Sample records for single cell protein
from WorldWideScience.org

Sample records 1 - 6 shown.



1

Ácido salicílico em sementes de calêndula (Calendula officinalis L.) sob diferentes estresses/ Salicylic acid in marigold seeds (Calendula officinalis L.) under different stresses

Carvalho, Patricia Reiners; Machado Neto, Nelson Barbosa; Custódio, Ceci Castilho
2007-04-01

Resumo em português As plantas sofrem agressões por agentes bióticos e abióticos e apesar de não apresentarem defesas através de movimentos ágeis, podem ocorrer adaptações e profundas alterações no metabolismo celular, entre elas a síntese de proteínas de defesas, ativada através de mecanismos complexos. A aplicação exógena ou o estímulo à síntese endógena de ácidos orgânicos como o ácido salicílico, pode agir como indutor de proteínas de tolerância aos diferentes e (mais) stresses, bem como para elevar a atividade de enzimas de desintoxicação celular, especialmente às envolvidas na degradação de radicais ativos oxigenados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do ácido salicílico sobre a germinação e o vigor de sementes de calêndula (Calendula officinalis L.) em condições ideais e sob estresse térmico e hídrico. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em papel embebido em soluções crescentes de ácido salicílico (zero, 0,0125, 0,025, 0,05, 0,1 e 0,2mM); medindo-se as variáveis: percentagem de germinação; índice de velocidade de germinação e primeira contagem da germinação. Ficou constatado através do teste de Tukey que apenas a germinação foi significativa, sendo que as melhores dosagens de sementes germinadas ficou entre 0,025 e 0,05mM de ácido salicílico. Três outros experimentos foram feitos, um com água acidulada aos pH respectivos às concentrações de ácido salicílico (6,0; 4,8; 4,2; 3,6 e 3,2), um com diferentes potenciais hídricos induzidos por manitol (0; -0,3; -0,6; -0,9 e -1,2MPa), e outro com temperaturas (20, 25, 30 e 35ºC). O ácido salicílico na dose de 0,025mM interferiu positivamente na percentagem de germinação e no índice de velocidade de germinação de sementes da calêndula em condições ideais e sob efeito de estresse hídrico e térmico a 35º. Resumo em inglês Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) is an important medicinal and decorative plant also used in cooking and in the manufacturing of cosmetic and phytotherapic products. The plants are susceptible to biotic and non biotical aggression and although they do not present defense through agile movement, they can present deep modifications in the cell metabolism as defence including protein synthesis activated by single molecules or complex mechanisms. The exogenous application (mais) or the synthesis stimulus of organic acids such as salicylic acid may act as an inductor of tolerance protein to different biotical or non biotical stresses increasing the detoxification enzyme activity, specially those involved in the degradation of reactive oxygen species. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of salicylic acid in the germination and vigour of marigold seeds (Calendula officinalis L.) in ideal or stress conditions. Seeds were put to germinate on paper moistened with SA (zero; 0.0125; 0.025; 0.05; 0.1 and 0.2mM). Germination, first germination count and germination speed index were measured. Only germination was significant, and the best doses were 0.025 and 0.05mM SA. Three other experiments were carried out, one with acid water, adjusted to the pH of the related salicylic acid solutions (6.0; 4.8; 4.2; 3.6 and 3.2), one with different water potentials, induced by mannitol (0; -0.3; -0.6; -0.9 and -1.2MPa) and one with different temperatures(20, 25, 30 e 35ºC).The salicylic acid treatment of 0,025 mM was positive for germination and the germination speed index of Calendula officinalis Marigold seeds under ideal conditions and water stress at the temperature of 35 C.

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2

Testes laboratoriais para avaliação do componente monoclonal/ Laboratory tests for evaluating the M-component

Bottini, Paula Virginia
2007-03-01

Resumo em português As gamopatias monoclonais resultam de hiperprodução de um único clone anormal de células plasmocitárias ou linfócitos B. O objetivo da avaliação laboratorial nas gamopatias é demonstrar a presença, a quantidade e o tipo de proteína anormal presente no soro e/ou na urina através do estudo do perfil protéico, quantificação das imunoglobulinas e cadeias leves e avaliação da proteinúria. Este artigo descreve as principais técnicas laboratoriais disponíveis, bem como suas indicações e limitações. Resumo em inglês Monoclonal gammopathies result from an overproduction of a single abnormal clone of a plasma cell or B lymphocyte. The purpose of the laboratory protocols in these situations is to demonstrate the presence, the characterization and the concentration of an abnormal protein detected in serum and/or urine samples. The laboratory investigation is based on the electrophoretic protein profile, quantification of immunoglobulins, free light chains and proteinuria. This paper describes the major available laboratory methods as well their indications and limitations.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

3

Mesotelioma peritoneal em cão: relato de caso/ Peritoneal mesothelioma in dog: a case report

Serakides, R.; Cassali, G.D.; Sant’Ana, F.J.F.; Nascimento, E.F.
2001-04-01

Resumo em português Este estudo descreve os achados anatomopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos do mesotelioma peritoneal em um cão da raça Setter, de nove anos de idade e sem histórico clínico. À necropsia, foram observados vários nódulos que variavam de alguns milímetros a 2cm de diâmetro, de superfície lisa, esbranquiçados, firmes e distribuídos amplamente pelos peritônios parietal e visceral dos órgãos abdominais e pelo funículo espermático. Histologicamente foram evidenc (mais) iados ninhos de células mesoteliais neoplásicas envoltos por grande quantidade de tecido conjuntivo fibroso. Essas células apresentavam-se fusiformes ou epitelióides com citoplasma vacuolizado e núcleo oval com cromatina frouxa e nucléolo evidente. Havia também algumas formações císticas revestidas por uma ou mais camadas de células neoplásicas achatadas ou colunares e com o lúmen ocupado por debris celulares e material eosinofílico, PAS-positivo. Áreas de metaplasia cartilaginosa e de necrose também foram visualizadas. O resultado das reações imuno-histoquímicas revelou a presença de células neoplásicas com imunomarcações fortes e difusas para proteína S100 e para citoqueratina (AE1/AE3) e ausência de marcação para vimentina e para o antígeno carcinoembrionário (CEA). A imunomarcação das células neoplásicas com a utilização do anticorpo contra célula mesotelial humana (HBME-1) foi forte e multifocal. Com base nos achados anatomopatológicos e imuno-histoquímico, firmou-se o diagnóstico de mesotelioma peritoneal esclerosante. Resumo em inglês This study describes the anatomopathological and immunohistochemical findings of a canine peritoneal mesothelioma. A nine-year-old male Setter with no clinical history was submitted to necropsy. Macroscopically, many whitish firm nodules ranging from a few milimeters to 2cm in diameter were found in the abdominal cavity. These nodules had a smooth surface and were scattered throughout the parietal and visceral peritoneum and also on the spermatic cord. Histologically, neo (mais) plastic mesothelial cell groups surrounded by a large amount of fibrous connective tissue were observed. These cells were either spindle shaped or epithelioid with a vacuolated cytoplasm and oval nuclei with granular chromatin and prominent nucleoli. Many cystic spaces lined by a single or many layers of flat or columnar neoplastic cells were observed. These cysts were filled with PAS-positive eosinophilic material. Cartilaginous metaplasia and necrosis were also detected. The mesothelial cells showed intense and diffuse immunoreactivity for protein S100 and cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), however there were no reactivity for vimentin and CEA and the reactivity for human mesothelial anti-cell (HBME-1) was strong and multifocal. Based on the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings the diagnosis of sclerosing peritoneal mesothelioma was made.

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4

Epidemiologia, fisiopatogenia e diagnóstico laboratorial da infecção pelo HTLV-I/ Epidemiology, physiopathogenesis and laboratorial diagnosis of the HTLV-I infection

Santos, Fred Luciano Neves; Lima, Fernanda Washington de Mendonça
2005-04-01

Resumo em português O HTLV-I foi descoberto no início dos anos 1980 e associado a leucemia/linfoma de células T (LLTA) e paraparesia espástica tropical (PET). O HTLV pertence à família Retroviridae e tem um genoma de RNA de fita simples com uma estrutura genética similar à dos demais retrovírus, possuindo os genes gag, pol, env e pX. Este último contém os genes reguladores tax e rex. Tax e Rex são as principais proteínas reguladoras do genoma viral, sendo que Tax regula a transcr (mais) ição do genoma proviral indiretamente ao interagir com diferentes proteínas regulatórias celulares, principalmente genes de citocinas e protoncogenes, e Rex atua como um regulador pós-transcricional do genoma do HTLV-I ao controlar o processamento (splicing) do RNAm viral. Essa infecção é endêmica em diversas regiões do mundo, tais como Japão, vários países da África, Caribe e América do Sul. No Brasil, Salvador é a cidade de maior prevalência, atingindo 1,7% da população geral. A maioria dos indivíduos infectados pelo HTLV-I permanece assintomática no decorrer de suas vidas, correspondendo a aproximadamente 95%. Dos indivíduos sintomáticos, alguns desenvolvem PET e outros, LLTA, sem que suas fisiopatogenias estejam perfeitamente esclarecidas. O diagnóstico rotineiro da infecção causada pelo HTLV-I baseia-se na detecção sorológica de anticorpos específicos para antígenos das diferentes porções do vírus ou através da pesquisa de seqüências genômicas provirais em células mononucleares periféricas. Ainda não existe nenhum estudo epidemiológico com bases populacionais e com metodologias adequadas sobre a infecção pelo HTLV-I que permita conhecer sua real prevalência no Brasil. Resumo em inglês Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) has been identified as the causative agent of both adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Similar to other retroviruses, HTLV-I has a positive strand RNA diploid genome consisting of four genes: gag, pol, env and pX. The pX region codes for the two regulatory proteins tax and rex. Tax protein is essential for efficient virus expression and plays an important role (mais) for activation of cellular genes, such as cytokine genes and protooncogenes. Rex protein induces the expression of unspliced and single spliced mRNAs and regulates a fine balance between the levels of expression of the viral proteins. HTLV-I is widely spread throughout the world. It is endemic in Japan, Africa, the Caribbean and South America. In Brazil, Salvador city shows the highest HTLV-I prevalence rate (1.7%) of the country. It has been established that a vast majority (nearly 95%) of HTLV-I-infected individuals will remain asymptomatic throughout their life. The mechanisms by which HTLV-I causes diseases are not fully elucidated. The HTLV-I diagnosis is based on serologic detection of specific antibodies against several antigens of the virus or through amplification of proviral sequences in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, there is not an epidemiological study with populational bases and suitable methodology in order to estimate its real prevalence in Brazil.

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5

Desnutrição na insuficiência renal crônica: qual o melhor método diagnóstico na prática clínica?/ Malnutrition in chronic kidney failure: what is the best diagnostic method to assess?

Oliveira, Claudia Maria Costa de; Kubrusly, Marcos; Mota, Rosa Salani; Silva, Carlos Antonio Bruno da; Oliveira, Valzimeire N
2010-03-01

Resumo em português INTRODUÇÃO: A desnutrição protéico-calórica, o processo inflamatório sistêmico e os distúrbios metabólicos são frequentes em pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica em terapia dialítica, contribuindo para sua morbimortalidade. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: No presente estudo, a prevalência de desnutrição em pacientes renais crônicos em hemodiálise em um único centro no Nordeste do Brasil foi avaliada segundo três diferentes técnicas de avaliação subjetiva (mais) global (ASG), o índice de massa corporal (IMC), o percentual de peso atual em relação ao ideal, a adequação ao percentil 50 da prega cutânea tricipital (PCT), da circunferência do braço (CB), da circunferência muscular do braço (CMB), a albumina pré-diálise, o ângulo de fase e o percentual de massa celular corporal (MCC). A correlação do diagnóstico nutricional realizado através da ASG com as medidas antropométricas, bioquímicas e bioimpedância elétrica foi pesquisada. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 58 pacientes, sendo 30 do sexo feminino (51,7%), com idade média de 49 anos. A prevalência de desnutrição segundo os diferentes métodos variou entre 12,1% a 94,8%. A ASG clássica teve uma concordância moderada no diagnóstico nutricional com a ASG gerada pelo paciente, IMC com ponto de corte em 22,0 kg/m² e CMB; regular com o IMC com ponto de corte em 18,5 kg/m², adequação do peso atual em relação ao ideal, CB e ângulo de fase; e ruim com a ASG adaptada ao renal, PCT e percentual de MCC. CONCLUSÕES: Os métodos de avaliação nutricional comumente utilizados na prática clínica têm restrições na população em diálise, tendo em vista os diferentes percentuais obtidos com os diferentes métodos. Estudos longitudinais, prospectivos, pesquisando a associação dos marcadores nutricionais com eventos adversos como hospitalização e mortalidade, devem continuar sendo realizados para maior esclarecimento do problema. Resumo em inglês INTRODUCTION: Protein-energy malnutrition, systemic inflammation, and metabolic disorders are frequent among patients with chronic kidney failure undergoing dialysis, contributing to their morbidity and mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the present study, the prevalence of malnutrition in chronic renal patients undergoing hemodialysis in one single center in the Northeastern region of Brazil was assessed according to the following: three different methods of subjective (mais) global assessment (SGA); body mass index (BMI); percent of standard body weight; adequacy to the 50th percentile of triceps skinfold (TSF) and arm muscle circumference (AMC) thicknesses; pre-dialysis albumin; phase angle; and percentage of body cell mass (%BCM). Agreement of the nutritional status diagnosis performed through SGA with anthropometric, biochemical, and bioelectrical impedance measures was assessed. RESULTS: The study assessed 58 patients [females, 30 (51.7%); mean age = 49 years]. The prevalence of malnutrition according to the different methods ranged from 12.1% to 94.8%. Conventional SGA showed a moderate agreement with patient-generated SGA (PG-SGA), BMI (cutoff point, 22.0 kg/m²), and AMC; a fair agreement with BMI (cutoff point, 18.5 kg/m²), percent of standard body weight, AC, and phase angle; and a poor agreement with SGA adapted to the renal patient, TSF, and %BCM. CONCLUSIONS: The nutritional assessment methods commonly used in clinical practice are subject to restrictions when applied to the dialysis population, considering the different percentages obtained with the different methods. Longitudinal, prospective studies on the association of nutritional markers with adverse events, such as hospitalization and mortality, should be carried out to clarify remaining issues.

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6

Anatomia e desenvolvimento ontogenético de Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer/ Anatomy and ontogenetical development of Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer

Dedecca, D. M.
1957-01-01

Resumo em português O presente estudo anatômico de Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer tem por finalidade fornecer informações básicas necessárias ao estudo da anatomia comparada das principais espécies e variedades de cafeeiros, cultivadas no Estado de São Paulo. Nesta primeira contribuição o autor realiza o estudo anatômico detalhado dos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos da variedade typica, não se limitando apenas à anatomia descritiva dos diversos órgãos, mas também, se (mais) mpre que possível, discutindo o desenvolvimento ontogenético das diversas partes do cafeeiro. No estudo da raíz e do caule procurou-se estabelecer a duração do desenvolvimento primário, assinalando o local de aparecimento, primeiramente do câmbio vascular e, posteriormente, do felógeno ou câmbio suberoso. Na discussão da anatonia das folhas mereceu especial atenção o estudo das domácias, sua morfologia e possível função. As flores são estudadas detalhadamente nos seus diversos elementos. Nos capítulos referentes à anatomia do fruto e da semente, além do estudo puramente descritivo das suas estruturas são ainda discutidas as diversas modificações verificadas durante o desenvolvimento do ovário e dos óvulos, respectivamente em fruto e sementes. Resumo em inglês The knowledge of the anatomy of Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer should be considered as a basic contribution to the comparative study of the anatomy of coffee species and varieties cultivated in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The detailed investigations carried out on the vegetative and reproductive organs of the coffee plant revealed the following. The roots at the end of the primary growth present a protostelic, poliarch (6, 7, 8, 9, 11 primary xylem bundles), an (mais) d exarch structure, the following tissues or zone of tissues being visible: root cap, epidermis, exodermis, cortex, endodermis, pericycle, primary phloem and primary xylem. This primary growth has a very short duration and is very soon followed by the secondary growth, formed from a vascular cambium which makes its first appearance in a region localized approximately 5 cm from the root apex. Phellogen arises first in the pericycle and later in phloem and gives origin to a relatively thin periderm; this protective layer replaces the epidermis that is gradually killed and sloughs away. Lateral roots originate from pericyclic cells situated at the protoxylem outer edges. The origin of all stem tissues, as well as those of the leaves, can be traced back to a dome-shaped shoot apex, which measure 220-360 microns in diameter and 48-120 microns in its major height; this shoot apex interpreted under the terms of Schmidt's theory shows to possess a tunica composed of two or three cell layers, and a corpus, represented by a central core of irregularly arranged cells. Differentiation of meristematic tissue initiates at the distance of 800-900 microns from the shoot apex, but the complete primary tissue differentiation is only achieved in a region situated 2.5 cm from the shoot apex. Stem cross sections at this level exhibit the following tissue zones: epidermis, angular collenchyma, cortical parenchyma, pericycle, primary phloem, primary xylem and pith. No distinct endodermis is visible. The vascular cambium, firstly visible in a region distant 2.5 cm from the shoot apex, originates from procambial cells localized between the xylem and phloem, being at the beginning only fascicular; the cells of the primary rays undergo cambiform meristematic activity, and interfascicular cambium is thereby formed between the vascular bundles. Following a centripetal differentiation the cambial derivatives give rise to a continuous band of secondary xylem and secondary phloem. Older stem cross sections present a periderm which is about 70 microns thick. Cork cambium arises from the innermost cells of cortex and produces cork externally and phelloderm internally. Petiole presents a tricyclic structure, exhibiting three vascular bundles, the major one corresponding to the mid-rib; all the bundles show a normal orientation of the xylem and phloem tissues. Secondary vascular bundles are also present towards the wings of the petiole cross section. The structure of foliage blade is that of typical leaves of dorsiventral symmetry. At an early stage the blade consists of seven layers of relatively undifferentiated cells. At maturity, just one layer of palisade parenchyma and ten to twelve layers of spongy cells are present. Upper epidermis is uniseriate and formed only by epidermal cells proper; uniseriate lower epidermis exhibits these cells and stomata which are of the rubiaceous type, being formed by two guard cells and two subsidiary cells. Remarkable is the occurrence on the lower epidermis of certain structures called domatiae; the constancy of these structures on the lower epidermis of the leaves of Coffea and a few other rubiaceous genera has been considered an important taxonomic characteristic for genera identification. On the other hand, the domatia localization, shape, size and constitution, as well as the presence or absence of stomata on their outermost cell layer or the presence or absence of hairs on the borders of the domatia aperture, have shown to be important characteristics to be utilized in the differentiation of Coffea species and varieties. In Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer the ,domatiae are localized at the very angle formed by the secondary veins with the mid-rib, have a vesicular shape and open externally through an elliptical or round pore which measures 200-260 microns in diameter; the borders of the pore are nearly glabrous, a few hairs appearing only in a region distant from the borders; very few stomata are also present on the outermost cell layer of the domatia. Stipule structure is similar to that of foliage blade, but no differentiation between palisade parenchyma and spongy cells is apparent. The inflorescence is of the homotatic type, the lateral axes being very short; consequently the flowers are disposed in axilar glomerules; bracteoles are in number of two pairs for each flower set, being respectively lanceolate and triangular, and presenting the same structure of the stipules. Calyx is very rudimentary; the sepals resemble the leaves anatomically, and present only a trace supply; the petals are united in a tube forming a salver-shaped corolla, presenting a single vascular trace each. Stamens are epipetalous and have also a single trace as vascular supply; the anthers are two-celled, opening lengthwise. At maturity each anther exhibits in cross section four pollen-sacs, surrounded by an uniseriate epidermis, two fiber layers and a narrow strip of tapetum vestiges. Microsporogenesis is reported to be normal by several authors. Pollen grains are numerous, globose, with a very thick, smooth, and 3-4-sulcate exine. Pistil is represented by an inferior ovary, terminal style and two stigmatic branches. Ovary is normally two-celled, each one bearing a single anatropous ovule on a central placenta; funicle is very short, and the embryo-sac is of the normal type, monosporic, 8-nucleate. Anatomically the ovary shows to be formed by uniseriate epidermes, the outer one presenting stomata; between the epidermes there is parenchymatous tissue, and distributed in this thick parenchyma there are 2 or 3 concentric vascular bundle series. The coffee fruit is a drupe, containing normally two seeds; exceptionally there is the occurrence of three or more seeds in the cases of tri-celled or pluri--celled ovaries, or through false polyembryony when bi-celled ovaries present more than one ovule in each cell. On the other hand, by abortion of an ovule one-seeded fruit may be formed (peaberry). Ripe fruits have a fleshy and thick pericarp. Fruit development brings about a series of chemical and morphological modifications that lead to a reduction in the thickness of pericarp, from 1.5 mm in ripe fruits to 0.4 in dried fruits. Exocarp is represented by a single layer of hardened and lignified cells, with scattered stomata. Mesocarp is formed by several layers of polyhedric, large and lignified cells, the innermost of which are somewhat compressed and flattened. Amidst these cells are visible the vascular bundles showing a great amount of fibers. Endocarp is about 100 microns thick and constitutes in the ripe fruits the so-called "seed parchment". Studied in cross section the endocarp shows to be formed by 5-6 layers of intercrossing strong fibers, what gives this zone of tissue an extraordinary strength. Maceration allows the detailed examination of the individual fibers which measure 350-370 microns in length by 20-45 microns in transverse diameter. The cell walls are very thick and provided with ramiform pits; cell lumen is almost occluded. The coffee seeds or coffee beans are elliptical or egg-shaped, plane-convex, possessing a longitudinal furrow on the plane surface. Seed coat is represented by the so-called "silver skin", which ontogenetically originates from the primine, the single ovule integument. This seed coat is about 70 microns thick and anatomically shows to be constituted by an outer layer of fibers somewhat similar to the endocarp fibers; they are, however, shorter, measuring the longest ones 180-320 microns in length and 18-30 microns in transverse diameter. Their thick walls are provided with round, elliptical, or elongated simple pits. The size of these fibers, the thickness and number of pits on their walls are considered by Chevalier as important taxonomic characteristics for the differentiation of Coffea species. Completing the silver skin structure there are several layers of amorphic parenchyma tissue, and a layer of indistinct cells which originate from the innermost cell layer of the primine. On the other hand, the fibers had their origin from the outermost cell layer of the primine. Endosperm is foimed by polyhedric cells of very thick cellulosic walls, functioning the cellulose in this case as food storage. With the aid of a special technique plasmodesmata can be detected in the primary-pit-fields of the endosperm cell walls. The endosperm tissue seems to present differences in the structure and chemical composition of its various layers; thus, at the level of the embryo cavity the cells are flattened and elongated constituting a region which probably désintégrâtes during embryo development. The outer layers represented by hard endosperm slough away as a cap that involves the cotyledons of seedlings obtained from completely naked seeds. This cap resembles the seed parchment in gross morphology. The inner layers are considered soft endosperm. As to the chemical composition, the endosperm cells besides Water, contains protein, the alkaloids caféine and coffearine, oil, sugar, dextrins, pentosans, cellulose, caffetannic acids, minerals, various acids and minor constituents. The small embryo, localized at the bottom of the seed, on its convex surface is represented by an hypocotyl and two adherent cordiform cotyledons. Very seldom there is the occurrence of embryo with 3 or 4 cotyledons.

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