Shahidi, Fereidoon; Miraliakbari, Homan
The omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids have a wide range of beneficial effects in several human health conditions. Animal and in vitro studies have indicated that omega-3 fatty acids affect blood lipid profiles, cardiovascular health, membrane lipid composition, eicosanoid biosynthesis, cell signaling cascades, and gene expression. Findings from epidemiological studies suggest that intake of omega-3 fatty acids from natural sources or supplements may influence the onset and progression of several disease states, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. This review highlights some recent research findings that help advance our understanding of how omega-3 fatty acids influence cardiovascular disease and cancer.
Dugan, Michael E R; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Patience, John F; Aalhus, Jennifer L
Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.
Michael E.R. Dugan
Full Text Available Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6 to omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices. A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.
Dugan, Michael E.R.; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D.; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Patience, John F.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.
Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475
Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of ...
Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant ...
Giltay, E.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Heijboer, A.C.; Goede, de J.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Kromhout, D.
The intake of the n-3 fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been related to testosterone levels in epidemiological analyses. The aim of this study was to assess whether the n-3 fatty acids affects testosterone levels in post-myocardial infarction (MI)
Smith, S. M.; Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Zwart, S. R.
Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. Bone and muscle are two systems that are positively affected by dietary intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids. The mechanism is likely to be related to inhibition by n-3 fatty acids of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-kB activation. We have documented this effect in a 3-dimensional cell culture model, where NF-kB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have also indentified that NF-kB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews. We found that after Shuttle flights of 2 wk, expression of the protein p65 (evidence of NF-kB activation) was increased at landing (P less than 0.001). When evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake on bone breakdown after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog). We found that after 60 d of bed rest, greater intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). We also evaluated the relationship of fish intake and bone loss in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo missions on the International Space Station. Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = 0.46, P less than 0.05). Together, these findings provide evidence of the cellular mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids can inhibit bone loss, and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with space flight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.
Smith, Scott M.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Zwart, Sara R.
Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. These are some of the systems on which intakes of fish and n-3 fatty acids have positive effects. These effects are likely to occur through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFalpha) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-KB activation. We documented this effect in a 3D cell culture model, where NF-KB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have extended these studies and report here (a) NF-KB expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews on 2-wk missions, (b) the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog), and (c) the effects of fish intake in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo on the International Space Station. After Shuttle flights of 2 wk, NFKB p65 expression at landing was increased (P less than 0.001). After 60 d of bed rest, higher intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = -0.46, P less than 0.05). Together with our earlier findings, these data provide mechanistic cellular and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with spaceflight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.
Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...
Tanja Hess; Trinette Ross-Jones
Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are de...
OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your ... the foods you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important ...
Wood, K E; Lau, A; Mantzioris, E; Gibson, R A; Ramsden, C E; Muhlhausler, B S
This study aimed to determine the effect of reducing the dietary linoleic acid (LA) intake from ~5% to PUFA (LCPUFA) status in humans. Thirty-six participants followed a PUFA content of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids were significantly reduced after the low LA diet phase (P<0.001). The n-3 LCPUFA content of plasma phospholipids was significantly increased after the low LA diet compared to baseline (6.22% vs. 5.53%, P<0.001). These data demonstrate that reducing LA intake for 4 weeks increases n-3 LCPUFA status in humans in the absence of increased n-3 LCPUFA intake.
João Ângelo De Lima Perini
Full Text Available A experimentação animal apresenta uma grande importância para o desenvolvimento da ciência. O uso de camundongos em experimentos ocorre devido à semelhança destes animais com os seres humanos, fácil criação e manutenção e resposta experimental bastante rápida. Esses animais possuem as mesmas enzimas dessaturases e elongases que os humanos, por isso são usados em pesquisas envolvendo incorporação e síntese de ácidos graxos em tecidos. Os ácidos graxos da família ômega-3 e ômega-6 são de suma importância na dieta humana, pois estes não são sintetizados pela síntese de novo e são precursores dos ácidos graxos poli-insaturados de cadeia muito longa, como os ácidos eicosapentaenóico, docosahexaenóico e araquidônico. Estes desempenham funções importantes no organismo, como a síntese de eicosanóides que estão envolvidos diretamente no sistema imune e nas respostas inflamatórias. A razão entre o consumo de ácidos graxos n-6 e n-3 na dieta é um importante fator para determinar a ingestão adequada de ácidos graxos bem como prevenir o aparecimento de doenças. Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar a incorporação de ácidos graxos em tecidos de animais e discutir a importância dos ácidos da família n-3 e seus metabólitos no sistema imunológico.Experiments with animals are very important for the improvement of science. The use of mice in experiments is due to their similarity with humans, the easy of raising and maintaining them and their very fast response. These animals have the same desaturase and elongase enzymes as humans and so they are used in research involving the incorporation and synthesis of fatty acids in tissues. The fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6 are extremely important in the human diet because they are not synthesized de novo and are precursors of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as the eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids. These acids play important roles
Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are desired these need to be supplemented directly in the diet. In different species some evidence indicates a potential effect on improving insulin sensitivity. Recently, a novel class of n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory mediators have been recognized, termed E-series and D-series resolvins, formed from EPA and DHA, respectively. N-3 PUFA derived resolvins and protectins are heavily involved in the resolution of inflammation. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in horses may help manage chronic inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, and thereby help to improve longevity of sport horse.
Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas
Supplements have reached a prominent role in improving the supply of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5n-3) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3). Similar to other nutrients, the availability of omega-3 fatty acids is highly variable and determined by numerous factors. However, the question of omega-3 fatty acids bioavailability has long been disregarded, which may have contributed to the neutral or negative results concerning their effects in several studies. This review provides an overview of the influence of chemical binding form (free fatty acids bound in ethylesters, triacylglycerides or phospholipids), matrix effects (capsule ingestion with concomitant intake of food, fat content in food) or galenic form (i.e. microencapsulation, emulsification) on the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids. There is a need to systematically investigate the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids formulations, which might be a key to designing more effective studies in the future.
Simopoulos Artemis P.
Today, Western diets are characterized by a higher omega-6 and a lower omega-3 fatty acid intake, whereas during the Paleolithic period when human’s genetic profile was established, there was a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Their balance is an important determinant for brain development and in decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and other autoimmune and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Both omega-6 and omega-3...
Simopoulos Artemis P.
Full Text Available Today, Western diets are characterized by a higher omega-6 and a lower omega-3 fatty acid intake, whereas during the Paleolithic period when human’s genetic profile was established, there was a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Their balance is an important determinant for brain development and in decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and other autoimmune and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids influence gene expression. Because of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in their metabolic pathways, blood levels of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are determined by both endogenous metabolism and dietary intake making the need of balanced dietary intake essential for health and disease prevention. Whether an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 3:1 to 4:1 could prevent the pathogenesis of many diseases induced by today’s Western diets (AFSSA, 2010, a target of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment, and genetics. A target of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment and genetics. A balanced ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is important for health and in the prevention of CHD and possibly other chronic diseases.
Good health has been linked with healthy diet. N-3 fatty acids are required for proper functioning of many physiological systems. There is a large body of evidence documenting the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids with the first double bond at the third position from methyl-terminal on health benefits. Scientific evidence is accumulating to substantiate the role omega-3 fatty acids play in conditions such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and other diseases. The availability of ...
Dietary n-3 PUFA are precursors for lipid metabolites that reduce inflammation. Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that enriching the sow diet in n-3 PUFA during late gestation and throughout lactation reduces stress and inflammation, and promotes growth in weaned pigs. A protecte...
Gu, Zhennan; Shan, Kai; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs, are essential for human health. Recent research shows n-3 PUFAs and their mediators can inhibit inflammation, angiogenesis and cancer via multiple mechanisms, including reduced release of n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid from cell membranes, inhibition of enzymatic activities, and direct competition with arachidonic acid for enzymatic conversions. In this review, we discuss inflammation-related cancer, anti-i...
Patterson, E.; Wall, R.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; R. P. Ross; Stanton, C.
Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed “eicosanoids,” which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In general, eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA are proinflammatory while eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFA are anti-inflammatory. Dietary changes over the past few decades in the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA show str...
Full Text Available Good health has been linked with healthy diet. N-3 fatty acids are required for proper functioning of many physiological systems. There is a large body of evidence documenting the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids with the first double bond at the third position from methyl-terminal on health benefits. Scientific evidence is accumulating to substantiate the role omega-3 fatty acids play in conditions such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and other diseases. The availability of n-3 fatty acids to various tissues is of major importance to health and depends on dietary intake for both normal development and in the prevention and management of chronic diseases.In this review we will summarize the biological properties of omega-3 fatty acids.
Jeromson, Stewart; Gallagher, Iain J; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee
Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.
Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.
Swanson, Danielle; Block, Robert; Mousa, Shaker A
Omega-3 [(n-3)] fatty acids have been linked to healthy aging throughout life. Recently, fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA have been associated with fetal development, cardiovascular function, and Alzheimer’s disease. However, because our bodies do not efficiently produce some omega-3 fatty acids from marine sources, it is necessary to obtain adequate amounts through fish and fish-oil products. Studies have shown that EPA and DHA are important for proper fetal development, includin...
Full Text Available N-3 (omega-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids are thought to display a variety of beneficial effects for human health. Clues to the occurrence of cardiovascular protective effects have been, however, the spur for the first biomedical interest in these compounds, and are the best documented. Historically, the epidemiologic association between dietary consumption of n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular protection was first suggested by Bang and Dyerberg, who identified the high consumption of fish, and therefore, of fish oil-derived n-3 fatty acids, as the likely explanation for the strikingly low rate of coronary heart disease events reported in the Inuit population. Since their initial reports, research has proceeded in parallel to provide further evidence for their cardioprotection and to understand underlying mechanisms. Decreased atherogenesis is currently thought to be a part of the cardiovascular protection by n-3 fatty acids. This article summarizes the evidence for such a claim and the mechanisms putatively involved. (Heart International 2006; 3-4: 141-54
Crupi, R; Marino, A; Cuzzocrea, S
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential unsaturated fatty acids with a double bond (C=C) starting after the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. They are important nutrients but, unfortunately, mammals cannot synthesize them, whereby they must be obtained from food sources or from supplements. Amongst nutritionally important polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are highly concentrated in the brain and have anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. They are involved in many bodily processes and may reportedly lead to neuron protection in neurological diseases. aged or damaged neurons and in Alzheimer's disease. Their effect in cognitive and behavioral functions and in several neurological and psychiatric disorders has been also proven. The dentate gyrus (DG), a sub-region of hippocampus, is implicated in cognition and mood regulation. The hippocampus represents one of the two areas in the mammalian brain in which adult neurogenesis occurs. This process is associated with beneficial effects on cognition, mood and chronic pharmacological treatment. The exposure to n-3 fatty acids enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis associated with cognitive and behavioral processes, promotes synaptic plasticity by increasing long-term potentiation and modulates synaptic protein expression to stimulate the dendritic arborization and new spines formation. On this basis we review the effect of n-3 fatty acids on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Moreover their possible use as a new therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative diseases is pointed out.
Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y
Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids.
Osendarp Saskia JM
Full Text Available Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA are important constituents of the maturing brain and therefore considered crucial for brain development in utero and in early infancy. However, it is uncertain whether n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation can have beneficial, sustainable effects on visual or cognitive development. Beneficial effects on child cognitive function after supplementation with EPA and DHA during pregnancy and lactation were observed at 4 years of age, but not at 3, 6 months or 7 years. In term infants LCPUFA when given in relative high dosages, seems to improve visual acuity, but not cognitive function. Evidence for an effect of LCPUFA supplementation of preterm infants remains inconclusive. In children older than 2 years of age, epidemiological evidence suggests an association between psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorders and omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies. However, the evidence from randomized controlled trials exploring the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive performance or brain function in school-aged children is not conclusive. In conclusion, n-3 LCPUFA are highly present in the maturing brain and are important for normal brain functioning and development. When provided in relative high dosages, n-3 LCPUFA may improve visual acuity in term infants. However, it remains unclear whether supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy, early infancy, and childhood can improve cognitive function.
Brunton, Stephen; Collins, Nancy
A reliable means of treating hyper-triglyceridemia is the use of large doses of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Modest levels of EPA and DHA may be obtained from food, particularly fatty fish. This article is intended to review clinically relevant differences between dietary-supplement omega-3 fatty acids and prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (P-OM3). PubMed and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Website were searched for articles published between 1995 and 2007 that contained the terms fish oil, fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, omega fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid, or eicosapentaenoic acid. Articles discussing sources, recommended intake, and differences among various formulations of omega-3 fatty acids were selected for review. A limitation to this review is the lack of head-to-head clinical trials using P-OM3 and dietary-supplement omega-3 fatty acids. Many types of nonprescription dietary supplements of omega-3 fatty acids are available; however, the efficacy, quality, and safety of these products are open to question because they are not regulated by the same standards as pharmaceutical agents. P-OM3 is the only omega-3 fatty acid product (Omacor capsules) approved by the US FDA available in the United States as an adjunct to diet to reduce very high (> or = 500 mg/dL) triglyceride levels in adult patients. P-OM3 can be used with confidence by practitioners who want to provide therapeutic doses of omega-3 fatty acids in a preparation that has been documented to be both safe and effective.
Christou, Georgios A.; Konstantinos A. Christou; Panagiotis Korantzopoulos; Rizos, Evangelos C.; Nikas, Dimitrios N.; Goudevenos, John A.
Background: The main dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is fish, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In the present manuscript, we aimed to review the current evidence regarding the clinical role of n-3 PUFA in the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: A literature search based on PubMed listings was performed using “Omega-3 fatty acids” and “atrial fibrilation” as key search...
Smit, EN; Martini, IA; Woltil, HA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ
Background. Early suspicion of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) or omega3-deficiency may rather focus on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or long-chain PUFA (LCP) analyses than clinical symptoms. We determined cut-off values for biochemical EFAD, omega3-and omega3/22:6omega3 [docosahexaenoic
Smit, EN; Martini, IA; Woltil, HA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ
Background. Early suspicion of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) or omega3-deficiency may rather focus on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or long-chain PUFA (LCP) analyses than clinical symptoms. We determined cut-off values for biochemical EFAD, omega3-and omega3/22:6omega3 [docosahexaenoic
The brain is one of the organs with the highest level of lipids (fats). Brain lipids, formed of fatty acids, participate in the structure of membranes, for instance 50 % fatty acids are polyunsaturated in the gray matter, 1/3 are of the omega-3 family, and are thus of dietary origin. The omega-3 fatty acids (mainly alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) participated in one of the first experimental demonstration of the effect of dietary substances (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. Experiments were first of all carried out on ex vivo cultured brain cells, then on in vivo brain cells (neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) from animals fed ALA deficient diet, finally on physicochemical (membrane fluidity), biochemical, physiological, neurosensory (vision an auditory responses), and behavioural or learning parameters. These findings indicated that the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for human infants determines to a certain extend the visual, neurological, and intellectual abilities. Thus, in view of these results and of the high polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the brain, it is normal to consider that they could be involved in psychiatric diseases and in the cognitive decline of ageing. Omega-3 fatty acids appear effective in the prevention of stress, however their role as regulator of mood is a matter for discussion. Indeed, they play a role in the prevention of some disorders including depression (especially post partum), as well as in dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease. Their role in major depression and bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disease), only poorly documented, is not clearly demonstrated. The intervention of omega-3 in dyslexia, autism, and schizophrenia has been suggested, but it does not necessarily infer a nutritional problems. The respective importance of the vascular system (where the omega-3 are actually active) and the cerebral parenchyma itself, remain to be
Lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids yields several electrophilic, reactive carbonyl metabolites. We hypothesized that an increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) would lead to increased lipid peroxidation metabolites compared to a diet low in n-3. As part of a randomized crossov...
This review details the specific needs of women for omega-3 fatty acids, including alpha linoleic acid (ALA) and the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid (dietary or in capsules) ensures that a woman's adipose tissue contains a reserve of these fatty acids for the developing fetus and the breast-fed newborn infant. This ensures the optimal cerebral and cognitive development of the infant. The presence of large quantities of EPA and DHA in the diet slightly lengthens pregnancy, and improves its quality. Human milk contains both ALA and DHA, unlike that of other mammals. Conditions such as diabetes can alter the fatty acid profile of mother's milk, while certain diets, like those of vegetarians, vegans, or even macrobiotic diets, can have the same effect, if they do not include seafood. ALA, DHA and EPA, are important for preventing ischemic cardiovascular disease in women of all ages. Omega-3 fatty acids can help to prevent the development of certain cancers, particularly those of the breast and colon, and possibly of the uterus and the skin, and are likely to reduce the risk of postpartum depression, manic-depressive psychosis, dementias (Alzheimer's disease and others), hypertension, toxemia, diabetes and, to a certain extend, age-related macular degeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids could play a positive role in the prevention of menstrual syndrome and postmenopausal hot flushes. The normal western diet contains little ALA (less than 50% of the RDA). The only adequate sources are rapeseed oil (canola), walnuts and so-called "omega-3" eggs (similar to wild-type or Cretan eggs). The amounts of EPA and DHA in the diet vary greatly from person to person. The only good sources are fish and seafood, together with "omega-3" eggs.
The health benefits of fish oil have been known for decades. Most of the health benefits of fish oil can be attributed to the presence of omega-3 essential fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Clinical studies have suggested that DHA and EPA lower triglycerides; slow the buildup of atherosclerotic plaques; lower blood pressure slightly; as well as reduce the risk of death, heart attack, and arrhythmias. Studies have also shown that omega-3 fatty acids may slow the progression of vision loss from AMD and reverse the signs of dry eye syndrome.
Geleijnse, J.M.; Giltay, E.J.; Schouten, E.G.; Goede, de J.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Teitsma-Jansen, A.M.; Katan, M.B.; Kromhout, D.
Background Weekly fish consumption has been related to a lower risk of fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and incident stroke in populations with a low fish intake. This relation has mainly been attributed to n-3 fatty acids in fish, that is, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid
Watts, Jennifer L.
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model organism to study functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The ability to alter fatty acid composition with genetic manipulation and dietary supplementation permits the dissection of the roles of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in many biological process including reproduction, aging and neurobiology. Studies in C. elegans to date have mostly identified overlapping functions of 20-carbon omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in reproduction a...
Breast cancer risk is associated with dietary fat intake. Omega-6 fatty acids (n6) promote while omega-3 fatty acids (n3) inhibit tumorigenesis. Increased sex hormone (SH) concentrations are associated with risk of breast cancer. The effects of total fat and n3 on SH and PLFA were assessed in a f...
Zhang, Peng; Liu, Peng; Dou, Hongwei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Longxin; Lin, Lin; Tan, Pingping; Vajta, Gabor; Gao, Jianfeng; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z
Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6) into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n =925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (psheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.
Pusceddu, Matteo M; Kelly, Philip; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G
The impact of lifetime dietary habits and their role in physical, mental, and social well-being has been the focus of considerable recent research. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as a dietary constituent have been under the spotlight for decades. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids constitute key regulating factors of neurotransmission, neurogenesis, and neuroinflammation and are thereby fundamental for development, functioning, and aging of the CNS. Of note is the fact that these processes are altered in various psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and Alzheimer's disease. Relevant literature was identified through a search of MEDLINE via PubMed using the following words, "n-3 PUFAs," "EPA," and "DHA" in combination with "stress," "cognition," "ADHD," "anxiety," "depression," "bipolar disorder," "schizophrenia," and "Alzheimer." The principal focus was on the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids throughout the lifespan and their implication for psychopathologies. Recommendations for future investigation on the potential clinical value of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were examined. The inconsistent and inconclusive results from randomized clinical trials limits the usage of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in clinical practice. However, a body of literature demonstrates an inverse correlation between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and quality of life/ psychiatric diseases. Specifically, older healthy adults showing low habitual intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids benefit most from consuming them, showing improved age-related cognitive decline. Although further studies are required, there is an exciting and growing body of research suggesting that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may have a potential clinical value in the prevention and treatment of psychopathologies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
Simopoulos, Artemis P
In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.
Artemis P. Simopoulos
Full Text Available In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.
Watts, Jennifer L
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model organism to study functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The ability to alter fatty acid composition with genetic manipulation and dietary supplementation permits the dissection of the roles of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in many biological process including reproduction, aging and neurobiology. Studies in C. elegans to date have mostly identified overlapping functions of 20-carbon omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in reproduction and in neurons, however, specific roles for either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids are beginning to emerge. Recent findings with importance to human health include the identification of a conserved Cox-independent prostaglandin synthesis pathway, critical functions for cytochrome P450 derivatives of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the requirements for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in sensory neurons, and the importance of fatty acid desaturation for long lifespan. Furthermore, the ability of C. elegans to interconvert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids using the FAT-1 omega-3 desaturase has been exploited in mammalian studies and biotechnology approaches to generate mammals capable of exogenous generation of omega-3 fatty acids.
Kim, Sun Hee; Roh, Kyung Hee; Park, Jong-Sug; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kang, Han-Chul; Kim, Jong-Bum
Reconstitution of nonnative, very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA) biosynthetic pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana was undertaken. The introduction of three primary biosynthetic activities to cells requires the stable coexpression of multiple proteins within the same cell. Herein, we report that C22 VLC-PUFAs were synthesized from C18 precursors by reactions catalyzed by Δ(6)-desaturase, an ELOVL5-like enzyme involved in VLC-PUFA elongation, and Δ(5)-desaturase. Coexpression of the corresponding genes (McD6DES, AsELOVL5, and PtD5DES) under the control of the seed-specific vicilin promoter resulted in production of docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3) and docosatetraenoic acid (22:4 n-6) as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) in Arabidopsis seeds. The contributions of the transgenic enzymes and endogenous fatty acid metabolism were determined. Specifically, the reasonable synthesis of omega-3 stearidonic acid (18:4 n-3) could be a useful tool to obtain a sustainable system for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in seeds of a transgenic T3 line 63-1. The results indicated that coexpression of the three proteins was stable. Therefore, this study suggests that metabolic engineering of oilseed crops to produce VLC-PUFAs is feasible.
Full Text Available Stroke is the third commonest cause of death following cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In particular, in recent years, the morbidity and mortality of stroke keep remarkable growing. However, stroke still captures people attention far less than cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Past studies have shown that oxidative stress and inflammation play crucial roles in the progress of cerebral injury induced by stroke. Evidence is accumulating that the dietary supplementation of fish oil exhibits beneficial effects on several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, the major component of fish oil, have been found against oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular diseases. And the potential of n-3 PUFAs in stroke treatment is attracting more and more attention. In this review, we will review the effects of n-3 PUFAs on stroke and mainly focus on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 PUFAs.
Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette
Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids....... Human studies have shown that the relative bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil (triglyceride formulation) was similar to that from fish, whereas lower relative bioavailability was observed from fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) formulation in comparison with other lipid formulations...
omega-6 fatty acid content and breast cancer in the EURAMIC study. European Com- munity Multicenter Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction , and...also sug gests that th ere is no significant association between n-3 PUFA and cancer incidence (1). However, results fr om studies of n-3 PUFA
Intravenous lipid emulsions are an essential component of parenteral nutrition regimens. Originally employed as an efficient non-glucose energy source to reduce the adverse effects of high glucose intake and provide essential fatty acids, lipid emulsions have assumed a larger therapeutic role due to research demonstrating the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on key metabolic functions, including inflammatory and immune response, coagulation, and cell signaling. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that the effects of omega-3 PUFA on inflammation and immune response result in meaningful therapeutic benefits in surgical, cancer, and critically ill patients as well as patients requiring long-term parenteral nutrition. The present review provides an overview of the mechanisms of action through which omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA modulate the immune-inflammatory response and summarizes the current body of evidence regarding the clinical and pharmacoeconomic benefits of intravenous n-3 fatty acid-containing lipid emulsions in patients requiring parenteral nutrition.
Waleed Amjad Khan
Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids have proven to be very essential for human health due to their multiple health benefits. These essential fatty acids (EFAs need to be uptaken through diet because they are unable to be produced by the human body. These are important for skin and hair growth as well as for proper visual, neural, and reproductive functions of the body. These fatty acids are proven to be extremely vital for normal tissue development during pregnancy and infancy. Omega-3 fatty acids can be obtained mainly from two dietary sources: marine and plant oils. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5 n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3 are the primary marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Marine fishes are high in omega-3 fatty acids, yet high consumption of those fishes will cause a shortage of fish stocks existing naturally in the oceans. An alternative source to achieve the recommended daily intake of EFAs is the demand of today. In this review article, an attempt has, therefore, been made to discuss the importance of omega-3 fatty acids and the recent developments in order to produce these fatty acids by the genetic modifications of the plants.
Tejada, Silvia; Martorell, Miquel; Capó, Xavier; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni; Sureda, Antoni
Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with multiple double bonds. Linolenic and alpha-linolenic acids are omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs, precursors for the synthesis of long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (omega-6 PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (omega-3 PUFAs). The three most important omega-3 fatty acids are alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, which cannot be synthesized in enough amounts by the body, and therefore they must be supplied by the diet. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the correct functioning of the organism and participate in many physiological processes in the brain. Epilepsy is a common and heterogeneous chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures leading to neuropsychiatric disabilities. The prevalence of epilepsy is high achieving about 1% of the general population. There is evidence suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids may have neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects and, accordingly, may have a potential use in the treatment of epilepsy. In the present review, the potential use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of epilepsy, and the possible proposed mechanisms of action are discussed. The present article summarizes the recent knowledge of the potential protective role of dietary omega-3 fatty acids in epilepsy.
Full Text Available Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6 into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n =925 of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01 and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.
Ross, Brian M; Babay, Slim; Malik, Imran
Reactive oxygen species react with unsaturated fatty acids to form a variety of metabolites including aldehydes. Many aldehydes are volatile enough to be detected in headspace gases of blood or cultured cells and in exhaled breath, in particular propanal and hexanal which are derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Aldehydes are therefore potential non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress and of various diseases in which oxidative stress is thought to play a role including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. It is unclear, however, how changes in the abundance of the fatty acid precursors, for example by altered dietary intake, affect aldehyde concentrations. We therefore fed male Wistar rats diets supplemented with either palm oil or a combination of palm oil plus an n-3 fatty acid (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, or docosahexaenoic acids) for 4 weeks. Fatty acid analysis revealed large changes in the abundance of both n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in the liver with smaller changes observed in the brain. Despite the altered fatty acid abundance, headspace concentrations of C1-C8 aldehydes, and tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, did not differ between the 4 dietary groups. Our data suggest that tissue aldehyde concentrations are independent of fatty acid abundance, and further support their use as volatile biomarkers of oxidative stress.
Philip C. Calder
Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.. Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.
Siddiqui, Rafat A; Harvey, Kevin A; Zaloga, Gary P
Epidemiological evidence from Greenland Eskimos and Japanese fishing villages suggests that eating fish oil and marine animals can prevent coronary heart disease. Dietary studies from various laboratories have similarly indicated that regular fish oil intake affects several humoral and cellular factors involved in atherogenesis and may prevent atherosclerosis, arrhythmia, thrombosis, cardiac hypertrophy and sudden cardiac death. The beneficial effects of fish oil are attributed to their n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; also known as omega-3 fatty acids) content, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6, n-3). Dietary supplementation of DHA and EPA influences the fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids that, in turn, may affect cardiac cell functions in vivo. Recent studies have demonstrated that long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may exert beneficial effects by affecting a wide variety of cellular signaling mechanisms. Pathways involved in calcium homeostasis in the heart may be of particular importance. L-type calcium channels, the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger and mobilization of calcium from intracellular stores are the most obvious key signaling pathways affecting the cardiovascular system; however, recent studies now suggest that other signaling pathways involving activation of phospholipases, synthesis of eicosanoids, regulation of receptor-associated enzymes and protein kinases also play very important roles in mediating n-3 PUFA effects on cardiovascular health. This review is therefore focused on the molecular targets and signaling pathways that are regulated by n-3 PUFAs in relation to their cardioprotective effects.
Psota, Tricia L; Gebauer, Sarah K; Kris-Etherton, Penny
Dietary omega-3 fatty acids decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both epidemiologic and interventional studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on many CVD end points, including all CVD (defined as all coronary artery disease [CAD], fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI], and stroke combined), all CAD, fatal and nonfatal MI, stroke, sudden cardiac death, and all-cause mortality. Much of the evidence comes from studies with fish oil and fish; to a lesser extent, data relate to plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Cardioprotective benefits have been observed with daily consumption of as little as 25 to 57 g (approximately 1 to 2 oz) of fish high in omega-3 fatty acids, an intake equivalent to >or=1 fish meal weekly or even monthly, with greater intakes decreasing risk further in a dose-dependent manner, up to about 5 servings per week. Fish, including farm-raised fish and their wild counterparts, are the major dietary sources of the longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Sources of plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids include flaxseed, flaxseed oil, walnuts, canola oil, and soybean oil. Because of the remarkable cardioprotective effects of omega-3 fatty acids, consumption of food sources that provide omega-3 fatty acids--especially the longer-chain fatty acids (>or=20 carbons) from marine sources--should be increased in the diet to decrease CVD risk significantly.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was conducted to explore the relationships between the levels of omega-3 fatty acids in serum phospholipid and key fatty acid ratios including potential cut-offs for risk factor assessment with respect to coronary heart disease and fatal ischemic heart disease. Methods Blood samples (n = 2053 were obtained from free-living subjects in North America and processed for determining the levels of total fatty acids in serum phospholipid as omega-3 fatty acids including EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5 n-3 and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6 n-3 by combined thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatographic analyses. The omega-3 levels were correlated with selected omega-6: omega-3 ratios including AA (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6: EPA and AA:(EPA+DHA. Based on previously-published levels of omega-3 fatty acids considered to be in a 'lower risk' category for heart disease and related fatality, 'lower risk' categories for selected fatty acid ratios were estimated. Results Strong inverse correlations between the summed total of omega-3 fatty acids in serum phospholipid and all four ratios (omega-6:omega-3 (n-6:n-3, AA:EPA, AA:DHA, and AA:(EPA+DHA were found with the most potent correlation being with the omega-6:omega-3 ratio (R2 = 0.96. The strongest inverse relation for the EPA+DHA levels in serum phospholipid was found with the omega-6: omega-3 ratio (R2 = 0.94 followed closely by the AA:(EPA+DHA ratio at R2 = 0.88. It was estimated that 95% of the subjects would be in the 'lower risk' category for coronary heart disease (based on total omega-3 ≥ 7.2% with omega-6:omega-3 ratios Conclusions Strong inverse correlations between the levels of omega-3 fatty acids in serum (or plasma phospholipid and omega-6: omega-3 ratios are apparent based on this large database of 2053 samples. Certain fatty acid ratios may aid in cardiovascular disease-related risk assessment if/when complete profiles are not available.
Artemis P. Simopoulos
In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have sugg...
Simopoulos, Artemis P.
In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have sugg...
Full Text Available A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (n-3 PUFAs in lowering liver fat, liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT levels, and blood lipids (triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Methods. MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, Science Citation Index (ISI Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials on the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in patients with NAFLD from inception to May 2015. Ten studies were included in this meta-analysis. Results. 577 cases of NAFLD/NASH in ten randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. The results of the meta-analysis showed that benefit changes in liver fat favored PUFA treatment, and it was also beneficial for GGT, but it was not significant on ALT, AST, TC, and LDL. Conclusions. In this meta-analysis, omega-3 PUFAs improved liver fat, GGT, TG, and HDL in patients with NAFLD/NASH. Therefore, n-3 PUFAs may be a new treatment option for NAFLD.
Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette
Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... the beneficial healthy effects. As important membrane lipids, the incorporation and depletion kinetics of EPA and DHA in biological membranes have been found to be different, DHA was depleted slowly from both erythrocyte and plasma membranes due to the slow re-synthesis of DHA in the body. The bioavailability...... of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids...
Full Text Available Echium oil is a vegetable oil of non-GMO plant origin extracted from the seeds of Echium plantagineum containing significant amounts of omega-3 fatty acid Stearidonic Acid (SDA and omega-6 acid γ-linolenic acid (GLA. Typical fatty acid composition of Echium oil is: Oleic acid (18:1 n-9 16%, Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6 19%, γ-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3 n-610%, α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3 30% and Stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4 n-3 13%. This natural ratio of fatty acids, trough their metabolism, deliver enhanced plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3, docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5 n-3 and dihomo-γ-linolenic (DGLA, 20:3 n-6 acids without increasing the concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 n-6. GLA is commonly associated with the anti-inflammatory effects of oils such as evening primrose oil and borage oil. Supplementation with GLA can markedly increase serum AA with subsequent pro-inflammatory effects. The presence of stearidonic acid in echium oil prevents the accumulation of serum AA and AA-derived eicosanoids without preventing the accumulation of DGLA which is the real n-6 precursor of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. SDA is an intermediate in the biosynthetic conversion of ALA to EPA. As SDA is the product of the rate-limiting ∆6-desaturase step and due the efficiency of the elongase and ∆5-desaturase steps, SDA is readily converted to EPA. SDA has the physiologic benefits of EPA, for instance, lowering the serum triglycerides in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Therefore echium oil is a true alternative for vegetarians or those who do not eat fish, to benefit from the anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 and omega-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Lund, Anne-Sofie Quist; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Gamborg, Michael
BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity-related i......BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity...
Panahi, Yunes; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin; Farnood, Farahnoosh; Noshad, Hamid; Lotfi, Mahsa; Gharekhani, Afshin
Uremic pruritus remains one of the most tormenting, frequent and potentially disabling problem in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, an area of substantial etiological interest with relation to uremic pruritus is the essential fatty acids deficiency. So we performed a literature review to elucidate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids on uremic pruritus. This review evaluated all of the studies published in English language, focusing on the clinical effects of omega-3 fatty acids on uremic pruritus. The literature review was conducted in December 2015 and carried out by searching Scopus, Medline, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, and Cochrane database of systematic reviews. The search terms were "kidney injury", "kidney failure", "chronic kidney disease", "end-stage renal disease", "dialysis", "hemodialysis", "peritoneal dialysis", "pruritus", "itch", "skin problems", "fish oil", "omega 3", "n-3 fatty acids", "polyunsaturated fatty acids", "docosahexaenoic acid", and "eicosapentaenoic acid". Four small studies investigating potential benefits of omega-3 fatty acids on symptoms of uremic pruritus were found. Among them, three small randomized controlled trials have shown a significant improvement in pruritus symptoms (evaluated by a standard questionnaire) in CKD patients who took omega-3 supplement compared to omega-6, omega-9, and placebo supplementation. Despite numerous limitations of the studies, it is worth noting that even minor reduction in itching symptoms may be clinically significant for CKD patients. Therefore, and considering multiple health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids in advanced CKD and negligible risk profile, omega-3 intake can wisely be applied to CKD patients with uremic pruritus.
Turchini, Giovanni M; Nichols, Peter D; Barrow, Colin; Sinclair, Andrew J
Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) are almost unanimously recognized for their health benefits, while only limited evidence of any health benefit is currently available specifically for the main precursor of these fatty acids, namely α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3). However, both the n-3 LC-PUFA and the short-chain C₁₈ PUFA (i.e., ALA) are commonly referred to as "omega-3" fatty acids, and it is difficult for consumers to recognize this difference. A current gap of many food labelling legislations worldwide allow products containing only ALA and without n-3 LC-PUFA to be marketed as "omega-3 source" and this misleading information can negatively impact the ability of consumers to choose more healthy diets. Within the context of the documented nutritional and health promoting roles of omega-3 fatty acids, we briefly review the different metabolic fates of dietary ALA and n-3 LC-PUFA. We also review food sources rich in n-3 LC-PUFA, some characteristics of LC-PUFA and current industry and regulatory trends. A further objective is to present a case for regulatory bodies to clearly distinguish food products containing only ALA from foods containing n-3 LC-PUFA. Such information, when available, would then avoid misleading information and empower consumers to make a more informed choice in their food purchasing behavior.
Ştefan C. Vesa
Full Text Available The article presents some general facts about omega-3 fatty acids and their role in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the human body. Their beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease have been known for decades. Since then, several epidemiological and interventional trials showed the value of omega-3 acids in the treatment of certain diseases. Most of them revealed the protective role of omega-3 fatty acids on heart and cardiac functions. However, some of these studies couldn?t demonstrate a positive association between fish oils and preventing cardiac events. The major cardiologic societies from European Union and United States of America recommend omega-3 fatty acids as supplements for primary and secondary prophylaxis of cardiovascular diseases.
Full Text Available Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 LC-PUFAs are thought to be important for normal dopaminergic, glutamatergic and serotonergic neurotransmission. Depression is less prevalent in societies with high fish consumption, and depressed patients have significantly lower red blood cell ω-3 levels. Studies with ω-3 supplementation have led to controversial results. A significantly longer remission of bipolar symptomatology has been confirmed from a high-dose DHA and EPA mixture. Greater seafood consumption per capita has been connected with a lower prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders. Reduced levels of ω-6 and ω-3 PUFAs were found in patients with schizophrenia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175033 i br. 175022
Glück, Tobias; Rupp, Heinz; Alter, Peter
Due to ambiguous findings on cardiovascular benefits of systemic omega-3 fatty acid therapy, endogenous mechanisms contributing to local organ-specific concentrations of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) were examined. Using gas chromatography, 43 fatty acids were analyzed in atrial and ventricular myocardium and in pericardial fluid of male Wistar rats. To examine the endogenous fatty acid metabolism, precursors were administered into the pericardial sac. Pro- and anti-inflammatory actions were induced by talc or fenofibrate, respectively. Physical exercise and a sedentary obese state were used for increased beta-oxidation. DHA (22:6n-3) was increased in ventricular when compared with atrial myocardium (9.0 ± 2.1% vs. 4.7 ± 1.0%, p acid (24:5n-3) in atrial myocardium, which is a key precursor of DHA. In contrast, proinflammatory stimulation of the n-6 HUFA pathway did not influence the n-3 metabolism. Exercise- and obesity-induced increased beta-oxidation, the finalizing step of DHA synthesis, was associated with increased ventricular DHA concentrations (6.7 ± 1.0% vs. 8.4 ± 1.2%, p < 0.01). It is concluded that the endogenous metabolism contributes markedly to myocardial HUFA concentrations. The findings are supposed to influence the efficacy of oral HUFA treatment and provide a rationale for divergent findings of previous trials on omega-3 therapy.
Brenna, J Thomas; Akomo, Peter; Bahwere, Paluku
Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) are a key component of a life-saving treatment for young children who present with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition in resource limited settings. Increasing recognition of the role of balanced dietary omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids...... with altered PUFA content and looked at the effects on circulating omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status as a measure of overall omega-3 status. Supplemental oral administration of omega-3 DHA or reduction of RUTF omega-6 linoleic acid using high oleic peanuts improved DHA status, whereas increasing omega......-3 alpha-linolenic acid in RUTF did not. The results of these two small studies are consistent with well-established effects in animal studies and highlight the need for basic and operational research to improve fat composition in support of omega-3-specific development in young children as RUTF use...
Lauretani, F.; BANDINELLI, S.; Benedetta, B.; Cherubini, A; Iorio, A. D.; Blè, A.; Giacomini, V.; Corsi, A.M.; Guralnik, J.M.; Ferrucci, L.
Pre-clinical studies suggest that both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on peripheral nerve function. Rats feed a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed modification of phospholipid fatty acid composition in nerve membranes and improvement of sciatic nerve conduction velocity (NCV). We tested the hypothesis that baseline plasma omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids levels predict accelerated decline of peripheral nerve function. Changes between baseline and t...
Campoy, C.; Escolano-Margarit, MV; Anjos, T.; Szajewska, H.; Uauy, R
The aim of this review is to evaluate the effects of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation in pregnant and lactating women and infants during postnatal life, on the visual acuity, psychomotor development, mental performance and growth of infants and children. Eighteen publications (11 sets of randomized control clinical trial [RCTs]) assessed the effects of the n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy on neurodevelopment and growth, in the same subject...
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), which are plentiful in fish oil, have been known for decades to be beneficial functional nutrients in different disease states. GPR120 is a G protein-coupled receptor for long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, including n-3 PUFAs, and was recently renamed free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4). Studies on FFA4-deficient mice and the development of specific pharmacological tools have started to unravel the functions of FFA4 associated with the actions of n-3 PUFAs in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and inflammation-related diseases. Here, the state of the art regarding the roles and functions of FFA4 and n-3 PUFA in macrophages are reviewed from the pharmacological perspective. In particular, the functions of n-3 PUFA on the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes of macrophages in different organs, such as, adipose tissues and liver, are discussed along with future research directions.
Al-Taan, Omer; Stephenson, James A.; Spencer, Laura; Pollard, Cristina; West, Annette L; Philip C. Calder; Metcalfe, Matthew; Dennison, Ashley R.
Background Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are functionally the most important omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Oral supply of these fatty acids increases their levels in plasma and cell membranes, often at the expense of the omega-6 PUFAs arachidonic acid (ARA) and linoleic acid. This results in an altered pattern of lipid mediator production to one which is less pro-inflammatory. We investigated whether short term intravenous supply of omega-3 PUFAs co...
Robinson, Jennifer G.; Ijioma, Nkechinyere; Harris, William
Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) could play an important role in maintaining cognitive function in aging individuals. The omega-3 FA docosahexaenoic acid is a major constituent of neuronal membranes and, along with the other long-chain omega-3 FAs from fish such as eicosapentaentoic acid, has been shown to have a wide variety of beneficial effects on neuronal functioning, inflammation, oxidation and cell death, as well as on the development of the characteristic pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Ome...
Henriques,Viviana Teixeira; Dias,Cristina Maria Ganns Chaves; Sylvia do Carmo Castro FRANCESCHINI; Sabarense,Céphora Maria; Neuza Maria Brunoro COSTA; Leite,Jacqueline Isaura Alvarez; Peluzio,Maria do Carmo Gouveia
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticancer potential of dietary omega-3 supplementation to reduce induced intestinal preneoplastic lesions in Wistar rats. METHODS: A total of 58 11-week-old male Wistar rats (Rattus norvergicus, albinus variety, Rodentia) were distributed into two groups: a control group (n=25) and an omega-3-treated group (n=28). Aberrant crypt foci were induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Tissue incorporation of the supplemented omega-3 fatty acids was...
Swanson, Danielle; Block, Robert; Mousa, Shaker A
Omega-3 [(n-3)] fatty acids have been linked to healthy aging throughout life. Recently, fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA have been associated with fetal development, cardiovascular function, and Alzheimer's disease. However, because our bodies do not efficiently produce some omega-3 fatty acids from marine sources, it is necessary to obtain adequate amounts through fish and fish-oil products. Studies have shown that EPA and DHA are important for proper fetal development, including neuronal, retinal, and immune function. EPA and DHA may affect many aspects of cardiovascular function including inflammation, peripheral artery disease, major coronary events, and anticoagulation. EPA and DHA have been linked to promising results in prevention, weight management, and cognitive function in those with very mild Alzheimer's disease.
Kromhout, D.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Goede, de J.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Mulder, B.J.M.; Boer, de M.J.; Deckers, J.W.; Boersma, E.; Zock, P.L.; Giltay, E.J.
OBJECTIVE We carried out a secondary analysis in high-risk patients with a previous myocardial infarction (MI) and diabetes in the Alpha Omega Trial. We tested the hypothesis that in these patients an increased intake of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an
Very long-chain n-3 (or omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids have attracted considerable public interest during the past few years for their potential beneficial role in cognitive performance. The proposed benefits stretch from advantages in developing brains of infants and children to preventing
Full Text Available This review addresses the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders, from the biochemical rationale for their use to the growing body of data supporting their clinical efficacy.
Galli, C; Marangoni, F
Fats in the diet of countries in the Mediterranean basin are typically represented by olive oil, but the high consumptions of vegetables and to some extent also of fish result in appreciable intakes of n-3 fatty acids. In fact, various plant foods are relatively rich in the 18 carbon n-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid, ALA, while the generally moderate consumption of fish, except for certain communities living close to the sea, contributes to the intake of the long-chain n-3. Although the amounts of fats in ALA-containing plant foods are low, the relatively high concentrations of this fatty acid and the large size of the portions consumed allow to reach appreciable doses of ALA, an n-3 fatty acid that has been shown to exert favourable effects on various relevant factors in cardiovascular protection. In addition, consumption of relatively small amounts of certain typical dry fruit components of the diet such as walnuts, provides a sizable supply of ALA that is also rather efficiently converted to the ALA derivative eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Additional rather typical wild food components of the diet in certain countries, i.e. snails and frogs, are also appreciable sources of ALA. It appears thus that the consumption of typical Mediterranean foods provides relevant intakes of n-3 fatty acids, especially ALA, that appears to be efficiently absorbed and also transformed at least to the long-chain derivative EPA.
Brenna, J Thomas; Akomo, Peter; Bahwere, Paluku;
Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) are a key component of a life-saving treatment for young children who present with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition in resource limited settings. Increasing recognition of the role of balanced dietary omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (P...
Full Text Available Dietary modification and supplementation play an increasingly important role in the conservative treatment of cardiovascular disease. Current interest has focused on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and vitamin D. Clinical trial results on this subject are contradictory in many aspects. Several studies indicate that n-3 PUFA consumption improves vascular and cardiac hemodynamics, triglycerides, and possibly endothelial function, autonomic control, inflammation, thrombosis, and arrhythmia. Experimental studies show effects on membrane structure and associated functions, ion channel properties, genetic regulation, and production of anti-inflammatory mediators. Clinical trials evaluating a possible reduction in cardiovascular disease by n-3 PUFA have shown different results. Supplementation of vitamin D is common regarding prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. But vitamin D also seems to have several effects on the cardiovascular system. Vitamin D deficiency appears to be related to an increase in parathyroid hormone levels and can predispose to essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, increased insulin resistance, and eventually to atherosclerosis and adverse cardiovascular events. Randomized prospective clinical trials are needed to determine whether vitamin D and omega-3 FA supplementation therapy should be recommended as a routine therapy for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Güttler, Norbert; Zheleva, Kirila; Parahuleva, Mariana; Chasan, Ridvan; Bilgin, Mehmet; Neuhof, Christiane; Burgazli, Mehmet; Niemann, Bernd; Erdogan, Ali; Böning, Andreas
Dietary modification and supplementation play an increasingly important role in the conservative treatment of cardiovascular disease. Current interest has focused on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and vitamin D. Clinical trial results on this subject are contradictory in many aspects. Several studies indicate that n-3 PUFA consumption improves vascular and cardiac hemodynamics, triglycerides, and possibly endothelial function, autonomic control, inflammation, thrombosis, and arrhythmia. Experimental studies show effects on membrane structure and associated functions, ion channel properties, genetic regulation, and production of anti-inflammatory mediators. Clinical trials evaluating a possible reduction in cardiovascular disease by n-3 PUFA have shown different results. Supplementation of vitamin D is common regarding prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. But vitamin D also seems to have several effects on the cardiovascular system. Vitamin D deficiency appears to be related to an increase in parathyroid hormone levels and can predispose to essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, increased insulin resistance, and eventually to atherosclerosis and adverse cardiovascular events. Randomized prospective clinical trials are needed to determine whether vitamin D and omega-3 FA supplementation therapy should be recommended as a routine therapy for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23346457
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is currently the primary target in the management of dyslipidemia, and statins are first-line pharmacologic interventions. Adjunct therapy such as niacins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants, or cholesterol absorption inhibitors may be considered to help reduce cardiovascular risk. This review discusses the need for alternative adjunct treatment options and the potential place for omega-3 fatty acids as such. The cardiovascular benefits of fish consumption are attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and a variety of omega-3 fatty acid products are available with varied amounts of EPA and DHA. The product types include prescription drugs, food supplements, and medical foods sourced from fish, krill, algal and plant oils or purified from these oils. Two prescription omega-3 fatty acids are currently available, omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (contains both EPA and DHA ethyl esters), and icosapent ethyl (IPE; contains high-purity EPA ethyl ester). A pharmaceutical containing free fatty acid forms of omega-3 is currently in development. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing EPA and DHA have been shown to increase LDL-C levels while IPE has been shown to lower triglyceride levels without raising LDL-C levels, alone or in combination with statin therapy. In addition, recent studies have not been able to demonstrate reduced cardiovascular risk following treatment with fibrates, niacins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, or omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing both EPA and DHA in statin-treated patients; thus, there remains a need for further cardiovascular outcomes studies for adjunct therapy.
Le Goff, Wilfried
Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) FA are reported to be protective against cardiovascular disease (CVD), notably through their beneficial action on atherosclerosis development. In this context dietary intake of long-chain marine eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is recommended and randomised trials largely support that EPA and DHA intake is associated with a reduction of CVD. However, mechanisms governing the atheroprotective action of n-3 FA are still unclear and numerous studies using mouse models conducted so far do not allow to reach a precise view of the cellular and molecular effects of n-3 FA on atherosclerosis. In the current issue of Atherosclerosis, Chang et al. provide important new information on the anti-atherogenic properties of n-3 FA by analysing the incremental replacement of saturated FA by pure fish oil as a source of EPA and DHA in Ldlr(-/-) mice fed a high fat/high cholesterol diet.
Da Young eOh
Full Text Available The beneficial roles of omega-3 fatty acids (ω3-FAs on obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic diseases are well known. Most of these effects can be explained by their anti-inflammatory effects, triggered through their receptor, G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120 activation. Although the whole mechanism of action is not fully described yet, it has been shown that stimulation of ω3-FA to GPR120 is followed by receptor phosphorylation. This makes GPR120 be capable of interacting to beta-arrestin-2, which in turn results in association, of beta-arrestin-2 to TAB1. This stealing of an important partaker of the inflammatory cascade, leads to interruption of the pathway, resulting in reduced inflammation. Besides this regulation of the anti-inflammatory response, GPR120 signaling also has been shown to regulate glucose homeostasis, adiposity, gastrointestinal peptide secretion, and taste preference. In this review we summarize the current knowledge about the interaction of ω3-FAs with GPR120 and the consequent opportunities for the application of ω3-FAs and possible GPR120 targets.
Shaikh, Saame Raza; Wassall, Stephen R; Brown, David A; Kosaraju, Rasagna
Increased consumption of long-chain marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has potential health benefits for the general population and for select clinical populations. However, several key limitations remain in making adequate dietary recommendations on n-3 PUFAs in addition to translating the fatty acids into clinical trials for select diseases. One major constraint is an incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action of n-3 PUFAs. In this review, we highlight studies to show n-3 PUFA acyl chains reorganize the molecular architecture of plasma membrane sphingolipid-cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts and potentially sphingolipid-rich cholesterol-free domains and cardiolipin-protein scaffolds in the inner mitochondrial membrane. We also discuss the possibility that the effects of n-3 PUFAs on membrane organization could be regulated by the presence of vitamin E (α-tocopherol), which is necessary to protect highly unsaturated acyl chains from oxidation. Finally, we propose the integrated hypothesis, based predominately on studies in lymphocytes, cancer cells, and model membranes, that the mechanism by which n-3 PUFAs disrupt signaling microclusters is highly dependent on the type of lipid species that incorporate n-3 PUFA acyl chains. The current evidence suggests that n-3 PUFA acyl chains disrupt lipid raft formation by incorporating primarily into phosphatidylethanolamines but can also incorporate into other lipid species of the lipidome.
Yen, Wan-Ju J; Lewis, Nancy M
This study was conducted to assess the impact of a nutrition education intervention on food groups and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid consumption in middle-aged women. We hypothesized that participants who received educational materials about n-3 fatty acids would have a higher consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids than the MyPyramid group. The first phase of this study used the qualitative method to identify the beliefs and interests of middle-aged women about the topic of nutrition. Data were collected using semistructured individual interviews. Phase 2 was a quantitative study to assess the effectiveness of MyPyramid to improve dietary intake and self-efficacy after a 6-week online nutrition education intervention using a blog for university middle-aged female staff. The impact of n-3 fatty acid education on food consumption and self-efficacy was also assessed. Eight female staff (aged 45-65 years) in a Midwestern university participated in the interviews. Data were coded, and 3 themes emerged: "health," "lifestyle," and "availability." Eighty-eight middle-aged women participated in the intervention study and were randomized into either an intervention group or a control group. The overall consumption of the food groups was lower than the MyPyramid recommendation, except in the meat and beans group. There was a trend that participants were less certain to include n-3 fatty acids than whole grains in their diets. Using MyPyramid and supplementary information about n-3 fatty acids did not significantly affect participants' dietary consumption or self-efficacy to increase consumption from the food groups or to increase n-3 fatty acid consumption. Blog-based nutrition education is acceptable for this target population.
Lee, John H; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J; Harris, William S
The evidence for the cardioprotective nature of omega-3 fatty acids is abundant, and currently available data indicate that patients with known coronary heart disease should consume at least 1 g daily of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from either oily fish or fish-oil supplements, and that individuals without disease should consume at least 250-500 mg daily. However, this area of research poses two questions. Firstly, which is the best source of omega-3 fatty acids-fish or fish-oil supplements? Secondly, are recommendations for omega-3 supplementation warranted in view of the rapid depletion of world fish stocks? The argument that eating fish is better than taking fish-oil supplements stems from the fact that several important nutrients, such as vitamin D, selenium, and antioxidants, are missing from the supplements. However, three major prevention trials have clearly indicated that omega-3 fatty acid capsules confer cardiovascular benefits and, therefore, that both are cardioprotective. Sustainable sources of omega-3 fatty acids will need to be identified if long-term cardiovascular risk reduction is to be achieved at the population level.
Kuroda, T; Ohta, H; Onoe, Y; Tsugawa, N; Shiraki, M
This study investigated the relationships between intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and omega-6 fatty acids and bone mineral density in Japanese women aged 19 to 25 years. Intakes of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) were positively associated with peak bone mass at the hip. Lifestyle factors such as physical activity and nutrition intake are known to optimize the peak bone mass (PBM). Recently, intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been reported to contribute to bone metabolism. In this study, the relationships of intakes of n-3 and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids with PBM were evaluated in Japanese female subjects. A total of 275 healthy female subjects (19-25 years) having PBM were enrolled, and lumbar and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolic parameters were measured. Dietary intakes of total energy, total n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total n-6 fatty acids were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Physical activity information was also assessed. The mean ± SD age was 20.6 ± 1.4 years, and BMI was 21.2 ± 2.7 kg/m(2). BMI and serum bone alkaline phosphatase contributed significantly to lumbar BMD on multiple regression analysis. Intake of n-3 fatty acids and physical activity were also significantly related to total hip BMD. Using EPA or DHA instead of total n-3 fatty acids in the model did not result in a significant result. Adequate total n-3 fatty acid intake may help maximize PBM at the hip.
Endo, Jin; Arita, Makoto
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are widely regarded as cardioprotective. Several large-scale, randomized clinical trials have shown that dietary intake of omega-3 PUFAs improves the prognosis of patients with symptomatic heart failure or recent myocardial infarction. Therefore, dietary consumption of omega-3 PUFA is recommended in international guidelines for the general population to prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the precise mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of omega-3 PUFAs are not fully understood. Omega-3 PUFAs can be incorporated into the phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes and can affect membrane fluidity, lipid microdomain formation, and signaling across membranes. Omega-3 PUFAs also modulate the function of membrane ion channels, such as Na and L-type Ca channels, to prevent lethal arrhythmias. Moreover, omega-3 PUFAs also prevent the conversion of arachidonic acid into pro-inflammatory eicosanoids by serving as an alternative substrate for cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase, resulting in the production of less potent products. In addition, a number of enzymatically oxygenated metabolites derived from omega-3 PUFAs were recently identified as anti-inflammatory mediators. These omega-3 metabolites may contribute to the beneficial effects against CVDs that are attributed to omega-3 PUFAs.
Miyoshi, Toru; Ito, Hiroshi
Omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) have important biologic functions, including effects on membranes, eicosanoid metabolism, and gene transcription. Studies indicate that the use of EPA and DHA lowered triglyceride levels, which is accomplished by decreasing the production of hepatic triglycerides and increasing the clearance of plasma triglycerides. Recent clinical studies showed that intake of omega-3 fatty acids reduced cardiovascular events. In addition, combination therapy with omega-3 fatty acids and a statin is a safe and effective way to improve lipid levels and cardiovascular prognosis beyond the benefits provided by statin therapy alone. Our focus is to review the potential mechanisms by which these fatty acids reduce cardiovascular disease risk.
Salem, N M; Lin, Y H; Moriguchi, T; Lim, S Y; Salem, N; Hibbeln, J R
The steady state compositions of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) throughout the various viscera and tissues within the whole body of rats have not previously been described in a comprehensive manner. Dams consumed diets containing 10wt% fat (15% linoleate and 3% α-linolenate). Male offspring (n=9) at 7-week of age were euthanized and dissected into 25 compartments. Total lipid fatty acids for each compartment were quantified by GC/FID and summed for the rat whole body; total n-6 PUFA was 12wt% and total n-3 PUFA was 2.1% of total fatty acids. 18:2n-6 accounted for 84% of the total n-6 PUFA, 20:4n-6 was 12%, 18:3n-3 was 59% of the total n-3 PUFA, 20:5n-3 was 2.1%, and 22:6n-3 was 32%. The white adipose tissue contained the greatest amounts of 18:2n-6 (1.5g) and 18:3n-3 (0.2g). 20:4n-6 was highest in muscle (60mg) and liver (57mg), while 22:6n-3 was greatest in muscle (46mg), followed by liver (27mg) and carcass (20mg). In terms of fatty acid composition expressed as a percentage, 18:2n-6 was the highest in the heart (13wt%), while 18:3n-3 was about 1.3wt% for skin, white adipose tissue and fur. 20:4n-6 was highest (21-25wt%) in the circulation, kidney, and spleen, while 22:6n-3 was highest in the brain (12wt%), followed by the heart (7.9wt%), liver (5.9wt%), and spinal cord (5.1wt%). Selectivity was greatest when comparing 22:6n-3 in brain (12%) to white adipose (0.08%) (68-fold) and 22:5n-6 in testes (15.6%) compared to white adipose (0.02%), 780-fold.
Ciappolino, Valentina; Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Agostoni, Carlo; Mazzocchi, Alessandra; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo; Brambilla, Paolo
Among emerging treatments for depressive disorders several studies suggested that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) supplementation can be used. However, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) differ in terms of biochemistry, metabolism and therapeutic effects. Therefore, a clear picture of their specific and different role on affective disorders has not yet emerged. To investigate the effects of n-3PUFAs on affective disorders including major depression, bipolar disorder and perinatal depression. a comprehensive search on PUBMED, Medline and PsychINFO of all RCTs using n-3PUFAs patients with depressive symptoms published up to April 2016 was performed. We included trials that examined unipolar or bipolar disorder and trials that investigated depressive symptoms in relation to pregnancy. Trials were excluded if the depressive symptomatology was related to other primary organic diseases. 264 RCT studies were identified but only 36 met the inclusion criteria. First, it has been reported that n-3PUFAs supplementation might have clinical benefits on depressive symptoms. Second, EPA supplement, rather than DHA, seems to be more effective in treating major depression. Third, n-3PUFAs can have beneficial effects in bipolar depression but not in perinatal depression. there are only some evidence on the efficacy of n-3PUFAs in affective disorders especially to unipolar and bipolar depression not powered enough to confirm a therapeutic effect for affective disorder. Therefore, further studies with larger and more homogeneous samples, are required to confirm these effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have anti-inflammatory effects and neuronal protective functions and may benefit prevention of dementia; however, the epidemiological evidence is very limited. Therefore, the literature about the association between n-3 PUFA and dementia was searched, by using Pubmed. In the analyses of observational studies, n-3 PUFA has been reported to be beneficially associated with dementia in 17 studies; however, the beneficial association between n-3 PUFA and dementia was denied by three studies. In the analyses of intervention studies, n-3 PUFA supplementation was beneficially associated with dementia in eight studies; however, five studies reported the negligible effect of n-3 PUFA for dementia. N-3 PUFA may improve Alzheimer's disease by increasing clearance of amyloid-β peptide, neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors, and by anti-inflammatory effects. In conclusion, patients with mild memory and/or cognitive impairment can be treated by a long-term and higher intake of n-3 PUFA.
Index reported less pain related to DOMS following heavy exercise at 72 and 96 hours post-exercise. Reduced pain in the higher N3 Index Group may be due to an increased concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in the muscle cell walls, thus triggering a higher elasticity, flexibility and lower risk of physical damage to muscle tissue during exercise. Serum levels of blood lactate were lower in subjects with a high N3 Index, CRP was reduced at 24 hours and POMS scores were improved in high N3 Index subjects demonstrating better QOL. No serious adverse events were reported further supporting that omega-3 dietary supplementation is safe, bio-available and may improve athletic performance and well being in healthy young adults.
Full Text Available Intravenous lipid emulsions are an essential component of parenteral nutrition regimens. Originally employed as an efficient non-glucose energy source to reduce the adverse effects of high glucose intake and provide essential fatty acids, lipid emulsions have assumed a larger therapeutic role due to research demonstrating the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on key metabolic functions, including inflammatory and immune response, coagulation, and cell signaling. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that the effects of omega-3 PUFA on inflammation and immune response result in meaningful therapeutic benefits in surgical, cancer, and critically ill patients as well as patients requiring long-term parenteral nutrition. The present review provides an overview of the mechanisms of action through which omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA modulate the immune-inflammatory response and summarizes the current body of evidence regarding the clinical and pharmacoeconomic benefits of intravenous n-3 fatty acid-containing lipid emulsions in patients requiring parenteral nutrition.
Janssen, Carola I. F.; Zerbi, Valerio; Mutsaers, Martina P. C.; de Jong, Bas S. W.; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Arnoldussen, Ilse A. C.; Geenen, Bram; Heerschap, Arend; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Jouni, Zeina E.; van Tol, Eric A. F.; Gross, Gabriele; Homberg, Judith R.; Berg, Brian M.; Kiliaan, Amanda J.
Maternal intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is critical during perinatal development of the brain. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 PUFA in the brain and influences neuronal membrane function and neuroprotection. The present study aims to assess the effect of
Georgios A. Christou
Full Text Available Background: The main dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA is fish, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. In the present manuscript, we aimed to review the current evidence regarding the clinical role of n-3 PUFA in the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: A literature search based on PubMed listings was performed using “Omega-3 fatty acids” and “atrial fibrilation” as key search terms. Results: n-3 PUFA have been shown to attenuate structural atrial remodeling, prolong atrial effective refractory period through the prevention of reentry and suppress ectopic firing from pulmonary veins. Dietary fish intake has been found to have no effect on the incidence of AF in the majority of studies. Circulating DHA has been consistently reported to be inversely associated with AF risk, whereas EPA has no such effect. The majority of studies investigating the impact of n-3 PUFA supplementation on the incidence of AF following cardiac surgery reported no benefit, though most of them did not use n-3 PUFA pretreatment for adequate duration. Studies using adequate four-week pretreatment with n-3 PUFA before cardioversion of AF showed a reduction of the AF incidence. Conclusions: Although n-3 PUFA have antiarrhythmogenic properties, their clinical efficacy on the prevention of AF is not consistently supported. Further well-designed studies are needed to overcome the limitations of the existing studies and provide robust conclusions.
Jeppe Hagstrup Christensen
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may modulate autonomic control of the heart because omega-3 PUFA is abundant in the brain and other nervous tissue as well as in cardiac tissue. This might partly explain why omega-3 PUFA offer some protection against sudden cardiac death (SCD). The autonomic nervous system is involved in the pathogenesis of SCD. Heart rate variability (HRV) can be used as a non-invasive marker of cardiac autonomic control and a low HRV is a predictor for SCD and arr...
Full Text Available This paper reviews the current evidence regarding long-chained marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and cardiovascular disease (CVD, their possible mechanisms of action, and results of clinical trials. Also, primary and secondary prevention trials as studies on antiarrhythmic effects and meta-analyses are summarized. However, the individual bioavailability of n-3 PUFAs along with the highly different study designs and estimations of FAs intake or supplementation dosages in patient populations with different background intake of n-3 PUFAs might be some of the reasons for the inconsistent findings of the studies evaluating the impact of n-3 PUFAs on CVD. The question of an optimum dose of n-3 PUFAs or whether there exists a dose-response relation for n-3 PUFA supplementation is widely discussed. Moreover, the difficulties in interpreting meta-analyses are clearly demonstrated by two recently published meta-analyses (Rizos et al. and Delgado Lista et al., evaluating the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs on CVD, including 12 common studies, but drawing opposite conclusions. We definitely need more large-scale, randomized clinical trials of long duration, also reporting harmful effects of n-3 PUFAs.
Appleton, Katherine M; Sallis, Hannah M; Perry, Rachel; Ness, Andrew R; Churchill, Rachel
Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly debilitating, difficult to treat, has a high rate of recurrence, and negatively impacts the individual and society as a whole. One emerging potential treatment for MDD is n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs), also known as omega-3 oils, naturally found in fatty fish, some other seafood, and some nuts and seeds. Various lines of evidence suggest a role for n-3PUFAs in MDD, but the evidence is far from conclusive. Reviews and meta-analyses clearly demonstrate heterogeneity between studies. Investigations of heterogeneity suggest differential effects of n-3PUFAs, depending on severity of depressive symptoms, where no effects of n-3PUFAs are found in studies of individuals with mild depressive symptomology, but possible benefit may be suggested in studies of individuals with more severe depressive symptomology. Objectives To assess the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (also known as omega-3 fatty acids) versus a comparator (e.g. placebo, anti-depressant treatment, standard care, no treatment, wait-list control) for major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group’s Specialised Registers (CCDANCTR) and International Trial Registries over all years to May 2015. We searched the database CINAHL over all years of records to September 2013. Selection criteria We included studies in the review if they: were a randomised controlled trial; provided n-3PUFAs as an intervention; used a comparator; measured depressive symptomology as an outcome; and were conducted in adults with MDD. Primary outcomes were depressive symptomology (continuous data collected using a validated rating scale) and adverse events. Secondary outcomes were depressive symptomology (dichotomous data on remission and response), quality of life, and failure to complete studies. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures as expected by
Guseva, D A; Prozorovskaia, N N; Shironin, A V; Sanzhakov, M A; Evteeva, N M; Rusina, I F; Kasaikina, O T
Antioxidant activity and the oxidative stability were investigated in flax, sesame, silybum oils and oils with different omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio. The content of antioxidants (AO) in crude oils and their reactivity towards peroxyl radicals were studied using kinetic method for addition of oil in a model reaction of cumol oxidation. There were correlations between PUFA/omega-9 and thermal stability (50 degrees C); between gamma-tocopherol content and resistantance to oxidative changes after storage at (10 +/- 2) degrees C for 6 months.
Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiang-Yong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kang, Jing X
Metabolic endotoxemia, commonly derived from gut dysbiosis, is a primary cause of chronic low grade inflammation that underlies many chronic diseases. Here we show that mice fed a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids exhibit higher levels of metabolic endotoxemia and systemic low-grade inflammation, while transgenic conversion of tissue omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids dramatically reduces endotoxemic and inflammatory status. These opposing effects of tissue omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can be eliminated by antibiotic treatment and animal co-housing, suggesting the involvement of the gut microbiota. Analysis of gut microbiota and fecal transfer revealed that elevated tissue omega-3 fatty acids enhance intestinal production and secretion of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), which induces changes in the gut bacteria composition resulting in decreased lipopolysaccharide production and gut permeability, and ultimately, reduced metabolic endotoxemia and inflammation. Our findings uncover an interaction between host tissue fatty acid composition and gut microbiota as a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of omega-3 fatty acids. Given the excess of omega-6 and deficiency of omega-3 in the modern Western diet, the differential effects of tissue omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on gut microbiota and metabolic endotoxemia provide insight into the etiology and management of today's health epidemics.
Brown, I; Wahle, K W J; Cascio, M G; Smoum-Jaouni, R; Mechoulam, R; Pertwee, R G; Heys, S D
Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids inhibit breast and prostate cancer cell growth. We previously showed that N-acylethanolamine derivatives of n-3 (n-3-NAE) are endocannabinoids, which regulate cancer cell proliferation. These n-3-NAE are synthesised in certain cells/tissues, after supplementing with fatty acids, however, no one has assessed whether and to what extent this occurs in cancer cells. We determined levels of endogenous n-3-NAEs in hormone sensitive and insensitive prostate and breast cancer cells and subsequent effects on other endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol), before and after supplementing with DHA and EPA fatty acids, using HPLC tandem mass spectrometry. This is the first study reporting that n-3-NAEs are synthesised from their parent n-3 fatty acids in cancer cells, regardless of tumour type, hormone status or the presence of fatty acid amide hydrolase. This could have important implications for the use of n-3 fatty acids as therapeutic agents in breast and prostate cancers expressing cannabinoid receptors.
Calder, Philip C
Inappropriate, excessive or uncontrolled inflammation contributes to a range of human diseases. Inflammation involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators and interactions. The present article will describe nutritional and metabolic aspects of omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and explain the roles of bioactive members of those fatty acid families in inflammatory processes. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. These fatty acids are capable of partly inhibiting many aspects of inflammation including leucocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and leucocyte-endothelial adhesive interactions, production of eicosanoids like prostaglandins and leukotrienes from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, EPA gives rise to eicosanoids that often have lower biological potency than those produced from arachidonic acid, and EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving mediators called resolvins, protectins and maresins. Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of EPA and DHA include altered cell membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, disruption of lipid rafts, inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor κB so reducing expression of inflammatory genes and activation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Animal experiments demonstrate benefit from EPA and DHA in a range of models of inflammatory conditions. Human trials demonstrate benefit of oral n-3 fatty acids in rheumatoid arthritis and in stabilizing advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Intravenous n-3 fatty acids may have benefits in critically ill patients through reduced inflammation. The anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving actions of EPA, DHA and their derivatives are of clinical relevance. © 2017 The Author
Currently, bioactive compounds are required in the design and production of functional foods, with the aim of improving the health status of consumers all around the world. Various epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated the salutary role of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 22:6 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:5 n-3) in preventing diseases and reducing mortality from cardiovascular diseases. The unsaturated nature of bioactive lipids leads to susceptibility to oxidation under environmental conditions. Oxidative deterioration of omega-3 fatty acids can cause the reduction in their nutritional quality and sensory properties. Encapsulation of these fatty acids could create a barrier against reaction with harmful environmental factors. Currently, fortification of foods containing bioactive omega-3 fatty acids has found great application in the food industries of different countries. Previous studies have suggested that nano-encapsulation has significant effects on the stability of physical and chemical properties of bioactive compounds. Considering the functional role of omega-3 fatty acids, this study has provided a literature review on applications of nanoliposomal delivery systems for encapsulation of these bioactive compounds.
Very long-chain n-3 (or omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids have attracted considerable public interest during the past few years for their potential beneficial role in cognitive performance. The proposed benefits stretch from advantages in developing brains of infants and children to preventing cognitive decline at old age. In this thesis, we first examined the role of very long-chain n-3 PUFA at the beginning of the lifespan. We investigated the effects of dietary very long-chain n-3 PUFA ...
Sicińska, Paulina; Pytel, Edyta; Kurowska, Joanna; Koter-Michalak, Maria
For some decades, an increase in propagation of coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes, tumors and mental disorders has been observed. Consequently, new and effective methods of treatment of these diseases using drugs and diet supplements have been developed. A promising solution is the use of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of some diseases. These compounds have broad application in prevention of many diseases and are used to support standard therapies. Their activity is connected with participation in metabolic processes regulating biochemical transformations in cells and tissues. Omega-3 fatty acids regulate production of cytokines, increased levels of which may contribute to occurrence of chronic inflammatory diseases, autoaggression of the immunological system, arteriosclerosis or tumor development. These substances exert a beneficial effect on the blood system by improvement of blood circulation and nerve signal transmission. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of irregular heartbeat, stabilize arterial pressure, and restore balance in cholesterol metabolism disorders. They also play a key role in maintaining physical and mental efficiency; thus administration of these compounds for young children is of great importance. Nevertheless, administration of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet seems to be essential. The purpose of this study is to present the structure and sources of omega-3 and - 6 fatty acids and discuss the problems concerning therapeutic use of these compounds in various disorders.
de Lorgeril Michel
Full Text Available Abstract Early randomized controlled trials (RCTs demonstrated the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3, whereas recent RCTs were negative. We now address the issue, focusing on the temporal changes having occurred: most patients in recent RCTs are no longer n-3 deficient and the vast majority are now treated with statins. Recent RCTs testing n-3 against arrhythmias suggest that n-3 reduce the risk only in patients not taking a statin. Other recent RCTs in secondary prevention were negative although, in a post-hoc analysis separating statin users and non-users, non-significant protection of n-3 was observed among statin non-users whereas statin users had no effect. Recent RCTs testing statins - after the implementation of the New Clinical Trial Regulation in 2007 - are negative (or flawed suggesting that the lack of effect of n-3 cannot be attributed to a parallel protection by statins. Finally, statins favor the metabolism of omega-6 fatty acids (n-6, which in turn inhibits n-3 and, contrary to n-3, they increase insulin resistance and the risk of diabetes. Thus, n-3 and statins are counteractive at several levels and statins appear to inhibit n-3.
Kennedy, Eileen T; Luo, Hanqi; Ausman, Lynne M
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 provides authoritative advice on what Americans should eat to stay healthy. These guidelines provide a quantitative recommendation to consume 250 mg/d of (n-3) fatty acids (also known as omega-3 fatty acids). To achieve this goal, Americans would need to more than triple the amount of EPA and DHA currently consumed. This paper assessed the cost implications of increased levels of EPA and DHA from marine and nonmarine food sources using data from the 2007-2008 NHANES, USDA nutrient data base, and the USDA Center for the Nutrition Policy and Promotion food price data. Stearidonic acid (SDA)-enhanced soybean oil is a lower cost alternative to commonly consumed marine food as a source of EPA. In addition, given that SDA-enhanced soybean oil is intended to be used as an ingredient in a variety of products, this may enable consumers to increase consumption of EPA through commonly consumed foods.
Richardson, Alexandra J
Omega-3 fatty acids are dietary essentials, and are critical to brain development and function. Increasing evidence suggests that a relative lack of omega-3 may contribute to many psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. This review focuses on the possible role of omega-3 in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related childhood developmental disorders, evaluating the existing evidence from both research and clinical perspectives. Theory and experimental evidence support a role for omega-3 in ADHD, dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and autism. Results from controlled treatment trials are mixed, but the few studies in this area have involved different populations and treatment formulations. Dietary supplementation with fish oils (providing EPA and DHA) appears to alleviate ADHD-related symptoms in at least some children, and one study of DCD children also found benefits for academic achievement. Larger trials are now needed to confirm these findings, and to establish the specificity and durability of any treatment effects as well as optimal formulations and dosages. Omega-3 is not supported by current evidence as a primary treatment for ADHD or related conditions, but further research in this area is clearly warranted. Given their relative safety and general health benefits, omega-3 fatty acids offer a promising complementary approach to standard treatments.
Sport injuries are common and costly for the professional athlete, the "weekend warrior," and the community. Acute injuries are treated according to current guidelines with the aim of bringing the athlete back into the arena. These guidelines have not taken into account new scientific results of the inflammatory process following a trauma. The 4 hallmarks of inflammation, namely, pain, swelling, redness, and heat, are results of an adequate inflammatory response with the aim of bringing the affected tissue back to restitution (Latin: restitutio ad integrum). Cooling of the affected limb and anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used but may deter healing. The healing process is governed by fatty acids of the omega-3 and omega-6 series. In order to facilitate healing, these fatty acids have to be present in significant amounts in the affected tissues before the trauma occurs. This is particularly relevant for marine omega-3 fatty acids, which are often running low due to insignificant intake of seafood, common in individuals practicing sports. High-energy sports often lead to head and brain trauma. Continuous head traumata may even result in later mental defects. Saturation of brain cells with omega-3 fatty acids, in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may facilitate healing after brain trauma, thereby counteracting negative long-term results. The present understanding of a normal inflammatory process leading to restitution will be discussed along with data from recent scientific trials.
Full Text Available Background and aims: Insulin resistance (IR is a common pathogenic factor of several diseases: diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, etc. There are many therapeutic factors involved in decreasing IR. Among them we mention metformin, pioglitazone, physical activity, weight loss, diet, etc. In the last decade, there are more observations of the influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids on IR. The most powerful seem to be omega-3 fatty acids. In our study, we wanted to asses if the administration of omega-3 fatty acids is involved in modifying IR. Materials and methods: We evaluated 126 diabetic patients with IR from January 2011 until July 2014. The study was open-label and non-randomized. For the determination of IR we used the HOMA-IR method. Results: For both males and females there was a regression of HOMA-IR during the 4 weeks of treatment with omega-3 and also after 2 weeks after stopping the administration of these fatty acids. The decrease of HOMA-IR was statistically significant (p<0.05. The statistic result observed in the next 2 weeks after stopping administration of omega-3 was also significant (p<0.05.
Ianiro, G; Franceschi, F; Bibbò, S; Gasbarrini, A
The integrity of gastric barrier derives from the balance between defending and damaging factors. In particular, prostaglandins play a relevant role in the maintenance of gastric homeostasis and prevention of peptic disease, at different levels. Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentanoic acid, are the precursors of the third series of prostaglandins (with anti-inflammatory properties), also reducing the formation of the second series of prostaglandins (pro-inflammatory ones). Such a pathophysiological rationale brought to the experimental application, both in animal models and, more recently, in humans, of omega-3 fatty acids against gastrointestinal damage. Omega-3 fatty acids have shown interesting results in preventing different types of gastric damage in mouse models. A large retrospective case-control study on patients taking both anti-thrombotic therapy and eicosapentanoic acid showed (although only at unadjusted analysis) an inverse correlation between consumption of eicosapentanoic acid and gastrointestinal injury. Prospective, well-designed, comparative studies are warranted to clarify if omega-3 fatty acids may represent, or not, a novel resort against gastrointestinal injury.
Jeppe Hagstrup Christensen
Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA may modulate autonomic control of the heart because omega-3 PUFA is abundant in the brain and other nervous tissue as well as in cardiac tissue. This might partly explain why omega-3 PUFA offer some protection against sudden cardiac death (SCD. The autonomic nervous system is involved in the pathogenesis of SCD. Heart rate variability (HRV can be used as a non-invasive marker of cardiac autonomic control and a low HRV is a predictor for SCD and arrhythmic events. Studies on HRV and omega-3 PUFA have been performed in several populations such as patients with ischemic heart disease, patients with diabetes mellitus, patients with chronic renal failure, and in healthy subjects as well as in children.. The studies have demonstrated a positive association between cellular content of omega-3 PUFA and HRV and supplementation with omega-3 PUFA seems to increase HRV which could be a possible explanation for decreased risk of arrhythmic events and SCD sometimes observed after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. However, the results are not consistent and further research is needed
Szostak, Agnieszka; Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Te Pas, Marinus F W; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O; Pierzchała, Mariusz
The optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is important for keeping the homeostasis of biological processes and metabolism, yet the underlying biological mechanism is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify changes in the pig liver transcriptome induced by a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids and to characterize the biological mechanisms related to PUFA metabolism. Polish Landrace pigs (n = 12) were fed diet enriched with linoleic acid (LA, omega-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3) or standard diet as a control. The fatty acid profiling was assayed in order to verify how feeding influenced the fatty acid content in the liver, and subsequently next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) between transcriptomes between dietary groups. The biological mechanisms and pathway interaction networks were identified using DAVID and Cytoscape tools. Fatty acid profile analysis indicated a higher contribution of PUFAs in the liver for LA- and ALA-enriched diet group, particularly for the omega-3 fatty acid family, but not omega-6. Next-generation sequencing identified 3565 DEG, 1484 of which were induced and 2081 were suppressed by PUFA supplementation. A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids resulted in the modulation of fatty acid metabolism pathways and over-representation of genes involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, and immune response pathways. In conclusion, a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids altered the transcriptomic profile of the pig liver and would influence animal health status.
Wai Wing So; Wai Nam Liu; Kwok Nam Leung
Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are dietary long-chain fatty acids with an array of health benefits. Previous research has demonstrated the growth-inhibitory effect of n-3 fatty acids on different cancer cell lines in vitro, yet their anti-tumor effects and underlying action mechanisms on human neuroblastoma LA-N-1 cells have not yet been reported. In this study, we showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) exhibited time- and concentration-dependent anti-proliferative ...
Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno; Anna Russolillo; Roberta Lupoli; Pasquale Ambrosino; Alessandro Di Minno; Giovanni Tarantino
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been recognized as a major health burden.It is the most important cause of chronic liver disease and a major independent cardiovascular risk factor.Lacking a definite treatment for NAFLD,a specific diet and an increase in physical activity represent the most commonly used therapeutic approaches.In this review,major literature data about the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) as a potential treatment of NAFLD have been described.n-3 PUFAs,besides having a beneficial impact on most of the cardio-metabolic risk factors (hypertension,hyperlipidemia,endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis) by regulating gene transcription factors [i.e.,peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α,PPARγ,sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1,carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein],impacts both lipid metabolism and on insulin sensitivity.In addition to an enhancement of hepatic beta oxidation and a decrease of the endogenous lipid production,n-3 PUFAs are able to determine a significant reduction of the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) and of oxygen reactive species.Further strengthening the results of the in vitro studies,both animal models and human intervention trials,showed a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFAs on the severity of NAFLD as expressed by laboratory parameters and imaging measurements.Despite available results provided encouraging data about the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs as a treatment of NAFLD in humans,well-designed randomized controlled trials of adequate size and duration,with histological endpoints,are needed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of PUFA,as well as other therapies,for the treatment of NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients.It is worthwhile to consider that n-3 PUFAs cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be derived from exogenous sources (fish oil,flaxseeds,olive oil) which are typical foods
David Robert M
Full Text Available Abstract It is well established that the ingestion of the omega-3 (N3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA positively benefit a variety of health indices. Despite these benefits the actual intake of fish derived N3 is relatively small in the United States. The primary aim of our study was to examine a technology capable of delivering omega-3 fatty acids in common foods via microencapsulation (MicroN3 in young, healthy, active participants who are at low risk for cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, we randomized 20 participants (25.4 ± 6.2 y; 73.4 ± 5.1 kg to receive the double blind delivery of a placebo-matched breakfast meal (~2093 kJ containing MicroN3 (450–550 mg EPA/DHA during a 2-week pilot trial. Overall, we observed no differences in overall dietary macronutrient intake other than the N3 delivery during our treatment regimen. Post-test ANOVA analysis showed a significant elevation in mean (SE plasma DHA (91.18 ± 9.3 vs. 125.58 ± 11.3 umol/L; P
Hilpert Kirsten F
Full Text Available Abstract Human, animal, and in vitro research indicates a beneficial effect of appropriate amounts of omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on bone health. This is the first controlled feeding study in humans to evaluate the effect of dietary plant-derived n-3 PUFA on bone turnover, assessed by serum concentrations of N-telopeptides (NTx and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP. Subjects (n = 23 consumed each diet for 6 weeks in a randomized, 3-period crossover design: 1 Average American Diet (AAD; [34% total fat, 13% saturated fatty acids (SFA, 13% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, 9% PUFA (7.7% LA, 0.8% ALA], 2 Linoleic Acid Diet (LA; [37% total fat, 9% SFA, 12% MUFA, 16% PUFA (12.6% LA, 3.6% ALA], and 3 α-Linolenic Acid Diet (ALA; [38% total fat, 8% SFA, 12% MUFA, 17% PUFA (10.5% LA, 6.5% ALA]. Walnuts and flaxseed oil were the predominant sources of ALA. NTx levels were significantly lower following the ALA diet (13.20 ± 1.21 nM BCE, relative to the AAD (15.59 ± 1.21 nM BCE (p
Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A and IFN-γ. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism, and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis.
Li, Yanli; Tang, Yuan; Wang, Shoujie; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Lu, Xiao; Bai, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A) was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT) and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, and IFN-γ). In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:27679638
Full Text Available Andy H Lee1, Naoko Hiramatsu21School of Public Health, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Laboratory of Nutritional Science, School of Human Science and Environment, University of Hyogo, Himeji, Hyogo, JapanAbstract: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its prevention through a healthy lifestyle and appropriate diet is important. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA therapy has shown promise in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. This commentary discusses the nutritional role of n-3 PUFA, including its metabolism and physiological role, comparison with n-6 series PUFA, as well as complications due to deficiency. Clinical use of n-3 PUFA for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, recommended intake, and potential adverse effects will also be examined. The available scientific evidence suggests that its supplementation and clinical use ranging from 0.4 to 1 g/day can provide tangible benefits. However, further studies are required to determine optimal dosing and the relative ratio of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid that provides maximal cardioprotection and treatment of cardiovascular disease.Keywords: alpha-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, cardiovascular disease, fish oil, polyunsaturated fatty acids
Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F; Hursting, Stephen D
Women with evidence of high intake ratios of the marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those with low ratios in some but not all case-control and cohort studies. If increasing EPA and DHA relative to arachidonic acid is effective in reducing breast cancer risk, likely mechanisms include reduction in proinflammatory lipid derivatives, inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-induced cytokine production, and decreased growth factor receptor signaling as a result of alteration in membrane lipid rafts. Primary prevention trials with either risk biomarkers or cancer incidence as endpoints are underway but final results of these trials are currently unavailable. EPA and DHA supplementation is also being explored in an effort to help prevent or alleviate common problems after a breast cancer diagnosis, including cardiac and cognitive dysfunction and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The insulin-sensitizing and anabolic properties of EPA and DHA also suggest supplementation studies to determine whether these omega-3 fatty acids might reduce chemotherapy-associated loss of muscle mass and weight gain. We will briefly review relevant omega-3 fatty acid metabolism, and early investigations in breast cancer prevention and survivorship.
de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia
Cardiovascular diseases and cancers are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Reducing dietary saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated fat is still the main dietary strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases, although major flaws have been reported in the analyses supporting this approach. Recent studies introducing the concept of myocardial preconditioning have opened new avenues to understand the complex interplay between the various lipids and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The optimal dietary fat profile includes a low intake of both saturated and omega-6 fatty acids and a moderate intake of omega-3 fatty acids. This profile is quite similar to the Mediterranean diet. On the other hand, recent studies have found a positive association between omega-6 and breast cancer risk. In contrast, omega-3 fatty acids do have anticancer properties. It has been shown that certain (Mediterranean) polyphenols significantly increase the endogenous synthesis of omega-3 whereas high intake of omega-6 decreases it. Finally, epidemiological studies suggest that a high omega-3 to omega-6 ratio may be the optimal strategy to decrease breast cancer risk. Thus, the present high intake of omega-6 in many countries is definitely not the optimal strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease and cancers. A moderate intake of plant and marine omega-3 in the context of the traditional Mediterranean diet (low in saturated and omega-6 fatty acids but high in plant monounsaturated fat) appears to be the best approach to reduce the risk of both cardiovascular diseases and cancers, in particular breast cancer.
Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Buyse, J; Everaert, N
This study investigated whether offspring from n-3-supplemented breeders have an enhanced performance and immune organ weight when fed a post-hatch n-3-enriched diet in comparison with their control-fed counterparts and the importance of timing of omega-3 supplementation. Therefore, 480 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed one of four different diets (120/treatment). The control diet (CON) was a basal diet, rich in n-6 fatty acids (FA). The three other diets were enriched in n-3 FA, formulated to obtain a different EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA) or 2/1 (EPA). At 33 weeks of age, eggs were incubated to obtain 1440 offspring. They were set up according to their maternal diet and sex in 48 pens of 30 chicks each (12 pens per maternal treatment: six male and six female). Half of the offspring were given a post-hatch control diet, whereas to other half received an n-3-supplemented diet. Zootechnical performance was followed for starter, grower and finisher phase, and at the end of each phase two, chicks per pen were sacrificed to determine the weight of the immune organs. No interaction was found between maternal and post-hatch n-3 treatment for zootechnical performance. An interaction arose between the maternal and post-hatch n-3 supplementation for proportional bursa weight at day 1 and day 14 and proportional liver weight at day 14, but effects on immune organ weight were rather limited. Offspring post-hatch n-3 supplementation did not enhance maternal n-3 supplementation.
Kastelein, John J P; Maki, Kevin C; Susekov, Andrey
Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms.......Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms....
Sarah J. Borengasser
Full Text Available Background and Aims. This study examined if exercise and omega-3 fatty acid (n3PUFA supplementation is an effective treatment for hepatic steatosis in obese, hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats. Methods. Male OLETF rats were divided into 4 groups (n=8/group: (1 remained sedentary (SED, (2 access to running wheels; (EX (3 a diet supplemented with 3% of energy from fish oil (n3PUFA-SED; and (4 n3PUFA supplementation plus EX (n3PUFA+EX. The 8 week treatments began at 13 weeks, when hepatic steatosis is present in OLETF-SED rats. Results. EX alone lowered hepatic triglyceride (TAG while, in contrast, n3PUFAs failed to lower hepatic TAG and blunted the ability of EX to decrease hepatic TAG levels in n3PUFAs+EX. Insulin sensitivity was improved in EX animals, to a lesser extent in n3PUFA+EX rats, and did not differ between n3PUFA-SED and SED rats. Only the EX group displayed higher complete hepatic fatty acid oxidation (FAO to CO2 and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 activity. EX also lowered hepatic fatty acid synthase protein while both EX and n3PUFA+EX decreased stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 protein. Conclusions. Exercise lowers hepatic steatosis through increased complete hepatic FAO, insulin sensitivity, and reduced expression of de novo fatty acid synthesis proteins while n3PUFAs had no effect.
Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Hermannstädter, Henrike M; Fiebach, Jochen B; Schreiber, Stephan J; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes
Higher intake of seafish or oil rich in long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may be beneficial for the aging brain. We tested in a prospective interventional design whether high levels of supplementary LC-n3-FA would improve cognition, and addressed potential mechanisms underlying the effects. Sixty-five healthy subjects (50-75 years, 30 females) successfully completed 26 weeks of either fish oil (2.2 g/day LC-n3-FA) or placebo intake. Before and after the intervention period, cognitive performance, structural neuroimaging, vascular markers, and blood parameters were assayed. We found a significant increase in executive functions after LC-n3-FA compared with placebo (P = 0.023). In parallel, LC-n3-FA exerted beneficial effects on white matter microstructural integrity and gray matter volume in frontal, temporal, parietal, and limbic areas primarily of the left hemisphere, and on carotid intima media thickness and diastolic blood pressure. Improvements in executive functions correlated positively with changes in omega-3-index and peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and negatively with changes in peripheral fasting insulin. This double-blind randomized interventional study provides first-time evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on brain functions in healthy older adults, and elucidates underlying mechanisms. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age.
Zeng, Zhifeng; Yang, Haiyuan; Wang, Ying; Ren, Jiafa; Dai, Yifan; Dai, Chunsun
Epidemiologic studies showed the correlation between the deficiency of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and the progression of chronic kidney diseases (CKD), however, the role and mechanisms for n-3 PUFAs in protecting against kidney fibrosis remain obscure. In this study, NRK-49F cells, a rat kidney interstitial fibroblast cell line, were stimulated with TGFβ1. A Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 transgenic mouse model in which n-3 PUFAs are endogenously produced from n-6 PUFAs owing to the expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase were deployed. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), one member of n-3 PUFAs family, could suppress TGFβ1-induced fibroblast activation at a dose and time dependent manner. Additionally, DHA could largely inhibit TGFβ1-stimulated Akt but not S6 or Smad3 phosphorylation at a time dependent manner. To decipher the role for n-3 PUFAs in protecting against kidney fibrosis, fat-1 transgenic mice were operated with unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO). Compared to the wild types, fat-1 transgenics developed much less kidney fibrosis and inflammatory cell accumulation accompanied by less p-Akt (Ser473), p-Akt (Thr308), p-S6 and p-Smad3 in kidney tissues at day 7 after UUO. Thus, n-3 PUFAs can attenuate fibroblast activation and kidney fibrosis, which may be associated with the inhibition of mTORC2 signaling. PMID:28393852
Simopoulos, Artemis P
Human beings evolved on a diet that was balanced in the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and was high in antioxidants. Edible wild plants provide alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and higher amounts of vitamin E and vitamin C than cultivated plants. In addition to the antioxidant vitamins, edible wild plants are rich in phenols and other compounds that increase their antioxidant capacity. It is therefore important to systematically analyze the total antioxidant capacity of wild plants and promote their commercialization in both developed and developing countries. The diets of Western countries have contained increasingly larger amounts of linoleic acid (LA), which has been promoted for its cholesterol-lowering effect. It is now recognized that dietary LA favors oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and increases platelet response to aggregation. In contrast, ALA intake is associated with inhibitory effects on the clotting activity of platelets, on their response to thrombin, and on the regulation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. In clinical studies, ALA contributed to lowering of blood pressure, and a prospective epidemiological study showed that ALA is inversely related to the risk of coronary heart disease in men. Dietary amounts of LA as well as the ratio of LA to ALA appear to be important for the metabolism of ALA to longer-chain omega-3 PUFAs. Relatively large reserves of LA in body fat. as are found in vegans or in the diet of omnivores in Western societies, would tend to slow down the formation of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from ALA. Therefore, the role of ALA in human nutrition becomes important in terms of long-term dietary intake. One advantage of the consumption of ALA over omega-3 fatty acids from fish is that the problem of insufficient vitamin E intake does not exist with high intake of ALA from plant sources.
Han, Seung Hwan; Oh, Pyung Chun; Lim, Soo; Eckel, Robert H; Koh, Kwang Kon
Even with the aggressive reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by statin therapy, a high residual risk of cardiovascular events remains substantially and attracts attention to the need for additional preventive therapies. Therefore, effective reductions of residual risk of cardiovascular disease have emerged as therapeutic targets. Fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids have been introduced to reduce triglycerides and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and have shown anti-atherosclerotic, vascular and metabolic effects. However, some effects are controversial and very recent randomized clinical trials report different results from the earlier ones. In this review, we address the vascular and metabolic effects and the results of recent clinical trials of fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids. We also compared their effects under modern guideline therapy regarding potential drugs to reduce a residual cardiometabolic risk of cardiovascular disease.
Külzow, Nadine; Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Grittner, Ulrike; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes
As the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins years before disease onset, searching for prevention strategies is of major medical and economic importance. Nutritional supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may exert beneficial effects on brain structure and function. However, experimental evidence in older adults without clinical dementia is inconsistent, possibly due to low sensitivity of previously employed test batteries for detecting subtle improvements in cognition in healthy individuals. Here we used LOCATO, recently described as a robust and sensitive tool for assessing object-location memory (OLM) in older adults, to evaluate the impact of LC-n3-FA supplementation on learning and memory formation. In a double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study, 44 (20 female) cognitively healthy individuals aged 50-75 years received either LC-n3-FA (2,200 mg/day, n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) for 26 weeks. Before and after intervention, memory performance in the OLM-task (primary) was tested. As secondary outcome parameters, performance in Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), dietary habits, omega-3-index, and other blood-derived parameters were assessed. Omega-3 index increased significantly in the LC-n3-FA group compared with the placebo group. Moreover, recall of object locations was significantly better after LC-n3-FA supplementation compared with placebo. Performance in the AVLT was not significantly affected by LC-n3-FA. This double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study provides further experimental evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on memory functions in healthy older adults. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age.
Substantial evidence relates increased sex hormone concentrations with increased breast cancer risk. Varying omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) intake may lead to alterations in eicosanoid balance and subsequent changes in circulating sex hormones that reduce risk. To clarify effects of dietary fat and n-3 i...
Sieswerda Lee E; Seguin Jennifer; Ross Brian M
Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determi...
Full Text Available The transient receptor potential channels family (TRP channels is a relatively new group of cation channels that modulate a large range of physiological mechanisms. In the nervous system, the functions of TRP channels have been associated with thermosensation, pain transduction, neurotransmitter release, and redox signaling, among others. However, they have also been extensively correlated with the pathogenesis of several innate and acquired diseases. On the other hand, the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 fatty acids have also been associated with several processes that seem to counterbalance or to contribute to the function of several TRPs. In this short review, we discuss some of the remarkable new findings in this field. We also review the possible roles played by n-3 fatty acids in cell signaling that can both control or be controlled by TRP channels in neurodegenerative processes, as well as both the direct and indirect actions of n-3 fatty acids on TRP channels.
Full Text Available The innate immune system of the brain is principally composed of microglial cells and astrocytes, which, once activated, protect neurons against noxious agents or lesions. Activated glial cells produce inflammatory cytokines that act specifically through receptors expressed in the brain, leading to the development of altered emotional and cognitive behavior. These behavioral alterations cease along with the synthesis of brain cytokines. When the level of expression of these cytokines remains high, they become toxic to neurons possibly leading to neuronal death, as observed in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 (n-3 type polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are essential nutrients and fundamental components of neuronal and glial cell membranes. Additionally, they have immunomodulatory properties. They accumulate in the brain during the perinatal period in a dietary supply-dependant fashion. Their brain levels diminish with age, but can be corrected by a diet enriched in n-3 PUFAs. The increasing exposure of the population to diets unbalanced in n-3 PUFAs could contribute to the deleterious effect of inflammatory cytokines in the brain.
李倩; 李海燕; 孙月吉; 滨崎智仁; 郇明明; 姜俊; 桂冰; 陈锦波; 周世昱; 郑顺利
Objective To determine the effect of adding n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in attempted suicides who were depression.Methods A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 3 months trial comparing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids versus placebo was conducted on 39 attempted suicides who were depression.Mood was assessed at baseline and then 1.5 and 3 months using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression(HRSD)and the Beck Depression Inventory(BDI).Results 1.There were no significant differences between n-3 PUFA intervention group and control group on scores of HRSD at baseline and after 3 months intervention(23.52±6.92,21.56±8.71;14.62±9.28,12.00±8.54)(P>0.05).There were no significant differences between n-3 PUFA intervention group and control group on scores of BDI at baseline and after 3 months intervention(P＞0.05).2.There were significant differences between n-3 PUFA intervention group and control group on EPA,DHA and n-6/n-3 at 2 points of time(P0.05);干预前和干预后n-3PUFA组和安慰剂组之间BDI的得分上的均差异无显著性(P>0.05).2.2组红细胞膜中二十碳五烯酸水平,二十二碳六烯酸水平及n-6/n-3水平干预1.5个月和干预3个月时均差异具有显著性(P<0.05).结论 n-3不饱和脂肪酸无辅助治疗抑郁症的作用.
Li, Duo; Weisinger, Harrison S; Weisinger, Richard S; Mathai, Michael; Armitage, James A; Vingrys, Algis J; Sinclair, Andrew J
Failure to provide omega 3 fatty acids in the perinatal period results in alterations in nerve growth factor levels, dopamine production and permanent elevations in blood pressure. The present study investigated whether changes in brain (i.e., hypothalamus) glycerophospholipid fatty acid profiles induced by a diet rich in omega 6 fatty acids and very low in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during pregnancy and the perinatal period could be reversed by subsequent feeding of a diet containing ALA. Female rats (6 per group) were mated and fed either a low ALA diet or a control diet containing ALA throughout pregnancy and until weaning of the pups at 3 weeks. At weaning, the pups (20 per group) remained on the diet of their mothers until 9 weeks, when half the pups were switched onto the other diet, thus generating four groups of animals. At 33 weeks, pups were killed, the hypothalamus dissected from the male rats and analysed for glycerophospholipid fatty acids. In the animals fed the diet with very little ALA and then re-fed the control diet containing high levels of ALA for 24 weeks, the DHA levels were still significantly less than the control values in PE, PS and PI fractions, by 9%, 18% and 34%, respectively. In this group, but not in the other dietary groups, ALA was detected in all glycerophospholipid classes at 0.2-1.7% of the total fatty acids. The results suggest that omega 6-3 PUFA imbalance early in life leads to irreversible changes in hypothalamic composition. The increased ALA and reduced DHA proportions in the animals re-fed ALA in later life are consistent with a dysfunction or down-regulation of the conversion of ALA to 18:4n-3 by the delta-6 desaturase.
Guichardant, Michel; Calzada, Catherine; Bernoud-Hubac, Nathalie; Lagarde, Michel; Véricel, Evelyne
Numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials have reported the health benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including a lower risk of coronary heart diseases. This review mainly focuses on the effects of alpha-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids on some risk factors associated with atherothrombosis, including platelet activation, plasma lipid concentrations and oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Special focus is given to the effects of marine PUFA on the formation of eicosanoids and docosanoids, and to the bioactive properties of some oxygenated metabolites of omega-3 PUFA produced by cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. The antioxidant effects of marine omega-3 PUFA at low concentrations and the pro-oxidant effects of DHA at high concentrations on the redox status of platelets and LDL are highlighted. Non enzymatic peroxidation end-products deriving from omega-3 PUFA such as hydroxy-hexenals, neuroketals and EPA-derived isoprostanes are also considered in relation to atherosclerosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance".
Cicero, Arrigo F G; Morbini, Martino; Borghi, Claudio
The therapeutic value of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mainly (but not only) found in fish oils, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA, respectively), has been extensively studied in a wide variety of disease conditions, predominantly in cardiovascular disease. However, the significant difference in efficacy observed in various conditions with different dosages seems to be at least partly related to the large discrepancy in quality of the product and to the bioavailability of the omega-3 PUFA. The research of new sources (e.g., from arctic Krill oil) and pharmaceutical forms of omega-3 PUFA (e.g., omega-3 carboxylic acids) is needed in order to detect the one with the best bioavailability and efficacy, and with a parallel reduction in the production costs. There is also the need to understand if long-term PUFA supplementation could increase the efficacy of the already-available evidence-based therapies for cardiovascular disease prevention and for the management of the diseases where the use of PUFA could have a possible improving effect.
O. M. Drapkina
Full Text Available Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiology is so high that in many countries omega-3 fatty acids are included into the treatment protocols for patients with cardiovascular diseases. This therapeutic class slows down oxidative stress and chronic inflammation processes, thereby providing a significant contribution to the complex treatment of hypertension. Besides, omega-3 fatty acids slow down the aging process and prevent the development of age-related diseases affecting the rate of telomere shortening.
Szostak, Agnieszka; Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Pas, Te Marinus F.W.; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Juszczuk Kubiak, Edyta; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R.; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O.; Pierzchała, Mariusz
The optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is important for keeping the homeostasis of biological processes and metabolism, yet the underlying biological mechanism is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify changes in the pig liver transcriptom
Zanetti, Michela; Grillo, Andrea; Losurdo, Pasquale; Panizon, Emiliano; Mearelli, Filippo; Cattin, Luigi; Barazzoni, Rocco; Carretta, Renzo
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Increasing evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA on arterial wall properties is progressively emerging. We reviewed the recent available evidence for the cardiovascular effects of n-3 PUFA focusing on structural and functional properties of the vascular wall. In experimental studies and clinical trials n-3 PUFA have shown the ability to improve arterial hemodynamics by reducing arterial stiffness, thus explaining some of its cardioprotective properties. Recent studies suggest beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on endothelial activation, which are likely to improve vascular function. Several molecular, cellular, and physiological pathways influenced by n-3 PUFA can affect arterial wall properties and therefore interfere with the atherosclerotic process. Although the relative weight of different physiological and molecular mechanisms and the dose-response on arterial wall properties have yet to be determined, n-3 PUFA have the potential to beneficially impact arterial wall remodeling and cardiovascular outcomes by targeting arterial wall stiffening and endothelial dysfunction.
Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Increasing evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA on arterial wall properties is progressively emerging. We reviewed the recent available evidence for the cardiovascular effects of n-3 PUFA focusing on structural and functional properties of the vascular wall. In experimental studies and clinical trials n-3 PUFA have shown the ability to improve arterial hemodynamics by reducing arterial stiffness, thus explaining some of its cardioprotective properties. Recent studies suggest beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on endothelial activation, which are likely to improve vascular function. Several molecular, cellular, and physiological pathways influenced by n-3 PUFA can affect arterial wall properties and therefore interfere with the atherosclerotic process. Although the relative weight of different physiological and molecular mechanisms and the dose-response on arterial wall properties have yet to be determined, n-3 PUFA have the potential to beneficially impact arterial wall remodeling and cardiovascular outcomes by targeting arterial wall stiffening and endothelial dysfunction.
de Lorgeril Michel
Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular diseases and cancers are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Reducing dietary saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated fat is still the main dietary strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases, although major flaws have been reported in the analyses supporting this approach. Recent studies introducing the concept of myocardial preconditioning have opened new avenues to understand the complex interplay between the various lipids and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The optimal dietary fat profile includes a low intake of both saturated and omega-6 fatty acids and a moderate intake of omega-3 fatty acids. This profile is quite similar to the Mediterranean diet. On the other hand, recent studies have found a positive association between omega-6 and breast cancer risk. In contrast, omega-3 fatty acids do have anticancer properties. It has been shown that certain (Mediterranean polyphenols significantly increase the endogenous synthesis of omega-3 whereas high intake of omega-6 decreases it. Finally, epidemiological studies suggest that a high omega-3 to omega-6 ratio may be the optimal strategy to decrease breast cancer risk. Thus, the present high intake of omega-6 in many countries is definitely not the optimal strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease and cancers. A moderate intake of plant and marine omega-3 in the context of the traditional Mediterranean diet (low in saturated and omega-6 fatty acids but high in plant monounsaturated fat appears to be the best approach to reduce the risk of both cardiovascular diseases and cancers, in particular breast cancer.
Zhang, Enji; Kim, Jwa-Jin; Shin, Nara; Yin, Yuhua; Nan, Yongshan; Xu, Yinshi; Hong, Jinpyo; Hsu, Tzung Min; Chung, Woosuk; Ko, Youngkwon; Lee, Wonhyung; Lim, Kyu; Kim, Dong Woon; Lee, Sun Yeul
Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as α-linolenic and linoleic acids, are essential fatty acids in mammals, because they cannot be synthesized de novo. However, fat-1 transgenic mice can synthesize omega-3 PUFAs from omega-6 PUFAs without dietary supplementation of omega-3, leading to abundant omega-3 PUFA accumulation in various tissues. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice to investigate the role of omega-3 PUFAs in response to inflammatory pain. A high omega-3 PUFA tissue content attenuated formalin-induced pain sensitivity, microglial activation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and the phosphorylation of NR2B, a subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Our findings suggest that elevated omega-3 PUFA levels inhibit NMDA receptor activity in the spinal dorsal horn and modulate inflammatory pain transmission by regulating signal transmission at the spinal dorsal horn, leading to the attenuation of chemically induced inflammatory pain.
n-3 fatty acids might be of benefit include obesity, Crohn's disease, ... and Child Health Foundation ..... http://www.sacn.gov.uk/pdfs/fics_sacn_advice_fish.pdf. 7. ... of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism; Council on ...
Robert K. McNamara
Full Text Available Major depression disorder (MDD significantly increases the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD which is a leading cause of mortality in patients with MDD. Moreover, depression is frequently observed in a subset of patients following acute coronary syndrome (ACS and increases risk for mortality. Here evidence implicating omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid deficiency in the pathoaetiology of CHD and MDD is reviewed, and the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acid deficiency is a preventable risk factor for CHD comorbidity in MDD patients is evaluated. This hypothesis is supported by cross-national and cross-sectional epidemiological surveys finding an inverse correlation between n-3 fatty acid status and prevalence rates of both CHD and MDD, prospective studies finding that lower dietary or membrane EPA+DHA levels increase risk for both MDD and CHD, case-control studies finding that the n-3 fatty acid status of MDD patients places them at high risk for emergent CHD morbidity and mortality, meta-analyses of controlled n-3 fatty acid intervention studies finding significant advantage over placebo for reducing depression symptom severity in MDD patients, and for secondary prevention of cardiac events in CHD patients, findings that n-3 fatty acid status is inversely correlated with other documented CHD risk factors, and patients diagnosed with MDD after ACS exhibit significantly lower n-3 fatty acid status compared with nondepressed ACS patients. This body of evidence provides strong support for future studies to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary n-3 fatty acid status on CHD comorbidity and mortality in MDD patients.
Mozaffarian, Dariush; Wu, Jason H Y
Considerable research supports cardiovascular benefits of consuming omega-3 PUFA, also known as (n-3) PUFA, from fish or fish oil. Whether individual long-chain (n-3) PUFA have shared or complementary effects is not well established. We reviewed evidence for dietary and endogenous sources and cardiovascular effects on biologic pathways, physiologic risk factors, and clinical endpoints of EPA [20:5(n-3)], docosapentaenoic acid [DPA, 22:5(n-3)], and DHA [22:6(n-3)]. DHA requires direct dietary consumption, with little synthesis from or retroconversion to DPA or EPA. Whereas EPA is also largely derived from direct consumption, EPA can also be synthesized in small amounts from plant (n-3) precursors, especially stearidonic acid. In contrast, DPA appears principally derived from endogenous elongation from EPA, and DPA can also undergo retroconversion back to EPA. In experimental and animal models, both EPA and DHA modulate several relevant biologic pathways, with evidence for some differential benefits. In humans, both fatty acids lower TG levels and, based on more limited studies, favorably affect cardiac diastolic filling, arterial compliance, and some metrics of inflammation and oxidative stress. All three (n-3) PUFA reduce ex vivo platelet aggregation and DHA also modestly increases LDL and HDL particle size; the clinical relevance of such findings is uncertain. Combined EPA+DHA or DPA+DHA levels are associated with lower risk of fatal cardiac events and DHA with lower risk of atrial fibrillation, suggesting direct or indirect benefits of DHA for cardiac arrhythmias (although not excluding similar benefits of EPA or DPA). Conversely, EPA and DPA, but not DHA, are associated with lower risk of nonfatal cardiovascular endpoints in some studies, and purified EPA reduced risk of nonfatal coronary syndromes in one large clinical trial. Overall, for many cardiovascular pathways and outcomes, identified studies of individual (n-3) PUFA were relatively limited, especially
MJ Zibaee Nezhad
Full Text Available Background: The fatty acids of omega-3 family have high nutritional value and can prevent coronary heart disease.These fatty acids are found in various fish and sea foods. To investigate the level of omega-3 fatty acids indifferent kind of fish head, muscle and liver from 30 species of fish collected from Persian Gulf.Material and Methods: In this experimental study, the fish were collected by hunting from Boushehr and Hormozgansea ports. Their head, muscle and liver fatty acids were determined on their methylated fatty acids dissolvedin N-hexin. Quantitative analysis of fatty acids was performed by gas chromatography (GC with methylmyristateused as the reference material in this analysis and the qualitative analysis of fatty acids was done bygas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC- mass and cod liver oil which contained all of omega-3 fattyacids used as standard.Results: Our study showed that some fish were good sources of omega-3 fatty acids and Trout (Ghezel-ALA,Bartail flathead (Zaminkan-e-domnavari, Malabar blood snapper (Sorkhoo malabari had maximum levels ofomega-3 in all body tissues. Other types of fish were rich in omega 3 fatty acids in separate organs, such as liverin Bartail flathead (Zaminkan-e-domnavari, head in Sillago Sihama (Shoort and muscle in Trout (Ghezel-ALA. In contrast, lesser amount of omega 3 fatty acids is found in tissues of other species of fish such as Silverpomfret (Halva sefid, Longfin trevally (Gish-e-derazbale and Xiphophorus Hellerii (Dom-shamshiri.Conclusion: This research showed that the liver of fish had the highest level of omega-3 fatty acids and fish musclecontained more omega-3 fatty acids than the head. Thus for having maximum levels of omega-3 fatty acids inthe diet, all fish tissues can be served. As liver and head of fish are not usually consumed, it is recommended thatsuch organs be used for preparation of omega 3-containing cardio supportive supplements.
Nielsen, G L; Faarvang, K L; Thomsen, B S
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on disease variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind. SETTING: Three Danish hospital Departments of Rheumato...
Laino, Carlos Horacio; Garcia, Pilar; Podestá, María Fernanda; Höcht, Christian; Slobodianik, Nora; Reinés, Analía
We previously reported that combined fluoxetine administration at antidepressant doses renders additive antidepressant effects, whereas non-antidepressant doses potentiate the omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate putative pharmacokinetic and brain omega-3 fatty acid-related aspects for fluoxetine potentiation of omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect in rats. Coadministration of omega-3 fatty acids with a non-antidepressant dose of fluoxetine (1 mg/kg day) failed to affect both brain fluoxetine concentration and norfluoxetine plasma concentration profile. Fluoxetine plasma concentrations remained below the sensitivity limit of the detection method. Either antidepressant (10 mg/kg day) or non-antidepressant (1 mg/kg day) doses of fluoxetine in combination with omega-3 fatty acids increased hippocampal docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 omega-3) levels. Although individual treatments had no effects on DPA concentration, DPA increase was higher when omega-3 were combined with the non-antidepressant dose of fluoxetine. Chronic DPA administration exerted antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test while increasing hippocampal docosahexaenoic (22:6 omega-3) and DPA levels. Our results suggest no pharmacokinetic interaction and reveal specific hippocampal DPA changes after fluoxetine and omega-3 combined treatments in our experimental conditions. The DPA role in the synergistic effect of fluoxetine and omega-3 combined treatments will be for sure the focus of future studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:3316-3325, 2014.
Harsharan Singh Bhatia
Full Text Available Omega-3-fatty acid DHA is a structural component of brain plasma membranes, thereby crucial for neuronal signaling; however, the brain is inefficient at synthesizing DHA. We have asked how levels of dietary n-3 fatty acids during brain growth would affect brain function and plasticity during adult life. Pregnant rats and their male offspring were fed an n-3 adequate diet or n-3 deficient diets for 15 weeks. Results showed that the n-3 deficiency increased parameters of anxiety-like behavior using open field and elevated plus maze tests in the male offspring. Behavioral changes were accompanied by a level reduction in the anxiolytic-related neuropeptide Y-1 receptor, and an increase in the anxiogenic-related glucocorticoid receptor in the cognitive related frontal cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus. The n-3 deficiency reduced brain levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and increased the ratio n-6/n-3 assessed by gas chromatography. The n-3 deficiency reduced the levels of BDNF and signaling through the BDNF receptor TrkB, in proportion to brain DHA levels, and reduced the activation of the BDNF-related signaling molecule CREB in selected brain regions. The n-3 deficiency also disrupted the insulin signaling pathways as evidenced by changes in insulin receptor (IR and insulin receptor substrate (IRS. DHA deficiency during brain maturation reduces plasticity and compromises brain function in adulthood. Adequate levels of dietary DHA seem crucial for building long-term neuronal resilience for optimal brain performance and aiding in the battle against neurological disorders.
Cao, Yong; Lu, Lei; Liang, Jun; Liu, Min; Li, Xianchi; Sun, RongRong; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Peiying
The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing dramatically especially in developing countries like India. CVD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. There has been a growing awareness of the role of nutrients in the prevention of CVD. One specific recommendation in the battle against CVD is the increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids, which are polyunsaturated fatty acids. Studies have reported inverse associations of CVD with dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids, suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids supplementation might exert protective effects on CVD. They exert their cardioprotective effect through multiple mechanisms. Omega-3 fatty acid therapy has shown promise as a useful tool in the primary and secondary prevention of CVD. This review briefly summarizes the effects of omega-3 fatty acids in primary and secondary prevention of CVD.
Increasing recognition of the importance of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has caused greater attention about dietary intake of these fatty acids. Fatty fish is the major dietary source of these fatty acids. Because of the low intake of fish at many places, foods...... enriched with omega-3 LCPUFA can be good alternatives to improve the intake of these fatty acids. Effects of lipid structures and food matrices on bioavailability of omega-3 LCPUFA have been investigated. Short term studies showed that both lipid structure and food matrix affect the bioavailability...
Kayode A Balogun
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Omega (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are converted to bioactive lipid components that are important mediators in metabolic and physiological pathways; however, which bioactive compounds are metabolically active, and their mechanisms of action are still not clear. We investigated using lipidomic techniques, the effects of diets high in n-3 PUFA on the fatty acid composition of various bioactive lipids in plasma and liver. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female C57BL/6 mice were fed semi-purified diets (20% w/w fat containing varying amounts of n-3 PUFA before mating, during gestation and lactation, and until weaning. Male offspring were continued on their mothers' diets for 16 weeks. Hepatic and plasma lipids were extracted in the presence of non-naturally occurring internal standards, and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry methods were used to measure the fatty acyl compositions. There was no significant difference in total concentrations of phospholipids in both groups. However, there was a significantly higher concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid containing phosphatidylcholine (PC, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, and cholesteryl esters (CE (p < 0.01 in the high n-3 PUFA group compared to the low n-3 PUFA group in both liver and plasma. Plasma and liver from the high n-3 PUFA group also had a higher concentration of free n-3 PUFA (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in plasma concentrations of different fatty acyl species of phosphatidylethanolamine, triglycerides, sphingomyelin and ceramides. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings reveal for the first time that a diet high in n-3 PUFA caused enrichment of n-3 PUFA in PC, LPC, CE and free fatty acids in the plasma and liver of C57BL/6 mice. PC, LPC, and unesterified free n-3 PUFA are important bioactive lipids, thus altering their fatty acyl composition will have important metabolic and physiological roles.
Howe, Peter R. C.; Buckley, Jonathan D.
Current recommendations for counteracting obesity advocate the consumption of a healthy diet and participation in regular physical activity, but many individuals have difficulty complying with these recommendations. Studies in rodents and humans have indicated that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) potentially elicit a number of effects which might be useful for reducing obesity, including suppression of appetite, improvements in circulation which might facilitate n...
Brouwer, DAJ; Hettema, Y; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ
Augmentation of long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acid (LCPUFA omega 3) status can be reached by consumption of fish oil or by improvement of the conversion of a-linolenic acid (ALA) to LCPUFA omega 3. Since gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) might activate the rate-limiting Delta-6 desaturation, we
Brouwer, DAJ; Hettema, Y; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ
Augmentation of long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acid (LCPUFA omega 3) status can be reached by consumption of fish oil or by improvement of the conversion of a-linolenic acid (ALA) to LCPUFA omega 3. Since gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) might activate the rate-limiting Delta-6 desaturation, we
Adarme-Vega, T Catalina; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Schenk, Peer M
Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docohexaenoic acid (DHA), provide significant health benefits for brain function/development and cardiovascular conditions. However, most EPA and DHA for human consumption is sourced from small fatty fish caught in coastal waters and, with depleting global fish stocks, recent research has been directed towards more sustainable sources. These include aquaculture with plant-based feeds, krill, marine microalgae, microalgae-like protists and genetically-modified plants. To meet the increasing demand for EPA and DHA, further developments are needed towards land-based sources. In particular large-scale cultivation of microalgae and plants is likely to become a reality with expected reductions in production costs, yield increasese and the adequate addressing of genetically modified food acceptance issues.
Full Text Available Omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 and n-3 PUFA can modulate inflammatory processes. In western diets, the content of n-6 PUFA is much higher than that of n-3 PUFA, which has been suggested to promote a pro-inflammatory phenotype. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of modulating the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio on the formation of monohydroxylated fatty acid (HO-FAs derived from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA and the n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in THP-1 macrophages by means of LC-MS. Lipid metabolites were measured in THP-1 macrophage cell pellets. The concentration of AA-derived hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs was not significantly changed when incubated THP-1 macrophages in a high AA/(EPA+DHA ratio of 19/1 vs. a low ratio AA/(EPA+DHA of 1/1 (950.6 ± 110 ng/mg vs. 648.2 ± 92.4 ng/mg, p = 0.103. Correspondingly, the concentration of EPA-derived hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (HEPEs and DHA-derived hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (HDHAs were significantly increased (63.9 ± 7.8 ng/mg vs. 434.4 ± 84.3 ng/mg, p = 0.012 and 84.9 ± 18.3 ng/mg vs. 439.4 ± 82.7 ng/mg, p = 0.014, respectively. Most notable was the strong increase of 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE formation in THP-1 macrophages, with levels of 170.9 ± 40.2 ng/mg protein in the high n-3 PUFA treated cells. Thus our data indicate that THP-1 macrophages prominently utilize EPA and DHA for monohydroxylated metabolite formation, in particular 18-HEPE, which has been shown to be released by macrophages to prevent pressure overload-induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling.
Antigoni Z. Lalia
Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA of marine origin, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, have been long studied for their therapeutic potential in the context of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and glucose homeostasis. Glaring discordance between observations in animal and human studies precludes, to date, any practical application of n-3 PUFA as nutritional therapeutics against insulin resistance in humans. Our objective in this review is to summarize current knowledge and provide an up-to-date commentary on the therapeutic value of EPA and DHA supplementation for improving insulin sensitivity in humans. We also sought to discuss potential mechanisms of n-3 PUFA action in target tissues, in specific skeletal muscle, based on our recent work, as well as in liver and adipose tissue. We conducted a literature search to include all preclinical and clinical studies performed within the last two years and to comment on representative studies published earlier. Recent studies support a growing consensus that there are beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on insulin sensitivity in rodents. Observational studies in humans are encouraging, however, the vast majority of human intervention studies fail to demonstrate the benefit of n-3 PUFA in type 2 diabetes or insulin-resistant non-diabetic people. Nevertheless, there are still several unanswered questions regarding the potential impact of n-3 PUFA on metabolic function in humans.
Diana L Bonilla
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Beside their health benefits, dietary omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA might impair host resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb by creating an immunosuppressive environment. We hypothesized that incorporation of n-3 PUFA suppresses activation of macrophage antimycobacterial responses and favors bacterial growth, in part, by modulating the IFNgamma-mediated signaling pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Murine macrophage-like J774A.1 cells were incubated with bovine serum albumin (BSA-conjugated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3 or BSA alone, activated with recombinant IFNgamma, and infected with a virulent strain (H37Rv of M. tuberculosis. The fatty acid composition of macrophage membranes was modified significantly by DHA treatment. DHA-treated macrophages were less effective in controlling intracellular mycobacteria and showed impaired oxidative metabolism and reduced phagolysosome maturation. Incorporation of DHA resulted in defective macrophage activation, as characterized by reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-6 and MCP-1, and lower expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD40 and CD86. DHA treatment impaired STAT1 phosphorylation and colocalization of the IFNgamma receptor with lipid rafts, without affecting surface expression of IFNgamma receptor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that DHA reduces the ability of J774A.1 cells to control M. tuberculosis in response to activation by IFNgamma, by modulation of IFNgamma receptor signaling and function, suggesting that n-3 PUFA-enriched diets may have a detrimental effect on host immunity to tuberculosis.
Bangia, Deepika; Palmer-Keenan, Debra M
To determine whether listening to a podcast about omega-3 fatty acids (n-3s) while grocery shopping increased shoppers' awareness about and purchases of seafood and other foods rich in n-3s. Repeated-measures design with a convenience sample (n = 56) of grocery shoppers who listened to the podcast while shopping. Pre- and postintervention semistructured interviews were conducted. The Theory of Reasoned Action was the study's framework. Shoppers were primarily females (mean age, 41 ± 15.3 years). Their perceived ability to buy [t(55) = 6.27, P Podcasts may effectively communicate nutrition information. More research with a larger sample size is needed to evaluate the effects of the podcast on long-term changes in shopping behavior. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koh, Kwang Kon; Oh, Pyung Chun; Sakuma, Ichiro; Lee, Yonghee; Han, Seung Hwan; Shin, Eak Kyun
Effects of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) combined with fenofibrate are not yet investigated, compared with fenofibrate. This was a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Age, sex, and body mass index were matched among groups. All patients were recommended to maintain a low fat diet. Fifty patients with hypertriglyceridemia in each group were given placebo, n-3 FA 2g+fenofibrate 160mg (combination), or fenofibrate 160mg, respectively daily for 2months. Placebo, combination, and fenofibrate significantly decreased triglycerides by 7%, 41% and 30%, respectively and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio by 11%, 45% and 32%, respectively relative to baseline measurements (all Phypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Crohns disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that can have a significant impact on the health of those afflicted. The etiology of the disease is unknown, but genetic, environmental, dietary, and immunological factors are thought to be involved. Multiple nutrients can become depleted during active disease due to inadequate intake or malabsorption. Preventing these deficiencies is paramount in the care of those suffering from Crohns disease. Often the traditional treatments (medications) have limited effectiveness and negative side effects that inhibit their use. Enteral nutrition has promising therapeutic benefits, but its use is often limited to the pediatric population due to poor patient acceptability. Omega-3 fatty acids have been investigated for their anti-inflammatory properties as an alternative to traditional care. This article reviews the etiology of Crohns disease, nutritional deficiencies, traditional treatments, and the use of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of Crohns recurrence. The results from clinical trials have been conflicting, but a new fish oil preparation that limits the side effects of traditional fish oil therapy shows promise as an adjunctive treatment for Crohns disease. Continued research is needed to validate these findings.
Dmitry Evgeniyevich Karateev
Full Text Available Objective: to study the effect of a drug of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA in patients with early undifferentiated peripheral arthritis (UPA on the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, the induction of remission, the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs, the immunological manifestations of the disease during a 12-week follow-up. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 40 patients with UPA and a symptom duration of less than 12 months, who took nonsteroidal anti-inflamma tory drugs (NSAIDs and omega-3 PUFA (Vitrum Cardio Omega-3 as one capsule twice daily for 12 weeks. A control group comprised 20 patients with UPA receiving therapy with NSAIDs for 3 months. The groups did not differ significantly (p > 0.05 in age (42.98±10.81 and 48.25±13.92 years, the duration of symptoms (6.73±2.81 and 5.95±2.54 months, the number of patients positive for rheumatoid factor [14 (35% and 7 (35%] and antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide [9 (22.5% and 7 (35%] patients, the duration of morning stiffness (35.6±25.82 and 37.0±19.15 min, the number of swollen (3.08±1.39 and 3.30±1.21 and tender (3.63±1.63 and 3.85±1.69 joints, and DAS 28 (4.21±0.65 and 4.35±0.63. Results. The use of omega-3 PUFA did not affect significantly the incidence of RA and the use of DMARDs. Clinical remission and low DAS28 were considerably observed in the study group patients, but no statistical significance was achieved. The dose of NSAIDs, including on-demand drugs, was decreased in 22 (55% and 4 (20% patients in the study and control groups, respectively (p = 0.013. At 12 weeks, the study group showed signifi cant reductions in the number of tender joints, the duration of morning stiffness, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, DAS 28, and interleukin 6 levels (p < 0.05; no significant changes were found in the control group. There were no significant differences in the frequency of undesirable events. Conclusion. Omega-3 PUFAs
Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.
We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all…
Guallar, E.; Aro, A.; Jiménez, F.J.; Martín-Moreno, J.M.; Salminen, I.; Veer, P. van 't; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Gömez-Aracena, J.; Martin, B.C.; Kohlmeier, L.; Kark, J.D.; Mazaev, V.P.; Ringstad, J.; Guillén, J.; Riemersma, R.A.; Huttunen, J.K.; Thamm, M.; Kok, F.J.
Omega-3 fatty acids have potential antiatherogenic, antithrombotic, and antiarrhythmic properties, but their role in coronary heart disease remains controversial. To evaluate the association of omega-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue with the risk of myocardial infarction in men, a case-control study
Kromhout, D.; Yasuda, S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Shimokawa, H.
Omega-3 fatty acids, which are found abundantly in fish oil, exert pleiotropic cardiometabolic effects with a diverse range of actions. The results of previous studies raised a lot of interest in the role of fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disea
Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.
We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all…
Baumgartner, J.; Smuts, C.M.; Malan, L.; Kvalsvig, J.; Stuijvenberg, van M.E.; Hurrell, R.F.; Zimmermann, M.B.
Background: Little is known about the combined effects of iron and n-3 (omega-3) fatty acid (FA) supplementation on cognitive performance. The provision of either DHA/EPA or iron alone in rats with combined iron and n-3 FA deficiency has been reported to exacerbate cognitive deficits associated with
Tortosa-Caparrós, Esther; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Marín, Francisco; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban
A lipid excess produces a systemic inflammation process due to tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein synthesis. Simultaneously, this fat excess promotes the appearance of insulin resistance. All this contributes to the development of atherosclerosis and increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (omega 3), and arachidonic acid (omega 6) have shown anti-inflammatory properties. Lately, an inverse relationship between omega-3 fatty acids, inflammation, obesity and cardiovascular diseases has been demonstrated. To check fatty acids effect, the levels of some inflammation biomarkers have been analyzed. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin represent a group of hormones associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance and are modified in obese-overweight people comparing to normal weight people. Omega-3 PUFAs have been shown to decrease the production of inflammatory mediators, having a positive effect in obesity and diabetes mellitus type-2. Moreover, they significantly decrease the appearance of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Regarding omega-6 PUFA, there is controversy whether their effects are pro- or anti-inflammatory. The aim of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive overview about the role of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs in cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome.
Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Ortiz Vazquez, Elizabeth De La Luz; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi
Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFAs), a functional component present in vegetable oils, are generally recognized as being beneficial to health. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds and unsaturated in nature; this attribute makes them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation and unfit for incorporation into long shelf life foods. The microencapsulation of oils in a polymeric matrix (mainly polysaccharides) offers the possibility of controlled release of the lipophilic functional ingredient and can be useful for the supplementation of foods with PUFAs. The present paper provides a literature review of different vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids, the functional effects of omega-3 fatty acids, different microencapsulation methods that can possibly be used for the encapsulation of oils, the properties of vegetable oil microcapsules, the effect of encapsulation on oxidation stability and fatty acid composition of vegetable oils, and the incorporation of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods.
Nicolai, Eleonora; Sinibaldi, Federica; Sannino, Gianpaolo; Laganà, Giuseppina; Basoli, Francesco; Licoccia, Silvia; Cozza, Paola; Santucci, Roberto; Piro, Maria Cristina
Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been reported to play a protective role in a wide range of diseases characterized by an increased metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity. The recent finding that omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids exert an anti-inflammatory effect in periodontal diseases has stimulated the present study, designed to determine whether such properties derive from a direct inhibitory action of these compounds on the activity of MMPs. To this issue, we investigated the effect exerted by omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, two enzymes that actively participate to the destruction of the organic matrix of dentin following demineralization operated by bacteria acids. Data obtained (both in vitro and on ex-vivo teeth) reveal that omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids inhibit the proteolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, two enzymes present in dentin. This observation is of interest since it assigns to these compounds a key role as MMPs inhibitors, and stimulates further study to better define their therapeutic potentialities in carious decay.
Hill, Jr, Charles G.
Full Text Available A commercial phospholipase A1 (LecitaseÂ® Ultra was immobilized by physical adsorption on DuoliteÂ® and then used to mediate the incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into lecithin. Adsorption isotherms showed that 12 h of contact were sufficient to deposit most of the enzyme onto the carrier. A pH of 7 and 50Â°C were the best conditions for adsorption. Reaction mixtures consisting of lecithin and a saponified fish oil concentrate (78.4 mol % EPA+DPA+DHA were prepared at molar ratios ranging from 1:2 to 1:10. Typically 2 g of total substrates and 200 mg of enzyme preparation were employed in batch reactor trials. The fastest reaction rates were observed when a substrate mole ratio of 1:8 (lecithin:total fatty acids was employed. Use of the enzyme preparation dried at pH 8 and reaction temperatures of 50 and 60Â°C produced the greatest extent of incorporation of the indicated n-3 fatty acids into the phospholipid after 24h of reaction.Una preparación comercial de fosfolipasa A1 (LecitaseÂ® Ultra fue inmovilizada por adsorción sobre DuoliteÂ® y empleada para catalizar la incorporación de ácidos grasos n-3 en lecitina. Las isotermas de adsorción mostraron que en 12 horas de contacto se depositó la mayor cantidad de enzima sobre el soporte. Las mejores condiciones para la adsorción se encontraron a un valor de pH de 7 y 50Â°C. Las mezclas de reacción consistieron en lecitina y un saponificado de concentrado de aceite de pescado (78.4 mol % EPA+DPA+DHA a relaciones molares de 1:2 a 1:10. Una mezcla de reacción típica consistió de 2 g de sustratos y 200 mg del preparado enzimático en un reactor en lotes. Las velocidades de reacción mas altas se encontraron cuando se empleó una relación molar de sustratos de 1:8 (lecitina:ácidos grasos totales. El preparado enzimático secado a pH de 8.0 a 50 o 60Â°C produjo las más altas incorporaciones de ácidos grasos n-3 en el fosfolípido después de 24 h de reacción.
In this thesis, the results of cross-sectional studies on the relationship of depression with adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been described. The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether adipose tissue n-3 fatty acids, an objective index or biomarker of long-term or habitual
Geelen, A.; Brouwer, I.A.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.
Purpose of review N-3 fatty acids from fish reduce cardiovascular mortality including sudden cardiac death. In this paper, the authors discuss the results of human studies with regard to the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of fatal coronary heart disease through antiarrhythmic effect
In this thesis, the results of cross-sectional studies on the relationship of depression with adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been described. The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether adipose tissue n-3 fatty acids, an objective index or biomarker of long-term or habitual
Lakhwani, Lalit; Tongia, Sudheer K; Pal, Veerendra S; Agrawal, Rajendra P; Nyati, Prem; Phadnis, Pradeep
Forced swimming test is used to induce a characteristic behavior of immobility in rats, which resembles depression in humans to some extent. We evaluated the effect of omega-3 fatty acids alone as well as compared it with the standard antidepressant therapy with fluoxetine in both acute and chronic studies. In both the studies, rats were divided into 4 groups and subjected to the following drug interventions - Group 1- control: Group 2- fluoxetine in dose of 10 mg/kg subcutaneously 23.5, 5 and 1 h before the test: Group 3- omega-3 fatty acids in dose of 500 mg/kg orally; Group 4- fluoxetine plus omega-3 fatty acids both. In acute study, omega-3 fatty acids were given in single dose 2 h prior to the test while in chronic study omega-3 fatty acids were given daily for a period of 28 days. All animals were subjected to a 15-min pretest followed 24 h later by a 5-min test. A time sampling method was used to score the behavioral activity in each group. The results revealed that in acute study, omega-3 fatty acids do not have any significant effect in forced swimming test. However, in chronic study, omega-3 fatty acids affect the immobility and swimming behavior significantly when compared with control (p climbing behavior and the efficacy of combination of omega-3 fatty acids and fluoxetine is significantly more than that of fluoxetine alone in changing the behavioral activity of rats in forced swimming test. It leads to the conclusion that omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity per se, and the combination of fluoxetine and omega-3 fatty acids has more antidepressant efficacy than fluoxetine alone in forced swimming test in Wistar rats.
Full Text Available Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by two weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at three and six hours after intake were analysed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 fatty acids from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.
Sieswerda Lee E
Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determine whether omega-3 PUFA are likely to be efficacious in these disorders. Results Most trials involved a small number of participants but were largely well designed. Omega-3 PUFA were well tolerated by both children and adults with mild gastrointestinal effects being the only consistently reported adverse event. For schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder we found little evidence of a robust clinically relevant effect. In the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and related disorders, most trials showed at most small benefits over placebo. A limited meta-analysis of these trials suggested that benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplementation may be greater in a classroom setting than at home. Some evidence indicates that omega-3 PUFA may reduce symptoms of anxiety although the data is preliminary and inconclusive. The most convincing evidence for beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA is to be found in mood disorders. A meta-analysis of trials involving patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder provided evidence that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces symptoms of depression. Furthermore, meta-regression analysis suggests that supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid may be more beneficial in mood disorders than with docosahexaenoic acid, although several confounding factors prevented a definitive conclusion being made regarding which species of omega-3 PUFA is most beneficial. The mechanisms underlying the apparent efficacy of
Hou, Tim Y; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown in many clinical studies to attenuate inflammatory responses. Although inflammatory responses are orchestrated by a wide spectrum of cells, CD4(+) T cells play an important role in the etiology of many chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and obesity. In light of recent concerns over the safety profiles of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), alternatives such as bioactive nutraceuticals are becoming more attractive. In order for these agents to be accepted into mainstream medicine, however, the mechanisms by which nutraceuticals such as n-3 PUFA exert their anti-inflammatory effects must be fully elucidated. Lipid rafts are nanoscale, dynamic domains in the plasma membrane that are formed through favorable lipid-lipid (cholesterol, sphingolipids, and saturated fatty acids) and lipid-protein (membrane-actin cytoskeleton) interactions. These domains optimize the clustering of signaling proteins at the membrane to facilitate efficient cell signaling which is required for CD4(+) T cell activation and differentiation. This review summarizes novel emerging data documenting the ability of n-3 PUFA to perturb membrane-cytoskeletal structure and function in CD4(+) T cells. An understanding of these underlying mechanisms will provide a rationale for the use of n-3 PUFA in the treatment of chronic inflammation.
Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana
Our recent study indicates that maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status influence plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profile in dams. The present study examines the effects of prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status on lipid metabolism in the offspring. Pregnant dams were divided into five groups: Control; Vitamin B12 deficient (BD); Vitamin B12 supplemented (BS); Vitamin B12 deficient group supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (BDO); Vitamin B12 supplemented group with omega-3 fatty acids (BSO). The offspring were continued on the same diets till 3 month of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency increased cholesterol levels (pomega-3 fatty acids together play a crucial role in regulating the genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult offspring.
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are found in fish oil and they have been shown to mitigate the risk of cardiovascular disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids because they cannot be synthesized de novo and must be consumed from dietary sources such as marine fish. It reduces fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary artery disease, sudden cardiac death, and all-cause mortality. It also has beneficial effects in mortality reduction after a myocardial infarction. Omacor is a highly potent form of Omega-3 fatty acids that lowers plasma triglycerides. In patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia who are refractory to statins, it helps augment triglyceride reduction. Omacor also increases high-density lipoprotein and decreases low-density lipoprotein levels. It is well tolerated with minimal adverse effects and no known interactions causing rhabdomyolysis. In high doses, Omacor has pronounced cardiovascular benefits with improvement of triglycerides and various lipid parameters. Omega-3 fatty acids have also been shown to have beneficial effects on arrhythmias, inflammation, and heart failure. It may also decrease platelet aggregation and induce vasodilation. Omega-3 fatty acids also reduce atherosclerotic plaque formation and stabilize plaques preventing plaque rupture leading to acute coronary syndrome. Moreover, omega-3 fatty acids may have antioxidant properties that improve endothelial function and may contribute to its antiatherosclerotic benefits. In this review, we sought to provide the current literature on the use of omega-3 fatty acids and the potent formulation Omacor in the treatment of coronary artery disease.
Harris, William S.
The omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) found in fish and fish oils (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, EPA and DHA) have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases. Ecological and prospective cohort studies as well as randomized, controlled trials have supported the view that the effects of these FAs are clinically-relevant. They operate via several mechanisms, all beginning with the incorporation of EPA and DHA into cell membranes. From here, these omega...
Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Kottekkat, Anagha; Mathew, Shaji E; Illam, Soorya P; Suseela, Indu M; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C
Omega-3 fatty acids are well-known class of nutraceuticals with established health benefits. Recently, the oxidation products of these fatty acids are gaining attention, as they are likely to disturb body redox balance. Therefore, the efficacy of omega-3 fats under conditions of diminished antioxidant status, such as aging, is always a concern. Present study assessed the effects of omega-3 fats (DHA and EPA) together with or without vitamin-E in naturally aged rats. It was found that in omega-3 fats alone consumed rats the lipid profile was improved, while in omega-3 fat with vitamin-E-consumed group (OMVE), the hepato protective and antioxidant properties were pronounced, especially the redox status of brain tissue. It is possible that vitamin-E might have reduced the peroxidation of omega-3 fats, thereby allowing their synergistic effects. Hence, the use of vitamin-E along with omega-3 fat may be beneficial under aged conditions.
João Angelo Lima Perini
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA on male Swiss mice livers receiving diets based on linseed oil (LO for up to 56 days. The mice were sacrificed at 7, 14, 28, 42, 56 days and FA concentration was analyzed by gas chromatography. A total of 13 FA were identified on LO feeds presenting alpha-linolenic acid (LNA contents of 26.97 %. A total 22 FA were identified in the livers of the mice. Part of the LNA was converted into n-3 FA (20:3n-3, eicosapentaenoic acid-EPA, 22:5n-3, and docosahexaenoic acid-DHA, and some of the LNA was stored in the liver. LNA, EPA and DHA concentrations (mg/g total lipids from 0 days for up 56 days increased from 1.29 to 18.90 (LNA, 0.20 to 18.90 (EPA and 41.26 to 99.17 (DHA.The concentration of n-3 FA in the livers varied with the duration of the LO diet. During LO feed, n-6 FA concentration fell and n-3 FA concentration rose through the experimental period.
Objective. Consumption of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease but the role of their oxygenated metabolites remains unclear. We hypothesized that peroxidized metabolites of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) could play a role in ...
Klaus W. Lange
Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most frequent behavioral disorder of childhood and is characterized by hyperactivity, attention problems and impulsivity. Pharmacological and behavioral therapies have been shown to be effective. In addition, the role of dietary compounds in the etiology and possibly the treatment of ADHD has attracted increasing attention. For example, the lack of dietary essential fatty acids has been suggested to be associated with symptoms of ADHD in humans.Objective: To investigate the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs on locomotor activity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR which has been proposed as an animal model of ADHD.Methods: Two groups of randomly assigned spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed with either n-3 PUFA-deficient or n-3 PUFA-enriched food (based on AIN93G for six weeks and this was continued during the phase of behavioral testing. Locomotor activity was subsequently assessed using an open field test.Results: The results showed a marked difference in locomotor activity between the two groups of SHRs. In comparison with rats fed with n-3 deficient food, the animals on an n-3 enriched diet showed a statistically significant decrease in motor activity as assessed by the distance traveled.Conclusions: The present study demonstrates a marked reduction in locomotor activity following an n-3 PUFA-enriched diet in SHRs, i.e. the dietary enrichment with n-3 PUFAs reduced the motor activity in an established animal model of ADHD. Dietary n-3 PUFAs may therefore play a role in the pathophysiology of ADHD.Key words: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, animal model, spontaneously hypertensive rat, SHR, motor activity
Maes, M; Christophe, A; Delanghe, J; Altamura, C; Neels, H; Meltzer, H Y
Depression is associated with a lowered degree of esterification of serum cholesterol, an increased C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3 ratio and decreases in omega3 fractions in fatty acids (FAs) or in the red blood cell membrane. The aims of the present study were to examine: (i) serum phospholipid and cholesteryl ester compositions of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) in major depressed patients vs. healthy volunteers; (ii) the relationships between the above FAs and lowered serum zinc (Zn), a marker of the inflammatory response in depression; and (iii) the effects of subchronic treatment with antidepressants on FAs in depression. The composition of the FAs was determined by means of thin layer chromatography in conjunction with gas chromatography. Lipid concentrations were assayed by enzymatic colorimetric methods. The oxidative potential index (OPI) of FAs was computed in 34 major depressed inpatients and 14 normal volunteers. Major depression was associated with: increased MUFA and C22:5omega3 proportions and increased C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3 and C22:5omega6/C22:6omega3 ratios; lower C22:4omega6, C20:5omega3 and C22:5omega3 fractions in phospholipids; lower C18:3omega3, C20:5omega3 and total (sigma)omega3 FAs, and higher C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3 and sigmaomega6/sigmaomega3 ratios in cholesteryl esters; lower serum concentrations of phospholipids and cholesteryl esters; and a decreased OPI. In depression, there were significant and positive correlations between serum Zn and C20:5omega3 and C22:6omega3 fractions in phospholipids; and significant inverse correlations between serum Zn and the sigmaomega6/sigmaomega3, C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3, and C22:5omega6/C22:6omega3 ratios in phospholipids. There was no significant effect of antidepressive treatment on any of the FAs. The results show that, in major depression, there is a deficiency of omega3 PUFAs and a compensatory increase in MUFAs and C22:5omega6 in
In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in unsaturated essential fatty acids as they form the framework for the organism's cell membranes, particularly the neurones in the brain, are involved in the energy-transformation process, regulate the information flows between cells. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are also precursors of ''hormonal'' molecules, often with opposing effects, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, lipossines, resolvines, protectines that regulate immunity, platelet aggregation, inflammation, etc. They showed that raised levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 in tissue correlate with a reduced incidence of degenerative cardiovascular disease, some mental illnesses such as depression, and neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. The balance between omega-3 and omega-6 acids allows the cell membranes to develop with exactly the right flexibility and fluidity, to carry messages between neurones, that is a determining factor in physical and mental well-being and has a profound influence on all the body's inflammatory responses. The results of a number of scientific studies suggest that omega-3 acids contribute to measuring and restricting inflammatory symptoms, whereas omega-6 acids (and saturated fats) give free range to inflammatory responses and amplify allergic reactions. Today in the Western countries, the ratio of omega-3 acids to omega-6 in the diet is weighted 1:10 in favour of omega-6 to up to 1:25 in some areas, while for proper functioning a 4:1 ratio of omega-6 acids to omega-3 acids is generally considered the optimum. In addition, the type of diet followed in the Western countries is very rich in saturated fats like butter and animal fats, but because of an excessive supply of these less noble fats, the cell membranes lose flexibility and this can affect the way they work. An appropriate supplement can be an
Full Text Available The hypothesis of a role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the pathophysiology of depression has emerged from the observation that depressed patients had decreased levels of n-3 long-chain PUFA (especially eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA in plasma, erythrocytes, or adipose tissue, as compared to healthy controls, a decrease which was not observed with n-6 PUFA. Suicide attempters have much lower levels of EPA and DHA in red blood cells than hospital controls. Recently, a decreased level of DHA has also been observed in the post-mortem brain cortex of patients with major depression. The fact that these changes were specific of the n-3 family suggests that a low n-3 PUFA status or intake predisposes to depression. International ecological studies show a strong negative correlation between apparent fish consumption and the prevalence of depression or of bipolar disorder, as well as between DHA content of maternal milk and the prevalence of postpartum depression. In cross-sectional studies in several countries, a higher risk of depression or of depressive symptoms has been found in subjects with a lower fish consumption. In a French cohort of adults, habitual fatty fish consumption or a higher n-3 PUFA intake were associated with a lower risk of depression, especially of recurrent depression. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials have been conducted to test the effects of long-chain n-3 PUFA in depressive or bipolar patients. EPA as an adjunct to a standard treatment appears to improve depressive patients or bipolar patients in depressive phase when given at the dose of 1-2 g/day, and fish oil prevents depressive recurrences in bipolar patients. Recently, a mixture of EPA plus DHA has proven efficiency in untreated depressive children. In summary, many epidemiological and clinical works in the last ten years have abundantly documented the existence of an association between a low n-3 PUFA intake or status and a
Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Veerappan, Muthuviveganandavel; Mistry, Bhupendra; Patel, Rahul; Moon, So Hyun; Nagajyothi, Patnamsetty Chidanandha; Kim, Doo Hwan
Aspartame is widely used artificial sweeteners as food additives. Several researchers have pointed that the controversial report on the use of aspartame over more than decades. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential and unsaturated fatty acids, and it plays a remarkable role in vision, intelligence, neural development, and metabolism of neurotransmitters. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on aspartame treated renal cells. Experimental groups were divided into three such as sham control, aspartame treated, and aspartame with omega-3 fatty acids. Cell viability was determined by sulforhodamine-b assay and flow cytometric analysis. The experimental results showed that the aspartame induced altered cell viability were reduced following treatment of aspartame with omega-3 fatty acids. Altered cell morphology was recovered by omega-3 fatty acids. DNA damage appeared in the highest concentration of aspartame used in this study. DNA damage characteristics such as comet tail and tiny head sections did not appear in the omega-3 fatty acids treated cells. Several microvilli and vesicular structures were found in aspartame treated cells. Altered morphology such as rounding, microvilli, and formation of dome-like structures did not appear in the omega-3 fatty acids with aspartame treated cells. Caspase-3 mRNA and protein expression were increased in aspartame treated cells, and these levels were reduced following omega-3 fatty acids treatment. Taking all these data together, it is suggested that the omega-3 fatty acids may be a therapeutic agent to reduce the aspartame induced biochemical and morphological alterations in normal renal cells. © 2017 BioFactors, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Knöchel, Christian; Voss, Martin; Grüter, Florian; Alves, Gilberto S; Matura, Silke; Sepanski, Beate; Stäblein, Michael; Wenzler, Sofia; Prvulovic, David; Carvalho, André F; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola
An increasing body of evidences from preclinical as well as epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a potential beneficial role of dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids for cognitive functioning. In this narrative review, we will summarize and discuss recent findings from epidemiological, interventional and experimental studies linking dietary consumption of omega-3 fatty acids to cognitive function in healthy adults. Furthermore, affective disorders and schizophrenia (SZ) are characterized by cognitive dysfunction encompassing several domains. Cognitive dysfunction is closely related to impaired functioning and quality of life across these conditions. Therefore, the current review focues on the potential influence of omega-3 fatty acids on cognition in SZ and affective disorders. In sum, current data predominantly from mechanistic models and animal studies suggest that adjunctive omega-3 fatty acid supplementation could lead to improved cognitive functioning in SZ and affective disorders. However, besides its translational promise, evidence for clinical benefits in humans has been mixed. Notwithstanding evidences indicate that adjunctive omega-3 fatty acids may have benefit for affective symptoms in both unipolar and bipolar depression, to date no randomized controlled trial had evaluated omega-3 as cognitive enhancer for mood disorders, while a single published controlled trial suggested no therapeutic benefit for cognitive improvement in SZ. Considering the pleiotropic mechanisms of action of omega-3 fatty acids, the design of well-designed controlled trials of omega-3 supplementation as a novel, domain-specific, target for cognitive impairment in SZ and affective disorders is warranted.
Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids are important for several neuronal and cognitive functions. Altered omega-3 fatty acid status has been implicated in reduced resistance to stress and mood disorders. We therefore evaluated the effects of repeated restraint stress (6 h/day for 21 days on adult rats fed omega-3 deficient, control or omega-3 enriched diets from conception. We measured body weight, plasma corticosterone and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptors and correlated these data with emotional and depression-like behaviour assessed by their open-field (OF activity, anxiety in the elevated-plus maze (EPM, the sucrose preference test and the startle response. We also determined their plasma and brain membrane lipid profiles by gas chromatography. Repeated restraint stress caused rats fed a control diet to lose weight. Their plasma corticosterone increased and they showed moderate behavioural changes, with increases only in grooming (OF test and entries into the open arms (EPM. Rats fed the omega-3 enriched diet had a lower stress-induced weight loss and plasma corticosterone peak, and reduced grooming. Rats chronically lacking omega-3 fatty acid exhibited an increased startle response, a stress-induced decrease in locomotor activity and exaggerated grooming. The brain omega-3 fatty acids increased as the dietary omega-3 fatty acids increased; diets containing preformed long-chain omega-3 fatty acid were better than diets containing the precursor alpha-linolenic acid. However, the restraint stress reduced the amounts of omega-3 incorporated. These data showed that the response to chronic restraint stress was modulated by the omega-3 fatty acid supply, a dietary deficiency was deleterious while enrichment protecting against stress.
Ghasemifard, Samaneh; Turchini, Giovanni M; Sinclair, Andrew J
This review considers the bioavailability of different forms of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), including ethyl esters (EEs), free fatty acids (FFAs), triacylglycerols (TAGs) and phospholipids (PLs). The retrieved studies include short-term and longer-term studies in humans, and a number of animal studies, which were highly heterogeneous in their design making it difficult to draw substantiated conclusions. The apparent bioavailability (as defined by the authors of these studies) seems to be lowest for the EE form and highest for the FFA form, whilst no conclusion can be made for TAG versus PL from human data. Animal studies suggest that there are substantial differences in the bioavailability of PL form of LC-PUFA compared with the TAG form. This apparent limited knowledge and understanding is fundamentally driven by methodological limitations of these studies. The major limitations with the studies to date include: (between studies) loose definition of the term "bioavailability", lack of standardisation of analytical methodology, and differences in which blood compartment was analysed; (within a study) failure to provide equal amounts the n-3 LC-PUFA of the different forms being compared, failure to provide the dose of n-3 LC-PUFA on a body weight basis, failure to measure fatty acid excretion, failure to control the total fat intake, and failure to adequately power the studies from a statistical point of view. This review has laid out a set of suggestions and criteria for conducting future studies on the bioavailability of different chemical forms of n-3 LC-PUFA.
Olatunji Anthony Akerele
Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that omega (n-3 PUFA and their metabolites improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes by modifying gestation length, and reducing the recurrence of pre-term delivery. N-3 PUFA has been associated with prolonged gestation and increased birth dimensions such as birth weight and head circumference. However, mothers giving birth to larger babies are at an increased risk of having dysfunctional labour, genital tract laceration, and delivery via caesarean section. Likewise, high infant weight at birth has been linked to several metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in the offspring. Prolonged gestation also leads to reduced placental function which has been implicated in fetal distress, and perinatal death. Till date, the mechanism through which high n-3 PUFA intake during pregnancy increases gestation length and birth weight is vaguely understood. Early and later stages of pregnancy is characterised by increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines which are required for pregnancy establishment and labour regulation respectively. Conversely, mid-stage of pregnancy requires anti-inflammatory cytokines necessary for uterine quiescence, pregnancy maintenance and optimal fetal growth. Apparently, changes in the profiles of local cytokines in the uterus during different stages of pregnancy have a profound effect on pregnancy progression. This review focuses on the intake of n-3 and n-6 PUFA during pregnancy and the impact it has on gestation length and infant weight at birth, with a particular emphasis on the expression of inflammatory cytokines required for timely pregnancy establishment (embryo reception and implantation and labour induction. It is concluded that an appropriate dose of n-3 and n-6 PUFA needs to be established during different stages of pregnancy.
Perez, R; Cañón, J; Dunner, S
Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) influence meat tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, and are beneficial to human health. The percentage of long-chain n-3 FAs in total FAs is termed the omega-3 index (O3I). It is thus of great interest to favor rising this index in bovine skeletal muscle, to obtain healthier, tastier, and more nutritive meat. This study was aimed to detect transcriptomic variations related to O3I in muscles in 15-month-old males of 4 Spanish cattle breeds raised under the same conditions. Through the analysis of extreme O3I phenotypes, 3 genes of interest (AANAT, UCP2 and AHA1) were identified. AANAT and UCP2 were strongly up-regulated, while AHA1 was repressed in animals with a high O3I. Moreover, gene expression differed between GDF8-null animal muscles (tested for nt821del11 and Q204X mutations) and the wild-type muscles for genes GDH1, IGF2R, FADS1, ASPH, and AIM1, all showing down-regulation in Asturiana de los Valles calves with muscle hypertrophy (GDF8-null). This shows that in GDF8-null animals other pathways are used for FA synthesis.
Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Tatsuno, Ichiro
Large-scale epidemiological studies on Greenlandic, Canadian and Alaskan Eskimos have examined the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids consumed as part of the diet, and found statistically significant relative reduction in cardiovascular risk in people consuming omega-3 fatty acids. Areas covered: This article reviews studies on omega-3 fatty acids during the last 50 years, and identifies issues relevant to future studies on cardiovascular (CV) risk. Expert commentary: Although a meta-analysis of large-scale prospective cohort studies and randomized studies reported that fish and fish oil consumption reduced coronary heart disease-related mortality and sudden cardiac death, omega-3 fatty acids have not yet been shown to be effective in secondary prevention trials on patients with multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The ongoing long-term CV interventional outcome studies investigate high-dose, prescription-strength omega-3 fatty acids. The results are expected to clarify the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in reducing CV risk. The anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids are also important. Future clinical trials should also focus on the role of these anti-inflammatory mediators in human arteriosclerotic diseases as well as inflammatory diseases.
The first evidence that fish oil fatty acids might have a beneficial effect on coronary heart disease came from the discovery that Greenland Eskimos, who have a diet high in n-3 fatty acids, have a lower mortality from coronary heart disease than do Danes and Americans. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential in our diets and can be classified in 2 groups: n-6 fatty acids found in plant seeds and n-3 fatty acids found in marine vertebrates. Further evidence of n-3 benefits to human health include a 1989 study demonstrating a 29% reduction in fatal cardiac arrhythmias among subjects with a recent myocardial infarction who had been advised to consume fish oil. The GISSI-Prevenzione Trial found a significant reduction in relative reduction of death, cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke in subjects consuming n-3 fatty acids. In a recent study, subjects with implanted cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) at high risk for fatal ventricular arrhythmias were randomly assigned to four 1-g capsules of either an ethyl ester concentrate of n-3 fatty acids or olive oil daily for 12 mo. Subjects receiving n-3 who thus had significantly higher levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in their red blood cell membranes showed a longer time to first ICD events and had a significantly lower relative risk of having an ICD event or probable event (P = 0.033). These studies demonstrate that fish oil fatty acids have beneficial effects on coronary heart disease.
Bae, Jin-Sik; Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Junghoon; Oh, Byung-Chul; Jang, Sang-Ho; Lee, Yun Bin; Han, Young-Min; Ock, Chan-Young; Cha, Ji-Young; Hahm, Ki-Baik
Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have an increased risk for progression to hepatocellular carcinoma in addition to comorbidities such as cardiovascular and serious metabolic diseases; however, the current therapeutic options are limited. Based on our previous report that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can significantly ameliorate high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD, we explored the therapeutic efficacy of n-3 PUFAs and N-IgY, which is a chicken egg yolk-derived IgY specific for the Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) cholesterol transporter, on NAFLD in mice. We generated N-IgY and confirmed its efficient cholesterol transport-blocking activity in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells, which was comparable to the effect of ezetimibe (EZM). C57BL/6 wild type and fat-1 transgenic mice, capable of producing n-3 PUFAs, were fed a high fat diet (HFD) alone or supplemented with N-IgY. Endogenously synthesized n-3 PUFAs combined with N-IgY led to significant decreases in hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and inflammation (pN-IgY and n-3 PUFAs resulted in significant upregulation of genes involved in cholesterol uptake (LDLR), reverse cholesterol transport (ABCG5/ABCG8), and bile acid metabolism (CYP7A1). Moreover, fat-1 transgenic mice treated with N-IgY showed significant downregulation of genes involved in cholesterol-induced hepatic stellate cell activation (Tgfb1, Tlr4, Col1a1, Col1a2, and Timp2). Collectively, these data suggest that n-3 PUFAs and N-IgY, alone or in combination, represent a promising treatment strategy to prevent HFD-induced fatty liver through the activation cholesterol catabolism to bile acids and by decreasing cholesterol-induced fibrosis.
Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Correlations with Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Controls
Niyonsenga, Theophile; Duff, Jacques
Background There is evidence that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) levels compared with controls and conflicting evidence regarding omega-6 (n-6) PUFA levels. Objectives This study investigated whether erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were lower and n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) higher in children with ADHD, ASD and controls, and whether lower n-3 and higher n-6 PUFAs correlated with poorer scores on the Australian Twin Behaviour Rating Scale (ATBRS; ADHD symptoms) and Test of Variable Attention (TOVA) in children with ADHD, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) in children with ASD. Methods Assessments and blood samples of 565 children aged 3–17 years with ADHD (n = 401), ASD (n = 85) or controls (n = 79) were analysed. One-way ANOVAs with Tukey’s post-hoc analysis investigated differences in PUFA levels between groups and Pearson’s correlations investigated correlations between PUFA levels and ATBRS, TOVA and CARS scores. Results Children with ADHD and ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA, higher AA/EPA ratio and lower n-3/n-6 than controls (Pfatty acid metabolism in these disorders. PMID:27232999
Tur, J A; Bibiloni, M M; Sureda, A; Pons, A
Omega 3 fatty acids can be obtained from several sources, and should be added to the daily diet to enjoy a good health and to prevent many diseases. Worldwide, general population use omega-3 fatty acid supplements and enriched foods to get and maintain adequate amounts of these fatty acids. The aim of this paper was to review main scientific evidence regarding the public health risks and benefits of the dietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids. A systematic literature search was performed, and one hundred and forty-five articles were included in the results for their methodological quality. The literature described benefits and risks of algal, fish oil, plant, enriched dairy products, animal-derived food, krill oil, and seal oil omega-3 fatty acids.
Full Text Available Introduction. Fractalkine is a chemokine associated with atherosclerosis. Increased serum levels have been reported in unstable coronary artery disease (CAD and to predict mortality in heart failure. Mediterranean-like diet and omega-3 fatty acids (n3-PUFA have documented cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. We have investigated the effect of Mediterranean-like dietary counseling and n-3 PUFA on serum fractalkine in an elderly population and its ability to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD. Materials and Methods. 563 men (age 64–75 yrs at high risk of CAD were randomized into a 2 × 2 factorial designed trial for 3-year dietary counseling and/or n-3 PUFA supplementation (2.4 g/d. Circulating levels of fractalkine were measured at baseline and at end of study. Clinical events were recorded after 3 years. Results. Fractalkine levels were significantly reduced in all groups from baseline to 3 years (P<0.001, all, but without between-group differences in changes. Fractalkine levels at baseline were not predictive for CVD events (n=68 or total mortality. Lower fractalkine levels were observed in smokers (P=0.019. Conclusions. Reduced levels of fractalkine from baseline to 3 years were observed, however, without any influence of Mediterranean-like diet or n-3 PUFA supplementation. Fractalkine levels at baseline were not predictive for later CVD events.
Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation
Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Flock, Michael R.; Richter, Chesney K.; Harris, William S.; West, Sheila G.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.
The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20–44 years, body mass index (BMI) 20–30 kg/m2, TG = 34–176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22–65 years, BMI 24–37 kg/m2, TG = 141–339 mg/dL). We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA). In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R2 = 36%, p diseases and warrant further study. PMID:26247967
Kamal, Md Zahid; Barrow, Colin J; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana
Consumption of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids is known to decrease the risk of major cardiovascular events. Lipases, a class of triacylglycerol hydrolases, have been extensively tested to concentrate omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils, under mild enzymatic conditions. However, no lipases with preference for omega-3 fatty acids selectivity have yet been discovered or developed. In this study we performed an exhaustive computational study of substrate-lipase interactions by docking, both covalent and non-covalent, for 38 lipases with a large number of structured triacylglycerols containing omega-3 fatty acids. We identified some lipases that have potential to preferentially hydrolyze omega-3 fatty acids from structured triacylglycerols. However omega-3 fatty acid preferences were found to be modest. Our study provides an explanation for absence of reports of lipases with omega-3 fatty acid hydrolyzing ability and suggests methods for developing these selective lipases.
Saunders, Angela V; Davis, Brenda C; Garg, Manohar L
While intakes of the omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA) are similar in vegetarians and non-vegetarians, intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are low in vegetarians and virtually absent in vegans. Plasma, blood and tissue levels of EPA and DHA are lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians, although the clinical significance of this is unknown. Vegetarians do not exhibit clinical signs of DHA deficiency, but further research is required to ascertain whether levels observed in vegetarians are sufficient to support optimal health. ALA is endogenously converted to EPA and DHA, but the process is slow and inefficient and is affected by genetics, sex, age and dietary composition. Vegetarians can take practical steps to optimise conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA, including reducing intake of linoleic acid. There are no official separate recommendations for intake of fatty acids by vegetarians. However, we suggest that vegetarians double the current adequate intake of ALA if no direct sources of EPA and DHA are consumed. Vegetarians with increased needs or reduced conversion ability may receive some advantage from DHA and EPA supplements derived from microalgae. A supplement of 200-300 mg/day of DHA and EPA is suggested for those with increased needs, such as pregnant and lactating women, and those with reduced conversion ability, such as older people or those who have chronic disease (eg, diabetes).
Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Sandstrom, B.;
dietary self- administered questionnaire and interview, with fatty acids measured in erythrocyte phospholipids. Daily intake (g/d) and nutrient density of marine n-3 fatty acids (mg/MJ) correlated with the n-3 fatty acid: arachidonic acid ratio (FA-ratio) with correlation coefficients of 0.48 and 0.......54 respectively. In a linear regression model with three frequency questions about marine sandwiches, marine cooked meals and fish oil as explanatory variables, and the FA-ratio as dependent variable, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.46. Conclusions from the study were (1) levels of erythrocyte fatty...
Chattipakorn, Nipon; Settakorn, Jongkolnee; Petsophonsakul, Petnoi; Suwannahoi, Padiphat; Mahakranukrauh, Pasuk; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C
The benefits of omega-3 (ie, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) and omega-6 (ie, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid [AA]) fatty acids on reducing cardiac mortality are still debated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that high levels of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in heart tissues are associated with low cardiac mortality in Thai cadavers. One hundred fresh cadavers were examined in this study. The cause of death, history of coronary heart disease (CHD), and fish consumption habits were obtained from death certificates, cadaver medical record profiles, and a questionnaire to a person who lived with the subject before death. In each cadaver, biopsies of cardiac tissues were taken from the interventricular septum for measurement of fatty acid. Of the 100 cadavers (average age, 69 +/- 13 years), 60 were men. The frequency of fish consumption was directly associated with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in heart tissues (P fatty acids. However, in cadavers with a history of CHD, high levels of omega-3 and omega-6, particularly DHA and AA, were associated with low cardiac mortality (P fatty acids in heart tissues. Although omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are not associated with cardiac mortality in the overall studied population, their low levels (especially DHA and AA) in heart tissues are associated with high cardiac mortality in cadavers with a history of CHD.
L. Martín de Santa Olalla; F. J. Sánchez Muniz; Vaquero, M. P.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the n-3 series are essential for normal growth and development. The health effects of these fatty acids include reduction of cardiovascular risk due to antiarrhythmic, antiinflammatory, anti-thrombotic and lipid lowering actions. An increase in unsaturation of the muscle membrane fatty acids is associated with improved insulin sensitivity. Higher proportion of n-3 fatty acids may have beneficial roles, such as antiobesity effects and protection against th...
Tran, L V; Malla, B A; Sharma, A N; Kumar, Sachin; Tyagi, Nitin; Tyagi, A K
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA enriched diet on plasma IGF-1 and testosterone concentrations, puberty, sperm fatty acid profile and semen quality in male buffalo. Eighteen male buffalo calves were distributed randomly in three different groups and fed concentrate mixture along with green fodder and wheat straw in 50:40:10 ratios as per requirements. Basis ration of animals in group I was supplemented with 4% of prilled fat (PFA), while in group II and group III were added 4.67% of Calcium salt from Soybean (CaSFA) and Linseed oil (CaLFA), respectively. Male buffalo fed omega-3 PUFA high diet significantly increased concentrations of IGF-1 and testosterone in plasma as compared to two other diets (pdiet (CaLFA) had the largest influence as compared to other diets (PFA and CaSFA). Feeding of n-3 PUFA rich diet significantly increased the DHA (C22:6n-3) content in sperm (pdiet increased IGF-1 and testosterone secretion, reduced pubertal age and improved both fresh and post-thawing semen quality in male buffalo.
Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids that cannot be produced by the body itself and therefore must be provided through nutrition. Omega-6 and particularly omega-3 fatty acids have important roles in the organism, contributing to the maintenance and promotion of health. The optimal proportion of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is 2:1, or even better 1:1. They are involved in normal growth and development, play a role in the prevention of coronary and cardiovascular diseases, of diabetes mellitus, of arterial hypertension, arthritis and cancer. Omega-3 fatty acids mainly have an anti-inflammatory effect, but also act as hypolipidemic and antithrombotic agents. A potential role of omega-3 fatty acids is that of increasing physical performance. Their role in the physical activity refers on one side to the global health of athletes and on the other side to their anti-inflammatory effect, as high intensity physical exercise induces increased free-radical production and microtraumas, with the induction of an inflammatory status. The anti-inflammatory effect of these fatty acids manifests through an increased production of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, through decreasing the production of prostaglandins metabolites, decreasing the production of leukotriene B4, etc. They are also effective on reducing muscle pain post eccentric exercise and on decreasing the severity of bronchoconstriction induced by exercise, as well as improving pulmonary function variables. In conclusion it seems that supplementing diets with omega-3 fatty acids, apart from having benefic effects on health and on the prevention and management of certain affections, proves to be a beneficial for physical activity and athletic performance.
Dunbar, B S; Bosire, R V; Deckelbaum, R J
Lipids are essential for plant and animal development, growth and nutrition and play critical roles in health and reproduction. The dramatic increase in the human population has put increasing pressure on human food sources, especially of those sources of food which contain adequate levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and more importantly, sources of food which have favorable ratios of the n-3 (18-carbon, α-linolenic acid, ALA) to n-6 (18-carbon linoleic acid, LA) PUFAs. Recent studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of the n-3 PUFAs in diets as well as potentially negative effects of excessive levels of n-6 PUFAs in diets. This review discusses these human health issues relating to changes in diets based on environmental and industrial changes as well as strategies in East Africa for improving lipid composition of food using indigenous sources.
Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3, which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.
Xue, Meilan; Ge, Yinlin; Zhang, Jinyu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Wang, Qing [Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Hou, Lin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China)
Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.
Araújo, Maria Elisa Melo Branco de; Campos, Paula Renata Bueno; Alberto, Thiago Grando; Contesini, Fabiano Jares; Carvalho, Patrícia de Oliveira
.... Native lipases from Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus javanicus were used to enrich the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids content in the triacylglycerols of soybean oil by acidolysis with free...
Simopoulos, A P
Several sources of information suggest that man evolved on a diet with a ratio of omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acids of approximately 1 whereas today this ratio is approximately 10:1 to 20-25:1, indicating that Western diets are deficient in omega 3 fatty acids compared with the diet on which humans evolved and their genetic patterns were established. Omega-3 fatty acids increase bleeding time; decrease platelet aggregation, blood viscosity, and fibrinogen; and increase erythrocyte deformability, thus decreasing the tendency to thrombus formation. In no clinical trial, including coronary artery graft surgery, has there been any evidence of increased blood loss due to ingestion of omega 3 fatty acids. Many studies show that the effects of omega 3 fatty acids on serum lipids depend on the type of patient and whether the amount of saturated fatty acids in the diet is held constant. In patients with hyperlipidemia, omega 3 fatty acids decrease low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol if the saturated fatty acid content is decreased, otherwise there is a slight increase, but at high doses (32 g) they lower LDL cholesterol; furthermore, they consistently lower serum triglycerides in normal subjects and in patients with hypertriglyceridemia whereas the effect on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) varies from no effect to slight increases. The discrepancies between animal and human studies most likely are due to differences between animal and human metabolism. In clinical trials eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the form of fish oils along with antirheumatic drugs improve joint pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; have a beneficial effect in patients with ulcerative colitis; and in combination with drugs, improve the skin lesions, lower the hyperlipidemia from etretinates, and decrease the toxicity of cyclosporin in patients with psoriasis. In various animal models omega 3 fatty acids decrease the number and size of tumors and increase the time
Full Text Available Abstract Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA provide significant health benefits and this has led to an increased consumption as dietary supplements. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in animals, transgenic plants, fungi and many microorganisms but are typically extracted from fatty fish, putting additional pressures on global fish stocks. As primary producers, many marine microalgae are rich in EPA (C20:5 and DHA (C22:6 and present a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. Several heterotrophic microalgae have been used as biofactories for omega-3 fatty acids commercially, but a strong interest in autotrophic microalgae has emerged in recent years as microalgae are being developed as biofuel crops. This paper provides an overview of microalgal biotechnology and production platforms for the development of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. It refers to implications in current biotechnological uses of microalgae as aquaculture feed and future biofuel crops and explores potential applications of metabolic engineering and selective breeding to accumulate large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in autotrophic microalgae.
Richardson, Alexandra J.
There is mounting evidence that functional deficiencies or imbalances in certain highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) of the omega-3 and omega-6 series may contribute to a wide range of developmental and psychiatric conditions, including dyslexia, dyspraxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, depression, bipolar disorder and the schizophrenia spectrum. These nutrients are essential to the development and function of the brain, but the omega-3 HUFA in particular (eicosap...
Chacon, Alexander C; Phillips, Brett E; Chacon, Miranda A; Brunke-Reese, Deborah; Kelleher, Shannon L; Soybel, David I
Recent studies suggest that purified omega-3 fatty acids may attenuate acute inflammation and hasten the transition to healing. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with omega-3-rich fish oil (FO) would promote resolution of peritoneal inflammation through production of specific lipid mediators. C57/BL6 mice were given a daily 200-μL oral gavage of saline (CTL) or FO (1.0-1.5 g/kg/d docosahexaenoic acid and 1.3-2.0 g/kg/d eicosapentaenoic acid) for 7 d before chemical peritonitis was induced with thioglycollate. Peritoneal lavage fluid was collected before induction and at days 2 and 4 after peritonitis onset. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), Resolvin D1 (RvD1), and the composition of immune cell populations were examined in peritoneal lavage exudates. Cells harvested from the peritoneum were assessed for macrophage differentiation markers, phagocytosis, and lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine secretion profiles (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, IL-1β, TNFα). The ratio of RvD1 to pro-inflammatory PGE2 and LTB4 was increased in the peritoneal cavity of FO-supplemented animals. FO induced a decrease in the number of monocytes in the lavage fluid, with no change in the number of macrophages, neutrophils, or lymphocytes. Macrophage phagocytosis and M1/M2 messenger RNA markers were unchanged by FO with the exception of decreased PPARγ expression. FO increased ex vivo TNFα secretion after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Our findings provide evidence that nutraceutically relevant doses of FO supplements given before and during chemical peritonitis shift the balance of lipid mediators towards a proresolution, anti-inflammatory state without drastically altering the number or phenotype of local innate immune cell populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Increasing recognition of the importance of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has caused greater attention about dietary intake of these fatty acids. Fatty fish is the major dietary source of these fatty acids. Because of the low intake of fish at many places, foods...... enriched with omega-3 LCPUFA can be good alternatives to improve the intake of these fatty acids. Effects of lipid structures and food matrices on bioavailability of omega-3 LCPUFA have been investigated. Short term studies showed that both lipid structure and food matrix affect the bioavailability...... of these fatty acids, whereas diverse results have been reported from long-term studies. Therefore more studies are encouraged to clarify the long-term effects....
Bosch, Jackie; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Dagenais, Gilles R
The use of n-3 fatty acids may prevent cardiovascular events in patients with recent myocardial infarction or heart failure. Their effects in patients with (or at risk for) type 2 diabetes mellitus are unknown.......The use of n-3 fatty acids may prevent cardiovascular events in patients with recent myocardial infarction or heart failure. Their effects in patients with (or at risk for) type 2 diabetes mellitus are unknown....
Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Secher, N.J.;
between n- 3 fatty acid intake and FA-ratio on the one hand, and gestation length, birth weight and birth length on the other. The analyses were adjusted for maternal height, prepregnant weight, parity and smoking. The conclusion from the study was that within the intake range of this population, marine n......-3 fatty acids ingested in the weeks prior to the 30th week of pregnancy seem not to be a predictor of gestation length or fetal growth rate....
Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Secher, N.J.;
between n-3 fatty acid intake and FA-ratio on the one hand, and gestation length, birth weight and birth length on the other. The analyses were adjusted for maternal height, prepregnant weight, parity and smoking. The conclusion from the study was that within the intake range of this population, marine n......-3 fatty acids ingested in the weeks prior to the 30th week of pregnancy seem not to be a predictor of gestation length or fetal growth rate....
Hibbeln, Joseph R; Davis, John M
Adverse neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric outcomes have been established as signs of nutrient deficiencies and may be applicable to insufficient dietary intakes of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFAs). Consider if statistical definitions for Daily Reference Intakes can be applied to n-3 HUFAs intakes during pregnancy for maternal and neurodevelopmental deficiencies. Data were prospectively collected from women during pregnancy and children up to age 8 years participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Statistical analyses took social and lifestyle factors into account. During pregnancy, n-3 HUFA intakes from seafood that putatively meet statistical definitions of an estimated average requirement ranged from 0.05 to 0.06 en% (111-139 mg/d/2000 Cal) for suboptimal fine motor control at 42 m and 0.065-0.08 en% (114-181 mg/d/2000 Cal) for suboptimal verbal IQ at age 8 years and 0.18-0.22 en% (389-486 mg/d/2000 Cal) for maternal depression at 32 weeks. Intakes of n-3 ranging from 0.2 to 0.41 en% (445-917 mg/d/2000 Cal) prevented both increased risk of maternal depression and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes for children among 97.5% of the population. No upper limit for safety was found. During pregnancy, a n-3 HUFA intake of 0.40 en% (900 mg/d/2000 Cal) from seafood is likely to meet the nutritional requirements for 97.5% of the mothers and children of this population. These considerations do not constitute DRI's for docosahexaenoic acid and n-3 HUFAs, but may contribute to their formulation.
Leckie, Regina L; Manuck, Stephen B; Bhattacharjee, Neha; Muldoon, Matthew F; Flory, Janine M; Erickson, Kirk I
Greater amounts of physical activity (PA) and omega-3 fatty acids have both been independently associated with better cognitive performance. Because of the overlapping biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids and PA, fatty acid intake may modify the effects of PA on neurocognitive function. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining whether the ratio of serum omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid levels would moderate the association between PA and executive and memory functions in 344 participants (Mean age=44.42 years, SD=6.72). The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), serum fatty acid levels, and performance on a standard neuropsychological battery were acquired on all subjects. A principal component analysis reduced the number of cognitive outcomes to three factors: n-back working memory, Trail Making test, and Logical Memory. We found a significant interaction between PA and the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid serum levels on Trail Making performance and n-back performance, such that higher amounts of omega-3 levels offset the deleterious effects of lower amounts of PA. These effects remained significant in a subsample (n=299) controlling for overall dietary fat consumption. There were no significant additive or multiplicative benefits of higher amounts of both omega-3 and PA on cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids might mitigate the effect of lower levels of PA on cognitive performance. This study illuminates the importance of understanding dietary and PA factors in tandem when exploring their effects on neurocognitive health.
Andrade, A D; Visentainer, J V; Matsushita, M; de Souza, N E
Lipid and fatty acid levels in the edible flesh of 17 baked freshwater fish from Brazil's southern region were determined. Analyses of fatty acids methyl esters were performed by gas chromatography. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was the predominant saturated fatty acid, accouting for 50-70% of total saturated acids. Linoleic acid (C18:2 omega 6), linolenic acid (C18:3 omega 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3) were the predominant polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA). The data revealed that species such as barbado, corvina, pintado, and truta were good sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that most freshwater fish examined were good sources of PUFA-omega 3.
Bhullar, Amritpal S; Putman, Charles T; Mazurak, Vera C
Skeletal muscle loss is associated with aging as well as pathological conditions. Satellite cells (SCs) play an important role in muscle regeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids are widely studied in a variety of muscle wasting diseases; however, little is known about their impact on skeletal muscle regeneration. The aim of this review is to evaluate studies examining the effect of omega-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid on the regulation of SC proliferation and differentiation. This review highlights mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may modulate the myogenic program of the stem cell population within skeletal muscles and identifies considerations for future studies. It is proposed that minimally three myogenic transcriptional regulatory factors, paired box 7 (Pax7), myogenic differentiation 1 protein, and myogenin, should be measured to confirm the stage of SCs within the myogenic program affected by omega-3 fatty acids.
Bibhuti B Kakoti
Full Text Available The present review aimed at summarizing the major therapeutic roles of resveratrol and omega-3 fatty acids along with their related pathways. This article reviews some of the key studies involving the health benefits of resveratrol and omega 3 fatty acids. Oxidative stress has been considered as one of the most important pathophysiological factor associated with various cardiovascular disease conditions. Resveratrol with the potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties has been proven to be a significantly protective compound in restoring the normal cardiac health. A plethora of research also demonstrated the reduction of the risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension and stroke, and their complications by omega-3 fatty acids derived from fish and fish oils. This review describes the potential cardioprotective role of resveratrol and omega 3 fatty acids in ameliorating the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress.
Lenox, C E; Bauer, J E
Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are used in the management of several diseases in companion animal medicine, many of which are inflammatory in nature. This review describes metabolic differences among omega-3 fatty acids and outlines potential adverse effects that may occur with their supplementation in dogs and cats with a special focus on omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Important potential adverse effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation include altered platelet function, gastrointestinal adverse effects, detrimental effects on wound healing, lipid peroxidation, potential for nutrient excess and toxin exposure, weight gain, altered immune function, effects on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity, and nutrient-drug interactions.
Olsen, S F; Hansen, H S; Secher, N J; Jensen, B; Sandström, B
It has been hypothesized that marine n-3 fatty acids ingested during pregnancy prolong duration of pregnancy and increase fetal growth rate in humans. By a combined self-administered questionnaire and interview applied in the 30th week of gestation we assessed dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids and energy in a population-based sample of 965 pregnant Danish women; in a random 14% subsample we also measured marine n-3 fatty acids relative to arachidonic acid (FA-ratio) in erythrocytes. Mean intake of marine n-3 fatty acids was 0.25 (95% range 0-0.75) g/d. We could detect no association between n-3 fatty acid intake and FA-ratio on the one hand, and gestation length, birth weight and birth length on the other. The analyses were adjusted for maternal height, prepregnant weight, parity and smoking. The conclusion from the study was that within the intake range of this population, marine n-3 fatty acids ingested in the weeks prior to the 30th week of pregnancy seem not to be a predictor of gestation length or fetal growth rate.
Ribeiro, T; Lordelo, M M; Alves, S P; Bessa, R J B; Costa, P; Lemos, J P C; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Prates, J A M
1. Concentrations of beneficial omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) in poultry meat can be improved by increasing the concentration of n-3 PUFA in poultry diets. 2. A decrease in flavour quality is, however, usually associated with the dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA, which is due to the susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation. 3. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of introducing two different n-3 fatty acid sources (extruded linseed and DHA Gold™, a proprietary algal product rich in docosahexaenoic acid), either separately or together, on broiler productive performance, and meat quality, oxidative stability, sensory traits and LC-PUFA profile. 4. Birds given the algal product displayed better productive performances than animals from other groups. 5. The data revealed an improvement in the fatty acid nutritional value of meat from birds receiving the algal product and an inefficient conversion of α-linolenic acid (LNA) into LC-PUFA. 6. Metabolisation of LNA in vivo is not sufficient to improve meat quality in n-3 LC-PUFA and direct supplementation of the diet with n-3 LC-PUFA is a better alternative to modulate an increase in beneficial fatty acids of broiler meat. 7. The overall acceptability of meat was negatively affected by the dietary supplementation with 7.4% of DHA, in contrast to the supplementation with 3.7% of DHA, which showed to be efficient in improving LC-PUFA meat content without affecting its sensory properties.
Sanz París, A; Marí Sanchis, A; García Malpartida, K; García Gómez, M C
We review the international recommendations on oral intake of n-3 fatty acids and their content in the enteral nutrition formulas. Their metabolic actions depend on their metabolization to EPA and DHA. The activity of desaturases catalyzing this process increases with exercise, insulin, estrogens in the fertile women, and peroxisomal proliferators, whereas it decreases with fasting, protein and oligoelements deficiencies, age < 30 years, sedentary lifestyle, cigarette smoking, alcohol, cholesterol, trans and saturated fatty acids, insulin deficiency, and stress hormones (adrenalin and glucocorticoids). Most of the guidelines recommend that 20-35% of the total energy comes from fat, being 7-10% saturated fats, 6-10% polyunsaturated, and 20% monounsaturated, in Spain. The recommendation for n-3 FA is 0.5-2 g/day or 0.5-2% of total caloric intake, with an upper limit of 3 g/day. For n-6 FA, 2.5-10% of total caloric intake, the n-6/n-3 ratio not being well established although most of the guidelines recommend 5:1. The EPA and DHA content should be at least 500 mg per day. Finally, the EPA/DHA ratio is 2:1 in most of them. Standard nutrition formulas present an appropriate fat content, although most of the products containing EPA and DHA exceed the limit of 3 g/day. Among the products with hyperprotein and/or concentrated, only of them contains EPA y DHA. Not all the formulas used for the frail elderly contain EPA or DHA, and in those containing them their concentration may be excessive and with a proportion very dissimilar to that of fish oil.
Previous animal studies demonstrated that chronic feeding of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) that modifies muscle membrane fatty acid composition promotes protein anabolism by blunting the age-associated deterioration in insulin sensitivity. The current study assessed, as a pr...
N‑3 fatty acids from fish may protect against heart disease mortality by preventing fatal arrhythmias. The objective of this thesis was to investigate whether this possible antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 fatty acids is supported by short-term effects on electrophysiological markers. We performed two
N‑3 fatty acids from fish may protect against heart disease mortality by preventing fatal arrhythmias. The objective of this thesis was to investigate whether this possible antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 fatty acids is supported by short-term effects on electrophysiological markers. We performed two h
Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Sommer, S.;
Gestation is longer in Faroese than Danish women, possibly because of the high intake of marine long-chain n-3 fatty acids that down regulates formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were quantified in erythrocytes obtained within 2 days of delivery from...
Yu, Xiaomei; Huang, Tao; Weng, Xiumei; Shou, Tianxing; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Xiaoqiong; Hu, Qinxin; Li, Duo
Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake favorably affects chronic inflammatory-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease; however, the relationship between the PUFA and inflammatory factors in the healthy vegetarians were not clear. We aimed to investigate the plasma fatty acids status, and its association with plasma inflammatory factors in Chinese vegetarians and omnivores. A total of 89 male vegetarians and 106 male omnivores were participated the study. Plasma concentrations of inflammatory factors were detected by ELISA, and as standard methods fatty acids were extracted and determined by chromatography. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians have significant higher interleukin-6 (IL-6), plasma n-6 PUFA, n-6/n-3, and 18:3n-3; while they have significant lower leukotriene B4 (LTB4), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, 22:6n-3, and n-3 PUFA. In vegetarians, plasma 20:4n-6 was significant positively related to TNF-α. LTB4 was significantly positively related to plasma 22:6n-3, and negatively associated with n-6 PUFA. Vegetarians have higher plasma n-6 PUFA and IL-6, but lower LTB4, n-3 PUFA, 22:6n-3, COX2 and PGE2 levels. It would seem appropriate for vegetarians to increase their dietary n-3 PUFA, while reduce dietary n-6 PUFA and thus reduce the risk of chronic inflammatory-related diseases.
Intravenous lipid emulsions are an essential component of parenteral nutrition regimens. Originally employed as an efficient non-glucose energy source to reduce the adverse effects of high glucose intake and provide essential fatty acids, lipid emulsions have assumed a larger therapeutic role due to research demonstrating the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on key metabolic functions, including inflammatory and immune response, coagulation, and cell signaling...
Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.
We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all inclusion criteria. One small randomized controlled trial (n = 13) noted non-significant improvements in hyperactivity and stereotypy. The remaining five st...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human health may be improved if dietary intakes of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are increased. Consumption of broiler meat is increasing, and the meat content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are affected by the composition of broiler feed. A two-way analyses of variance was used to study the effect of feed containing omega-3 rich plant oils and selenium enriched yeast on broiler meat composition, antioxidation- and sensory parameters. Four different wheat-based dietary treatments supplemented with 5% rapeseed oil or 4% rapeseed oil plus 1% linseed oil, and either 0.50 mg selenium or 0.84 mg selenium (organic form per kg diet was fed to newly hatched broilers for 22 days. Results The different dietary treatments gave distinct different concentrations of selenium and fatty acids in thigh muscle; one percent linseed oil in the diet increased the concentration of the omega-3 fatty acids 18:3, 20:5 and 22:5, and 0.84 mg selenium per kg diet gave muscle selenium concentration at the same level as is in fish muscle (0.39 mg/kg muscle. The high selenium intake also resulted in increased concentration of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA (20:5, DPA (22:5 and DHA (22:6, thus it may be speculated if high dietary selenium might have a role in increasing the concentration of EPA, DPA and DHA in tissues after intake of plant oils contning omega-3 fatty acids. Conclusion Moderate modifications of broiler feed may give a healthier broiler meat, having increased content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids. High intakes of selenium (organic form may increase the concentration of very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in muscle.
In developing countries, approximately 30-40% of school-age children suffer from iodine and iron deficiencies. Poverty and consumption of monotonous diets are underlying causes of inadequate intakes of micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids and may have severe consequences for children’s cognitive development. Multiple micronutrient interventions have shown to benefit mental performance of children, but a systematic evaluation of the evidence is currently lacking. The omega-3 fatty acid, -li...
Canhada, Scheine; Castro, Kamila; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Luft, Vivian Cristine
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegeneration disorder characterized by progressive impairments of memory, language, reasoning, and other cognitive functions. Evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may act as a possible protection factor in AD. To evaluate the results available in the literature involving omega-3 fatty acids supplementation and its effect on cognitive function in AD patients. A systematic review of MEDLINE (from PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, and Cochrane Library databases was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Inclusion criteria consisted in original intervention studies, controlled by placebo, that assessed the impact of supplementation or dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive function, in humans with AD, without limitation for prime date of publication. Initial search resulted in 361 articles. Seven studies fully met the inclusion criteria. Most studies did not find statistically significant results for the omega-3 fatty acids supplementation compared to placebo, and those who show some benefit do it only in a few cognitive assessment scales. However, the effects of omega-3 fatty acids appear to be most effectively demonstrated in patients with very mild AD. The effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in mild AD corroborate epidemiological observational studies showing that omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in disease onset, when there is slight impairment of brain function. Although some studies have shown changes in scales of cognitive function in more severe cases, they are not enough to support omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in the treatment of AD.
Gregory A Jicha, William R MarkesberyUniversity of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center and the Sanders-Brown Center on Aging University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USAbstract: Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain growth and development. They play an important role throughout life, as critical modulators of neuronal function and regulation of oxidative stress mechanisms, in brain health and disease. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA), the major omega-3 fatty acid fo...
Jicha, Gregory A.; Markesbery, William R.
Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain growth and development. They play an important role throughout life, as critical modulators of neuronal function and regulation of oxidative stress mechanisms, in brain health and disease. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA), the major omega-3 fatty acid found in neurons, has taken on a central role as a target for therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A plethora of in vitro, animal model, and human data, gathered over the past decade, highlig...
Jicha, Gregory A.; Markesbery, William R.
Gregory A Jicha, William R MarkesberyUniversity of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center and the Sanders-Brown Center on Aging University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USAbstract: Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain growth and development. They play an important role throughout life, as critical modulators of neuronal function and regulation of oxidative stress mechanisms, in brain health and disease. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA), the major omega-3 fatty acid fo...
Narverud, Ingunn; Myhrstad, Mari C W; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Karhu, Toni; Dahl, Tuva B; Halvorsen, Bente; Ulven, Stine M; Holven, Kirsten B
Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 FAs with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil, and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by 2 weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at 3 and 6 h after intake were analyzed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin, which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 FAs from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.
Narverud, Ingunn; Myhrstad, Mari C. W.; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Karhu, Toni; Dahl, Tuva B.; Halvorsen, Bente; Ulven, Stine M.; Holven, Kirsten B.
Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 FAs with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil, and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by 2 weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at 3 and 6 h after intake were analyzed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin, which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 FAs from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions. PMID:27630989
Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic disabling disease in the central nervous system in young to middle aged adults. Depression is common in multiple sclerosis (MS affecting between 50–60% of patients. Pilot studies in unipolar depression report an improvement in depression when omega-3 fatty acids are given with antidepressants. The objective of this study was to investigate whether omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, as an augmentation therapy, improves treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD in people with MS. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of omega-3 fatty acids at six grams per day over three months. The primary outcome was a 50% or greater improvement on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. Thirty-nine participants were randomized and thirty-one completed the 3-month intervention. Improvement on MADRS between groups was not significantly different at the 3-month end point with 47.4% in the omega-3 fatty acid group and 45.5% in the placebo group showing 50% or greater improvement (p = 0.30. Omega-3 fatty acids as an augmentation therapy for treatment-resistant depression in MS was not significantly different than placebo in this pilot trial. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation at the dose given was well-tolerated over 3 months.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00122954.
Danthiir, Vanessa; Hosking, Diane; Burns, Nicholas R; Wilson, Carlene; Nettelbeck, Ted; Calvaresi, Eva; Clifton, Peter; Wittert, Gary A
Higher n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and fish intake may help maintain cognitive function in older age. However, evidence is inconsistent; few studies have examined the relation in cognitively healthy individuals across numerous cognitive domains, and none to our knowledge have considered lifetime fish intake. We examined associations between multiple domains of cognition and erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFA proportions and historical and contemporary fish intake in 390 normal older adults, analyzing baseline data from the Older People, Omega-3, and Cognitive Health trial. We measured n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, and we assessed historical and contemporary fish intake by food-frequency questionnaires. We assessed cognitive performance on reasoning, working memory, short-term memory, retrieval fluency, perceptual speed, simple/choice reaction time, speed of memory-scanning, reasoning speed, inhibition, and psychomotor speed. Cognitive outcomes for each construct were factor scores from confirmatory factor analysis. Multiple linear regression models controlled for a number of potential confounding factors, including age, education, sex, apolipoprotein E-ε 4 allele, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, socioeconomic variables, and other health-related variables. Higher erythrocyte membrane eicosapaentonoic acid proportions predicted slower perceptual and reasoning speed in females, which was attenuated once current fish intake was controlled. No other associations were present between n-3 PUFA proportions and cognitive performance. Higher current fish consumption predicted worse performance on several cognitive speed constructs. Greater fish consumption in childhood predicted slower perceptual speed and simple/choice reaction time. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that higher proportions of long-chain n-3 fatty acids or fish intake benefits cognitive performance in normal older adults.
Agbor, Larry N; Wiest, Elani F; Rothe, Michael; Schunck, Wolf-Hagen; Walker, Mary K
The mechanisms that mediate the cardiovascular protective effects of omega 3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have not been fully elucidated. Cytochrome P450 1A1 efficiently metabolizes n-3 PUFAs to potent vasodilators. Thus, we hypothesized that dietary n-3 PUFAs increase nitric oxide (NO)-dependent blood pressure regulation and vasodilation in a CYP1A1-dependent manner. CYP1A1 wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice were fed an n-3 or n-6 PUFA-enriched diet for 8 weeks and were analyzed for tissue fatty acids and metabolites, NO-dependent blood pressure regulation, NO-dependent vasodilation of acetylcholine (ACh) in mesenteric resistance arterioles, and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and phospho-Ser1177-eNOS expression in the aorta. All mice fed the n-3 PUFA diet showed significantly higher levels of n-3 PUFAs and their metabolites, and significantly lower levels of n-6 PUFAs and their metabolites. In addition, KO mice on the n-3 PUFA diet accumulated significantly higher levels of n-3 PUFAs in the aorta and kidney without a parallel increase in the levels of their metabolites. Moreover, KO mice exhibited significantly less NO-dependent regulation of blood pressure on the n-3 PUFA diet and significantly less NO-dependent, ACh-mediated vasodilation in mesenteric arterioles on both diets. Finally, the n-3 PUFA diet significantly increased aortic phospho-Ser1177-eNOS/eNOS ratio in the WT compared with KO mice. These data demonstrate that CYP1A1 contributes to eNOS activation, NO bioavailability, and NO-dependent blood pressure regulation mediated by dietary n-3 PUFAs.
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.
Coates, W; Ayerza, R
Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P < 0.05) less palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids were found with both chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of the control. Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption.
Sudheendran, S; Chang, C C; Deckelbaum, R J
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis and unstable plaques are underlying causes for cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular disease is associated with consumption of diets high in saturated fats. In contrast there is increasing evidence that higher intakes of dietary n-3 fatty acids decrease risk for cardiovascular disease. Recent studies are beginning to clarify how n-3 compared with saturated fatty acids influence cardiovascular disease risk via pathways in the arterial wall. In this paper we will review studies that report on mechanisms whereby dietary fatty acids affect atherosclerosis through modulation of arterial wall lipid deposition, inflammation, cell proliferation, and plaque vulnerability.
Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Sandstrom, B.
.54 respectively. In a linear regression model with three frequency questions about marine sandwiches, marine cooked meals and fish oil as explanatory variables, and the FA-ratio as dependent variable, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.46. Conclusions from the study were (1) levels of erythrocyte fatty...... acids in pregnant women may be employed as a qualitative method to rank subjects according to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids; (2) with respect to the power to explain FA-ratio variability, three simple marine food frequency questions were comparable with intake of marine n-3 fatty acids assessed...
Mazereeuw, Graham; Herrmann, Nathan; Oh, Paul I.; Ma, David W.L.; Wang, Cheng Tao; Kiss, Alexander; Lanctôt, Krista L.
Abstract This trial investigated the efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) treatment for improving depressive symptoms and cognitive performance in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) participating in cardiac rehabilitation. Patients with CAD aged 45 to 80 years were randomized to receive either 1.9-g/d n-3 PUFA treatment or placebo for 12 weeks. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, primary outcome) and the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria were used to identify a depressive episode at baseline. Cognitive performance was measured using a standardized battery for vascular cognitive impairment. In 92 patients (age, 61.7 ± 8.7 y; 76% male, 40% depressed; HAM-D, 6.9 ± 5.9; BDI-II, 12.3 ± 10.9; n = 45 n-3 PUFA, n = 47 placebo), depression decreased (HAM-D, F3,91 = 2.71 and P = 0.049; BDI-II, F3,91 = 6.24 and P < 0.01), and cognitive performance improved (attention/processing speed, F1,91 = 5.57, P = 0.02; executive function, F1,91 = 14.64, P < 0.01; visuospatial memory, F1,91 = 4.01, P = 0.04) over cardiac rehabilitation. Omega-3 PUFA treatment increased plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (F1,29 = 33.29, P < 0.01) and docosahexaenoic acid (F1,29 = 15.29, P < 0.01) concentrations but did not reduce HAM-D (F3,91 = 1.59, P = 0.20) or BDI-II (F3,91 = 0.46, P = 0.50) scores compared with placebo. Treatment did not improve cognitive performance; however, n-3 PUFAs significantly increased verbal memory compared with placebo in a subgroup of nondepressed patients (F1,54 = 4.16, P = 0.04). This trial suggests that n-3 PUFAs do not improve depressive and associated cognitive symptoms in those with CAD. The possible benefits of n-3 PUFAs for verbal memory may warrant investigation in well-powered studies. PMID:27529771
Objective To review the relation between dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) and non-communicable diseases. Method Data were collected from scientific journals and conference publications, MEDLINE (1979-2002) and current content which included 68 prospective, cross-sectional, case control and dietary-intervention studies. Scientific paper selections were based on the association between ω-3 PUFA and non-communicable diseases. Results ω-3 PUFA has beneficial effects on increasing heart rate variability, decreasing the risk of stroke, reducing both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin resistance and glucose metabolism. Long chain ω-3 PUFA has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. ω-3 PUFA has also been reported to have a beneficial effect on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, and may be effective in managing depression in adults. Conclusions Results from epidemiological and dietary intervention studies have shown that ω-3 PUFA represent powerfully a class of bioactive compounds and that dietary intake of ω-3 PUFA plays a critical role in human health in relation to non-communicable diseases.
Damitha De Mel; Cenk Suphioglu
Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are α-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA...
Ounnas, Fayçal; de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia; Laporte, François; Calani, Luca; Mena, Pedro; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele; Demeilliers, Christine
As long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) of the n-3 series are critically important for human health, fish consumption has considerably increased in recent decades, resulting in overfishing to respond to the worldwide demand, to an extent that is not sustainable for consumers’ health, fisheries economy, and marine ecology. In a recent study, it has been shown that whole rye (WR) consumption improves blood and liver n-3 LCFA levels and gut microbiota composition in rats compared to refined rye. The present work demonstrates that specific colonic polyphenol metabolites may dose dependently stimulate the synthesis of n-3 LCFA, possibly through their microbial and hepatic metabolites in rats. The intake of plant n-3 alpha-linolenic acid and WR results in a sort of fatty fish-like effect, demonstrating that the n-3 LCFA levels in blood and tissues could be increased without eating marine foods, and therefore without promoting unsustainable overfishing, and without damaging marine ecology. PMID:28071699
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Omega 3 fatty acid especially in the form of fish oil, has structural and biological role in the body's various systems especially nervous system. Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory is one of the affected systems. Omega 3 deficiency can have devastating effects on the nervous system and auditory. This study aimed to evaluate neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deﬁcient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil consumption during the suckling period Materials and Methods: In this interventional and experimental study, one sources of omega3 fatty acid (fish oil were fed to rat pups of n-3 PUFA-deficient dams to compare changes in their auditory neural conduction with that of control and n-3 PUFA-deficient groups, using Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR. The parameters of interest were P1, P3, P4 absolute latency, P1-P3, P1-P4 and P3-P4 IPL , P4/P1 amplitude ratio . The rat pups were given oral fish oil, 5 Ml /g weight for 17 days, between the age of 5 and 21 days. Results There were no significant group differences in P1 and P3 absolute latency (p > 0.05. but the result in P4 was significant(P ≤ 0.05 . The n-3 PUFA deficient +vehicle had the most prolonged (the worst P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL compared with control and n-3 PUFA deficient + FO groups. There was no significant difference in P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between n-3 PUFA deficient + FO and control groups (p > 0.05.There was a significant effect of diet on P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between groups (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results of present study showed the effect of omega3 deficiency on auditory neural structure during pregnancy and lactation period. Additionally, we observed the reduced devastating effects on neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deﬁcient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil during the suckling period
Dailey, Frank E; McGraw, Joseph E; Jensen, Brittany J; Bishop, Sydney S; Lokken, James P; Dorff, Kellen J; Ripley, Michael P; Munro, James B
Approximately 30 years ago, it was discovered that free-living bacteria isolated from cold ocean depths could produce polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5n-3) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3), two PUFA essential for human health. Numerous laboratories have also discovered that EPA- and/or DHA-producing bacteria, many of them members of the Shewanella genus, could be isolated from the intestinal tracts of omega-3 fatty acid-rich marine fish. If bacteria contribute omega-3 fatty acids to the host fish in general or if they assist some bacterial species in adaptation to cold, then cold freshwater fish or habitats should also harbor these producers. Thus, we undertook a study to see if these niches also contained omega-3 fatty acid producers. We were successful in isolating and characterizing unique EPA-producing strains of Shewanella from three strictly freshwater native fish species, i.e., lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and walleye (Sander vitreus), and from two other freshwater nonnative fish, i.e., coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and seeforellen brown trout (Salmo trutta). We were also able to isolate four unique free-living strains of EPA-producing Shewanella from freshwater habitats. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses suggest that one producer is clearly a member of the Shewanella morhuae species and another is sister to members of the marine PUFA-producing Shewanella baltica species. However, the remaining isolates have more ambiguous relationships, sharing a common ancestor with non-PUFA-producing Shewanella putrefaciens isolates rather than marine S. baltica isolates despite having a phenotype more consistent with S. baltica strains. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Enrichment of foods with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) poses a multidisciplinary challenge to food industry and academia. Although our knowledge about possible health effects of omega-3 PUFA has increased tremendously during the last 30 years, there is still a lot to be learned...... about these healthy fatty acids. Moreover, consumer acceptance and lipid oxidation of omega-3 PUFA-enriched food are other major challenges that the food industry meet when developing omega-3-enriched foods. Two examples on multidisciplinary research projects to overcome some of these challenges...... are given in this article together with cases studies illustrating how lipid oxidation can be prevented in a range of different omega-3-enriched foods....
The effect of acetylsalicylic acid on the cytochrome P-450-mediated fatty acid omega-hydroxylation system was assessed in male Sprague-Dawley rats after they were fed a diet containing 1% (w/w) acetylsalicylic acid. A 3-fold increase in the specific activity of laurate omega-hydroxylation was observed in the acetylsalicylic acid fed rats in comparison to control rats. This effect of acetylsalicylic acid was unique as the specific activities of other cytochrome P-450-mediated reactions were not increased. The induction of the laurate omega-hydroxylation system was also manifested in a rapid formation of its dicarboxylic acid derivative, dodecanedioic acid, as the omega-hydroxy derivative was further oxidized by alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. These results suggest the acetylsalicylic acid is similar to other peroxisomal proliferating agents in that it also induces the microsomal fatty acid omega-hydroxylation system and may account for the appearance of unique dicarboxylic acids in Reye's syndrome patients.
Maes, M; Smith, R; Christophe, A; Cosyns, P; Desnyder, R; Meltzer, H
Recently, there were some reports that major depression may be accompanied by alterations in serum total cholesterol, cholesterol ester and omega 3 essential fatty acid levels and by an increased C20: 4 omega 6/C20: 5 omega 3, i.e., arachidonic acid/eicosapentaenoic, ratio. The present study aimed to examine fatty acid composition of serum cholesteryl esters and phospholipids in 36 major depressed, 14 minor depressed and 24 normal subjects. Individual saturated (e.g., C14:0; C16:0, C18:0) and unsaturated (e.g., C18:1, C18:2, C20:4) fatty acids in phospholipid and cholesteryl ester fractions were assayed and the sums of the percentages of omega 6 and omega 3, saturated, branched chain and odd chain fatty acids, monoenes as well as the ratios omega 6/omega 3 and C20:4 omega 6/C20:5 omega 3 were calculated. Major depressed subjects had significantly higher C20:4 omega 6/C20:5 omega 3 ratio in both serum cholesteryl esters and phospholipids and a significantly increased omega 6/omega 3 ratio in cholesteryl ester fraction than healthy volunteers and minor depressed subjects. Major depressed subjects had significantly lower C18:3 omega 3 in cholesteryl esters than normal controls. Major depressed subjects showed significantly lower total omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in cholesteryl esters and significantly lower C20:5 omega 3 in serum cholesteryl esters and phospholipids than minor depressed subjects and healthy controls. These findings suggest an abnormal intake or metabolism of essential fatty acids in conjunction with decreased formation of cholesteryl esters in major depression.
Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Brothersen, Carl; McMahon, Donald J
A $600 million nutritional supplements market growing at 30% every year attests to consumer awareness of, and interests in, health benefits attributed to these supplements. For over 80 years the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption for human health has been established. The FDA recently approved the use of ω-3 PUFAs in supplements. Additionally, the market for ω-3 PUFA ingredients grew by 24.3% last year, which affirms their popularity and public awareness of their benefits. PUFAs are essential for normal human growth; however, only minor quantities of the beneficial ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are synthesized by human metabolism. Rather PUFAs are obtained via dietary or nutritional supplementation and modified into other beneficial metabolites. A vast literature base is available on the health benefits and biological roles of ω-3 PUFAs and their metabolism; however, information on their dietary sources and palatability of foods incorporated with ω-3 PUFAs is limited. DHA and EPA are added to many foods that are commercially available, such as infant and pet formulae, and they are also supplemented in animal feed to incorporate them in consumer dairy, meat, and poultry products. The chief sources of EPA and DHA are fish oils or purified preparations from microalgae, which when added to foods, impart a fishy flavor that is considered unacceptable. This fishy flavor is completely eliminated by extensively purifying preparations of n-3 PUFA sources. While n-3 PUFA lipid autoxidation is considered the main cause of fishy flavor, the individual oxidation products identified thus far, such as unsaturated carbonyls, do not appear to contribute to fishy flavor or odor. Alternatively, various compound classes such as free fatty acids and volatile sulfur compounds are known to impart fishy flavor to foods. Identification of the causative compounds to reduce and eventually eliminate fishy flavor is important
Amyloid-beta (Abeta) protein is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Moreover, it has been reported that oxidative stress is involved in the biochemical pathway by which Abeta can lead to neuronal dysfunction. Recently, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3) have been reported to protect against AD. However, these omega-3 fatty acids are frequently obtained from fish oil and may contain heavy metals. In this study, we utilized Nann...
Eastwood, L; Leterme, P; Beaulieu, A D
This experiment tested the hypothesis that reducing the omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) ratio in sow diets will improve performance, characterized by increased litter size, decreased preweaning mortality, and improved growth performance. Second, we determined if the FA profile in sow and piglet blood, colostrum, and milk are altered when sows are fed diets with varied n-6:n-3 ratios and if the dietary FA ratio impacts circulating concentrations of IgG, IgA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), or docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid. Sows (n=150) were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments (each divided into gestation and lactation diets) on d 80 of gestation. Period 1 (P1) is defined as d 80 of gestation to weaning and Period 2 (P2) refers to the subsequent breeding to weaning. Diets were wheat and barley based (5% crude fat) and treatments consisted of a control (tallow), 3 diets with plant oil-based n-6:n-3 ratios (9:1P, 5:1P, and 1:1P), and a 5:1 fish oil diet (5:1F). Litter size was unaffected by treatment during P1 and P2 (P>0.10). In P1, birth weight was unaffected by diet (P>0.10); however, weaning weight (P=0.019) and ADG from birth to weaning (P=0.011) were greatest for piglets born to 9:1P and 5:1P sows. During P2, 5:1F sows consumed 10% less feed during lactation (P=0.036), tended to have reduced piglet birth weights (P=0.052), and piglet weaning weight was reduced by 0.8 kg (P=0.040) relative to the other diets. Colostrum and piglet serum IgA and IgG concentrations were unaffected by diet (P>0.10). Serum n-3 FA were greatest in sows (Pdiets and in their offspring (P=0.014). Serum α-linolenic acid (ALA) was greatest in 1:1P sows and EPA and DHA were greatest in 5:1F sows (P0.10). Relative to piglets of sows consuming the control diet, EPA was 2.5-fold greater in the 1:1P group and 4-fold greater in 5:1F group (Pdiets with plant-based n-6:n-3 ratios of 5:1 or 1:1 did not impact performance relative to a control group but improved the conversion of ALA into EPA and
Peter R. C. Howe
Full Text Available Around one in four people suffer from mental illness at some stage in their lifetime. There is increasing awareness of the importance of nutrition, particularly omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, for optimal brain development and function. Hence in recent decades, researchers have explored effects of n-3 PUFA on mental health problems over the lifespan, from developmental disorders in childhood, to depression, aggression, and schizophrenia in adulthood, and cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in late adulthood. This review provides an updated overview of the published and the registered clinical trials that investigate effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on mental health and behavior, highlighting methodological differences and issues.
Hennebelle, Marie; Champeil-Potokar, Gaëlle; Lavialle, Monique; Vancassel, Sylvie; Denis, Isabelle
Chronic stress causes the release of glucocorticoids, which greatly influence cerebral function, especially glutamatergic transmission. These stress-induced changes in neurotransmission could be counteracted by increasing the dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs). Numerous studies have described the capacity of n-3 PUFAs to help protect glutamatergic neurotransmission from damage induced by stress and glucocorticoids, possibly preventing the development of stress-related disorders such as depression or anxiety. The hippocampus contains glucocorticoid receptors and is involved in learning and memory. This makes it particularly sensitive to stress, which alters certain aspects of hippocampal function. In this review, the various ways in which n-3 PUFAs may prevent the harmful effects of chronic stress, particularly the alteration of glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus, are summarized.
Ali Al Hussain
Full Text Available A rising number of studies have raised questions regarding the association of mental illness in a particular mood disorders such as depression with low intake of omega-3 fatty acids. Given all the side-effects that traditional antidepressants put patients at risk for, omega-3 is certainly a better alternative that might improve depressive symptoms and patient′s compliance to treatment by removing the stigma of psychiatric drugs. This study critically reviewed 12 relevant studies from PubMed published between 1992 - 2013 in order to determine whether omega-3 supplements or diet rich in fish were likely to show affectivity in reducing depressive symptoms. Most of the studies showed clear association between omega-3 and reduced depressive symptoms. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 and high fish consumption in reducing depression. Omega-3 fatty acids have also shown to be safe when used during pregnancy to prevent postpartum depression. Although some studies showed mixed results of positive findings, the use of omega-3 supplements could not be an absolute substitute of antidepressants due to limitation in their studies. Minority of the studies reviewed did not correlate omega-3 with the improvement of depressive symptoms for many reasons such as the healthy life-style of subjects, etc. Given the fact that depression has various causes, this puts the testing of omega-3 in a lot of bias due to several variables such as dose, formula, period administered as well as the candidates′ state of health. Further research is definitely warranted on a larger sample size with close follow-up using proper assessment tools. Omega-3 has shown to have minimal or no side-effects at all, which makes it important for mental health professional to at least ensure that patients diagnosed with depression have adequate amounts of omega-3 fatty acids whether by supplementation or in their daily diet.
Bozzatello, Paola; Brignolo, Elena; De Grandi, Elisa; Bellino, Silvio
A new application for omega-3 fatty acids has recently emerged, concerning the treatment of several mental disorders. This indication is supported by data of neurobiological research, as highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) are highly concentrated in neural phospholipids and are important components of the neuronal cell membrane. They modulate the mechanisms of brain cell signaling, including the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide a complete and updated account of the empirical evidence of the efficacy and safety that are currently available for omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The main evidence for the effectiveness of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been obtained in mood disorders, in particular in the treatment of depressive symptoms in unipolar and bipolar depression. There is some evidence to support the use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of conditions characterized by a high level of impulsivity and aggression and borderline personality disorders. In patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, small-to-modest effects of omega-3 HUFAs have been found. The most promising results have been reported by studies using high doses of EPA or the association of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. In schizophrenia, current data are not conclusive and do not allow us either to refuse or support the indication of omega-3 fatty acids. For the remaining psychiatric disturbances, including autism spectrum disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders and substance use disorder, the data are too scarce to draw any conclusion. Concerning tolerability, several studies concluded that omega-3 can be considered safe and well tolerated at doses up to 5 g/day.
Full Text Available Background: Scientific evidence indicates the impact of aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids - both –are for the improvement of the cardiovascular system .The purpose of this research was about studies interaction effect of 8 weeks aerobic exercise and omega- 3 fatty acids supplementation on plasma adiponectin concentration of elderly men.Materials and Methods: In this study, 36 male non-athletes aged were between 50 to 70 year age range of men aged the city of Genaveh. Statistical sample of 36 male non- athletes in the age range 50 to 70 years old randomly selected in four groups of nine persons, respectively, the first group: exercise supplemental omega-3, Group II: Exercise placebo group: supplementation with omega-3 groups quarter: placebo. Endurance exercise training program includes 24 sessions and 3 sessions per week, with duration and intensity was determined. (55-70% HRmax. Daily supplements of omega-3 fatty acids were 2 Capsule. Blood samples were taken after fasting 14 hours before the study and 48 hours after the last training session was conducted. The data Kolmogrov-Smirnov, t-test, One-Way Anova at significance level of p≤ 0.05 were analyzed in SPSS 17. Results: The results of research after 8 weeks showed that moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation, only increased in the exercise + omega-3 fatty acids group (7.8% that could not created a significant increase in plasma adiponectin concentration groups. Also in final of research did not show a significant difference between groups in compare after 8 weeks. Conclusion: The results showed that by aerobic exercise and use of omega-3 fatty acids and increase amounts of adiponectin and its anti boil property, perhaps maybe that, adiponectin by effect of its preservation has a great role in prevention and reduce of cardiovascular diseases.
Full Text Available A new application for omega-3 fatty acids has recently emerged, concerning the treatment of several mental disorders. This indication is supported by data of neurobiological research, as highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs are highly concentrated in neural phospholipids and are important components of the neuronal cell membrane. They modulate the mechanisms of brain cell signaling, including the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide a complete and updated account of the empirical evidence of the efficacy and safety that are currently available for omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The main evidence for the effectiveness of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA has been obtained in mood disorders, in particular in the treatment of depressive symptoms in unipolar and bipolar depression. There is some evidence to support the use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of conditions characterized by a high level of impulsivity and aggression and borderline personality disorders. In patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, small-to-modest effects of omega-3 HUFAs have been found. The most promising results have been reported by studies using high doses of EPA or the association of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. In schizophrenia, current data are not conclusive and do not allow us either to refuse or support the indication of omega-3 fatty acids. For the remaining psychiatric disturbances, including autism spectrum disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders and substance use disorder, the data are too scarce to draw any conclusion. Concerning tolerability, several studies concluded that omega-3 can be considered safe and well tolerated at doses up to 5 g/day.
Simopoulos, A P
The meat from animals and fish in the wild, chicken eggs produced under complete natural conditions, and wild plants contain higher amounts of n-3 fatty acids compared to domesticated or cultivated ones. The composition of meats, fish, and eggs is dependent on animal feed. Fish-meal, flax, and n-3 from algae in animal feeds increase the n-3 fatty acid content of egg yolks and lead to the availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs in the marketplace. Research is ongoing for the production of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products from poultry, beef, lamb, pork, milk, bakery products, etc. In the case of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs, the egg under complete natural conditions (Greek or Ampelistra egg) can serve as a guide for proper composition. Otherwise, the amount of n-3 fatty acids is determined by the organoleptic properties of the products. It is essential in the process of returning the n-3 fatty acids into the food supply that the balance of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in the diet that existed during evolution is maintained. Clinical investigations confirm the importance of n-3 fatty acids for normal function during growth and development and in the modulation of chronic diseases. The availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products should lead to improvements in the food supply. Pregnant and lactating women and infants should benefit since their diet is deficient in n-3 fatty acids, especially for the vegetarians among them. Studies with n-3-enriched eggs lower cholesterol levels, platelet aggregation, and blood pressure. Since cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and autoimmune, allergic, and neurological disorders appear to respond to n-3 fatty acid supplementation, a diet balanced in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids consistent with the diet during human evolution should decrease or delay their manifestation.
To evaluate the effects of n-3 fatty acids on the coronary heart disease patients. Methods From September 2007 to March 2008, 60 patients with coronary heart disease were randomly assigned to n-3 fatty acids group (group N) and control group (group C). Both groups received standard coronary artery disease secondary prevention treatment and group N also received eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 1.8 g plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 1.2 g per day for 12 weeks. Plasma triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and blood pressure were measured before and after the study. Results Plasma triacylglycerols, blood pressure and LDL-C level were lower in group N after n-3 fatty acids treatment while no change was found in group C ( P＜ 0. 05). HDL-C level slightly increased and total cholesterol level slightly decreased after n-3 fatty acids but both change were not significant ( P ＞ 0. 05 ). Conclusions N-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on the coronary artery disease patients.
Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Correlations with Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Controls.
Full Text Available There is evidence that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD have lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA levels compared with controls and conflicting evidence regarding omega-6 (n-6 PUFA levels.This study investigated whether erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were lower and n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA higher in children with ADHD, ASD and controls, and whether lower n-3 and higher n-6 PUFAs correlated with poorer scores on the Australian Twin Behaviour Rating Scale (ATBRS; ADHD symptoms and Test of Variable Attention (TOVA in children with ADHD, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS in children with ASD.Assessments and blood samples of 565 children aged 3-17 years with ADHD (n = 401, ASD (n = 85 or controls (n = 79 were analysed. One-way ANOVAs with Tukey's post-hoc analysis investigated differences in PUFA levels between groups and Pearson's correlations investigated correlations between PUFA levels and ATBRS, TOVA and CARS scores.Children with ADHD and ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA, higher AA/EPA ratio and lower n-3/n-6 than controls (P<0.001 except AA between ADHD and controls: P = 0.047. Children with ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA than children with ADHD (P<0.001 for all comparisons. ATBRS scores correlated negatively with EPA (r = -.294, P<0.001, DHA (r = -.424, P<0.001, n-3/n-6 (r = -.477, P<0.001 and positively with AA/EPA (r = .222, P <.01. TOVA scores correlated positively with DHA (r = .610, P<0.001, EPA (r = .418, P<0.001 AA (r = .199, P<0.001, and n-3/n-6 (r = .509, P<0.001 and negatively with AA/EPA (r = -.243, P<0.001. CARS scores correlated significantly with DHA (r = .328, P = 0.002, EPA (r = -.225, P = 0.038 and AA (r = .251, P = 0.021.Children with ADHD and ASD had low levels of EPA, DHA and AA and high ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and these correlated significantly with symptoms. Future research should further
Matsumoto, Chisa; Matthan, Nirupa R; Wilk, Jemma B; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Michael Gaziano, J; Djoussé, Luc
Intake of marine-based n-3 fatty acids (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid and DHA) is recommended to prevent CHD. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based n-3 fatty acid, is a precursor of EPA and may be more readily converted to EPA than a-linolenic acid (ALA). While transgenic soyabeans might supply SDA at low cost, it is unclear whether SDA is associated with CHD risk. Furthermore, associations of other n-3 fatty acids with CHD risk remain inconsistent. The present ancillary study examined the association of erythrocyte SDA as well as other n-3 fatty acids with the risk of CHD. In a prospective nested case-control study of the Physicians' Health Study, we randomly selected 1000 pairs of incident CHD with matching controls. Erythrocyte fatty acids were measured using GC. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate relative risks. Mean age was 68·7 (SD 8·7) years. In a multivariable model controlling for matching factors and established CHD risk factors, OR for CHD for each standard deviation increase of log-SDA was 1·03 (95% CI 0·90, 1·18). Corresponding values for log-ALA and log-marine n-3 fatty acids were 1·04 (95% CI 0·94, 1·16) and 0·97 (95% CI 0·88, 1·07), respectively. In conclusion, the present data did not show an association among erythrocyte SDA, ALA or marine n-3 fatty acids and the risk of CHD in male physicians.
Lee, Kyoung-Pil; Park, Soo-Jin; Kang, Saeromi; Koh, Jung-Min; Sato, Koichi; Chung, Hae Young; Okajima, Fumikazu; Im, Dong-Soon
A GPCR named FFA4 (also known as GPR120) was found to act as a GPCR for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Its expression has been reported in lung epithelial club cells. The authors investigated whether supplementation of the omega-3 fatty acids benefits lung health. Omacor® (7.75 mg kg-1), clinically prescribed preparation of omega-3 fatty acids and FFA4-knockout mice were utilized in a naphthalene-induced mouse model of acute airway injury (one injection of 30 mg kg-1, i.p.). Naphthalene injection induced complete destruction of bronchiolar epithelial cells within a day. Appearance of bronchiolar epithelial cells was observed after 21 days in control mice. It was found, however, that supplementation of omacor accelerated the recovery. The appearance of bronchiolar epithelial cells was observed between 7 and 14 days after naphthalene injury in omacor-treated mice. In isolated club cells, omega-3 fatty acids were found to stimulate cell proliferation and migration but to inhibit cell differentiation. Using pharmacological tools and FFA4-knockout mice, FFA4 was found to be responsible for omega-3 fatty acids-induced proliferation in vitro in club cells. Furthermore, accelerated recovery from naphthalene-induced airway injury in omacor-treated mice was not observed in FFA4-knockout mice in vivo. Present findings indicate that omega-3 fatty acids-induced proliferation of bronchiole epithelial cells through FFA4 is responsible for omacor-induced accelerated recovery from airway injury. Therefore, intermittent administration of omacor needs to be tested for acute airway injury, because omega-3 fatty acids stimulate proliferation but inhibits differentiation of club cells.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable interest exists in the potential therapeutic value of dietary supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acids. Given the interplay between pro-inflammatory omega-6 fatty acids, and the less pro-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids, it has been thought that the latter could play a key role in treating or preventing asthma. The purpose was to systematically review the scientific-medical literature in order to identify, appraise, and synthesize the evidence for possible treatment effects of omega-3 fatty acids in asthma. Methods Medline, Premedline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CAB Health, and, Dissertation Abstracts were searched to April 2003. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT's of subjects of any age that used any foods or extracts containing omega-3 fatty acids as treatment or prevention for asthma. Data included all asthma related outcomes, potential covariates, characteristics of the study, design, population, intervention/exposure, comparators, and co interventions. Results Ten RCT's were found pertinent to the present report. Conclusion Given the largely inconsistent picture within and across respiratory outcomes, it is impossible to determine whether or not omega-3 fatty acids are an efficacious adjuvant or monotherapy for children or adults. Based on this systematic review we recommend a large randomized controlled study of the effects of high-dose encapsulated omega-3 fatty acids on ventilatory and inflammatory measures of asthma controlling diet and other asthma risk factors. This review was limited because Meta-analysis was considered inappropriate due to missing data; poorly or heterogeneously defined populations, interventions, intervention-comparator combinations, and outcomes. In addition, small sample sizes made it impossible to meaningfully assess the impact on clinical outcomes of co-variables. Last, few significant effects were found.
Full Text Available Pathologic processes in glaucoma include increased apoptosis, accumulation of extracellular material in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve, condensations of the cytoskeleton and precocious cellular senescence. Oxidative stress was shown to generate these alterations in primary ocular cells. Fatty acids omega-3 and -6 are alleged to constitute a prophylaxis against these deleterious effects. Here, we tested actual preventive effects omega-3 and -6 against peroxide induced stress responses in primary human trabecular meshwork cells. Changes of mitochondrial activity, proliferation, heat shock proteins, extracellular matrix components, and inflammatory markers were evaluated. Alterations of the cytoskeleton were evaluated by phalloidin labeling. Here we report a repressive effect of omega-6 on metabolic activity and proliferation, which was not detected for omega-3. Both agents were able to prevent the anti-proliferative effect of H₂O₂, but only omega-3 prevented metabolic repression. Expression of heat shock protein 27 was unaltered by both fatty acids, whereas heat shock protein 90 was significantly induced by both. Omega-6 increased fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor synthesis, as well as the amount of secreted fibronectin. Omega-3, instead, induced plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 synthesis. H₂O₂ further increased fibronectin production in omega-6 supplemented cells, which was not the case in omega-3 treated cells. H₂O₂ stimulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and connective tissue growth factor was repressed by both fatty acids. Both fatty acids appeared to abolish H₂O₂ mediated stimulation of nuclear factor κB and IL-6, but not IL-1α and IL-8. H₂O₂ induced formation of cross-linked actin networks and stress fibers, which was reduced by preemptive application of omega-3. Omega-6, in contrast, had no protective effect on that, and even seemed to promote condensation. Based on the observed side
Rafraf, Maryam; Mohammadi, Elahe; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Farzadi, Laya
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrine disorder. Affected women present a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on obesity status, insulin resistance, and serum levels of visfatin in PCOS patients. This double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted on 61 women who were diagnosed with PCOS, had a body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 40 kg/m(2), and were from 20-35 years old. Thirty of the subjects had taken four 1-g omega-3 fatty acids capsules per day, providing 1200 mg n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFA), and 31 were given a placebo over 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and dietary intake data were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Data were analyzed by independent t test, paired t test, Pearson correlation test, and analysis of covariance. Omega-3 fatty acids had no significant effects on weight, BMI, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio at the end of the study. Omega-3 fatty acids significantly decreased glucose (by 11.4%, p < 0.001), insulin (by 8.4%, p < 0.05), and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (by 21.8%, p < 0.001) compared with placebo. Changes in serum visfatin levels were not significant in either of the groups. Omega-3 fatty acids improved insulin sensitivity in PCOS patients. This beneficial effect was not associated with alteration in anthropometric measurements and serum visfatin levels.
Wu, Jason H Y; Marchioli, Roberto; Silletta, Maria G; Macchia, Alejandro; Song, Xiaoling; Siscovick, David S; Harris, William S; Masson, Serge; Latini, Roberto; Albert, Christine; Brown, Nancy J; Lamarra, Mauro; Favaloro, Roberto R; Mozaffarian, Dariush
Long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) demonstrated antiarrhythmic potential in experimental studies. In a large multinational randomized trial (OPERA), perioperative fish oil supplementation did not reduce the risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation (PoAF) in cardiac surgery patients. However, whether presupplementation habitual plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFA, or achieved or change in n-3 PUFA level postsupplementation are associated with lower risk of PoAF is unknown. In 564 subjects undergoing cardiac surgery between August 2010 and June 2012 in 28 centers across 3 countries, plasma phospholipid levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were measured at enrollment and again on the morning of cardiac surgery following fish oil or placebo supplementation (10 g over 3 to 5 days, or 8 g over 2 days). The primary endpoint was incident PoAF lasting ≥ 30 seconds, centrally adjudicated, and confirmed by rhythm strip or ECG. Secondary endpoints included sustained (≥ 1 hour), symptomatic, or treated PoAF; the time to first PoAF; and the number of PoAF episodes per patient. PoAF outcomes were assessed until hospital discharge or postoperative day 10, whichever occurred first. Relative to the baseline, fish oil supplementation increased phospholipid concentrations of EPA (+142%), DPA (+13%), and DHA (+22%) (P < 0.001 each). Substantial interindividual variability was observed for change in total n-3 PUFA (range = -0.7% to 7.5% after 5 days of supplementation). Neither individual nor total circulating n-3 PUFA levels at enrollment, morning of surgery, or change between these time points were associated with risk of PoAF. The multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) across increasing quartiles of total n-3 PUFA at enrollment were 1.0, 1.06 (0.60 to 1.90), 1.35 (0.76 to 2.38), and 1.19 (0.64 to 2.20); and for changes in n-3 PUFA between enrollment and the morning of surgery were 1.0, 0.78 (0.44 to 1
Patterson, William L; Georgel, Philippe T
Chronic inflammation is a cyclical, self-stimulating process. Immune cells called to sites of inflammation release pro-inflammatory signaling molecules that stimulate activation of inducible enzymes and transcription factors. These enzymes and transcription factors then stimulate production of signaling molecules that attract more immune cells and induce more enzymatic and transcriptional activity, creating a perpetual loop of inflammation. This self-renewing pool of inflammatory stimuli makes for an ideal tumor microenvironment, and chronic inflammation has been linked to oncogenesis, tumor growth, tumor cell survival, and metastasis. Three protein pathways in particular, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), cyclooxygenase (COX), and lipoxygenase (LOX), provide excellent examples of the cyclical, self-renewing nature of chronic inflammation-driven cancers. NF-kB is an inducible transcription factor responsible for the expression of a vast number of inflammation and cancer related genes. COX and LOX convert omega-6 (n-6) and omga-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) into pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling molecules. These signaling molecules stimulate or repress activity of all three of these pathways. In this review, we will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of these fatty acids and their role in chronic inflammation and cancer progression.
Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: The present study was a 2×3 factorial arrangement of two levels of selenomethionine (0 and 0.3 ppm and three levels of omega-3 fatty acid (0, 0.5 and 1%. Day-old Vencobb broiler chicks (n=180, were randomly assigned in six treatment groups. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Treatment groups followed of: Group I was a control. Group II, III, IV, V and VI were supplemented with 0 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid, 0 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid and 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, respectively. Linseed oil was used as a source of omega-3 fatty acid while sel-plex is used for selenomethionine supplementation. Results: Significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for serum zinc and iron concentration whereas, it was non-significant for serum calcium and copper. Significantly (p<0.05 increased concentration of selenium, zinc, iron and phosphorus was observed in birds fed 0.3 ppm selenomethionine whereas, significantly (p<0.05 increased zinc and iron was observed in birds fed 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for calcium and phosphorus retention percentage. The maximum retention of calcium and phosphorus was recorded in birds supplemented with 0.3 ppm selenomethionine in combination with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was marked interaction between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for hemoglobin (Hb, total erythrocytic count, total leukocytic count and platelets (p<0.05 however, it was non-significant for mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb, MCH concentration
Hansen, Harald S.; Olsen, S.F.
Prostaglandins, especially prostaglandin F2 alpha, are important regulators in the onset and maintenance of parturition in humans. Inhibition of prostaglandin formation by drugs can prolong gestation in humans. High dietary intake of long chain (n-3)-fatty acids can inhibit formation of many...... in human urine. Very little is known about the tissue origin as well as the physiologicalfunctions of those prostaglandins, the metabolites of which are quantitated in urine from non-pregnant humans. In pregnant women the increased amount of prostaglandin F2 alpha-metabolites in urine, plasma and amniotic...... chain (n-3)-fatty acids. We have hypothesized that a high intake of long chain (n-3)-fatty acids prolongs gestation in humans by interfering with uterine prostaglandin formation, possibly by inhibiting formation of prostaglandin F2 alpha and prostaglandin E2. Preliminary results of an epidemiological...
Bourre, J M
In view of the high omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acid content of the brain, it is evident that these fats are involved in brain biochemistry, physiology and functioning; and thus in some neuropsychiatric diseases and in the cognitive decline of ageing. Though omega-3 fatty acids (from fatty fish in the human diet) appear effective in the prevention of stress, their role as regulator of mood and of libido is a matter for discussion pending experimental proof in animal and human models. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids play a role in the prevention of some disorders including depression, as well as in dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease. Their direct role in major depression, bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disease) and schizophrenia is not yet established. Their deficiency can prevent the renewal of membranes, and thus accelerate cerebral ageing; none the less, the respective roles of the vascular component on one hand (where the omega-3's are active) and the cerebral parenchyma itself on the other, have not yet been clearly resolved. The role of omega-3 in certain diseases such as dyslexia and autism is suggested. In fact, omega-3 fatty acids participated in the first coherent experimental demonstration of the effect of dietary substances (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. Experiments were first of all carried out one x-vivo cultured brain cells (1), then on in vivo brain cells(2), finally on physiochemical, biochemical, physiological, neurosensory, and behavioural parameters (3). These findings indicated that the nature of poly unsaturated fatty acids(in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for infants (both premature and term) determines the visual, cerebral,and intellectual abilities, as described in a recent review (4). Indeed,the insufficient dietary supply of omega-3 fatty acids in today's French and occidental diet raises the problem of how to correct dietary habits so that the consumer will select foods that are genuinely
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are only few data relating the metabolic consequences of feeding diets very low in n-3 fatty acids. This experiment carried out in mice aims at studying the impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA depletion on hepatic metabolism. Results n-3 PUFA depletion leads to a significant decrease in body weight despite a similar caloric intake or adipose tissue weight. n-3 PUFA depleted mice exhibit hypercholesterolemia (total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol as well as an increase in hepatic cholesteryl ester and triglycerides content. Fatty acid pattern is profoundly modified in hepatic phospholipids and triglycerides. The decrease in tissue n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio correlates with steatosis. Hepatic mRNA content of key factors involved in lipid metabolism suggest a decreased lipogenesis (SREBP-1c, FAS, PPARγ, and an increased β-oxidation (CPT1, PPARα and PGC1α without modification of fatty acid esterification (DGAT2, GPAT1, secretion (MTTP or intracellular transport (L-FABP. Histological analysis reveals alterations of liver morphology, which can not be explained by inflammatory or oxidative stress. However, several proteins involved in the unfolded protein response are decreased in depleted mice. Conclusion n-3 PUFA depletion leads to important metabolic alterations in murine liver. Steatosis occurs through a mechanism independent of the shift between β-oxidation and lipogenesis. Moreover, long term n-3 PUFA depletion decreases the expression of factors involved in the unfolded protein response, suggesting a lower protection against endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatocytes upon n-3 PUFA deficiency.
Gong, Yangmin; Wan, Xia; Jiang, Mulan; Hu, Chuanjiong; Hu, Hanhua; Huang, Fenghong
Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have received growing attention due to their significant roles in human health. Currently the main source of these nutritionally and medically important fatty acids is marine fish, which has not met ever-increasing global demand. Microorganisms are an important alternative source also being explored. Although many microorganisms accumulate omega-3 LC-PUFAs naturally, metabolic engineering might still be necessary for significantly improving their yields. Here, we review recent research involving the engineering of microorganisms for production of omega-3 LC-PUFAs, including eicospentaenoic acid and docosohexaenoic acid. Both reconstitution of omega-3 LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways and modification of existing pathways in microorganisms have demonstrated the potential to produce high levels of omega-3 LC-PUFAs. However, the yields of omega-3 LC-PUFAs in host systems have been substantially limited by potential metabolic bottlenecks, which might be caused partly by inefficient flux of fatty acid intermediates between the acyl-CoA and different lipid class pools. Although fatty acid flux in both native and heterologous microbial hosts might be controlled by several acyltransferases, evidence has suggested that genetic manipulation of one acyltransferase alone could significantly increase the accumulation of LC-PUFAs. The number of oleaginous microorganisms that can be genetically transformed is increasing, which will advance engineering efforts to maximize LC-PUFA yields in microbial strains.
Gajos, Jamie M; Beaver, Kevin M
Evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids are important for a variety of mental health outcomes and have been shown to improve both mood and behaviors. However, there is little consensus on whether omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for reducing aggressive behaviors. The current study assesses the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and aggression. A total of 73 effect sizes were calculated among 40 studies involving 7173 participants from both intervention and observational research designs. Effect sizes were separately meta-analyzed for two-group comparison studies (SMD=0.20), pre-post contrast studies (ESsg=0.62), and associational studies (r=-0.06), in the fixed-effect model. Results from the random-effects model also suggest a range of effects of omega-3 fatty acids on reducing aggression (SMD=0.24; ESsg=0.82; r=-0.09). Patterns in the relationship between omega-3s and aggression were additionally observed. Moderator analyses indicated that the effect of omega-3s on aggression is conditioned by how aggressive behaviors are measured, such as through self-report or parent/teacher surveys.
Ferguson, Jane F; Phillips, Catherine M; McMonagle, Jolene; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Shaw, Danielle I; Lovegrove, Julie A; Helal, Olfa; Defoort, Catherine; Gjelstad, Ingrid M F; Drevon, Christian A; Blaak, Ellen E; Saris, Wim H M; Leszczyńska-Gołabek, Iwona; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Risérus, Ulf; Karlström, Brita; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Roche, Helen M
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may protect against the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Genotype at key genes such as nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) may determine responsiveness to fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions may be important in modulating the development of CVD, particularly in high-risk individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Biomarkers of CVD risk, plasma fatty acid composition, and NOS3 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype (rs11771443, rs1800783, rs1800779, rs1799983, rs3918227, and rs743507) were determined in 450 individuals with the MetS from the LIPGENE dietary intervention cohort. The effect of dietary fat modification for 12 weeks on metabolic indices of the MetS was determined to understand potential NOS3 gene-nutrient interactions. Several markers of inflammation and dyslipidaemia were significantly different between the genotype groups. A significant gene-nutrient interaction was observed between the NOS3 rs1799983 SNP and plasma n-3 PUFA status on plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations. Minor allele carriers (AC+AA) showed an inverse association with significantly higher plasma TAG concentrations in those with low plasma n-3 PUFA status and vice versa but the major allele homozygotes (CC) did not. Following n-3 PUFA supplementation, plasma TAG concentrations of minor allele carriers of rs1799983 were considerably more responsive to changes in plasma n-3 PUFA, than major allele homozygotes. Carriers of the minor allele at rs1799983 in NOS3 have plasma TAG concentrations which are more responsive to n-3 PUFA. This suggests that these individuals might show greater beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA consumption to reduce plasma TAG concentrations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mourek, J; Mourek, J
The developmentally-dependent differences in the biological significances and effects of PUFA-OMEGA-6 (namely of arachidonic acid) and PUFA-OMEGA-3 (namely of docosahexaenoic acid) are discussed. The clinical results as well as developmental experiences are indicating a hypothesis of the evolution...
Sandhu, Narinder; Schetter, Susann E; Liao, Jason; Hartman, Terryl J; Richie, John P; McGinley, John; Thompson, Henry J; Prokopczyk, Bogdan; DuBrock, Cynthia; Signori, Carina; Hamilton, Christopher; Calcagnotto, Ana; Trushin, Neil; Aliaga, Cesar; Demers, Laurence M; El-Bayoumy, Karam; Manni, Andrea
Preclinical data indicate that omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) potentiate the chemopreventive effect of the antiestrogen (AE) tamoxifen against mammary carcinogenesis. The role of n-3FA in breast cancer prevention in humans is controversial. Preclinical and epidemiologic data suggest that n-3FA may be preferentially protective in obese subjects. To directly test the protective effect of n-3FA against breast cancer, we conducted a 2-year, open-label randomized clinical trial in 266 healthy postmenopausal women (50% normal weight, 30% overweight, 20% obese) with high breast density (BD; ≥25%) detected on their routine screening mammograms. Eligible women were randomized to one of the following five groups (i) no treatment, control; (ii) raloxifene 60 mg; (iii) raloxifene 30 mg; (iv) n-3FA lovaza 4 g; and (v) lovaza 4 g plus raloxifene 30 mg. The 2-year change in BD, a validated biomarker of breast cancer risk, was the primary endpoint of the study. In subset analysis, we tested the prespecified hypothesis that body mass index (BMI) influences the relationship between plasma n-3FA on BD. While none of the interventions affected BD in the intention-to-treat analysis, increase in plasma DHA was associated with a decrease in absolute breast density but only in participants with BMI >29. Our results suggest that obese women may preferentially experience breast cancer risk reduction from n-3FA administration. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
Noel, Sophie E; Stoneham, Adam C S; Olsen, Catherine M; Rhodes, Lesley E; Green, Adele C
Skin cancers have a higher incidence than all other cancers combined and are a major cause of morbidity worldwide. Laboratory data suggest certain dietary constituents, notably omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), could potentially protect against skin malignancy, although no large-scale review has been conducted in humans. The objective of this review and meta-analysis was to determine the relationship between dietary n-3 PUFAs and skin cancer incidence. It considered all published randomized controlled trials and observational studies up to March 2013. Five studies (two case-control and three cohort) were identified pertaining to oral n-3 PUFA consumption and incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), melanoma (or a combination) and were included in a random-effects meta-analysis. A further six studies considering nondietary n-3 PUFA exposure (e.g., by tissue analysis) and/or recognized biological markers of skin cancer risk (e.g., p53 expression) were analyzed qualitatively. Dietary n-3 PUFAs were not associated with BCC (pooled OR 1.05, 95% CIs 0.86-1.28). Consumption of high levels of n-3 PUFAs were inversely associated with melanoma, although with only one estimate available (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.34-0.78), and SCC, although nonsignificantly (pooled OR 0.86, 95% CIs 0.59-1.23). Available evidence is suggestive, but currently inadequate, to support the hypothesis that n-3 PUFAs protect against skin malignancy.
Barden, Anne; O'Callaghan, Nathan; Burke, Valerie; Mas, Emile; Beilin, Lawrence J; Fenech, Michael; Irish, Ashley B; Watts, Gerald F; Puddey, Ian B; Huang, Rae-Chi; Mori, Trevor A
DNA telomere shortening associates with the age-related increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Reducing oxidative stress, could modify telomere erosion during cell replication, and CVD risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The effect of n-3 fatty acids and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) on telomere length was studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial in CKD. Eighty-five CKD patients were randomized to: n-3 fatty acids (4 g); CoQ (200 mg); both supplements; or control (4 g olive oil), daily for 8 weeks. Telomere length was measured in neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at baseline and 8 weeks, with and without correction for cell counts. Main and interactive effects of n-3 fatty acids and CoQ on telomere length were assessed adjusting for baseline values. F₂-isoprostanes were measured as markers of oxidative stress. There was no effect of n-3 fatty acids or CoQ on neutrophil or PBMC telomere length. However, telomere length corrected for neutrophil count was increased after n-3 fatty acids (p = 0.015). Post-intervention plasma F₂-isoprostanes were negative predictors of post-intervention telomere length corrected for neutrophil count (p = 0.025).The effect of n-3 fatty acids to increased telomere length corrected for neutrophil count may relate to reduced oxidative stress and increased clearance of neutrophils with shorter telomeres from the circulation. This may be a novel mechanism of modifying CVD risk in CKD patients.
Full Text Available In order to identify novel genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of nutritionally important omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, a database search was carried out in the genomes of the unicellular photoautotrophic green alga Ostreococcus RCC809 and cold-water diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus. The search led to the identification of two putative “front-end” desaturases (Δ6 and Δ4 from Ostreococcus RCC809 and one Δ6-elongase from F. cylindrus. Heterologous expression of putative open reading frames (ORFs in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme activities efficiently convert their respective substrates: 54.1% conversion of α-linolenic acid for Δ6-desaturase, 15.1% conversion of 22:5n-3 for Δ4-desaturase and 38.1% conversion of γ-linolenic acid for Δ6-elongase. The Δ6-desaturase from Ostreococcus RCC809 displays a very strong substrate preference resulting in the predominant synthesis of stearidonic acid (C18:4Δ6,9,12,15. These data confirm the functional characterization of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic genes from these two species which have until now not been investigated for such activities. The identification of these new genes will also serve to expand the repertoire of activities available for metabolically engineering the omega-3 trait in heterologous hosts as well as providing better insights into the synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in marine microalgae.
Bent, Stephen; Hendren, Robert L; Zandi, Tara; Law, Kiely; Choi, Jae-Eun; Widjaja, Felicia; Kalb, Luther; Nestle, Jay; Law, Paul
Preliminary evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may reduce hyperactivity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We sought to examine the feasibility of a novel, Internet-based clinical trial design to evaluate the efficacy of this supplement. E-mail invitations were sent to parents of children aged 5 to 8 years enrolled in the Interactive Autism Network. All study procedures, including screening, informed consent, and collection of outcome measures took place over the Internet. The primary outcome measures were parent- and teacher-rated changes in hyperactivity on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-H). During the 6-week recruitment period, 57 children from 28 states satisfied all eligibility criteria and were randomly assigned to 1.3 grams of omega-3 fatty acids or an identical placebo daily for 6 weeks. Outcome assessments were obtained from all 57 participants and 57 teachers, and the study was completed in 3 months. Children in the omega-3 fatty acid group had a greater reduction in hyperactivity (-5.3 points) compared to the placebo group (-2.6 points), but the difference was not statistically significant (1.9-point greater improvement in the omega-3 group, 95% CI = -2.2 to 5.2). Adverse events were rare and not associated with omega-3 fatty acids. Participant feedback was positive. Internet-based, randomized controlled trials of therapies in children with ASD are feasible and may lead to marked reductions in the time and cost of completing trials. A larger sample size is required to definitively determine the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids. Clinical trial registration information-Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Hyperactivity Treatment in Autism Spectrum Disorder; http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01694667. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
CARVAJAL OCTAVIO; ANGULO OFELIA
Objective. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the serum lipid profile in a Mexican population was evaluated. Material and methods. Three g of salmon oil was the daily intake during four weeks. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and erythrocyte fatty acid composition were analyzed. Results. The hypertriglyceridemic group showed a statistically significant (p< 0.05) reduction of triglycerides and significant (p< 0.01) elevation of...
Ounnas, Fayçal; Salen, Patricia; Demeilliers, Christine; Calani, Luca; Scazzina, Francesca; Hazane-Puch, Florence; Laporte, Francois; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; de Lorgeril, Michel
The main aim of this study was to compare the effects of two wheat aleurone (WA) fractions on circulating n-3 fatty acids in rats. We demonstrated that only the fraction able to induce the highest urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites (>1µmol) resulted in a significant increase in plasma level of Eicosapentanoic acid (+22%, p < 0.05). While other constituents of whole wheat can be involved in this response, our data suggest that cereals containing high levels of phenolic compounds can increase blood n-3 without affecting n-6 fatty acids. Further studies are required to confirm this hypothesis and explore the underlying biological mechanisms.
Mathews, Varghese V; Paul, Mv Sauganth; Abhilash, M; Manju, Alex; Abhilash, S; Nair, R Harikumaran
Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) is an effective drug in the treatment of leukaemia and many solid tumours. In clinical trials, arsenic therapy is closely associated with hepatic toxicity. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid against As(2)O(3)-induced hepatotoxicity. A 4 mg/kg body weight (bw) of As(2)O(3) was orally administered to Wistar male rats for 45 days. Hepatotoxicity was evaluated by biochemical tests, antioxidant assays and histopathological examinations. Arsenic accumulation was found in the liver tissue of rats treated with As(2)O(3). Hepatoprotective efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid was analysed by the combination therapy with As(2)O(3). In vivo studies revealed a significant rise in lipid peroxidation with concomitant decline in reduced glutathione, glutathione-dependant antioxidant enzymes and antiperoxidative enzymes in the liver tissue of rats treated with arsenic. The supplementation of omega-3 fatty acid at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw with As(2)O(3) offers ameliorative effect against hepatocellular toxicity. Omega-3 fatty acid maintained hepatic marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and decreased lipid peroxidation. The combination treatment clearly reduced the hepatic structural abnormalities such as haemorrhage, necrosis and cholangiofibrosis in the rats treated with arsenic. This study concludes that the omega-3 fatty acid might be useful for the protection against As(2)O(3)-induced hepatotoxicity. © The Author(s) 2012.
Cetin, Irene; Koletzko, Berthold
Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the developing fetus. Docosahexaenoic acid, the most important omega-3 fatty acid, is an important component of neural and retinal membranes, and rapidly accumulates in the brain during gestation and the postnatal period. Positive associations have been shown between maternal intake of fish, seafood and omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and/or lactation and visual and cognitive development. The review focuses on new findings by both observational and interventional studies on the influence of omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy or lactation on gestation length and birth weight, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, maternal depression and infant visual function and neural development. Omega-3 fatty acids have been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other diseases. Observational and interventional studies indicate a significant association with prolonging gestation and reducing the risk of preterm delivery both in low-risk and in high-risk pregnancies. Further benefits have been suggested for intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and postpartum depression, but the evidence is inconclusive. Higher maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake both in pregnancy and lactation is associated with positive infant neurodevelopmental outcomes. Women of reproductive age should achieve an average dietary docosahexaenoic acid intake of at least 200 mg/day.
Full Text Available Abdul-Razak Abubakari,1 Mohammad-Mahdi Naderali,2 Ebrahim K Naderali3 1School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, London, UK; 2Blue Coat School, Liverpool, UK; 3School of Health Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Hope Park Campus, Liverpool, UK Abstract: As longevity increases, so does the global prevalence of cognitive dysfunction. Numerous lifestyle and/or dietary interventions such as omega-3 fatty acids have been suggested to improve memory. Therefore, this study examined the consistency and strength of the impact of supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids on overall cognitive function using systematic reviews and meta-analytic methods. Of 905 studies retrieved from all searches, 12 randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. There were differences between studies reporting outcomes for single memory function parameters. Subgroup analysis of doses used (low versus high indicated that subjects receiving low (<1.73 g/day doses of omega-3 fatty acids had a significant reduction in cognitive decline rate (-0.07, 95% confidence interval -0.01, -0.02 but there was no evidence for beneficial effects at higher doses (+0.04, 95% confidence interval -0.06, +0.14 compared with the placebo group. This study suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in preventing memory decline at lower doses. Keywords: cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, dietary fatty acids, omega-3, docosahexaenoic acid
Gregory A Jicha
Full Text Available Gregory A Jicha, William R MarkesberyUniversity of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center and the Sanders-Brown Center on Aging University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USAbstract: Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain growth and development. They play an important role throughout life, as critical modulators of neuronal function and regulation of oxidative stress mechanisms, in brain health and disease. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA, the major omega-3 fatty acid found in neurons, has taken on a central role as a target for therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. A plethora of in vitro, animal model, and human data, gathered over the past decade, highlight the important role DHA may play in the development of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including AD. Cross sectional and prospective cohort data have demonstrated that reduced dietary intake or low brain levels of DHA are associated with accelerated cognitive decline or the development of incipient dementia, including AD. Several clinical trials investigating the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in AD have been completed and all failed to demonstrate its efficacy in the treatment of AD. However, these trials produced intriguing data suggesting that the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may depend on the stage of disease, other dietary mediators, and apolipoprotein E status.Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stress, clinical studies, treatment
Elevated intake of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) is associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. Intake of n-3 LCPUFA is often quantified by analysis of plasma phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA); however, the typical analysis by gas chromatography does not allow fo...
Diwakar, B T; Dutta, P K; Lokesh, B R; Naidu, K A
The ratio of fatty acids namely linoleic acid (LA, 18:2, n-6) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3, n-3) in the diet plays an important role in enrichment of ALA in tissues and further conversion to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3). Garden cress seed oil (GCO) is one of the richest sources of omega-3 fatty acid and contains 29-34.5% of ALA. In this study, dietary supplementation of GCO on bio-availability and metabolism of alpha-linolenic acid was investigated in growing rats. Male wistar rats were fed with semi-purified diets supplemented with 10.0% sunflower oil (SFO 10%); 2.5% GCO and 7.5% SFO (GCO 2.5%); 5% GCO and 5% SFO (GCO 5.0%); 10% GCO (GCO 10%) for a period of 8 weeks. There was no significant difference with regard to the food intake, body weight gain and organ weights of rats in different dietary groups. Rats fed with GCO showed significant increase in ALA levels in serum and tissues compared to SFO fed rats. Feeding rats with 10% GCO lowered hepatic cholesterol by 12.3% and serum triglycerides by 40.4% compared to SFO fed group. Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels decreased by 9.45% in serum of 10% GCO fed rats, while HDL remained unchanged among GCO fed rats. Adipose tissue showed incorporation of 3.3-17.4% of ALA and correlated with incremental intake of ALA. Except in adipose tissue, the EPA, DHA levels increased significantly in serum, liver, heart and brain tissues in GCO fed rats. A maximum level of DHA was registered in brain (11.6%) and to lesser extent in serum and liver tissues. A significant decrease in LA and its metabolite arachidonic acid (AA) was observed in serum and liver tissue of rats fed on GCO. Significant improvement in n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio was observed in GCO based diets compared to diet containing SFO. This is the first study to demonstrate that
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intakes of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids (FA are associated with several health benefits. The aim of this study was to verify whether intakes of n-3 FA estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ correlate with n-3 FA levels measured in plasma phospholipids (PL. Methods The study sample consisted of 200 French-Canadians men and women aged between 18 to 55 years. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Fasting blood samples were collected and the plasma PL FA profile was measured by gas chromatography. Results Low intakes of n-3 long-chain FA together with low percentages of n-3 long-chain FA in plasma PL were found in French-Canadian population. Daily intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were similar between men and women. Yet, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA and total n-3 FA intakes were significantly higher in men compared to women (ALA: 2.28 g and 1.69 g, p n-3 FA: 2.57 g and 1.99 g, p n-3 FA (men: r = 0.47, p Conclusion Estimated n-3 long-chain FA intake among this young and well-educated French-Canadian population is lower than the recommendations. Further, FFQ data is comparable to plasma PL results to estimate DHA and total n-3 FA status in healthy individuals as well as to evaluate the EPA and DPA status in women. Overall, this FFQ could be used as a simple, low-cost tool in future studies to rank n-3 FA status of individuals.
Ginter, E; Simko, V
Attention to the role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish (n-3) in human health has remarkably increased during recent decades. Many clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown a positive role for n-3 in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, infant development and more recently, in various mental illnesses, especially in depression. These fatty acids are known to have pleiotropic effects, especially against hypertriglyceridemia and platelet aggregation. These may be mediated through several distinct mechanisms, including alterations in cell membrane composition and function, gene expression, or eicosanoid production. A number of authorities have recently recommended an increase in intakes of n-3 by the general population, because "western" diets are deficient in n-3 and have excessive amounts of n-6 fatty acids. The target EPA + DHA consumption was recommended to be at least 500 mg/day for individuals without heart disease and at least 800 to 1000 mg/day for patients with known coronary heart disease. To comply with this recommendation, a variety of food products, most notably eggs, yogurt, milk and spreads have been enriched with n-3. Additional controlled clinical trials are needed to document whether long-term consumption or supplementation with eicosapentaenoic (EPA) or docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids results in better quality of life (Fig. 4, Ref. 47).
Homer S. Black
Full Text Available Considerable circumstantial evidence has accrued from both experimental animal and human clinical studies that support a role for omega-3 fatty acids (FA in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC. Direct evidence from animal studies has shown that omega-3 FA inhibit ultraviolet radiation (UVR induced carcinogenic expression. In contrast, increasing levels of dietary omega-6 FA increase UVR carcinogenic expression, with respect to a shorter tumor latent period and increased tumor multiplicity. Both omega-6 and omega-3 FA are essential FA, necessary for normal growth and maintenance of health and although these two classes of FA exhibit only minor structural differences, these differences cause them to act significantly differently in the body. Omega-6 and omega-3 FA, metabolized through the lipoxygenase (LOX and cyclooxygenase (COX pathways, lead to differential metabolites that are influential in inflammatory and immune responses involved in carcinogenesis. Clinical studies have shown that omega-3 FA ingestion protects against UVR-induced genotoxicity, raises the UVR-mediated erythema threshold, reduces the level of pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in UVR-irradiated human skin, and appears to protect human skin from UVR-induced immune-suppression. Thus, there is considerable evidence that omega-3 FA supplementation might be beneficial in reducing the occurrence of NMSC, especially in those individuals who are at highest risk.
Black, Homer S; Rhodes, Lesley E
Considerable circumstantial evidence has accrued from both experimental animal and human clinical studies that support a role for omega-3 fatty acids (FA) in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Direct evidence from animal studies has shown that omega-3 FA inhibit ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induced carcinogenic expression. In contrast, increasing levels of dietary omega-6 FA increase UVR carcinogenic expression, with respect to a shorter tumor latent period and increased tumor multiplicity. Both omega-6 and omega-3 FA are essential FA, necessary for normal growth and maintenance of health and although these two classes of FA exhibit only minor structural differences, these differences cause them to act significantly differently in the body. Omega-6 and omega-3 FA, metabolized through the lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways, lead to differential metabolites that are influential in inflammatory and immune responses involved in carcinogenesis. Clinical studies have shown that omega-3 FA ingestion protects against UVR-induced genotoxicity, raises the UVR-mediated erythema threshold, reduces the level of pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂) in UVR-irradiated human skin, and appears to protect human skin from UVR-induced immune-suppression. Thus, there is considerable evidence that omega-3 FA supplementation might be beneficial in reducing the occurrence of NMSC, especially in those individuals who are at highest risk.
DeGiorgio, Christopher M; Taha, Ameer Y
There is growing interest in alternative and nutritional therapies for drug resistant epilepsy. ῳ-3 fatty acids such as fish or krill oil are widely available supplements used to lower triglycerides and enhance cardiovascular health. ῳ-3 fatty acids have been studied extensively in animal models of epilepsy. Yet, evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials in epilepsy is at an early stage. This report focuses on the key ῳ-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA, their incorporation into the lipid bilayer, modulation of ion channels, and mechanisms of action in reducing excitability within the central nervous system. This paper presents pre-clinical evidence from mouse, rat, and canine models, and reports the efficacy of n-3 fatty acids in randomized controlled clinical trials. An English language search of PubMed and Google scholar for the years 1981-2016 was performed for animal studies and human randomized controlled clinical trials. Expert commentary: Basic science and animal models provide a cogent rationale and substantial evidence for a role of ῳ-3 fatty acids in reducing seizures. Results in humans are limited. Recent Phase II RCT evidence suggests that low to moderate dose of ῳ-3 fatty acids reduce seizures; however, larger multicenter randomized trials are needed to confirm or refute the evidence. The safety, health effects, low cost and ease of use make ῳ-3 fatty acids an intriguing alternative therapy for drug resistant epilepsy. Though safety of profile is excellent, the human data is not yet sufficient to support efficacy in drug resistant epilepsy at this time.
Su, Kuan-Pin; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Pae, Chi-Un
Psychiatric disorders in general, and major depression and anxiety disorders in particular, account for a large burden of disability, morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a range of neurobiological activities in modulation of neurotransmitters, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and neuroplasticity, which could contribute to psychotropic effects. Here we reviewed recent research on the benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplements in prevention a...
Gupta, Adarsha; Abraham, Reinu E; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish
In this work, a newly isolated marine thraustochytrid strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3, was used for omega-3 fatty acid production by growing on lignocellulose biomass obtained from local hemp hurd (Cannabis sativa) biomass. Prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, hemp was pretreated with sodium hydroxide to open the biomass structure for the production of sugar hydrolysate. The thraustochytrid strain was able to grow on the sugar hydrolysate and accumulated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). At the lowest carbon concentration of 2%, the PUFAs productivity was 71% in glucose and 59% in the sugars hydrolysate, as a percentage of total fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) levels were highest at about 49% of TFA using 6% glucose as the carbon source. SFAs of 41% were produced using 2% of SH. This study demonstrates that SH produced from lignocellulose biomass is a potentially useful carbon source for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in thraustochytrids, as demonstrated using the new strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3.
Full Text Available As major components of neuronal membranes, omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA exhibit a wide range of regulatory functions, modulating from synaptic plasticity to neuroinflammation, from oxidative stress to neuroprotection. Recent human and animal studies indicated the n-3 PUFA neuroprotective properties in aging, with a clear negative correlation between n-3 PUFA levels and hippocampal deficits. The present multidimensional study was aimed at associating cognition, hippocampal neurogenesis, volume, neurodegeneration and metabolic correlates to verify n-3 PUFA neuroprotective effects in aging. To this aim 19 month-old mice were given n-3 PUFA mixture, or olive oil or no dietary supplement for 8 weeks during which hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions were tested. At the end of behavioral testing morphological and metabolic correlates were analyzed. n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibited better object recognition memory, spatial and localizatory memory, and aversive response retention, without modifications in anxiety levels in comparison to controls. These improved hippocampal cognitive functions occurred in the context of an enhanced cellular plasticity and a reduced neurodegeneration. In fact, n-3 PUFA supplementation increased hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic arborization of newborn neurons, volume, neuronal density and microglial cell number, while it decreased apoptosis, astrocytosis and lipofuscin accumulation in the hippocampus. The increased levels of some metabolic correlates (blood Acetyl-L-Carnitine and brain n-3 PUFA concentrations found in n-3 PUFA supplemented mice also pointed towards an effective neuroprotection.On the basis of the present results n-3 PUFA supplementation appears to be a useful tool in health promotion and cognitive decline prevention during aging.
Wysoczański, Tomasz; Sokoła-Wysoczańska, Ewa; Pękala, Jolanta; Lochyński, Stanisław; Czyż, Katarzyna; Bodkowski, Robert; Herbinger, Grzegorz; Patkowska-Sokoła, Bożena; Librowski, Tadeusz
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are crucial for our health and wellbeing; therefore, they have been widely investigated for their roles in maintaining human health and in disease treatment. Most Western diets include significant amount of saturated and omega-6 fatty acids and insufficient quantity of omega-3; however, the balance between omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA, in particular, is essential for the formation of pro- and anti-inflammatory lipids to promote health and prevent disease. As our daily diet affects our health, this paper draws attention to unique representatives of the omega-3 fatty acid group: alpha-linolenic acid and its derivatives. Recently, this has been shown to be effective in treating and preventing various diseases. It has been confirmed that omega-3 PUFAs may act as therapeutic agents as well and their significant role against inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, has been described. Some of nutritional factors have been described as a significant modifiers, which can influence brain elasticity and thus, effect on central nervous system functioning. Therefore, appropriate dietary management appears to be a non-invasive and effective approach to counteract neurological and cognitive disorders.
Mahrus; Sumitro, Sutiman Bambang; Utomo, Didik Huswo; Sartimbul, Aida; Toha, Abdul Hamid; Widodo, Nashi
Lombok Strait has abundance of Sardine, Sardinella lemuru, which contains such high amount of omega-3 fatty acid (omega-3). However, the genetic relationship of S. lemuru with other commercial fish rich in omega-3 has not been widely studied yet. Studies on genetic proximity of S. lemuru with the other marine fish using 12S rRNA gene is very important in order to obtain genetic information of the Sardine to develop an appropriate strategy for future conservation of the fish in Lombok Strait. The aim of this study was to find out the genetic relationship of Sardinella lemuru living in Lombok Strait with the economically valuable fish and its correlation with omega-3 production. Sardinella lemuru were collected from Lombok Strait, the phylogenetic tree was done based on 12S rRNA gene through a neighbor-joining method to identify the relationship of Sardines and fish rich in omega-3 fatty acid. The phylogenetic tree showed that Sardinella lemuru is similar to Sardinella aurita and has a close similarity with Sardinella maderensis. However, the relationship did not correspond to omega-3 production. Based on the results of the study, it is suggested that the production of omega-3 is not specifically based on the proximity of the species, but it is more associated with conserved domain of Δ6-desaturase. Nevertheless, detailed mechanisms still need to be elucidated.
Fuhrmann Herbert; Nielsen Leif; Stoeckel Katja; Bachmann Lisa
Abstract Background In dogs, increasing the tissue n-3 fatty acid (FA) content is associated with potential benefit in some medical conditions, e.g. atopic dermatitis, cancer or heart disease. Therefore effectively and conveniently increasing tissue n-3 FA levels in dogs is of interest. Incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into cell membranes may be studied by FA analysis of erythrocyte membranes (EM), because of the correlation of its FA composition with the FA composition of other cells. Aim of ...
Johnson, Mats; Ostlund, Sven; Fransson, Gunnar; Kadesjo, Bjorn; Gillberg, Christopher
Objective: The aim of the study was to assess omega 3/6 fatty acids (eye q) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The study included a randomized, 3-month, omega 3/6 placebo-controlled, one-way crossover trial with 75 children and adolescents (8-18 years), followed by 3 months with omega 3/6 for all. Investigator-rated ADHD…
Johnson, Mats; Ostlund, Sven; Fransson, Gunnar; Kadesjo, Bjorn; Gillberg, Christopher
Objective: The aim of the study was to assess omega 3/6 fatty acids (eye q) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The study included a randomized, 3-month, omega 3/6 placebo-controlled, one-way crossover trial with 75 children and adolescents (8-18 years), followed by 3 months with omega 3/6 for all. Investigator-rated ADHD…
Jakobsen, Marianne U; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M
We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers....
Coronel, R.; Wilms-Schopman, F.J.G.; Ruijter, den H.M.; Belterman, C.N.; Schumacher, C.A.; Opthof, T.; Hovernier, R.; Lemmens, A.G.; Terpstra, A.H.M.; Katan, M.B.; Zock, P.L.
Objective Dietary supplementation with fish oil-derived n-3 fatty acids reduces mortality in patients with myocardial infarction, but may have adverse effects in angina patients. The underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the arrhythmias and the electrophysiologic
Coronel, R.; Wilms-Schopman, F.J.G.; Ruijter, den H.M.; Belterman, C.N.; Schumacher, C.A.; Opthof, T.; Hovernier, R.; Lemmens, A.G.; Terpstra, A.H.M.; Katan, M.B.; Zock, P.L.
Objective Dietary supplementation with fish oil-derived n-3 fatty acids reduces mortality in patients with myocardial infarction, but may have adverse effects in angina patients. The underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the arrhythmias and the electrophysiologic
Inflammatory processes are critical components of many illnesses, and dietary n-3 fatty acids have been shown to contribute to a reduction of the inflammatory status, both in in vivo and in vitro studies. The mechanisms underlying the modulation of inflammation are not completely understood, but it
Full Text Available The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented.
Martins, Dulce Alves; Custódio, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Pereira, Hugo; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Varela, João; Abu-Salah, Khalid M.
The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented. PMID:23807546
Mori, Trevor A
Clinical and epidemiological studies provide support that the polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from fish and fish oils are cardioprotective, particularly in the setting of secondary prevention. Omega-3 fatty acids benefit multiple cardiometabolic risk factors including lipids, blood pressure, vascular reactivity and cardiac function, as well as having antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. Omega-3 fatty acids do not associate with any adverse effects and do not adversely interact with prescriptive drugs such as lipid-lowering, antihypertensive or hypoglycaemic medications. Clinical studies suggest that doses up to 4 g daily when prescribed with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs do not associate with increased risk of major bleeding episodes. Omega-3 fatty acids have gained widespread usage by general practitioners and clinicians in clinical settings such as pregnancy and infant development, secondary prevention in coronary heart disease patients and treatment of dyslipidaemias. Health authorities currently recommend an intake of at least two oily fish meals per week for the general population which equates to approximately 500 mg per day of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. In patients with coronary heart disease the guidelines recommend 1 g daily supplements and in hypertriglyceridaemic patients up to 4 g per day. These doses are now achievable with readily available purified encapsulated preparations of omega-3 fatty acids. However, a more practical recommendation for increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake in the general population is to incorporate fish as part of a healthy diet that includes increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and moderation of salt intake.
Kim, H-S; Kim, H; Jeong, Y J; Yang, S J; Baik, S J; Lee, H; Lee, S-H; Cho, J H; Choi, I-Y; Yim, H W; Yoon, K-H
This study aimed to compare the ability of statin monotherapy (ST group), omega-3 fatty acid monotherapy (OM_A group) and combination therapy with omega-3 fatty acids and a statin (OM_S group), to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels in patients with hypertriglyceridaemia. In this retrospective cohort study, we extracted data from the electronic medical records of patients initially prescribed either a statin or omega-3 fatty acids between January, 2009 and December, 2013. We performed a comparative analysis of the change in cholesterol levels between baseline and an average of 3 months later. Data were extracted for 2071 patients. The average daily eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl ester and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ethyl ester intake was 1689 mg, and 79-86% of the OM_A and OM_S groups were prescribed two omega-3 fatty acid capsules. At a baseline TG level of between 200 and 500 mg/dL, TG levels were reduced by 16 ± 2·8% in the ST group, 28 ± 2·8% in the OM_A group and 29 ± 2·3% in the OM_S group (P = 0·001 for ST group vs. OM_A and OM_S groups), with no difference between the OM_A and OM_S groups. At a baseline TG level ≥500 mg/dL, there was no difference in TG level reduction between the three groups (54 ± 7·3%, 55·8 ± 3·5% and 51·8 ± 6·8%, respectively, P = 0·851). Although omega-3 fatty acids are not considered the primary medication for hypertriglyceridaemia, the prescription of omega-3 fatty acids is justifiable if reduction in TG levels is judged to be necessary. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Santiara Putri Pramesti
Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids have important roles in improvement of intelligent and health of human. Microencapsulation of fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids is an effort to maintain flavor, aroma, stability, and also to successfully transfer bioactive component from the fish oil as fortification material for foods or medicines. Improvement of instant crab cream soup enriched with fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acid has never been conducted before. The purpose of this research was to improve microencapsulation method for fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids as fortification material for instant cream of crab soup. Microencapsulation methods in this research are homogenization and spray drying. The results showed that the best microcapsule was obtained from homogenization treatment for 10 minutes with efficiency of 90.41±0.64%. The shape of the obtained microcapsule was spherical with average size of 6.52 μm, with induction time up to 26.09±0.01 hours. The best cream of crab soup formula was at fish oil microcapsule concentration of 3.30%, with 8.19% daily value of omega-3, inclusion 11.32% of EPA and DHA at serving size of 17.56 gram.
Chen, Xi; Du, Xue; Shen, Jianliang; Lu, Lizhi; Wang, Weiqun
Omega-3 fatty acids, especially long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, have been associated with potential health benefits for chronic disease prevention. Our previous studies found that dietary omega-3 fatty acids could accumulate in the meat and eggs in a duck model. This study was to reveal the effects of various dietary fats on fatty acid profile and conversion of omega-3 fatty acids in duck liver. Female Shan Partridge Ducks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The experimental diets substituted the basal diet by 2% of flaxseed oil, rapeseed oil, beef tallow, or fish oil, respectively. In addition, a dose response study was further conducted for flaxseed and fish oil diets at 0.5%, 1%, and 2%, respectively. At the end of the five-week treatment, fatty acids were extracted from the liver samples and analyzed by GC-FID. As expected, the total omega-3 fatty acids and the ratio of total omega-3/omega-6 significantly increased in both flaxseed and fish oil groups when compared with the control diet. No significant change of total saturated fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids was found in both rapeseed and beef tallow groups. The dose response study further indicated that 59-81% of the short-chain omega-3 ALA in flaxseed oil-fed group was efficiently converted to long-chain DHA in the duck liver, whereas 1% of dietary flaxseed oil could produce an equivalent level of DHA as 0.5% of dietary fish oil. The more omega-3 fatty acids, the less omega-6 fatty acids in the duck liver. Taken together, this study showed the fatty acid profiling in the duck liver after various dietary fat consumption, provided insight into a dose response change of omega-3 fatty acids, indicated an efficient conversion of short- to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid, and suggested alternative long-chain omega-3 fatty acid-enriched duck products for human health benefits.
Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Szostak, Agnieszka; Pas, te Marinus F.W.; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R.; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O.; Pierzchała, Mariusz
The level of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can affect many cellular systems and function via nuclear receptors or the bioactive lipid regulation of gene expression. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in the muscle transcriptome and the b
Full Text Available Objective. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the serum lipid profile in a Mexican population was evaluated. Material and methods. Three g of salmon oil was the daily intake during four weeks. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and erythrocyte fatty acid composition were analyzed. Results. The hypertriglyceridemic group showed a statistically significant (p< 0.05 reduction of triglycerides and significant (p< 0.01 elevation of high density lipoproteins. The hypercholesterolemic group reduced significantly the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides; high density lipoproteins were augmented by 11.6%. Conclusions. The hipolipidemic effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was manifest in the Mexican volunteers under the conditions here evaluated.
Breese McCoy Sarah J
Full Text Available Abstract I developed Graves' Disease four months postpartum. After one year on propylthiouracil, I learned that omega-3 fatty acids may reduce inflammation associated with certain autoimmune disorders, although no investigations for thyroiditis have been reported. Within eight weeks of beginning flaxseed oil supplements, TSH levels normalized, but fell somewhat when flaxseed was decreased and PTU discontinued. During another pregnancy, plasma TSH normalized, but was again suppressed by four weeks postpartum, then undetectable by four months. This time, flaxseed supplementation alone coincided with TSH normalization. Omega-3 fatty acids should be investigated as a potential treatment for autoimmune thyroid disease.
J. A. Stephenson
Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid have been shown to have multiple beneficial antitumour actions that affect the essential alterations that dictate malignant growth. In this review we explore the putative mechanisms of action of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in cancer protection in relation to self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to growth-inhibitory signals, apoptosis, limitless replicative potential, sustained angiogenesis, and tissue invasion, and how these will hopefully translate from bench to bedside.
Giordano, Elena; Visioli, Francesco
Several lines of investigation are being developed to assess the impact of polyunsaturated fatty acids, namely those of the omega 3 series, intake on oxidative stress. Keeping in mind that there might be a dose-response relation, in vivo and in vitro data strongly suggest that omega 3 fatty acids might act as anti- rather than pro-oxidant in several cells such as vascular cells, hence diminishing inflammation, oxidative stress, and, in turn, the risk of atherosclerosis and degenerative disorders such as cardiovascular disease. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hixson, Stefanie M; Arts, Michael T
Phytoplankton are the main source of energy and omega-3 (n-3) long-chain essential fatty acids (EFA) in aquatic ecosystems. Their growth and biochemical composition are affected by surrounding environmental conditions, including temperature, which continues to increase as a result of climate warming. Increasing water temperatures may negatively impact the production of EFA by phytoplankton through the process of homeoviscous adaptation. To investigate this, we conducted an exploratory data synthesis with 952 fatty acid (FA) profiles from six major groups of marine and freshwater phytoplankton. Temperature was strongly correlated with a decrease in the proportion of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated FA (LC-PUFA) and an increase in omega-6 FA and saturated FA. Based on linear regression models, we predict that global n-3 LC-PUFA production will be reduced by 8.2% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 27.8% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with an increase in water temperature of 2.5 °C. Using a previously published estimate of the global production of EPA by diatoms, which contribute to most of the world's supply of EPA, we predict a loss of 14.2 Mt of EPA annually as a result of ocean warming. The n-3 LC-PUFA are vitally important for an array of key physiological functions in aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and these FA are mainly produced by phytoplankton. Therefore, reduced production of these EFA, as a consequence of climate warming, is predicted to negatively affect species that depend on these compounds for optimum physiological function. Such profound changes in the biochemical composition of phytoplankton cell membranes can lead to cascading effects throughout the world's ecosystems.
Total fat and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet may affect breast cancer risk by altering estrogen metabolism. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of differing total fat and omega-3 fatty acid content of diets on a panel of urinary estrogens and metabolites. A controlled, cross-ove...
Ramos, Eduardo J B; Romanova, Irina V; Suzuki, Susumu; Chen, Chung; Ugrumov, Michael V; Sato, Tomoi; Goncalves, Carolina G; Meguid, Michael M
In cancer anorexia, a decrease in food intake (FI) occurs concomitant with changes in orexigenic peptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and anorexigenic peptides such as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and anorexigenic neurotransmitter serotonin. omega-3 Fatty acid (omega-3FA) inhibits cytokine synthesis, and delays tumor appearance, tumor growth, and onset of anorexia in tumor-bearing rats. We hypothesize that, in cancer anorexia, omega-3FA is associated with quantitative reversal of hypothalamic NPY, alpha-MSH, and serotonin receptor (5-HT(1B)-receptor) enhancing FI. Fischer rats were divided into: MCA tumor bearing fed chow (TB-Chow) or omega-3FA diet (TB-omega-3FA) and controls: non-tumor bearing fed chow (NTB-Chow) or omega-3FA diet (NTB-omega-3FA). Rats were euthanized at anorexia and brains were removed for hypothalamic immunohistochemical study, using NPY, alpha-MSH, and 5-HT(1B)-receptor-specific antibodies and slides assessed by image analysis. Immunostaining specificity was controlled by omission of primary or secondary antibodies and pre-absorption test. At anorexia, FI decreased (P anorexia, concomitant with an increase in FI, were probably mediated by omega-3FA inhibition of tumor-induced cytokines.
Nobili, Valerio; Alisi, Anna; Musso, Giovanni; Scorletti, Eleonora; Calder, Philip C; Byrne, Christopher D
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently considered the most common liver disease in industrialized countries, and it is estimated that it will become the most frequent indication for liver transplantation in the next decade. NAFLD may be associated with moderate (i.e. steatosis) to severe (i.e. steatohepatitis and fibrosis) liver damage and affects all age groups. Furthermore, subjects with NAFLD may be at a greater risk of other obesity-related complications later in life, and people with obesity and obesity-related complications (e.g. metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease) are at increased risk of developing NAFLD. To date, there is no licensed treatment for NAFLD and therapy has been mainly centered on weight loss and increased physical activity. Unfortunately, it is often difficult for patients to adhere to the advised lifestyle changes. Therefore, based on the known pathogenesis of NAFLD, several clinical trials with different nutritional supplementation and prescribed drugs have been undertaken or are currently underway. Experimental evidence has emerged about the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids, a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are important for a number of health-related functions. Omega-3 fatty acids are present in some foods (oils, nuts and seeds) that also contain omega-6 fatty acids, and the best sources of exclusively omega-3 fatty acids are oily fish, krill oil and algae. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the pathogenesis of NAFLD, and we also discuss the molecular and clinical evidence for the benefits of different omega-3 fatty acid preparations in NAFLD.
omega -6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFAs ) promote breast cancer whereas omega -3 (n- 3) PUFAs inhibit breast cancer...11 4 1 Introduction Experimental evidence suggests that omega -6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid ( PUFA ) intake promotes breast cancer growth (1...pitt.edu 15 ABSTRACT Elevated intake of omega -6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFAs ) may promote breast cancer, whereas
Araújo, Maria Elisa Melo Branco de; Campos, Paula Renata Bueno; Alberto, Thiago Grando; Contesini, Fabiano Jares; Carvalho, Patrícia de Oliveira
The search for new biocatalysts has aroused great interest due to the variety of micro-organisms and their role as enzyme producers. Native lipases from Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus javanicus were used to enrich the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids content in the triacylglycerols of soybean oil by acidolysis with free fatty acids from sardine oil in solvent-free media. For the immobilization process, the best lipase/support ratios were 1:3 (w/w) for Aspergillus niger lipase and 1:5 (w/w) for Rhizopus javanicus lipase using Amberlite MB-1. Both lipases maintained constant activity for 6 months at 4°C. Reaction time, sardine-free fatty acids:soybean oil mole ratio and initial water content of the lipase were investigated to determine their effects on n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids incorporation into soybean oil. Structured triacylglycerols with 11.7 and 7.2% of eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid were obtained using Aspergillus niger lipase and Rhizopus javanicus lipase, decreasing the n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio of soybean oil (11:1 to 3.5:1 and 4.7:1, respectively). The best reaction conditions were: initial water content of lipase of 0.86% (w/w), sardine-free faty acids:soybean oil mole ratio of 3:1 and reaction time of 36h, at 40°C. The significant factors for the acidolysis reaction were the sardine-free fatty acids:soybean oil mole ratio and reaction time. The characterization of structured triacylglycerols was obtained using easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry. The enzymatic reaction led to the formation of many structured triacylglycerols containing eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid or both polyunsaturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Maria Elisa Melo Branco de Araújo
Full Text Available Abstract The search for new biocatalysts has aroused great interest due to the variety of micro-organisms and their role as enzyme producers. Native lipases from Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus javanicus were used to enrich the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids content in the triacylglycerols of soybean oil by acidolysis with free fatty acids from sardine oil in solvent-free media. For the immobilization process, the best lipase/support ratios were 1:3 (w/w for Aspergillus niger lipase and 1:5 (w/w for Rhizopus javanicus lipase using Amberlite MB-1. Both lipases maintained constant activity for 6 months at 4 °C. Reaction time, sardine-free fatty acids:soybean oil mole ratio and initial water content of the lipase were investigated to determine their effects on n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids incorporation into soybean oil. Structured triacylglycerols with 11.7 and 7.2% of eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid were obtained using Aspergillus niger lipase and Rhizopus javanicus lipase, decreasing the n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio of soybean oil (11:1 to 3.5:1 and 4.7:1, respectively. The best reaction conditions were: initial water content of lipase of 0.86% (w/w, sardine-free faty acids:soybean oil mole ratio of 3:1 and reaction time of 36 h, at 40 °C. The significant factors for the acidolysis reaction were the sardine-free fatty acids:soybean oil mole ratio and reaction time. The characterization of structured triacylglycerols was obtained using easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry. The enzymatic reaction led to the formation of many structured triacylglycerols containing eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid or both polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Akadiri Yessoufou; Nekoua, Magloire P.; Adam Gbankoto; Yohana Mashalla; Kabirou Moutairou
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering ...
Christophersen, Philip Carsten B; Yang, Mingshi; Mu, Huiling
Increased research interest in the health benefits of fish oils and the wide publicity of these studies have led to the marketing and launch of a wide array of new and traditional food and beverage products enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. This chapter focuses on the impact of microencapsulatio...... are equally efficient for providing these essential fatty acids as fish oil in long-term applications.......Increased research interest in the health benefits of fish oils and the wide publicity of these studies have led to the marketing and launch of a wide array of new and traditional food and beverage products enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. This chapter focuses on the impact of microencapsulation...... and other factors on the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils. To help understand the impact of microencapsulation on bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids, it presents a brief overview of encapsulation techniques and excipients used. Microencapsulation of fish oil improves its chemical...
Dyerberg, Jørn; Christensen, Jeppe H; Eskesen, Dorte; Astrup, Arne; Stender, Steen
Trans fatty acids (TFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have opposite effects on several biological functions. We report a study on the effects on risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Eighty-seven healthy males were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of daily intake of either 20 g of industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA), 4 g n-3 PUFA, or control fat, incorporated in bakery products as part of the daily food. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased in the TFA-group, triglycerides and mean arterial blood pressure decreased in the n-3 group. Heart rate variability (HRV), arterial dilatory capacity, flow mediated vasodilation, compliance, and distensibility were unchanged. Post hoc, we did a subgroup analysis of the results from the subjects with normal initial HRV. In these, 24-h heart rate (HR) was significantly increased by approximately three beats/min in the TFA group, with a decrease of the same magnitude in the n-3 group. A high HR is associated to an increased mortality and vice versa. Our results thus support the notion that IP-TFA and n-3 PUFA affect risk for cardiovascular mortality via mechanisms not only related to changes in plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins.
Ranjan Moharana, Tushar; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana
Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.
Koren, Netta; Simsa-Maziel, Stav; Shahar, Ron; Schwartz, Betty; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat
Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are essential nutritional components that must be obtained from foods. Increasing evidence validate that omega-3 FAs are beneficial for bone health, and several mechanisms have been suggested to mediate their effects on bone, including alterations in calcium absorption and urinary calcium loss, prostaglandin synthesis, lipid oxidation, osteoblast formation and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. However, to date, there is scant information regarding the effect of omega-3 FAs on the developing skeleton during the rapid growth phase. In this study we aim to evaluate the effect of exposure to high levels of omega-3 FAs on bone development and quality during prenatal and early postnatal period. For this purpose, we used the fat-1 transgenic mice that have the ability to convert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the ATDC5 chondrogenic cell line as models. We show that exposure to high concentrations of omega-3 FAs at a young age accelerates bone growth through alterations of the growth plate, associated with increased chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. We further propose that those effects are mediated by the receptors G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and hepatic nuclear factor 4α, which are expressed by chondrocytes in culture. Additionally, using a combined study on the structural and mechanical bone parameters, we show that high omega-3 levels contribute to superior trabecular and cortical structure, as well as to stiffer bones and improved bone quality. Most interestingly, the fat-1 model allowed us to demonstrate the role of maternal high omega-3 concentration on bone growth during the gestation and postnatal period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fukunaga, Kenji; Hosomi, Ryota; Fukao, Midori; Miyauchi, Kazumasa; Kanda, Seiji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro
Phospholipids (PL) containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have beneficial effects of maintaining and promoting health compared with triacylglycerols (TAG) containing n-3 PUFA or general PL. This study evaluated the effects of dietary PL containing n-3 PUFA and elucidated the effects of the glycerophosphate structure and n-3 PUFA on fatty acid (FA) metabolism in rats. Rats were fed a basal diet containing soybean oil alone, TAG containing n-3 PUFA (1.8%), soybean PL (2.7%), PL containing n-3 PUFA (2.7%), or TAG containing n-3 PUFA (1.8%) + soybean PL (2.7%). The present n-3 PUFA-supplemented diets had similar FA compositions, and the PL diets had similar PL compositions. TAG containing n-3 PUFA reduced serum TAG contents, but did not affect serum cholesterol contents compared with soybean oil alone. PL diets containing n-3 PUFA and the combination of TAG containing n-3 PUFA and soybean PL resulted in decreased serum and liver TAG contents compared with the diet containing soybean oil alone, reflecting enhanced liver FA β-oxidation. The results of this study show that TAG containing n-3 PUFA with added soybean PL affects serum and liver TAG and cholesterol contents to a similar degree as PL containing n-3 PUFA. TAG containing n-3 PUFA and soybean PL are widely used as functional food ingredients and pharmaceutical constituents and are inexpensive compared with PL containing n-3 PUFA. Therefore, the combination of TAG containing n-3 PUFA and soybean PL has potential as a useful and inexpensive component of functional foods.
Ballester Oscar F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Results from increasing numbers of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that omega 3 fatty acids incorporated in cell culture media or in the diet of the animals can suppress the growth of cancers. When human clinical trials are initiated to determine the ability of omega 3 fatty acids to alter growth or response to chemotherapeutic interventions of cancers, it will be essential to determine the omega 3 intake of individuals in the trial to determine compliance with consumption of the supplement and to correlate with endpoints of efficacy. We wondered if the fatty acid composition of RBCs might accurately indicate incorporation of omega 3 fatty acids in the WBCs. In this report we determine and compare the changes in fatty acid compositions of red blood cells and white blood cells in response to consumption of three doses of an omega 3 fatty acid supplement. Results We found that the fraction of omega 3 fatty acids in both red blood cells and white blood cells increased following consumption of the supplement. There was a linear, dose responsive increase in the fraction of omega 3 fatty acids in red blood cells but the increase in omega 3 in white blood cells was not linear. The magnitude of increase in omega 3 fatty acids was different between the two cell types. Conclusions Fatty acid analysis of red blood cells is a good measure of compliance with supplement consumption. However, fatty acid analysis of white blood cells is needed to correlate changes in fatty acid composition of white blood cells with other biochemical changes in the white blood cells. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00899353.
Sharma, Sonica; Chhibber, Sanjay; Mohan, Harsh; Sharma, Saroj
The immune benefits associated with the optimal intake of dietary fatty acids are widely known. The objective of the present investigation was to elucidate the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) food source on acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Three different n-3 PUFA preparations (cod liver oil, Maxigard, and flaxseed oil) were orally supplemented and infection was induced in different groups of experimental mice. Mice fed olive oil and normal saline served as oil and saline controls, respectively. After 2 weeks of fatty acid feeding, no effect on the establishment of infection was observed when acute pneumonia was induced in animals. On the other hand, 6 weeks of n-3 PUFA administration was found to improve resistance in mice, as reduced lung bacterial load coupled with significant improvement in pathology was seen in infected mice. Alveolar macrophages collected from all 3 groups of mice fed n-3 PUFA exhibited a significant decrease in the level of apoptosis following infection with K. pneumoniae and an enhanced in vitro phagocytic potential for the pathogen. Lower lung levels of nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and lactate dehydrogenase were associated with a decrease in the severity of tissue damage. There was a significant increase in the lung levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)). No significant change was observed in the levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10). This study highlights that dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation exerts an overall beneficial effect against acute experimental pneumonia. This mechanism is operative through upregulation of nonspecific and specific immune defenses of the host.
Zendedel, Adib; Habib, Pardes; Dang, Jon; Lammerding, Leoni; Hoffmann, Stefanie; Beyer, Cordian; Slowik, Alexander
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA n3) provide neuroprotection due to their anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties as well as their regulatory function on growth factors and neuronal plasticity. These qualities enable PUFA n3 to ameliorate stroke outcome and limit neuronal damage. Young adult male rats received transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). PUFA n3 were intravenously administered into the jugular vein immediately after stroke and 12h later. We analyzed stroke volume and behavioral performance as well as the regulation of functionally-relevant genes in the penumbra. The extent of ischemic damage was reduced and behavioral performance improved subject to applied PUFA n3. Expression of Tau and growth-associated protein-43 genes were likewise restored. Ischemia-induced increase of cytokine mRNA levels was abated by PUFA n3. Using an in vitro approach, we demonstrate that cultured astroglial and microglia directly respond to PUFA n3 administration by preventing ischemia-induced increase of cyclooxygenase 2, hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and interleukin 1beta. Cultured cortical neurons also appeared as direct targets, since PUFA n3 shifted the Bcl-2-like protein 4 (Bax)/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl 2) ratio towards an anti-apoptotic constellation. Thus, PUFA n3 reveal a high neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory potential in an acute ischemic stroke model by targeting astroglial and microglial function as well as improving neuronal survival strategies. Our findings signify the potential clinical feasibility of PUFA n3 therapeutic treatment in stroke and other acute neurological diseases.
Grindel, Annemarie; Staps, Frank; Kuhnt, Katrin
Adequate biomarkers for the dietary supply of fatty acids (FA) are FA of adipose tissue and blood fractions. In human studies, invasive sample collection is unpleasant for subjects. In contrast, cheek cell sampling can be considered as a non-invasive alternative to investigate FA status.The aim of this study was to analyze whether cheek cell FA composition reflect the supplementation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) using a linseed oil mixture compared to olive oil supplementation. Additionally, it was investigated if cheek cell FA composition correlates with the FA composition of plasma, red blood cells (RBC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and during both interventions. During a 10-week randomized, controlled, double-blind human intervention study, 38 subjects provided cheek cell and blood samples. After a two-week run-in period, the test group (n = 23) received 17 g/d of an ALA-rich linseed oil mixture, while the control group (n = 15) received 17 g/d of an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)-free olive oil. Cheek cells and blood were collected on days 0, 7 and 56 of the 8-week intervention period. Compared to olive oil, the linseed oil intervention increased ALA and also the endogenously converted long-chain n-3 metabolites eicosatetraenoic-, eicosapentaenoic- and docosapentaenoic acid in cheek cells (P ≤ 0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid remained unchanged. Reflecting the treatment, the n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in the test group. In general, cheek cell FA reflected the changes of FA in blood fractions. Independent of treatment, significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) of n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA between cheek cells and plasma, RBC and PBMC were found, except for linoleic acid and ALA. The changes in FA composition of cheek cells confirmed that ALA from linseed oil increased endogenously derived n-3 PUFA in cheek cell lipids. These changes in cheek cells and their correlation to the respective FA in blood fractions indicate the cheek
Koch Lauren G
Full Text Available Abstract Dietary ratios of omega-3 (n-3 to omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been implicated in controlling markers of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profiles and adiposity. However, the role of dietary PUFAs in regulating energy systems in healthy relative to metabolic diseased backgrounds has not been systematically addressed. We used dietary manipulation of n-3 to n-6 PUFA ratios in an animal model of metabolic syndrome and a related healthy line to assay feeding behavior and endocrine markers of feeding drive and energy regulation. Two related lines of rodents with a healthy and a metabolic syndrome phenotype were fed one of two isocaloric diets, comprised of either a 1:1 or a 1:30 n-3 to n-6 ratio, for 30 days. Food intake and weight gain were monitored; and leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin and a suite of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in energy regulation were assayed following the dietary manipulation period. There was no difference in caloric intake or weight gain between diet groups, however there was a significant interaction between diet and phenotypic line on central and peripheral markers of energy homeostasis. Thus serum levels of leptin, acylated-ghrelin and adiponectin, and mRNA levels of the anorexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide, cocaine-amphetamine related transcript (CART, showed differential, dietary responses with HCR rats showing an increase in anorexigenic signals in response to unbalanced n-3:6 ratios, while LCR did not. These data are the first to demonstrate that a rodent line with a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype responds differentially to dietary manipulation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids relative to a related healthy line with regard to endocrine markers of energy homeostasis. The dietary n-3:n-6 ratios used in this experiment represent extreme points of natural human diets, however the data suggest that optimal recommendations regarding omega-3 and
Rix, Thomas Andersen; Joensen, Albert Marni; Riahi, Sam
OBJECTIVE: Consumption of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may be associated with a lower risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but results have been inconsistent. The aim was to investigate this further by measurements of marine n-3 PUFA in adipose tissue. DESIGN: Cohort study...... of marine n-3 PUFA, which reflects the endogenous exposure and is also an objective marker of the long-term dietary intake. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incident AF during follow-up. RESULTS: 179 cases of AF occurred over 13.6 years. Multivariate, sex-stratified Cox proportional hazards regression analyses using...... cubic splines showed a monotonic, negative, dose-response trend, but not statistically significant association, between total marine n-3 PUFA in adipose tissue and incident AF. A similar trend towards a lower risk of AF was seen in the second (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.24) and third tertiles (HR 0...
Paola Bozzatello; Elena Brignolo; Elisa Grandi; Silvio Bellino
A new application for omega-3 fatty acids has recently emerged, concerning the treatment of several mental disorders. This indication is supported by data of neurobiological research, as highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) are highly concentrated in neural phospholipids and are important components of the neuronal cell membrane. They modulate the mechanisms of brain cell signaling, including the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide a complete and upd...
Poudyal, Hemant; Panchal, Sunil K; Diwan, Vishal; Brown, Lindsay
Epidemiological, human, animal, and cell culture studies show that n-3 fatty acids, especially α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), reduce the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. EPA and DHA, rather than ALA, have been the focus of research on the n-3 fatty acids, probably due to the relatively inefficient conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA in rodents and humans. This review will assess our current understanding of the effects and potential mechanisms of actions of individual n-3 fatty acids on multiple risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Evidence for pharmacological responses and the mechanism of action of each of the n-3 fatty acid trio will be discussed for the major risk factors of metabolic syndrome, especially adiposity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes, hypertension, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Metabolism of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids as well as the interactions of n-3 fatty acids with nutrients, gene expression, and disease states will be addressed to provide a rationale for the use of n-3 fatty acids to reduce the risk factors of metabolic syndrome.
Maria Elisa Melo Branco de Araújo; Paula Renata Bueno Campos; Thiago Grando Alberto; Fabiano Jares Contesini; Patrícia de Oliveira Carvalho
Abstract The search for new biocatalysts has aroused great interest due to the variety of micro-organisms and their role as enzyme producers. Native lipases from Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus javanicus were used to enrich the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids content in the triacylglycerols of soybean oil by acidolysis with free fatty acids from sardine oil in solvent-free media. For the immobilization process, the best lipase/support ratios were 1:3 (w/w) for Aspergillus niger lipa...
Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a “functional food” by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA for n-3 PUFA.
Petracci, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Maurizio; Cavani, Claudio
Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a "functional food" by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for n-3 PUFA.
Svahn, Sara L; Ulleryd, Marcus A; Grahnemo, Louise; Ståhlman, Marcus; Borén, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov; Johansson, Maria E
Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is increasing in incidence. With the alarming use of antibiotics,S. aureus is prone to become methicillin resistant. Antibiotics are the only widely used pharmacological treatment for sepsis. Interestingly, mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have better survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis than mice fed HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S). To investigate what component of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e., omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, exerts beneficial effects on the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis, mice were fed HFD rich in omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to inoculation with S. aureus Further, mice fed HFD-S were treated with omega-3 fatty acid metabolites known as resolvins. Mice fed HFD rich in omega-3 fatty acids had increased survival and decreased bacterial loads compared to those for mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis. Furthermore, the bacterial load was decreased in resolvin-treated mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with that in mice treated with vehicle. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids increase the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis by reversing the deleterious effect of HFD-S on mouse survival.
Jenny Elisabeth, T Yuliani, P M Tambunan, J M Purba
Full Text Available Several lipases from microbial and plant, i.e Rhizomucor miehei, Pseudomonas sp., Candida antartica, rice bran, and Carica papaya latex (CPL were examined for synthesis of omega-3 (n-3 PUFA-rich glyceride by hydrolysis and acidolysis reaction. Tuna oil was used in hydrolysis reaction, whereas tuna and palm oils were used as source of triglyceride (TAG molecules and n-3 PUFA concentrate from tuna oil as source of EPA and DHA in acidolysis reaction.For hydrolysis reaction, the rice bran and CPL lipases showed the lowest hydrolytic activity of the tuna oil, whereas the R. miehei lipase showed the highest hydrolytic activity but was unable to hydrolyze EPA and DHA. On the contrary, the C. antartica and Pseudomonas sp. lipases acted stronger on hydrolysis of DHA ester bond than EPA.For acidolysis reaction, all the lipases showed ability to incorporate n-3 PUFA into tuna and palm oils. C. antartica lipase had the maximum DHA incorporation into tuna and palm oils, rice bran lipase had relatively similar ability with R. miehei lipase, and the CPL lipase had the lowest ability. This study proved that rice bran and CPL lipases also had transesterification activity and showed the feasibility of the rice bran lipase to be a biocatalyst for n-3 PUFA-rich glyceride production. Increasing the substrate ratio, of n-3 PUFA concentrate and tuna or palm oil, could increase the EPA and DHA incorporation. The R. miehei, rice bran, and CPL lipases unabled to incorporate DHA into DHA-containing glyceride molecule, whereas C. antartica lipase had the capability in high ratio of n-3 PUFA concentrate to oil. Therefore, the lipases were easier to incorporate n-3 PUFA into palm oil than tuna oil, since the TAG molecules of palm oil was not as complex as tuna oil. It could be suggested that the lipases did not only have acyl chain and positional specificity, but also the whole glyceride structure specificity.
A. O. Malygin
Full Text Available Antiarrhythmic effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in patients with recurrent atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias had been proven. The positive effect of the ω-3 PUFA on the risk of sudden arrhythmic death and overall mortality in the patients after myocardial infarction and patients with chronic heart failure had been also proven.
Previous children's studies in North America and Germany have shown that ambient sulfate particles are associated with an increased prevalence of bronchitis and decreased lung function. We have now investigated the ability of dietary intake of anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty aci...
Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Ashwood, Paul; Bostrom, Alan; Hendren, Robert L.
We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial to determine the feasibility and initial safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids (1.3 g/day) for the treatment of hyperactivity in 27 children ages 3-8 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). After 12 weeks, hyperactivity, as measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, improved 2.7 (plus or minus…
Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, are found naturally in fish oil and are commonly thought to be anti-inflammatory nutrients, with protective effects in inflammatory diseases including asthma and allergies. The mechanisms of these effects remain mostly unknown but are of great interest for their potential therapeutic applications. Large numbers of epidemiological and observational studies investigating the effect of fish intake or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adulthood on asthmatic and allergic outcomes have been conducted. They mostly indicate protective effects and suggest a causal relationship between decreased intake of fish oil in modernized diets and an increasing number of individuals with asthma or other allergic diseases. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM: protectins, resolvins, and maresins are generated from omega-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA via several enzymatic reactions. These mediators counter-regulate airway eosinophilic inflammation and promote the resolution of inflammation in vivo. Several reports have indicated that the biosynthesis of SPM is impaired, especially in severe asthma, which suggests that chronic inflammation in the lung might result from a resolution defect. This article focuses on the beneficial aspects of omega-3 fatty acids and offers recent insights into their bioactive metabolites including resolvins and protectins.
In developing countries, approximately 30-40% of school-age children suffer from iodine and iron deficiencies. Poverty and consumption of monotonous diets are underlying causes of inadequate intakes of micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids and may have severe consequences for children’s cognitive d
Bioconverted omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (bEPA) and docosahexanoic acid (bDHA), obtained from the microbial conversion of non-bioconverted eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. bEPA and bDHA at 5 µl/...
Miyata, Jun; Arita, Makoto
Omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are found naturally in fish oil and are commonly thought to be anti-inflammatory nutrients, with protective effects in inflammatory diseases including asthma and allergies. The mechanisms of these effects remain mostly unknown but are of great interest for their potential therapeutic applications. Large numbers of epidemiological and observational studies investigating the effect of fish intake or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adulthood on asthmatic and allergic outcomes have been conducted. They mostly indicate protective effects and suggest a causal relationship between decreased intake of fish oil in modernized diets and an increasing number of individuals with asthma or other allergic diseases. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM: protectins, resolvins, and maresins) are generated from omega-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA via several enzymatic reactions. These mediators counter-regulate airway eosinophilic inflammation and promote the resolution of inflammation in vivo. Several reports have indicated that the biosynthesis of SPM is impaired, especially in severe asthma, which suggests that chronic inflammation in the lung might result from a resolution defect. This article focuses on the beneficial aspects of omega-3 fatty acids and offers recent insights into their bioactive metabolites including resolvins and protectins.
Manni, Andrea; El-Bayoumy, Karam; Skibinski, Christine G; Thompson, Henry J; Santucci-Pereira, Julia; Bidinotto, Lucas Tadeu; Russo, Jose
The molecular and biological heterogeneity of human breast cancer emphasizes the importance of a multitargeted approach for effective chemoprevention. Targeting the estrogen receptor pathway alone with the antiestrogens, Tamoxifen and Raloxifene reduces the incidence of estrogen receptor positive tumors but is ineffective against the development of hormone independent cancers. Our preclinical data indicate that the administration of omega-3 fatty acids potentiates the antitumor effects of Tamoxifen by inhibiting multiple proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways, several of which interact with estrogen receptor signaling. The complementarity in the mechanism of antitumor action of Tamoxifen and omega-3 fatty acids is well supported by our signaling, genomic, and proteomic studies. Furthermore, administration of omega-3 fatty acids allows the use of lower and, hence, likely less toxic doses of Tamoxifen. If these findings are supported in the clinical setting, the combination of omega-3 fatty acids and anteistrogens may emerge as a promising, effective, and safe chemopreventive strategy to be tested in a large multi-institutional trial using breast cancer incidence as the primary endpoint.
In developing countries, approximately 30-40% of school-age children suffer from iodine and iron deficiencies. Poverty and consumption of monotonous diets are underlying causes of inadequate intakes of micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids and may have severe consequences for children’s cognitive
Full Text Available The molecular and biological heterogeneity of human breast cancer emphasizes the importance of a multitargeted approach for effective chemoprevention. Targeting the estrogen receptor pathway alone with the antiestrogens, Tamoxifen and Raloxifene reduces the incidence of estrogen receptor positive tumors but is ineffective against the development of hormone independent cancers. Our preclinical data indicate that the administration of omega-3 fatty acids potentiates the antitumor effects of Tamoxifen by inhibiting multiple proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways, several of which interact with estrogen receptor signaling. The complementarity in the mechanism of antitumor action of Tamoxifen and omega-3 fatty acids is well supported by our signaling, genomic, and proteomic studies. Furthermore, administration of omega-3 fatty acids allows the use of lower and, hence, likely less toxic doses of Tamoxifen. If these findings are supported in the clinical setting, the combination of omega-3 fatty acids and anteistrogens may emerge as a promising, effective, and safe chemopreventive strategy to be tested in a large multi-institutional trial using breast cancer incidence as the primary endpoint.
Sijtsma, L.; Swaaf, de M.E.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid composed of 22 carbon atoms and six double bonds. Because the first double bond, as counted from the methyl terminus, is at position three, DHA belongs to the so-called omega-3 group. In recent years, DHA has attracted much attention because
The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. Most prior longitudinal studies evaluated self-reported consumption rather than biomarkers. This study sought to evaluate biomarkers of seafood-derived eicosapentaenoic acid ...
Jicha, Gregory A; Markesbery, William R
Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain growth and development. They play an important role throughout life, as critical modulators of neuronal function and regulation of oxidative stress mechanisms, in brain health and disease. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA), the major omega-3 fatty acid found in neurons, has taken on a central role as a target for therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A plethora of in vitro, animal model, and human data, gathered over the past decade, highlight the important role DHA may play in the development of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including AD. Cross sectional and prospective cohort data have demonstrated that reduced dietary intake or low brain levels of DHA are associated with accelerated cognitive decline or the development of incipient dementia, including AD. Several clinical trials investigating the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in AD have been completed and all failed to demonstrate its efficacy in the treatment of AD. However, these trials produced intriguing data suggesting that the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may depend on the stage of disease, other dietary mediators, and apolipoprotein E status.
Massaro, M; Scoditti, E; Carluccio, M A; Campana, M C; De Caterina, R
Atherosclerosis is now widely accepted to be an inflammatory disease, characterized by degenerative as well as proliferative changes and extracellular accumulation of lipid and cholesterol, in which an ongoing inflammatory reaction plays an important role both in initiation and progression/destabilization, converting a chronic process into an acute disorder. Neovascularization has also been recognized as an important process for the progression/destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. In fact, vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques prone to rupture are characterized by an enlarged necrotic core, containing an increased number of vasa vasorum, apoptotic macrophages, and more frequent intraplaque haemorrhage. Various functional roles have been assigned to intimal microvessels, however the relationship between the process of angiogenesis and its causal association with the progression and complications of atherosclerosis are still challenging and controversial. In the past 30 years, the dietary intake of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids--mainly derived from fish--has emerged as an important way to modify cardiovascular risk through beneficial effects on all stages of atherosclerosis, including plaque angiogenesis. This review specifically focuses on the modulating effects of n-3 fatty acids on molecular events involved in early and late atherogenesis, including effects on endothelial expression of adhesion molecules, as well as pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic enzymes. By accumulating in endothelial membrane phospholipids, omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the transcriptional activation of several genes through an attenuation of activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB system of transcription factors. This occurs secondary to decreased generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. This series of investigations configures a clear example of nutrigenomics--i.e., how nutrients may affect gene expression, ultimately affecting a wide spectrum
Kristensen, Salome; Schmidt, Erik Berg; Schlemmer, Annette;
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on cardiac autonomic function and vascular function in patients with psoriatic arthritis.......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on cardiac autonomic function and vascular function in patients with psoriatic arthritis....
Grosso, Giuseppe; Galvano, Fabio; Marventano, Stefano; Malaguarnera, Michele; Bucolo, Claudio; Drago, Filippo; Caraci, Filippo
The changing of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the food supply of Western societies occurred over the last 150 years is thought to promote the pathogenesis of many inflammatory-related diseases, including depressive disorders. Several epidemiological studies reported a significant inverse correlation between intake of oily fish and depression or bipolar disorders. Studies conducted specifically on the association between omega-3 intake and depression reported contrasting results, suggesting that the preventive role of omega-3 PUFA may depend also on other factors, such as overall diet quality and the social environment. Accordingly, tertiary prevention with omega-3 PUFA supplement in depressed patients has reached greater effectiveness during the last recent years, although definitive statements on their use in depression therapy cannot be yet freely asserted. Among the biological properties of omega-3 PUFA, their anti-inflammatory effects and their important role on the structural changing of the brain should be taken into account to better understand the possible pathway through which they can be effective both in preventing or treating depression. However, the problem of how to correct the inadequate supply of omega-3 PUFA in the Westernized countries' diet is a priority in order to set food and health policies and also dietary recommendations for individuals and population groups.
Full Text Available The changing of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the food supply of Western societies occurred over the last 150 years is thought to promote the pathogenesis of many inflammatory-related diseases, including depressive disorders. Several epidemiological studies reported a significant inverse correlation between intake of oily fish and depression or bipolar disorders. Studies conducted specifically on the association between omega-3 intake and depression reported contrasting results, suggesting that the preventive role of omega-3 PUFA may depend also on other factors, such as overall diet quality and the social environment. Accordingly, tertiary prevention with omega-3 PUFA supplement in depressed patients has reached greater effectiveness during the last recent years, although definitive statements on their use in depression therapy cannot be yet freely asserted. Among the biological properties of omega-3 PUFA, their anti-inflammatory effects and their important role on the structural changing of the brain should be taken into account to better understand the possible pathway through which they can be effective both in preventing or treating depression. However, the problem of how to correct the inadequate supply of omega-3 PUFA in the Westernized countries’ diet is a priority in order to set food and health policies and also dietary recommendations for individuals and population groups.
Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is one of the most important determinants of healthier ageing, reducing the risk of disability, maintaining mental and physical functions, and thus preserving and ensuring a better quality of life. Dietary intake and nutrient absorption decline with age, thus increasing the risk of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Specific nutrients, particularly long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, might have the potential of preventing and reducing co-morbidities in older adults. Omega-3 PUFAs are able to modulate inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension. Different mechanisms contribute to these effects, including conditioning cell membrane function and composition, eicosanoid production, and gene expression. The present review analyzes the influence of omega-3 PUFAs status and intake on brain function, cardiovascular system, immune function, muscle performance and bone health in older adults. Omega-3 FAs may have substantial benefits in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in older people. The available data encourage higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs in the diet or via specific supplements. More studies are needed to confirm the role of omega-3 FAs in maintaining bone health and preventing the loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing. In summary, omega-3 PUFAs are now identified as potential key nutrients, safe and effective in the treatment and prevention of several negative consequences of ageing.
Balogun, Kayode A; Cheema, Sukhinder K
Obesity is characterized by an increase in fat mass primarily as a result of adipocyte hypertrophy. Diets enriched in omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are suggested to reduce obesity, however, the mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated the effect of n-3 PUFA on adipocyte hypertrophy and the key genes involved in adipocyte hypertrophy. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed semi-purified diets (20 % w/w fat) containing high n-3 PUFA before mating, during pregnancy, and until weaning. Male and female offspring were continued on high n-3 PUFA (10 % w/w), medium n-3 PUFA (4 % w/w), or low n-3 PUFA (2 % w/w) diet for 16 weeks postweaning. Adipocyte area was quantified using microscopy, and gonadal mRNA expression of acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT-2), fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP-4) and leptin were measured. The high n-3 PUFA group showed higher levels of total n-3 PUFA in gonadal TAG compared to the medium and low n-3 PUFA groups (P hypertrophy by downregulating FABP-4, DGAT-2 and leptin; the effects are however sex-specific.
Lenihan-Geels, Georgia; Bishop, Karen S.
Fish and seafood are important sources for LC PUFAs, EPA and DHA. These fatty acids may be synthesised in the body from short-chain fatty acids, including ALA; however, the enzymes involved in this pathway are considered inefficient. This means direct EPA and DHA sources are an important part of
Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Saín, Juliana; Fariña, Ana Clara; Bernal, Claudio Adrián; González, Marcela Aída
The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) are critical for the normal structure and function of the brain. Trans fatty acids (TFA) and the source of the dietary fatty acids (FA) interfere with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TFA supplementation in diets containing different proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA on the brain FA profile, including the retention of TFA, LC-PUFA levels, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. These parameters were also investigated in the liver, considering that LC-PUFA are mainly bioconverted from their dietary precursors in this tissue and transported by serum to the brain. Also, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) gene expressions were evaluated. Male CF1 mice were fed (16 weeks) diets containing different oils (olive, corn, and rapeseed) with distinct proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA (55.2/17.2/0.7, 32.0/51.3/0.9, and 61.1/18.4/8.6), respectively, substituted or not with 0.75% of TFA. FA composition of the brain, liver, and serum was assessed by gas chromatography. TFA were incorporated into, and therefore retained in the brain, liver, and serum. However, the magnitude of retention was dependent on the tissue and type of isomer. In the brain, total TFA retention was lower than 1% in all diets. Dietary n-3 PUFA decreased TFA retention and increased DHA accretion in the brain. The results underscore the importance of the type of dietary FA on the retention of TFA in the brain and also on the changes of the FA profile.
Yunes Panahi; Simin Dashti-Khavidaki; Farahnoosh Farnood; Hamid Noshad; Mahsa Lotfi; Afshin Gharekhani
Uremic pruritus remains one of the most tormenting, frequent and potentially disabling problem in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, an area of substantial etiological interest with relation to uremic pruritus is the essential fatty acids deficiency. So we performed a literature review to elucidate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids on uremic pruritus. This review evaluated all of the studies published in English language, focusing on the clinical effects of omega-3 fatty acids ...
Hakimian, Joshua; Minasyan, Ani; Zhe-Ying, Lily; Loureiro, Mariana; Beltrand, Austin; Johnston, Camille; Vorperian, Alexander; Romaneschi, Nicole; Atallah, Waleed; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Walwyn, Wendy
Opiates, one of the oldest known drugs, are the benchmark for treating pain. Regular opioid exposure also induces euphoria making these compounds addictive and often misused, as shown by the current epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose mortalities. In addition to the effect of opioids on their cognate receptors and signaling cascades, these compounds also induce multiple adaptations at cellular and behavioral levels. As omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) play a ubiquitous role in behavioral and cellular processes, we proposed that supplemental n-3 PUFAs, enriched in docosahexanoic acid (DHA), could offset these adaptations following chronic opioid exposure. We used an 8 week regimen of n-3 PUFA supplementation followed by 8 days of morphine in the presence of this diet. We first assessed the effect of morphine in different behavioral measures and found that morphine increased anxiety and reduced wheel-running behavior. These effects were reduced by dietary n-3 PUFAs without affecting morphine-induced analgesia or hyperlocomotion, known effects of this opiate acting at mu opioid receptors. At the cellular level we found that morphine reduced striatal DHA content and that this was reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Chronic morphine also increased glutamatergic plasticity and the proportion of Grin2B-NMDARs in striatal projection neurons. This effect was similarly reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Gene analysis showed that supplemental PUFAs offset the effect of morphine on genes found in neurons of the dopamine receptor 2 (D2)-enriched indirect pathway but not of genes found in dopamine receptor 1(D1)-enriched direct-pathway neurons. Analysis of the D2 striatal connectome by a retrogradely transported pseudorabies virus showed that n-3 PUFA supplementation reversed the effect of chronic morphine on the innervation of D2 neurons by the dorsomedial prefontal and piriform cortices. Together these changes outline specific behavioral and cellular effects
Full Text Available Basic research and epidemiological studies suggest a protective effect of long-chain omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA against age-related cognitive decline. However, most randomized controlled trials with LC n-3 PUFA supplements have yielded disappointing results on cognitive outcomes in older persons. One explanation for this discrepancy may be an inadequate targeting of potential beneficiaries of LC n-3 PUFA according to their Apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype. The aim of this paper was to examine the potential modifying effect of APOE genotype on LC n-3 PUFA metabolism and its relation to cognitive decline in older persons. At least five epidemiological studies and three intervention studies with LC n-3 PUFA supplements have found an interaction between LC n-3 PUFA and APOE genotype on cognition. However, the direction of the effect is inconsistent across studies: the impact of LC n-3 PUFA on cognition is stronger in APOE4 carriers (the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease in some studies, but conversely stronger in APOE4 non-carriers in other studies. These discordant results may be explained by different age groups, cognitive status, measures of cognition, or amounts of DHA intake across studies. Experimental studies suggest that the APOE4 genotype modifies the metabolism of DHA. The APOE genotype should be systematically taken into account and interactions tested in epidemiological and intervention studies with LC n-3 PUFA. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms of this gene X diet interaction.
Full Text Available Objective Although key roles for dietary vitamin E (VITE and fatty acid (FA in fertility have been confirmed, limited data are available on the effects of VITE alone, or a constant level of VITE supplemented by dietary omega-6 and omega-3 FAs in combination on male reproduction. Consequently in this paper, the effects of VITE, sunflower oil, fish oil and their combination on rat sperm were investigated. Materials and Methods We divided 50 mature male Wistar rats into 5 groups (n=10 in a experimental completely randomized design for eight weeks: i. Control (CTR: standard diet; ii. Vitamin E diet (VITE: 2 times greater than recommendations; iii. Sunflower oil group (n-6 [gavaged with 0.5 ml/day/rat sunflower oil+VITE diet]; iv. Fish oil group (n-3: [gavaged with 0.5 ml/day/rat fish oil+VITE diet] and v. n-3+n-6 group [gavaged with 0.3 ml fish oil/day/rat+0.2 ml sunflower oil/day/rat+VITE diet]. The sperm parameters were measured by computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA. All data were analyzed with SPSS software. Results Feed intake decreased in groups which were administered sunflower oil compared with the other groups (P<0.05. The groups which received only VITE or fish oil+VITE had a significantly higher concentration of sperm compared with the n-6+n-3 and CTR group (P<0.05. VITE and n-3 showed significant improved progressive motility compared to the CTR group, whereas the n-6 and n-6+n-3 groups were in the middle (P<0.05. The highest sperm kinematic parameters were observed in the VITE only group. There was no strong correlation between sperm parameters and blood lipid profiles. Conclusion Dietary VITE and fish oil+VITE can improve sperm quality. Our findings can be a focus for improvements in sperm quantity and motility in fertile animals using only dietary VITE.
Toft, A.D.; Thorn, Mette; Ostrowski, Kenneth
(PUFA), for 6 wk or to receive no supplementation (n = 10) before participating in The Copenhagen Marathon 1998. Blood samples were collected before the race, immediately after, and 1.5 and 3 h postexercise. The fatty acid composition in blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) differed between the fish oil......The aim of the present study was to investigate whether fish oil supplementation was able to modulate the acute-phase response to strenuous exercise. Twenty male runners were randomized to receive supplementation (n = 10) with 6.0 g fish oil daily, containing 3.6 g n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids......-supplemented and the control group, showing incorporation of n-3 PUFA and less arachidonic acid in BMNC in the supplemented group. The plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and transforming growth factor-beta(1) peaked immediately after the run, the increase being 3-, 92-, and 1.1-fold, respectively...
Johnson, Elizabeth J; Schaefer, Ernst J
Dementia and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are major causes of disability in the elderly. n-3 Fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are highly concentrated in brain and retinal tissue and may prevent or delay the progression of dementia and AMD. Low dietary intakes and plasma concentrations have been reported to be associated with dementia, cognitive decline, and AMD risk. The major dietary sources of DHA are fish and fish oils, although dietary supplements are available. At this point, it is not possible to make firm recommendations regarding n-3 fatty acids and the prevention of dementia and AMD. Our own unpublished observations from the Framingham Heart Study suggest that > or =180 mg/d of dietary DHA (approximately 2.7 fish servings/wk) is associated with an approximately 50% reduction in dementia risk. At least this amount of DHA is generally found in one commercially available 1-g fish oil capsule given daily.
Hansen, Harald S.; Olsen, S.F.
in human urine. Very little is known about the tissue origin as well as the physiologicalfunctions of those prostaglandins, the metabolites of which are quantitated in urine from non-pregnant humans. In pregnant women the increased amount of prostaglandin F2 alpha-metabolites in urine, plasma and amniotic......Prostaglandins, especially prostaglandin F2 alpha, are important regulators in the onset and maintenance of parturition in humans. Inhibition of prostaglandin formation by drugs can prolong gestation in humans. High dietary intake of long chain (n-3)-fatty acids can inhibit formation of many...... arachidonic acid-derived prostaglandins as well as stimulate formation of eicosapentaenoic acid-derived prostaglandins. The latter ones often have lower biological activity than the former ones. The effect of (n-3)-fatty acids on prostaglandin formation has been shown by analysis of prostaglandin metabolites...
A. Valenzuela; Nieto, S.; Uauy, R
The benefits ascribed to marine oils rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has led to efforts to improve the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of these oils and to develop procedures for the obtention of pure or highly concentrated fractions of some n-3 fatty acids. Two n-3 fatty acids are of main interest; the eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5, EPA) and the docosahexaenoic acid (022:6, DHA). The present review is referred to the identification of the main sources of marine n-3 polyunsat...
Baumgartner, J.; Smuts, C.M.; Malan, L.; Arnold, M.; Yee, B.K.; Bianco, L.E.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Muller, M.R.; Langhans, W.; Hurrell, R.F.; Zimmermann, M.B.
Deficiencies of iron (Fe) (ID) and (n-3) fatty acids (FA) [(n-3)FAD] may impair brain development and function through shared mechanisms. However, little is known about the potential interactions between these 2 common deficiencies. We studied the effects of ID and (n-3)FAD, alone and in combination
Prior, Pedro Luis; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes [UNIFESP
New discoveries in the field of neurophysiology and neuropharmacology have revealed the role of (n-3) fatty acids in controlling inflammation and protecting neuron cells from oxidative damage, preserving their function. It has also been thought that their psychoactive properties could be beneficial in certain psychiatric illnesses. This article discusses the newest discoveries of the affected activities by these fats in the cerebral cortex and the efforts that have been made to put them in pr...
Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana
Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.
Shaikh, Saame Raza; Teague, Heather
This article summarizes the author's research on fish oil derived n-3 fatty acids, plasma membrane organization and B cell function. We first cover basic model membrane studies that investigated how docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) targeted the organization of sphingolipid-cholesterol enriched lipid microdomains. A key finding here was that DHA had a relatively poor affinity for cholesterol. This work led to a model that predicted DHA acyl chains in cells would manipulate lipid-protein microdomain organization and thereby function. We then review how the predictions of the model were tested with B cells in vitro followed by experiments using mice fed fish oil. These studies reveal a highly complex picture on how n-3 fatty acids target lipid-protein organization and B cell function. Key findings are as follows: (1) n-3 fatty acids target not just the plasma membrane but also endomembrane organization; (2) DHA, but not eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), disrupts microdomain spatial distribution (i.e. clustering), (3) DHA alters protein lateral organization and (4) changes in membrane organization are accompanied by functional effects on both innate and adaptive B cell function. Altogether, the research over the past 10 years has led to an evolution of the original model on how DHA reorganizes membrane microdomains. The work raises the intriguing possibility of testing the model at the human level to target health and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dias, Cintia B; Phang, Melinda; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L
Dietary saturated fat (SFA) intake has been associated with elevated blood lipid levels and increased risk for the development of chronic diseases. However, some animal studies have demonstrated that dietary SFA may not raise blood lipid levels when the diet is sufficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). Therefore, in a randomised cross-over design, we investigated the postprandial effects of feeding meals rich in either SFA (butter) or vegetable oil rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA), in conjunction with n-3PUFA, on blood lipid profiles [total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triacylglycerol (TAG)] and n-3PUFA incorporation into plasma lipids over a 6-h period. The incremental area under the curve for plasma cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, TAG and n-3PUFA levels over 6 h was similar in the n-6PUFA compared to SFA group. The postprandial lipemic response to saturated fat is comparable to that of n-6PUFA when consumed with n-3PUFA; however, sex-differences in response to dietary fat type are worthy of further attention.
Lee, S; Faustman, C; Djordjevic, D; Faraji, H; Decker, E A
The effects of an n-3 oil emulsion, with and without added antioxidants, on lipid oxidation in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-fortified meat products were studied. An emulsion of n-3 PUFAs was prepared (25% algal oil, 2.5% whey protein isolates, 10mM sodium citrate, 0.2% potassium sorbate, 500ppm of 70% mixed tocopherols, 100μM EDTA, pH 3, pasteurized at 75°C for 30min) and incorporated into fresh ground turkey, and fresh pork sausage (20% fat) to achieve a concentration of 500mg n-3 PUFA/110g meat. An antioxidant combination containing rosemary (0.2% w/w; radical quencher), citrate (0.5% w/w; sequestrant) and erythorbate (1g/kg product; reductant) was prepared and incorporated into ground turkey patties (5cm dia, 1.5cm thick) or fresh pork sausages (5cm dia, 1.5cm thick). Meat products were stored at 4°C or -18°C and analyzed for color (L*, a*, b* values), lipid oxidation (TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides) and n-3 PUFA profile. a* Values of refrigerated ground turkey patties decreased with storage, and an antioxidant combination effect was observed after 4 days (Psausages at 4°C, control+antioxidant (CON+ANTI), and n-3+antioxidant (n-3+ANTI) groups showed greater a* values than controls (CON) indicating that the antioxidant combination stabilized meat color. TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides of both n-3 PUFA-enhanced meat products increased with storage (P0.05). These results provide support for including antioxidant protection in n-3 PUFA fortified meat products.
Guo, Xiao-Fei; Li, Xin; Shi, Meiqi; Li, Duo
The associations between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk have demonstrated inconsistent results. The present study aimed to investigate whether higher circulating n-3 PUFAs and dietary n-3 PUFAs intake have a protective effect on MetS risk. A systematic literature search in the PubMed, Scopus, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases was conducted up to March 2017. Odd ratios (ORs) from case-control and cross-sectional studies were combined using a random-effects model for the highest versus lowest category. The differences of n-3 PUFAs between healthy subjects and patients with MetS were calculated as weighted mean difference (WMD) by using a random-effects model. Seven case-control and 20 cross-sectional studies were included. A higher plasma/serum n-3 PUFAs was associated with a lower MetS risk (Pooled OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.81). The plasma/serum n-3 PUFAs in controls was significantly higher than cases (WMD: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.43), especially docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, no significant association was found between dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs or fish and MetS risk. The present study provides substantial evidence of a higher circulating n-3 PUFAs associated with a lower MetS risk. The circulating n-3 PUFAs can be regarded as biomarkers indicating MetS risk, especially DPA and DHA.
Alnabulsi, Abdo; Swan, Rebecca; Cash, Beatriz; Alnabulsi, Ayham; Murray, Graeme I
Colorectal cancer is a common malignancy and one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. The metabolism of omega fatty acids has been implicated in tumour growth and metastasis. This study has characterised the expression of omega fatty acid metabolising enzymes CYP4A11, CYP4F11, CYP4V2 and CYP4Z1 using monoclonal antibodies we have developed. Immunohistochemistry was performed on a tissue microarray containing 650 primary colorectal cancers, 285 lymph node metastasis and 50 normal colonic mucosa. The differential expression of CYP4A11 and CYP4F11 showed a strong association with survival in both the whole patient cohort (hazard ratio (HR)=1.203, 95% CI=1.092-1.324, χ(2)=14.968, P=0.001) and in mismatch repair-proficient tumours (HR=1.276, 95% CI=1.095-1.488, χ(2)=9.988, P=0.007). Multivariate analysis revealed that the differential expression of CYP4A11 and CYP4F11 was independently prognostic in both the whole patient cohort (P=0.019) and in mismatch repair proficient tumours (P=0.046). A significant and independent association has been identified between overall survival and the differential expression of CYP4A11 and CYP4F11 in the whole patient cohort and in mismatch repair-proficient tumours.
Full Text Available Essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized de novo by mammals and need to be ingested either with the diet or through the use of supplements/functional foods to ameliorate cardiovascular prognosis. This review focus on the molecular targets of omega 3 fatty acids and CLA, as paradigmatic molecules that can be explored both as nutrients and as pharmacological agents, especially as related to cardioprotection. In addition, we indicate novel molecular targets, namely microRNAs that might contribute to the observed biological activities of such essential fatty acids.
Nordgren, Tara M; Lyden, Elizabeth; Anderson-Berry, Ann; Hanson, Corrine
Omega-3 fatty acids play critical roles during fetal growth and development with increased intakes associated with improved maternal-fetal outcomes. Omega-3 fatty acid intake in Western diets is low, and the impact of socioeconomic factors on omega-3 fatty acid intake in pregnant women and women of childbearing age has not been reported. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2003-2012 to assess the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid intake and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Out of 7266 eligible participants, 6478 were women of childbearing age, while 788 were identified as pregnant at the time of the survey. Mean EPA+DHA intake of the population was 89.0 mg with no significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women. By univariate and multivariate analyses adjusting for confounders, omega-3 fatty acid intake was significantly associated with poverty-to-income ratio, race, and educational attainment. Our results demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acid intake is a concern in pregnant women and women of childbearing age in the United States, and that socioeconomically disadvantaged populations are more susceptible to potential deficiencies. Strategies to increase omega-3 fatty acid intake in these populations could have the potential to improve maternal and infant health outcomes.
Guichardant, M; Chantegrel, B; Deshayes, C; Doutheau, A; Moliere, P; Lagarde, M
Several markers of lipid peroxidation are available with different degrees of specificity, from malondialdehyde as a global marker, to F(2)-isoprostane, which is specifically produced from arachidonic acid. Among these, 4-hydroxynonenal is recognized as a breakdown product of fatty acid hydroperoxides, such as 15-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid and 13-hydroperoxy-octade cadienoic acid from the n -6 fatty acids. Furthermore, 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) derives from n -3 fatty acid hydroperoxides. We have recently described the occurrence of 4-hydroxydodecadienal (4-HDDE) from the 12-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid 12-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid. These three hydroxy-alkenals may be measured in human plasma by GC-MS, but they may partly be generated in the course of sampling, and the relative volatility of 4-HHE makes its measurement quite unreliable. We have successfully characterized and measured the stable oxidized carboxylic acid products from the hydroxy-alkenals 4-HNA, 4-HHA and 4-HDDA in urine. The ratio between 4-HHA and 4-HNA found in the same urinary sample might provide useful information on the location of lipid peroxidation, accounting for the high enrichment of the cerebrovascular system with docosahexaenoic acid, the main n -3 fatty acid in humans.
Sharma, Kalpesh; Schenk, Peer M
Omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), provide substantial health benefits. As global fish stocks are declining and in some cases are contaminated with heavy metals, there is a need to find more sustainable land-based sources of these essential fatty acids. The oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis sp. has been identified as a highly efficient producer of omega-3 fatty acids. In this study, we present a new process to rapidly induce biosynthesis of essential fatty acids, including EPA in Nannochloropsis sp. BR2. Short exposure to UV-C at a dose of 100 or 250 mJ/cm(2) led to a significant increase in total cellular lipid contents when compared to mock-treated controls. A low dosage of 100 mJ/cm(2) also led to a twofold increase in total EPA content within 24 h that constituted 30% of total fatty acids and up to 12% of total dry weight at higher dosages. UV-C radiation may find uses as an easily applicable external inducer for large-scale production of omega-3 production from microalgae.
Mata López, P; Ortega, R M
Cardiovascular disease is one of the main causes of death in developed countries. Several factors are involved in its appearance and progress, among which nutrition enjoys a certain protagonism. Until recently, the dietetic criteria for preventing and controlling cardiovascular disease were mainly restrictive (at least in terms of energy and fat intake), but such advice is difficult to follow, and without careful monitoring can lead to deficiencies that might negatively affect quality of life and perhaps even life expectancy. Several investigations show that some components of the lipid fraction of the diet, such as omega-3 fatty acids, are beneficial with respect to cardiovascular disease, and these have become the centre of much attention. This paper reviews the results of some of these studies and evaluates the benefit of these fatty acids in the prevention of coronary heart disease. The sources of omega-3 fatty acids, their recommended consumption, possible mechanisms of action and potential adverse effects are discussed.
Reis, L C; Hibbeln, J R
Fish is a food with unique psychotropic properties. Consumption of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, rich in seafood, reduces depression, aggression and anger while improving mental well-being. We posit that symbols of fish have become linked to the emotional states induced by long-chain fatty acid by associative pairings, both conscious and unconscious. The limbic and hippocampal activity necessary for memory formation containing emotional content and the labeling of social context by cortical processes appears to be optimized by diets rich in long-chain omega-3 fatty acid. In this critical literature survey, we find that fish have been culturally labeled as symbols of emotional well-being and social healing in religious and medical practices among independent cultures, for at least six millennia. This understanding of the perception of fish as a symbolically healing or purifying food can assist current messages improving public health.
Larqué, Elvira; Gil-Sánchez, Alfonso; Prieto-Sánchez, María Teresa; Koletzko, Berthold
.... Since the synthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in the fetus and placenta is low, both the maternal LCPUFA status and placental function are critical for their supply to the fetus...
Yagi, Shusuke; Fukuda, Daiju; Aihara, Ken-Ichi; Akaike, Masashi; Shimabukuro, Michio; Sata, Masataka
The adoption of the Western-style diet, with decreased fish intake and lack of exercise, has increased the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Japan. Statin treatment has been established to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events; however, 60%-70% of these events occur despite its use. Thus, the residual risk for CVD should be identified and resolved to reduce further cardiovascular events. The serum levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are reportedly associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality, whereas the addition of n-3 PUFA treatment to the statin treatment decreases cardiovascular events. Similar to statins, n-3 PUFAs have pleiotropic effects in addition to lipid-modifying effects. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that n-3 PUFAs prevent cardiovascular events by ameliorating endothelial function and attenuating lipid accumulation, vascular inflammation, and macrophage recruitment, thereby causing coronary plaque development and rupture. Taken together, n-3 PUFAs are comprehensively able to attenuate the atherogenic response. Therefore, n-3 PUFA intake is recommended to prevent cardiovascular events, particularly in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors.
Porsgaard, Trine; Overgaard, Jesper; Krogh, Anne Louise
Many studies have shown beneficial effects of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on human health. Regardless of the positive effects of n-3 PUFA, the intake of these fatty acids remains low. An approach to increase the intake of n-3 PUFA in the population is to incorporate fish oil......, erythrocytes, and liver. The incorporation of n-3 PUFA was significantly higher in phospholipids than in triacylglycerols. The results suggest that enriching butter blends with small amounts of fish oil can be used as an alternative method for improving the level of n-3 PUFA in biological tissues....
Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Murphy, Eric J
There is little doubt regarding the essential nature of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), yet the capacity of dietary ALA to maintain adequate tissue levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids remains quite controversial. This simple point remains highly debated despite evidence that removal of dietary ALA promotes n-3 fatty acid inadequacy, including that of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that many experiments demonstrate that dietary inclusion of ALA raises n-3 tissue fatty acid content, including DHA. Herein we propose, based upon our previous work and that of others, that ALA is elongated and desaturated in a tissue-dependent manner. One important concept is to recognize that ALA, like many other fatty acids, rapidly undergoes beta-oxidation and that the carbons are conserved and reused for synthesis of other products including cholesterol and fatty acids. This process and the differences between utilization of dietary DHA or liver-derived DHA as compared to ALA have led to the dogma that ALA is not a useful fatty acid for maintaining tissue long chain n-3 fatty acids, including DHA. Herein, we propose that indeed dietary ALA is a crucial dietary source of n-3 fatty acids and its dietary inclusion is critical for maintaining tissue long chain n-3 levels.
Dawson, Samantha Loren; Bowe, Steven John; Crowe, Timothy Charles
The aim of the study was to assess whether omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation alone or in combination with folic acid and B-group vitamins is effective in lowering homocysteine. The Medline Ovid, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized-controlled trial studies that intervened with omega-3 supplementation (with or without folic acid) and measured changes in homocysteine concentration. Studies were pooled using a random effects model for meta-analysis. Three different models were analyzed: all trials combined, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid trials, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with folic acid and B-group vitamin trials. Nineteen studies were included, consisting of 3267 participants completing 21 trials. Studies were heterogeneous; varying by dose, duration and participant health conditions. Across all trials, omega-3 supplementation was effective in lowering homocysteine by an average of 1.18μmol/L (95%CI: (-1.89, -0.48), P=.001). The average homocysteine-lowering effect was greater when omega-3 supplementation was combined with folic acid and B-group vitamins (-1.37μmol/L, 95%CI: (-2.38, -0.36), Pomega-3 supplementation alone (-1.09μmol/L 95%CI: (-2.04, -0.13), P=.03). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation was associated with a modest reduction in homocysteine. For the purposes of reducing homocysteine, a combination of omega-3s (0.2-6g/day), folic acid (150 - 2500μg/day) and vitamins B6 and B12 may be more effective than omega-3 supplementation alone.
Ma, Ying-Jie; Yu, Jing; Xiao, Jing; Cao, Bang-Wei
This study was aimed to systematically evaluate results of trials examining the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) consumption on body weight, lean body mass, resting energy expenditure, and overall survival in pancreatic cancer patients. We searched Medline, Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. We selected randomized controlled trials of n-3 PUFA vs. conventional nutrition in unresectable pancreatic cancer patients. We analyzed our data using the Cochrane statistical package RevMan 5.1. Eleven trials met our inclusion criteria. There was a significant increase in body weight [weighted mean difference (WMD) = 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-0.69, P < 0.00001) and lean body mass (WMD = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.86-1.06, P < 0.00001), a significant decrease in resting energy expenditure (WMD = -29.74; 95% CI, -55.89-3.59, P = 0.03), and an increase in overall survival (130-259 days vs. 63-130 days) in unresectable pancreatic cancer patients who consumed an oral nutrition supplement enriched with n-3 PUFAs compared to those who consumed conventional nutrition. This preliminary study suggests that n-3 PUFAs are safe and have a positive effect on clinical outcomes and survival in pancreatic cancer patients.
van den Elsen, Lieke; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette
The diet is considered to have a major impact on human health. Dietary lipids including long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) possess potent immunomodulatory activities. Over the last decades the incidence of inflammatory disorders including allergic and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been rising. This phenomenon is associated with deficiencies in N-3 LCPUFA, found in fatty fish, and increased content of N-6 LCPUFA in the Western diet. LCPUFA act via different mechanisms including membrane fluidity, raft composition, lipid mediator formation, signaling pathways and transmembrane receptors. N-3 LCPUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce the development of allergic disease by affecting both the innate and adaptive immune system involved in the initiation and persistence of allergic disease. Fish oil has been shown to be effective in the primary prevention of allergic disease in infants at risk when supplemented during pregnancy and lactation. Subtle effects of N-3 LCPUFA on the outcome of the immune response may underlie these protective effects. This review describes the currently reported effects of LCPUFA on dendritic cells, T cells, B cells and mast cells. Also CVD are positively affected by N-3 LCPUFA. Populations consuming high amounts of oily fish are protected against CVD. Moreover N-3 LCPUFA are effective in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Amongst other effects, EPA and DHA have been shown to suppress endothelial cell activation hereby reducing adhesion molecule expression and endothelial cell - leukocyte interactions. This review describes the mechanistic basis of the preventive role for N-3 LCPUFA in allergic disease and CVD.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate if perinatal Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs supplementation can improve sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in neonatal rats. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 each group were treated with or without an n-3 PUFAs (fish oil enriched diet from the second day of pregnancy to 14 days after parturition. The offspring rats (P7 were treated with six hours sevoflurane administration (one group without sevoflurane/prenatal n-3 PUFAs supplement as control. The 5-bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu was injected intraperitoneally during and after sevoflurane anesthesia to assess dentate gyrus (DG progenitor proliferation. Brain tissues were harvested and subjected to Western blot and immunohistochemistry respectively. Morris water maze spatial reference memory, fear conditioning, and Morris water maze memory consolidation were tested at P35, P63 and P70 (n = 9, respectively. RESULTS: Six hours 3% sevoflurane administration increased the cleaved caspase-3 in the thalamus, parietal cortex but not hippocampus of neonatal rat brain. Sevoflurane anesthesia also decreased the neuronal precursor proliferation of DG in rat hippocampus. However, perinatal n-3 PUFAs supplement could decrease the cleaved caspase-3 in the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats, and mitigate the decrease in neuronal proliferation in their hippocampus. In neurobehavioral studies, compared with control and n-3 PUFAs supplement groups, we did not find significant spatial cognitive deficit and early long-term memory impairment in sevoflurane anesthetized neonatal rats at their adulthood. However, sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response and working memory and short-term memory. And n-3 PUFAs could improve neurocognitive function in later life after neonatal sevoflurane exposure. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that neonatal exposure to prolonged sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response, working
Bourre, J M
Among various organs, in the brain, the fatty acids most extensively studied are omega-3 fatty acids. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3omega3) deficiency alters the structure and function of membranes and induces minor cerebral dysfunctions, as demonstrated in animal models and subsequently in human infants. Even though the brain is materially an organ like any other, that is to say elaborated from substances present in the diet (sometimes exclusively), for long it was not accepted that food can have an influence on brain structure, and thus on its function. Lipids, and especially omega-3 fatty acids, provided the first coherent experimental demonstration of the effect of diet (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. In fact the brain, after adipose tissue, is the organ richest in lipids, whose only role is to participate in membrane structure. First it was shown that the differentiation and functioning of cultured brain cells requires not only alpha-linolenic acid (the major component of the omega-3, omega3 family), but also the very long omega-3 and omega-6 carbon chains (1). It was then demonstrated that alpha-linolenic acid deficiency alters the course of brain development, perturbs the composition and physicochemical properties of brain cell membranes, neurones, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes (2). This leads to physicochemical modifications, induces biochemical and physiological perturbations, and results in neurosensory and behavioural upset (3). Consequently, the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for infants (premature and term) conditions the visual and cerebral abilities, including intellectual. Moreover, dietary omega-3 fatty acids are certainly involved in the prevention of some aspects of cardiovascular disease (including at the level of cerebral vascularization), and in some neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, as well as in dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease. Recent
Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Ashwood, Paul; Bostrom, Alan; Hendren, Robert L.
We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial to determine the feasibility and initial safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids (1.3 g/day) for the treatment of hyperactivity in 27 children ages 3–8 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). After 12 weeks, hyperactivity, as measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, improved 2.7 (±4.8) points in the omega-3 group compared to 0.3 (±7.2) points in the placebo group (p = 0.40; effect size = 0.38). Correlations were found between decreases in f...
Feng-Shang Zhu; Su Liu; Xi-Mei Chen; Zhi-Gang Huang; Dong-Wei Zhang
AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from seal oils for patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with hyperlipidemia. METHODS: One hundred and forty-four patients with NAFLD associated with hyperlipidemia were included in the 24-wk, randomized, controlled trial. The patients were randomized into two groups. Group A (n = 72) received recommended diet and 2 g n-3 PUFA from seal oils, three times a day. Group B (n = 72) received recommended diet and 2 g placebo, three times a day. Primary endpoints were fatty liver assessed by symptom scores, liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and serum lipid levels after 8, 12, 16, and 24 wk. Hepatic fat infiltration was detected by ultrasonography at weeks 12 and 24 after treatment. RESULTS: A total of 134 patients (66 in group A, 68 in group B) were included in the study except for 10 patients who were excluded from the study. After 24 wk of treatment, no change was observed in body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG), renal function and blood cells of these patients. Total symptom scores, ALT and triglyceride (TG) levels decreased more significantly in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). As expected, there was a tendency toward improvement in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 7-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), and total cholesterol (TCHO) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (P < 0.05) after administration in the two groups. However, no significant differences were found between the two groups. The values of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were significantly improved in group A (P < 0.05), but no significant change was found in group B at different time points and after a 24-wk treatment. After treatment, complete fatty liver regression was observed in 19.70% (13/66) of the patients, and an overall reduction was found in 53.03% (35/66) of the patients in group A. In contrast, in group B, only five patients (7.35%, 5/68) achieved complete fatty
Grayson, David S; Kroenke, Christopher D; Neuringer, Martha; Fair, Damien A
Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for healthy brain and retinal development and have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. This study used resting-state functional connectivity MRI to define the large-scale organization of the rhesus macaque brain and changes associated with differences in lifetime ω-3 fatty acid intake. Monkeys fed docosahexaenoic acid, the long-chain ω-3 fatty acid abundant in neural membranes, had cortical modular organization resembling the healthy human brain. In contrast, those with low levels of dietary ω-3 fatty acids had decreased functional connectivity within the early visual pathway and throughout higher-order associational cortex and showed impairment of distributed cortical networks. Our findings illustrate the similarity in modular cortical organization between the healthy human and macaque brain and support the notion that ω-3 fatty acids play a crucial role in developing and/or maintaining distributed, large-scale brain systems, including those essential for normal cognitive function.
Huang, Qionglin; Wen, Juan; Chen, Guangzhao; Ge, Miaomiao; Gao, Yihua; Ye, Xiaoxia; Liu, Chunan; Cai, Chun
Omge-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exhibited significant effect in inhibiting various tumors. However, the mechanisms of its anticancer role have not been fully demonstrated. The declination of 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) was closely associated with poor prognosis of tumors. To explore whether omega-3 PUFAs influences on DNA methylation level in tumors, colorectal cancer (CRC) rat model were constructed using N-methyl phosphite nitrourea and omega-3 PUFAs were fed to part of the rats during tumor induction. The PUFAs contents in the rats of 3 experimental groups were measured using gas chromatography and 5 mC level were detected by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that tumor incidence in omega-3 treated rats was much lower than in CRC model rats, which confirmed significant antitumor role of omega-3 PUFAs. Six PUFA members categorized to omega-3 and omega-6 families were quantified and the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 PUFAs was remarkably lower in omega-3 PUFAs treatment group than in CRC model group. 5 mC content in omega-3 PUFAs treated rats was higher than in CRC model rats, suggesting omega-3 PUFAs promoted 5 mC synthesis. Therefore, omega-3 PUFAs probably inhibited tumor growth via regulating DNA methylation process, which provided a novel anticancer mechanism of omega-3 PUFAs from epigenetic view.
Gabriel Alejandro Bonaterra
Full Text Available During therapeutic interventions, blood concentrations of intravenously applied drugs are higher, and their onset of pharmacological action is faster than with other routes of drug administration. However, acute drug therapy often produces nephrotoxic side effects, as commonly seen after treatment with Ketorolac or Gentamicin leading to questions about their use, especially for patients at risk for acute renal failure. Omega-6(n-6 and omega-3(n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA affect eicosanoid metabolism, which plays a role in the regulation of inflammation. Eicosanoids derived from n-6 FA have proinflammatory and immunoactive functions, whereas eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFA have anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties. We hypothesized that providing such injectable drugs with nephrotoxic potential in combination with n3-PUFAs from the outset, might afford rapid cytoprotection of renal cells, given the recent evidence that intravenously administered n3-PUFAs are rapidly incorporated into cell membranes. We used intraglomerular mesangial cells (MES13 that are sensitive to treatment with Ketorolac or Gentamicin instead of proximal tubular cells which do not respond to Ketorolac. We found a significant inhibition of Ketorolac (0.25, 0.5, 1 mM or Gentamicin (2.5, 5 mM induced cytotoxicity after pretreatment of MES13 cells with 0.01% of 20%w/v LipOmega-3 Emulsion 9/1, containing 90:10 wt/wt mixture of fish oil derived triglycerides to medium chain triglycerides.
Samantha P Tull
Full Text Available Inflammation is a physiological response to tissue trauma or infection, but leukocytes, which are the effector cells of the inflammatory process, have powerful tissue remodelling capabilities. Thus, to ensure their precise localisation, passage of leukocytes from the blood into inflamed tissue is tightly regulated. Recruitment of blood borne neutrophils to the tissue stroma occurs during early inflammation. In this process, peptide agonists of the chemokine family are assumed to provide a chemotactic stimulus capable of supporting the migration of neutrophils across vascular endothelial cells, through the basement membrane of the vessel wall, and out into the tissue stroma. Here, we show that, although an initial chemokine stimulus is essential for the recruitment of flowing neutrophils by endothelial cells stimulated with the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transit of the endothelial monolayer is regulated by an additional and downstream stimulus. This signal is supplied by the metabolism of the omega-6-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6-PUFA, arachidonic acid, into the eicosanoid prostaglandin-D(2 (PGD(2 by cyclooxygenase (COX enzymes. This new step in the neutrophil recruitment process was revealed when the dietary n-3-PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, was utilised as an alternative substrate for COX enzymes, leading to the generation of PGD(3. This alternative series eicosanoid inhibited the migration of neutrophils across endothelial cells by antagonising the PGD(2 receptor. Here, we describe a new step in the neutrophil recruitment process that relies upon a lipid-mediated signal to regulate the migration of neutrophils across endothelial cells. PGD(2 signalling is subordinate to the chemokine-mediated activation of neutrophils, but without the sequential delivery of this signal, neutrophils fail to penetrate the endothelial cell monolayer. Importantly, the ability of the dietary n-3-PUFA, EPA, to inhibit this process not
Poudyal, Hemant; Brown, Lindsay
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been proposed as potential treatments for human heart failure. The cardioprotective effects of n-3 PUFA are supported by extensive cell culture, animal and human studies. Animal studies with n-3 PUFA have shown marked improvements in many independent risk factors for heart failure, including obesity, type II diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension and inflammation. However, the evidence from observational studies, randomised controlled trials and meta-analyses that these benefits on risk factors lead to improvements in the symptoms of heart failure in patients is much less convincing. Further, most studies have used marine n-3 PUFA; the role of the plant-derived PUFA, α-linolenic acid (ALA), is even less clear. This discontinuity of scientific evidence from animal to human studies suggests that future studies should focus on defining the optimal dosage range and the efficacy of n-3 PUFA compared to standard treatments using standardised study designs. Further studies on ALA would seem justified.
Gilbert, Kim; Malick, Mandy; Madingou, Ness; Touchette, Charles; Bourque-Riel, Valérie; Tomaro, Leandro; Rousseau, Guy
Although controversial, some data suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are beneficial to cardiovascular diseases, and could reduce infarct size. In parallel, we have reported that the administration of Resolvin D1 (RvD1), a metabolite of docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 PUFA, can reduce infarct size. The present study was designed to determine if the inhibition of two important enzymes involved in the formation of RvD1 from omega-3 PUFA could reduce the cardioprotective effect of omega-3 PUFA. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a diet rich in omega-3 PUFA during 10 days before myocardial infarction (MI). Two days before MI, rats received a daily dose of Meloxicam, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, PD146176, an inhibitor of 15-lipoxygenase, both inhibitors or vehicle. MI was induced by the occlusion of the left coronary artery for 40min followed by reperfusion. Infarct size and neutrophil accumulation were evaluated after 24h of reperfusion while caspase-3, -8 and Akt activities were assessed at 30min of reperfusion. Rats receiving inhibitors, alone or in combination, showed a larger infarct size than those receiving omega-3 PUFA alone. Caspase-3 and -8 activities are higher in ischemic areas with inhibitors while Akt activity is diminished in groups treated with inhibitors. Moreover, the study showed that RvD1 restores cardioprotection when added to the inhibitors. Results from this study indicate that the inhibition of the metabolism of Omega-3 PUFA attenuate their cardioprotective properties. Then, resolvins seem to be an important mediator in the cardioprotection conferred by omega-3 PUFA in our experimental model of MI.
Tang, Maoxue; Qian, Lili; Jiang, Shengwang; Zhang, Jian; Song, Pengkun; Chen, Yaoxing; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui
Genetically modified animals rich in omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid offer a new strategy to improve the human health, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. In this study, we evaluated the function and safety of sFat-1 transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids in mice by feeding basic diet and diets that contain wild type pork and sFat-1 transgenic pork. Blood biochemistry, haematology, peripheral T cell distributions, bacterial counts, gross necropsy, histopathology and organ weights were performed in mice fed with different doses of wild type and transgenic pork. Results indicated that both low and high dose of wild type and transgenic pork had no significant effect on blood biochemistry, T cell distribution, immunoglobulins and bacterial counts in intestine and feces. However, it was noted that both low and high dose of transgenic pork improved the liver immune system in mice, which is probably due to the beneficial contribution of high level of the "good" fatty acids in transgenic pork. There is no significant effect of transgenic pork on all other organs in mice. In summary, our study clearly demonstrated that feeding transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids did not cause any harm to mice, and in fact, improved the liver immune system.
Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R
It is well established that alterations in the mother's diet or metabolism during pregnancy has long-term adverse effects on the lipid metabolism in the offspring. There is growing interest in the role of specific nutrients especially omega-3 fatty acids in the pathophysiology of lipid disorders. A series of studies carried out in humans and rodents in our department have consistently suggested a link between omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid and micronutrients (vitamin B12 and folic acid) in the one carbon metabolic cycle and its effect on the fatty acid metabolism, hepatic transcription factors and DNA methylation patterns. However the association of maternal intake or metabolism of these nutrients with fetal lipid metabolism is relatively less explored. In this review, we provide insights into the role of maternal omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 and their influence on fetal lipid metabolism through various mechanisms which influence phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase activity, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor, adiponectin signaling pathway and epigenetic process like chromatin methylation. This will help understand the possible mechanisms involved in fetal lipid metabolism and may provide important clues for the prevention of lipid disorders in the offspring.
Jenski, L.J.; Sturdevant, L.K.; Ehringer, W.D.; Stillwell, W. (Department of Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis (United States))
Mice fed menhaden (fish) oil or coconut oil-rich diets were inoculated intraperitoneally with a rapidly growing leukemia, T27A. After one week, the tumor cells were harvested, and 51Cr was used to label intracellular molecules. Spontaneous release of 51Cr was used as a measure of plasma membrane permeability. Compared to cells from mice fed coconut oil (rich in saturated fatty acids), tumor cells from mice fed menhaden oil (rich in long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids) showed an increased level of spontaneous 51Cr release, which was exacerbated by increased temperature and reduced by extracellular protein. At physiological salt concentrations, the released 51Cr was detected in particles of approximately 2700 daltons. Enhanced permeability correlated with the incorporation of dietary (fish oil) omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid into the tumor cells. The results demonstrate that omega 3 fatty acids are incorporated into cellular constituents of tumor cells and change properties associated with the plasma membrane. This result suggests that dietary manipulation may be used to enhance tumor cell permeability and contribute to tumor eradication.
Huiskes, Victor J. B.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; van der Meulen, Jan; Muskiet, Frits A. J.
Umbilical veins (UV) and arteries (UA) of preeclamptic women in Curacao harbor lower long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). The present aim was to test these findings in Mwanza (Tanzania), whose inhabitants have high LCP omega 3 and LCP omega 6 intakes from Lake Victoria fish. Women with pree
Huiskes, Victor J. B.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; van der Meulen, Jan; Muskiet, Frits A. J.
Umbilical veins (UV) and arteries (UA) of preeclamptic women in Curacao harbor lower long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). The present aim was to test these findings in Mwanza (Tanzania), whose inhabitants have high LCP omega 3 and LCP omega 6 intakes from Lake Victoria fish. Women with
Huiskes, Victor J. B.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; van der Meulen, Jan; Muskiet, Frits A. J.
Umbilical veins (UV) and arteries (UA) of preeclamptic women in Curacao harbor lower long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). The present aim was to test these findings in Mwanza (Tanzania), whose inhabitants have high LCP omega 3 and LCP omega 6 intakes from Lake Victoria fish. Women with pree
Full Text Available 1. Fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3 acids. Linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3. Most vegetable oils are rich in the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (18:2n-6, the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. 2. Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate the functions of cells of the immune system. Consumption of fish oils leads to replacement of arachidonic acid in cell membranes by eicosapentaenoic acid. This changes the amount and alters the balance of eicosanoids produced. 3. Consumption of fish oils diminishes lymphocyte proliferation, T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, natural killer cell activity, macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis, major histocompatibility class II expression and antigen presentation, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1 and 6, tumour necrosis factor and adhesion molecule expression. 4. Feeding laboratory animals fish oil reduces acute and chronic inflammatory responses, improves survival to endotoxin and in models of autoimmunity and prolongs the survival of grafted organs. 5. Feeding fish oil reduces cell-mediated immune responses. 6. Fish oil supplementation may be clinically useful in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and following transplantation. 7. n-3 PUFAs may exert their effects by modulating signal transduction and/or gene expression within inflammatory and immune cells.
Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Brouwer, I.A.; Vliegenthart, P.R.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Oudkerk, M.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.
Background: Epidemiologic and experimental data suggest a cardioprotective effect of n–3 (omega-3) fatty acids from fish [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)]. Objective: The objective was to examine the association of fish and EPA plus DHA intakes with coronary calcification
Tushar Ranjan Moharana
Full Text Available Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1, which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL, as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.
张志平; 白晓春; 金大地
骨质疏松是当今老龄社会的主要健康和经济问题,影响人类生活质量和寿命,基因因素、脂肪酸营养摄人等影响骨质疏松及其并发症.脂肪酸是细胞膜的重要组成部分,通过调节钙吸收、破骨细胞形成、前列腺素的合成、细胞膜n-6/n-3脂肪酸比率、细胞因子及脂质过氧化等可影响骨代谢.本文综述了膳食中n-3脂肪酸的重要性及fat-1基因对骨代谢的影响,n-3脂肪酸影响人类和鼠的骨代谢,分析n-3脂肪酸对骨代谢影响的细胞与分子机制.%Osteoporosis is a major problem of public health and economy in the aged society today, which affects the life equality and life span of human being.The genetic factors and fatty acid nutritional intake affect osteoporosis and its complication.Fatty acids are important ingredients of the cell membrane.The bone metabolism can be affected by the regulation of calcium absorption, formation of osteoclasts, the synthesis of prostagladin, the ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids on the cell membrane, the cytokines, and peroxidation of the fat.This paper reviews the importance of dietary n-3 fatty acids and the effect of fat-l gene on bone metabolism.N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect bone metabolism of the human and the rat.The paper analyzes the cellular and molecular mechanism of the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone metabolism.
Turmeric, Resveratol (found in red wine ), Green Tea, Black Tea, Genisten (found in soybeans), Chamomile, Ginseng, feverfew, and probiotic yogurt(72...Tedesco M, Maccarrone M. N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney
Full Text Available Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been reported to exhibit antiarrhythmic properties, attributed to their capability to modulate ion channels. In the present review, we will focus on the effects of PUFAs on cardiac sodium channel (Nav1.5 and two potassium channels (Kv (Kv1.5 and Kv11.1. n-3 marine (docohexaenoic and eicohexapentaenoic acid and plant origin (alpha-linolenic acid PUFAs block Kv1.5 and Kv11.1 channels at physiological concentrations. Also, DHA and EPA decreased Nav1.5 and calcium channels. These effects on Na and Ca channels theoretically should shorten the cardiac APD, whereas the blocking actions of n-3 PUFAs of Kv channels should lengthen the cardiac action potential. Experiments performed in female rabbits fed with a diet rich in n-3 PUFAs show a longer cardiac action potential and effective refractory period. This study was performed to analyze if their antiarrhythmic effects are due to a reduction of triangulation, reverse use-dependence, instability and dispersion of the cardiac action potential (TRIaD as a measure of proarrhythmic effects. Dietary n-3 PUFAs supplementation markedly reduced dofetilide-induced TRIaD and abolished dofetilide-induced torsades de pointes (TdP. Ultrafast sodium channel block by DHA may account for the antiarrhythmic protection of dietary supplements of n-3 PUFAs against dofetilide induced proarrhythmia observed in this animal model. The cardiac effects of n-3 PUFAs resemble those of amiodarone: both block sodium, calcium and potassium channels, have anti-adrenergic properties, can prolong the cardiac action potential, reverse TRIaD and suppress TdP. The main difference is that sodium channel block by n-3 PUFAs has a much faster onset and offset kinetics. Therefore, the electrophysiological profile of n-3 PUFAs appears more desirable: the duration of reduced sodium current (facilitates re-entry is much shorter. The n-3 PUFAs appear as a safer alternative to other antiarrhythmic
Żebrowska, Aleksandra; Mizia-Stec, Katarzyna; Mizia, Magda; Gąsior, Zbigniew; Poprzęcki, Stanisław
The study aimed to evaluate the effects of a 3-week n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) supplementation on serum nitric oxide (NO), asymmetric dimethyloarginine (ADMA), ultrasound indices of endothelial function and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) of elite cyclists. The effects of dietary supplementation (n-3 PUFA at a dose of 1.3 g twice daily for 3 weeks) and placebo administration on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), pulse wave velocity, serum markers (NO, ADMA), lipid profile, and ΔVO2max were analysed in 13 cyclists both before and after dietary protocols. Significant differences between pre- and post-intervention baseline NO levels were observed after n-3 PUFA dietary protocol (13.9 ± 4.2 vs. 23.5 ± 3.6 µmol·l(-1); P PUFA diet compared with placebo (23.5 ± 3.6 vs. 15.3 ± 3.0 µmol·l(-1); P PUFA increased baseline NO concentration (ΔNO) by 6.7 ± 3.8 µmol·l(-1) and placebo by 1.6 ± 4.4 µmol·l(-1). The positive correlation was observed between baseline post-intervention NO concentration and maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.72; P omega-3 fatty acids supplementation. There was an association between a 5.25% higher FMD (P PUFA diet compared with lower values of placebo (r = 0.68; P PUFA supplementation may play a central role in cardiovascular adaptive mechanisms and enhanced exercise performance in cyclists.
Evan J. Williams
Conclusion: This study shows that rosuvastatin, omega-3 fatty acids and lycopene have some anti-inflammatory effects systemically, but rosuvastatin may increase airway neutrophils, which would be undesirable in COPD patients, warranting further investigation.
Kleber, Marcus E; Delgado, Graciela E; Lorkowski, Stefan; März, Winfried; von Schacky, Clemens
This paper contains additional data related to the research article "Omega-3 fatty acids and mortality in patients referred for coronary angiography - The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study" (Kleber et al., in press) . The data shows characteristics of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study according to tertiles of omega-3 fatty acids as well as stratified by gender. The association of proportions of omega-3 fatty acids measured in erythrocyte membranes with different causes of death is investigated with a special focus on modeling the association of EPA with mortality in a nonlinear way. Further, the association of omega-3 fatty acids with all-cause mortality adjusted for high-sensitive C-reactive protein as a marker of systemic inflammation is examined as well as the association of EPA with cause-specific death.
Full Text Available Catalin Mindrescu1,2,3, Rakesh P Gupta1,3, Eileen V Hermance1, Mary C DeVoe1, Vikas R Soma1, John T Coppola1,2, Cezar S Staniloae1,21Comprehensive Cardiovascular Center, Saint Vincent’s Hospital Manhattan, New York, NY, USA; 2New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 3Rakesh P Gupta and Catalin Mindrescu contributed equally to this article.Background: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of statins plus omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs on endothelial function and lipid profile in South Asians with dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction, a population at high risk for premature coronary artery disease.Methods: Thirty subjects were randomized to rosuvastatin 10 mg and omega-3-PUFAs 4 g or rosuvastatin 10 mg. After 4 weeks, omega-3-PUFAs were removed from the first group and added to subjects in the second group. All subjects underwent baseline, 4-, and 8-week assessment of endothelial function and lipid profile.Results: Compared to baseline, omega-3-PUFAs plus rosuvastatin improved endothelial-dependent vasodilation (EDV: −1.42% to 11.36%, p = 0.001, and endothelial-independent vasodilation (EIV: 3.4% to 17.37%, p = 0.002. These effects were lost when omega-3-PUFAs were removed (EDV: 11.36% to 0.59%, p = 0.003. In the second group, rosuvastatin alone failed to improve both EDV and EIV compared to baseline. However, adding omega-3-PUFAs to rosuvastatin, significantly improved EDV (−0.66% to 14.73%, p = 0.001 and EIV (11.02% to 24.5%, p = 0.001. Addition of omega-3-PUFAs further improved the lipid profile (triglycerides 139 to 91 mg/dl, p = 0.006, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 116 to 88 mg/dl, p = 0.014.Conclusions: Combined therapy with omega-3-PUFAs and rosuvastatin improves endothelial function in South Asian subjects with dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction.Keywords: omega-3 fatty acids, endothelial function, South Asians, dyslipidemia, rosuvastatin
With the unsatisfaction of monoamine-based pharmacotherapy and the high comorbidity of other medical illness in depression, the serotonin hypothesis seems to fail in approaching the aetiology of depression. Based upon the evidence from epidemiological data, case-control studies of phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) levels in human tissues, and antidepressant effect in clinical trials, PUFAs have shed a light to discover the unsolved of depression and connect the mind and body. Briefly, the deficit of n-3 PUFAs has been reported to be associated with neurological, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, autoimmune, metabolic diseases and cancers. Recent studies revealed that the deficit of n-3 PUFAs is also associated with depression. For example, societies that consume a small amount of omega-3 PUFAs appear to have a higher prevalence of major depressive disorder. In addition, depressive patients had showed a lower level of omega-3 PUFAs; and the antidepressant effect of PUFAs had been reported in a number of clinical trials. The PUFAs are classified into n-3 (or omega-3) and n-6 (or omega-6) groups. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major bioactive components of n-3 PUFAs, are not synthesized in human body and can only be obtained directly from the diet, particularly by consuming fish. DHA deficit is associated with dysfunctions of neuronal membrane stability and transmission of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, which might connect to the aetiology of mood and cognitive dysfunction of depression. On the other hand, EPA is important in balancing the immune function and physical healthy by reducing arachidonic acid (AA, an n-6 PUFA) level on cell membrane and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. Interestingly, animals fed with high AA diet or treated with PGE2 were observed to present sickness behaviours of anorexia, low activity, change in sleep pattern and attention, which are similar to somatic symptoms of depression in
Parvathy R. Kumar
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is an acquired brain trauma that occurs when any sudden trauma/injury causes damage to the brain. TBI is characterized by tissue damage and imbalance in the cerebral blood flow and metabolism. It has been established through laboratory experiments that the dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs could reduce the oxidative stress developed in brain due to TBI. The inclusion of omega-3 FA in diet could normalize the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and thus, it could restore the survival of neuronal cells. BDNF improves the synaptic transmission by regulating synapsin 1 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP response element binding protein. The brain tissue analysis of TBI models supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs showed significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, nucleic acid and protein oxidation, thereby promoting neuronal and glial cell survival. Thus, omega-3 FA intake could be considered as a therapeutic option to reduce the secondary neuronal damages initiated by TBI.
Weylandt, Karsten H; Serini, Simona; Chen, Yong Q; Su, Hui-Min; Lim, Kyu; Cittadini, Achille; Calviello, Gabriella
Almost forty years ago, it was first hypothesized that an increased dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from fish fat could exert protective effects against several pathologies. Decades of intense preclinical investigation have supported this hypothesis in a variety of model systems. Several clinical cardiovascular studies demonstrated the beneficial health effects of omega-3 PUFA, leading medical institutions worldwide to publish recommendations for their increased intake. However, particularly in recent years, contradictory results have been obtained in human studies focusing on cardiovascular disease and the clinical evidence in other diseases, particularly chronic inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, was never established to a degree that led to clear approval of treatment with omega-3 PUFA. Recent data not in line with the previous findings have sparked a debate on the health efficacy of omega-3 PUFA and the usefulness of increasing their intake for the prevention of a number of pathologies. In this review, we aim to examine the controversies on the possible use of these fatty acids as preventive/curative tools against the development of cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases, as well as several kinds of cancer.
Full Text Available Lipids used in nutritional support of surgical or critically ill patients have been based on soybean oil, which is rich in the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (18:2n-6. Linoleic acid is the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. In turn, arachidonic acid in cell membrane phospholipids is the substrate for the synthesis of a range of biologically active compounds (eicosanoids including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds can act as mediators in their own right and can also act as regulators of other processes, such as platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte chemotaxis, inflammatory cytokine production, and immune function. There is a view that an excess of n-6 fatty acids should be avoided since this could contribute to a state where physiological processes become dysregulated. One alternative is the use of fish oil. The rationale of this latter approach is that fish oil contains long chain n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid. When fish oil is provided, eicosapentaenoic acid is incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids, partly at the expense of arachidonic acid. Thus, there is less arachidonic acid available for eicosanoid synthesis. Hence, fish oil decreases production of prostaglandins like PGE2 and of leukotrienes like LTB4. Thus, n-3 fatty acids can potentially reduce platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, and leukocyte chemotaxis, and can modulate inflammatory cytokine production and immune function. These effects have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal feeding and healthy volunteer studies. Fish oil decreases the host metabolic response and improves survival to endotoxin in laboratory animals. Recently clinical studies performed in various patient groups have indicated benefit from this approach.
Strøm, Marin; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Mortensen, Erik L
Previous studies have indicated a protective effect of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3FAs) against cardiovascular disease; however, women are underrepresented in cardiovascular research. The aim of this study was to explore the association between intake of LCn3FAs and the risk......, and ischemic heart disease used to define a combined measure of cardiovascular diseases. Intake of fish and LCn3FAs was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire and telephone interviews. During follow-up (1996-2008; median: 8 years), 577 events of cardiovascular disease were identified. Low LCn3FA intake...
Mankad, Deepali; Dupuis, Annie; Smile, Sharon; Roberts, Wendy; Brian, Jessica; Lui, Toni; Genore, Lisa; Zaghloul, Dina; Iaboni, Alana; Marcon, Peggy Margaret A; Anagnostou, Evdokia
Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting more than 1% of children. It is characterized by social communication deficits and repetitive behaviors/restricted interests. In the absence of any medications known to improve core symptom domains, parents often use complementary alternative treatments, including omega-3 fatty acid supplements. Methods We conducted a 6-month, randomized, placebo controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid supplements (1.5 g) vs p...
Colomer, Ramón; Moreno-Nogueira, José M; García-Luna, Pedro P; García-Peris, Pilar; García-de-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Zarazaga, Antonio; Quecedo, Luis; del Llano, Juan; Usán, Luis; Casimiro, César
Use of n-3 fatty acids (FA) has been reported to be beneficial for cancer patients. We performed a systematic review of the literature in order to issue recommendations on the clinical use of n-3 FA in the cancer setting. A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane and Healthstar databases. We selected clinical trials or prospective observational studies including patients with cancer and life expectancy >2 months, in which enteral supplements with n-3 FA were administered. Parameters evaluated individually were clinical (nutritional status, tolerance, survival and hospital stays), biochemical (inflammatory mediators), and functional (functional status, appetite and quality of life (QoL)). Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria; eight were of high quality. The panel of experts established the following evidence: (1) oral supplements with n-3 FA benefit patients with advanced cancer and weight loss, and are indicated in tumours of the upper digestive tract and pancreas; (2) the advantages observed were: increased weight and appetite, improved QoL, and reduced post-surgical morbidity; (3) there is no defined pattern for combining different n-3 FA, and it is recommended to administer > 1.5 g/day; and (4) better tolerance is obtained administering low-fat formulas for a period of at least 8 weeks. All the evidences were grade B but for 'length of treatment' and 'advantage of survival' it was grade C. Our findings suggest that administration of n-3 FA (EPA and DHA) in doses of at least 1.5 g/day for a prolonged period of time to patients with advanced cancer is associated with an improvement in clinical, biological and QoL parameters.
Khan, Naim Akhtar; Yessoufou, Akadiri; Kim, Minji; Hichami, Aziz
We assessed the implication of Th (helper)-cells and the modulation of the Th1/Th2 dichotomy by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in type I diabetic pregnancy (DP) and macrosomia. Female gestant rats fed a standard diet or n-3 PUFA regimen were rendered diabetic by administration of five low doses of streptozotocin. The macrosomic (MAC) offspring were sacrificed at the age of 90 days. The mRNAs of IL-2 and IFN-gamma (Th1 cytokines) and IL-4 (Th2 cytokine) were downregulated in the pancreas and spleen of diabetic pregnant rats. The levels of IL-10 mRNA, another Th2 cytokine, were unchanged in the spleen or upregulated in the pancreas of these animals. Feeding an n-3 PUFA diet to rats with DP upregulated IL-10 mRNA in the pancreas and IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA in the spleen. In MAC offspring, high expression of IL-2 and IFN-gamma mRNA, but not of Th2 cytokines, was observed. The n-3 PUFA diet diminished Th1 mRNA quantities and increased the levels of IL-4, but not of IL-10, mRNA in MAC offspring. Our study shows that DP is associated with a decreased Th1 phenotype and IL-4 mRNA expression in the pancreas and spleen, and an n-3 PUFA diet upregulates Th2 profile. In MAC offspring, the Th1 phenotype is upregulated and an n-3 PUFA diet downregulates this phenomenon.
Dlugosová, Katarína; Weismann, Peter; Bernátová, Iveta; Sotníková, Ruzena; Slezák, Ján; Okruhlicová, Ludmila
Statins and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) reduce cardiovascular disease incidence during hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). To elucidate possible cardioprotective mechanisms, we focused on gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43). Its expression is disturbed during atherogenesis, but little information is available on its expression during HTG. Experiments were performed on adult male hereditary HTG (hHTG) rats treated with n-3 PUFA (30 mg/day) and atorvastatin (0.5 mg/100 g body weight per day) for 2 months. Cx43 expression and distribution in the aorta were investigated by using Western blotting and immunolabeling, followed by quantitative analysis. Transmission electronmicroscopy was used to study ultrastructure of endothelial contact sites. In contrast to age-matched Wistar, Cx43 expression in aorta of hHTG rats was significantly higher (p < 0.05), and prominent Cx43 immunospots were seen in tunica media and less in endothelium of hHTG rats. Changes in Cx43 expression were accompanied by local qualitative subcellular alterations of interendothelial connections. Treatment of hHTG rats with n-3 PUFA and atorvastatin markedly lowered Cx43 expression in aorta and modified connexin distribution in endothelium and media (p < 0.05 vs. untreated hHTG). The protective effect of treatment of HTG was observed on the structural integrity of the endothelium and was readily visible at the molecular level. Results indicate the involvement of altered Cx43 expression in vascular pathophysiology during HTG and during HTG treatment.
El-Ashmawy, Nahla E; Khedr, Eman G; El-Bahrawy, Hoda A; Al-Tantawy, Samar M
Bladder cancer remains a huge concern for the medical community because of its incidence and prevalence rates, as well as high percentage of recurrence and progression. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and atorvastatin proved anti-inflammatory effects through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma mechanism. However, their chemopreventive effect still remained to be examined and clarified. In this study, bladder cancer was induced in rats by the chemical carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid: 2:3 w/w; 1200 mg/kg) and/or atorvastatin (6 mg/kg) were given orally daily to rats for eight consecutive weeks concomitantly with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine and continued for further 4 weeks after cessation of N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine administration. The histopathological examination of rat bladder revealed the presence of tumors and the absence of apoptotic bodies in sections from N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine group, while tumors were absent and apoptotic bodies were clearly observed in sections from rat groups treated with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, atorvastatin, or both drugs. The study of the molecular mechanisms illustrated downregulation of COX-2 and P53 (mutant) genes and suppression of transforming growth factor beta-1 and the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in serum of rats of the three treated groups. This chemopreventive effect was confirmed by and associated with lower level of bladder tumor antigen in urine. However, the combined treatment with both drugs exhibited the major protective effect and nearly corrected the dyslipidemia that has been induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine. Collectively, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and atorvastatin, besides having anti-inflammatory properties, proved a chemopreventive effect against bladder cancer, which nominates them to be used as
PURPOSE: To show that fish oil-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, delivered to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by circulating low-density lipoproteins (LDL), enhance already considerable RPE lysosomal acid lipase activity, providing for more efficient hydrolysis of intralysosomal RPE lipids, an effect that may help prevent development of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). METHODS: Colorimetric biochemical and histochemical techniques were used to demonstrate RPE acid lipa...
Javed Yakoob; Zaigham Abbas
Background: Dietary supplementation with Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (FAs) has been demonstrated to elicit several effects ranging from decrease in blood pressure, anti-arrhythmic effect and decrease in inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic disorder characterized by abdominal pain and irregular bowel habit. It is associated with visceral hypersensitivity, increased mucosal permeability and a low-grade mucosal inf...
Su, Kuan-Pin; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Pae, Chi-Un
Psychiatric disorders in general, and major depression and anxiety disorders in particular, account for a large burden of disability, morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a range of neurobiological activities in modulation of neurotransmitters, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and neuroplasticity, which could contribute to psychotropic effects. Here we reviewed recent research on the benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplements in prevention against major depression, bipolar disorders, interferon-α-induced depression patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infection, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The biological mechanisms underlying omega-3 PUFAs'psychotropic effects are proposed and reviewed. Nutrition is a modifiable environmental factor that might be important in prevention medicine, which have been applied for many years in the secondary prevention of heart disease with omega-3 PUFAs. This review extends the notion that nutrition in psychiatry is a modifiable environmental factor and calls for more researches on prospective clinical studies to justify the preventive application of omega-3 PUFAs in daily practice.
El-Gendy, Ahmed A; Abbas, Amr M
Urocortin 1 (UCN1) decreases food intake. We investigated the effects of UCN1 and omega-3 fatty acids (FA) on metabolic and coagulation parameters in high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups; control, HFD, HFD with omega-3 FA, HFD with UCN1, and HFD with UCN1 and omega-3 FA. Food intake, body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), Lee index, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, cholesterol, low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), fibrin degradation product (FDP), clotting time, bleeding time, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and platelet aggregation were measured. Food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, fibrinogen, platelet aggregation, PAI-1, and FDP increased while bleeding and clotting times, PT, and aPTT decreased in HFD rats. UCN1 decreased food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, bleeding and clotting times, PT, and aPTT and increased fibrinogen, PAI-1, FDP, and platelet aggregation in HFD rats. Omega-3 FA decreased food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, platelet aggregation, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, and increased HDL and bleeding time in HFD rats. We concluded that UCN1 worsens the hypercoagulable state in HFD rats while omega-3 FA improve the insulin resistance and decrease the platelet aggregation in those rats.
Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
The aim of this thesis was to examine possible effects of omega-3 fatty acids on children’s cognition and behavior. Longitudinal as well as cross-sectional comparisons were made among children with typical development and children with ADHD /at risk developing ADHD. The specific purposes were to examine (1) breast-feeding in relation to cognition; (2) relation between long chain poly unsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in mothers breast-milk and children´s cognition; (3) effects of EPA suppleme...
Full Text Available This work presents the importance of fish as a life necessity in view of proteins, vitamins, micro and macro elements and in comparison with high valued necessities of warm-blooded animals (meat, milk and eggs. Most literature information is related to the chemical components of meat, nutritional and biological values. Numerous papers have shown the components of fatty acids in fats of the most important freshwater and sea fish. According the contents of FPA (eicosapentaen fatty acids, 20:5 3 and DHA (docosaheksacn fatty acids, 22:6 3 the meat of the silver carp (Hypophthalmichtis molitrix can be compared to that of the highest quality sea fish. In the last 20 years many authors mentioned the protective role of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of heart attack, stroke, artherosclerosis, high blood pressure, psoriasis, thrombosis and arthritis.
Garcia, H S; Arcos, J A; Ward, D J; Hill, C G
Menhaden oil, a rich source of n-3 fatty acids, was interesterified with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a reaction medium composed solely of substrates and either free or immobilized commercial lipase preparations. Of five lipases tested, an immobilized preparation from Mucor miehei provided the fastest rate of incorporation of CLA into fish oil acylglycerols; however, and as observed with most of the lipases utilized, a significant proportion of the n-3 fatty acid residues were liberated in the process. A soluble lipase from Candida rugosa converted free CLA to acylglycerol residues while leaving the n-3 fatty acid residues virtually untouched. Even though the reaction rate was slower for this enzyme than for the other four lipase preparations, the specificity of the free C. rugosa lipase gives it the greatest potential for commercial use in preparing fish oils enriched in CLA residues but still retaining their original n-3 fatty acid residues.
Borg, Morten; Svensson, My; Povlsen, Johan V;
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease have a markedly increased cardiovascular mortality compared with the general population. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been suggested to possess cardioprotective properties. This cross-sectional and comparative study evaluated cor...
L. Martín de Santa Olalla
Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA of the n-3 series are essential for normal growth and development. The health effects of these fatty acids include reduction of cardiovascular risk due to antiarrhythmic, antiinflammatory, anti-thrombotic and lipid lowering actions. An increase in unsaturation of the muscle membrane fatty acids is associated with improved insulin sensitivity. Higher proportion of n-3 fatty acids may have beneficial roles, such as antiobesity effects and protection against the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus through a number of metabolic effects. However, controversy exists on the different effects of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as on the interacting effect of dietary saturated and monounsaturated fat. In addition, some adverse effects have been described concerning the use of fish oil supplements containing high doses of n-3 fatty acids. Several studies show Eskimos diabetes risk, while results of nutritional interventions on the influence of consuming diets rich in oily fish or other food rich in n-3 fatty acids is very limited. This article reviews the possible mechanisms through which n-3 PUFA are involved in glucose level control and insulin sensitivity. Intervention and epidemiological studies together with recent findings on the nutrigenomic field related with this subject are also briefly reviewed.Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (AGP de la serie n-3 son esenciales para el crecimiento normal y el desarrollo. Los efectos de estos ácidos grasos en la salud incluyen reducción del riesgo cardiovascular debido a acciones antiarrítmicas, antiinflamatorias, antitrombóticas e hipolipemiantes. Un aumento en la insaturación de los ácidos grasos de la membrana muscular se asocia con mejora en la sensibilidad a la insulina. Una mayor proporción de ácidos grasos n-3 puede desempeñar papeles beneficios, tales como efectos antiobesidad y protección frente al síndrome metabólico y la
Sollars Vincent E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega 3 fatty acids have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and promote differentiation in various cell types. The processes of cell survival, expansion, and differentiation are of key importance in the regulation of hematopoiesis. We investigated the role of omega 3 fatty acids in controlling the frequency of various myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Increased progenitor cell frequency and blocked differentiation are characteristics of hematopoietic disorders of the myeloid lineage, such as myeloproliferative diseases and myeloid leukemias. Results We found that increasing the proportion of omega 3 fatty acids relative to the proportion of omega 6 fatty acids in the diet caused increased differentiation and reduced the frequency of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Furthermore, this had no adverse effect on peripheral white blood cell counts. Conclusion Our results indicate that omega 3 fatty acids impact hematopoietic differentiation by reducing myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow and promoting progenitor cell differentiation. Further exploration of this discovery could lead to the use of omega 3 fatty acids as a therapeutic option for patients that have various disorders of hematopoiesis.
Kaliannan, K; Wang, B; Li, X-Y; Bhan, A K; Kang, J X
Early-life antibiotic exposure can disrupt the founding intestinal microbial community and lead to obesity later in life. Recent studies show that omega-3 fatty acids can reduce body weight gain and chronic inflammation through modulation of the gut microbiota. We hypothesize that increased tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids may prevent antibiotic-induced alteration of gut microbiota and obesity later in life. Here, we utilize the fat-1 transgenic mouse model, which can endogenously produce omega-3 fatty acids and thereby eliminates confounding factors of diet, to show that elevated tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduce body weight gain and the severity of insulin resistance, fatty liver and dyslipidemia resulting from early-life exposure to azithromycin. These effects were associated with a reversal of antibiotic-induced dysbiosis of gut microbiota in fat-1 mice. These results demonstrate the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis and obesity, and suggest the potential utility of omega-3 supplementation as a safe and effective means for the prevention of obesity in children who are exposed to antibiotics.
Koskela, Ali; Reinisalo, Mika; Petrovski, Goran; Sinha, Debasish; Olmiere, Céline; Karjalainen, Reijo; Kaarniranta, Kai
Impaired autophagic and proteasomal cleansing have been documented in aged retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Omega-3 fatty acids and resveratrol have many positive homeostatic effects in RPE cells. In this work, ARPE-19 cells were treated with 288 ng of Resvega, containing 30 mg of trans resveratrol and 665 mg of omega-3 fatty acids, among other nutrients, with proteasome inhibitor MG-132 or autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 up to 48 h. Autophagy markers p62/SQSTM1 (p62) and LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) were analyzed by Western blotting. Fluorescence microscopy with mCherry-GFP-LC3 plasmid was applied to study the autophagy flux, and cytoprotective effects were investigated with colorimetric MTT and LDH assays. Resvega induced autophagy by showing increased autolysosome formation and autophagy flux, and the change in the p62 and LC3 protein levels further confirmed the fluorescent microscopy results. Moreover, Resvega provided a clear cytoprotection under proteasome inhibition. These findings highlight the potential of the nutraceuticals containing resveratrol, omega-3 fatty acids and other nutrients in the prevention of ARPE-19 cell damage.
Amador-Licona, Norma; Díaz-Murillo, Teresa A.; Pereyra-Nobara, Texar A.; Guízar-Mendoza, Juan M.; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Orozco-Aviña, Gustavo; Moreno-Martínez, Sandra C.; Luna-Montalbán, Rafael; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo
HIV-seropositive patients show high incidence of coronary heart disease and oxidative stress has been described as relevant key in atherosclerosis development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of omega 3 fatty acids on different markers of oxidative stress in HIV-seropositive patients. We performed a randomized parallel controlled clinical trial in The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, a public health hospital. 70 HIV-seropositive patients aged 20 to 55 on clinical score A1, A2, B1 or B2 receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were studied. They were randomly assigned to receive omega 3 fatty acids 2.4 g (Zonelabs, Marblehead MA) or placebo for 6 months. At baseline and at the end of the study, anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, glucose and stress oxidative levels [nitric oxide catabolites, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde plus 4-hydroxialkenals), and glutathione] were evaluated. Principal HAART therapy was EFV/TDF/FTC (55%) and AZT/3TC/EFV (15%) without difference between groups. Treatment with omega 3 fatty acids as compared with placebo decreased triglycerides (-0.32 vs. 0.54 mmol/L; p = 0.04), but oxidative stress markers were not different between groups. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02041520 PMID:27015634
Borges, Mariane Curado; Santos, Fabiana de Miranda Moura; Telles, Rosa Weiss; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Lanna, Cristina Costa Duarte
Various studies have demonstrated the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on the concentration of C reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators. Therefore, the supplementation of these types of lipids may represent additional option treatment for chronic systemic diseases, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematous and other rheumatic diseases. The role of these lipids has not been well established, yet. However, it seems there is a direct relationship between its intake and the decrease of the disease clinical manifestations as well as of the inflammatory status of the patients. Thus, the aim of this manuscript is to present a thorough review on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids in patients with SLE. Bibliographic data set as the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) were searched using as key words: systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3, eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), docosahexanoic acid (DHA), antioxidants and diet. Manuscripts published up to September 2013 were included. There were 43 articles related to the topic, however only 15 pertained human studies, with three review articles and 12 clinical studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available HIV-seropositive patients show high incidence of coronary heart disease and oxidative stress has been described as relevant key in atherosclerosis development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of omega 3 fatty acids on different markers of oxidative stress in HIV-seropositive patients. We performed a randomized parallel controlled clinical trial in The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, a public health hospital. 70 HIV-seropositive patients aged 20 to 55 on clinical score A1, A2, B1 or B2 receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART were studied. They were randomly assigned to receive omega 3 fatty acids 2.4 g (Zonelabs, Marblehead MA or placebo for 6 months. At baseline and at the end of the study, anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, glucose and stress oxidative levels [nitric oxide catabolites, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde plus 4-hydroxialkenals, and glutathione] were evaluated. Principal HAART therapy was EFV/TDF/FTC (55% and AZT/3TC/EFV (15% without difference between groups. Treatment with omega 3 fatty acids as compared with placebo decreased triglycerides (-0.32 vs. 0.54 mmol/L; p = 0.04, but oxidative stress markers were not different between groups.
Amador-Licona, Norma; Díaz-Murillo, Teresa A; Gabriel-Ortiz, Genaro; Pacheco-Moises, Fermín P; Pereyra-Nobara, Texar A; Guízar-Mendoza, Juan M; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Orozco-Aviña, Gustavo; Moreno-Martínez, Sandra C; Luna-Montalbán, Rafael; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo
HIV-seropositive patients show high incidence of coronary heart disease and oxidative stress has been described as relevant key in atherosclerosis development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of omega 3 fatty acids on different markers of oxidative stress in HIV-seropositive patients. We performed a randomized parallel controlled clinical trial in The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, a public health hospital. 70 HIV-seropositive patients aged 20 to 55 on clinical score A1, A2, B1 or B2 receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were studied. They were randomly assigned to receive omega 3 fatty acids 2.4 g (Zonelabs, Marblehead MA) or placebo for 6 months. At baseline and at the end of the study, anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, glucose and stress oxidative levels [nitric oxide catabolites, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde plus 4-hydroxialkenals), and glutathione] were evaluated. Principal HAART therapy was EFV/TDF/FTC (55%) and AZT/3TC/EFV (15%) without difference between groups. Treatment with omega 3 fatty acids as compared with placebo decreased triglycerides (-0.32 vs. 0.54 mmol/L; p = 0.04), but oxidative stress markers were not different between groups.
Clayton Antunes Martin
Full Text Available Os ácidos graxos poliinsaturados abrangem as famílias de ácidos graxos ômega-3 e ômega-6. Os ácidos graxos de cadeia muito longa, como os ácidos araquidônico e docosaexaenóico, desempenham importantes funções no desenvolvimento e funcionamento do cérebro e da retina. Esse grupo de ácidos graxos não pode ser obtido pela síntese de novo, mas pode ser sintetizado a partir dos ácidos linoléico e alfa-linolênico presentes na dieta. Neste artigo