Resumo em inglês This paper present an overview of way covered for the spectrometry of atomic absorption (AAS), tracing a line of the historical events in its development and its establishment as a multielement technique. Additionally, the efforts carried by through several researchers in the search for the instrumental evolution, the advances, advantages, limitations, and trends of this approach are related. Several works focusing its analytical applications are cited employing simultane (mais) ous multielement determination by flame (FAAS) and/or graphite furnace (GF AAS), and fast sequential multielement determination using FAAS are reported in the present review.
Resumo em inglês Polymeric materials are widely used in the chemical industry and are part of our daily lives. Inorganic species may be added to them as additives, anti-oxidizing agents, stabilizers, plasticizers, colorants and catalysts and may be present in a wide range of concentrations. Their determination demands the development of analytical methods considering different kinds of polymeric materials, their composition and the final use of the material. Although many different analyt (mais) ical techniques may be used, this review emphasizes those based on atomic absorption and emission spectrometry. Solid sampling techniques and digestion methods are described and discussed and compared considering published results.
Resumo em inglês In this review it is presented some aspects of electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with tungsten coil (ETAW-AAS) since its beginning until the present days as well as the perspectives for this technique. Some aspects concerning its development and theoretical concepts are discussed. The analytical figures of merit such as limit of detection (LD), characteristic mass (m0), relative standard deviation (RSD), accuracy and precision are evaluated, compared and discu (mais) ssed considering published works. It is also evaluated its advantages, applications, limitations and instrumental development. The use of diode laser as radiation source and its perspectives to ETAW are also discussed.
Espectrometria de massas com ionização por "electrospray" aplicada ao estudo de espécies inorgânicas e organometálicas/ Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry applied to study inorganic and organo-metallic species
Resumo em inglês Although electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ES-MS) has been extensively applied to study organic and biochemical species, it is also specially suitable to study inorganic and organo-metallic species. Such species, even those that are low-volatile or thermo-unstable, can be easily ionized or simply transferred from liquid to gas phase by electrospray. However, chemical transformations frequently occur during the process. This paper discusses the fundamental aspects (mais) of electrospray ionization as well as its analytical applicability to inorganic and organo-metallic species in order to spread the technique and make its characteristics more familiar to potential users.
Resumo em inglês The combination of cyclic voltammetry and on line mass spectrometry, called differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS), is already a well established method for on line identification and quantitative detection of the products and intermediates of electrochemical reactions. This article aims to show the principles of the method and how this technique have been used to study electrochemical problems such the electrocatalytic oxidation of organic molecules, as methanol and ethanol, at noble metal electrodes.
Espectrometria de absorção atômica multielementar simultânea com atomização eletrotérmica em forno de grafite - uma revisão da técnica e aplicações/ Simultaneous multielement graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry - A review of the technique and applications
Resumo em português Este trabalho descreve uma revisão a respeito do emprego da técnica de espectrometria de absorção atômica simultânea em forno de grafite (SIMAAS) em determinações multielementares de elementos-traço em diferentes matrizes. Os principais parâmetros envolvidos e que devem ser considerados em medidas multielementares, tais como, fonte de radiação, geometria do forno, programa de aquecimento e natureza e quantidade de modificador químico, são descritos. Resumo em inglês A review on the use of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for simultaneous multielement determination of metals at trace levels in different samples is described. The main parameters to be considered in multi-element analysis such as light sources, kind of graphite furnace tubes, time and temperature program, and composition and amount of modifier are summarized and discussed.
Espectrometria de massas com ionização por "electrospray": processos químicos envolvidos na formação de íons de substâncias orgânicas de baixo peso molecular/ Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: chemical processes involved in the ion formation from low molecular weight organic compounds
Resumo em inglês An overview of the current literature on the chemical processes involved in the ion formation from low molecular weight organic compounds by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is given.
Resumo em inglês Novel and quantitative mass spectrometry methods for rapid and accurate enantiomeric excess determination are presented. These methodologies use electrospray ionization (ESI) and mass spectrometry (MS) to detect and analyze, via collision-induced dissociation (CID), mass-selected transition metal complexes that promote enantio especific interactions. The data from CID are conveniently treated by the kinetic method, a sensitive linear free energy method of treating mass sp (mais) ectrometric results. Four different variations of this methodology are described: single ratio method (S R), quotient ratio method (Q R), fixed ligand method (S Rfixed), and quotient ratio method with fixed ligand (Q Rfixed). These individual methods are compared and their main features discussed in detail.
Resumo em português Esta revisão abrange as principais técnicas, limitações e utilidades da espectrometria de massa aplicada à análise de fluidos biológicos para buscar biomarcadores com potencialidade de diagnóstico médico. Atualmente esse método é capaz de discernir, em segundos, padrões moleculares diferencialmente expressos entre indivíduos controles e com câncer. Resultados da literatura apontam a espectrometria de massa como metodologia promissora no futuro do diagnóstico. Resumo em inglês This manuscript reviews mass spectrometry methods and limitations for analisys of biological fluids in the search for biomarkers that can aid medical diagnosis. Currently, mass spectrometry has the ability to discriminate differentially expressed molecular patterns among cancer patients and control subjects. Results in the literature point mass spectrometry as having a major role in the future of medical diagnosis.
Determinação de Cd, Ni e Zn por espectrometria de emissão atômica com plasma indutivamente acoplado, após separação e pré-concentração em coluna contendo p-dimetilaminobenzilidenorodanina adsorvida sobre sílica gel/ Determination of Cd, Ni and Zn by inductively coupled plasma emission atomic spectrometry after separation and preconcentration in column packed with 5-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene) rhodanine adsorbed on silica gel
Resumo em inglês A column packed with 5-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene)rhodanine adsorbed on silica gel was used for the preconcentration of Cd, Ni and Zn at different spiked solutions prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. This column allowed recoveries over than 98% for the above elements and accurate analyses of coastal sea-water certified reference material were also achieved.
O estado da arte da cromatografia associada à espectrometria de massas acoplada à espectrometria de massas na análise de compostos tóxicos em alimentos/ The state of the art of chromatography associated with the tandem mass spectrometry for toxic compound analyses in food
Resumo em inglês Chromatography combined with several different detection systems is one of the more used and better performing analytical tools. Chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection gives highly selective and sensitive analyses and permits obtaining structural information about the analites and about their molar masses. Due to these characteristics, this analytical technique is very efficient when used to detect substances at trace levels in complex matrices. In this p (mais) aper we review instrumental and technical aspects of chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and the state of the art of the technique as it is applied to analysis of toxic substances in food.
Resumo em inglês This paper describes a review on internal standardization in atomic absorption spectrometry with emphasis to the systematic and random errors in atomic absorption spectrometry and applications of internal standardization in flame atomic absorption spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The rules for selecting an element as internal standard, limitations of the method, and some comments about the application of internal standardization in atomic absorption spectrometry and the future of this compensation strategy are critically discussed.
Resumo em inglês This is a review of direct analysis using solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Greater emphasis is dedicated to sample preparation, sample homogeneity, calibration and its application to microanalysis and micro-homogeneity studies. The main advantages and some difficulties related to the applicability of this technique are discussed. A literature search on the application of solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry in trace (mais) element determination in many kinds of samples, including biological, clinical, technological and environmental ones, is also presented.
Resumo em inglês CE-MS has been increasingly used for analysis of a vast array of compounds. This article reviews the different electrophoretic modes, interfaces and mass analyzers that are commonly used in the CE-MS coupling, as well as the technique advantages and performance characteristics. A large compilation of CE-MS applications is also presented. Therefore, this review is both a guide for beginners and a collection of key references for people who are familiar to the technique. Fu (mais) rthermore, this is the first CE-MS review published in a Brazilian journal and marks the installation of the first two commercial CE-MS units in Sao Paulo State.
Resumo em inglês The most important features of the CE-ICP hyphenation, as well as its advantages and drawbacks as a tool for speciation are discussed. The fundamental principles of capillary electrophoresis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry are also presented. Some applications involving different designs proposed in the literature to couple CE and ICP system for elemental speciation are reviewed.
Usando um website para explicar a espectrometria de ressonância ciclotrônica de íons por transformada de Fourier/ Using a website to explain Fourier transform ion ciclotron resonance mass spectrometry
Resumo em inglês This article shows the usefulness of a website to explain the concepts, operational events, vacuum system, applications and an experimental sequence of the Fourier Transform Ion Ciclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry technique (http://188.8.131.52/icr/icrj.html).
Avaliação da padronização interna em espectrometria de absorção atômica utilizando gráficos de correlação/ Evaluation of internal standardization in atomic absorption spectrometry using correlation graphs
Resumo em inglês The use of an internal standard (IS) in ET AAS can be considered a new trend after the commercial introduction of a simultaneous spectrometer. The evaluation of experimental data to choose the most appropriate IS can be done by comparing correlation graphs. They were used to verify the resemblance among the simultaneous measurements obtained for the analyte(s) and the IS by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES). The judicious selection of IS by (mais) using correlation graphs for determinations by ET AAS can be exploited to improve the precision and accuracy of the analytical results. Therefore, a new approach for studying the use of IS in ET AAS is presented.
Resumo em inglês A method for the determination of phosphorus in steel samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, using the Zeeman effect background correction and the STPF conditions is proposed. The effect of iron (III) on the phosphorus signal was studied. It was verified, through the pyrolysis temperature curves, that iron (III) is an efficient chemical modifier, thermically stabilizing phosphorus up to 1400ºC. The phosphorus signal increases with the iron (III) conc (mais) entration, but in the range, which corresponds to the usual concentrations of iron in the sample solutions, the increase is small. Phosphorus was determined in three standard reference materials, after its dissolution in a mixture of hydrochloric and perchloric acids in a PTFE bomb. The agreement with the certified concentration values was excellent. Iron (III) was added to the reference analytical solutions prepared in the blank of the dissolution, while the sample solutions were measured directly, since they already contained the modifier. The detection limit (k = 2) was 0.0042% of phosphorus in the steel sample.
Resumo em inglês This review presents an updated overview of the trace element speciation by gas chromatography coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry.
Resumo em inglês This paper introduces the basics of peptide mass spectra interpretation applied to proteomics and is directed to chemists, biochemists and biologists. The manuscript presents a well detailed protocol aiming to serve as a first choice guide for understanding peptide sequencing. The tutorial was elaborated based on both a thorough bibliographic revision and the author's experience. In order to prove the applicability of the proposed guide, spectra obtained on different instruments have been successfully interpreted by applying the presented rational.
Resumo em inglês The historical development of atomic spectrometry techniques based on chemical vapor generation by both batch and flow injection sampling formats is presented. Detection via atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), microwave induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (MIP-OES), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) , inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and furnace atomic nonthermal excitation spectrometry (FANES) are considere (mais) d. Hydride generation is separately considered in contrast to other methods of generation of volatile derivatives. Hg ¾ CVAAS (cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry) is not considered here. The current state-of-the-art, including extension, advantages and limitations of this approach is discussed.
Determinação direta de crômio em açúcar e leite por espectrometria de absorção atômica com atomização eletrotérmica em forno de grafite/ Direct determination of chromium in sugar and milk using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry
Resumo em inglês A fast and direct method for the determination of Cr in milk and cane sugar suspensions using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman-effect background correction is described. No sample pre-treatment was necessary, minimizing the risk of contamination. The concentration of chromium in cane sugar was evaluated using Cr reference solutions prepared in 1% v/v HNO3 solution. The milk samples were introduced into the furnace with a mixture of amines for av (mais) oiding the autosampler blockage and foaming of milk. Chromium determination in milk was based on the standard additions method (SAM). The limit of detection and characteristic mass for cane sugar sample (30 muL) were 0,13 ng/ml and 4,3 pg, and for milk sample (10 muL) were 0,23 ng/ml and 7,8 pg, respectively. The graphite tube lifetime was 300 firings for sugar-cane sample and 100 firings for milk sample. The heating program was implemented in 68 s.
Determinação de As em amostras orgânicas de interesse ambiental por espectrometria de absorção atômica com atomização eletrotérmica após combustão em bomba de O2/ Determination of As in environmental organic samples by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization after O2 bomb combustion
Resumo em inglês The toxicity of the major As species present in the environment justifies the effort for quantifying the element in environmental organic samples, which can vary from animal and vegetal tissues to coal and industrial residues. This paper comments about the applicability of the O2 bomb digestion, as a general procedure for all environmental organic materials. A rapid and straightforward method is suggested, which consists in burning the sample in the bomb at high O2 pressu (mais) re, dissolving the vapours in diluted HNO3 and determining As in the resulting solution by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization. The method was applied to certified materials and plant samples.
Validação de metodologia analítica para determinação de mercúrio total em amostras de urina por espectrometria de absorção atômica com geração de vapor frio (CV-AAS): estudo de caso/ Validation of an analytical method for the determination of total mercury in urine samples using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS): case study
Resumo em inglês Mercury is a toxic metal used in a variety of substances over the course history. One of its more dubious uses is in dental amalgam restorations. It is possible to measure very small concentrations of this metal in the urine of exposed subjects by the cold vapor atomic absorption technique. The present work features the validation as an essential tool to confirm the suitability of the analytical method chosen to accomplish such determination. An initial analysis will be c (mais) arried out in order to evaluate the environmental and occupational levels of exposure to mercury in 39 members of the auxiliary dental staff at public consulting rooms in the city of Araguaína (TO).
Experimentos simples usando fotometria de chama para ensino de princípios de espectrometria atômica em cursos de química analítica/ Simple flame photometric experiments to teach principles of atomic spectrometry in undergraduate analytical chemistry courses
Resumo em inglês The purpose of this paper is the development of simple strategies to teach basic concepts of atomic spectrometry. Metals present in samples found in the daily lives of students are determined by flame atomic emission spectrometry (FAES). FAES is an accurate, precise, and inexpensive analytical method often used for determining sodium, potassium, lithium, and calcium. Historical aspects and their contextualization for students are also presented and experiments with samples that do not require pre-treatment are described.
Determinação de arsênio em amostras da cadeia produtiva de frangos de corte por espectrometria de absorção atômica com forno de grafite/ Determination of arsenic in chicken and chicken production-related samples using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry
Resumo em inglês Chicken meat is largely consumed in human nutrition and it is produced in extremely large scale in some countries, including Brazil. In this work graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used for determination of arsenic in chicken and chicken production-related samples. These samples were digested employing a microwave-assisted procedure in closed vessels using a 7 mol L-1 nitric acid solution plus concentrated hydrogen peroxide. The concentration range of tot (mais) al As determined in chicken production-related samples varied from 1.30 to 29.8 mg kg-1 of As. The detection and quantification limits reached were 0.055 and 0.182 mg kg-1, respectively (n = 15).
Identificação de resíduos de disparos de armas de fogo por meio da técnica de espectrometria de massas de alta resolução com fonte de plasma indutivo/ Identification of gunshot residues by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
Resumo em inglês The violence derived from crimes involving firearms represents one of the main concerns of society. For this reason modern techniques have emerged in forensic science to identify suspects at crime scenes. This work describes a methodology to identify residues present in the hands of suspect by using a high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and collection procedure based on ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution as a complexing agent in moist (mais) ened swabs. In order to distinguish real gunshot residues from others types of residues present in the hand of suspect, ternary ratio per cent diagrams were developed for antimony (Sb), barium (Ba) and lead (Pb) detected on the hands of volunteers, before and immediately after shooting tests, revealing a remarkable difference in both situations.
Pré-concentração de cádmio com Saccharomyces cerevisiae e determinação em águas fluviais usando espectrometria de emissão óptica com plasma indutivamente acoplado/ Preconcentration of cadmium with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and determination in river water using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry
Resumo em inglês A preconcentration method based on the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as sorbent material is proposed for the determination of Cd(II) in river water. The solid phase extraction was performed in batch mode and the determination of the analyte in the solid phase was easily carried out by introducing a slurry of the yeast (0.0625 g / 2.5 mL) directly into the ICP OES. A limit of detection of 0.11 µg L-1 and a sample throughput in the range of 4 - 54 sample h-1 were obtaine (mais) d. Determinations of cadmium in a certified sample and in real river water samples were in excellent agreement with the expected values.
Preparação de amostra de fígado bovino e estudo de micro homogeneidade para a determinação de Cd E Pb por espectrometria de absorção atômica com atomização eletrotérmica e amostragem direta de sólido/ Bovine liver sample preparation and micro-homogeneity study for Cd and Pb determination by solid sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry
Resumo em inglês This work describes a systematic study for bovine liver sample preparation for Cd and Pb determination by solid sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Samples were prepared using different procedures: (1) drying in a household microwave oven followed by drying in a stove at 60 ºC until constant mass, and (2) freeze-drying. Ball and cryogenic mills were used for grinding. Particle size, sample size and micro sample homogeneity were investigated. All prepa (mais) red samples showed good homogeneity (He
Resumo em inglês A procedure for determining of the isotope ratio 235U/238U in UF6 samples was established using a quadrupole mass spectrometer with ionization by electron impact. The following items were optimized in the spectrometer: the parameters in the ion source that provided the most intense peak, with good shape, for the most abundant isotope; the resolution that reduced the non linear effects and the number of analytical cycles that reduced the uncertainty in the results. The mea (mais) surement process was characterized with respect to the effects of mass discrimination, linearity and memory effect.
Caracterização dos níveis de elementos químicos em solo, submetido a diferentes sistemas de uso e manejo, utilizando espectrometria de fluorescência de raios-x por energia dispersiva (EDXRF)/ Characterization of chemical elements in soil submitted to different systems use and management by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF)
Resumo em inglês This study aimed to evaluate the chemical elements levels in soil, submitted to different management systems and use by the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry - EDXRF. The systems were T1 - agro forestry (SAF), T2 - Native Field (CN), T3 - Native Forest (NM), T4 - Tillage Forest (PF); T5 - conventional tillage system (SPC) and T6 - System tillage (NT). Samples were collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm, dried and ground for analysis in EDX-720. The soil showed no (mais) difference in the average concentrations of chemical elements analyzed in the profiles, but the systems presented different concentrations of metal elements, and T3 had the highest K, Ca and Zn at 0-10 cm and higher contents of K, Ca, Cu, Zn and Mn in the layer of 10-20 cm.
Eletrodeposição de irídio em tubo de grafite como modificador químico permanente em espectrometria de absorção atômica/ Electrodeposition of iridium in graphite tube as permanent chemical modifier in atomic absorption spectrometry
Resumo em inglês A tubular electrochemical flow-cell for iridium deposition on the inner surface of pyrolytic graphite tube for permanent chemical modification is proposed. A transversal heated graphite tube was used as working electrode, a cylindrical piece of graphite inserted into the graphite tube as auxiliary electrode, and a micro Ag/AgCl(sat) as reference electrode. Iridium solution in 1.0 mol L-1 HCl, flowing at 0.55 mL min-1 for 60 min was used to perform the electrochemical modi (mais) fication. The applied potential to the flow-cell was - 0.700 V vs Ag/AgCl. Scanning electron microscopy images were taken for thermal and electrochemical modified graphite surface in order to evaluate the iridium distribution. Selenium hydride trapping was used to verify the performance of the proposed permanent chemical modifier.
Sistema automático para análise direta de ligas metálicas por eletrodissolução anódica e espectrometria de absorção atômica/ On-line anodic electrodissolution system for direct determination of metallic alloys by atomic absorption spectrometry
Resumo em inglês An automatic system for the direct determination of lead and tin by atomic absorption spectrometry is described. The on-line treatment of the metallic samples was obtained by anodic electrodissolution in a flow injection system. Lead was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and tin by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). A computer program managed the current source and the solenoid valves that direct the fluids. Good linear correl (mais) ations between absorbance and current intensity for lead and tin were observed. Results were in agreement with the certified values. Precision was always better than 5%. The recommended procedure allows the direct determination of 60 or 30 elements/h using FAAS or GFAAS, respectively.
Decomposição de argilas em forno de microondas e determinação simultânea dos seus constituintes principais por espectrometria de emissão óptica em plasma indutivamente acoplado/ Analysis of clays by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after closed-vessel microwave-assisted acid decomposition
Resumo em inglês In this work a closed-vessel microwave-assisted acid decomposition procedure for clays was developed. Aluminum, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Si, and Ti were determined in clay digestates by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The most critical parameter for total decomposition of clays was the composition of the reagent mixture. The applied power and the heating time exerted a less critical influence. Best decomposition conditions were attained using a reagent (mais) mixture containing 4 mL aqua regia plus 3 mL HF and the heating program was implemented in 12 min. The accuracy of the results was demonstrated using two standard reference materials and a paired t-test showed a good agreement between determined and certified values at a 95% confidence level.
Emprego da amostragem de suspensão na determinação de Cu e Zn em lapa antártica e Ni em sedimento de rio por espectrometria de absorção atômica com chama/ Use of slurry sampling in the determination of Cu and Zn in antarctic limpets and Ni in river sediment by flame atomic absorption spectrometry
Resumo em inglês In order to demonstrate the feasibility of slurry sampling for environmental studies, different methodologies were developed for Cu and Zn in antarctic limpets and Ni in river sediment with FAAS detection. Studies focusing particle size, acid concentration, slurry stability, selectivity, among others were carried out in order to define the better conditions for slurry analysis. A study related to the depth profile for Ni in the Atibaia River sediment was made after optimi (mais) zation conditions for this element. For accuracy check, certified reference material was used as well as decomposition with microwave oven.
Determinação de As, Cd e Pb em amêndoas e mesocarpo de babaçu, sapucaia, xixá e castanha-do-pará por espectrometria de absorção atômica/ Determination of As, Cd and Pb in babassu nut and mesocarp, sapucaia, xixa and brazilian nut by atomic absorption spectrometry
Resumo em inglês This work describes methods for the simultaneous determination of Cd and Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and As by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry in Brazilian nuts. The samples (~ 0.300 g) were digested to clear solutions in a closed vessel microwave oven. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures for simultaneous determinations of Cd and Pb were 1100 and 2100 °C, respectively, using 0.5% (w v-1) NH4H2PO4 + 0.03% (w v-1) Mg(NO3)2 (mais) as chemical modifier. The limits of detection (3Δ) were 3.8 μg kg-1 for As, 0.86 μg kg-1 for Cd and 13 μg kg-1 for Pb. The reliability of the entire procedures was confirmed by peach leaves (No. 1547 - NIST) certified reference material analysis and addition and recovery tests. The found concentrations presented no statistical differences at the 95% confidence level.
Determinação direta de Ca, Mg, Mn e Zn em amostras de leite de búfala da Ilha de Marajó por espectrometria de absorção atômica com chama (FAAS)/ Direct determination of Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn in buffalo milk of the Marajó Island by FAAS
Resumo em inglês This work proposes an analytical procedure for direct determination of calcium, magnesium, manganese and zinc in buffalo milk by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Samples were diluted with a solution containing 10% (v/v) of water-soluble tertiary amines (CFA-C) at pH 8. For comparison, buffalo milk samples were digested with HNO3 and H2O2. According to a paired t-test, the results obtained in the determination of Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn in digested samples and in 10% (mais) (v/v) CFA-C medium were in agreement at a 95% confidence level. The developed procedure is simple, rapid, decrease the possibility of contamination and can be applied for the routine determination of Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn in buffalo milk samples without any difficulty caused by matrix constituents, such as fat content, and particle size distribution in the milk emulsion.
Resumo em inglês An analytical method for the isolation based on matrix solid-phase dispersion technique and gas chromatographic determination of pesticides in cattle plasma is presented. It was fortified 0.25 g of plasma with pesticides and blended with 1 g each C18 and Na2SO4. The homogenized matter was transferred to a SPE cartridge, which contained 1 g of activated florisil with 5 mL acetonitrile. The analites were eluted under vaccum with 15 mL acetonitrile, the extract was analyzed (mais) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.04 mg L-1 for chlorphenvinfos and fipronil and 0.02 mg L-1 for cypermethrin..
Caracterização de contaminantes presentes em sistemas de tratamento de esgotos, por cromatografia líquida acoplada à espectrometria de massas tandem em alta resolução/ Characterization of contaminants present in sewage treatment plants, by liquid chromatography high resolution tandem mass spectrometry
Resumo em inglês This work shows results on the characterization, by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-IT-TOF-MS) with electrospray ionization, of organic compounds present in raw and treated effluents from a combined sewage treatment systems (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-trickling filter). The sewage samples were prepared by C18 solid phase extraction and the spectra obtained from the various extracts were submitted to principal component an (mais) alysis to evaluate their pattern and identify the major deprotonated species. Some target compounds were submitted to semiquantitative analysis, using phenolphtalein as internal standard. The results showed the anaerobic step had little impact on the removal of anionic surfactants (LAS), fatty acids, and some contaminantes such as bisphenol A and bezafibrate, whereas the aerobic post-treatment was very efficient in removing these organics.
Aplicação da química quântica computacional no estudo de processos químicos envolvidos em espectrometria de massas/ Application of computational quantum chemistry to chemical processes involved in mass spectrometry
Resumo em inglês The field of application of mass spectrometry (MS) has increased considerably due to the development of ionization techniques. Other factors that have stimulated the use of MS are the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and sequential mass spectrometry (MSn) techniques. However, the interpretation of the MS/MS and MSn data may lead to speculative conclusions. Thus, various quantum chemical methods have been applied for obtaining high quality thermochemical data in gas phase. (mais) In this review, we show some applications of computational quantum chemistry to understand the formation and fragmentation of gaseous ions of organic compounds in a MS analysis.
Desenvolvimento e validação de metodologia de análise de misturas biodiesel: diesel utilizando cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas/ Development and validation of a methodology FOR analysis of biodiesel: diesel blends using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Resumo em inglês The aim of this work was to develop and validate a method of analysis of biodiesel:diesel blends using HRGC-MS in SIM mode. The proposed method is applicable to biodiesel from linoleic oils, such as soybean oil. The following results were obtained: linearity over the methyl linoleate concentration range of 250-2500 mg L-1 (R² > 0.999); limits of detection and quantification of 2 and 5 mg L-1, respectively; recovery from 82 to 96% of biodiesel in diesel and repeatability
Determinação da relação siringila/guaiacila da lignina em madeiras de eucalipto por pirólise acoplada à cromatografia gasosa e espectrometria de massas (PI CG/EM)/ Determination of the siringyl/guaiacyl ratio in eucalyptus wood by pyrolysis-gas chroma-tography/mass spectrometry (PY-GC/MS)
Resumo em inglês The use of analytical pyrolysis combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) to determine the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio (S/G) in lignins from Eucalyptus spp woods was investigated. Sample of E. grandis and "E. urograndis" wood, with and without extractives, were subjected to pyrolysis from 300 ºC to 600 ºC. The products that results from pyrolysis were identified by mass spectrometry and the S/G ratio was determined based on the areas of the peaks corresp (mais) onding to the guaiacyl and syringyl derivatives. The best S/G estimation is achieved when pyrolysis is carried out at 550 ºC. Extractives and carbohydrate present in the woods do not interfere with the results.
Identificação dos principais componentes do fungicida guazatine através da cromatografia a gás e cromatografia a gás acoplada com espectrometria de massas/ Identification of the main components of guazatine fungicide by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Resumo em inglês Hexafluoroacetylaceton derivatives of some synthesized components of the guazatine fungicide were prepared, and their separation and identification performed through gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chromatogram obtained from hexafluoroacetylacetone derivative of the commercial guazatine presented 14 major peaks, and 9 of them were identified through both techniques mentioned above.
QuEChERS: um método moderno de preparo de amostra para determinação multirresíduo de pesticidas em alimentos por métodos cromatográficos acoplados à espectrometria de massas/ QuEChERS: a modern sample preparation method for pesticide multiresidue determination in food by chromatographic methods coupled to mass spectrometry
Resumo em inglês This review attempts to provide an updated overview of the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Ruged and Safe (QuEChERS) multiresidue extraction method, that involves initial extraction in acetonitrile, an extraction/partition step after the addition of salt, and a cleanup step utilizing dispersive solid phase extraction. QuEChERS method is nowadays the most applied extraction method for the determination of pesticide residues in food samples, providing acceptable recoveries f (mais) or acidic, neutral and basic pesticides. Several applications for various food matrices (fruits, vegetables, cereals and others) in combination with chromatographic mass spectrometry analysis were presented.
Estudo comparativo de métodos de preparo de amostras de tinta para a determinação de metais e metalóides por técnicas de espectrometria atômica/ Paint samples preparation methods for metals and methaloids determination by atomic spectrometry techniques
Resumo em inglês This work deals with paint decomposition methods for major, minor and trace elements determination. Three methods were investigated: (1) decomposition in closed quartz vessel and heating in microwave oven; (2) decomposition in open vessel using HNO3 and ashing, following the ASTM D 3335-85a method; and (3) decomposition in open vessel using HNO3 + HF and ashing. Paints of different types and colours were analyzed, in which several elements were determined using inductivel (mais) y coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). It was observed that method (1) is appropriate for trace, minor and major elements determination, while method (3) is appropriate for Ti.
Aplicação de métodos quimiométricos na caracterização de charutos utilizando extração por dispersão da matriz em fase sólida e análise por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas/ Aplication of chemometrics methods in characterization of cigar using matrix solid phase dispersion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Resumo em inglês In this work, the organic compounds of cigar samples from different brands were analyzed. The compound extraction was made using the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) technique, followed by gas chromatography and identification by mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and standards, when available. Thirty eight organic compounds were found in seven different brands. Finally, with the objective of characterizing and discriminating the cigar samples, multivariate statistical analyse (mais) s were applied to data, e.g.; principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). With such analyses, it was possible to discriminate three main groups of three quality levels.
O estudo da contaminação de moluscos bivalves com toxinas do tipo diarreico (DSP) foi realizado em amostras de diversas espécies da costa portuguesa, recorrendo à cromatografia líquida com detecção por espectrometria de massas (LC-MS). Os resultados revelaram que o ácido ocadáico (AO) e a dinofisist...
Sistema TS-FF-AAS com chama acetileno-ar como alternativa em relação à chama acetileno-óxido nitroso em FAAS na determinação de estanho/ TS-FF-AAS system with air-acetylene flame as alternative in relation to nitrous oxide-acetylene by FAAS for tin determination
Resumo em português Este trabalho propõe o desenvolvimento de um procedimento analítico para a determinação em linha de estanho em soluções analíticas empregando a técnica de espectrometria de absorção atômica com nebulização térmica em tubo metálico aquecido na chama (TS-FF-AAS) como alternativa ao uso da chama de óxido nitroso-acetileno em espectrometria de absorção atômica, cujo comburente apresenta um custo elevado frente ao ar comprimido. Foram avaliados parâmetros p (mais) ara a otimização do sistema, tais como: vazão do carregador (ar), volume de amostra injetada e concentração do ácido (HCl). Foi construída curva analítica linear [A= -0,00163 + 0,00319 [Sn], (r= 0,9998)] no intervalo de 10 a 80 mg Sn L-1. O limite de detecção, o desvio padrão relativo (n=12) e a freqüência analítica foram: 1,7 mg L-1 Sn, £ 2,7% and 120 h-1 respectivamente. O sistema TS-FF-AAS é uma alternativa para a determinação de Sn. Resumo em inglês This work propose the development of analytical procedure for on line tin determination in analytical solutions by thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS) as alternative to nitrous oxide-acetylene flame by atomic absorption spectrometry, whose oxidant presents high costs with respect to air. Parameters were evaluated for the optimization of the system: flow of the carrier (air), volume of injected sample and concentration of the acid (HCl). Th (mais) e linear analytical curve [A= -0,00163 +0,00319 Sn], (r = 0,9998) ] was constructed on interval of 10 the 80 mg L-1 Sn. The detection limit, the relative standard deviations (n=12) and analytical frequency were: 1,7 mg L-1 Sn, £ 2,7% and 120 h-1, respectively. The TS-FF-AAS is an alternative for the determination of Sn.
químicos das folhas de Qualea grandiflora: atribuição dos dados de RMN de dois flavonóides glicosilados acilados diastereoisoméricos/ Chemical constituents from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora: attribution of the NMR data of two diastereoisomeric acylated flavonoid glycosids
Resumo em inglês Phytochemical investigation from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora (Vochysiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(4"-E-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(4"-Z-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside, squalene, phytol, lupeol, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, sitosterol, sitostenone, sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, ursolic and oleanolic acids. The structures of the compounds were identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass and UV spectrometry and comparison with literature data.
Utilização do índice de retenção linear para caracterização de compostos voláteis em café solúvel utilizando GC-MS e coluna HP-Innowax/ Linear retention index for characterization of volatile compounds in soluble coffee using GC-MS and HP-Innowax column
Resumo em inglês Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is widely used for the characterization of volatile compounds. However, due to the complexity of the soluble coffee matrix, a complete identification of the components should not be based on mass spectra interpretation only. The linear index of retention (LRI) is frequently used to give support to mass spectra. The aim of this work is to investigate the characterization of the volatile compounds in soluble coffee s (mais) amples by GC-MS using LRI values found with a HP-INNOWAX column. The method used allows a significant increase of the reliability of identifying compounds.
Síntese, caracterização e estudo das propriedades catalíticas e magnéticas de nanopartículas de Ni dispersas em matriz mesoporosa de SiO2/ Synthesis, characterization and study of magnetic and catalytic properties of dispersed Ni nanoparticles on mesoporous SiO2 matrix
Resumo em inglês Nickel nanoparticles supported on amorphous silica ceramic matrix were synthesized by the polymeric precursor method. The nanostructure was characterized by NMR, BET, XRD, SEM, TEM, and flame atomic absorption spectrometry techniques. It was observed a dependence of the crystallite size on the thermal annealing, under a N2 atmosphere. The materials presented a high catalytic activity and selectivity upon the beta-pinene hydrogenation reaction. The magnetic hystereses were also correlated with the morphology of the processed material.
Resumo em inglês We have produced nanocomposite films of Ni:SiO2 by an alternative polymeric precursor route. Films, with thickness of ~ 1000 nm, were characterized by several techniques including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, flame absorption atomic spectrometry, and dc magnetization. Results from the microstructural characterizations indicated that metallic Ni-nanoparticles with average diameter of ~ 3 nm are homogeneously distributed in an am (mais) orphous SiO2 matrix. Magnetization measurements revealed a blocking temperature T B ~ 7 K for the most diluted sample and the absence of an exchange bias suggesting that Ni nanoparticles are free from an oxide layer.
Resumo em inglês The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was ob (mais) tained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds.
Resina de Protium heptaphyllum: isolamento, caracterização estrutural e avaliação das propriedades térmicas/ The Protium heptaphyllum resin: isolation, structural characterization and evaluation of thermal properties
Resumo em inglês Three mixtures of triterpenes (maniladiol and breine; alpha and beta-amyrin; lupenone, alpha and beta-amyrinone) were isolated from Protium heptaphyllum March resin. The structural identification was based on NMR and mass spectrometry data. Lupenone, and alpha and beta-amyrinone were not reported before as constituents of this resin. The resin was submitted to methylation and acetylation reactions. The pure and derivatized resins and the mixtures (maniladiol and breine; a (mais) lpha and beta-amyrin) were analyzed by TG and DSC. The TG curves revealed that the derivatization decreases the thermal stability of the resin. The DSC curves showed peaks that can be assigned to evaporation and phase transitions processes.
Resumo em inglês Isotopic and elemental analysis of N, C and S in liquid and solid samples has been simplified with the advent of automated systems. The simplest method of automation for this kind of analysis involves an elemental analyzer interfaced directly to the ion source of an IRMS (Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry). In the analyzer reduction system, an expressive amount of oxidized copper is generated as solid residue. This material is normally imported and the price is very high. A (mais) methodology was proposed for the recovery of metallic copper in order to recycle this reagent in the reduction system of a GC-IRMS, using the hydrogen gas in the vacuum line. Results show that it is possible to obtain a recycle of about 95 % of the initial metallic copper used in the reduction system.
Purificação e caracterização de uma gentioexaose obtida de botriosferana por hidrólise ácida parcial/ Purification and characterization of a gentiohexaose obtained from botryosphaeran by partial acid hydrolysis
Resumo em inglês A hexa-oligosaccharide was obtained by partial acid hydrolysis from botryosphaeran, an exopolysaccharide (EPS) β(1→3; 1→6)-D-glucan type, produced by the ascomyceteous fungus Botryosphaeria rhodina. The oligosaccharide was purified by gel filtration and charcoal-Celite column chromatography and the analysis was followed by HPAEC/PAD. The structure was determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, which showed that the oligosaccharide consists of six β-D-glucopiranosyl units O-6 substituted (gentiohexaose).
Resumo em inglês Intralaboratorial and interlaboratorial variabilities can be obtained by conducting an specially designed interlaboratory program. Using the analysis of variance technique one can calculate the r (repeatability) and R (reproducibility) indexes that can help participant laboratories to monitor their routine quality control procedures. An example is described using data obtained from an interlaboratory program where twelve laboratories determined total iron content in silicon metal sample by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry.
Oxidação de proteínas por oxigênio singlete: mecanismos de dano, estratégias para detecção e implicações biológicas/ Singlet oxygen-mediated protein oxidation: damage mechanisms, detection techniques and biological implication
Resumo em inglês Proteins are potential targets for singlet molecular oxygen (¹O2) oxidation. Damages occur only at tryptophan, tyrosine, histidine, methionine, and cysteine residues at physiological pH, generating oxidized compounds such as hydroperoxides. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which ¹O2, hydroperoxides and other oxidized products can trigger further damage. The improvement and development of new tools, such as clean sources of ¹O2 and isotopic lab (mais) eling approaches in association with HPLC/mass spectrometry detection will allow one to elucidate mechanistic features involving ¹O2-mediated protein oxidation.
Resumo em inglês This paper describes the analytical methods for determination of total chlorogenic acid (CGA) and their individual isomers. Spectrofotometric methods are adequate for total CGA analysis in green coffee but they can provide inflated results for coffee products. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with gel permeation column and ultraviolet (UV) monitoring is adequate for the simultaneous analysis of total CGA, alkaloids and sugars in coffee products. HPLC-UV-reversed (mais) phase is a simple, rapid and precise method for the determination of the individual isomers of CGA. Gas chromatography (GC) also is applied to the analysis of the individual isomers but phenolic acids need to be derivatized before analysis. Both HPLC- and GC-mass spectrometry provide an unequivocal identification of the individual isomers. The capillary electrophoresis method is simple, rapid and adequate to the simultaneous analysis of polyphenols and xanthines. Advantages and limitations of each method are discussed throughout the text.
Resumo em inglês This paper is focused on a review of the design features and the electrochemistry characterization of anode-supported planar SOFC. Studies and results of metallic alloy interconnectors and recovery for protection against corrosion and for contact layer are showed. Moreover a discussion of examples of measurements of impedance spectrometry, according to the literature and our experimental results are made. For the anode supported fuel cells the power density varies from 0. (mais) 1 to 0.5 Wcm², according to results in the literature (showed in this paper). For electrolyte supported fuel cell the power density can be 10 Wcm-2 for high temperatures. An English-Portuguese glossary of most used terms in SOFC stack is given for greater clarity and to introduce new terms to the reader.
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLO) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by craniofacial dysmorphism, mental retardation, multiple congenital anomalies, and increased levels of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) in body tissues and fluids. SLO is caused by mutations in the DHCR7 gene which encode...
Resumo em inglês Fumonisins are mycotoxins occurring worldwide, mainly in maize and maize-based food products, which could affect animal and human health. This paper reviews analytical methodologies for the determination of these fungal toxins in foods. It includes extraction, cleanup, derivatization procedures, detection, quantification, and confirmation procedures. Initial attempts at gas chromatographic methods and thin layer chromatography were supplanted by liquid chromatographic met (mais) hods, mainly performed with fluorometric detection, or mass spectrometry detection, enabling the analysis of polar and thermolabile chemicals without chemical derivatization, which results in lower limits of detection. Alternative methods, such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay or zone capillary zone electrophoresis, are also described.
Resumo em inglês Materials based on pure iron oxide and impregnated with niobia (Nb2O5) were prepared. Their catalytic activities were tested on the oxidation of compounds present in the wastewater from the processing of coffee berries. Particularly caffeine and catechol were tested. The oxidation reactions were carried out with the following systems (i) UV/H2O2, (ii) photo-Fenton and (iii) heterogeneous Fenton. All materials were characterized with X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer and infra (mais) red spectroscopy. Iron was mainly in the forms of goethite and maghemite. The oxidation kinetics were monitored by UV-vis and the oxidation products were monitored by mass spectrometry. The photo-Fenton reaction presented highest oxidation efficiency, removing 98% of all caffeine and catechol contents.
Irradiação de polímeros com feixe de elétrons: caracterização de íons positivos através da técnica de tempo-de-vôo/ Irradiation of polymers using electron beams: characterization of positive ions through the time-of-flight technique
Resumo em inglês With the aim of studying the interaction of fast electrons with solid surfaces we have developed an experimental set-up based on electron stimulated desorption (ESD) coupled to time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. Poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(vynil chloride) samples have been irradiated by a pulsed electron beam of 1.2 keV and 0.18 µs FWHM. The results show that H+ is the main ionic species to desorb after electron bombardment. In addition, other ionic fragments (mais) were also observed and assigned. These results show the potentiality of this technique in the study of ESD of polymers.
Intervalos de referência para elementos menores e traço em cabelo humano para a população da cidade do Rio de Janeiro - Brasil/ Reference intervals for minor and trace elements in human hair for the population of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil
Resumo em inglês Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been used for the determination of twenty minor and trace elements in hair samples from an urban population group (N = 1775), aiming at the establishment of reliable hair reference intervals. Statistical evaluation of the data with respect to age, sex and anatomic region was performed by multivariant analysis and according to recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC). The results (mais) show that mainly age and anatomic region (scalp or pubis) influence significantly the concentration of several elements. Comparison of the here calculated reference intervals with those previously published and used by clinical laboratories for this population showed larger discrepancies and the need for an urgent revision of these data.
Resumo em inglês Residual CuSO4 was incorporated into the mass utilized for cement preparation. To a cement mass with 1:0.5:5 of cement, lime and sand to 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00% of residual CuSO4 were added. The sulfate was mixed separately with lime and water to induce metal precipitation. The hardened test bodies were submerged in Milli-Q water for three months. No Cu was detected in the water by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The best proportion for mechanical resistance and porosity is 0.50%. The cement is adequate for non-structural objects.
Resumo em inglês In this study, the preparation of the xerogel anilinepropylsilica is reported. The ability of the xerogel for extracting Al(III), Cr(III) and Fe(III) from ethanol was investigated at 25 ºC. The xerogel adsorption capacities were obtained from the adsorption isotherms by using the batch method. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to estimate the concentration of metal ions in solution. The adsorption affinity follows the series Cr(III) > Fe(III) > Al(III) and the maximum adsorption capacities of the metal ions were 0.61, 0.52 and 0.43 mmol g-1, respectively.
Resumo em inglês The phytochemical investigation of a sample of propolis from Passa Quatro-Minas Gerais State, Brazil, where nine constituents were isolated: a mixture of α- and β-amyrin, lupeol, a mixture of flavonols ramnocitrin and eupalitin, acacetin, 3-prenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid the new compound, the (E)-3-[4-(3-phenylpropanoiloxy)]-3,5-diprenil-cinnamic acid. The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized by 1D- and 2D-N (mais) MR experiments, MS and IR spectrometry, and comparison with data described in the literature.
Resumo em inglês The concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, Al, Mn and Fe were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry, of 19 topsoil samples collected in the Teresina city urban area to discriminate natural and anthropic contributions and identify possible sources of pollution. The average concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cr of the urban soils were 6.11, 8.56, 32.12 and 7,17 mg/kg-1, respectively. Statistical analysis techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchi (mais) cal cluster analysis (HCA), were used to analyze the data. Mn, Ni and Cr levels were interpreted as natural contributions, whereas Pb, Zn and, in part, Cu were accounted for mainly by anthropic activities. High Pb levels were observed in the ancient avenues.
Resumo em inglês In the present work, the crude ethanol extract from wood of G. macrophylla was submitted to liquid/liquid partition between hexane, CH2Cl2, EtOAc and n-BuOH. Each phase was individually chromatographed over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 or Amberlite XAD-2 to give eight terpene derivatives, such as five sesquiterpenoids (caryophyllene oxide, guai-6-en-10β-ol, spathulenol, aromadendrane-4β,10α-diol and aloaromadendrane-4α,10β-diol) as well as three tri (mais) terpenoids (cicloart-24-ene-3β,23(R*)-diol, cicloart-24-ene-3β,23(S*)-diol, and cicloart-23E-ene-3β,25-diol). Additionally, were isolated three fatty acids (linolenic, linoleic and stearic), two steroids (sitosterol and stigmasterol) and sacarose. The structures of all these compounds were characterized by spectrometric analysis, mainly mass spectrometry and NMR and comparison of these data described in the literature.
Resumo em inglês A method for determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in cement and cement-related materials was studied. Molecular absorption spectrophotometry based on 1,5-diphenylcarbazide as chromogenic reagent was used for determination of Cr(VI) after alkaline extraction. The total chromium concentration was determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) after complete sample decomposition by fusion. The quantification of Cr(III) was accomplished by subtracting the Cr(VI) (mais) concentration from the total chromium concentration. The concentration of Cr(III) in the samples ranged from 10.9 to 88.0 mg kg-1, whereas only in few samples the Cr(VI) concentration was higher than the value established by the European Community to this type of sample [2 mg kg-1 Cr(VI)].
Resumo em inglês Heavy-metal concentration in sediment is an important parameter for identifying pollution sources and assessing pollution levels in aquatic ecosystems. In this context, the present study aimed at determining concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from the Vitória estuarine system, Brazil. Twenty nine stations were surveyed to assess the spatial distribution of heavy metals. The metals for silt-clay fractions ((mais) etry. A discriminant analysis segregated the stations in four groups representing four areas within the estuarine system. The Espírito Santo Bay showed the lowest metal concentrations, while the Vitória harbor canal showed the highest. We concluded that concentrations of heavy metals reflect natural conditions and the contribution of human activities from sewage and industrial effluents. It was not possible to directly associate metal concentrations to specific pollution sources.
Resumo em inglês One hundred fifteen cachaça samples derived from distillation in copper stills (73) or in stainless steels (42) were analyzed for thirty five itens by chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The analytical data were treated through Factor Analysis (FA), Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA). The FA explained 66.0% of the database variance. PLS-DA showed that it is possible to dis (mais) tinguish between the two groups of cachaças with 52.8% of the database variance. QDA was used to build up a classification model using acetaldehyde, ethyl carbamate, isobutyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, acetic acid and formaldehyde as chemical descriptors. The model presented 91.7% of accuracy on predicting the apparatus in which unknown samples were distilled.
Digestão de óleo lubrificante encapsulado em forno de microondas com radiação focalizada por adição de amostra ao reagente pré-aquecido/ Focused-microwave-assisted digestion of encapsulated lubricating oils: gradual sample addition to pre-heated acid
Resumo em inglês The applicability of the recently proposed procedure based on gradual sample addition to microwave-assisted pre-heated concentrated acid is limited by the sample viscosity. In this work, lubricating oil samples with high viscosity were encapsulated and manually added to the microwave-assisted pre-heated concentrated digestion mixture. The procedure was applied for determination of Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Ni, P, Pb, Si, Sn, Sr, V, W, and Zn in lubricating oil by inductivel (mais) y coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Determined and certified values for Ca, Mg, P, and Zn in lubricating oil were in agreement at a 95% confidence level.
Determinação seletiva de tributilestanho na presença de Sn(IV) em amostras ambientais usando HG-ICP OES e Saccharomyces cerevisiae como material sorvente/ Selective determination of tributyltin in the presence of Sn(IV) in environmental samples using HG-ICP OES and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as sorbing material
Resumo em inglês A method for selective determination of tributyltin in the presence of Sn(IV) by combining hydride generation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (HG-ICP OES) and solid phase extraction (SPE) using baker's yeast is proposed. The procedure is based on selective retention of TBT by the yeast at pH = 6. Detection limit of 1.9 µg L-1 and quantification limit of 6.3 µg L-1 were obtained. TBT and San(IV) were determined in the range of 0-25 µg L-1 and th (mais) e proposed approach was applied to analyze river water, sea water and biological extracts, with recoveries of 114, 101 and 86%, respectively.
Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis)/ Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) beverages
Resumo em inglês Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as (mais) green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.
Resumo em inglês In terms of soil fertility, zinc is a micronutrient that is very important in the culture of soy, maize, rice and coffee, because it is a structural and functional component of a great number of enzymes. Therefore, diverse methods have been used to determine zinc in soil. In this work we use colorimetry as a methods of zinc determination in soil using two methodologies of sample digesting, H2SO4/H2O2 and HNO3/H2O2. In order to compare the results, atomic absorption spectr (mais) ometry (AAS) was used. Results show that colorimetric methods can be used due to good sensitivity and reproducibility, since the zinc calibration curve showed good linearity. Comparing colorimetric methods with AAS we observed that the results were equivalent, as proven by the statistical values of the F and t of Student tests. Furthermore, both methods of soil digesting can be used, leading to a flexible methodology of low-cost for routine zinc analyses in soil.
Resumo em inglês This paper focuses: (i) the development of a measurement technique for the determination of atmospheric C2-C6 hydrocarbons with sampling in canisters and analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionisation detector (GC/FID), (ii) the improvement of an existent adsorption-sampling technique with Tenax TA tubes for the determination of C6-C11 hydrocarbons and analysis by GC/FID after thermal desorption and cryogenic concentration, (iii) the identification of compounds present i (mais) n ambient air by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for both canister and Tenax samples, (iv) a program of interlaboratorial comparison for quality control of C2-C11 analyses, and (v) the seasonal characterisation of ambient air C2-C11 hydrocarbons.
Determinação de contaminantes em óleos lubrificantes usados e em esgotos contaminados por esses lubrificantes/ Determination of contaminants in used lubricating oils and in wastewater contamined by these lubricants
Resumo em inglês A simple and reliable ashing procedure is proposed for the preparation of used lubricating oil samples for the determination of Zn, Fe, Pb, Ni and Cu by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry technique. Sulphanilic acid was added to oil samples, the mixture coked and the coke ashed at 550 ºC. The solutions of the ash were analysed by flame AAS for these metals. The quantification limits were 38.250 µg g-1 for Zn, 4.550 µg g-1 for Fe, 1.562 µg g-1 for Pb, 1.450 µg g (mais) -1 for Ni, and 0.439 µg g-1 for Cu. The determinations, in lubricating oil, showed good precision and accuracy with recoveries between 90 and 110 %, indicating a negligible matrix effect in the experiments using addition of analyte, with relative standard deviation lower than 5%. The results for analysis of wastewater contamined by theses lubricants showed a very high relative standard deviation.
Determinação de constituintes químicos em madeira de eucalipto por Pi-CG/EM e calibração multivariada: comparação entre redes neurais artificiais e máquinas de vetor suporte/ Determination of chemical constituents in eucalyptus wood by Py-GC/MS and multivariate calibration: comparison between artificial neural network and support vector machines
Resumo em inglês Multivariate models were developed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Least Square - Support Vector Machines (LS-SVM) for estimating lignin siringyl/guaiacyl ratio and the contents of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin in eucalyptus wood by pyrolysis associated to gaseous chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The results obtained by two calibration methods were in agreement with those of reference methods. However a comparison indicated that the LS-SVM (mais) model presented better predictive capacity for the cellulose and lignin contents, while the ANN model presented was more adequate for estimating the hemicelluloses content and lignin siringyl/guaiacyl ratio.
Determinação de baixas concentrações de cobre em águas naturais por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica em chama usando um sistema SIA com uma coluna de poli(etilenimina)/ Determination of low levels of copper in natural waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using a SIA system with a poly(ethylenimine) column
Resumo em inglês This paper describes a sequential injection analysis (SIA) set-up coupled to a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) to accomplish the determination of low concentrations of copper in drinking waters. Copper is first retained under neutral media in an on-line 29x1.6 mm column filled with poly(ethylenimine) immobilised on silica gel. The retained analyte is then eluted by flowing through the column 250 mL of a nitric acid solution. The select (mais) ion of 3.85 ml of sample enabled to obtain a detection limit of 0.27 mug/L and a sampling rate of about 24 samples/h. There was a good agrement between the results of 12 samples furnished by the proposed procedure and by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Repeatability assessment gave a relative standard deviation of 1.3 % after ten replicate analysis of a sample containing about 70 mug/L in copper..
Resumo em inglês This work proposes a simple, fast and inexpensive method to determine As in natural waters, using X-ray fluorescence. 50 µL of each sample containing 100 mg L-1 of yttrium as internal standard were deposited over a 2.5 µm thickness MylarTM film. The samples were dried at 50 °C for 2 h. X-ray spectra were obtained using an EDXRF apparatus. The accuracy was determined by analyte addition/recovery and by comparison with Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (mais) (HG AAS). A recovery of about 100% was obtained and the results were in good agreement with HG AAS. The method showed a relative standard deviation of 6.8% and a detection limit of 10.5 µg L-1 of As.
Determinação de Fe, Zn, Cu e Mn extraídos do solo por diferentes extratores e dosados por espectrofotometria de emissão ótica em plasma induzido e espectrofotometria de absorção atômica/ Determination of soil-extracted Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn by different extractors by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry
Resumo em português Para aumentar a precisão nas análises químicas de fertilidade do solo e dosar simultaneamente vários elementos, alguns laboratórios vêm optando pelo uso da técnica da espectrofotometria de emissão ótica em plasma induzido (ICP), em detrimento da técnica da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica (EAA), hoje comumente utilizada nos laboratórios de análise de solos. Este trabalho, além de comparar as duas técnicas de dosagem quanto à precisão, à reproduti (mais) bilidade e à magnitude dos teores dos micronutrientes Fe, Zn, Cu e Mn, extraídos por Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3 e DTPA-TEA, objetivou, também, selecionar os comprimentos de onda que apresentam menores interferências espectrais no ICP. Foram utilizadas 36 amostras (0 a 0,2 m) de solos coletadas nos Estados de Minas Gerais e Bahia, com ampla variação nos teores de micronutrientes, sendo selecionados três solos para definir os comprimentos de onda do ICP e avaliar a precisão e a reprodutibilidade dos métodos de dosagem. Os comprimentos de onda com menores interferências espectrais no ICP foram: 259,939 nm para Fe em Mehlich-1 e DTPA-TEA e 234,349 nm em Mehlich-3; 213,857 nm para Zn e 324,752 nm para Cu nos três extratores; e 259,372 nm para Mn em Mehlich-1 e DTPA-TEA e 260,568 nm em Mehlich-3. Tanto o ICP quanto o EAA foram precisos e reprodutíveis nas dosagens de Fe e Mn, sendo o ICP, em virtude do seu menor limite de detecção, mais preciso e reprodutível nas dosagens de Zn e Cu. Os métodos de dosagem diferiram estatisticamente (p Resumo em inglês In an attempt to enhance the precision of chemical analyses of soil fertility and quantify different elements simultaneously, some laboratories have opted to use the technique of inductively coupled plasma for optical emission spectrometry (ICP) instead of the technique of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), which currently is the most commonly used in soil analysis laboratories. In this study we compared the precision of the two dosage techniques, their repeatability a (mais) nd the magnitude of the concentrations of the micronutrients Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn, extracted through Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3 and DTPA-TEA; Additionaly, we aimed to select the wavelengths of lowest spectral interferences with the ICP. Thirty-six soil samples (0 to 0.2 m) from the states of Minas Gerais and Bahia, Brazil, with varied micronutrient concentrations were used. To define the ICP wavelengths and to evaluate the precision and repeatability of the dosage methods, three of the 36 collected soils were selected. The wavelengths with the lowest spectral interferences in the ICP were: 259.939 nm for Fe in Mehlich-1 and DTPA-TEA and 234.349 nm in Mehlich-3; 213.857 nm for Zn and 324.752 nm for Cu in the three extractors; and 259.372 nm for Mn in Mehlich-1 and DTPA-TEA and 260.568 nm in Mehlich-3. Both ICP and AAS were precise and reproducible for Fe and Mn dosage, while ICP, owing to the lower detection limit, was more precise and reproducible in the Zn and Cu dosages. The dosage methods differed statistically (p
Determinação da matéria-prima utilizada na produção do biodiesel adicionado ao diesel mineral através de monitoramento seletivo de íons/ Determination of biodiesel raw materials in mineral diesel fuel using selective ion monitoring
Resumo em inglês The selective ion monitoring acquisition mode in mass spectrometry was applied to identify, in the diesel complex matrix, the raw materials (vegetable oil and alcohol) that originate biodiesel. Biodiesel samples obtained from babassu, castor, palm and soybean vegetable oils and pure fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters were used to develop this method, using specific fragments in mass spectrometry and the "window system" in gas chromatography. The commercial Brazilian B2 samples were found to be produced with soybean oil, transesterified with methanol.
Determinação da composição isotópica de estrôncio em águas naturais: exemplos de sua aplicação em águas subsuperficiais da zona costeira na região Bragantina-PA/ Determination of strontium isotopic composition in natural waters: examples of application in subsurface waters of the coastal zone of Bragantina region, Pará
Resumo em inglês Analytical procedures used for determining the concentrations and isotope composition of strontium in subsurface waters, by mass spectrometry, are described. Sampling was performed in coastal plateaus, salt marsh and mangrove environments in the coastal region of Pará. Coastal plateau waters have delta87Sr between 1.51 and 6.26 and Sr concentration bellow 58 ppb. Salt marsh waters show delta87Sr between 0.55 and 0.90 and Sr concentration between 93 and 114 ppm, while (mais) mangrove waters have delta87Sr around zero and Sr concentration above 15 ppm. Differences in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in these subsurface waters are detected, as well as seasonal variations in the coastal pleteau waters.
Resumo em inglês The aim of this present work was to provide a more fast, simple and less expensive to analyze sulfur content in diesel samples than by the standard methods currently used. Thus, samples of diesel fuel with sulfur concentrations varying from 400 and 2500 mgkg-1 were analyzed by two methodologies: X-ray fluorescence, according to ASTM D4294 and by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The spectral data obtained from FTIR were used to build multivariate calibration (mais) models by partial least squares (PLS). Four models were built in three different ways: 1) a model using the full spectra (665 to 4000 cm-1), 2) two models using some specific spectrum regions and 3) a model with variable selected by classic method of variable selection stepwise. The model obtained by variable selection stepwise and the model built with region spectra between 665 and 856 cm-1 and 1145 and 2717 cm-1 showed better results in the determination of sulfur content.
Dessorção iônica e degradação de filmes de polipirrol dopado com dodecilsulfato induzidas por elétrons de alta energia/ Ionic desorption and degradation of polypyrrole films doped with dodecylsulfate induced by high energy electrons
Resumo em inglês Electron stimulated ion desorption (ESID) and degradation studies of polypyrrole doped with dodecylsulfate (PPy/DS) deposited on FTO were performed using time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) for ion analysis. The results suggest a strong contribution from fragments of the dodecylsulfate hydrocarbon chain to the mass spectra. In the 650-1500 eV energy range the ion yield curves show maxima at about 600, 1200 and 1400 eV, which can be related to carbon, nitrogen and ox (mais) ygen-containing fragments, respectively, and interpreted in terms of the Auger Stimulated Ion Desorption (ASID) mechanism. Degradation studies indicate rapid loss of heavier hydrocarbons and an increase of bulk and substrate fragments. Some degradation profiles suggest formation of new species.
Resumo em inglês The main objective of this work is to develop an efficient procedure to determine glyphosate in soybean grains. The cleanup of the aqueous extracts was done in two steps, beginning with liquid-liquid partitioning and then solid-phase extraction with anion exchange resin. After derivatization with a mixture of trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) and trifluoroethanol (TFE), quantification was done by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The mean recovery and RSD of (mais) the spiked samples were, respectively, 80.5% and 3.1% at level 0.200 mg kg-1, 93.3% and 18.7% at level 0.500 mg kg-1 and 92% and 3.5% at level 1.000 mg kg-1. The method was linear in the working range (correlation coefficient = 0.9965).
Resumo em inglês The development of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LC-MS) techniques in the last few decades has made possible the analysis of trace amounts of analytes from complex matrices. With LC, the analytes of interest can be separated from each other as well as from the interfering matrix, after which they can be reliably identified thanks to the sensitivity and specificity of MS. LC-MS has become an irreplaceable tool for many applications, ranging from the analysis of (mais) proteins or pharmaceuticals in biological fluids to the analysis of toxic substances in environmental samples. In different segments of Brazilian Industry mass spectrometry has an important role, e.g. in the pharmaceutical industry in the development of generic formulations, contributing to the growth of Industry and social inclusion. However, the Brazilian chemists until this moment don't have an effective role in this new segment of the analytical chemistry in Brazil. The present paper shows the actual scenario for mass spectrometry in the pharmaceutical industry, emphasizing the need of a revision of graduation courses to attend the needs of this growing market.
Resumo em inglês The parameters which affect the degradation and stabilization of diclofenac in suspensions of nanocapsules and of the corresponding spray-dried powders were investigated. Formulations were subjected to 14 months of storage at room temperature. In addition, a study of the degradation of diclofenac was carried out by exposing the formulations or mixtures (drug and adjuvants) to UVC wavelengths. The presence of Epikuron 170® in a concentration higher than 3.06 mg/mL stabili (mais) zes the drug, avoiding its reduction or degradation. The degradation products were isolated, analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and identified as 2-(2',6'-dichlorophenyl)aminobenzyl alcohol and N-(2',6'-dichlorophenyl)anthranilylaldehyde.
Resumo em inglês The terpenoid composition of seven amber samples from Araripe Basin (Santana Formation, Crato Member) has been analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine their botanical origin. The diterpenoids, which have been identified in the fossil resin extracts are derived primarily from the abietane class, e.g., dehydroabietane, 4-epidehydroabietol, 16,17,18-trisnorabieta-8,11,13-triene, 7-oxo-16,17,19-trisnorabieta-8,11,13-trieno, dehydroabietic acid, ferrugino (mais) l, hinokiol and hinokione. Their composition is certainly typical for conifers, and angiosperms can be excluded as the botanical source, as no triterpene was identified. The terpenoid characteristics strongly support a relationship to the Araucariaceae or Podocarpaceae families. In addition, the fossil record of the embedding sediments (pollen and fossil leaves) also supports the proposal of these paleobotanical origins for the ambers.
Classificação de água de coco processada e natural por meio de HCA, PCA e teores de íons metálicos determinados por ICP OES/ Classification of processed and natural coconut water using hca, pca and metallic ion levels obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES)
Resumo em inglês Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry was used to determine Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu in samples of processed and natural coconut water. The sample preparation consisted in a filtration step followed by a dilution. The analysis was made employing optimized instrumental parameters and the results were evaluated using methods of Pattern Recognition. The data showed common concentration values for the analytes present in processed and natural samples. Prin (mais) cipal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) indicated that the samples of different kinds were statistically different when the concentrations of all the analytes were considered simultaneously.
Caracterização química de extratos de Ocimum basilicum L. obtidos através de extração com CO2 a altas pressões/ Chemical characterization of Ocimum basilicum L. extracts obtained by high pressure CO2 extraction
Resumo em inglês This work reports extraction yield and chemical characterization of the extracts obtained by high-pressure CO2 extraction of a cultivar of Ocimum basilicum L. The experiments were performed in the temperature range of 20 to 50 °C, from 100 to 250 atm of pressure. Chemical analyses were carried out by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, permitting to identify 23 compounds that were grouped into five chemical classes. Results showed that temperature and solven (mais) t density influenced positively the extraction yield. At 20 °C and 0.41 g cm-3 occurred a rise in the concentration of monoterpenes, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes.
Resumo em inglês Gravimetric and Bailey-Andrew methods are tedious and provide inflated results. Spectrofotometry is adequate for caffeine analysis but is lengthy. Gas chromatography also is applied to the caffeine analysis but derivatization is needed. High performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) and reversed phase is simple and rapid for xanthine multianalysis. In HPLC-UV-gel permeation, organic solvents are not used. HPLC-mass spectrometry provides an une (mais) quivocal structural identification of xanthines. Capillary electrophoresis is fast and the solvent consumption is smaller than in HPLC. Chemometric methods offer an effective means for chemical data handling in multivariate analysis. Infrared spectroscopy alone or associated with chemometries could predict the caffeine content in a very accurate form. Electroanalytical methods are considered of low cost and easy application in caffeine analysis.
CGAR E CGAR-EM na análise dos constituintes químicos isolados do extrato hexanico de Sebastiania argutidens (Euphorbiaceae)/ HRGC and HRGC-MS in the analysis of the chemical constituents isolated from hexanic extract of Sebastiania argutidens (Euphorbiaceae)
Resumo em inglês The fractionation column with SiO2 of the hexane extract of Sebastiania argutidens (Euphorbiaceae) yielded fractions containing hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, sterols and pentacyclic triterpenes. Besides, one fraction showed the presence of several methyl esters, including four uncommon long chain palmitate esthers as minor components. The characterization of these chemical constituents have been done by High Resolution Gas Chromatography (HRGC) and HRGC coupled to Mass (mais) Spectrometry (GC/MS). Campesterol, stigmasterol, b-sitosterol, glutin-5-en-3-ol were identified by HRGC co-injection with standards.
Avaliação do teor de metais em sedimento do rio Betari no Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira: PETAR, São Paulo, Brasil/ Evaluation of metal content in sediments of the Betari River in the Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira: PETAR-, São Paulo, Brazil
Resumo em inglês The subsoil of the Vale do Ribeira was the focus of mining industries for the exploration of lead, mainly inside the park - PETAR. Despite the fact that the exploration has ended, the environmental effects of those activities are still present, due to great amounts of heavy metals that are leached. Concentrations of pseudo-total and bioavailable metals were determined in sediment samples of the Betari River, using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results demonstrated t (mais) hat the sediments are contaminated by Pb, Zn and Cu. The findings can contribute to an efficient and environmentally and economically adequate management of the park, for the conservation and the protection of the area.
Avaliação da concentração de alguns íons metálicos em diferentes espécies de líquens do cerrado Sul-Mato-Grossense/ Evaluation of concentration of some metal ions in different lichen species of the Sul-Mato-Grossensse cerrado
Resumo em inglês Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Zn and Cu were determinated using flame atomic absorption spectrometry in nine lichen species of the Sul-Mato-Grossense cerrado. The average metal ion concentrations varied in the following ranges: Fe, 248.41-1568.01; Mn, 98.50-397.33; Co, 10.08-24.81; Cr, 18.24-44.26; Zn, 14.62-34.79 and Cu, 3.23-7.57 mg kg-1. Statistical analysis (Pearson and Cluster) applied to the metal ion concentrations indicated that the accumulation of these ions (mais) can be due to several anthropogenic sources including agricultural activities, mineral exploration, biomass burning, soil mineral composition and leather tanning processes by chromium.
Resumo em inglês The present contribution describes three different modern experiments for possible adoption in undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories. These are: 1. electrocatalytic hydrogenation of benzaldehyde to benzyl alcohol; 2. identification of three volatile components, obtained from pineapple fruit, by mass spectrometry and 3. microwave mediated fast synthesis of N-(p-chlorophenyl)phthalamic acid from phthalic anhydride and p-chloroaniline under solvent-free conditions. Th (mais) e experiments can be executed in a short period of time, putting the undergraduate student in contact with a variety of topics in organic chemistry and several techniques of analysis, showing multidisciplinarity in organic chemistry.
Resumo em inglês Three Croton species, C. zenhtneri, C. nepetaefolius and C. argyrophylloides, were collected at two different times, 6:00 and 13:00 h, their essential oils were extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry. The percentage yield of oil constituents changes along the day. The oils were submitted to the antioxidant test thiobarbituric acid reactive species, using BHT and a-tocoferol as the reference compounds. All oils exhibited good (mais) antioxidant activities. In general, C. zenhtneri and C. argyrophylloides essential oils showed higher antioxidant activity than C. nepetaefolius.
Resumo em inglês The study consists is the application of zeolites NaX, NaY and A as builder in detergent formulations to eliminate the hardness of water. Therefore, the adsorption of ions Ca+2 and Mg+2 were evaluated, and the effect of the cleaning action of the surfactant sodium dodecil sulfate (SDS) through tests of detergency. The experiments were conducted in bath system (with shaking) and quantification of metals was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Zeolite A showed the (mais) best results for adsorption of Ca++ and Mg++ with retention rates of around 90 and 70% respectively and acted positively on the action of cleaning the surfactant SDS.
Aplicação de alguns modelos quimiométricos à espectroscopia de fluorescência de raios-X de energia dispersiva/ Application of some chemometric methods to energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry
Resumo em inglês The objective of this work was to accomplish the simultaneous determination of some chemical elements by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectroscopy through multivariate calibration in several sample types. The multivariate calibration models were: Back Propagation neural network, Levemberg-Marquardt neural network and Radial Basis Function neural network, fuzzy modeling and Partial Least Squares Regression. The samples were soil standards, plant standards, (mais) and mixtures of lead and sulfur salts diluted in silica. The smallest Root Mean Square errors (RMS) were obtained with Back Propagation neural networks, which solved main EDXRF problems in a better way.
Resumo em inglês Samples of copper compounds covering all of the XXth century and the end of the XIXth century were submitted to classical and instrumental quantitative analysis. The amount of impurities greatly decreased with time, reaching a constant level since the 1960's. The gravimetric method was suitable for the determination of copper although other procedures also gave good or reasonable results. However, for metal contaminants, atomic absorption spectrometry was the best choice (mais) because of its lower detection limits, being able to determine several elements in the oldest samples. Ion chromatography detected several anions in copper salts manufactured before the 1950's. An increasing quality of raw materials and a better sensitivity of analytical methods led to quality improvement of copper compounds with time.