Sample records for seaweeds
from WorldWideScience.org

Sample records 1 - 7 shown.



1

Produtos naturais de algas marinhas e seu potencial antioxidante/ Natural products from marine seaweeds and their antioxidant potential

Rocha, Fabíola Dutra; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora Coelho; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville
2007-12-01

Resumo em português Os radicais livres e outros derivados ativos do oxigênio são inevitavelmente co-produzidos em algumas reações biológicas e exercem papel fisiológico importante. No entanto, essas espécies reativas têm sido descritas como fatores que participam diretamente dos mecanismos fisiopatológicos relacionados com a continuidade e as complicações de diversos estados patológicos como a aterosclerose, a diabetes, o câncer, a artrite reumatóide, entre outros. Dessa forma, (mais) a terapia antioxidante preveniria o desenvolvimento e a progressão dessas complicações. As algas marinhas representam uma importante fonte de substâncias antioxidantes naturais, uma vez que têm sistemas de defesas antioxidantes bem desenvolvidos. O presente trabalho é uma compilação das pesquisas realizadas sobre a atividade antioxidante de produtos naturais marinhos e extratos de algas marinhas bentônicas. Resumo em inglês Free radicals and other reactive species of oxygen are co-produced in some biological reactions and they play important physiological role, and nevertheless they are reported as factors that take straight part in the pathophysiologic mechanism associated with continuity and complications of the several pathological process such as arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and arthritis, among others. In this way, the antioxidant therapy should prevent the development a (mais) nd progress of these complications. Seaweeds can be valuable source of natural antioxidant compounds since they have a well-developed antioxidant defense system. The present work is a compilation of the antioxidant activities of marine natural products and benthonic marine seaweeds crude extracts researches.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

2

Atividade antioxidante in vitro de extratos de algumas algas verdes (Chlorophyta) do litoral catarinense (Brasil)/ Antioxidant in vitro activity of extracts of some green seaweed (Chlorophyta) from southern Brazilian coast

Raymundo, Melissa dos Santos; Horta, Paulo; Fett, Roseane
2004-12-01

Resumo em português O efeito antioxidante de quatro espécies de algas marinhas do filo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata e Chaetomorpha anteninna) foi avaliado através da inibição da peroxidação do ácido linoléico em emulsão. Os extratos etéreos e metanólicos, na concentração de 0,01%, foram obtidos por extração seqüencial das biomassas secas. As espécies mais efetivas sobre a peroxidação lipídica foram Enteromorpha intestinalis e (mais) Chaetomorpha anteninna, com porcentagens de inibição acima de 70%. A habilidade dos extratos metanólicos para seqüestrar o peróxido de hidrogênio foi avaliada, obtendo-se valores médios para porcentagens de captura entre 1,26% e 20,01%. Além disto, quantificaram-se os teores de clorofila a, carotenóides totais e compostos fenólicos totais nas biomassas algais. Os resultados indicam que as algas verdes estudadas são uma fonte promissora de compostos biologicamente ativos com propriedades antioxidantes. Resumo em inglês The antioxidant activity of four species of green seaweeds of the phylo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha anteninna) collected at the seacoast of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, was evaluated by means of the inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid converted into emulsion. Both ethereal and methanolic extracts were obtained from dried biomasses by sequential extraction procedures in concentrations of 0.01%. (mais) The most efficient species towards lipid peroxidation were E. intestinalis and C. anteninna with inhibition yields above 70% .The capacity of methanolic extracts to quench hydrogen peroxide was also estimated. Mean values varied from 1.26 to 20.01%. Chlorophylls a, total carotenoids and phenolic compounds were also quantified in the biomasses. Results indicated that studied green seaweeds are a very promising source of biologically active compounds with antioxidant properties.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

3

α-, β-caroteno e α-tocoferol em algas marinhas in natura/ α- and β-carotene, and α-tocopherol in fresh seaweeds

Sousa, Márcia Barbosa de; Pires, Kelma Maria dos Santos; Alencar, Daniel Barroso de; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana
2008-12-01

Resumo em português O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de α- e β-caroteno e α-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram α- e β-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de α-caroteno foram detectados nas espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e β-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais eleva (mais) do em Ulva fasciata. Dentre as rodofíceas, 11 espécies apresentaram α-caroteno, com máximo em Botryocladia occidentalis. β-caroteno foi encontrado em todas as algas vermelhas analisadas com teores mínimo e máximo em Gracilaria caudata e Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectivamente. As feofíceas apresentaram apenas β-caroteno, com mínimo e máximo em Dictyopteris delicatula e Padina gymnospora, respectivamente. Na divisão Chlorophyta, α-tocoferol, foi máximo em Codium decorticatum e mínimo em Caulerpa prolifera. Na Rhodophyta, 12 espécies apresentaram α-tocoferol com teor máximo em Enantiocladia duperreyi. Na Phaeophyta, α-tocoferol foi encontrado com valores mínimo e máximo em Lobophora variegata e Dictyota dichotoma, respectivamente. Resumo em inglês The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of 32 marine macro algae species, members of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta, as sources of a-carotene, b-carotene and a-tocopherol. Both b-carotene and a-carotene were found in all species of green macroalgae analyzed. The maximum content of a-carotene was detected in algae belonging to Caulerpa genus and the minimum in Codium decorticatum. The amount of b-carotene found was minimum in Caulerpa mexicana and maximu (mais) m in Ulva fasciata. Among the Rhodophyta species, eleven contain a-carotene, the maximum content was found in Botryocladia occidentalis. b-Carotene was found in all red macroalgae analyzed presenting the lowest and highest values in Gracilaria caudata and Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectively. Species of Phaeophyta contained b-carotene but no a-carotene. The lowest value for b-carotene was found in Dictyopteris delicatula and the highest in Padina gymnospora. In Chlorophyta, the amount of a-tocopherol was maximum in Codium decorticatum and minimum in Caulerpa prolifera. In Rhodophyta, twelve species contained a-tocopherol, the highest value was found in Enantiocladia duperreyi. a-Tocopherol was detected in all Phaeophyta species analyzed. The highest and lowest values were found in Lobophora varigata and Dictyota dichotoma, respectively.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

4

Bioprospecção de macroalgas marinhas e plantas aquáticas para o controle da antracnose do feijoeiro/ Bioprospecting of marine seaweeds and aquatic plants for controlling the bean anthracnose

Abreu, Guilherme Fernandes de; Talamini, Viviane; Stadnik, Marciel João
2008-02-01

Resumo em português O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar o efeito local, residual e sistêmico, de extratos de 17 espécies de macroalgas marinhas e de duas plantas aquáticas, sobre a antracnose do feijoeiro. Para tanto, os espécimes foram coletados, identificados, secos em estufa (50ºC/ 48 h), moídos e seus compostos extraídos com etanol. Plantas de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Uirapuru) foram cultivadas em vasos, em casa-de-vegetação. Os 19 extratos foram subdivididos e testado (mais) s em duas etapas de seleção e comparação independentes, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco repetições (vasos com três plantas). As plantas foram pulverizadas com extratos na concentração de 50 mg de peso seco/mL quando apresentavam o primeiro trifólio expandido. Para verificar o efeito local, as plantas foram inoculadas com uma suspensão de 1,2 x 10(6) conídios/mL 4 horas após o tratamento, enquanto que para o estudo do efeito residual e sistêmico, as plantas foram inoculadas 7 dias após o tratamento. A severidade da antracnose foi avaliada 7 dias após a inoculação (dai) na planta inteira e no trifólio não tratado (efeito sistêmico), utilizando-se uma escala de 1 a 9. As algas e plantas que reduziram significativamente a severidade da doença foram comparadas em experimento avaliado aos 7 e aos 12 dai. O extrato de Bryothamnion seaforthii apresentou efeito local, reduzindo em 35% a severidade da antracnose, enquanto o extrato de Ulva fasciata demonstrou efeito residual com redução de 22% na doença aos 12 dai. Somente os extratos de Lemna sp. e U. fasciata reduziram sistemicamente a severidade de doença aos 7 dai na ordem de 55 e 44%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. O possível modo de ação desses extratos é discutido. Resumo em inglês The goal of this work was to test the local, residual as well as systemic effect of extracts from 17 marine seaweeds and two aquatic plant species against the bean anthracnose. For that, specimens were collected, identified, dried into an oven at 50ºC for 48 h, ground to powder and their compounds extracted with ethanol. Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Uirapuru) were grown in pots under greenhouse conditions. The 19 extracts were shared into two independent groups fo (mais) r screening and comparison in a completely randomized design, with five replications (pot with 3 plants). Plants at the first trifoliolate leaf stage were sprayed with extracts at concentration of 50 mg dry weight/mL. To assess the local effect, plants were inoculated with a suspension of 1.2 x 10(6) conidia/mL 4 h after the treatment, whereas to study the residual and systemic effects, inoculation was performed after 7 days. Disease severity was evaluated 7 days after inoculation (dai) on either whole plants or the non-treated leaf (systemic effect), using a scale from 1 to 9. Seaweeds and plants which significantly reduced anthracnose were compared in a follow-up experiment evaluated at both 7 and 12 dai. The extract of Bryothamnion seaforthii revealed local effect reducing the anthracnose severity by 35%. Ulva fasciata extract showed residual effect reducing the anthracnose at 12 dai by 22%. Compared to control, only extracts of Lemna sp. and U. fasciata systemically reduced the disease severity at 7 dai by 55 e 44%, respectively. The possible mode of action of these extracts is discussed.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

5

Crustacea decapoda da praia rochosa da Ilha do Farol, Matinhos, Paraná: II. Distribuição espacial de densidade das populações

Masunari, Setuko; Dubiaski-Silva, Janete
1998-01-01

Resumo em inglês Decapod crustaceans from rocky shore at Farol Isle, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil. II. Spatial distribution of population densities. A study of the spatial distribution of the decapod populations from a rocky shore at Farol Isle, Matinhos, State of Paraná, Brazil (25º51'S, 48º32'W) was canied out. In the supralittoral the rocky surface is covered partially by a layer of litter coming from the terrestrial habitats; in the midlittoral boulders and pebbles cover the rocky bas (mais) in and in the infralittoral, there is a belt of seaweeds. A total of 8 samples were taken by hand, two from each of the following levels: supralittoral (emersion time 8-12 hours), upper midlittoral (4-8), lower midlittoral (0-4) and limit between midlittoral and infralittoral, monthly, from May/1990 to April/1991. The number of species increased from supralittoral (5) to infralittoral (22) and a clear vertical zonation on density was observed according to the emersion time gradient. The supralittoral is characterized by grapsids Armases angustipes (Dana, (1852), Cyclograpsus integer H. Milne Edwards, 1837 and Metasesarma rubripes (Rathbun, 1897) which have terrestrial habits and aerial respiration as a main way in obtaining the oxygen. In the midlittoral, the decapods show three basic types of adaptation against emersion desiccation and thermal stresses: (1) by digging into wet mud among the stones such as Panopeus americanus Saussure, 1857, Panopeus occidentalis Saussure, 1857 and Eurypanopeus abbreviatus Stimpson, 1860, (2) by resting in shady and wet space between the boulders and pebbles or underside of them, like Pachygrapsus transversus (Gibbes, 1850), Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes, 1850) and adults of Menippe nodifrons Stimpson, 1859 and (3) by clinging over the soaked filamentous algae layer on the pebbles or bouders surfaces, a strategy observed in small species such as Pilumnus dasypodus Kingsley, 1879, Podochela sp., Petrolisthes galathinus (Bosc, 1801 ), Alpheus bouvieri A. Milne Edwards, 1878 and juveniles of Menippe nodifrons. In the infralittoral, small species which are vulnerable to desiccation stresses share space by diversification of their diet and adaptation strategies such as camouflage, body color change according to the substratum, flattened body for tight adhesion on hard surface and rapid movements. The main species of this zone are Petrolisthes armatus, Petrolisthes galathinus, juveniles of Menippe nodifrons, Epialtus brasiliensis Dana, 1852, P. dasypodus, Synalpheus fritzmuelleri Coutière, 1909, Megalobrachium roseum (Rathbun, 1900) and species of Palaemonidae. The rocky shore at Farol Isle is a complex architectural environment due to the conjunction of diversified habitats such as litter over a hard surface, spaces and crevices among boulders and pebbles, muddy substratum and phytal.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

6

Fenóis halogenados e/ou sulfatados de macroalgas marinhas/ Halogenated and/or sulfated phenols from marine macroalgae

Carvalho, Luciana Retz de; Roque, Nidia F.
2000-12-01

Resumo em inglês During the biological evolution, marine macroalgae have developed biochemicals tools in order to utilize components of seawater such as sulfates and halogens, to produce a variety of chemicals (secondary metabolites).This review shows and discuss the occurrence of sulfated and/or halogenated phenolic compounds in seaweeds.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

7

Alginato bacteriano: aspectos tecnológicos, características e produção/ Bacterial alginate: technological aspects, characteristics and production

Garcia-Cruz, Crispin Humberto; Foggetti, Ulisses; Silva, Adriana Navarro da
2008-01-01

Resumo em inglês Alginate is a biopolymer used for a variety of industrial applications, for example, in the textiles, cosmetics, foods, agricultural and biotechnological industries. This biopolymer is traditionally extracted from some brown seaweeds (Phaeophyceae) and can be produced by bacteria isolated from soil, as Azotobacter vinelandii, like capsular polysaccharide using glucose, sucrose, among others as carbon sources. The main difference between the alginate of seaweed and the bac (mais) terial ones, is the biggest degree of acetylation of this last one, with great influence in the gel force. These chemical characteristics and production of bacterial alginate are presented in this work.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)