Absorção, translocação e utilização de zinco, cobre e manganês por mudas enxertadas de Coffea arabica/ Absorption, translocation and utilization of zinc, copper and manganese in grafted seedlings of Coffea arabica
Resumo em português Comparativamente ao pé-franco, a combinação enxerto/porta-enxerto altera os complexos mecanismos de "feedback" entre parte aérea e raízes, afetando de maneira positiva ou negativa a eficiência nutricional da planta. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em cultivo hidropônico, a eficiência da absorção, translocação e utilização de Zn, Cu e Mn por mudas de Coffea arabica L., de acordo com o porta-enxerto utilizado. O experimento foi realizado em casa de v (mais) egetação, por um período de 170 dias, em vasos que continham areia como substrato, recebendo solução nutritiva circulante. Utilizaram-se, como enxerto, quatro genótipos de C. arabica: os cultivares Catuaí Vermelho IAC 15 e Oeiras MG 6851 e os híbridos 'H 419-10-3-1-5' e 'H 514-5-5-3' , e, como porta-enxerto, quatro genótipos, sendo três de Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froenher: Apoatã LC 2258, Conilon Muriaé-1 e RC EMCAPA 8141 (recombinação entre clones da variedade Robustão Capixaba - EMCAPA 8141) e uma linhagem de Coffea arabica L.: Mundo Novo IAC 376-4, além de quatro pés-francos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com 20 tratamentos, quatro repetições e uma planta por parcela. A eficiência nutricional das mudas quanto ao Zn, Cu e Mn variou de acordo com a combinação enxerto/porta-enxerto. A progênie 'H 514-5-5-3' foi mais eficiente quanto à utilização de Zn, Cu e Mn e produção de matéria seca, quando combinada com os porta-enxertos Apoatã LC 2258 e Mundo Novo IAC 376-4. O Catuaí Vermelho IAC 15 foi mais eficiente na utilização de Cu e Mn quando combinado com Apoatã LC 2258. Resumo em inglês There are complexes feedback mechanisms involving the relationship rootstock/scion, whick can positively or negatively affect the plant nutrient efficiency use. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the efficiency of uptake, translocation and utilization of Zn, Cu and Mn in coffee seedlings. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse over 170 days using circulating nutrient solution in pots with sand medium. Four Coffea arabica L. genotypes were used as grafts: (mais) Catuaí Vermelho IAC 15 and Oeiras MG 6851, and the hybrids 'H 419-10-3-1-5' and 'H 514-5-5-3' . Three genotypes of Coffea canephora Pierre et Froenher were used as rootstocks: Apoatã LC 2258, Conilon Muriaé-1 and RC EMCAPA 8141 (recombination among clones of the variety Robustão Capixaba - EMCAPA 8141), one line of C. arabica: Mundo Novo IAC 376-4, and four additional non-grafted plants. The experiment was in a randomized block design with 20 treatments, four replications and one plant per plot. The nutritional efficiency of the coffee seedlings for Zn, Cu and Mn varied according to the graft/rootstock combination. Progeny 'H 514-5-5-3' proved to be the most effective regarding Zn, Cu and Mn utilization and dry matter yield when combined with the rootstocks Apoatã LC 2258 and Mundo Novo IAC 376-4. Catuaí Vermelho IAC 15 was more effective for Cu and Mn utilization when combined with Apoatã LC 2258.
Reações de Cp'(CO)2MnPPH2H com CH3COCl e CH3S(O)2Cl em THF/trietilamina: evidências da primeira estabilização por complexação de um fósforo-homólogo das sulfonamidas/ Reactions of Cp'(CO)2MnPPh2H with CH3COCl and CH3S(O)2Cl in THF/triethylamine: evidences of the first complex stabilisation of a phosphorus-homologous of the sulfonamides
Resumo em inglês Cp'Mn(CO)3 (Cp'=h5-C5H4-CH 3) reacts with P(C6H5)2H in THF to give Cp'(CO)2MnPPh2H (Ph = Phenyl) (1), by substitution of one CO ligand. The reaction of 1 with CH3COCl and CH3S(O)2Cl in the presence of triethylamine occurs under electrophilic substitution on the diphenylphosphan ligand to yield the acetyl- and sulfonylphosphane complexes of manganese(I) Cp'(CO)2MnPPh2COCH3 (2) and Cp'(CO)2MnPPh2S(O)2 CH3 (3). The complex stabilisation of these molecules, wich are hitherto (mais) unknown in the free state, is only accomplished by blocking the free electron pair on phosphorus by coordination. The new complexes 1, 2 and 3 were analysed by IR, ¹H-NMR and 31P-MNR spectroscopy and their similar structures are discusssed.
Resumo em inglês In the beginning of this work a brief idea was given on what is understood as "clay", on the scientific methods applied to the study of the matter "clay" as well as on its conception with regard to the edaphic studies. A description is given of the methods of total and natural mechanical analyses which were employed in the agro-geological Department. The work is illustrated by a graphic showing the fractions of the mechanical analysis of the chief great soil types of the (mais) State of São Paulo. The fraction clay is then studied by chemical way in the following sequence : 1.° total chemical analysis, 2.° partial chemical analysis, 3.° chemical analysis of the Helmholz layer and 4.° study of the fixation of the ion Ca+ + in the already mentioned Helmholz layer. The first analysis separates and attacks the hydrated aluminium silicates, the hydrated oxyds of iron and aluminium, manganese, etc. In this analysis the relationship between silica and sesquioxyds was determined. The second type of attack or chemical analysis does not affect the hydrated silicates of aluminium, all others go in dissolution. In this analysis were determined chiefly the sesquioxyds in their free form in the clay complex. For the study of the Helmholz layer, i.e. the determination of changeable ions, solutes of NH4Cl N/l, HNO3 N/5, KCl N/l, etc. were used, percolation of these liquids being made through a layer of air dried soil. The relationship between soil and liquid was always 1:10. In this analysis, principally the cations K+, Ca++, Mg++, Al+ + +, H+ etc. were determined. With such determinations the calculations of the following values were obtained: S = sum of the changeable bases in ME; T = total value in ME of the sorptive power of the complex in each 100 g dried soil at 110° C. and V = percentage of saturation of the complexes with bases. Finally, the qualitative radiographic analysis of the fraction clay was carried out by means of the Debye-Scherrer-Hull method. For these studies the Siemens-Berlin apparatus was used, the transformer of which runs with all0-220 volts 60-cycle alternating current. The bulb has a copper anti-cathode and is fed by a current of 13 m.A. of intensity and the difference of potential is of 30,000, 35,000 and 47,000 volts. The flash of X-rays goes through the nickel filter in order to free it of the b irradiations which are deleterious. In this way, inciding vertically on the preparation, radiations CuK a with l = 1,539 A are obtained. The sensible film used was a Lawe-Film-Agfa, with an exposure going from 11/2 to 2 hours with 35,000 V. The chassis has a diameter of 57 mm. More than 500 radiographs of soil samples were taken, of those proceding from all districts of the State, 79 of which are presented in the present work. With this material the different constituents of the clay minerals contained in our soils were known. Thus, in the soils over the Archean geological formation, kaolinite is represented most frequently and abundantly ; the hydrargillite also appears commonly. The soils over the Glacial formation contain the same representatives and oscillations as those just mentioned. In the Corum-batai formation, quartz is the most important constituent. The Botucatu formation (lava) is that which gave origin to our legitimate red soils ; the mineralogical clay constituents of these soils are : 1.° large amount of hydrated oxyds of iron up to 35% of Fe2O3 for each 100 g of soil at 110° C. ; 2.° hydrargillite and 3.° kaolinite. The amount of the latter in the clay complex ranges between 9 and 25%. The sandy soils existing in the geological formations of lower and upper Baurú bear in their clays the following mineralogical constituents : 1.° kaolinite, 2.° montmorrillonitic type (on the upper Baurú only), 3.° hydrargillite (more common on the lower Baurú) and 4.° quartz, generally, in small percentages. These researches made it evident that the constituents of the clay fraction of our soils commonly have a small sorptive power related to the cations; it follows hence that they do not show a great power of retention of manure with the exception of the montmorrillonitic type.