double helix and in two similar helices that contain a G . T base pair, d(C-G-T-G-A-A-T-T-C-G-C-G), and an extra adenine, d(C-G-C-A-G-A-A-T-T-C-G-C-G).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardi, A; Morden, K M; Patel, D J; Tinoco, I

    1982-12-07

    The relaxation lifetimes of imino protons from individual base pairs were measured in (I) a perfect helix, d(C-G-C-G-A-A-T-T-C-G-C-G), (II) this helix with a G . C base pair replaced with a G . T base pair, d(C-G-T-G-A-A-T-T-C-G-C-G), and (III) the perfect helix with an extra adenine base in a mismatch, d(C-G-C-A-G-A-A-T-T-C-G-C-G). The lifetimes were measured by saturation recovery proton nuclear magnetic resonance experiments performed on the imino protons of these duplexes. The measured lifetimes of the imino protons were shown to correspond to chemical exchange lifetimes at higher temperatures and spin-lattice relaxation times at lower temperatures. Comparison of the lifetimes in these duplexes showed that the destabilizing effect of the G . T base pair in II affected the opening rate of only the nearest-neighbor base pairs. For helix III, the extra adenine affected the opening rates of all the base pairs in the helix and thus was a larger perturbation for opening of the base pairs than the G . T base pair. The temperature dependence of the exchange rates of the imino proton in the perfect helix gives values of 14-15 kcal/mol for activation energies of A . T imino protons. These relaxation rates were shown to correspond to exchange involving individual base pair opening in this helix, which means that one base-paired imino proton can exchange independent of the others. For the other two helices that contain perturbations, much larger activation energies for exchange of the imino protons were found, indicating that a cooperative transition involving exchange of at least several base pairs was the exchange mechanism of the imino protons. The effects of a perturbation in a helix on the exchange rates and the mechanisms for exchange of imino protons from oligonucleotide helices are discussed.

  3. Sugar holograms with erioglaucine and tartrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2007-09-01

    An artificial green colorant, composed by erioglaucine (Blue 1) and tartrazine (Yellow 5), was employed in a sugar matrix to improve the material sensibility and to make a comparative analysis of the diffraction efficiency parameter, for holograms replications, the holographic pattern was obtained by a computer and recorded in sugar films and in modified sugar (sugar-colorant). Conventional lithography and UV radiation were used. The results show that the behavior diffraction efficiency of the sugar-colorant films is slightly larger than in the sugar matrix under the same recording conditions.

  4. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  5. Sugar cane and sugar beet molasses, antioxidant-rich alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Veronica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2012-12-26

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study sugar cane molasses (SCM) and sugar beet molasses (SBM) were investigated for their phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity and for their protective effect in human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress. According to its higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity in vitro, SCM exhibited an effective protection in cells, comparable to or even greater than that of α-tocopherol. Data herein reported emphasize the potential health effects of molasses and the possibility of using byproducts for their antioxidant activity. This is particularly important for consumers in developing countries, as it highlights the importance of consuming a low-price, yet very nutritious, commodity.

  6. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  7. Thermal, spectroscopic, and solvent influence studies on mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes containing the bulky ligand: Bis[N-(p-tolyl)imino]acenaphthene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ayaan, Usama; Gabr, I M

    2007-05-01

    Four mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes containing the rigid bidentate nitrogen ligand bis[N-(p-tolyl)imino]acenaphthene (abb. p-Tol-BIAN) ligand are reported. These complexes, namely [Cu(p-Tol-BIAN)(2)](ClO(4))(2)1, [Cu(p-Tol-BIAN)(acac)](ClO(4)) 2, [Cu(p-Tol-BIAN)Cl(2)] 3 and [Cu(p-Tol-BIAN)(AcOH)(2)](ClO(4))(2)4 (where acac, acetylacetonate and AcOH, acetic acid) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic, magnetic and molar conductance measurements. ESR spectra suggest a square planar geometry for complexes 1 and 2. In complexes 3 and 4, a distorted tetrahedral arrangement around copper(II) centre was suggested. Solvatochromic behavior of all studied complexes indicates strong solvatochromism of their solutions. The observed solvatochromism is mainly due to the solute-solvent interaction between the chelate cation and the solvent molecules. Thermal properties and decomposition kinetics of all complexes are investigated. The kinetic parameters (E, A, Delta H, Delta S and Delta G) of all thermal decomposition stages have been calculated using the Coats-Redfern and other standard equations.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and computational studies of 3-{(E)-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)imino]methyl}benzene-1,2-diol and molecular structure of its zwitterionic form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeorah, Julius Chigozie; Ossai, Valentine; Obasi, Lawrence Nnamdi; Elzagheid, Mohamed I.; Rhyman, Lydia; Lutter, Michael; Jurkschat, Klaus; Dege, Necmi; Ramasami, Ponnadurai

    2018-01-01

    The Schiff base 3-{(E)-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)imino]methyl}benzene-1,2-diol was synthesized by the condensation of 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 2-aminophenol in water at room temperature. The crystal was grown using two solvents (dry methanol and 60% methanol). The compound was characterized using elemental microanalysis, IR, NMR, UV spectroscopies and single-crystal X-ray diffraction crystallography. The X-ray structure reveals that the Schiff base crystallizes as a methanol solvate in dry methanol with triclinic crystal system, space group P-1 and Z = 2 in the unit cell and as a non-methanol solvate in 60% methanol with triclinic crystal system, space group P-1 and Z = 4 in the unit cell. The compound showed absorption bands at 272, 389, 473 and 602 nm in DMSO. These bands were assigned as π → π ∗, n → π∗ and n-σ∗ transitions. The 473 and 602 nm bands in DMSO reveal that the compound exists in tautomeric forms. The presence of N-H, C-O and Cdbnd N stretching vibrations in the IR spectrum indicates that the compound is zwitterionic in the solid state. This study was supplemented using density functional theory method.

  9. Synthesis and Anti-Yeast Evaluation of Novel 2-Alkylthio-4-chloro-5-methyl-N-[imino-(1-oxo-(1H-phthalazin-2-ylmethyl]benzenesulfonamide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Sławiński

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic fungi are one of the main causes of hospital-related infections. Since conventional antifungals have become less effective because of the increasing fungal resistance to the standard drugs, the need for new agents is becoming urgent. Herein we report a synthesis of a series of novel N-[imino-(1-oxo-(1H-phthalazin-2-ylmethyl]-benzenesulfonamide derivatives with in vitro activity against yeast-like fungi isolated from the oral cavity and respiratory tract of patients with candidiasis. These compounds were synthesized by the one-step or two-step reactions of 1-(2-alkylthiobenzensulfonyl-2-aminoguanidines with the appropriate ortho-carbonyl benzoic acids. The biological study revealed that new derivatives have shown significant growth-inhibitory activity, superior or comparable, than those of the reference drug fluconazole. The most promising activities were observed against Candida albicans, with inhibition at least 1–3 (12.5%–37.5% of the eight tested strains at the low MIC level of ≤6.2–25 µg/mL.

  10. Imino Diels-Alder-Based Construction of a Piperidine A-Ring Unit for Total Synthesis of the Marine Hepatotoxin Cylindrospermopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzelman, Geoffrey R.; Weinreb, Steven M.; Parvez, Masood

    1996-07-12

    The synthesis of a piperidine A-ring precursor to the alkaloid cylindrospermopsin (1) is described. The initial approach to the A-ring precursor focused on the imino Diels-Alder reaction of diene 8 with ethyl (N-tosylimino)acetate (9) to form the cycloadduct 10 as a single stereoisomer. However, all attempts to convert ester 10 to a requisite diene such as 5 were unsuccessful. An alternative strategy involved the Diels-Alder cycloaddition of N-tosylimine 9 with oxygenated diene 19 under either thermal or Lewis acid-catalyzed conditions to produce a mixture of cis and trans enones 20 and 21. Although the undesired cis-enone 20 was the major product under all reaction conditions, it could be converted to the desired trans enone 21 by acid-catalyzed isomerization. Copper-mediated conjugate addition of vinylmagnesium bromide to cis-enone 20 followed by stereoselective ketone reduction with L-Selectride produced alcohol 23, whose structure was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Similarly, trans-enone 21 was converted to alcohol 25 whose structure and stereochemistry were also established by X-ray analysis. Alcohol 25 was then protected as the silyl ether 26, which was hydroborated at the terminal olefin to produce primary alcohol ester 28having the stereochemistry and functionality needed for cylindrospermopsin.

  11. Molecular mobility in sugar glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, van den I.J.

    2000-01-01

    Glasses are liquids that exhibit solid state behavior as a result of their extremely high viscosity. Regarding their application to foods, glasses play a role in the preservation of foods, due to their high viscosity and the concomitant low molecular mobility. This thesis focuses on sugar

  12. What's a sugar maple worth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. Cook

    1991-01-01

    What is a sugar maple worth? This is an interesting question and not one which is easy to answer. I have some thoughts on this subject to share with you. Many of these have been discussed with county and district foresters, sugarmakers and people from the community who appreciate the maple tree very much.

  13. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  14. Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search By Zipcode Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... Hey Kids, Learn About Blood Sugar and Diabetes Teaching Gardens Teaching Gardens Recognition Teaching Gardens-See Our ...

  15. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  16. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  17. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth / For Teens / When Blood ... often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ...

  18. Drug-induced low blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-induced low blood sugar is low blood glucose that results from taking medicine. ... Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is common in people with diabetes who are taking insulin or other medicines to control their diabetes. ...

  19. High blood sugar - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High blood glucose - self care; Diabetes - high blood sugar ... Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being very thirsty or having a dry mouth Having blurry vision Having dry skin Feeling weak or tired ...

  20. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products shall be refined, and of food grade quality. ...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an aqueous...

  2. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date of...

  3. Study of fiber optic sugar sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work, an intensity-modulated intrinsic fiber optic sugar sensor is pre- sented. This type of sensor, with slight modification, can be used for on-line determination of the concentration of sugar content in sugarcane juice in sugar industry. In the present set-up, a plastic fiber made of polymethylmethacrylate is used.

  4. Technical Efficiency of Sugar Cane ( Saccharum officinarum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) is grown by thousands of local farmers in Nigeria, yet the level of production has not kept pace with the level of consumption. This study was therefore carried out to examine the efficiency of sugar cane production in Niger State, Nigeria. The study sample comprised of 105 sugar cane ...

  5. Ethanol production from tropical sugar beet juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sanette

    2012-07-05

    Jul 5, 2012 ... South Africa has been limited by the large production of sugarcane in tropical areas. Recent trials in the ... It was concluded from the results of this research that bioethanol can be produced economically from tropical sugar beet .... sugar beet molasses as well as the effect of initial sugar concentration ...

  6. Role of potassium and nitrogen on sugar concentration of sugar beet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar is obtained from root of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in addition to other sources. Three important economic parameters are often considered and these are root yield, sugar concentration in root juice and total sugar yield. All the three are affected by cropping period and use of fertilisers. Existing literature suggests the ...

  7. Effect of Meloidogyne incognita parasitism on yield and sugar content of sugar beet in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is typically grown as a summer crop for edible sugar production in the north-central and western US, but it could be incorporated as a winter crop into annual cropping systems in the southern US where the sugar would be used for biofuel and plastic production. Sugar beet ...

  8. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy's sugar process (CLE Sugar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Johnway; Anderson, Dwight; Levie, Benjamin

    2013-01-28

    Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy's Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate. CLE Sugar has

  9. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  10. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Siegal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face.

  11. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Are the Main Sources of Added Sugar Intake in the Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Batis, Carolina; Lutter, Chessa K; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    Sugar intake has been associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, other noncommunicable diseases, and dental caries. The WHO recommends that free sugars should be ENSANUT (National Health and Nutrition Survey) 2012], which represents 3 geographic regions and urban and rural areas. Dietary information was obtained by administering a 24-h recall questionnaire to 10,096 participants. Total sugar intake was estimated by using the National Institute of Public Health (INSP) food-composition table and an established method to estimate added sugars. The mean intakes of total, intrinsic, and added sugars were 365, 127, and 238 kcal/d, respectively. Added sugars contributed 13% of TEI. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) were the main source of sugars, contributing 69% of added sugars. Food products high in saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS) were the second main sources of added sugars, contributing 25% of added sugars. The average intake of added sugars in the Mexican diet is higher than WHO recommendations, which may partly explain the high prevalence of obesity and diabetes in Mexico. Because SSBs and HSFAS contribute >94% of total added sugars, strategies to reduce their intake should be strengthened. This includes stronger food labels to warn the consumer about the content of added sugars in foods and beverages. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment may...

  13. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  14. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  15. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets who...

  16. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising the...

  17. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES...

  18. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products. DATES...

  19. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective Date...

  20. The Czech Republic Sugar Market Development in the Context of the Phasing out of Sugar Quota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Kovářová

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess the current position and situation of the Czech sugar market actors. The new situation is expected due to the declared phasing of out of sugar quota with the EU Common Agriculture Policy. The analysis is based on secondary date from the statistics of the Czech Statistical Office and the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic. Czech Republic has a long strong tradition in sugar production. It lost a leading position in the sugar market in the past. The sugar industry has been affected by various factors during several periods. The last big challenge for the market was the restricting system of the Common Agriculture Policy of the European Union. The expected development of the sugar market in the no-quota environment could be a good opportunity for both Czech sugar beet producers and sugar beet manufacturers (sugar producers.

  1. Complete oxidative conversion of lignocellulose derived non-glucose sugars to sugar acids by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruimiao; Hou, Weiliang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Non-glucose sugars derived from lignocellulose cover approximately 40% of the total carbohydrates of lignocellulose biomass. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars to the target products is an important task of lignocellulose biorefining research. Here we report a fast and complete conversion of the total non-glucose sugars from corn stover into the corresponding sugar acids by whole cell catalysis and aerobic fermentation of Gluconobacter oxydans. The conversions include xylose to xylonate, arabinose to arabonate, mannose to mannonate, and galactose to galactonate, as well as with glucose into gluconate. These cellulosic non-glucose sugar acids showed the excellent cement retard setting property. The mixed cellulosic sugar acids could be used as cement retard additives without separation. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars not only makes full use of lignocellulose derived sugars, but also effectively reduces the wastewater treatment burden by removal of residual sugars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sugar recognition by human galactokinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timson David J

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. Galactokinases from different sources have a range of substrate specificities and a diversity of kinetic mechanisms. Therefore only studies on the human enzyme are likely to be of value in the design of therapeutically useful inhibitors. Results Using recombinant human galactokinase expressed in and purified from E. coli we have investigated the sugar specificity of the enzyme and the kinetic consequences of mutating residues in the sugar-binding site in order to improve our understanding of substrate recognition by this enzyme. D-galactose and 2-deoxy-D-galactose are substrates for the enzyme, but N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, L-arabinose, D-fucose and D-glucose are all not phosphorylated. Mutation of glutamate-43 (which forms a hydrogen bond to the hydroxyl group attached to carbon 6 of galactose to alanine results in only minor changes in the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. Mutation of this residue to glycine causes a ten-fold drop in the turnover number. In contrast, mutation of histidine 44 to either alanine or isoleucine results in insoluble protein following expression in E. coli. Alteration of the residue that makes hydrogen bonds to the hydroxyl attached to carbons 3 and 4 (aspartate 46 results in an enzyme that although soluble is essentially inactive. Conclusions The enzyme is tolerant to small changes at position 2 of the sugar ring, but not at positions 4 and 6. The results from site directed mutagenesis could

  4. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species.

  5. Does information about sugar source influence consumer liking of products made with beet and cane sugars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-11-01

    Beet sugar contains an off-aroma, which was hypothesized to generate expectations on the acceptability of a product made with beet sugar. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of information about the sugar source (beet vs. cane) on the overall liking of an orange-flavored beverage. One hundred panelists evaluated an orange-flavored powdered beverage mix and beverage made with beet and cane sugars using a 5-phase testing protocol involving a tetrad test and hedonic ratings performed under blind and informed conditions. Tetrad test results indicated that there was a significant difference (P beet sugar and cane sugar; however, no difference was found between the beverage made with beet sugar and cane sugar. Hedonic ratings revealed the significance of information conditions on the panelists evaluation of sugar (F = 24.67, P sugar source information in a beverage product. Based on concerns with the use of beet sugar expressed in the popular press, there may be a subgroup of the population that has a preconceived bias about sugar sources due to their prior experiences and knowledge and, thus, would be influenced by labels indicating the sugar source used in a product. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Increase The Sugar Concentration of The Solution Sugar by Reverse Osmotic Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redjeki, S.; Hapsari, N.; Iriani

    2018-01-01

    Sugar is one of the basic needs of people and food and drink industry. As technology advances and the demand for efficient usage of sugar rises, crystal sugar is seen as less advantageous than liquid sugar. If sugar is always dissolved in water before use, then it will be more efficient and practical for consumers to use sugar in liquid form than in crystal form. Other than that, liquid sugar is also attractive to consumers because it is economical, hygienic, instantly soluble in hot and cold water, fresher and longer-lasting, able to thicken and enrich the texture of foods and drinks, and functions as sweetener, syrup, and flavor enhancer. Liquid sugar is also more beneficial for sugar producers because of simpler production process, cheaper production cost, and similar yield with no extra cost. In sugar production, separation process is found in most of its stages and therefore the use of membrane technology for separating solute and water content has a good potential. In this research, water content reduction of sugar solution was done in order to increase the sugar concentration of the solution. The parameters of this research were 4%, 5%, and 6% starting concentration of sugar solution; 20, 40, and 60 minutes of process time; and 85 and 60 PSI ΔP. The best result was acquired on 4% starting concentration, 60 PSI ΔP, and 60 minutes process time.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  8. Not-so-healthy sugar substitutes?

    OpenAIRE

    Swithers, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with diet soft drinks containing sugar substitutes that provide few or no calories has been suggested as one strategy for promoting improved public health outcomes. However, current scientific evidence indicates that routine consumption of beverages with non-nutritive sweeteners not only fails to prevent disease, but is associated with increases in risks for the same health outcomes associated with sugar-sweetened beverages, including type 2 diabetes, cardi...

  9. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban Sugar Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Griffith Martinez, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review concerning the applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements ) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processes has been performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elements sugar cane soil plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (rawr, blanco directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in other applications are given

  10. Estudo microcalorimétrico da interação de tensoativos n-alquil-sulfato de sódio com tripsina a 298 k Microcalorimetric study of sodium N-alkyl sulfate interactions with trypsin at 298 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi A. Silva Filho

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Systematic study of the interactions of ionic surfactants with protein trypsin in buffer solution pH 3.5, 7.0 and 9.0, ionic strength 10 mM at 298 K was done using the microcalorimetric technique. In this study, anionic surfactant solutions of the sodium n-alkyl sulfates series (C8, C10, C12 and C14 were used. The enthalpy of interaction (ΔintHº shows that the interaction of the surfactants C8, C10, C12 and C14 with trypsin in the solution pH 3.5 is an endothermic process with the value of ΔintHº decreasing linearly with increasing carbon chain length, which is attributed to the unfolding of the polypeptide chain. In the solution pH 7.0, we observed the same trend except for C14. In the solution pH 9.0, from C10 the enthapy of interaction didn't change with the increasing of the carbon chain length due to unfolding of the polypeptide. We concluded that when trypsin is folded, the enthalpy of interaction shows a linear relationship with the surfactant's hydrophobicity, in agreement with Traube's rule.

  11. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... allotment quantity (OAQ) at 9,235,250 short tons, raw value (tons). As required by the Agricultural..., CCC determined that Puerto Rican processors permanently terminated operations because no sugar had..., announcement of sugar marketing allotment changes implemented CCC's reassignment of 200,000 tons of surplus...

  12. A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, Janne C; Olthof, Margreet R; Seidell, Jacob C; Katan, Martijn B

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The consumption of beverages that contain sugar is associated with overweight, possibly because liquid sugars do not lead to a sense of satiety, so the consumption of other foods is not reduced. However, data are lacking to show that the replacement of sugar-containing beverages with

  13. Effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar metabolism related enzymes in Qingzhong loquat fruit development, the contents of sucrose, glucose and soluble solids as well as the activities of sugar metabolism related enzymes were evaluated. The content of sucrose, glucose and ...

  14. Efficient Removal of Heavy Metals from Polluted Water with High Selectivity for Mercury(II) by 2-Imino-4-thiobiuret-Partially Reduced Graphene Oxide (IT-PRGO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Fathi S; AbouZeid, Khaled M; El-Maaty, Weam M Abou; El-Wakil, Ahmad M; El-Shall, M Samy

    2017-10-04

    A novel chelating adsorbent, based on the chemical modification of graphene oxide by functionalization amidinothiourea to form 2-imino-4-thiobiuret-partially reduced graphene oxide (IT-PRGO), is used for the effective extraction of the toxic metal ions Hg(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Cr(VI), and As(V) from wastewater. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and XPS confirm the successful incorporation of the amidinothiourea groups within the partially reduced GO nanosheets through nucleophilic substitution reactions with the acyl chloride groups in the chemically modified GO. The IT-PRGO adsorbent shows exceptional selectivity for the extraction of Hg(II) with a capacity of 624 mg/g, placing it among the top of carbon-based materials known for the high capacity of Hg(II) removal from aqueous solutions. The maximum sorption capacities for As(V), Cu(II), Cr(VI), and Pb(II) are 19.0, 37.0, 63.0, and 101.5 mg/g, respectively. The IT-PRGO displays a 100% removal of Hg(II) at concentrations up to 100 ppm with 90%, 95%, and 100% removal within 15, 30, and 90 min, respectively, at 50 ppm concentration. In a mixture of six heavy metal ions containing 10 ppm of each ion, the IT-PRGO shows a removal of 3% Zn(II), 4% Ni(II), 9% Cd(II), 21% Cu(II), 63% Pb(II), and 100% Hg(II). A monolayer adsorption behavior is suggested based on the excellent agreement of the experimental sorption isotherms with the Langmuir model. The sorption kinetics can be fitted well to a pseudo-second-order kinetic model which suggests a chemisorption mechanism via the amidinothiourea groups grafted on the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. Desorption studies demonstrate that the IT-PRGO is easily regenerated with the desorption of the metal ions Hg(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Cr(VI), and As(V) reaching 96%, 100%, 100%, 96%, and 100%, respectively, from their maximum sorption capacities using different eluents. The IT-PRGO is proposed as a top performing remediation adsorbent for the extraction of heavy metals from waste and

  15. Synthesis and Ligand Non-Innocence of Thiolate-Ligated (N4S) Iron(II) and Nickel(II) Bis(imino)pyridine Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widger, Leland R.; Jiang, Yunbo; Siegler, Maxime; Kumar, Devesh; Latifi, Reza; de Visser, Sam P.; Jameson, Guy N.L.; Goldberg, David P.

    2013-01-01

    The known iron(II) complex [FeII(LN3S)(OTf)] (1) was used as starting material to prepare the new biomimetic (N4S(thiolate)) iron(II) complexes [FeII(LN3S)(py)](OTf) (2) and [FeII(LN3S)(DMAP)](OTf) (3), where LN3S is a tetradentate bis(imino)pyridine (BIP) derivative with a covalently tethered phenylthiolate donor. These complexes were characterized by X-ray crystallography, UV-vis, 1H NMR, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, as well as electrochemistry. A nickel(II) analogue, [NiII(LN3S)](BF4) (5), was also synthesized and characterized by structural and spectroscopic methods. Cyclic voltammetric studies showed 1 – 3 and 5 undergo a single reduction process with E1/2 between −0.9 to −1.2 V versus Fc+/Fc. Treatment of 3 with 0.5% Na/Hg amalgam gave the mono-reduced complex [Fe(LN3S)(DMAP)]0 (4), which was characterized by X-ray crystallography, UV-vis, EPR (g = [2.155, 2.057, 2.038]) and Mössbauer (δ = 0.33 mm s−1; ΔEQ = 2.04 mm s−1) spectroscopies. Computational methods (DFT) were employed to model complexes 3 – 5. The combined experimental and computational studies show that 1 – 3 are 5-coordinate, high-spin (S = 2) FeII complexes, whereas 4 is best described as a 5-coordinate, intermediate-spin (S = 1) FeII complex antiferromagnetically coupled to a ligand radical. This unique electronic configuration leads to an overall doublet spin (Stotal = ½) ground state. Complexes 2 and 3 are shown to react with O2 to give S-oxygenated products, as previously reported for 1. In contrast, the mono-reduced 4 appears to react with O2 to give a mixture of S- and Fe-oxygenates. The nickel(II) complex 5 does not react with O2, and even when the mono-reduced nickel complex is produced, it appears to undergo only outer-sphere oxidation with O2. PMID:23992096

  16. An insight into the structure, vibrations, electronic and reactivity properties of the tautomers 1-(diaminomethylene)thiourea and 2-imino-4-thiobiuret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Anitha, R.; Durgadevi, G.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.

    2017-04-01

    The conformational analysis of 1-(diaminomethylene)thiourea (MTU) has been done to find out the more stable conformer. The more stable geometry of MTU and 2-imino-4-thiobiuret (ITB) are optimised with B3LYP method using 6-311++G** and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The molecules are not planar. The complete molecular structural parameters and thermodynamic properties of the optimised geometry have been determined. The molecule of MTU is not a planar but twisted. The MEP of MTU lies in the region from +1.175e × 10-2 to -1.175e × 10-2 while the total electron density spread between +6.371e × 10-2 and -6.371e × 10-2. The MEP of ITB distributed between +1.179e × 10-2 and -1.179e × 10-2 while the total electron density of ITB lies in the region +7.729e × 10-2 and -7.729e × 10-2. The energies of important MOs of the compound were also evaluated from DFT method. The LUMO shows that the nitrogen and sulphur atoms are the most nucleophilic attacking sites whereas the HOMO reveals that nitrogen, sulphur and carbon atoms are for the electrophilic substitutions. The vibrational frequencies of the fundamental modes of the compounds have been precisely assigned, analysed and the theoretical results were compared with the experimental wavenumbers. 1H and 13C NMR isotropic chemical shifts were determined and the assignments are compared with the experimental values. In MTU molecule, the n → π* transitions such as n(N5) → π*C4-S6 and n(N1) → π*C2-N3 interactions are strongly stabilised by 66.60 and 41.24 kcal mol-1, respectively. In the case of ITB compound, the stabilisation energy of lone pair donor orbital, n(N5) → σ*C4-S6 is 46.03 kcal mol-1. The dual descriptors Δfk, Δsk and Δωk values clearly indicate that the order of nucleophilic attack in MTU is S6 > N11 > N1 > N5 > N3 while in ITB the order follows as N1 > N11 > N5>S6 > N3.

  17. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative light scattering

  18. Spring reflections on Louisiana sugar cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Louisiana sugar industry continues to produce high cane and sugar yields despite a short growing season. Spring fallow land management is essential for the upcoming crop. In the past few years, wide row spacing, billet cane planting, and cover-cropping have received significant attention. The ei...

  19. A sugar maple planting study in Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry W. Yawney; Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Clayton M. Carl

    1970-01-01

    Past attempts to establish sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by planting have generally met with little success. The failures have been blamed mainly on competition by other vegetation and on damage done by animals. Finding an effective way to establish sugar maple seedlings is a key part in the research being carried on in Vermont by the USDA Forest Service to...

  20. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp.

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative

  1. Sugar amino acids and related molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature's molecular arsenal. In recent years, sugar amino acids have been used extensively in the area of ...

  2. Engineering of sugar metabolism in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Weia Arianne

    2008-01-01

    Short English Summary Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium used in the dairy industry. This thesis decribes the genetic engineering performed on the sugar metabolism of L. lactis. Besides our fundamental interest for sugar metabolism and its regulation in L. lactis, this project had the

  3. Sugar in infants, children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    childhood and adulthood. Sugar should preferably be consumed as part of a main meal and in a natural form as human milk, milk, unsweetened dairy products and fresh fruits, rather than as SSBs, fruit juices, smoothies and/or sweetened milk products. Free sugars in liquid form should be replaced by water...

  4. Sugar in Infants, Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    childhood and adulthood. Sugar should preferably be consumed as part of a main meal and in a natural form as human milk, milk, unsweetened dairy products and fresh fruits, rather than as SSBs, fruit juices, smoothies and/or sweetened milk products. Free sugars in liquid form should be replaced by water...

  5. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  6. The sugar industry in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaren, Peter F.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the early Colonial times sugar production has been a key sector in the Peruvian export economy. This article analyzes its evolution as from the beginning of its modern phase by mid 19th Century, its consolidation in the Northern coastal region, and its concentration in scale-economy plants. The prosperity of this type of production contributed to the formation of both an oligarchy which governed the country until 1968, and the populist party (APRA and its electoral basis (the so-called «Aprista North». In the sixties Velasco Alvarado’s military revolution nationalized the sugar industry, which underwent structural changes leading to a serious crisis in the eighties that has not been overcome up-todate.

    La producción de azúcar ha constituido un importante sector en la economía exportadora del Perú desde el período colonial temprano. Este artículo analiza su evolución, sobre todo tras el inicio de su fase moderna, fechada a partir de mediados del siglo XIX, cuando se modernizó, se consolidó en la región costera septentrional y se concentró en fábricas que operaban con economías de escala. Su prosperidad, contribuyó, además, a la formación de una oligarquía que gobernó el país hasta 1968 y del partido populista, APRA, y su base electoral (el llamado «sólido Norte aprista». La revolución militar de Velasco Alvarado nacionalizó la industria en la década de 1960 y los cambios estructurales que sufrió posteriormente le condujeron a una grave crisis en los años ochenta que aún no ha superado.

  7. Comparative anatomy of the peduncles of Thai Sugar Palms provides insight on putative sugar transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somjaiai, Pananun; Barfod, Anders; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    Inflorescences of sugar palms exude copious amounts of sugar-rich sap, when their peduncles are scarred. In Thailand this phenomenon form the basis of a widespread cottage industry based on species such as Arenga pinnata, Borassus flabellifera, Cocos nucifera and Nypa fruticans. The extracted sugar...... sap is used mainly for jaggery, syrup and different types of beverages. In this study we looked for anatomical correlates of the elevated sap flow in injured peduncles of sugar palms. Despite a limited sample size we observed that sugar producing palms differ from the reference palm Chamaedorea...

  8. 78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic... the determination of the trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar containing products of Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

  9. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

  10. Sugar-induced molten-globule model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Searles, P R; Morar, A S; Saunders, A J; Erie, D A; Pielak, G J

    1998-12-01

    Proteins denature at low pH because of intramolecular electrostatic repulsions. The addition of salt partially overcomes this repulsion for some proteins, yielding a collapsed conformation called the A-state. A-states have characteristics expected for the molten globule, a notional kinetic protein folding intermediate. Here we show that the addition of neutral sugars to solutions of acid-denatured equine ferricytochrome c induces formation of the A-state in the absence of added salt. We characterized the structure and stability of the sugar-induced A-state with circular dichroism spectropolarimetry (CD) and NMR-monitored hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments. We also examined the stability of the sugar-induced A-state as a function of sugar size and concentration. The results are interpreted using several models and we conclude that the stabilizing effect is consistent with increased steric repulsion between the protein and the sugar solutions.

  11. THE FACTORS FORMING QUALITY OF GRANULATED SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, with good taste and high caloric, is one of the most popular human food. Consumers sugar must be sure that the sugar under normal conditions of use is of high quality and is not harmful to the health of the product. One reason for the decline in the quality of sugar is bacterial contamination. This is because the sugar industry products are good targets for the development of different groups of microorganisms, e.g., Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and others. These organisms are affected with beets, and then with sugar beet chips and diffusion juice fall into the processing line of sugar production. Their number in the diffusion juice varies and depends on many facto rs such as the quality of raw materials, the quality of cleaning beet root colonization of transporter-washing and the supply of water to the diffusion process, the temperature of the diffusion and others. In the diffusion unit has the most favorable conditions for the development of micro-organisms. Some of them, especially resistant bacteria and thermophilic bacteria or their spores, forming a capsule which protects against external influences occur in the final product sugar. When injected into the fresh crop of product (juice, syrup, they begin to multiply rapidly, causing difficulties in the process. The higher seeding beet microorganisms, the more they decompose and emit sucrose metabolism byproducts. To reduce the negative impact of microbiological and reduce losses from decomposition of sucrose conducted research on the possibility of using chlorine-containing substances in the sugar industry. It was established experimentally that the investigated chlorinated drug has bacteriostatic action and can be recommended for use in sugar beet production.

  12. Maturing of different types ok sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čačić Nikola

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of sugar and non-sugar (K, Na and amino N depend on environmental conditions and cultural practices applied. At the same time, these traits are an important characteristic of every cultivar. A number of parameters are used to determine the technological maturity of sugar beet, but the main ones are sugar content and sugar utilization percentage, which is affected by the non-sugars. In the present study, the monitoring of root yield and the yield of the above-ground plant parts and the analysis of root quality were done at 15-day intervals starting on July 1 and ending on September 16, 1999. Used in the study were four cultivars and two experimental hybrids of sugar beet. The cultivar Crvenka mz and the experimental hybrid NS Hy 20 proved ultra sugary (on the last lifting date, they had sugar contents 16.28% and 16.54%, respectively. Going from the first to the last lifting date, the K and Na contents of all the cultivars decreased, especially in the cultivar Crvenka mz and the experimental hybrid NS Hy 20. In all of the cultivars. the ammo N content increased until the fourth lifting date (August 16, when it started to decrease. One hundred and fifty days into the growing season, thanks to their high sugar content and low level of non-sugars (especially K and Na, the cultivar Crvenka mz and the hybrid NS Hy 20 had considerably better technological characteristics than the other cultivars. The aforementioned characteristics of Crvenka mz and NS Hy 20 make these two genotypes more suitable for early lifting dates than the other cultivars. .

  13. Added sugars in kids' meals from chain restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Scourboutakos, Mary J.; Semnani-Azad, Zhila; L'Abbé, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the added sugars in kids' meals from Canadian chain restaurants in relation to the World Health Organization's proposed sugar recommendation (less than 5% of total daily calories should come from added sugars) and current recommendation (less than 10% of total daily calories should come from added sugars). Methods Total sugar levels were retrieved from the websites of 10 fast-food and 7 sit-down restaurants in 2010. The added sugar levels in 3178 kids' meals from Canadian...

  14. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-01-01

    World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas ...

  15. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  16. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  17. Sugar Metabolism in Hummingbirds and Nectar Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul K. Suarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis. Intestinal absorption of glucose and fructose occurs mainly through a paracellular pathway. In the fasted state, energy metabolism during flight relies on the oxidation of fat synthesized from previously-ingested sugar. During repeated bouts of hover-feeding, the enhanced digestive capacities, in combination with high capacities for sugar transport and oxidation in the flight muscles, allow the operation of the “sugar oxidation cascade”, the pathway by which dietary sugars are directly oxidized by flight muscles during exercise. It is suggested that the potentially harmful effects of nectar diets are prevented by locomotory exercise, just as in human hunter-gatherers who consume large quantities of honey.

  18. Sugar Metabolism in Hummingbirds and Nectar Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Raul K; Welch, Kenneth C

    2017-07-12

    Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis. Intestinal absorption of glucose and fructose occurs mainly through a paracellular pathway. In the fasted state, energy metabolism during flight relies on the oxidation of fat synthesized from previously-ingested sugar. During repeated bouts of hover-feeding, the enhanced digestive capacities, in combination with high capacities for sugar transport and oxidation in the flight muscles, allow the operation of the "sugar oxidation cascade", the pathway by which dietary sugars are directly oxidized by flight muscles during exercise. It is suggested that the potentially harmful effects of nectar diets are prevented by locomotory exercise, just as in human hunter-gatherers who consume large quantities of honey.

  19. Sugar as a vehicle for iron fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layrisse, M; Martinez-Torres, C; Renzi, M; Velez, F; González, M

    1976-01-01

    Sugar as a vehicle for iron fortification presents several advantages over the other vehicles used in the last three decades. In vitro studies demonstrated that ferrous sulfate added to sugar in proportion of 1 mg to 1 g, respectively, is maintained in the ferrous form for a period of at least 1 year and does not induce adverse changes in the vehicle. Sugar, by itself, carries practically no inhibitors for the absorption of iron. Iron absorption from fortified sugar mixed with vegetals is the same as that of native vegetal iron. The absorption from fortified sugar is increased more than 50% over that observed from native vegetal when it is administered as a drink during the ingestion of a meal. A further increase in absorption was found when fortified sugar was administered with beverages. The mean absorption ratio of fortified sugar given with orange juice, Coca-Cola, and Pepsi-Cola to a reference dose of iron ascorbate was between 0.45 and 0.66, which is more than 3 times the absorption of this iron fortification mixed with vegetals. The mean absorption ratio from coffee was 0.30, and from coffee with milk, 0.15. These data indicate that the fortification of sugar with iron could be a better procedure for the prevention of iron deficiency than the iron fortification of bread and wheat products, from which iron is poorly absorbed. It could be used in developing countries where beverages are highly consumed by the low socioeconomic class. This program could be extended to all sugar consumption or be restricted to soft drinks.

  20. USE CELLULOSE FOR CLEANING CONCENTRATED SUGAR SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kul’neva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Producing high quality intermediate products in the boiling-crystallization station is an actual problem of sugar production. In the production of white sugar brown sugar syrup is not further purified that decreases the quality of the end product. Studies have been conducted using cellulose as an adsorbent for the purification of concentrated sugar solutions, having affinity to dyes and other impurities. Research have been carried out with the intermediate products of the Lebedyan sugar plant. Test results have shown cellulose ability to adsorb the dyes in sugar production. The influence of the adsorbent concentration and the mass fraction of solids in the syrup on the decolorization effect has been studied; rational process parameters have been obtained. It has been found that proceeding an additional adsorption purification of brown sugars syrup allows to reduce the solution color, increase the amount and quality of the end product. Adsorbing means, received from production wastes on the basis of organic resources, have many advantages: economical, environmentally friendly for disposal, safe to use, reliable and efficient in use. Conducted research on using cellulose as adsorbent for treatment of concentrated sugar solutions, having an affinity for colouring matter and other impurities. The experiments were carried out on the intermediates Lebedyanskiy sugar factory. The test results showed the ability of cellulose to adsorb coloring matter of sugar production. To evaluate the effect of bleaching depending on the mass fraction of dry substances prepared yellow juice filtration of sugar concentration of 55, 60, 65 % with subsequent adsorption purification of cellulose. The results of the experiment built adsorption isotherm of dyestuffs. The influence of the concentration of the adsorbent and a mass fraction of solids of juice filtration on the efficiency of decolorization obtained by rational parameters of the process. It is

  1. A second monoclinic polymorph of 2-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-hy­droxy­imino-N′-[1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl­idene]acetohydrazide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutenko, Maxym O.; Lampeka, Rostislav D.; Haukka, Matti; Nordlander, Ebbe

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C14H16N6O2, is a second monoclinic polymorph of 2-[1-(3,5-dimeth­yl)pyrazol­yl]-2-hy­droxy­imino-N′-[1-(2-pyrid­yl)ethyl­idene] acetohydrazide, with two crystallographically independent mol­ecules per asymmetric unit. The non-planar mol­ecules are chemically equal having similar geometric parameters. The previously reported polymorph [Plutenko et al. (2012 ▶). Acta Cryst. E68, o3281] was described in space group Cc (Z = 4). The oxime group and the O atom of the amide group are anti with respect to the C—C bond. In the crystal, mol­ecules are connected by N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds into zigzag chains extending along the b axis. PMID:23723911

  2. Discovery of the 3-Imino-1,2,4-thiadiazinane 1,1-Dioxide Derivative Verubecestat (MK-8931)–A β-Site Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleaving Enzyme 1 Inhibitor for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Jack D.; Li, Sarah W.; Brunskill, Andrew P.J.; Chen, Xia; Cox, Kathleen; Cumming, Jared N.; Forman, Mark; Gilbert, Eric J.; Hodgson, Robert A.; Hyde, Lynn A.; Jiang, Qin; Iserloh, Ulrich; Kazakevich, Irina; Kuvelkar, Reshma; Mei, Hong; Meredith, John; Misiaszek, Jeffrey; Orth, Peter; Rossiter, Lana M.; Slater, Meagan; Stone, Julie; Strickland, Corey O.; Voigt, Johannes H.; Wang, Ganfeng; Wang, Hongwu; Wu, Yusheng; Greenlee, William J.; Parker, Eric M.; Kennedy, Matthew E.; Stamford, Andrew W. (Merck)

    2016-12-08

    Verubecestat 3 (MK-8931), a diaryl amide-substituted 3-imino-1,2,4-thiadiazinane 1,1-dioxide derivative, is a high-affinity β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitor currently undergoing Phase 3 clinical evaluation for the treatment of mild to moderate and prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. Although not selective over the closely related aspartyl protease BACE2, verubecestat has high selectivity for BACE1 over other key aspartyl proteases, notably cathepsin D, and profoundly lowers CSF and brain Aβ levels in rats and nonhuman primates and CSF Aβ levels in humans. In this annotation, we describe the discovery of 3, including design, validation, and selected SAR around the novel iminothiadiazinane dioxide core as well as aspects of its preclinical and Phase 1 clinical characterization.

  3. Sugar regulation of SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1 (STP1) expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba, Elizabeth; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise Lizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Alma Fabiola; Ramos-Vega, Maricela; León, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Sugars regulate the expression of many genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, sugars induce or repress the expression of >1800 genes, including the STP1 (SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1) gene, which encodes an H+/monosaccharide cotransporter. STP1 transcript levels decrease more rapidly after the addition of low concentrations of sugars than the levels of other repressed genes, such as DIN6 (DARK-INDUCED 6). We found that this regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level and is initiated by phosphorylatable sugars. Interestingly, the sugar signal that modulates STP1 expression is transmitted through a HEXOKINASE 1-independent signalling pathway. Finally, analysis of the STP1 5′ regulatory region allowed us to delimit a region of 309bp that contains the cis elements implicated in the glucose regulation of STP1 expression. Putative cis-acting elements involved in this response were identified. PMID:25281700

  4. When Blood Sugar Is Too Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... juggle those three activities so you keep feeling good. Some things that can make low blood sugar levels more likely to happen are: skipping meals and snacks not eating enough food at a meal or ...

  5. Intensive Insulin Therapy: Tight Blood Sugar Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive insulin therapy: Tight blood sugar control Intensive insulin therapy can help prevent long-term diabetes complications. Consider the ... cases if you have type 2 diabetes — intensive insulin therapy may be the key to long-term ...

  6. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin [Lakewood, CO; Elander, Richard [Evergreen, CO; Hennessey, Susan M [Avondale, PA

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  7. When Blood Sugar is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... them back to a healthy level. What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)? Someone who has high blood sugar can ... a serious problem with a serious-sounding name: diabetic ketoacidosis (say: kee-toh-ah-sih-DOH-sis). This ...

  8. Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Kristensen, Jan Bach; Felby, Claus

    2007-01-01

    into fermentable sugars requires a number of different cellulases and hemicellulases. The hydrolysis of cellulose is a sequential breakdown of the linear glucose chains, whereas hemicellulases must be capable of hydrolysing branched chains containing different sugars and functional groups. The technology......The economic dependency on fossil fuels and the resulting effects on climate and environment have put tremendous focus on utilizing fermentable sugars from lignocellulose, the largest known renewable carbohydrate source. The fermentable sugars in lignocellulose are derived from cellulose...... for pretreatment and hydrolysis has been developed to an extent that is close to a commercially viable level. It has become possible to process lignocellulose at high substrate levels and the enzyme performance has been improved. Also the cost of enzymes has been reduced. Still a number of technical and scientific...

  9. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  10. What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Littlefield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there

  11. Mixed sugar fermentation by Pichia stipitis , Sacharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ability of K. marxianus to ferment mixed sugars comprised of 30 g/l glucose, 30 g/l xylose, 12 g/l mannose and 8 g/l galactose (total sugar 80 g/l), as a model of many hydrolysates, were compared to P. stipitis and S. cerevisiae and then a coculture of P. stipitis and S. cerevisiae was compared with a coculture of P. stipitis and ...

  12. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary...

  13. Dietary sugar utilisation by putative oral probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatova, I; Kari, K; Hervonen, L; Meurman, J H

    2012-09-01

    Probiotic consumption and repeated probiotic intake have shown promising results as adjunct therapies in prevention and alleviation of some chronic disease conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent evidence suggests that probiotics may also be beneficial in preventing oral diseases. An efficient probiotic candidate in the mouth, however, should not impose any risk to oral tissues, such as acid demineralisation of tooth enamel because of sugar fermentation. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the utilisation of some sugars and sugar alcohols by yogurt starter Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains and to assess the influence of these carbohydrate sources on cell surface properties. For comparsion, a commercially available probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, was used. The results showed that lactose, glucose and fructose were readily metabolised by all strains tested. However, strain-specific metabolic patterns were observed when other sugars and sugar alcohols were used as sole carbohydrate source in the growth medium. Surface properties of the bacteria such as hydrophobicity and surface-associated proteins appeared to vary with the carbohydrate content of the growth medium. Based on these results it can be concluded that among the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains probiotic candidate strains are available that warrant further studies due to their inability to ferment sugars with pronounced cariogenic properties.

  14. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

  15. Airflow obstruction in chalkpowder and sugar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohadana, A B; Massin, N; Wild, P; Berthiot, G

    1996-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the relationship between suspected occupational hazards and airflow obstruction in industrial workers. The study was a cross-sectional survey of 314 male workers from a chalkpowder plant (n = 158) and from a sugar refinery (n = 156). Occupational exposure to chalkpowder and sugar dust was assessed by individual job classification. Outcome variables included respiratory symptoms and routine spirometric parameters. Statistical analysis was done for each industry separately. Overall, mean pulmonary function parameters fell either within or above the normal range in both industries. However, analysis by job classification showed that in the chalkpowder plant, all indices of airway obstruction declined significantly with increasing dustiness. Additionally, workers in the dustiest workplace (chalk sacking) had significantly lower airflow parameters than workers from other workstations. In the sugar refinery, workers exposed to sugar dust in the sugar cube manufacture workstation had significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (p = 0.02) than the non-exposed ones. For both industries, the proportion of subjects complaining of cough and/or phlegm was greater among the most exposed subgroups than among the remaining workers but the differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, coupling spirometry to job classification proved useful in disclosing a relationship between airflow obstruction and exposure to either chalkpowder or sugar dust in industrial workers.

  16. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  17. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas the leader in the production of sugar derived from sugar beet is the EU-28. When the Republic of Croatia joined the EU, the Croatian sugar industry became part of the single European sugar market, so the break-even point was used in the research to determine the competitiveness level of the Croatian sugar beet production. Based on the expected selling price of sugar beet amounting to EUR 34 per ton of standard quality sugar beet, and using the break-even method, it was determined that the quantity required to cover total costs in sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia amounts to 55.26 tons per hectare of payable sugar beet, standard quality, i.e. 8.84 tons of polarized sugar per hectare. As the average sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia, expressed in the equivalent of polarized sugar, amounts to 7.8 tons per hectare, it is obvious that an average Croatian producer of sugar beet, without income from subsidies, operates at a loss.

  18. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. The... processing of sugar beets for the production of sugar. ...

  19. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining... cane sugar into liquid refined sugar. ...

  20. Sugar signalling and gene expression in relation to carbohydrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    function of sugars as a nutrient and a signalling molecule complicates the analysis of mechanisms involved in sig- nal transduction pathways (Rolland et al 2001). 3. Signal transduction cascades. Very little is known about the effect that sugars have on expression of genes involved in sugar signalling cascade. The sugar ...

  1. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be determined...

  2. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  3. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  4. Added Sugar: Don't Get Sabotaged by Sweeteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your diet, you can cut calories without compromising nutrition. In fact, cutting back on foods with added sugars and solid ... et al. The science of sugars: Part 3. Nutrition Today. 2012;47:252. Sugar 101. ... for cutting down on sugar. American Heart Association. http://www. ...

  5. Sugar beet genotype effect on potential of bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation on ethanol production were intensively related to the chemical composition of root, especially sugar content, potassium impurity, syrup purity and some characteristics such as root dry matter and root length. Bioethanol production was enhanced by increasing the sugar content and root yield in sugar beet. Sugar ...

  6. Sugar Restriction Leads to Increased Ad Libitum Sugar Intake by Overweight Adolescents in an Experimental Test Meal Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Gillian A; Black, David S; Huh, Jimi; Davis, Jaimie N; Unger, Jennifer; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2017-07-01

    The impact of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake by overweight adolescents is unknown. Our aim was to examine the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent ad libitum sugar intake by overweight adolescents and whether habitual sugar intake and impulsivity influence the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake. This was an in-laboratory crossover feeding trial with sugar-exposure and sugar-restriction conditions. Eighty-seven overweight Latino and African-American adolescents underwent both meal conditions in two separate 8-hour in-laboratory visits. Participants had access to ad libitum snack trays for 3 hours after the condition-specific meals. Ad libitum sugar intake during the snack period was measured at each visit. Habitual sugar intake and impulsivity were assessed at baseline. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to examine the within-person effect of meal condition on ad libitum sugar intake. Mixed models were used to examine the moderating effects of habitual sugar intake and impulsivity on the meal condition-ad libitum sugar intake relationship. Participants consumed more ad libitum sugar during the snack period in the sugar-restriction condition than in the sugar-exposure condition (sugar restriction=78.63±38.84 g, sugar exposure=70.86±37.73 g; F=9.64, P=0.002). There was no relationship between habitual sugar intake and how much ad libitum sugar participants consumed during either condition. Higher impulsivity was associated with greater ad libitum sugar intake during both conditions (sugar restriction: b=.029, standard error=.01, Poverweight adolescents restricted from sugar intake consume greater amounts of sugar when they are later given access to high-sugar foods. Overweight adolescents with higher impulsivity appear to consume greater amounts of sugar regardless of previous levels of sugar consumption. Compensatory sugar intake and trait impulsivity may have implications for dietary interventions in this

  7. Efficient synthesis of N-alkyl-2,7-dihalocarbazoles by simultaneous carbazole ring closure and N-alkylation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Výprachtický, Drahomír; Kmínek, Ivan; Pokorná, Veronika; Cimrová, Věra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 25 (2012), s. 5075-5080 ISSN 0040-4020 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031; GA ČR GAP106/12/0827 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : carbazole ring closure * carbazole alkylation * heterocycles Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.803, year: 2012

  8. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael Kibblewhite; Alice Nettleton; Rachael McLean; Jillian Haszard; Elizabeth Fleming; Devonia Kruimer; Lisa Te Morenga

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition...

  9. Added sugars in kids' meals from chain restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourboutakos, Mary J; Semnani-Azad, Zhila; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the added sugars in kids' meals from Canadian chain restaurants in relation to the World Health Organization's proposed sugar recommendation (less than 5% of total daily calories should come from added sugars) and current recommendation (less than 10% of total daily calories should come from added sugars). Total sugar levels were retrieved from the websites of 10 fast-food and 7 sit-down restaurants in 2010. The added sugar levels in 3178 kids' meals from Canadian chain restaurants were calculated in 2014 (in Toronto, Canada) by subtracting all naturally occurring sugars from the total sugar level. The average amount of added sugars in restaurant kids' meals (25 ± 0.36 g) exceeded the WHO's proposed daily recommendation for sugar intake. There was a wide range of added sugar levels in kids' meals ranging from 0 g to 114 g. 50% of meals exceeded the WHO's proposed daily sugar recommendation, and 19% exceeded the WHO's current daily sugar recommendation. There is a wide range of sugar levels in kids' meals from restaurants, and many contain more than a day's worth of sugar.

  10. Stem girdling manipulates leaf sugar concentrations and anthocyanin expression in sugar maples trees during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.F. Murakami; P.G. Schaberg; J.B. Shane

    2008-01-01

    To better understand the effects of sugar accumulation on red color development of foliage during autumn, we compared carbohydrate concentration, anthocyanin expression and xylem pressure potential of foliage on girdled versus non-girdled (control) branches of 12 mature, open-grown sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees. Half of the study trees...

  11. Triple sugar screen breath hydrogen test for sugar intolerance in children with functional abdominal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Jonathan E; Ubhrani, Dolly

    2010-09-01

    Sugar intolerance and functional gastrointestinal disorders are both common in school age children. Both may present with similar complaints such as abdominal pain, diarrhea and bloating. Lactose, fructose and sucrose hydrogen breath tests are widely used to detect sugar malabsorption. To determine the proportion of children with symptoms of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) that have sugar intolerance as determined by using a breath hydrogen test. We prospectively enrolled subjects with chronic abdominal pain, bloating and/or chronic diarrhea. All subjects underwent triple sugar screen hydrogen breath test (TSST) using the combined sugar solution. Breath hydrogen concentration ≥ 20 ppm above baseline was interpreted a positive test for sugar malabsorption. A positive hydrogen breath test consistent with sugar malabsorption was found in 5 out of 31 (16%) subjects. Three of these subjects were confirmed to have lactose malabsorption based on small bowel lactase enzyme analysis or subsequent lactose hydrogen breath test. One subject with positive TSST was diagnosed with fructose malabsorption based on dietary history; he improved on a limited fructose diet, and one was diagnosed to have gastric Crohn's disease. Approximately one in six children with symptoms of FGID had sugar intolerance as determined by the TSST.

  12. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... imports. The OAQ was increased due to an increase in estimated sugar demand since the FY 2011 OAQ was... imports; and an increase in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of the same amount. DATES: Effective: June 22, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Angel F. Gonzalez, Import Policies and...

  13. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Luque-Moreno, L.C.; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Rehmann, L.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Schuur, Boelo

    2016-01-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid–liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created

  14. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm

  15. Genetic transformation of the sugar beet plastome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Wang, Yongxin; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Arcioni, Sergio; Bellucci, Michele

    2009-02-01

    It is very important for the application of chloroplast engineering to extend the range of species in which this technology can be achieved. Here, we describe the development of a chloroplast transformation system for the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris, Sugar Beet Group) by biolistic bombardment of leaf petioles. Homoplasmic plastid-transformed plants of breeding line Z025 were obtained. Transformation was achieved using a vector that targets genes to the rrn16/rps12 intergenic region of the sugar beet plastome, employing the aadA gene as a selectable marker against spectinomycin and the gfp gene for visual screening of plastid transformants. gfp gene transcription and protein expression were shown in transplastomic plants. Detection of GFP in Comassie blue-stained gels suggested high GFP levels. Microscopy revealed GFP fluorescence within the chloroplasts. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering the sugar beet chloroplast genome; this technology provides new opportunities for the genetic improvement of this crop and for social acceptance of genetically modified sugar beet plants.

  16. PRODUCTION VALUES OF INVESTIGATED SUGAR BEET HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pospišil

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Production values of 43 experimental and recognized sugar beet hybrids were conducted on the Zagreb location in the period 2003-2005. The trials included hybrids from six breeding institutions that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of Croatia. Research results have revealed significant differences in yields and root quality among inve- stigated sugar beet hybrids. However, the results of a large number of hybrids were equal in value; namely, the dif- ference between them was within the statistically allowable deviation. The hybrids KW 0148 HR and Buda in 2003, Sofarizo and Takt were distinguished by high sugar yields in 2004, whereas Merak, Impact and Europa in 2005. The highest root yields were recorded for hybrids Dioneta, Buda and KW 0148 HR in 2003, Sofarizo, Takt, HI 0191 and Dorotea in 2004, Impact and SES 2371 in 2005. The highest root sugar contents were determined in hybrids Zita and Evelina in 2003, Cyntia, Diamant and Belinda in 2004, and Merak, Belinda and Cyntia in 2005.

  17. Post-oral appetite stimulation by sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    Post-oral sugar actions enhance the intake of and preference for sugar-rich foods, a process referred to as appetition. Here, we investigated the role of intestinal sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) in sugar appetition in C57BL/6J mice using sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs that differ in their affinity for SGLT1 and SGLT3. In experiments 1 and 2, food-restricted mice were trained (1 h/day) to consume a flavored saccharin solution [conditioned stimulus (CS-)] paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of water and a different flavored solution (CS+) paired with infusions of 8 or 12% sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose) or sugar analogs (α-methyl-D-glucopyranoside, MDG; 3-O-methyl-D-glucopyranoside, OMG). Subsequent two-bottle CS+ vs. CS- choice tests were conducted without coinfusions. Infusions of the SGLT1 ligands glucose, galactose, MDG, and OMG stimulated CS+ licking above CS- levels. However, only glucose, MDG, and galactose conditioned significant CS+ preferences, with the SGLT3 ligands (glucose, MDG) producing the strongest preferences. Fructose, which is not a ligand for SGLTs, failed to stimulate CS+ intake or preference. Experiment 3 revealed that IG infusion of MDG+phloridzin (an SGLT1/3 antagonist) blocked MDG appetition, whereas phloridzin had minimal effects on glucose-induced appetition. However, adding phloretin (a GLUT2 antagonist) to the glucose+phloridzin infusion blocked glucose appetition. Taken together, these findings suggest that humoral signals generated by intestinal SGLT1 and SGLT3, and to a lesser degree, GLUT2, mediate post-oral sugar appetition in mice. The MDG results indicate that sugar metabolism is not essential for the post-oral intake-stimulating and preference-conditioning actions of sugars in mice.

  18. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Bruus, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Green plants are Earth’s primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the Sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites...... of photosynthesis and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants’ vascular system, where water and solutes are moved along the entire length of the plant. In this review, the current understanding of the mechanism......, remarks are given on some of the open questions of this research field.Green plants harvest the energy of the Sun in the leaves by converting light energy into chemical energy in the bonds of sugar molecules, using water from the soil and carbon dioxide from the air. This review provides an overview...

  19. Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

    2003-02-11

    The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

  20. СHIPS FROM SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Priority social problem in the Russian Federation is to provide diverse populations rational healthy diet, taking into account their traditions and economic status. Solving this problem requires the development of processing industries of agriculture on the basis of the improvement of existing and creation of new energy-saving environmentally friendly technologies that can provide deep, if possible without waste, recycling of raw materials. Therefore, the aim of research was the development of technology for production of sugar beet chips. Technology is as follows: sugar beet supplied into the washing machine to remove dirt from its surface. Washed roots inspect on conveyor belts. Next pure sugar beets sent to steam-heat treatment for cleaning the skin. After the beets is subjected to cutting by combining this process with a treatment with an aqueous solution of citric acid. Then he sent for the drying process is completed upon reaching a product of moisture content of 4-5 %. Drying chips feature is that under the high temperature reaction proceeds melanoidins between proteins and sugars present in sugar beet. As a result, the product obtained has the following characteristics: gold-yellow color; absence of a characteristic odor of sugar beet; pleasant sour taste; humidity of 4-5%. Thus, the new technology is relevant, because now the chips are one of the most popular products, ready to eat. A beet chips are rich in dietary fiber (pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose - 4-5 % minerals - macroelements (potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, trace elements (iron, zinc, copper, manganese - 0.5-0.6 %, and are the product of a functional food.

  1. Sugar and Sugar Derivatives in Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Cooper, G.

    2016-01-01

    A large variety and number of organic compounds of prebiotic interest are known to be present in carbonaceous chondrites. Among them, one sugar (dihydroxyacetone) as well as several sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and other sugar derivatives have been reported in the Murchison and Murray meteorites. Their presence, along with amino acids, amphiphiles, and nucleobases strongly suggests that molecules essential to life can form abiotically under astrophysical conditions. This hypothesis is supported by laboratory studies on the formation of complex organic molecules from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of simulated astrophysical ice mixtures consisting of H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, CH4, NH3, etc., at low temperature. In the past 15 years, these studies have shown that the organic residues recovered at room temperature contain amino acids, amphiphiles, nucleobases, as well as other complex organics. However, no systematic search for the presence of sugars and sugar derivatives in laboratory residues have been reported to date, despite the fact that those compounds are of primary prebiotic significance. Indeed, only small (up to 3 carbon atoms) sugar derivatives including glycerol and glyceric acid have been detected in residues so far.

  2. Dynamics of sugar-metabolic enzymes and sugars accumulation during watermelon (citrullus lanatus) fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed sugar accumulation and the activities of sugar-metabolic enzymes in ripening fruits of three cultivars of watermelon; a high-sugar type w2, a low-sugar type (w1), and their hybrid. In w2, the glucose and fructose contents were higher than the sucrose content in the earlier stage of fruit development, and fruit growth was accompanied by increases in glucose, fructose, and sucrose contents. The sucrose content increased substantially after 20 days after anthesis (DAA) and it was the main soluble sugar in mature fruit (sucrose: hexoses ratio, 0.71). In W, the fructose and glucose contents were significantly higher than the sucrose content in mature fruit (sucrose: hexoses ratio, 0.25). Comparing the two parent cultivars, sucrose was the most important factor affecting the total sugar content in mature fruit, although glucose and fructose also contributed to total sugar contents. The fructose and glucose contents in the fruit of F1 were mid-way between those of their parents, while the sucrose content was closer to that of W (sucrose:hexoses ratio in F1, 0.26). In the early stage of fruit development of W2, the activities of acid invertase and neutral invertase were higher than those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase. After 20 DAA, the acid invertase and neutral invertase activities decreased and those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase increased, leading to increased sucrose content. In W1, the activities of acid invertase and neutral invertase were higher than those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase at the early stage. The sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were lower in W1 than in W2 at the later stages of fruit development. The patterns of sugar accumulation and sugar-metabolic enzyme activities during fruit development in F1 were similar to those in W1. (author)

  3. Total, Added, and Free Sugars: Are Restrictive Guidelines Science-Based or Achievable?

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Erickson; Joanne Slavin

    2015-01-01

    Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) a...

  4. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP. In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry – Time of Flight method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m−3 in PM10 and 55 ng m−3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m−3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m−3.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2

  5. Dietary sources of sugars in adolescents' diet: the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesana, M I; Hilbig, A; Androutsos, O; Cuenca-García, M; Dallongeville, J; Huybrechts, I; De Henauw, S; Widhalm, K; Kafatos, A; Nova, E; Marcos, A; González-Gross, M; Molnar, D; Gottrand, F; Moreno, L A

    2018-03-01

    To report dietary sugars consumption and their different types and food sources, in European adolescents. Food consumption data of selected groups were obtained from 1630 adolescents (45.6% males, 12.5-17.5 years) from the HELENA study using two nonconsecutive 24-h recalls. Energy intake, total sugars and free sugars were assessed using the HELENA-DIAT software. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for relevant confounders. Total sugars intake (137.5 g/day) represented 23.6% and free sugars (110.1 g/day), 19% of energy intake. Girls had significantly lower intakes of energy, carbohydrates, total sugars and free sugars. 94% of adolescents had a consumption of free sugars above 10% of total energy intake. The main food contributor to free sugars was 'carbonated, soft and isotonic drinks,' followed by 'non-chocolate confectionary' and 'sugar, honey, jam and syrup.' Older boys and girls had significantly higher intakes of free sugars from 'cakes, pies and biscuits.' Free sugars intake was negatively associated with low socioeconomic status for 'non-chocolate confectionary' and 'sugar, honey and jam' groups; with low maternal educational level for carbonated and 'soft drinks,' 'sugar, honey and jam,' 'cakes and pies' and 'breakfast cereals' groups; and with high paternal educational level for 'carbonated and soft drinks' and 'chocolates' group. The majority (94%) of studied adolescents consumed free sugars above 10% of daily energy intake. Our data indicate a broad variety in foods providing free sugars. Continued efforts are required at different levels to reduce the intake of free sugars, especially in families with a low educational level.

  6. Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhout, Reinskje; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2006-11-01

    Sugars are natural tobacco components, and are also frequently added to tobacco during the manufacturing process. This review describes the fate of sugars during tobacco smoking, in particular the effect of tobacco sugars on mainstream smoke composition. In natural tobacco, sugars can be present in levels up to 20 wt%. In addition, various sugars are added in tobacco manufacturing in amounts up to 4 wt% per sugar. The added sugars are usually reported to serve as flavour/casing and humectant. However, sugars also promote tobacco smoking, because they generate acids that neutralize the harsh taste and throat impact of tobacco smoke. Moreover, the sweet taste and the agreeable smell of caramelized sugar flavors are appreciated in particular by starting adolescent smokers. Finally, sugars generate acetaldehyde, which has addictive properties and acts synergistically with nicotine in rodents. Apart from these consumption-enhancing pyrolysis products, many toxic (including carcinogenic) smoke compounds are generated from sugars. In particular, sugars increase the level of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, and 2-furfural in tobacco smoke. It is concluded that sugars in tobacco significantly contribute to the adverse health effects of tobacco smoking.

  7. EVOLUTION OF SUGAR BEET AND SUGAR PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA AFTER ITS ACCESSION INTO THE E.U.

    OpenAIRE

    Aurel-Florentin BADIU; Florentina BADIU

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the evolution for sugar beet production and sugar beet extraction after Romania accesion in European Union. The analysis is based on the evolutions of areas, total and average yields per unit of area. The last period (2007- 2013) is compared to the previous period (2001-2006), utilised at reference. Also, it is performed in the four sugar factories respectively (SC AGRANA Romania SA, Sugar Factory Bod, SC sugar Oradea SA, sugar Ludus SA) and it was made for t...

  8. Evaluation and characterisation of sugar cane germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty local sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) accessions were evaluated and characterised for smut (Ustilago scitammeaSyd.) resistance during four years under field conditions. The results showed that nine accessions, BD-07, KN-08, LS-01, OG-07, 0Y10, 0Y11, OY-16, OY-22 and OY-26, were resistant and had high brix ...

  9. Building improved models of sugar maple mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Perry; Patrick L. Zimmerman

    2012-01-01

    The decline of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the northern United States is causing concern, and several studies have identified soil properties that are linked to the observation of dead/dying trees. Unfortunately, the sample of trees supporting these studies is purposive in nature; soil properties are assessed only on those plots where dead...

  10. Storage requirements for sugar maple seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry W. Yawney; Clayton M., Jr. Carl

    1974-01-01

    Sugar maple seeds, collected from three trees in northern Vermont, were stored at four temperatures (18, 7, 2, and -10ºC) in combination with four seed moisture contents (35, 25, 17, and 10 percent). Seed moisture content and storage temperature significantly affected keeping ability, and these factors were highly interrelated. Seeds from all trees kept best...

  11. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K. H.; Berg-Sørensen, K.; Bruus, H.; Holbrook, N. M.; Liesche, J.; Schulz, A.; Zwieniecki, M. A.; Bohr, T.

    2016-07-01

    Green plants are Earth's primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the Sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites of photosynthesis and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants' vascular system, where water and solutes are moved along the entire length of the plant. In this review, the current understanding of the mechanism and the quantitative description of these flows are discussed, connecting theory and experiments as far as possible. The article begins with an overview of low-Reynolds-number transport processes, followed by an introduction to the anatomy and physiology of vascular transport in the phloem and xylem. Next, sugar transport in the phloem is explored with attention given to experimental results as well as the fluid mechanics of osmotically driven flows. Then water transport in the xylem is discussed with a focus on embolism dynamics, conduit optimization, and couplings between water and sugar transport. Finally, remarks are given on some of the open questions of this research field.

  12. Idiomatic Control used in Sugar Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    1993-01-01

    A description of a control system for a large scale industrial plant - the evaporator section of a sugar plant. The control system is based on the idiomatic control concept, causing decomposition into loop control units - idioms. Dynamic decoupling, feedforward- and feedback loops eg. have been...

  13. Possible toxicity of boron on sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo C., M.

    Analyses of necrotic and green leaf tissues from sugar cane grown in the Tambo Valley (Arequipa, Peru) have shown that the boron concentration in necrotic tissue (average 657.7 ppm) is several times higher than that in the green tissue (average 55.7 ppm). This suggests that the necrosis may be due to boron toxicity.

  14. Sequence of the Sugar Pine Megagenome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristian A. Stevens; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Aleksey Zimin; Daniela Puiu; Marc Crepeau; Charis Cardeno; Robin Paul; Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas; Maxim Koriabine; Ann E. Holtz-Morris; Pedro J. Martínez-García; Uzay U. Sezen; Guillaume Marçais; Kathie Jermstad; Patrick E. McGuire; Carol A. Loopstra; John M. Davis; Andrew Eckert; Pieter de Jong; James A. Yorke; Steven L. Salzberg; David B. Neale; Charles H. Langley

    2016-01-01

    Until very recently, complete characterization of the megagenomes of conifers has remained elusive. The diploid genome of sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) has a highly repetitive, 31 billion bp genome. It is the largest genome sequenced and assembled to date, and the first from the subgenus Strobus, or white pines, a group...

  15. Postharvest Rhizopus rot on sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus species have been reported as a minor post-harvest rot on sugar beet, particularly under temperatures above 5 deg C. In 2010, Rhizopus was isolated from beets collected from Michigan storage piles in February at a low frequency. However, recent evidence from Michigan has found a high incide...

  16. Regulations of sugar transporters: insights from yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, 1-2 (2013), s. 1-31 ISSN 0172-8083 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0307 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : sugar transporter * yeast * glucose signaling * sensing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.712, year: 2013

  17. Decolorization of turbid sugar juice from sugar factory using waste powdered carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljohani, Hind; Ahmed, Youssef; El-Shafey, Ola; El-Shafey, Shaymaa; Fouad, Rasha; Shoueir, Kamel

    2018-03-01

    Waste management of powdered activated carbon from cyclone of some sugar factories was used for decolorization of sugar mud juice (SMJ) in this study. The presence of powdered activated carbon waste (PACW) was admitted again for their use in SMJ decolorization. The determined specific surface area are typically S BET = 613.887 m2/g and the pore distribution lies in mesoporous domain. Color removal (CR%) and decolorization capacity (DC) of the characterized PACW are similar to those of decolorants used at this time for sugar refining. The CR% with PACW reached 81.03% at pH7.0 and dosed in the amount 0.5 g/50 ml of SMJ. There are two acceptable mechanisms illustrates the attachments between phenols and carboxylate ions. In this paper, we put a simple and rapid dark liquid decolorization by controlling rejected carbon waste, which will be useful for treatment of dark liquid sugar.

  18. Reconciliation of opposing views on membrane-sugar interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi D.; Wang, Chunhua; Arleth, Lise

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that small sugars exert different types of stabilization of biomembranes both in vivo and in vitro. However, the essential question of whether sugars are bound to or expelled from membrane surfaces, i.e., the sign and size of the free energy of the interaction, remains...... unresolved, and this prevents a molecular understanding of the stabilizing mechanism. We have used small-angle neutron scattering and thermodynamic measurements to show that sugars may be either bound or expelled depending on the concentration of sugar. At low concentration, small sugars bind quite strongly...... to a lipid bilayer, and the accumulation of sugar at the interface makes the membrane thinner and laterally expanded. Above â¼0.2 M the sugars gradually become expelled from the membrane surface, and this repulsive mode of interaction counteracts membrane thinning. The dual nature of sugar...

  19. RESEARCH OF LIMY AND CARBONATE SYSTEM OF SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of рН and temperature on activity of suspension of lime and carbonate in sugar production is investigated. Possibility of decrease in a consumption of reagents on purification of production sugar solutions is established.

  20. EVOLUTION OF SUGAR BEET AND SUGAR PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA AFTER ITS ACCESSION INTO THE E.U.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel-Florentin BADIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the evolution for sugar beet production and sugar beet extraction after Romania accesion in European Union. The analysis is based on the evolutions of areas, total and average yields per unit of area. The last period (2007- 2013 is compared to the previous period (2001-2006, utilised at reference. Also, it is performed in the four sugar factories respectively (SC AGRANA Romania SA, Sugar Factory Bod, SC sugar Oradea SA, sugar Ludus SA and it was made for the 2007-2013 period, after the application of EU’s rules for sugar market. The study presents the evolution of the biological sugar content and white sugar content between the years 2007 and 2013 and it evaluates the variability of the way of achieving production quotas. The main conclusion imposed after the analysis is that the systems of sugar production from sugar beet are stabilized. Statistically multi-annual average deviation from the assigned quota is approx .2%. Annual variations of sugar production are set between (- 15 % - (+ 43%, compared with the Romanian quota (104.688 tons white sugar.

  1. Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and methods of making propylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI

    2006-05-02

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  2. CO-PROCESSING BEET AND CANE RAW SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golybin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many sugar factories of the Russian Federation sugar and white sugar is produced not only from sugar beet, but also from raw sugar. To do this, the technological scheme of the plants provide mostly separate processing beet and raw sugar. This paper proposes a joint processing. With the aim of improving the quality of syrup, improving the filtration properties of the juice II saturation with joint processing beet and raw sugar was proposed clarification raw sugar to conduct the filtered juice I saturation with the addition of bleach in the amount of 0.05-0.10 % by weight of raw sugar and fine clay powder in the amount of 0.3-0.5 % by weight of raw sugar. Introduction chlorine is in the process of clarification raw sugar partly to carry out the depolymerization of highmolecular compounds, including polysaccharide dextran, and to adsorb the resulting fragments of high molecular compounds and pigments on fine particles of clay powder. Similar results were obtained when changing the costs of expanded clay powder. At a flow rate less than 0.3 %, there is a lack of adsorption of the surface to remove the degradation products of high -molecular compounds, which degrades the quality characteristics of the mixture of woodworking and furniture production of raw sugar and juice I carbon ation, and at a rate clay powder more than 0.5 % is irrational, since the cleaning effect is increased slightly. Suggested ways of coprocessing beet and raw sugar allow without significant cost effective processing of raw sugar factories. When beet low techn ological quality of these methods will increase the cleanliness of the production of sugar solutions and improve conditions for obtaining sugar of standard quality with the normative content of sucrose in molasses.

  3. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Pavlečić; Ivna Vrana; Kristijan Vibovec; Mirela Ivančić Šantek; Predrag Horvat; Božidar Šantek

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol ...

  4. PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters which can be changed for control the particle size distribution of white sugar. Five variants of viable parameters have been trying for obtain ideal particle size distribution of white sugar. As a best has been evaluated variant with 1100 cm3 of slurry and 20 % of volume of slurry massecuite in crystallizer. This variant has had the crystals proportions captured by the sieves between 1.00 and 0.40 mm with minimal differences in weight. More results have been related to reduction of losses of sugar in molasses with the right setting for the line of cooling crystallization process. The looses of sugar can be reduced by adding two coolers in the end of cooling crystalization process what will decrease a temperature to 40 ° C. This temperature will lead to more efficient crystallization in the cooling crystallization process.doi:10.5219/122

  5. Determination of Sugar and Some Trace Metals Content in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten brands of commercial fruit juices were analyzed for pH, specific gravity, total solids, reducing sugar and total sugar trace metals contents. The pH was determined using a Hanna pH meter. Sugar content was determined using the Lane and Eynon method. Sodium and potassium were determined by flame photometry ...

  6. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Paul V [West Chester, PA; Mc Cutchen, Carol M [Wilmington, DE; Li,; Xu, [Newark, DE; Emptage, Mark [Wilmington, DE; Caimi, Perry G [Kennett Square, PA; Zhang, Min [Lakewood, CO; Chou, Yat-Chen [Lakewood, CO; Franden, Mary Ann [Centennial, CO

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  7. Utilization of pectin extracted sugar beet pulp for composite application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is the residue left after beet sugar extraction. SBP contains ~25% pectin and is an important source for pectin. However, sugar beet pectin does not have good gel-forming properties and complete extraction of pectin is not typically performed due to the low quality of the galac...

  8. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries with...

  9. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    1997-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond

  10. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the weighing, taring, sampling, classifying...

  11. Sugar beet leaves: from biorefinery to techno-functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiskini, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Sugar beet leaves (SBL), which are a side stream of the sugar beets cultivation, are currently left unexploited after sugar beets have been harvested. The general aim of this thesis was to study the biorefinery of SBL, with a special focus on the isolation of proteins. To reach this aim the

  12. Sugar signalling during germination and early seedling establishment in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, S.J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Sugars have pronounced effects on many plant processes like gene expression, germination and early seedling development. Several screens for sugar insensitive mutants were performed to identify genes involved in sugar response pathways using the model plant Arabidopsis. These include sun, gin and

  13. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia; Te Morenga, Lisa

    2017-11-27

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future.

  14. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Kibblewhite

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ food composition database (FOODfiles 2010 by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future.

  15. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future. PMID:29186927

  16. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a...

  17. Coumarine-imino-C2-glucosyl conjugate as receptor for Cu(2+) in blood serum milieu, on silica gel sheet and in Hep G2 cells and the characterization of the species of recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areti, Sivaiah; Khedkar, Jayshree K; Bandaru, Sateesh; Teotia, Rohit; Bellare, Jayesh; Rao, Chebrolu Pulla

    2015-05-11

    A coumarine-imino-C2-glucosyl conjugate (L) was synthesized and characterized. The conjugate L is found to recognize Cu(2+) in aqueous HEPES buffer by exhibiting a 95% fluorescence quenching in pH range 7-10 even in the presence of several biologically and ecologically relevant metal ions. Fluorescence on-off behavior has been clearly demonstrated on the basis of the binding variability of Cu(2+) to L. The binding has been elicited through the changes observed in fluorescence, absorption, ESI-MS and (1)H NMR titrations. All the other thirteen metal ions studied did not show any change in the fluorescence emission. These ions do not interfere with the recognition of Cu(2+) by L. The structural features of [CuL]2 complex in both the isomeric forms were established by DFT computational calculations. The utility of L has been demonstrated by showing its sensitivity toward Cu(2+) on a thin layer of silica gel. The L gives sensitive fluorescence signals for Cu(2+) even in blood serum and exhibits appropriate fluorescence responses in living cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation and structure-activity relationship analysis of a new series of 4-imino-5H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-5-amines as potential antibacterial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyzaei, Hamid; Aryan, Reza; Moghaddam-Manesh, Mohammadreza; Ghasemi, Behzad; Karimi, Pouya; Samareh Delarami, Hojat; Sanchooli, Mahmood

    2017-09-01

    The synthesis of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives is important due to their presence in various biologically active compounds such as anticancer, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic agents. In this project, a new and efficient approach for the synthesis of some novel 4-imino-5H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-5-amines from reaction of 5-amino-pyrazole-4-carbonitrile with various hydrazides in ethanolic sodium ethoxide medium was reported. Antimicrobial activities of all synthesized derivatives were evaluated against eight Gram-positive and five Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. The moderate to good inhibitory effects were observed based on inhibition zone diameter (IZD), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values. In order to determine the reasonable relationship between antibacterial activities and physiochemical properties of the derivatives, computational studies were carried out in terms of geometry optimization, short-range van der Waals forces, dipole moments, atomic charges and frontier orbital energies. It was found that both short-range forces and covalent bonds are important in the observed inhibitory effects of the molecules. The results suggested that pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives prefer a soft nucleophilic attack on bio-macromolecular targets. Furthermore, our models proposed that the antibacterial activities of these derivatives can be improved by substituting large electron donating groups on the 6-phenyl rings.

  19. Poly[bis­[μ4-N-(2-hydroxy­imino­propion­yl)-N′-(2-oxidoimino­propion­yl)propane-1,3-diaminato]dimethano­lcalciumdicopper(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalibabchuk, Valentina A.; Usenko, Natalia I.; Golenya, Irina A.; Iskenderov, Turganbay S.; Haukka, Matti

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, [CaCu2(C9H13N4O4)2(CH3OH)2]n, the CaII atom lies on an inversion center and is situated in a moderately distorted octa­hedral environment. The CuII atom is in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry, defined by four N atoms belonging to the amide and oxime groups of the triply deprotonated residue of N,N′-bis­(2-hydroxy­imino­propano­yl)propane-1,3-diamine (H4pap) and one oxime O atom from a neighboring Hpap ligand at the apical site, forming a dimeric [Cu2(Hpap)2]2− unit. Each dimeric unit connects four Ca atoms and each Ca atom links four [Cu2(Hpap)2]2− units through Ca—O(amide) bonds, leading to a three-dimensional framework. The crystal structure involves intra- and inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21577475

  20. A free sugars daily value (DV) identifies more "less healthy" prepackaged foods and beverages than a total sugars DV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jodi T; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Franco-Arellano, Beatriz; Schermel, Alyssa; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2018-04-01

    Regulatory changes in Canada will require food labels to have a benchmark [% Daily Value, %DV] for total sugars, based on 100 g/day, while US labels will require a %DV for added sugars, based on 50 g/day. The objective of this study was to compare two labelling policies, a total sugars DV (100 g/day) and a free sugars DV (50 g/day) on food labels. This cross-sectional analysis of the Food Label Information Program database focussed on top sources of total sugars intake in Canada (n = 6924 foods). Products were categorized as "less healthy" using two sets of criteria: a) free sugars levels exceeding the WHO guidelines (≥10% energy from free sugars); and b) exceeding healthfulness cut-offs of the Food Standards Australia New Zealand Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (FSANZ-NPSC). The proportion of "less healthy" products with ≥15%DV (defined as "a lot" of sugars i.e. high in sugars, based on Health Canada's %DV labelling footnote and educational message for dietary guidance) were compared for each sugar labelling scenario. The free sugars DV showed better alignment with both methods for assessing "healthfulness" than the total sugars DV. The free sugars DV identified a greater proportion of "less healthy" foods with ≥15%DV, based on both the FSANZ-NPSC (70% vs. 45%, p chocolate bars, confectionery, and frozen desserts categories. Compared to total sugars DV labelling, using a free sugars DV identified more "less healthy" foods. Findings support the adoption of free sugars labelling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Cox, Ginnefer O; Eklund, Emily J; Ickes, Chelsea M; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-09-01

    Research concerning the sensory properties of beet and cane sugars is lacking in the scientific literature. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine whether a sensory difference was perceivable between beet and cane sugar sources in regard to their (1) aroma-only, (2) aroma and taste without nose clips, and (3) taste-only with nose clips, and to characterize the difference between the sugar sources using descriptive analysis. One hundred panelists evaluated sugar samples using a tetrad test. A significant difference (P cane sugar sources when evaluated by aroma-only and taste and aroma without nose clips. However, there was no difference when tasted with nose clips. To characterize the observed differences, ten trained panelists identified and quantified key sensory attributes of beet and cane sugars using descriptive analysis. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (P sugar samples for 8 of the 10 attributes including: off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aroma, fruity and burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth, sweet aftertaste, and burnt sugar aftertaste. The sensory profile of beet sugar was characterized by off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aromas and by a burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth and aftertaste, whereas cane sugar was characterized by a fruity aroma-by-mouth and sweet aftertaste. This study shows that beet and cane sugar sources can be differentiated by their aroma and provides a sensory profile characterizing the differences. As sugar is used extensively as a food ingredient, sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources once incorporated into different product matrices should be studied as a next step. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane...

  3. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane...

  4. Meiose analyses of sugar beet triploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezei Snežana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the seed crop growing there can be also problems with uncontrolled pollination if in the previous years there was seed shedding during the harvest, which can cause growth and flowering of diploid, triploid and tetraploid plants and that can present serious problem for the next sugar beet seed crop. Meiosis of triploid hybrids is irregular and can result in development of gametes with different chromosome number. Sugar beet triploids in metaphase I have 9 univalents and 9 bivalents and therefore can be source of aneuploid gametes. After cytological analysis that was performed on 2124 meiocytes, in 14.64% different types of irregularities were detected, such as dislocated chromosomes and chromosome bridges.

  5. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  6. Turgor-mediated transport of sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daie, J.

    1986-01-01

    Membrane associated processes have been suggested to be modulated by cellular turgor. The nature of this regulation is not, however, clearly understood. Evidence is presented that active but not passive transport of sugars is turgor regulated. Isolated phloem tissue, vascular bundles or storage parenchyma of celery were incubated in buffered solutions adjusted to 100, 200 or 400 m osmolal that contained various concentrations of 14 C-sugars. Cellular turgor was manipulated by using the non-permeating PEG (3350). Saturating carrier-mediated sucrose transport which is present only in phloem-containing tissue was enhanced under low turgor conditions. Sucrose diffusion, the predominant mode of uptake in non-phloem parenchyma tissue was not affected by cellular turgor. Furthermore, GA and IAA seem to interact with cellular turgor to bring about modified rates of sucrose uptake. The data are consistent with observations that sucrose loading is enhanced under mild water deficit conditions

  7. Sugars, the clock and transition to flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza eBolouri Moghaddam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin (GA and jasmonate (JA signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that important factors controlling plant growth (DELLAs, PIFs, invertases and trehalose- 6-phosphate or T6P might fulfill central roles in the transition to flowering as well. The emerging concept of ‘sweet immunity’, modulated by the clock, might at least partly rely on a sucrose-specific signaling pathway that needs further exploration.

  8. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  9. SUGAR CANE ENSILED WITH SALT OR UREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Henrique Vilela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane silage is widely used in livestock production. Nevertheless, it presents a drawback which is alcoholic fermentation caused by yeasts and which can reduce its nutritional value. In this sense, the aim of this work was to evaluate the use of either doses of salt or urea in the ensiling of sugar cane with the objective of producing silages of better quality. For this purpose, an experiment consisted of completely randomized design with seven treatments and three replications was performed. The treatments consisted of the ensiling of sugar cane without the use of additives (control and ensiling utilizing 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of either salt or urea. Sugar cane was ensiled with 31.8% of DM in experimental PVC silos, which remained closed for 202 days. After this period, the silos were opened and a part of the central silage of each silo was utilized for evaluation of potential of hydrogen (pH and of the percentages of dry matter (DM, for crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin and hemicellulose. By utilizing the weights of the silos, the production of effluents was also computed. The data were submitted to the analysis of variance and the means compared by the Skott-Knott test at 5% de significance. The percentage of DM (29.5% and lignin (9.9% as well as the effluent production (43.8 kg/t of natural matter were not influenced (P>0.05 by the treatments. Increased pH values (P

  10. Pozzolanic evaluation of the sugar cane leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, A.; Gutierrez, C.; Amigó Borrás, Vicente; Mejia De Gutierrez, Ruby; Delvasto, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the evaluation of the sugarcane leaf, burnt under controlled conditions in order to obtain a reactive ash with pozzolanic properties. Chemical analysis, amorphousity and surface structure of the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA) were studied by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results of this research showed that SCSA has significant presence of amorphous material and a high content of silica (81.0%). T...

  11. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum)

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez; Yoslén Fernández Gálvez; Mayra Martínez Pírez; Camilo Bonet Pérez; Manuel A Hernández Victoria; Arlandy Noy Perera

    2016-01-01

    This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the...

  12. [Sugar and the birth of dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijs, F

    2004-06-01

    It took mankind some ten thousand years to get sugarcane from the Pacific to the Mediterranean. Once it reached Europe and the Europeans knew how to handle it, it took them only a hundred years to turn the production of sugar into the biggest industry of the world. Exactly in those hundred years the birth of modern medicine--and dentistry--is placed. This coincidence is too particular to be left unnoticed.

  13. Negative effects of sugar-sweetened beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Fidler Mis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity in children has been linked in part to the consumption of sugary drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs and fruit juices. They have high sugar content, low satiety effect and incomplete compensation for energy, so they pose a risk for promoting positive energy balance. Each extra serving of SSBs children consume per day increases their chance of becoming obese by 60 %. Other main negative health effects of sugary drinks are: the development of preference for sweet taste, poor nutrient supply, lower mineral density, bone fractures, development of dental caries, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. SSBs are the leading source of added sugar in the diet of Slovenian adolescents. Water does not contain energy and may support a healthy weight status if it replaces sugary drinks. Cutting back on SSBs can control weight in children and adults. It is necessary that present public health strategies include education about beverage intake. Consumption of SSBs should be discouraged, whereas promoting the consumption of water should be made a priority.

  14. Naturally Occurring Cinnamic Acid Sugar Ester Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives (CASEDs are a class of natural product with one or several phenylacrylic moieties linked with the non-anomeric carbon of a glycosyl skeleton part through ester bonds. Their notable anti-depressant and brains protective activities have made them a topic of great interest over the past several decades. In particular the compound 3′,6-disinapoylsucrose, the index component of Yuanzhi (a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine or TCM, presents antidepressant effects at a molecular level, and has become a hotspot of research on new lead drug compounds. Several other similar cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives are reported in traditional medicine as compounds to calm the nerves and display anti-depression and neuroprotective activity. Interestingly, more than one third of CASEDs are distributed in the family Polygalaceae. This overview discusses the isolation of cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives from plants, together with a systematic discussion of their distribution, chemical structures and properties and pharmacological activities, with the hope of providing references for natural product researchers and draw attention to these interesting compounds.

  15. Rapid screening for anthocyanins in cane sugars using ESR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamaphat, Kheamrutai; Goodman, Bernard A; Limsuwan, Pichet; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo

    2015-03-15

    Anthocyanin, which is soluble in water and released into sugar steam during extraction, was investigated in this study. The anthocyanin content in refined sugar, plantation white sugar, soft brown sugar and raw sugar was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, which was operated at room temperature, and compared with spectra from standard anthocyanin. The ESR spectra of red and violet anthocyanins was predominantly g ≈ 2.0055, which corresponded to an unpaired electron located in the pyrylium ring. Signals for Fe(III) and Mn(II), which naturally occur in plants, were found in raw sugar, soft brown sugar and standard anthocyanin but were absent from refined sugar and plantation white sugar due to the refining process. In addition, the ESR results were correlated with the apparent colour of the sugar, which was determined using the method of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Seyed Soleimany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households by using time series of 1984-2008, which is taken from central bank of Iran. In this paper, first independent and dependent variables of household sugar demand model are chosen based on the literature review and theory of demand. Then, sugar demand is estimated by OLS technique and linear regression. The preliminary statistical observations such as Durbin-Watson, F statistic and R2 indicate that the regression is admissible. The results seem plausible and consistent with theory and show that sugar demand in Iranian households is associated with household expenditure, relative sugar price, family size and indicate that demand of sugar is affected during the war time. The results also show the income elasticity is 0.8 and price elasticity is -0.2 which means sugar is essential good for Iranian households and is inelastic to price.

  17. Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, N J; Sadler, M J; Cooper, J M

    2012-06-01

    Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was a general assumption that sweeteners and other ingredients would be added in place of sugars. However, there was little awareness of the level of sugar reduction and the associated calorie reduction in products when reduced sugars claims were made on pack. In focus groups, participants felt deceived if sugar reduction claims were being made without a significant reduction in calories. This was reinforced in the quantitative research which showed that respondents expected a similar and meaningful level of calorie reduction to the level of sugar reduction. The research also identified consumer confusion around the calorie content of different nutrients, including over-estimation of the calorie content of sugars. This is crucial to consumers' expectations as they clearly link sugar to calories and therefore expect a reduction in sugar content to deliver a reduction in calorie content.

  18. Factors associated with sugar intake and sugar sources in European children from 1 to 8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawellek, I; Grote, V; Theurich, M; Closa-Monasterolo, R; Stolarczyk, A; Verduci, E; Xhonneux, A; Koletzko, B

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends to limit intake of free sugars to 5% of total energy per day because of the great impact of high sugar intake on body fat deposition, adiposity and dental caries. However, little data exist about total intake and sources of sugar in European children. Therefore, this paper aims to describe sugar intake and dietary sugar sources and associated factors. Three-day weighed dietary records were obtained at eight time points from children 1 to 8 years of age (n=995) in five European countries. Food items were classified into subgroups according to food composition. Linear mixed models were used to examine associated factors. Total sugar intake increased from 65 g/day (30.0% of energy intake (E%)) at 12 months of age to 83 g/day (20.9 E%) at 96 months of age. Around 80% of children's sugar intake was derived from the following sources: milk and dairy products, fruits and fruit products, confectionary and sugar sweetened beverages (SSB). Total sugar intake and dietary sugar sources varied significantly by country of residence. Boys had a significantly (P=0.003) higher total sugar consumption than girls.SSB consumption was significantly higher in children from young mothers while sugar intake from fruit products was lower in children from mothers with lower educational status and those with higher birth order. Sugar intake in our population was lower than in other studies. Total sugar intake was associated with country of residence and gender, while dietary sugar sources varied by country of residence, maternal age, education and birth order.

  19. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  20. THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN INPUT ON POLARISED SUGAR PRODUCTION AND QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MACÁK

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During 1998-2002, the application of different forms and doses of nitrogen on quantitative (polarised sugar productionand qualitative parameters (digestion, molasses forming components - potassium, sodium and α-amino nitrogen content of sugar beet in vulnerable zones (Nitrate directive was studied. Calculated input of nitrogen ranged from 12 kg up to 240 kg N.ha-1. By increasing input of N from FYM application into the soil causes an increases of α- amino nitrogen content in root, which in consequence causes a decreases the sugar content (negative correlation r= -0.8659+. The application of straw instead FYM of analogues treatments caused significant decrease (straw versus FYM and highly significant decrease (straw plus N fertilizers versus FYM plus N fertilizers of α-amino nitrogen content in sugar beet root living the productive parameters unchanged. The content of α-amino nitrogen in root of sugar beet indicate an environmentally friendly management practices with causal relation to water protection from nitrate.

  1. Intake of added sugar in Malaysia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarra, Maria Sofia V; Khor, Geok Lin; Chan, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The term 'added sugars' refers to sugars and syrup added to foods during processing or preparation, and sugars and syrups added at the table. Calls to limit the daily intakes of added sugars and its sources arose from evidence analysed by WHO, the American Heart Association and other organizations. The present review examined the best available evidence regarding levels of added sugar consumption among different age and sex groups in Malaysia and sources of added sugars. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys and published studies. Varying results emerged, as nationwide information on intake of sugar and foods with added sugar were obtained at different times and used different assessment methods. Data from the 2003 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) using food frequency questionnaires suggested that on average, Malaysian adults consumed 30 grams of sweetened condensed milk (equivalent to 16 grams sugar) and 21 grams of table sugar per day, which together are below the WHO recommendation of 50 grams sugar for every 2000 kcal/day to reduce risk of chronic disease. Published studies suggested that, for both adults and the elderly, frequently consumed sweetened foods were beverages (tea or coffee) with sweetened condensed milk and added sugar. More accurate data should be obtained by conducting population-wide studies using biomarkers of sugar intake (e.g. 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose excretion or serum abundance of the stable isotope 13C) to determine intake levels, and multiple 24 hour recalls to identify major food sources of added sugar.

  2. Acid-producing capacity from sugars and sugar alcohols among Lactobacillus isolates collected in connection with radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almståhl, Annica; Rudbäck, Helena; Basic, Amina; Carlén, Anette; Alstad, Torgny

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the acid-producing capacity from sugars and sugar alcohols of oral Lactobacillus collected in connection with radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck region. Lactobacillus were collected from the tongue, buccal mucosa and supragingival plaque in 24 patients before, during, and after RT. The acid-producing capacity of Lactobacillus isolates (n=211) was analyzed using a colorimetric fermentation test in microtiter plates. Solutions containing 2% sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, lactose) or sugar-alcohols (sorbitol and xylitol) were used. After 24h of incubation, bacterial acid-producing capacity was determined as strong (pH6). Data regarding intake frequency of sugar-rich products and products with sugar-alcohols was collected. The highest acid-producing capacity using the sugars was seen for isolates collected during RT. Sorbitol was fermented to a higher extent during and post RT, especially among isolates from plaque. Lactobacillus fermenting xylitol showed the highest acid-producing capacity during RT (pacid-producing capacity, or between the intake frequency of sugar-rich products or sugar-alcohol containing products and Lactobacillus acid-producing capacity, were found. The results suggest that Lactobacillus isolates, collected from the tongue, buccal mucosa and supragingival plaque, have a higher acid-producing capacity using sugars and sugar-alcohols during RT than one year post RT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of electron radiation on sugar content in inverted liquid sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podadera, P.; Sabato, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    Inverted liquid sugar is a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which shows its relevant characteristic on high sweetness power. Ionizing radiation has been applied to different kind of food and ingredients for different reasons, such as pathogens reduction, disinfestations, quarantine purposes, ripening delay among others. Radiation from an electron beam can be utilized as a technique to treat this ingredient because it can process a great volume of material per unit of time. The main goal of this paper was to verify the effect of radiation on the properties of inverted liquid sugar. This ingredient was irradiated in an electron accelerator (Radiation Dynamics) at a dose ranging from 5 to 50 kGy. Sucrose content measurements were reduced by 23% at 30 kGy when compared to control and the reduced sugar content increased around 11%. Density and moisture values were not affected by radiation. The total soluble solids (Brix degrees) rose in function of the absorbed dose. (authors)

  4. Big Sugar in southern Africa: rural development and the perverted potential of sugar/ethanol exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper asks how investment in large-scale sugar cane production has contributed, and will contribute, to rural development in southern Africa. Taking a case study of the South African company Illovo in Zambia, the argument is made that the potential for greater tax revenue, domestic competition, access to resources and wealth distribution from sugar/ethanol production have all been perverted and with relatively little payoff in wage labour opportunities in return. If the benefits of agro-exports cannot be so easily assumed, then the prospective 'balance sheet' of biofuels needs to be re-examined. In this light, the paper advocates smaller-scale agrarian initiatives.

  5. Total antioxidant content of alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other degenerative disorders. Recent nutritional research has focused on the antioxidant potential of foods, while current dietary recommendations are to increase the intake of antioxidant-rich foods rather than supplement specific nutrients. Many alternatives to refined sugar are available, including raw cane sugar, plant saps/syrups (eg, maple syrup, agave nectar), molasses, honey, and fruit sugars (eg, date sugar). Unrefined sweeteners were hypothesized to contain higher levels of antioxidants, similar to the contrast between whole and refined grain products. To compare the total antioxidant content of natural sweeteners as alternatives to refined sugar. The ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to estimate total antioxidant capacity. Major brands of 12 types of sweeteners as well as refined white sugar and corn syrup were sampled from retail outlets in the United States. Substantial differences in total antioxidant content of different sweeteners were found. Refined sugar, corn syrup, and agave nectar contained minimal antioxidant activity (syrup, brown sugar, and honey showed intermediate antioxidant capacity (0.2 to 0.7 mmol FRAP/100 g). Based on an average intake of 130 g/day refined sugars and the antioxidant activity measured in typical diets, substituting alternative sweeteners could increase antioxidant intake an average of 2.6 mmol/day, similar to the amount found in a serving of berries or nuts. Many readily available alternatives to refined sugar offer the potential benefit of antioxidant activity.

  6. Are restrictive guidelines for added sugars science based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-12-12

    Added sugar regulations and recommendations have been proposed by policy makers around the world. With no universal definition, limited access to added sugar values in food products and no analytical difference from intrinsic sugars, added sugar recommendations present a unique challenge. Average added sugar intake by American adults is approximately 13% of total energy intake, and recommendations have been made as low 5% of total energy intake. In addition to public health recommendations, the Food and Drug Administration has proposed the inclusion of added sugar data to the Nutrition and Supplemental Facts Panel. The adoption of such regulations would have implications for both consumers as well as the food industry. There are certainly advantages to including added sugar data to the Nutrition Facts Panel; however, consumer research does not consistently show the addition of this information to improve consumer knowledge. With excess calorie consumption resulting in weight gain and increased risk of obesity and obesity related co-morbidities, added sugar consumption should be minimized. However, there is currently no evidence stating that added sugar is more harmful than excess calories from any other food source. The addition of restrictive added sugar recommendations may not be the most effective intervention in the treatment and prevention of obesity and other health concerns.

  7. Synthesis, crystal structures, quantum chemical studies and corrosion inhibition potentials of 4-(((4-ethylphenyl)imino)methyl)phenol and (E)-4-((naphthalen-2-ylimino) methyl) phenol Schiff bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemike, Elias E.; Nwankwo, Henry U.; Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Hosten, Eric C.

    2017-11-01

    Two Schiff base ligands, 4-(((4-ethylphenyl)imino)methyl)phenol (4EMP) and (E)-4-((naphthalen-2-ylimino) methyl) phenol (4NMP) were synthesized by the reaction of 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde with 4-ethylaniline, 4EMP, or naphthalene-2-amine, 4NMP. The compounds were characterized using NMR (1H and 13C), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and mass spectroscopic techniques. The proton NMR identified the OH peaks at 9.73 and 9.77 ppm for 4EMP and 4NMP respectively, while the 13C NMR showed the imine carbons at 172.57 ppm for 4EMP and at 160.89 ppm for 4NMP. The FTIR spectra showed characteristic peaks at 1605 cm-1 (4EMP) and 1600 cm-1 (4NMP) typical of the azomethine group, and the mass spectra results gave molecular ion peaks of 226.12 and 248.10 respectively. The structures of the compounds were further established by single crystal X-ray analysis. The corrosion inhibition potential of the compounds were studied on mild steel surface in a 1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution, and was analysed using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results of the electrochemical methods showed that the studied molecules imparted high resistance in allowing flow of electrons across the metal-electrolyte platform and behaved as mixed type inhibitors with 4EMP showing better inhibition properties than 4NMP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the formation of film on the mild steel surface. Quantum chemical calculations achieved by density functional theory (DFT) was further applied to explain the adsorption as well as inhibition abilities of the molecules on the mild steel surface. Thermodynamics studies showed that the two compounds obeyed the Langmuir isotherm with 4EMP conforming to chemisorption mechanism while 4NMP involved competitive physisorption and chemisorption mechanism.

  8. Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmency, Henri; Klein, Etienne K; De Garanbé, Thierry Gestat; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2009-04-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow has important implications for biodiversity conservation and for breeders and farmers' activities. In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce pollen as well as be fertilized by wild and weed beet. Since the crop, the wild beets, and the weed beets are the same species and intercross freely, the question of pollen flow is an important issue to determine the potential dispersal of transgenes from field to field and to wild habitats. We report here an experiment to describe pollen dispersal from a small herbicide-resistant sugar beet source towards male sterile target plants located along radiating lines up to 1,200 m away. Individual dispersal functions were inferred from statistical analyses and compared. Pollen limitation, as expected in root-production fields, was confirmed at all the distances from the pollen source. The number of resistant seeds produced by bait plants best fitted a fat-tailed probability distribution curve of pollen grains (power-law) dependent on the distance from the pollen source. A literature survey confirmed that power-law function could fit in most cases. The b coefficient was lower than 2. The number of fertilized flowers by background (herbicide-susceptible) pollen grains was uniform across the whole field. Airborne pollen had a fertilization impact equivalent to that of one adjacent bolter. The individual dispersal function from different pollen sources can be integrated to provide the pollen cloud composition for a given target plant, thus allowing modeling of gene flow in a field, inter-fields in a small region, and also in seed-production area. Long-distance pollen flow is not negligible and could play an important role in rapid transgene dispersal from crop to wild and weed beets in the landscape. The removing of any bolting, herbicide-resistant sugar beet should be compulsory to prevent the occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed beet, thus preventing gene flow to wild

  9. Transcription Factor AREB2 Is Involved in Soluble Sugar Accumulation by Activating Sugar Transporter and Amylase Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qi-Jun; Sun, Mei-Hong; Lu, Jing; Liu, Ya-Jing; Hu, Da-Gang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2017-08-01

    Sugars play important roles in plant growth and development, crop yield and quality, as well as responses to abiotic stresses. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a multifunctional hormone. However, the exact mechanism by which ABA regulates sugar accumulation is largely unknown in plants. Here, we tested the expression profile of several sugar transporter and amylase genes in response to ABA treatment. MdSUT2 and MdAREB2 were isolated and genetically transformed into apple ( Malus domestica ) to investigate their roles in ABA-induced sugar accumulation. The MdAREB2 transcription factor was found to bind to the promoters of the sugar transporter and amylase genes and activate their expression. Both MdAREB2 and MdSUT2 transgenic plants produced more soluble sugars than controls. Furthermore, MdAREB2 promoted the accumulation of sucrose and soluble sugars in an MdSUT2 -dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that the ABA-responsive transcription factor MdAREB2 directly activates the expression of amylase and sugar transporter genes to promote soluble sugar accumulation, suggesting a mechanism by which ABA regulates sugar accumulation in plants. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  11. Application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA in Sugar Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Astuti Arieyanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is one of the main commodities that are needed for human life. The demand of sugar is very high with the trend increase from year to year. This condition makes the sugar industry become a leading industry that must be maintained sustainability. The sustainability of the sugar industry is influenced by the use of energy and natural resources and the resulting environmental impacts. Therefore, an effort is needed to analyze the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts resulting from a product (sugar, by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. LCA is a very important tool for the analysis of a process/system from its cradle to grave. This technique is very useful in the estimation of energy usage and environmental load of a product/system. This paper aims to describe the main elements of sugar industries using Life Cycle Assessment.

  12. Application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in Sugar Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Arieyanti Dwi; Astuti, Rahayu Siwi Dwi; Hadiyanto, Hadiyanto

    2018-02-01

    Sugar is one of the main commodities that are needed for human life. The demand of sugar is very high with the trend increase from year to year. This condition makes the sugar industry become a leading industry that must be maintained sustainability. The sustainability of the sugar industry is influenced by the use of energy and natural resources and the resulting environmental impacts. Therefore, an effort is needed to analyze the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts resulting from a product (sugar), by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). LCA is a very important tool for the analysis of a process/system from its cradle to grave. This technique is very useful in the estimation of energy usage and environmental load of a product/system. This paper aims to describe the main elements of sugar industries using Life Cycle Assessment.

  13. Impact of sugars and sugar taxation on body weight control: A comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2016-07-01

    To conduct a comprehensive literature review in the field of added-sugar consumption on weight gain including the effect of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners and sugar taxation. A search of three databases was conducted in the time period from the inception of the databases to August 2015. Sensitive search strategies were used in order to retrieve systematic reviews (SR) of fructose, sucrose, or sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on weight gain and metabolic adverse effects, conducted on humans and written in English, Spanish, or French. In addition, a review about SSB taxation and weight outcomes was conducted. The search yielded 24 SRs about SSBs and obesity, 23 SRs on fructose or SSBs and metabolic adverse effects, and 24 studies about SSB taxation and weight control. The majority of SRs, especially the most recent ones, with the highest quality and without any disclosed conflict of interest, suggested that the consumption of SSBs is a risk factor for obesity. The effect of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners, on weight gain is mediated by overconsumption of beverages with these sweeteners, leading to an extra provision of energy intake. The tax tool alone on added sugars appears insufficient to curb the obesity epidemic, but it needs to be included in a multicomponent structural strategy. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  14. Technical and Economical Feasibility of Production of Ethanol from Sugar Cane and Sugar Cane Bagasse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efe, C.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the sugar-ethanol plants operating in Brazil to construct a raw model to gain better understanding and insight about the technical and economical aspects of the currently operating plants. And, the secondary aim is to combine the knowledge

  15. Understanding the Effect of Sugar and Sugar Replacement in Short Dough Biscuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, L.; Vallons, K.J.R.; Jurgens, A.; Sanz, T.

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose is the main sugar used in short dough biscuit formula, and it plays an important role in the biscuit manufacturing as well as in the biscuits final quality. However, for health reasons, high levels of sucrose are undesirable, making sucrose replacement an important issue to study. The

  16. Study of sugar cooking degree to sugar obtention using gamma attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda Cavalcanti, J. de.

    1984-01-01

    The application of gamma radiation attenuation methodology in the determination of sugar cooking degree is studied. Several experiments with samples of vacuum equipment during the cooking were made, based on beam intensity variations of a radioactive source of Americium 241. One sensible difference between the sirup emergent radiation and the cooked mass was observed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Role of potassium and nitrogen on sugar concentration of sugar beet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Beta vulgaris L., root yield, sugar yield, regression. RÉSUMÉ Le sucre est extrait des racines de la betterave (Beta vulgaris L.) en plus d'autres sources. Trois paramètres économiques importants sont souvent considérés notamment le rendement en racines, la concentration en sucre et le rendement en sucre.

  18. A tonoplast sugar transporter underlies a sugar accumulation QTL in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular mechanism controlling accumulation of soluble sugars in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit, a trait associated with sweet-dessert watermelon domestication, is still unknown. We re-sequenced 96 recombinant inbred lines, derived from a cross between sweet and unsweet watermelon accessi...

  19. Perceptions of sugar mommy practices in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Shisana, Olive; Davids, Adlai; Tabane, Cily; Mbelle, Margaret; Matseke, Gladys; Banyini, Mercy; Kekana, Queen

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to explore sugar mommy practices regarding their occurrence, acceptability as well as perceived reasons why older women and younger men enter into sugar mommy relationships. An exploratory qualitative study involving 135 participants from 11 diverse focus groups in terms of age, gender (females=27%) and geotype throughout the nine South African provinces was conducted. Data on the participants’ views, opinions and experiences of sugar mommy practices were collected using focu...

  20. Analysis of honey main sugars by size-exclusion chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Mara E.B.C.; Peres, António M.; Dias, L.G.; Morais, Jorge Sá; Estevinho, Leticia M.; Machado, Adélio

    2012-01-01

    The main constituents of honey are sugars, mainly the monosaccharides fructose and glucose (reducing sugars), which account for 80% of the total mass, while the disaccharides (especially sucrose and maltose) represent 10%. In general, fructose predominates (giving a sweeter taste to honey than sucrose), although, in some honeys, glucose (that assigns a less sweet taste than sucrose but more than maltose) may be the main sugar. The fructose/glucose mass ratio is a parameter that...

  1. Site preparation as an aid to sugar pine regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.A. Fowells

    1944-01-01

    On many thousands of acres of cut-over timber lands in California, brush of various species has gained such control of the soil that the success of natural reproduction is problematical. This condition is particularly serious in the high site quality sugar pine-white fir and sugar pine-ponderosa pine types, where the maintenance of sugar pine in the stands is a...

  2. Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, N J; Sadler, M J; Cooper, J M

    2012-01-01

    Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was ...

  3. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzone, Andre; Madej, M. Gregor; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+) electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY), the fucose permease (FucP) and the xylose permease (XylE), which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6–7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp) and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325) may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46) and XylE (Asp27), the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters. PMID:27227677

  4. Sugar ester surfactants: enzymatic synthesis and applications in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Nair S; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-01-01

    Sugar esters are non-ionic surfactants that can be synthesized in a single enzymatic reaction step using lipases. The stability and efficiency of lipases under unusual conditions and using non-conventional media can be significantly improved through immobilization and protein engineering. Also, the development of de novo enzymes has seen a significant increase lately under the scope of the new field of synthetic biology. Depending on the esterification degree and the nature of fatty acid and/or sugar, a range of sugar esters can be synthesized. Due to their surface activity and emulsifying capacity, sugar esters are promising for applications in food industry.

  5. Does Consuming Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners Change Taste Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotto, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Americans consume 22.3 teaspoons of added caloric sweeteners a day. Sweeteners range from 180 to 13,000 times sweeter than sugar. In summer 2014, 20 people from Kaiser Permanente California facilities cut out all added sugars and artificial sweeteners for 2 weeks: 95% of participants found that sweet foods and drinks tasted sweeter or too sweet, 75% found that other foods tasted sweeter, and 95% said moving forward they would use less or even no sugar. Additionally, 86.6% of participants stopped craving sugar after 6 days.

  6. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Susan I.

    2009-06-08

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation

  7. Supply optimization for the production of raw sugar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.; Westinner, R.

    2007-01-01

    Based on a case study from Venezuela, the production of raw sugar is investigated. Ideally, sugar mills operate at a constant production rate. However, safety stocks of the raw material cannot be maintained as sugar cane quality deteriorates very rapidly. Sugar cane is therefore continuously...... at preserving a constant supply while minimizing the associated costs. The entire planning problem is structured in a hierarchical fashion: (1) cultivation of the haciendas, (2) harvesting, and (3) dispatching of the harvesting crews and equipment. The corresponding optimization models and solution procedures...

  8. Association of δ13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added Sugars and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Davy, Brenda M.; Jahren, A. Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related co-morbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally-occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are the primary dietary source, may be refle...

  9. Pengaruh Keragaman Gula Aren Cetak terhadap Kualitas Gula Aren Kristal (Palm Sugar) Produksi Agroindustri Kecil

    OpenAIRE

    susi, susi

    2013-01-01

    Cyrstal palm sugar was one product diversification of palm sugar that utilization continues to grow and is expected to reduce its dependence on white sugar. Crystal palm sugar can be processed from the sap of palm or palm sugar product which melted. Utilization palm sugar as a raw material is one way to reduce excess palm sugar, but on the other hand is rather difficult to control the quality of raw materials. Wide variations in the quality of the palm sugar will also cause the palm sugar cry...

  10. Approximal caries and sugar consumption in Icelandic teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnadóttir, I B; Rozier, R G; Saemundsson, S R; Sigurjóns, H; Holbrook, W P

    1998-04-01

    The aim of this study, conducted in 1994, was to examine the association between approximal caries and sugar consumption in teenagers residing in three fluoride-deficient areas in Iceland while controlling for a number of behavioral, residential and microbiological factors. One hundred and fifty subjects (mean age 14 years) selected from the Icelandic Nutritional Survey (INS) were examined radiographically and they completed questionnaires about sugar consumption frequency. Total grams of sugar intake were obtained from the INS for each subject. Caries experience on approximal surfaces, diagnosed from radiographs, was used as the dependent variable in the analyses. Altogether 45.2% of subjects were caries free on approximal surfaces. The overall sample was found to have a mean DFS on approximal surfaces of 2.73 (s=4.36) per subject. Average daily total sugar intake was 170 g per subject and the mean number of sugar-eating occasions between meals was 5.32 (s=6.29) per subject. The regression model indicated that the frequency of between-meal sugar consumption was associated with approximal caries, with frequency of candy consumption being the most important of the sugar variables. In multivariate analysis, no relationship was found between dental caries and total daily intake of sugar, although a significant relationship between total sugar consumption and presence of caries was seen in bivariate analysis. Between-meal consumption of sugar remains a risk factor for the occurrence of dental caries, especially in populations with moderate-to-high levels of dental caries experience.

  11. Prospective association between added sugars and frailty in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laclaustra, Martin; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillon, Pilar; Banegas, Jose R; Graciani, Auxiliadora; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Ordovas, Jose; Lopez-Garcia, Esther

    2018-04-09

    Sugar-sweetened beverages and added sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharides) in the diet are associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, which are all risk factors for decline in physical function among older adults. The aim of this study was to examine the association between added sugars in the diet and incidence of frailty in older people. Data were taken from 1973 Spanish adults ≥60 y old from the Seniors-ENRICA cohort. In 2008-2010 (baseline), consumption of added sugars (including those in fruit juices) was obtained using a validated diet history. Study participants were followed up until 2012-2013 to assess frailty based on Fried's criteria. Statistical analyses were performed with logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking status, body mass index, energy intake, self-reported comorbidities, Mediterranean Diet Adherence Score (excluding sweetened drinks and pastries), TV watching time, and leisure-time physical activity. Compared with participants consuming added sugars (lowest tertile), those consuming ≥36 g/d (highest tertile) were more likely to develop frailty (OR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.34, 3.90; P-trend = 0.003). The frailty components "low physical activity" and "unintentional weight loss" increased dose dependently with added sugars. Association with frailty was strongest for sugars added during food production. Intake of sugars naturally appearing in foods was not associated with frailty. The consumption of added sugars in the diet of older people was associated with frailty, mainly when present in processed foods. The frailty components that were most closely associated with added sugars were low level of physical activity and unintentional weight loss. Future research should determine whether there is a causal relation between added sugars and frailty.

  12. European Sugar Market – Impact of Quota System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Benešová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The European agricultural market has been criticized for its heavy regulations and subsidization. The sugar market is one of the most regulated ones; however, this will change radically in 2017 when the current system of production quotas will end. The aim of this paper is to present the basic characteristics of the EU quota sugar market. The analysis identifies the main drivers of EU sugar market and their position within the EU sugar market. The paper identifies especially those drivers/companies/alliances which take control over the EU sugar production realized under the quota production system. The paper also highlights the level of EU sugar market concentration and also identifies those countries and companies which are the main leaders in the sugar production area realized under the quota system. Based on the results deriving from the paper, it is possible to characterize the EU sugar market as a heavily concentrated one – nearly 75% (10 mil. tonnes of the quota is controlled by five multinational companies only; these companies are operating more than 50% of all the available sugar plants located in the EU. These multinational alliances are also in control of the production capacities of their subsidiaries. In most countries, this causes serious problems as the given quota is controlled by one or two producers only. The EU sugar market is extremely concentrated especially if we take into consideration the location of each alliance’s headquarters. The majority of production capacities are under (the control of especially German and French companies. These two countries are also the main beneficiaries in relation to the EU sugar production quota system.

  13. Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

    2010-02-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes

  14. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar... processing of raw cane sugar into crystalline refined sugar. ...

  15. 7 CFR 1435.504 - Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar. 1435.504... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind (PIK) Program § 1435.504 Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar. Distribution of sugar...

  16. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jodi T.; Schermel, Alyssa; Mills, Christine M.; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a) the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b) a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c) sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto’s Food Label Information Program (FLIP) database 2013 (n = 15,342). Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL): desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g), sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g), and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively). Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption. PMID:27657125

  17. Bioproduction strategies for rare hexose sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumori, Ken

    2002-03-01

    A new strategy for the bioproduction of all ketohexoses was developed using hexitols as intermediates. Biocatalysts used to employ the strategy were D-tagatose 3-epimerase, which epimerizes ketohexoses at the C-3 position, and oxidoreductases, which catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions between ketohexoses and the corresponding hexitols. Arranging all the ketohexoses and hexitols in a symmetric ring and connecting them with 20 biochemical reactions, I was able to construct a design for the bioproduction of all the rare ketohexoses. Various aldose isomerases transform ketohexoses into the corresponding aldohexoses, so the strategy is useful for the bioproduction of all the rare hexose sugars. Furthermore, the design revealed that there are four routes to the L-hexose world from the D-hexose one.

  18. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the exploitation scheme. The machine´s working parameters were determined to meet the water needs, and increase crop´s overall yields. The evaluations and results achieved have contributed to new proposals for management and operation of coil irrigation, and they are important to increase its efficiency.

  19. Sugar signalling and gene expression in relation to carbohydrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transgenic plants with elevated levels of sugars/sugar alcohols like fructans, raffinose series oligosaccharides, trehalose and mannitol are tolerant to different stresses but have usually impaired growth. Efforts need to be made to have transgenic plants in which abiotic stress responsive genes are expressed only at the time ...

  20. Individual sugar and acid composition within southeastern peach germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    eaches grown in the southeast are valued for their acidic, sweet flavor. A complex mixture of various sugars and acids at different ratios play a key role in determining these unique peach flavor attributes. To understand the flavor profile of fresh market peaches, individual sugar and acid compone...

  1. Quantitative evaluation of sugars in some fruits consumed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and high sugar intake thereby over laboring the insulin. The need to evaluate the sugar content of commonly consumed fruits by patients with diabetes was imperative in order to enhance proper management of the disease. The fruits were obtained from the Jos environment after considering a questionnaire administered ...

  2. Sugar apple emerges as tempting treat for Florida Growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sugar Apple, Annona squamosa, is described as a potential alternative crop for the Florida east coast. Sugar Apple is highly productive of fruit on bushes from seed beginning at about 1-2 years of age, and produces a very flavorful and highly sought after tropical fruit. Several cultivars of Sug...

  3. Effects of import tariff implementation policy of refined sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The competitiveness of sugar products in Indonesia was evaluated using the of East Java wet and dry farmlands and was found to be higher than similar products from overseas as shown by DRC value of less than 1. Keyword: Sugar, Welfare distribution, Domestic Resource Cost (DRC), import tariff, Indonesia ...

  4. Measuring micronutrient intakes at different levels of sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring micronutrient intakes at different levels of sugar consumption in a population in transition: the Transition and Health during Urbanisation in South Africa (THUSA) study. ... Objective: The objective was to investigate the absolute micronutrient intake and the possibility of micronutrient dilution of added sugar in the

  5. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  6. [Molecular genetic investigation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorina, A K; Kornienko, A V

    2011-10-01

    Molecular genetic studies of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) are reviewed as a basis for the development of genomics of this species. The methods used to study structural and functional genomics are considered. The results and their application to increase the efficiency of sugar beet breeding are discussed.

  7. Possible root infection of Cercospora betiicola in sugar beet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijssen, J.; Schneider, J.H.M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    A potential primary infection site of the foliar pathogen Cercospora beticola in sugar beet is described. Sugar beet seedlings of the susceptible cv. Auris were grown in a standard soil for 14 days. A monoconidial culture of a C. beticola isolate was grown to produce conidia. In experiment 1, roots

  8. Sugar Cane Genome Numbers Assumption by Ribosomal DNA FISH Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thumjamras, S.; Jong, de H.; Iamtham, S.; Prammanee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional cytological method is limited for polyploidy plant genome study, especially sugar cane chromosomes that show unstable numbers of each cultivar. Molecular cytogenetic as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used in this study. A basic chromosome number of sugar cane

  9. Excessive consumption of fructose-containing sugars: An emerging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and processed foods has increased in the last decade in developed countries. This has been associated with the prevalence of diet-induced obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus, albeit a causal relationship has not been proven. Although sugar-sweetened beverages and foods ...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF SUGAR BEET SUBCOMPLEX BASED ON INNOVATIVE PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kazaryan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the problems of development of sugar market in Russia are raised. The situation in the CFO (the largest Russian region for the production of sugar beet factory is considered. The strengths and weaknesses of the processes occurring in this area are highlighted, the directions of development of the improvement of in-novation activity AIC are proposed.

  11. Providing Base Line Data for the Treatment of Mauritian Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In that context, a pilot study was carried out to determine the performance of the UASB process in treating sugar mill effluent and to provide base-line operational and design data for the reactor on a large scale. A sugar factory wastewater was characterised and the data were used to prepare the molasses-based synthetic ...

  12. Sugar and dietary fibre components of tamarind (tamarindus indica l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamarind fruit, though, has considerable industrial potential, is largely underutilised in Nigeria. Mature tamarind fruits, collected from nineteen randomly selected major towns of the twenty states in the Savannah region on Nigeria, were analysed for their sugar and dietary fibre components, using standard methods. Sugars ...

  13. Conversion of oligomeric starch, cellulose, hydrolysates or sugars to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silks, Louis A; Sutton, Andrew; Kim, Jin Kyung; Gordon, John Cameron; Wu, Ruilian; Kimball, David B.

    2017-09-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed to the conversion of a source material (e.g., a depolymerized oligosaccharide mixture, a monomeric sugar, a hydrolysate, or a mixture of monomeric sugars) to intermediate molecules containing 7 to 26 contiguous carbon atoms. These intermediates may also be converted to saturated hydrocarbons. Such saturated hydrocarbons are useful as, for example, fuels.

  14. 13 Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    Abstract. Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  15. EFFECT OF SUGAR CANE JUICE ON SLUMP VALUES FFECT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    different percentages of unfermented sugar cane juice replacing some proportion of water in the concrete mix. Water/Sugar Cane Juice/cement ... The study has been carried out at 0, 25, 50 and 100% replacement by weight of potable water with SCJ. .... compression machine in the laboratory. The tests were performed in a ...

  16. Two Step Wittig/Dihydroxylation Synthetic Route to Higher Sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation......Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation...

  17. The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van F.

    1975-01-01

    The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant was studied by measuring dry weight and chemical composition of every leaf, the crown and the root during the growing season.

    The sugar-beet plant has an almost neutral uptake. The nitrate and sulphate reduction determines the amount of carboxylates

  18. Ethanol and sugar tolerance of wine yeasts isolated from fermenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventeen wine yeasts isolated from fermenting cashew apple juice were screened for ethanol and sugar tolerance. Two species of Saccharomyces comprising of three strains of S. cerevisiae and one S. uvarum showed measurable growth in medium containing 9% (v/v) ethanol. They were equally sugar-tolerant having ...

  19. Effects of sugar intake on body weight: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, S.H.F.; Pasman, W.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term

  20. Implications of WHO Guideline on Sugars for dental health professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moynihan, Paula; Makino, Yuka; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2018-01-01

    professionals and supporting patients to eat less free sugars are key actions for the dental profession. All dental health professionals should have the skills and confidence to provide their patients with healthier eating advice, including how to limit free sugars intake. It is therefore important that dental...

  1. Comparative study of effects of table sugar, laboratory grade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    ... sugars, table sugar, laboratory grade sucrose, mannitol. INTRODUCTION. The growth of explants under in vitro conditions depends on nutritional and environmental factors which interact to produce a plantlet with similar characteristics to those grown in the field (ZRYD, 1988). The optimization of medium composition is ...

  2. Fermentable sugars and microbial inhibitors formation from two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of these inhibitors are sugars and lignin degradation compounds, which are almost unavoidable during pretreatment processes. ... factors of 3.5 or more to get high sugar yield, with increase in severity factor, high concentration of microbial inhibitors were formed and significantly affected downstream biofuel yield. Thus ...

  3. Sugar amino acids and related molecules: Some recent developments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature's molecular arsenal. In recent years, sugar amino acids have been used extensively in the area of ...

  4. Determinants of Sugar Market Performance under Imperfect Market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pricing, which influences performance of the locally manufactured sugar from the six (n=6) manufacturing firms in Kenya. The study was based on. Industry competitiveness model (Siggel, 1995, Markusen, 1992 and; Kasekende, 1994). Empirical results reveal that consumption of sugar in. Kenya varies from an average rate ...

  5. Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in Cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  6. Sn-Beta catalysed conversion of hemicellulosic sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin; Pagán-Torres, Yomaira J.; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan

    2012-01-01

    are observed for the pentoses. This finding is in accordance to a reaction pathway that involves the retro aldol condensation of the sugars to form a triose and glycolaldehyde for the pentoses, and two trioses for hexoses. When reacting glycolaldehyde (formally a C2-sugar) in the presence of Sn-Beta, aldol...

  7. Biodiversity versus transgenic sugar beet : the one Euro question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demont, M.; Wesseler, J.; Tollens, E.

    2002-01-01

    The decision whether to release transgenic crops in the EU is one subject to flexibility, uncertainty and irreversibility. The case of herbicide tolerant sugar beet is analysed. Reassessed is whether the 1998 de facto moratorium of the EU on transgenic crops for sugar beet was correct from a

  8. Sugar and polyol solutions as effective solvent for biopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Ternary mixtures of biopolymers, sugars or polyols and water can be treated as a pseudo binary system with respect to melting of the biopolymer. Sugar and polyol solutions can be treated as an effective solvent, characterized by the density of hydroxyl groups available for intermolecular hydrogen

  9. Maple sugaring with vacuum pumping during the fall season

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Alan G., Jr. Snow

    1971-01-01

    Vacuum pumping of sugar maple trees during the late fall and early winter months is not advisable in northern Vermont. However, fall pumping may be profitable in other areas of the sugar maple range. It is recommended that the weather pattern in a given locale be observed; and if conditions are favorable, vacuum pumping should be tried on a small scale before...

  10. Review of Hosein Aabad Sugar Factory (HASF) Wastewater and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar industry is one of the largest industries in the world. Hosein Abad sugar factory (HASF) is located in Hamadan province of Iran. The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality and quantity of wastewater of the said factory and to estimate the pollution load and its emission factor as prerequisite of the management ...

  11. Ethanol production from tropical sugar beet juice | Marx | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Starch and sugar resources have been extensively researched to find a suitable renewable source of energy to supplement the world's ever increasing demand for energy while also abating global warming by stemming the addition of earthbound carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Sugar beet has been used as a source ...

  12. Sugar cane juice as a retarding admixture in concrete production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane juice (SCJ) was investigated as a retarding agent in concrete production. Slump values and compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of water by sugar cane juice was also investigated. The concrete cubes were prepared by replacing water with SCJ in the following proportions 0, 3, 5, 10 and ...

  13. Dynamic analysis of sugar metabolism in different harvest seasons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In pineapple fruits, sugar accumulation plays an important role in flavor characteristics, which varies according to the stage of fruit development. Metabolic changes in the contents of fructose, sucrose and glucose and reducing sugar related to the activities of soluble acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI), sucrose ...

  14. Seasonal alteration of sugar metabolism in strawberry ( Fragaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants of strawberry cvs Aromas and Diamante were removed from the field in cold acclimated (CA, January) and non-acclimated (NA, July) stages. Crown parts of the plant were used for analysis. Apoplastic total soluble sugar (TSS), reducing sugars and sucrose contents did not change in both cultivars in both sampling ...

  15. Association of usual intake of added sugars with nutrient adequacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recommendations for intakes of added sugars have varied considerably and the scientific basis supporting these recommendations has been inconsistent. The goal of this study was to examine the association of usual intake (UI) of added sugars and nutrient adequacy in those participating in NHANES 2009...

  16. Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Finchaa Sugar Estate: Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study indicates that schistosomiasis is a major health problem in Finchaa Sugar Estate with moderate prevalence. The study results will provide an additional clinical and parasitological data on the current status of S. mansoni in Finchaa Sugar Estate and could serve as a guide in designing, developing and ...

  17. Diabetes and Exercise: When to Monitor Your Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and exercise: When to monitor your blood sugar Exercise is an important part of any diabetes treatment plan. To avoid ... testing your blood sugar before, during and after exercise may be just as important as the exercise itself. Grant RW, et al. ...

  18. Du Pont model in enterprises of the sugar sector

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Gawda

    2009-01-01

    The estimation of using Du Pont model in 10 enterprises of the sugar industry was made. Du Pont model is being used for choosing a strategy of managing based on the analysis of factors shaping the return on equity. In the analysed sugar plants the structure of capitals gives the greatest possibilities for improvement to the return on equity.

  19. "Sugar" jõuab lavale / Ülle Hallik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallik, Ülle, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Vanemuises esietendub 5. juunil "Sugar", lavastaja Mare Tommingas. Muusikal põhineb Jule Styne muusikalil "Sugar ehk Dzhässis ainult tüdrukud". Muusikali libreto kirjutas Peter Stone Robert Thoereni jutustuse ning Billy Wilderi ja I. A. L. Dimanondi filmi "Some Like It Hot" põhjal

  20. Effect Of Import Tariff Implementation Policy On Refined Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economization, are influenced by the import tariff and elasticity price toward supply and demand. It also showed that sugar product competitiveness in Indonesia is higher than the same product from other countries as the value of DRC is less than one. Key word: Sugar, Welfare Distribution, Domestic Resource Cost (DRC), ...

  1. Effect of manganese on endomycorrhizal sugar maple seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; Carolyn J. McQuattie

    2002-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) toxicity may play an important role in the poor survival of seedlings in declining sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) stands in northern Pennsylvania. To determine the effect of Mn on the growth of sugar maple seedlings, 1-year-old seedlings inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and growing in sand-vermiculite-...

  2. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Pavlečić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB. In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, ethanol yield was 59.89 g/L and production efficiency 78.8 %, and in fed-batch process the yield was 92.78 g/L and efficiency 93.4 %. At the same time, ethanol production in HRTB from the raw sugar beet cossettes with inoculum of 16.7 % V/m (raw sugar beet cossettes resulted in the highest ethanol yield of 54.53 g/L and production efficiency of 79.5 %. The obtained results clearly show that both intermediates of sugar beet processing can be successfully used for ethanol production.

  3. Dynamic analysis of sugar metabolism in different harvest seasons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... sugars and reducing sugars of pineapple treated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on chilling injuries were not significantly different from that of the control pineapple. Liu et al. (2009) reported that the flavor in summer pineapple fruit was better than that of the winter fruit. Joomwong (2006) showed that the fruit ...

  4. Fermentable sugars and microbial inhibitors formation from two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... which should provide high sugar yield and low sugar as well as lignin degradation byproducts, that is, microbial inhibitors. The pretreatment process should also be inexpensive and less energy intensive (Qin et al., 2012;. Liu et al., 2013). It is obvious that the larger particle size reduces extensive biomass ...

  5. Sugar catabolism during growth on plant biomass in Aspergillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosravi, C.

    2017-01-01

    A growing industrial sector in which plant degrading enzymes are used is the production of alternative fuels, such as bio-ethanol, and biochemicals. Plant polysaccharides can be converted to fermentable sugars by fungal enzymes. The sugars are then fermented to ethanol and other products mainly by

  6. Biodiversity versus transgenic sugar beet: the one euro question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demont, M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Tollens, E.

    2004-01-01

    The decision on whether to release transgenic crops in the EU is subject to irreversibility, uncertainty and flexibility. We analyse the case of herbicide-tolerant sugar beet and assess whether the EU's 1998 de facto moratorium on transgenic crops for sugar beet was correct from a cost-benefit

  7. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments... of 325,000 short tons, raw value, of the cane sugar allotment. (b) A new entrant cane State will receive an allotment to accommodate a new processor's allocation under 1435.308. (c) Subject to paragraphs...

  8. The dynamics of fat, protein and sugar metabolism during walnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is named the “super food” in the 21st century. In this study, the 9-year-old precocious walnut cultivar 'Xiangling' were used to exam the developmental process, and the dynamics of fat, protein and sugar content in the fruit, and the activities of enzymes related with sugar metabolism were further ...

  9. Effect of commonly consumed sugar containing and sugar free fruit drinks on the hydrogen ion modulation of human dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanika Mahajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the increased awareness of healthy diet among the population, the intake of fruit juices as health drinks has been increased. This study has been designed to check the potential cariogenicity of fruit drinks frequently consumed by infants and young children. Aim: To compare the acidogenic potential of sugar free fruit juices with fruit juices containing sugar by evaluating the plaque pH changes, following consumption of the above drinks. Design: The study was carried out on 10 children in the age group of 8-15 years. The four fruit juices used were 1 orange juice with added sugar 2 orange juice with no added sugar 3 apple juice with added sugar 4 apple juice with no added sugar. Sucrose rinse of 10% was used as control group. The endogenous pH of the fruit juices and control was assessed using digital pH meter. The plaque pH was assessed at the baseline and after the consumption of the drinks at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 minutes time interval using the plaque-harvesting technique. The obtained results were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis using paired t-test. Result: All the fruit juices showed drop in plaque pH. A drop in pH was also observed in the juices despite of no added sugar content. Conclusion: The fruit juices labeled with "no added sugar" or "free from added sugar", contained substantial quantities of sugar and are equally cariogenic as are fruit drinks with added sugar.

  10. The Effect of Sugar-Free Versus Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Satiety, Liking and Wanting: An 18 Month Randomized Double-Blind Trial in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, J.C.; Katan, M.B.; Kuijper, L.D.J.; Liem, D.G.; Olthof, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. A possible explanation is that sugar-containing and sugar-free beverages cause the same degree of satiety. However, this has not been tested in long-term trials.Methods:We randomized 203 children aged 7-11 years to

  11. Mechanical properties of sugar beet root during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedomová, Šárka; Kumbár, Vojtěch; Pytel, Roman; Buchar, Jaroslav

    2017-10-01

    This paper is an investigation via two experimental methods, of the textural properties of sugar beet roots during the storage period. In the work, sugar beet roots mechanical properties were evaluated during the post-harvest period - 1, 8, 22, 43, and 71 days after crop. Both experimental methods, i.e. compression test and puncture test, suggest that the failure strength of the sugar beet root increases with the storage time. The parameters obtained using the puncture test, are more sensitive to the storage duration than those obtained by way of the compression test. We also found that such mechanical properties served as a reliable tool for monitoring the progress of sugar beet roots storage. The described methods could also be used to highlight important information on sugar beet evolution during storage.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in water/sugar solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerbret, A. [Department of Food Science, Cornell University, 101 Stocking Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Affouard, F. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires, UMR CNRS 8024, Universite Lille I, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)], E-mail: frederic.affouard@univ-lille1.fr; Bordat, P. [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique et de Physico-Chimie Moleculaire, UMR 5624, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, 64000 Pau (France); Hedoux, A.; Guinet, Y.; Descamps, M. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires, UMR CNRS 8024, Universite Lille I, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2008-04-18

    Structural and dynamical properties of the solvent at the protein/solvent interface have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in trehalose, maltose and sucrose solutions. Results are discussed in the framework of the bioprotection phenomena. The analysis of the relative concentration of water oxygen atoms around lysozyme suggests that lysozyme is preferentially hydrated. When comparing the three sugars, trehalose is seen more excluded than maltose and sucrose. The preferential exclusion of sugars from the protein surface induces some differences in the behavior of trehalose and maltose, particularly at 50 and 60 wt% concentrations, that are not observed experimentally in binary sugar/mixtures. The dynamical slowing down of the solvent is suggested to mainly arise from the homogeneity of the water/sugar matrices controlled by the percolation of the sugar hydrogen bonds networks. Furthermore, lysozyme strongly increases relaxation times of solvent molecules at the protein/solvent interface.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in water/sugar solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerbret, A.; Affouard, F.; Bordat, P.; Hedoux, A.; Guinet, Y.; Descamps, M.

    2008-01-01

    Structural and dynamical properties of the solvent at the protein/solvent interface have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in trehalose, maltose and sucrose solutions. Results are discussed in the framework of the bioprotection phenomena. The analysis of the relative concentration of water oxygen atoms around lysozyme suggests that lysozyme is preferentially hydrated. When comparing the three sugars, trehalose is seen more excluded than maltose and sucrose. The preferential exclusion of sugars from the protein surface induces some differences in the behavior of trehalose and maltose, particularly at 50 and 60 wt% concentrations, that are not observed experimentally in binary sugar/mixtures. The dynamical slowing down of the solvent is suggested to mainly arise from the homogeneity of the water/sugar matrices controlled by the percolation of the sugar hydrogen bonds networks. Furthermore, lysozyme strongly increases relaxation times of solvent molecules at the protein/solvent interface

  14. Targeting postprandial blood sugar over fasting blood sugar: A clinic based comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, H M M; Weerarathna, T P; Fonseka, C L; Vidanagamage, A S

    Recent studies indicate that modulation of post prandial blood sugar (PPBS) plays an important role in the long term glycemic control. Measurement of PPBS is more convenient for patients attending outpatient clinics than fasting blood sugar (FBS) as the former needs only two hours of fasting from the last meal. To assess the value of PPBS monitoring in optimization of long term glycemic control among diabetic patients attending an outpatient clinic. A total of 240 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) attending an out-patient medical clinic were randomized to either PPBS or FBS monitoring. Those who selected to PPBS-group underwent blood sugar measurement 2-h after last meal on the day of their clinic visits and those in the FBS group underwent blood sugar measurement after fasting overnight (8-10h) in the morning of their clinic visits. Treating team was asked to optimize the anti-diabetic medications based on the available PPBS or FBS results. All patients were followed up monthly for six months. Glycemic control was assessed with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at baseline and six months later. Baseline characteristics of the two arms including age, gender, and duration of T2DM were not significantly different. Mean HbA1c (SD) of FBS and PPBS arms at baseline were 7.20 (0.45), and 7.33 (0.43) and were not significantly different (P=0.115). During the study period, HbA1c dropped by 0.20 in FBS arm compared to 0.25 drop in PPBS arm (p=0.59). Incidence of hypoglycemia was similar in FBS (2.42%) and PPBS arms (2.70%). Monitoring of PPBS is a safe and effective alternative to FBS to optimize glycemic control in managing patients with T2DM attending outpatient clinics. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Insights to the clarification of sugar cane juice expressed from sugar cane stalk and trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, C C D; Bakir, H; Doherty, W O S

    2012-03-21

    Processing of juice expressed from green sugar cane containing all the trash (i.e., tops and leaves, the nonstalk component) of the sugar cane plant during sugar manufacture has been reported to lead to poor clarified juice (CJ) quality. Studies of different liming techniques have been conducted to identify which liming technique gives the best clarification performance from juice expressed from green cane containing half of all trash extracted (GE). Results have shown that lime saccharate addition to juice at 76 °C either continuous or batchwise gives satisfactory settling rates of calcium phosphate flocs (50-70 cm/min) and CJ with low turbidity and minimal amounts of mineral constituents. Surprisingly, the addition of phosphoric acid (≤ 300 mg/kg as P₂O₅), prior to liming to reduce juice turbidity (≤ 80%), increased the Mg (≤ 101%) and Si (≤ 148%) contents particularly for clarified GE juices. The increase was not proportional with increasing phosphoric acid dose. The nature of the flocs formed, including the zeta potential of the particles by the different liming techniques, has been used to account for the differences in clarification performance. Differences between the qualities of the CJ obtained with GE juice and that of burnt cane juices with all trash extracted (BE) have been discussed to provide further insights into GE processing.

  16. Added sugars: Definitions, classifications, metabolism and health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tailane SCAPIN

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The sugars added to foods have been featured in recent scientific research, including the publication of the World Health Organization recommendation to limit consumption of added sugars, based on studies on weight gain and dental caries. However, it is possible that there is evidence of an association between excessive consumption and other pathologies, but scientific studies have yet to investigate these associations. Moreover, there is no consensus on the descriptions and definitions of these sugars, with several terms and components used to designate them. In Brazil, there are few studies investigating added sugars, identifying a lack of discussion on this subject. This paper presents a literature review of sugars added to foods, from their definitions and classifications to the metabolism and health effects. The search was performed without limiting dates in the following databases: Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and SciELO, as well as in national and international official sites. Keywords in Portuguese and English related to sugars added to foods were used, in combination with terms related to systematic review and meta-analysis studies, in order to find research linking added sugars consumption with health damage. The literature indicates that there is a relationship between excessive consumption of added sugars and various health outcomes, including weight gain, type 2 diabetes Mellitus, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. The different descriptions of sugars in foods may confuse both food consumers and researchers, since each term includes different components. Thus, it is suggested to use the standardized term “added sugar” as the most suitable term for the broader population to understand, because it indicates that those sugars are not natural food components.

  17. High intake of added sugar among Norwegian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverby, Nina C; Lillegaard, Inger T L; Johansson, Lars; Andersen, Lene F

    2004-04-01

    It is debated whether the intake of added sugar displaces micronutrient-rich foods and dilutes the nutrient density of the diet, and whether there is a link between sugar and the increased rate of obesity. The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of added sugar on the intakes of energy, micronutrients, fruit and vegetables, and to examine the association between intake of added sugar and age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, inactivity and parents' education. Participants recorded their food intake in pre-coded food diaries for 4 days and filled in a questionnaire about physical activity, watching television (TV)/using a personal computer (PC) and parents' education. Three hundred and ninety-one 4-year-olds, 810 students in the 4th grade (9 years old) and 1005 in the 8th grade (13 years old) were included in the study. The intakes of all nutrients, except alpha-tocopherol among 4-year-olds and vitamin C among 4-year-olds and 4th graders, decreased with increasing content of added sugar in the diet. Moreover, high consumers of added sugar had a 30-40% lower intake of fruit and vegetables than did low consumers. A negative association was observed between consumption of added sugar and body mass index among girls in the 8th grade (P=0.013), whereas a positive association was observed among 4-year-old boys (P=0.055). Associations between physical activity, hours spent watching TV/using a PC, parents' education and the energy intake from added sugar varied in the different age groups. This study showed a negative association between the intake of added sugar and intakes of micronutrients, fruit and vegetables. The negative association between sugar intake and intake of fruit and vegetables is important from a public health perspective, since one of the main health messages today is to increase current intake of fruit and vegetables.

  18. Approaches to raw sugar quality improvement as a route to sustaining a reliable supply of purified industrial sugar feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy costs in the sugar industry are outstripping costs of manufacture, particularly in refineries. This, as well as increasing transportation costs and the need to meet manufacturers’ tight specifications, has increased the demand for a sustainable supply of purified, raw sugar. Agricultural com...

  19. Experimental branch cooling increases foliar sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in sugar maple at the end of the growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Paula F. Murakami; John R. Butnor; Gary J. Hawley

    2017-01-01

    Autumnal leaf anthocyanin expression is enhanced following exposure to a variety of environmental stresses and may represent an adaptive benefit of protecting leaves from those stresses, thereby allowing for prolonged sugar and nutrient resorption. Past work has shown that experimentally induced sugar accumulations following branch girdling triggers anthocyanin...

  20. A rapid method for simultaneous quantification of 13 sugars and sugar alcohols in food products by UPLC-ELSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Wan; Park, Jae-Woong; Lim, Jung-Hoon; Yea, Myeong-Jai; Bang, Dae-Young

    2018-02-01

    A novel, rapid, simultaneous analysis method for five sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose) and eight sugar alcohols (erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, inositol, maltitol, lactitol, and isomalt) was developed using UPLC-ELSD, without derivatization. The analysis conditions, including the gradient conditions, modifier concentration and column length, were optimized. Thirteen sugars and sugar alcohols were separated well and the resolution of their peaks was above 1.0. Their optimum analysis condition can be analyzed within 15min. Standard curves for sugars and sugar alcohols with concentrations of 5.0-0.1% and 2.0-0.05% are presented herein, and their correlation coefficients are found to be above 0.999 and the limit of detection (LOD) was around 0.006-0.018%. This novel analysis system can be used for foodstuffs such as candy, chewing gum, jelly, chocolate, processed chocolate products, and snacks containing 0.21-46.41% of sugars and sugar alcohols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Capture and use of solar radiation, water, and nitrogen by sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggard, K W; Qi, A; Ober, E S

    2009-01-01

    Sugar beet is spring-sown for sugar production in most sugar beet-growing countries. It is grown as a vegetative crop and it accumulates yield (sugar) from very early in its growth cycle. As long as the sugar beet plants do not flower, the sugar accumulation period is indefinite and yield continues to increase. This paper reviews the success of the sugar beet crop in capturing and using solar radiation, water and mineral nitrogen resources. The prospects for improved resource capture and therefore increased sugar yield are also considered, particularly the potential to increase solar radiation interception in the future by sowing the crop in the autumn.

  2. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilyn González Cortés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from the molasses of the sugar process and biogas from the vinasse of the alcohol distillation process. Finally, a third scenario is exergetically evaluated in which sugar, electricity, biogas and alcohol are produced, but this last one from juices and molasses of the sugar process. For the exergetic analysis the integrated scheme was divided into 8 subsystems. From the analysis of results, the major subsystems that generate irreversibilities are: cogeneration (64.36-65.98%, juice extraction (8.85-9.85%, crystallization and cooking, (8.48 -9.02%, fermentation (4.12-4.94% and distillation (2.74-3.2%. Improvements are proposed to minimize irreversibilities, including the thermal integration of processes, technological modifications in the fermentation process and the introduction of more efficient equipment for the generation of electricity. The exergetic efficiency is between 78.95-81.10%, obtaining greater exergetic efficiency in the scheme of joint operation to produce sugar, alcohol and biogas.

  3. On the pull: periplasmic trapping of sugars before transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gavin H

    2017-06-01

    Bacteria have evolved many routes for taking up nutrients, demonstrating great versatility in the types and mechanism of uptake used in different physiological conditions. The discovery of a single transporter in the bacterium Advenella mimigardefordensis for the uptake of five different sugars, including L-glucose and D-xylose, is described in this issue (Meinert et al., ), providing yet another example of the surprising adaptability of bacterial transport strategies. The transporter identified is a tripartite ATP-independent (TRAP) transporter, not previously associated with sugar transport, and in fact does not transport the sugars directly at all, rather requiring them to be converted in the periplasm to their respective sugar acid forms before transport through what appears to be a novel general sugar acid transporter. In this commentary, I describe how this process is consistent with the known mechanisms of TRAP transporters and consider how the role of sugar oxidation, or oxidative fermentation, operates with multiple hexose and pentose sugars. Finally I suggest that the periplasmic conversion of nutrients acquired across the outer membrane, before transport across the inner membrane, could have potentially useful biological functions in Gram negative bacteria. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Tatsuya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet molasses. Results Four oligosaccharides were newly isolated from sugar beet molasses using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and carbon-Celite column chromatography. Structural confirmation of the saccharides was provided by methylation analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionaization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR measurements. Conclusion The following oligosaccharides were identified in sugar beet molasses: β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 6-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 1-α-D-glucopyranoside (named β-planteose, α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 1-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 1-α-D-glucopyranoside (named1-planteose, α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 6-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 2-β-D-fructofuranoside (theanderose, and β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 3-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 2-β-D-fructofuranoside (laminaribiofructose. 1-planteose and laminaribiofructose were isolated from natural sources for the first time.

  5. Added Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Miriam B.; Kaar, Jill L.; Welsh, Jean A.; Van Horn, Linda V.; Feig, Daniel I.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Patel, Mahesh J.; Munos, Jessica Cruz; Krebs, Nancy F.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; Johnson, Rachel K.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Poor lifestyle behaviors are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Added sugars contribute to a diet that is energy dense but nutrient poor and increase risk of developing obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity-related cancers, and dental caries. METHODS AND RESULTS For this American Heart Association scientific statement, the writing group reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for studies examining the cardiovascular health effects of added sugars on children. The available literature was subdivided into 5 broad subareas: effects on blood pressure, lipids, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity. CONCLUSIONS Associations between added sugars and increased cardiovascular disease risk factors among US children are present at levels far below current consumption levels. Strong evidence supports the association of added sugars with increased cardiovascular disease risk in children through increased energy intake, increased adiposity, and dyslipidemia. The committee found that it is reasonable to recommend that children consume ≤25 g (100 cal or ≈6 teaspoons) of added sugars per day and to avoid added sugars for children added sugars most likely can be safely consumed in low amounts as part of a healthy diet, few children achieve such levels, making this an important public health target. PMID:27550974

  6. Solubility and physical properties of sugars in pressurized water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldaña, Marleny D.A.; Alvarez, Víctor H.; Haldar, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sugar solubility in pressurized water and density at high pressures were measured. ► Glucose solubility was higher than that of lactose as predicted by their σ-profiles. ► Sugar aqueous solubility decreased with an increase in pressure from 15 to 120 bar. ► Aqueous glucose molecular packing shows high sensitivity to pressure. ► The COSMO-SAC model qualitatively predicted the sugar solubility data. - Abstract: In this study, the solubility, density, and refractive index of glucose and lactose in water as a function of temperature were measured. For solubility of sugars in pressurized water, experimental data were obtained at pressures of (15 to 120) bar and temperatures of (373 to 433) K using a dynamic flow high pressure system. Density data for aqueous sugar solutions were obtained at pressures of (1 to 300) bar and temperatures of (298 to 343) K. The refractive index of aqueous sugar solutions was obtained at 293 K and atmospheric pressure. Activity coefficient models, Van Laar and the Conductor-like Screening Model-Segment Activity Coefficient (COSMO-SAC), were used to fit and predict the experimental solubility data, respectively. The results obtained showed that the solubility of both sugars in pressurized water increase with an increase in temperature. However, with the increase of pressure from 15 bar to 120 bar, the solubility of both sugars in pressurized water decreased. The Van Laar model fit the experimental aqueous solubility data with deviations lower than 13 and 53% for glucose and lactose, respectively. The COSMO-SAC model predicted qualitatively the aqueous solubility of these sugars.

  7. Declining consumption of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia: a challenge for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Barclay, Alan W

    2017-04-01

    Background: Reduced intakes of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been the main focus of efforts to stall obesity. Although obesity has risen steeply in Australia, some evidence suggests that added-sugars and SSB intakes have declined over the same time frame. Objective: We investigated recent trends in the availability of sugars and sweeteners and changes in intakes of total sugars, added sugars, and SSBs in Australia by using multiple, independent data sources. Design: The study was designed to compare relevant data published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO Statistics Division Database (FAOSTAT)], the Australian government, academia, and the food industry. Results: With the use of the FAOSTAT food balance sheets for Australia, the per capita availability of added or refined sugars and sweeteners was shown to have fallen 16% from 152 g/d in 1980 to 127 g/d in 2011 ( P -trend = 0.001). In national dietary surveys in 1995 and 2011-2012, added-sugars intake declined markedly in adult men (from 72 to 59 g/d; -18%) but not in women (44-42 g/d; NS). As a proportion of total energy, added-sugars intake fell 10% in adult men but nonsignificantly in adult women. Between 1995 and 2011-2012, the proportion of energy from SSBs (including 100% juice) declined 10% in adult men and 20% in women. More marked changes were observed in children aged 2-18 y. Data from national grocery sales indicated that per capita added-sugars intakes derived from carbonated soft drinks fell 26% between 1997 and 2011 (from 23 to 17 g/d) with similar trends for noncarbonated beverages. Conclusions: In Australia, 4 independent data sets confirmed shorter- and longer-term declines in the availability and intake of added sugars, including those contributed by SSBs. The findings challenge the widespread belief that energy from added sugars or sugars in solution are uniquely linked to the prevalence of obesity. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Preservation of sugar content in ensiled sweet sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J.; Sipocz, J.; Kaszas, I. [Pannon Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Mosonmagyarovar (Hungary). Dept. of Animal Nutrition; Szakacs, G.; Gyepes, A. [Technical Univ. of Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Agricultural Chemical Technology; Tengerdy, R.P. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    1997-04-01

    Ensiling in the presence of 0.5% formic acid preserved the sugar content of sweet sorghum, while in enzyme-assisted ensiling (ENLAC) with in situ produced enzymes, the sugar loss in 30 days was 28.6%. The ENLAC silage contained 1.5% lactic acid and 0.6% ethanol which might be recovered as value-added secondary products, in addition to the high quality residue as animal feed. Overall the formic acid ensiling is the better choice for sugar preservation, storage and prolonged bioprocessing for biofuel production. (Author)

  9. Combustion of thermochemically torrefied sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valix, M; Katyal, S; Cheung, W H

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the upgrading of sugar bagasse by thermochemical and dry torrefaction methods and their corresponding combustion behavior relative to raw bagasse. The combustion reactivities were examined by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. Thermochemical torrefaction was carried out by chemical pre-treatment of bagasse with acid followed by heating at 160-300°C in nitrogen environment, while dry torrefaction followed the same heating treatment without the chemical pretreatment. The results showed thermochemical torrefaction generated chars with combustion properties that are closer to various ranks of coal, thus making it more suitable for co-firing applications. Thermochemical torrefaction also induced greater densification of bagasse with a 335% rise in bulk density to 340kg/m 3 , increased HHV mass and HHV volume , greater charring and aromatization and storage stability. These features demonstrate the potential of thermochemical torrefaction in addressing the practical challenges in using biomass such as bagasse as fuel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

    1995-01-01

    Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2, 4-diphophates, and aldohexose-2, 4, 6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2, 4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2, 4, 6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 micron; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2, 4, -diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2, 4, 6-phosphates.

  11. Association of Dietary Sugars and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake with Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungho Ha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the association between dietary sugar intake and obesity in Asian children and adolescents. We evaluated the association of dietary sugar intake and its food source with obesity in Korean children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from five studies conducted between 2002 and 2011. The study included 2599 children and adolescents who had completed more than three days of dietary records and had anthropometric data. Total sugar intake was higher in girls than in boys (54.3 g for girls and 46.6 g for boys, p < 0.0001. Sugar intake from milk and fruits was inversely associated with overweight or obesity in girls only (OR for overweight, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32–0.84; p for trend = 0.0246 and OR for obesity, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23–0.79; p for trend = 0.0113. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption was not associated with obesity in girls, while boys had lower odds ratios for obesity (OR for obesity, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.26–1.05; p for trend = 0.0310. These results suggest that total sugars and SSB intake in Asian children and adolescents remains relatively low and sugar intake from milk and fruits is associated with a decreased risk of overweight or obesity, especially in girls.

  12. Association of Dietary Sugars and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake with Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kim, Cho-il; Joung, Hyojee; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, YoonJu

    2016-01-08

    Few studies have examined the association between dietary sugar intake and obesity in Asian children and adolescents. We evaluated the association of dietary sugar intake and its food source with obesity in Korean children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from five studies conducted between 2002 and 2011. The study included 2599 children and adolescents who had completed more than three days of dietary records and had anthropometric data. Total sugar intake was higher in girls than in boys (54.3 g for girls and 46.6 g for boys, p < 0.0001). Sugar intake from milk and fruits was inversely associated with overweight or obesity in girls only (OR for overweight, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32-0.84; p for trend = 0.0246 and OR for obesity, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23-0.79; p for trend = 0.0113). Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption was not associated with obesity in girls, while boys had lower odds ratios for obesity (OR for obesity, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.26-1.05; p for trend = 0.0310). These results suggest that total sugars and SSB intake in Asian children and adolescents remains relatively low and sugar intake from milk and fruits is associated with a decreased risk of overweight or obesity, especially in girls.

  13. Surface modification of polypropylene nonwoven fabrics via covalent immobilization of nonionic sugar-based surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Zhirong, E-mail: xinzhirong2012@126.com; Yan, Shunjie; Ding, Jiaotong; Yang, Zongfeng; Du, Binbin; Du, Shanshan

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amphiphilic N-alkyl-1-amino-1-deoxy-D-glucitol were prepared. • The pGMA-grafted membranes were obtained via photo-grafting of glycidyl methacrylate. • Amphiphilic C{sub n}AG were covalent immobilized onto the pGMA-grafted membranes. • The C{sub n}AG-grafted membranes obviously suppressed protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. - Abstract: Amphiphilic N-alkyl-1-amino-1-deoxy-D-glucitol (C{sub n}AG, n = 8, 12) were successfully prepared. Polypropylene nonwoven fabrics (PP{sub NWF}) were grafted with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) via a technique of UV-induced graft polymerization combined with plasma pre-treatment, and then PP{sub NWF}-g-GMA was used for the covalent immobilization of C{sub n}AG. The surface graft polymerization was confirmed by ATR-FTIR and XPS, respectively. Effect of grafting parameters, e.g., acetone content, monomer concentration and UV irradiation time on the grafting density of GMA was investigated. And the hemocompatibility of the modified PP{sub NWF} was evaluated by protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. It was founded that the C{sub n}AG-modified substrates greatly suppressed protein adsorption and platelet adhesion compared with the native and pGMA-grafted PP{sub NWF}.

  14. Surface modification of polypropylene nonwoven fabrics via covalent immobilization of nonionic sugar-based surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Zhirong; Yan, Shunjie; Ding, Jiaotong; Yang, Zongfeng; Du, Binbin; Du, Shanshan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amphiphilic N-alkyl-1-amino-1-deoxy-D-glucitol were prepared. • The pGMA-grafted membranes were obtained via photo-grafting of glycidyl methacrylate. • Amphiphilic C n AG were covalent immobilized onto the pGMA-grafted membranes. • The C n AG-grafted membranes obviously suppressed protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. - Abstract: Amphiphilic N-alkyl-1-amino-1-deoxy-D-glucitol (C n AG, n = 8, 12) were successfully prepared. Polypropylene nonwoven fabrics (PP NWF ) were grafted with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) via a technique of UV-induced graft polymerization combined with plasma pre-treatment, and then PP NWF -g-GMA was used for the covalent immobilization of C n AG. The surface graft polymerization was confirmed by ATR-FTIR and XPS, respectively. Effect of grafting parameters, e.g., acetone content, monomer concentration and UV irradiation time on the grafting density of GMA was investigated. And the hemocompatibility of the modified PP NWF was evaluated by protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. It was founded that the C n AG-modified substrates greatly suppressed protein adsorption and platelet adhesion compared with the native and pGMA-grafted PP NWF

  15. Total, Added, and Free Sugars: Are Restrictive Guidelines Science-Based or Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Erickson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND. Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  16. Total, added, and free sugars: are restrictive guidelines science-based or achievable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-04-15

    Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND). Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  17. Total, free, and added Sugar consumption and adherence to guidelines: the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Lee, van L.; Engelen, A.I.P.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars,

  18. Sweet Stuff: How Sugars and Sweeteners Affect Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe October 2014 Print this issue Sweet Stuff How Sugars and Sweeteners Affect Your Health ... Send us your comments Most of us love sweet foods and drinks. But after that short burst ...

  19. Clastogenicity of landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Souza, Tatiana; Hencklein, Fabiana Aparecida; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-02-01

    The addition of nutrients and/or soil bulking agents is used in bioremediation to increase microbial activity in contaminated soils. For this purpose, some studies have assessed the effectiveness of vinasse in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum waste. The present study was aimed at investigating the clastogenic/aneugenic potential of landfarming soil from a petroleum refinery before and after addition of sugar cane vinasse using the Allium cepa bioassay. Our results show that the addition of sugar cane vinasse to landfarming soil potentiates the clastogenic effects of the latter probably due the release of metals that were previously adsorbed into the organic matter. These metals may have interacted synergistically with petroleum hydrocarbons present in the landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse. We recommend further tests to monitor the effects of sugar cane vinasse on soils contaminated with organic wastes.

  20. Nondestructive analysis of sugar content on watermelon using MRI device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Takashi; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Hayashi, Seiji

    1996-01-01

    So far, the use of superconducting magnets has been limited to chemical analysis and medical inspection. To develop a new use, we have tried to apply common MRI devices as nondestructive sugar content detector of watermelon. To estimate the sugar content, a new technique using multiple regression analysis of two NMR relaxation times was developed. It was found that the coefficient of multiple regression at the center of the watermelon exceeded 0.9 and the standard error of prediction was around 0.5, and that the over-ripened part of flesh called 'nieka' in watermelon could be distinguished because its T 2 was much longer than that of the ordinary part. An evaluation rate of sugar content could be below 6s per watermelon. It is concluded that multiple analysis of T 1 and T 2 on intact watermelon can be applied as a noninvasive, nondestructive indicator of sugar content. (author)

  1. Simple Sugar Intake and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Epidemiological and Mechanistic Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Laguna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar intake has dramatically increased during the last few decades. Specifically, there has been a clear trend towards higher consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup, which are the most common added sugars in processed food, soft drinks and other sweetened beverages. Although still controversial, this rising trend in simple sugar consumption has been positively associated with weight gain and obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Interestingly, all of these metabolic alterations have also been related to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The purpose of this review is to discuss the evidence coming from epidemiological studies and data from animal models relating the consumption of simple sugars, and specifically fructose, with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and to gain insight into the putative molecular mechanisms involved.

  2. Energy potential of sugar cane biomass in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rípoli Tomaz Caetano Cannavam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a developing tropical country with abundant biomass resources. Sugar cane (Saccahrum spp. is primarily produced to obtain sugar and alcohol. Presently sugar cane is burned before harvest. If the cane were not burned before harvest, the trash (tops and leaves could be collected and burned to produce steam to generate electricity, or be converted into alcohol fuel and decrease the severe air pollution problems caused by sugar cane burning. Based upon logical assumptions and appropriate data, we estimate the number of people that could be served each year by this biomass if its energy was converted into electricity. From trash and bagasse, 7.0x10(6 and 5.5x10(6 people y-1 could be served, respectively.

  3. Dicarbonyl compounds and sugar contents of Thai commercial beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monthana Weerawatanakorn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Glyoxal (GO and methylglyoxal (MGO, two -dicarbonyl compounds (RCS found in humans, cause carbonyl stress following the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs. Both are linked to many chronic diseases. Foods, the extrinsic source, could cause the increase of RCS levels in physiological conditions. Previous data showed that high fructose corn syrup is the major source of RCS in beverages. Because of increasing consumption of syrup-sweetened beverages in Thailand, we aimed to find the GO, MGO, sugar contents, and their quantity relationship. We discovered that 70 different types of beverages contained extremely high levels of GO and MGO at maximum level of 333 and 1,208 μg/ml, respectively. All commercial syrup tested contained dicarbonyl contents, and statistics tests showed strong significant correlation between monosaccharide sugar and RCS. The total sugar contents of more than 20 tested was higher than the current daily recommendation for sugar intake to maintain health.

  4. Farmer’s Motivation in Aren Sugar Processing Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, W. G.; Rianse, U.; Muhidin; Widayati, W.; Mihrad, E. S.; Taridala, S. A. A.; Rianse, I. S.; Baka, W. K.

    2018-02-01

    The objectives of the research were to analyze socio-economic characteristics and motivation of farmers in aren sugar processing business in Kolaka District, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. The analysis used in this research was quantitative descriptive analysis. The results showed that average state of socio-economic characteristics of aren sugar farmer that were in the category of productive age, which was 46.12 years old, has fulfil basic education category (9 years education), low category of dependents as many as three people, the Average experience of aren sugar processing business during 18 years, and the average aren trees were tapped as much as seven trees, every day, (b) farmer’s motivation in aren sugar processing business in low category, with the indicator is the motive of imitation, economic, security, affiliations, awards, and self-actualization.

  5. Testing sugar maple sap for sweetness with a refractometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; George M. Keiser

    1971-01-01

    We studied the consistency of refractometer sugar readings as influenced by sap evaporation, temperature, and the drying, cleaning, and calibration of the instrument. From the study results, we suggest field procedures for using the refractometer to insure reliable measurements.

  6. What is the appropriate upper limit for added sugars consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M; Sievenpiper, John L; Lê, Kim-Anne; White, John S; Clemens, Roger; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2017-01-01

    Dramatic increases in obesity and diabetes have occurred worldwide over the past 30 years. Some investigators have suggested that these increases may be due, in part, to increased added sugars consumption. Several scientific organizations, including the World Health Organization, the Scientific Advisory Council on Nutrition, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee 2015, and the American Heart Association, have recommended significant restrictions on upper limits of sugars consumption. In this review, the scientific evidence related to sugars consumption and its putative link to various chronic conditions such as obesity, diabetes, heart disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the metabolic syndrome is examined. While it appears prudent to avoid excessive calories from sugars, the scientific basis for restrictive guidelines is far from settled. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A simple chemical synthesis of sugar nucleoside diphosphates in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidenori; Yoshimura, Yayoi; Hindsgaul, Ole

    2013-10-08

    Chemoenzymatic oligosaccharide synthesis is attractive since it eliminates the tedious multistep protection-deprotection requirements of pure chemical synthesis. Chemoenzymatic synthesis using glycosyltransferases, however, requires not only the correct enzyme to control both regio- and stereospecificity, but also the glycosyl donor to provide the sugar that is added. This unit describes a simple synthesis of sugar-nucleoside diphosphates (sugar-NDPs), the type of glycosyl donor (e.g., UDP-Glc, UDP-Gal, ADP-Glc) required by most glycosyltransferases, by using a chemical coupling reaction in water. The preparation of sugar-NDPs by this method therefore does not require any skills in synthetic organic chemistry. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages with other beverage alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has become an intractable public health concern worldwide, making investigation of healthy beverage alternatives for SSBs imperative. AIM: To summarize the available evidence on the effects of replacing SSBs with beverage...

  9. Small angle scattering from protein/sugar conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; White, John

    2006-11-01

    The Maillard reaction between free amine groups on proteins and sugars is well known. We have examined the effect of the reaction of the casein group of milk proteins with sugars on their nanoscale structure and aggregation. The small angle neutron scattering from beta casein and sodium caseinate and their sugar conjugates have been studied as a function of solution concentration. At high conjugate concentration (greater than ca. 5 mg/ml) the addition of sugar reduces supra-micellar aggregation of the protein whilst at lower concentration, where the protein is expected to be deaggregated already, little effect is seen. Guinier analysis of the scattering data show a radius of gyration of around 75 A˚ for beta casein in solution and around 80 A˚ for the sucrose conjugate.

  10. Kinetic modelling of the Maillard reaction between proteins and sugars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Maillard reaction, sugar isomerisation, kinetics, multiresponse modelling, brown colour formation, lysine damage, mutagenicity, casein, monosaccharides, disaccharides, aldoses, ketoses

    The aim of this thesis was to determine the kinetics of the Maillard reaction between

  11. Small angle scattering from protein/sugar conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Andrew [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)]. E-mail: ajj@nist.gov; White, John [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2006-11-15

    The Maillard reaction between free amine groups on proteins and sugars is well known. We have examined the effect of the reaction of the casein group of milk proteins with sugars on their nanoscale structure and aggregation. The small angle neutron scattering from beta casein and sodium caseinate and their sugar conjugates have been studied as a function of solution concentration. At high conjugate concentration (greater than ca. 5mg/ml) the addition of sugar reduces supra-micellar aggregation of the protein whilst at lower concentration, where the protein is expected to be deaggregated already, little effect is seen. Guinier analysis of the scattering data show a radius of gyration of around 75A-bar for beta casein in solution and around 80A-bar for the sucrose conjugate.

  12. Small angle scattering from protein/sugar conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Andrew; White, John

    2006-01-01

    The Maillard reaction between free amine groups on proteins and sugars is well known. We have examined the effect of the reaction of the casein group of milk proteins with sugars on their nanoscale structure and aggregation. The small angle neutron scattering from beta casein and sodium caseinate and their sugar conjugates have been studied as a function of solution concentration. At high conjugate concentration (greater than ca. 5mg/ml) the addition of sugar reduces supra-micellar aggregation of the protein whilst at lower concentration, where the protein is expected to be deaggregated already, little effect is seen. Guinier analysis of the scattering data show a radius of gyration of around 75A-bar for beta casein in solution and around 80A-bar for the sucrose conjugate

  13. Reducing sugar production of sweet sorghum bagasse kraft pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solihat, Nissa Nurfajrin; Fajriutami, Triyani; Adi, Deddy Triyono Nugroho; Fatriasari, Widya; Hermiati, Euis

    2017-01-01

    Kraft pulping of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) has been used for effective delignification method for cellulose production. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance pulp kraft of SSB for reducing sugar production. The study intended to investigate the effect of active alkali and sulfidity loading variation of SSB pulp kraft on reducing sugar yield per biomass. The SSB pulp was prepared after pulping using three variations of active alkali (17, 19, and 22%) and sulfidity loading (20, 22, and 24%) at 170°C for 4 h with liquor to wood ratio of 10. A total of 9 pulps were obtained from these pretreatments. Delignification pretreatment has been succesfully removed lignin and hemicellulose more than 90% and 50%, respectively. Increasing active alkali and sulfidity loading has significantly increased lignin removal caused by disruption of the cell wall structure for releasing lignin into black liquor in the cellulose extraction. The enzymatic hydrolysis of pulp was carried out with cellulase loading of 40 FPU per g substrate in the shaking incubator at 50°C and 150 rpm for 78 h. For each 24 h, the reducing sugar yield (DNS assay) has been observed. Even though the lignin and hemicellulose loss occurred along with higher active alkali loading, this condition tends to decrease its yield. The reducing sugar concentration varied between 7-8 g/L. Increasing active alkali and sulfidity was significantly decreased the reducing sugar per biomass. Pulp delignified by 17% active alkali and 20% sulfidity has demonstrated the maximum reducing sugar yield per biomass of 45.57% resulted after 72 h enzymatic hydrolysis. These results indicated that kraft pulping was success to degrade more lignin and hemicellulose content to facilitate the enzyme for breaking down the cellulose into its sugar monomer. A high loss of lignin and hemicellulose are not single factor to improve digestibility of SSB. This sugar has potential for yeast fermented into bioethanol.

  14. Inhibition of osteoporosis in rats fed with sugar cane wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Hajime; Man, Sun Li; Ohta, Yutaka; Katsuyama, Naofumi; Chinen, Isao

    2003-02-01

    Rats fed on a restricted, semi-purified diet containing a 50%-reduced level of carbohydrate and oil, but normal levels of protein, minerals and vitamins, exhibited osteoporosis. However, rats fed on this restricted diet, but containing sugar cane wax, did not exhibit this bone disease. Sugar cane wax, containing a long-chain carbohydrate with an OH radical, prevented the development of osteoporosis via a non-estrogenic mechanism.

  15. MICROFLORA OF BEET SUGAR PRODUCTION: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Sugar beet is one of the strategic crops for food safety of Russia. The lack of specialized warehouse for harvest does not provide storage of roots for a long time. In the case of a thaw roots that have been defrosted unsuitable for processing. Beet and products of its processing is a good object for the development of microorganisms. Permanent microflora of sugar production are: Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and other kinds of microorganisms, leading to a problem processing of beet root and reduced quality of sugar. The most dangerous is the slimy bacteriosis is a bacterial disease beet caused by heterofermentative cocci of Leuconostoc (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, L. dextranicum. Product of the vital activity of microorganisms is dextran, which is synthesized from sucrose as a result of dextrany or mucous fermentation and leads to significant technological problems in processing of infected beet. Improving the efficiency of sugar production is connected with decrease in loss of quality of raw material preparation, storing and processing of sugar beet. At sugar plants use a variety of drugs that suppress the growth of pathogenic microflora, but there comes a rapid adaptation of microorganisms, therefore there is a need to implement new products to prevent damage to roots and improve the quality of produced sugar. To resolve this problem experimentally selected bactericidal drug, defined its rational concentration and conditions for the use in sugar beet production. The use of antibacterial drug in the process of extraction allows to increase the purity of diffusion juice 1.3 %, reduce the protein content in it (12.5 %; with the purity of the pure juice increases by 1.1 %, its color index is reduced by 44.7 %.

  16. Description of a project management system software tool (Sugar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.

    2000-01-01

    Toshiba has developed a project management tool that can be applied to large-scale and complicated projects such as the outage of a nuclear power station. The project management tool (Sugar) which Toshiba developed is excellent in operative visibility and extendibility, and has been developed from the beginning for use in nuclear periodic-inspection project control. Here, the development circumstances of this project management tool (Sugar) and the feature are described, and an easy demonstration is provided as an example. (author)

  17. Sugar production from durian ( Durio zibethinus Murray) peel by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural waste is mainly composed of cellulose and hemicelluloses which can be converted to sugars. The inexpensive sugar from durian peel was hydrolyzed with H2SO4, HCl and H3PO4 at a concentration of 0.5 to 2.0% (v/v). The hydrolysis times ranging from 15 to 60 min were investigated when the mixture was ...

  18. Hydrogenolysis of 6-carbon sugars and other organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpy, Todd A.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Miller, Dennis J.

    2005-01-11

    Methods for hydrogenolysis are described which use a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst for hydrogenolysis of both C--O and C--C bonds. Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 6-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or glycerol are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol.

  19. Consumption of added sugars is decreasing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Jean A; Sharma, Andrea J; Grellinger, Lisa; Vos, Miriam B

    2011-09-01

    The consumption of added sugars (caloric sweeteners) has been linked to obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Little is known about recent consumption trends in the United States or how intakes compare with current guidelines. We examined trends in intakes of added sugars in the United States over the past decade. A cross-sectional study of US residents ≥2 y of age (n = 42,316) was conducted by using dietary data from NHANES 1999-2008 (five 2-y cycles) and data for added-sugar contents from the MyPyramid Equivalents Database. Mean intakes of added sugars (grams and percentage of total energy intake) were weighted to obtain national estimates over time across age, sex, and race-ethnic groups. Linear trends were tested by using Wald's F tests. Between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008, the absolute intake of added sugars decreased from a mean (95% CI) of 100.1 g/d (92.8, 107.3 g/d) to 76.7 g/d (71.6, 81.9 g/d); two-thirds of this decrease, from 37.4 g/d (32.6, 42.1 g/d) to 22.8 g/d (18.4, 27.3 g/d), resulted from decreased soda consumption (P-linear trend added sugars to increase over the study period (P-linear trend = 0.003), although the peak consumption reached only 0.15 g/d (0.08, 0.22 g/d). The percentage of total energy from added sugars also decreased from 18.1% (16.9%, 19.3%) to 14.6% (13.7%, 15.5%) (P-linear trend added sugars in the United States decreased between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008, primarily because of a reduction in soda consumption, mean intakes continue to exceed recommended limits.

  20. The Effect of Sugar-Free Versus Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Satiety, Liking and Wanting: An 18 Month Randomized Double-Blind Trial in Children

    OpenAIRE

    de Ruyter, Janne C.; Katan, Martijn B.; Kuijper, Lothar D. J.; Liem, Djin G.; Olthof, Margreet R.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. A possible explanation is that sugar-containing and sugar-free beverages cause the same degree of satiety. However, this has not been tested in long-term trials.Methods:We randomized 203 children aged 7-11 years to receive 250 mL per day of an artificially sweetened sugar-free beverage or a similarly looking and tasting sugar-sweetened beverage. We measured satiety on a 5-point scale by questionnaire at 0, 6...

  1. Dietary sugars, not lipids, drive hypothalamic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanqing; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Fleming, Thomas; Grabner, Gernot F; Foppen, Ewout; Bernhard, Wagner; Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara; Layritz, Clarita; Legutko, Beata; Zinser, Erwin; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Buijs, Ruud M; Woods, Stephen C; Kalsbeek, Andries; Seeley, Randy J; Nawroth, Peter P; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Tschöp, Matthias H; Yi, Chun-Xia

    2017-08-01

    The hypothalamus of hypercaloric diet-induced obese animals is featured by a significant increase of microglial reactivity and its associated cytokine production. However, the role of dietary components, in particular fat and carbohydrate, with respect to the hypothalamic inflammatory response and the consequent impact on hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis is yet not clear. We dissected the different effects of high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diets and low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets on hypothalamic inflammatory responses in neurons and non-neuronal cells and tested the hypothesis that HCHF diets induce hypothalamic inflammation via advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) using mice lacking advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) receptor (RAGE) and/or the activated leukocyte cell-adhesion molecule (ALCAM). We found that consumption of HCHF diets, but not of LCHF diets, increases microgliosis as well as the presence of N(ε)-(Carboxymethyl)-Lysine (CML), a major AGE, in POMC and NPY neurons of the arcuate nucleus. Neuron-secreted CML binds to both RAGE and ALCAM, which are expressed on endothelial cells, microglia, and pericytes. On a HCHF diet, mice lacking the RAGE and ALCAM genes displayed less microglial reactivity and less neovasculature formation in the hypothalamic ARC, and this was associated with significant improvements of metabolic disorders induced by the HCHF diet. Combined overconsumption of fat and sugar, but not the overconsumption of fat per se , leads to excessive CML production in hypothalamic neurons, which, in turn, stimulates hypothalamic inflammatory responses such as microgliosis and eventually leads to neuronal dysfunction in the control of energy metabolism.

  2. Adults Who Order Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksler, Glen B.; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 30% of adults consume sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) daily, many at fast food restaurants. Researchers examined fast food purchases to better understand which consumers order SSBs, particularly large SSBs. Methods Fast food customers in New York City and New Jersey provided receipts and participated in a survey during 2013–2014 (N=11,614). Logistic regression analyses predicted three outcomes: ordering no beverage or a non-SSB, a small/medium SSB, or a large SSB. Among respondents who ordered a beverage (n=3,775), additional analyses predicted number of beverage calories and odds of ordering an SSB. Covariates included demographic and behavioral factors. Results Respondents aged 18–29 years were 88% more likely to order a large SSB than a non-SSB or no beverage, as compared with respondents aged ≥50 years (pbeverage, respondents ordered more beverage calories with a large combination meal (+85.13 kcal, p=0.001) or if the restaurant had a large cup size >30 ounces (+36.07 kcal, p=0.001). Hispanic and Asian respondents were less likely to order a large SSB (AOR=0.49 and 0.52, respectively, both p≤0.026) than non-Hispanic white respondents. Odds of ordering a large SSB were higher for respondents who ate in the restaurant (AOR=1.66, pbeverage based on price (AOR=2.02, pbeverage calories increased with meal size. Increased understanding of these factors is an important step toward limiting unhealthy SSB consumption. PMID:27662697

  3. Reaction of simple sterile sugar beet hybrids to regulated environmental factors for sugar yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. О. Корнєєва

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar yield, an important indicator, is resulting from interaction of two components: the yield and sugar content, both they are controlled by polygenes, and influenced significantly by environment. A.V. Kilchevskyi and L.V. Hotyliova pointed to the fact that in breeding, contrary to evolution, stabilizing forms are dominated by driving ones, which determine the growth response to regulated factors and decreased resistance to non-regulated environmental factors [1]. A relevant breeding trend is to create the genotypes adequate with certain technologies, so to say «low input variety high input variety» i.e. varieties with low and high energy contribution to technology. From this perspective, selection of stable in their manifestation lines against the analyzing backgrounds has become an important element of the breeding process [2]. Home scientists, such as A.L. Mazmulov and M.S. Hrytsyk have contributed greatly to the development and application of the agro-backgrounds [3, 4].

  4. Evaluation of a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography design space for sugars and sugar alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetrick, Evan M; Kramer, Timothy T; Risley, Donald S

    2017-03-17

    Based on a column-screening exercise, a column ranking system was developed for sample mixtures containing any combination of 26 sugar and sugar alcohol analytes using 16 polar stationary phases in the HILIC mode with acetonitrile/water or acetone/water mobile phases. Each analyte was evaluated on the HILIC columns with gradient elution and the subsequent chromatography data was compiled into a statistical software package where any subset of the analytes can be selected and the columns are then ranked by the greatest separation. Since these analytes lack chromophores, aerosol-based detectors, including an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) and a charged aerosol detector (CAD) were employed for qualitative and quantitative detection. Example qualitative applications are provided to illustrate the practicality and efficiency of this HILIC column ranking. Furthermore, the design-space approach was used as a starting point for a quantitative method for the trace analysis of glucose in trehalose samples in a complex matrix. Knowledge gained from evaluating the design-space led to rapid development of a capable method as demonstrated through validation of the following parameters: specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of quantitation, limit of detection, and range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. AGRIBUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS SUGAR IN THE XXI CENTURY (2002-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Pacheco-Feria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of sugar agroindustry is an eminently practical problem. Seven years after initiate the Program of re-sizing of the sector in Cuba, they have not obtained results that they evidence a change at companies’s position. In order to transform the situation a theoretic interpretation is essential that he make the construction of an analytical frame in mail, with present-day tendencies of production and the commercialization of sugar possible. The present work has like objective to elaborate the theoretic frame that he base the change in the competitive structure of sugar agroindustry and the world market of sugar in the present century. The proposed objective was obeyed, as from the analysis of the factors that they have transformed the competitive structure of the sugar industry among the 2002-2010. It was defined besides, than only competitiveness a productive model’s model can reach, in the frame that he tend to the attainment of maximum economic efficiency in all the manufacturing process of sugar; and that he consider like an important premise for the overtaking, the instability of international fair market values. 

  6. Reducing calories and added sugars by improving children's beverage choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Wilson, Ander; Cabili, Charlotte; Hedley Dodd, Allison

    2013-02-01

    Because childhood obesity is such a threat to the physical, mental, and social health of youth, there is a great need to identify effective strategies to reduce its prevalence. The objective of this study was to estimate the mean calories from added sugars that are saved by switching sugar-sweetened beverages (including soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and sport drinks) and flavored milks consumed to unflavored low-fat milk (School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (n=2,314), a 2005 national cross-sectional study of schools and students participating in the National School Lunch Program, to estimate changes in mean calories from added sugars both at and away from school. Overall, these changes translated to a mean of 205 calories or a 10% savings in energy intake across all students (8% among children in elementary school and 11% in middle and high schools). Eighty percent of the daily savings were attributed to beverages consumed away from school, with results consistent across school level, sex, race/ethnicity, and weight status. Children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages at home contributed the greatest share of empty calories from added sugars. Such findings indicate that parental education should focus on the importance of reducing or eliminating sugar-sweetened beverages served at home. This conclusion has implications for improving children's food and beverage environments for food and nutrition educators and practitioners, other health care professionals, policy makers, researchers, and parents. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Miracle fruit: An alternative sugar substitute in sour beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jéssica Ferreira; Andrade, Rafaela da Silva; Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Coelho, Sandra Bragança; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2016-12-01

    High sugar consumption has been related to several chronic diseases and thus, many alternative sweeteners have been extensively researched. However, there is still controversy regarding the harmful effects of their consumption, mainly regarding the use of artificial sweeteners, controversy which increases the demand for natural sweeteners, such as miracle fruit. This tropical plant grows in West Africa is named for its unique ability of changing a sour taste into sweet. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the temporal profile of miracle fruit and assess its sugar substitute power in sour beverages through time-intensity and temporal dominance of sensations tests. For this, unsweetened lemonade and lemonades with sugar, sucralose and previous miracle fruit ingestions were evaluated. We noted that the dynamic profile of lemonade ingested after miracle fruit ingestion indicates that it seems to be a good sugar substitute, since it provides high sweetness intensity and persistence, reduced product sourness and an absence of aftertastes. The miracle fruit also provided a sensory profile similar to that of sucralose, an established and recognized sugar substitute. The results of this study provide important information for future applications of miracle fruit as a sugar substitute in sour beverages, providing an alternative use for a natural substance as a sweetening agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lipid and sugar profiles of various barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Kristian A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid components and soluble sugars in flour samples of different cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare, involving winter malting barley, winter forage barley, spring barley, and hulless barley, were identified. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol. Soluble sugars were extracted from defatted and dried samples of barley flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide. The hexane and alcoholic extracts of barley cultivars were analyzed by GC-MS system. Lipid and sugar compositions were very similar in all barley cultivars. Therefore, multivariate analysis was applied to numerical values of automatically integrated areas of the identified fatty acid methyl esters and TMS oximes of soluble sugars. The application of hierarchical cluster analysis showed a great similarity between the investigated flour samples of barley cultivars, according to their fatty acid content (0.96. Also, significant, but somewhat less similarity was observed regarding the content of soluble sugars (0.70. These preliminary results indicate the possibility of distinguishing flour made of barley, regardless of the variety, from flours made of other cereal species, just by the analysis of the contents of fatty acids and soluble sugars.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066

  10. An 'end-game' for sugar sweetened beverages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundborn, G; Merriman, T R; Thornley, S; Metcalf, P; Jackson, R

    2014-03-01

    The epidemic of unhealthy weight is now in its third decade. The multitude of initiatives designed to address this issue (globally) have predominantly been ineffective as the prevalence of unhealthy weight has continued to rise. Public health professionals have proposed an 'endgame' for tobacco smoking in New Zealand by 2025, which has received widespread support. Similarly, here, to control the prevalence of unhealthy weight, we consider whether a similar approach to tobacco is justified to restrict the intake of sweetened beverages. This paper reviews the evidence relating sugar sweetened beverages to unhealthy weight and adverse health effects. Current initiatives aimed at reducing sugar sweetened beverage consumption both internationally and in New Zealand are reviewed. Epidemiological evidence consistently links sugar-sweetened drink intake with unhealthy weight and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as diabetes, gout, and raised blood pressure. Food disappearance data suggests that sugar intake continues to increase in New Zealand, and that a subtle addiction to sugar may underlie this trend. A number of successful initiatives to reduce sugary drink intake are described. IMPLICATION/CONCLUSION: We argue that an 'endgame' to the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages be supported as a means to address the issue of unhealthy weight at a population level. Finally, a preliminary draft endgame plan is presented for consideration, dialogue and debate.

  11. Consumption and sources of added sugar in Indonesia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmarita; Imanningsih, Nelis; Jahari, Abas B; Permaesih, Ir Dewi; Chan, Pauline; Amarra, Maria Sofia

    2018-01-01

    The present report summarized the best available evidence regarding consumption level and sources of free or added sugars in Indonesia. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys, published studies, unpublished theses/ dissertations, and government reports. A total of 18 references were obtained, showing varying results. Indonesia's national surveys suggested intakes of sugar below 50 grams per day or below 10% of energy intake. Published studies suggested higher levels of intake. Studies used expenditure surveys or a single day of recall to determine dietary intake. None made use of biomarkers to determine the level of sugar intake. The 2014 Total Diet Study estimated that 11.8% of the population consumed >50 grams sugar per day. Common food sources were table sugar, wheat products, milk products, sweetened drinks, condiments, candies and chocolate products. Insufficient evidence exists regarding the levels and sources of added sugar intake of different population groups in Indonesia. A nationwide survey using multiple (at least two) 24-hour recalls to allow estimation of usual intake and to identify food sources, and the use of biomarkers to validate intake will provide more accurate information on which to base policy decisions.

  12. (pyridin-2-yl-imino)methyl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    food samples [21]. Therefore, the syntheses of polymer-metal complexes and azomethine polymers are very important in analytic, environmental and food chemistry. In this study, the structures of 4-PIMBD and P-4-PIMBD were characterized by using FT-. IR, UV-Vis, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, elemental analysis, TGA and DTA.

  13. N-[Amino(imino)methyl]uronium tetrafluoroborate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fridrichová, M.; Fábry, Jan; Fejfarová, Karla; Krupková, Radmila; Vaněk, Přemysl

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 4 (2012), "o1114"-"sup7" ISSN 1600-5368 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0878 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0701 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : guanylurea * tetrafluoroborate * hydrogen bonds Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.347, year: 2011

  14. Translation and implementation of added sugars consumption recommendations: a conference report from the American Heart Association Added Sugars Conference 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Linda; Johnson, Rachel K; Flickinger, Brent D; Vafiadis, Dorothea K; Yin-Piazza, Shirley

    2010-12-07

    A 2-day forum was convened to (1) discuss ways to translate the 2009 American Heart Association added sugars recommendations into actions in areas such as regulation, food labeling, nutrient content claims, and practical application in the American diet; (2) review surveillance methodology and metrics for tracking and understanding the impact of reducing added sugars in the diet; and (3) initiate the development of a framework for future collaboration to help Americans implement science-based guidance relative to added sugars. More than 100 multinational participants representing scientists from academia and government and stakeholders engaged in food production, development, and processing, food manufacturing and servicing, food and nutrition policy, and nutrition recommendations for the public attended the conference. Presentations included definitions and examples of added sugars, current US and international added sugars perspectives, added sugars in diets of individuals and in the food supply, food technology behind added sugars, added sugars and health, food manufacturer perspectives, added sugars food-labeling considerations, and examples of positive approaches to improve eating behaviors and the food environment. Facilitated breakout sessions were conducted after the plenary sessions to allow participants to contribute their expertise and thoughts. The American Heart Association Added Sugars Conference is the first step in an important process that facilitates collaboration across science, public health, and industry to foster innovation, partnerships, policy, and implementation of new products and services for the benefit of the health and well-being of the American public. Science has advanced in the area of added sugars and health, creating mounting pressure to use better methods for translation and dissemination of the science for consumer education and for food companies to respond by producing foods and beverages with fewer added sugars. The new

  15. Variation in total sugars and reductive sugars in the moss Pleurozium schreberi (hylocomiaceae) under water deficit conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro Ruiz, Luis Carlos; Melgarejo Munoz, Luz Marina.

    2012-01-01

    The structural simplicity of the bryophytes exposed them easily to water stress, forcing them to have physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable them to survive. This study evaluated the variation of total soluble sugars and reducing sugars in relation to relative water content, in Pleurozium schreberi when faced with low water content in the Paramo de Chingaza (Colombia) and under simulated conditions of water deficit in the laboratory. we found that total sugars increase when the plant is dehydrated and returned to their normal content when re-hydrated moss, this could be interpreted as a possible mechanism of osmotic adjustment and osmoprotection of the cell content and cellular structure. Reducing sugars showed no significant variation, showing that monosaccharides do not have a protective role during dehydration.

  16. Anaerobic co-digestion of by-products from sugar production with cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Sugar beet leaves (SBL), sugar beet top (SBT), sugar beet pulp (SBP) and desugared molasses (DM) are by-products from the sugar production. In the present study we investigated the potential of SBL, SBT and SBP as feedstock for biogas production. The maximum methane potential of SBL, SBT and SBP...

  17. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened bev...

  18. Perspective: Total, Added, or Free? What Kind of Sugars Should We Be Talking About?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mela, David J; Woolner, Elizabeth M

    2018-03-01

    There is consistent public guidance to limit sugars intakes. However, WHO recommendations are for "free" sugars, whereas some other guidance documents and public discussion focus on "added" sugars, and globally most food labeling states "total" sugars. Total sugars comprise all mono- and disaccharides, regardless of source, whereas both added and free sugars exclude the sugars that naturally occur in dairy products and intact fruit and vegetables. Definitions of added and free sugars differ mainly in their respective exclusion or inclusion of sugars in juiced or pureed fruit and vegetables. To date, there has been little evidence-based analysis of the scientific basis for these different sugar classifications or implications of their adoption for consumer communication and nutrition labeling. Evidence of discriminating relations of total compared with added or free sugars with weight gain or energy intake, type 2 diabetes, and dental caries was identified from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The relations were weakest for total sugars and most consistent for dietary sources corresponding to free sugars (including sugars added to and in fruit juices). Consideration of these health outcomes suggests that the emphasis for intake monitoring, public health guidance, and consumer communication should be on free sugars. However, at present, the adoption of free sugars for these purposes would also carry challenges related to implementation, including consumer understanding, consensus on specifications, and current (labeling) regulations.

  19. Textual analysis of sugar industry influence on the World Health Organization’s 2015 sugars intake guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Loopstra, Rachel; McKee, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether sugar industry-related organizations influenced textual changes between the draft and final versions of the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) 2015 guideline Sugars intake for adults and children. Methods Stakeholder consultation submissions on the draft guideline from seven sugar industry-related and 10 public health organizations were assessed using the Wordscores program. Document scores were rescaled using the Martin–Vanberg transformation to improve comparability. Draft and final guidelines were compared to identify changes influenced by the sugar industry and public health organizations. Findings There was a small shift in transformed Wordscores score between the draft and final guidelines, from 0.25 to 0.24, towards the industry position. The change was linked to increased use of the word “low” to describe the quality of the evidence, consistent with industry arguments. There was also a shift from use of the word “consumption” to “intake”, irrespective of policy position. Scores for World Sugar Research Organisation and Sugar Nutrition UK submissions ( 0.11 and 0.18, respectively) represented strong pro-industry positions and scores for European Public Health Alliance and Wemos submissions (1.00 and 0.88, respectively) represented the strongest public health positions. Industry tactics included challenging the quality of the evidence, distinguishing between different types of sugar and advocating harm reduction. Conclusion There was little change between draft and final versions of the WHO sugars intake guideline 2015, following industry consultation. The main change was linked to emphasizing the low quality of the evidence on sugar’s adverse effects. Guideline development appeared relatively resistant to industry influence at the stakeholder consultation stage. PMID:27516634

  20. Thirteen years of observations on primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Jing; Fu, Pingqing

    2018-01-01

    In order to understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific from 2001 to 2013. Our results showed that concentrations of total sugar compounds for 13 years ranged from 1.2 to 310 ng m-3 (average of 46 ± 49 ng m-3). We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variations of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific. The primary sugars (glucose and fructose) maximized in summer, possibly due to an increased emission of the vegetation products from local vascular plants in Chichijima. We also found higher concentrations of sugar components (arabitol, mannitol, and trehalose) in more recent years during summer and autumn, suggesting an enhanced emission of fungal and microbial species over the island. Sucrose peaked in late winter to early spring, indicating a springtime pollen contribution by long-range atmospheric transport, while elevated concentrations of sucrose in early summer could be explained by long-range transport of soil dust from Southeast Asia to Chichijima. Sucrose and trehalose were found to present increasing trends from 2001 to 2013, while total sugar components did not show any clear trends during the 13-year period. Positive matrix factorization analyses suggested the locally emitted sugar compounds as well as long-range-transported airborne pollen grains, microbes, and fungal spores are the major contributors to total sugar compounds in the Chichijima aerosols. Backward air mass trajectories support the atmospheric transport of continental aerosols from the Asian continent during winter and spring over Chichijima.