Sample records for typhus
from WorldWideScience.org

Sample records 1 - 9 shown.



1

Profilaxia do tifo exantemático neotrópico no Brasil/ Prophylaxis of neotropical exanthematic typhus in Brazil

Magalhães, Octavio
1949-06-01

Resumo em português A profilaxia racional de um doença decorre do melhor e mais profundo conhecimento dela. A do tifo exantematico neotrópico, apesar do que se sabe da doença, não e fácil no Brasil. Uma das maiores dificuldade encontramos nas distancias do nosso "hinterland" e na falta de cultura dos nossos agricultores. O homem se infecta certamente com as raças VB, VA e VA do virus brasileiro: 1.°) no campo, nas matas e nas macegas; 2.°) dentro dos domicílios ou nos arredores dês (mais) tes. Os primeiros constitúem de regra, os casos insulados do mal. Os segundos fazem parte, não raro, dos focos domiciliares macicos, com 2, 5, 7 e até 12 casos na mesma casa. São responsáveis, pelos primeiros, os carrapatos, principalmente o Amblyomma cayennense e o Amblyomma brasiliense, mormente quando no estado de ninfas, dada a herança habitual das infecções nesses artrópodos, que se infestam em animais silvestres, depositários do virus. São responsáveis pelos segundos, os "Cimex lectularius", percevejos dos leitos e as ninfas e larvas dos carrapatos, deixadas cair junto aos domicílios ou mesmo dentro deles. A profilaxia racional e completa da doença entre nós compreende: 1.°) Descarrapatização das zonas infestadas, por meio de leis apropriadas, coercitivas e aplicadas sem excepção; 2.°) Combate aos cães vadios, cabritos e outros animais portadores do virus; 3.°) Queima dos pastes, campos e macegas de fraco valor econômico, principalmente os que confinam com residências; 4.°) A propaganda racional contra esta grave doença exantemática: a) com palestras locais, acompanhadas de fotografias e gráficos expressivos e ao alcance de todos; b) pelo cinema; c) com artigos simples, claros e precisos sôbre a matéria; d) com folhetos apropriados; 5.°) Combater toda a vermina dentro e nas proximidades dos domicílios, 6.°) Demonstrar que é possível, com toda a certeza, evitar a doença, retirando os carrapatos que se prenderem ao corpo, dentro de 12 ou 14 horas após a fixação; 7.°) Aconselhar o emprego do DDT, “Gammexame" e “Toxafeno" para o expurgo das casas e animais, a fim de combater os carrapatos; 8.°) Vacinação preventiva contra a doença, quando possível, em zonas delimitadas e já civilizadas, feitas principalmente com raças de virus colhidas no Brasil e, se possível, com uma só dose. O autor trabalhou durante algum tempo com a vacina tipo Spencer-Parker. Hoje aconselha o trabalho com a vacina tipo Cox, original ou modificada.

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2

Contribuição para o conhecimento das doenças do grupo "Tifo Exantemático" do Brasil: (Tifo Exantemático Neotrópico)

Magalhães, Octavio
1957-12-01

Resumo em português O A. recapitula os dados já conhecidos sôbre a filtrabilidade de muitas Rickettsias e sôbre o que êle chama o ciclo evolutivo das mesmas, citando os trabalhos de S. B. Dulky e E. Gordon sôbre a Coxiella papilliae e a observação de A. Donatien e F. Lestoquard bem como os de P. Giraud. Refere-se à filtrabilidade do agente da febre "Q". Reporta-se depois aos trabalhos de Mme. Ruth Rein Gutfreund sôbre os achados de Rickettsia prowazedi em animais domésticos na Eti� (mais) �pia e a transmissão dos mesmos pelos carrapatos, dizendo que isto confirma suas próprias idéias, de há muito emitidas, de que não há no grupo tifo exantemático, de regra, especificidade estrita para os transmissores, não podendo êste carácter servir de base para classificações racionais. Descreve um caso clínico, mostrando a dificuldade de diagnóstico cofundido com a febre tifóide, mesmo com longa prática do exame na doença e que só a inoculação em animais sensíveis - aqui os cobaios - pode decidir a questão. Estuda depois dois surtos epidêmicos de tifo exantemático neotrópico - em 1950 em Carmópolis (Minas Gerais); outro em 1956, Mucuri (Bahia). Em ambos, a percentagem de mortes dos casos graves, não tratados, foi elevada e a terapêutica pelos antibióticos, principalmente a Cloromicetina e Terramicina foi brilhante. Nestes dois surtos epidêmicos com já se vira em 1941 (4 casos na mesma residência) e 1948 (6 casos na mesma moradia), apuraram-se 2 e 3 casos da doença na mesma casa. As reações de Fixação de Complemento (R.F.C.), Weil-Feliz (W.F.) e Widal - confirmam o diagnóstico de tifo exantemático neotrópico. Resumo em inglês The author recapitulates the data already known on the filtration of many Rickttsias and on what he calls the evolutive cycle of the same, citing the works of S. B. Dulky and E. E. Gordon on the Coxiella papilliae and the observation of A. Donatien and F. Letoquard as also those of P. Giraud. He refers to the filtration of the agent of "Q" fever. He then alludes to the works of Mme. Ruth Rien Gutfeund on the finding of Rickettsia Prowazeki in domestic animals in Ethiopia (mais) and their transmission by ticks, saying that this confirms his own ideas, expressed long ago, that there is not, in the exanthematic typhus group, usually, strict specificness for the carries, therefore this feature cannot serve as a basis for rational classification. He describes a clinic case, showing the difficulty of a diagnosis confounded with typhoid fever, even after long experience in examining the disease and that only an inoculation in sensitive animals - here guiena-pigs - can decide the question. He next studies two epidemical outbreaks of neotropic exanthematic typhus - in 1950 in Carmópolis (Minas Gerais); another in 1956 in Mucuri (Bahia). In both the percentage of deaths, in the serous cases, that had no treatment, was high and the therapeutics by the antibiotics, principally Cloromicetina and Terramycina was brilliant. In these two epidemical outbreaks as happened in 1941 (4 cases in a house) and 1948 (6 cases in a house) there were 2 and 3 cases in a family. the reactions of the Complement fixation (R. F. C.), Weil-Felix (W. F.) and Widal confirm the diagnosis if neotropic exanthematic typhus.

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3

Subsídio para o conhecimento e diagnóstico das doenças do grupo tifo exantemático no Brasil/ A subsidiary study for the better understanding diagnosis of the diseases of the exanthematic typhus group in Brazil

Magalhães, Octavio de; Rocha, Adyr
1950-01-01

Resumo em português Os autores estudaram comparativamente o valor da reação de Weil-Felix e de Fixação do Complemento nas doenças do grupo Tifo exantemático. Concluém que ambas têm qualidades e defeitos. Na doença precoce, ambos falharam. No período de estado da doença, os resultados são não raro, decisivos com as duas provas sorológicas. Dos ciqüenta (50) dias em diante, da doença natural, a reação de fixação do complemento é mais precisa, ao apurar os casos antigos de (mais) indivíduos afastados de constantes e repetidas injeções de virus, pelos hematofagos portadores. Naqueles pacientes que permanecem nos fócos conhecidos da doença, sujeitos a inoculações constantes de virus, o Weil-Felix é também de grande valor diagnóstico. Mostraram os autores que o carneiro (Ovisa aries) é pouco sensível á raça V. B do Brasil e que o tatu (Tatus novencintus) não é sensível á mesma raça. Repetindo dados já antigo, apurados em Belo Horizonte, os autores verificaram que a raça V. B. do virus brasileiro atravessa a placenta e infecta o organismo dos fetos. Resumo em inglês The authors made a comparative study on the value of the Weil-Felix reaction and the Fixation of the Complement in the diseases of exanthematic typhus group. They come to the conclusion that both have qualities and defects. In precocius disease, both failed. in the period of development of the disease, two sorological tests often produce decisive results. From the fiftieth day of the natural disease, the reaction of the fixation of the complement is more precise, in the i (mais) nvestigation of former cases of individuals, free from constant and repeated injection of virus by the hematophagous carriers. In those patients that remain in the known centres of the disease, subject to constant inoculations of the virus, the Weil-Felix is also of great diagnostic value. The authors showed that the sheep (Ovis avies) is only slightly sensitive to the V.B. strain of Brazil and that the armadillo (Tatus novencinctus) is not sensitive to the same strain. Repeating former data, verified in Bello Horizonte, the authors found that the V.B. strain of the brazilian virus goes through the placenta and infects the organism of the fetus. They verified the presence of the murine variety of Exanthematic Typhus in Ouro Preto and other cities of Minas Gerais.

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4

Subsídio ao melhor conhecimento do tifo exantemático neotrópico no Brasil: presença do virus no leite

Magalhães, Octavio de; Rocha, Adyr
1948-03-01

Resumo em inglês In articles, already published, we have proved that the strain V. B. of Brazilian virus, goes through the placenta (Macacus rhesus) (1) and the apparently normal gastro-intestinal tube (1934-1937) (Canis familiaris) (2). Today we present the idea that the Brazilian virus can reach the milk of an animal even when the latter has only the unapparent disease. In former articles (**), we have shown that the goat (Capra hircus) can be an excellent reservoir of Brazilian virus, (mais) having the strain V. B. in its blood and presenting a Weil Felix reaction high and in “group”, with the disease unapparent. When the goats are bred in the laboratory, and even in some foci of the disease, they give a negative Weil Felix, being zero for all the nine strains of Proteus. In the interior of Brazil, in many localities, goats substitute cows, in supplying milk for children and adults, and in some districts goat’s milk is considered superior to cow’s milk, possessing marvellous qualities for men, women an children. Having proved, now, that goat’s milk can contain the virus even when the animal presents nothing clinically, and having also shown that this virus goes through the digestive tube apparently sound, it is easy to understand how infants-in-arms, that is, only a few months old, living in strictly domestic surroundings, can contract the disease; we have many such cases on record. Protocol of the experiments: Goat nº 2, white, January 1948. This animal had been inoculated with the V. B. strain of the Brazilian virus in June 1947, via intra-peritoneal, presenting nothing then, not even a feverish reaction. On that occasion it was not possible to isolate the virus of the blood, although the Weil Felix reaction was positive, high and in “group”. Now January 17, 1948, seven months later, the same animal was reinoculated with a semple of virus V. B. in the same manner (intra-peritoneal) two days after bringing forth two sturdy kids. The virus V. B. was obtained from guinea-pig n. 7170 whose thermic graph was as follows: Temperatura – 38,8 – 39,1 – 39,5 – 39,4 –39,8 – 40,4 – 40,2 – 40,1 - + Necropsy – Typical lesions. The spleen weighed 5 grammes. With 3c.c. of emulsion from the nervous system of this guinea-pig, we inoculated not only the goat, as also two guineapigs, number 14 and number 5. The following is the thermic graph of one: - Guinea-pig n. 14 – 38,9 – 39,1 – 39,2 – 39.2 – 40,7 – 41,0 – 40,5 – 40,4 – 40,1 - + Typical lesions. Guinea-pig n. 2 presented the following thermic graph after the infective inoculation: - 39,5 – 39,7 – 39,7 – 39,7 – 39,5 – 39,3 – 39,5 – 39,5 – 39,5 – etc. Clinically, this animal presented nothing unusual, feeding well and suckling the kids normally. The Weil Felix reaction was positive, in “group” high very similar to the reaction obtained in June 1947, with the first infective inoculation. On the third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh day after the infective inoculation, we took milk from the goat and inoculated male guinea-pigs via intra-celular and via intra-peritoneal, giving 5 c.c. to each animal. Guinea-pig n. 4663, inoculated with 5 c.c. of milk, via intra-muscular, taken on the third day of the infectaive inoculation, presented the following thermic graph: - 38.8 (*) – 39,1 – 39,0 – 39,1 – 40,1 – 40,1 – 40,8 (**) – 40,8 – Killed – Typical deisions (***). The virus V. B. of this goat, circulated naturally in the blood up to the third day, having passed into the milk, producing nothing in the kids, on account of the natural resistance of these animals to the disease. The Weil Felix reaction and that of Widal for the Burcellas suis, abortus and militensis were negative for the goat and the kids. It is remarkable that, even with inoculation of the living virus after a period of seven months we cannot get a real and absolute immunity of sensitive animals. We shall return to this subject later. The hart Mazama simplicicornis may be a carrier of the virus in Brasil. The experimental serum against the virus of Exanthematic neotropical typhus has not protected guinea-pigs.

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5

Contribuição para o conhecimento das doenças do grupo tifo exantemático no Brasil

Magalhães, Octavio de
1956-06-01

Resumo em inglês In this work, the author considers that in Brazil, there exist three forms of the disease of the Exanthematic Typhus group, that have been well studied: Neotropic Exanthematic Typhus, Murine Typhus and "Q" fever. The first of these forms has existed in this country, perhaps, for over five hundred years. He says that modern antibiotic, Aureomycin, Chloromycetin and, principally, Terramcin have resolved the problem of the therapeutic treatment of the disease. The modern ins (mais) ecticides, D. D. T., Gammexane and Toxafeno have resolved the prophylactic problem. The author studies minutely the question of denomination, showing, by means of drawing and history, the origin of the diseases, both Norte American and Brazilian. The name Neotropic Exanthematic Typhus (in BRazil, Colombia, United States or India) should substitute the erroneous anme "Spotted Fever"; the disease is exanthematic, a very different thing. He formulates two hypotheses about these diseases: first - it passed from the neotropic to the neartic region, where it acquired individual properties; second - they developed independently in a more rmeote epoch, acquiring each its own characteristics. The disease is today rather of the neotropic than of the neartic region. As it also exists in India it cannot be named American exanthematic Typhus. The author finds it unnecessary to change the name to "Rikettsioses"; we do not call bacillar dysentery "Schigeloses"or malignant edema "Chlostridiose". The name exanthematic typhus is classic, precise, scientific, expressive and the denomination "neotropical" completes the localisation. The author thinks that all the diseases of the exanthematic typhus group, in the world had a simple primitive common origin. At first, the rickettsias or the virus had a free life, perhaps in the waters of the marshes or grass-lands. Later, in the struggle for life, came the parasitism of the plants. They became fitoparatifs. The mode of life...

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6

Contribuição ao conhecimento da melhor terapêutica curativa do tifo exantemático no Brasil (doenca de Piza, Meyer e Gomes)

Magalhães, Octavio de
1953-12-01

Resumo em português O autor diz ter tentado a terapêutica do Tifo exantemático neotrópico entre nós, por várias maneiras, durante cêrca de 18 anos, sem que tivesse obtido resultado apreciável. Agora, porém, pensa que a questão está resolvida com o emprego apropriado da Terramicina. Antes dêsse antibiótico aparecer, aconselhára a Aureomycina e a Cloromicetina. Prefere, porém, agora a Terramycina, via oral e sub-cutânea ou intra muscular. Diz o autor que com ou sem terapêutica, (mais) as formas graves do Tifo exantemático neotrópico no Brasil deixavam escapar 16 a 18 % dos doentes. Foi por isso que agora, reunindo cerca de 34 casos das formas graves da doença, resolveu publicar o quadro que se segue. Nele vemos que dos doentes tratados com a Aureomicina, morreram 31,25% e os tratados com Terramicina, apenas 6,6%. Deve assinalar que o doente tratado com Terramicina que faleceu, esteve apenas no Hospital Cícero Ferreira, 7 horas antes da morte. Descreve 4 observações clínicas da doença. Resumo em inglês The author states that, for about 18 years, he has attempted the therapeutica of Neotropic Exanthematic typhus in many years with no appreciable result. Now, however, he thinks the question is solved by the proper use of Terramycine. Before this antibiotic appeared he advised Aureomy of Terramycine. Before this antibiotic appeared he advised Aureomycine and Chloromicetine. He prefers, however, Terramycine, via the mouth, sub cutaneous or intra-muscular. The author says t (mais) hat with or without therapeutics 16 to 18 per cent of the serious cases of Neotropic Exanthematic Typhus in Brazil, recovered. For tis reason, bringing together about 34 cases of the serious forms of the disease, he resolved to publish the following table. Here we see that of the patients treated with Aureomycine, 31,25% died and of those treated with Teramycine, only 6,6%. It whould be noted that the Terramycine patient was in the Hospital Cícero Ferreira, only seven hours before he died. The author gives four clinical reports of the disease.

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7

Contribuição ao estudo das Pasteurellas: pasteurella intermediária n. sp

Magalhães, Octavio de; Rocha, Adyr
1944-08-01

Resumo em português Os autores decreveram uma nova bactéria - Pasteurella intermedia n. ap., obtida pela inoculação em cobaio de 2 cc. de sangue total de um indivíduo morto de bronco-pneumonia e suspeito de ter a forma grave de Tifo exantemático neotrópico. Têm a impressão que a Pasteurella marsupialis e a P. intermedia, constituem um grupo à parte, bem definido, dentro das Pasteurellas. Muito pequenas, de grande e persistente poder patogênico para os animais comuns de laboratório (mais) , mesmo quando as amostras das bactérias são conservadas pelos replantios em agar-comum, na temperatura e iluminação comum em laboratórios, durante anos. Estas duas Pasteurellas, ao contrário das demais, têm alto e inconfundível poder antígenico, para a formação de aglutininas e fixação do complemento e dão com constância uma "reação testicular" em cobaios machos, quando injetadas pela via intra-peritoneal, febre alta, esplenomegalia constante e às vezes notável, prestando-se à confusão para o diagnóstico diferencial e experimental com a raça VB do Tifo exantemático neotrófico no Brasil (Moléstia de Pisa, Gomes e Mayer). Resumo em inglês The authors have described a new bacterium - Pasteurella intermedia, n. sp. obtained by inoculating a guinea-pig with 2 cc. of total blood from an individual who died from bronco-pneumonia and suspected of having a seriou form of neotropic exanthematic Typhus. They have impression that Pasteurella marsupialis and Pasteurella intermedia constitute a distinct and well-defined group among the Pasteurellas. Very small, having a great and persistent pathogenic power over the u (mais) susal laboratory animals, even when the specimens of the bacteria are preserved for years by replanting in common agar in the common temperature and illuminations of the laboratory. These two Pasteurellas, contrary to the others, have a great and unmistakable antigenic power for the formation of agglutinins and fixing of the complement and constantly give a testicular reaction in male guinea-pigs when the injection is intraperitoneal, high fever, constant and sometimes notable espelenmigalia causing confusion for an expermental and differential diagnosis with the VB race of neotropic exanthematic Typhus in Brasil (Disease of Pisa, Gomes and Mayer).

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8

Typhus exantematico em Minas Gerais

Moreira, João Affonso; Magalhães, Octavio de
1934-06-01

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9

Rutura do baço na febre tifóide

Torres, C. Magarinos; Lacorte, J. Guilherme
1941-01-01

Resumo em inglês A case of typhus levissimus or splenotyphus is reported whose death ocurred approximately at the beginning of the 2nd week as a consequence of rupture of the spleen and hematoperitoneum (2 liters). Acute perisplenitis and intracapsular hemorrhages as well as marked distention of the capsule pertinent to the extreme increase in volume of the organ in this stage of the disease are thought to be the changes concerned with the rupture of the organ, possibly influenced by overlooked minimal trauma.

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