Resumo em inglês The genus Parandra is reviewed and four genera are recognized: Parandra Latreille, 1804, Neandra Lameere, 1912, stat. nov., Archandra Lameere, 1912, stat. nov. and Acutandra gen. nov. The genus Parandra is subdivided in two subgenera: Parandra (Parandra) s. str. and Parandra (Birandra) subgen. nov. The geographical distribution of P. (P.) laevis Latreille, 1804 is commented and the probable synonymy between P. cubaecola Chevrolat, 1862 and P. (P.) cribrata Thomson, 1861 i (mais) s discussed. New species described: P. (P.) tavakiliani from Puerto Rico and P. (Birandra) mariahelenae from Jamaica. New combinations: Neandra brunnea (Fabricius, 1798), Neandra marginicollis (Schaeffer, 1929), Archandra caspia (Ménétriès, 1832), Acutandra punctatissima (Thomson, 1861), A. degeeri (Thomson, 1867), A. murrayi (Lameere, 1912), A. araucana (Bosq, 1951), A. ubitiara (Santos-Silva & Martins, 2000), all from Parandra. Keys to genera of Parandrini, subgenera of Parandra and American species of Parandra and Acutandra are added.
Resumo em inglês Dengue is an endemic/epidemic arboviral disease with a variable symptomatic benign course, but potentially fatal. Once in an inhabited area, the disease will exist forever, with the best achievement being to keep vectors suppressed and the disease under control. Tiger mosquitoes (aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus) are active breeders and urban hunters, becoming resistant to pesticides. Global warming and population growth are propelling the disease worldwide at tropical and (mais) subtropical regions, victimizing new populations. Dengue virus is very infective, and has been transmitted by needlestick, intrapartum, through blood transfusion and mucosal contact with blood. One patient got dengue while undergoing bone marrow transplantation. We address the growing dengue epidemics in Brazil, with more than half a million official cases in 2007, to estimate the risks of transfusion transmitted dengue. Calculations however were surpassed by reality: the major Blood Center in Brazil (FHSP-USP) has found dengue virus in one out of each thousand blood units. In 2007, industry sold 2,6 million disposable blood bags in Brazil. Plotting data from FHSP-USP to the whole country, 2600 blood units would have been infective. Through blood components, around 5000 patients must have received dengue virus intravenously. Beatty et al. estimated to be 1:1300 the risk for dengue transmission through blood transfusion in Puerto Rico, close to what has been demonstrated in Sao Paulo. Throughout Brazil, the average risk may be lower, but the epidemics grows towards a worst scenario. Whatever the risk is, it imposes that all blood units in Brazil (and wherever dengue is endemic) must be EIA tested for dengue NS1 antigen. This marker appears early after infection, and the EIA testing platform is available at all blood banks. Also, donors must report febrile states up to two weeks after donation. Morbidity from dengue virus injected in hospitalized patients is unknown, but it may lead to catastrophic outcomes and to occupational and institutional risks. Physicians and healthcare workers and managers might be aware of this threat - and must start enforcing testing. This EIA test must be included in donor serology for all kinds of transplantation.
Romance languages are known to be more restrictive than Germanic languages as far as segmental coda-filling is concerned. Moreover, it is also known that within the Romance family some languages have more restrictive constraints ruling coda-filling than others. This paper deals with the specific que...