Resumo em português Infecção experimental de ovinos com o herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (BHV-5) reproduziu vários aspectos da infecção pelo BHV-5 em bovinos. Inoculação intranasal foi seguida de extensiva replicação viral na cavidade nasal, excreção e transmissão do vírus a outros animais, estabelecimento e reati-vação de latência, e o desenvolvimento de meningoencefalite clínica em um animal. Ovinos inoculados com a amostra brasileira EVI-88 apresentaram hipertermia transitór (mais) ia, hiperemia da mucosa nasal e corrimento nasal de seroso a muco-purulento. Os animais eliminaram vírus em secreções nasais em títulos de até 107,11DICC50/ml por até 16 dias. Um cordeiro apresentou sinais clínicos de encefalite no dia 10 pós-inoculação, sendo sacrificado in extremis no início do dia 13. Infectividade foi detectada em várias regiões do encéfalo desse animal, incluindo os hemisférios anterior e posterior, córtex dorso- e ventro-lateral, ponte, pedúnculo cerebral, cerebelo e bulbo olfatório. Alterações histológicas foram observadas em várias regiões do encéfalo, principalmente no hemisfério anterior, córtex ventro-lateral e pedúnculos cerebrais, e consistiram de meningite mononuclear, manguitos perivasculares, gliose focal, necrose e inclusões intranucleares em neurônios . Quatro ovinos mantidos como sentinelas adquiriram a infecção e eliminaram vírus a partir do final do segundo dia, até 7 dias. Ovinos inoculados com a amostra argentina A663 apresentaram apenas hiperemia e umidecimento da mucosa nasal, embora eliminassem vírus nas secreções nasais por até 15 dias. Tratamento dos animais com dexametasona a partir do dia 50 pós-inoculação provocou reativação da infecção latente e eliminação viral durante até 11 dias por 76,9% (10/13) dos animais inoculados e por 100% (3/3) dos animais sentinela. Esses resultados demonstram que ovinos são susceptíveis à infecção aguda e latente pelo BHV-5 e sugerem que infecções naturais de ovinos por este vírus podem potencialmente ocorrer. Ness sentido, uma possível participação da espécie ovina como reservatório natural desse vírus deve ser melhor investigada. Resumo em inglês Experimental inoculation of lambs with bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5) reproduced several aspects of the BHV-5 infection in cattle. Intranasal inoculation was followed by efficient viral replication and shedding, establishment and reactivation of latency, and even the development of meningoencephalitis in one animal. Lambs inoculated with the brazilian isolate EVI-88 showed transient hipertermia, nasal hiperemia and discharge ranging from serous to muco-purulent. The an (mais) imals shed virus in nasal secretions in titers up to 107.11 TCID50/ml during up to 16 days. One lamb showed clinical signs of encephalitis on day 10 post inoculation (pi), being euthanized in extremis on day 13. Infectious virus was recovered from several areas of the brain of this lamb, including anterior and posterior cerebrum, dorso- and ventro-lateral hemisphere, cerebellum, pons, midbrain and olfactory bulb. Histological changes were observed in several regions of the brain, most consistently in the anterior cerebrum, ventro-lateral cortex and midbrain, and consisted mainly of meningitis, perivascular mononuclear cuffing, focal gliosis, neuronal necrosis and intranuclear inclusions. Four lambs used as sentinels acquired the infection and shed virus starting at the 2nd day pi during up to 7 days. Lambs inoculated with the argentinian isolate A663 showed only mild respiratory signs, although they shed virus for up to 15 days. Administration of dexamethazone to the animals starting at day 50 pi was followed by reactivation of the latent infection and viral shedding during up to 11 days by 76.9% (10/13) of the inoculated lambs and 100% (3/3) of the sentinels. These results demonstrate that sheep are susceptible to BHV-5 acute and latent infection and suggest that natural infections by this virus in sheep may potentially occur. In this sense, a possible role of this species in the epidemiology of BHV-5 infections awaits further investigation.
Resumo em inglês In this work the photocatalytic degradation of sulfametoxazole, trimethoprim and potassium diclofenac was evaluated by using TiO2 and ZnO photocatalysts. In optimized experimental conditions (pH 4, TiO2: 50 mg) the TiO2-photocatalysis allowed an almost total degradation of the studied drugs with mineralization of about 80% at reaction times of 120 min. Some mechanistic differences were observed between TiO2 and ZnO in the degradation study involving potassium diclofenac. (mais) At the first reaction times the use of ZnO leads to generation of transient species that strongly absorb in the UV spectral region, a fact not observed in studies involving TiO2.
Degradação de benzeno, tolueno e xilenos em águas contaminadas por gasolina, utilizando-se processos foto-Fenton/ Degradation of benzene, toluene and xilenes in gasoline-contaminated waters by photo-Fenton processes
Resumo em inglês In this work the potentiality of photo-Fenton processes were investigated toward the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTXs) from water contaminated with gasoline. The main results demonstrated that BTXs can be quickly degraded by photo-Fenton process assisted by solar or artificial UV-A radiation, degradation that leads to generation of characteristic phenolic transient species (ie. phenol, hydroquinone and catechol). In the treatment of contaminated water by photo-F (mais) enton processes assisted by solar light, complete BTXs removal was observed in reaction times of about 5 min. Mineralization of about 90% was also observed by applying a multiple H2O2 addition system.
Resumo em inglês According to E. Chagas (1938), South-American Kala Azar is a widespread disease from the jungle, several cases being reported from North Brazil (Estado do Pará: Marajó Island, Tocantins and Gurupi river valleys; Estados do Piauí and Ceará: coast and hinterland). Other cases were found in Northeast Brazil (Estados de Pernambuco, Alagôas and Sergipe: coast and hinterland; Estado da Bahia: hinterland). A few cases were described from Estado de Mato-Grosso (Brazil), Prov (mais) incia de Salta and Território do Chaco (Argentine), and Zona contestada do Chaco (Paraguai-Bolívia). A well defined secondary anemia associated with enlargement of the liver and spleen are the chief symptoms. Death usually occurs in cachexia and with symptoms of heart failure. Half the patients were children aged less than ten years (CHAGAS, CASTRO & FERREIRA, 1937). Quite exhaustive epidemiological researches performed by CHAGAS, FERREIRA, DEANE, DEANE & GUIMARÃES (1938) in Municipio de Abaeté (Estado do Pará, Brazil) gave the incidence of 1.48% for the natural infection in human, 4.49% in dogs, and 2.63% in cats. The infection was arcribed (CUNHA & CHAGAS, 1937) to a new species of Leishmania (L. chagasi). Latter CUNHA (1938) state, that it is identical to L. infantum. ADLER (1940) found that so far it has been impossible to distinguish L. chagasi from L. infantum by any laboratory test but a final judgment must be reserved until further experiments with different species of sandflies have been carried out. Skin changes in canine Kala Azar were signaled by many workers, and their importance as regards the transmission of the disease is recognized by some of them (ADLER & THEODOR, 1931, 2. CUNHA, 1933). Cutaneous ulcers in naturally infected dogs are referred by CRITIEN (1911) in Malta, by CHODUKIN & SCHEVTSCHENKO (1928) in Taschkent, by DONATIEN & LESTOCQUARD (1929) and by LESTOCQUARD & PARROT (1929) in Algeria, and by BLANC & CAMINOPETROS (1931) in Greece. Depilation is signaled by YAKIMOFF & KOHL-YAKIMOFF (1911) in Tunis, by YAKIMOFF (1915) in Turkestan. Eczematous areas or a condition described as "eczema furfurace" is sometimes noted in the areas of depilation (DONATIEN & LESTOCQUARD). The skin changes noticed by ADLER & THEODOR (1932) in dogs naturally infected with Mediterranean Kala Azar can be briefly summarized as a selective infiltration of macrophages around hair follicles including the sebaceous glands and the presence of infected macrophages in normal dermis. The latter phenomenon in the complete absence of secondary infiltration of round cells and plasma cells is the most striking characteristic of canine Kala Azar and differentiates it from L. tropica. In the more advanced stages the dermis is more cellular than that of normal dogs and may even contain a few small dense areas of infiltration with macrophages and some round cells and polymorphs. The external changes, i. e., seborrhea and depilation are roughly proportional to the number of affected hair follicles. In dogs experimentally infected with South-American Kala Azar the parasites were regularly found in blocks of skin removed from the living animal every fortnight (CUNHA, 1938). The changes noticed by CUNHA, besides the presence of Leishmania, were perivascular and diffuse infiltration of the cutis with mononuclears sometimes more marked near hair follicles, as well as depilation, seborrhea and ulceration. The parasites were first discovered and very numerous in the paws. Our material was obtained from dogs experimentally infected by Dr. A. MARQUES DA CUNHA