Estudo mineral das espécies vegetais Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze e Bouchea fluminensis (Vell) Mold./ Mineral evaluation of the species Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze and Bouchea fluminensis (Vell) Mold.
Resumo em português Alternanthera brasiliana e Bouchea fluminensis são plantas encontradas amplamente na América do Sul, sendo utilizada pela população pelas suas propriedades analgésicas e antiinflamatórias. O trabalho objetivou determinar o teor de cinzas totais e os elementos minerais em ambas espécies. O teor de cinzas totais das folhas de A. brasiliana e B. fluminensis foi de 13,23% ± 0,47 e 8,28% ± 0,07, respectivamente. Em relação à presença de macro e micronutrientes nas (mais) folhas observou-se uma maior concentração de nitrogênio (3,13%) e manganês (0,296%) para A. brasiliana e de cálcio (3,08%) e ferro (0,256%) para B. fluminensis. Os dados obtidos, cinzas totais, macro e microelementos, contribuem significativamente no controle de qualidade e padronização de ambas drogas vegetais, além de dar suporte ao uso como suplemento nutricional. Resumo em inglês Alternanthera brasiliana and Bouchea fluminensis are plants widely distributed in South America. These plants are used by native populations as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. The aim of this paper was to assay the total ashes and mineral content in both species. The levels of total ashes in leaves of A. brasiliana and B. fluminensis were 13.23% ± 0.47 and 8.28% ± 0.07, respectively. The analysis of macro and micronutrients content in leaves of A. brasiliana show (mais) n as main components, nitrogen (3.13%) and manganese (0.296%). However, in B. fluminensis they were calcium (3.08%) and iron (0.256%). These data are very useful for the quality control and standardization of the plant raw materials, and support their use as nutritional agents.
Resumo em português Desenvolveu-se este trabalho para avaliar a composição química da parte aérea da alface, cv. Elisa, irrigada com água residuária tratada com leitos cultivados com macrófitas e água de um depósito de fonte hídrica superficial, cultivada em Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico, utilizando-se dos sistemas de irrigação por aspersão convencional, gotejamento subterrâneo e superficial. O experimento compreendeu o período de 17-8 a 3-10-2001, e as análises químicas (mais) da alface foram realizadas aos 47 dias após o transplantio das mudas em campo. A parte aérea da alface foi analisada quanto ao teor de nitrogênio total, nitrato, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, enxofre, ferro, manganês, cobre, zinco, sódio, boro, cobalto e molibdênio. O sódio e o enxofre apresentaram teores maiores que o máximo adequado na parte aérea da alface e o magnésio menor, enquanto para os demais elementos químicos foram normais e adequados, considerando os padrões para plantas bem nutridas, não sendo influenciados pelo tipo de água. O sódio foi o elemento químico que apresentou a maior elevação na parte aérea nos tratamentos irrigados com água residuária, apresentando diferença significativa em relação à água do depósito superficial nos três sistemas de irrigação. A utilização dos diferentes sistemas de irrigação para aplicação de água residuária tratada com leitos cultivados com macrófitas não interferiu no teor de nutrientes na parte aérea. Resumo em inglês A trial was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition in the aerial part of lettuce, cv. 'Elisa', irrigated with wastewater treated with constructed wetland and source deposit water, grown on a Rhodic Hapludox Soil, using the irrigation systems sprinkle, subsurface drip and surface drip irrigation. The experiment was carried out from August 17th to October 3rd of 2001 and the chemical analyses of the lettuce were accomplished to 47 days after transplanting of the s (mais) eedling. The aerial part of the lettuce was analyzed as for the levels of total nitrogen, nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, sodium, boron, cobalt and molybdenum. The sodium and the sulfur presented higher levels than the maximum suitable in the aerial part of the lettuce and the smallest level of magnesium, while other chemical elements analyzed were normal and appropriate considering the standard for well-nourished plants, not being influenced by the water type. The sodium was the chemical element that presented the highest levels in the aerial part of the lettuce in the treatments irrigated with wastewater, presenting significant difference in relationship to the treatments irrigated with source deposit water in the three irrigation systems. The use of the different irrigation systems by the application of wastewater treated with constructed wetland did not interfere in the levels of nutrients in the aerial part of the lettuce.
Resumo em português Desenvolveu-se um experimento de campo, em Assis (SP), em areia quartzosa com capacidade de troca de cátions igual a 35 mmol c.dm-3 e 9% de saturação por bases. Estudou-se a resposta dos cultivares de arroz-de-sequeiro (Oryza sativa L.) IAC 25, IAC 47, IAC 165 e Araguaia às doses 0, 2, 4 e 6 t.ha-1 de calcário dolomítico e 2 t.ha-1 de calcítico. O calcário foi aplicado em outubro de 1991 e as avaliações, realizadas no ano agrícola 1992/93. Aos 20 dias da emerg� (mais) �ncia das plantas, amostrou-se a parte aérea para análises de macro- e de micronutrientes e, aos 40 dias, coletaram-se raízes para estudos anatômicos. Dois anos após a calagem, a maior saturação por bases do solo foi apenas de 55%. A estrutura anatômica das raízes permaneceu inalterada com a calagem, ocorrendo as diferenças somente na razão entre as medidas do córtex e do cilindro vascular. O cultivar IAC 165 foi o único a não aumentar a produção de massa verde da parte aérea e a diminuir a relação córtex/cilindro vascular das raízes com as doses de calcário. A calagem reduziu os altos teores de manganês nas plantas, os quais estavam associados ao encharcamento temporário do solo; reduziu, também, os teores de fósforo, potássio e zinco, aumentando os de nitrogênio, cálcio, magnésio e ferro. Verificou--se maior produção de massa verde da parte aérea quando se aplicou calcário dolomítico em comparação ao calcítico, exceto no IAC 47. Todos os cultivares apresentaram maiores teores de magnésio e menores de cálcio quando tratados com calcário dolomítico em comparação ao calcítico. Concluiu-se que, para cultivo de arroz nessa areia quartzosa, em sistema de renovação de pastagens, deve-se fazer a calagem com calcário dolomítico para correção da acidez e fornecimento do magnésio. Resumo em inglês A field experiment was laid out in a quartz sandy soil (Quartzipsamment) in Assis, State of São Paulo, Brazil, having cation exchange capacity of 35 mmol c.dm-3 and 9% base saturation. The differential response of the upland rice cultivars IAC 25, IAC 47, IAC 165 and Araguaia to the rates of 0, 2, 4 e 6 t.ha-1 of dolomitic and 2 t.ha-1 of calcitic limestone as additional treatment was evaluated. The limestone was applied in October of 1991 and the evaluations were carrie (mais) d out during the 1992-93 growth period. Twenty days after the plant emergence, the shoots were sampled for nutrient chemical analysis and twenty days later roots were sampled for anatomical studies. Two years after liming the largest base saturation was only 55%. The root structure remained unaltered with the liming treatments; some differences occurred only on the cortex central vascular ratio. The IAC 165 cultivar was the only one that did not respond to the limestone rates and that decreased the cortex/central vascular ratio. The liming decreased the plant manganese contents associated with the temporary soil flooding. There was also a decrease in phosphorus, potassium and zinc contents, but the nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, and iron contents increased. Shoot fresh matter yield was larger with dolomitic than with calcitic limestone for all cultivars, except IAC 47. All the cultivars showed higher magnesium and lower calcium contents in the shoots with dolomitic than with calcitic limestone. Although a positive yield response could not be obtained in the present study, it can be inferred that when upland rice is used in these soils for crop pasture renewals, dolomitic limestone might be recommended to correct acidity and magnesium deficiency in plant.
Resumo em inglês In the beginning of this work a brief idea was given on what is understood as "clay", on the scientific methods applied to the study of the matter "clay" as well as on its conception with regard to the edaphic studies. A description is given of the methods of total and natural mechanical analyses which were employed in the agro-geological Department. The work is illustrated by a graphic showing the fractions of the mechanical analysis of the chief great soil types of the (mais) State of São Paulo. The fraction clay is then studied by chemical way in the following sequence : 1.° total chemical analysis, 2.° partial chemical analysis, 3.° chemical analysis of the Helmholz layer and 4.° study of the fixation of the ion Ca+ + in the already mentioned Helmholz layer. The first analysis separates and attacks the hydrated aluminium silicates, the hydrated oxyds of iron and aluminium, manganese, etc. In this analysis the relationship between silica and sesquioxyds was determined. The second type of attack or chemical analysis does not affect the hydrated silicates of aluminium, all others go in dissolution. In this analysis were determined chiefly the sesquioxyds in their free form in the clay complex. For the study of the Helmholz layer, i.e. the determination of changeable ions, solutes of NH4Cl N/l, HNO3 N/5, KCl N/l, etc. were used, percolation of these liquids being made through a layer of air dried soil. The relationship between soil and liquid was always 1:10. In this analysis, principally the cations K+, Ca++, Mg++, Al+ + +, H+ etc. were determined. With such determinations the calculations of the following values were obtained: S = sum of the changeable bases in ME; T = total value in ME of the sorptive power of the complex in each 100 g dried soil at 110° C. and V = percentage of saturation of the complexes with bases. Finally, the qualitative radiographic analysis of the fraction clay was carried out by means of the Debye-Scherrer-Hull method. For these studies the Siemens-Berlin apparatus was used, the transformer of which runs with all0-220 volts 60-cycle alternating current. The bulb has a copper anti-cathode and is fed by a current of 13 m.A. of intensity and the difference of potential is of 30,000, 35,000 and 47,000 volts. The flash of X-rays goes through the nickel filter in order to free it of the b irradiations which are deleterious. In this way, inciding vertically on the preparation, radiations CuK a with l = 1,539 A are obtained. The sensible film used was a Lawe-Film-Agfa, with an exposure going from 11/2 to 2 hours with 35,000 V. The chassis has a diameter of 57 mm. More than 500 radiographs of soil samples were taken, of those proceding from all districts of the State, 79 of which are presented in the present work. With this material the different constituents of the clay minerals contained in our soils were known. Thus, in the soils over the Archean geological formation, kaolinite is represented most frequently and abundantly ; the hydrargillite also appears commonly. The soils over the Glacial formation contain the same representatives and oscillations as those just mentioned. In the Corum-batai formation, quartz is the most important constituent. The Botucatu formation (lava) is that which gave origin to our legitimate red soils ; the mineralogical clay constituents of these soils are : 1.° large amount of hydrated oxyds of iron up to 35% of Fe2O3 for each 100 g of soil at 110° C. ; 2.° hydrargillite and 3.° kaolinite. The amount of the latter in the clay complex ranges between 9 and 25%. The sandy soils existing in the geological formations of lower and upper Baurú bear in their clays the following mineralogical constituents : 1.° kaolinite, 2.° montmorrillonitic type (on the upper Baurú only), 3.° hydrargillite (more common on the lower Baurú) and 4.° quartz, generally, in small percentages. These researches made it evident that the constituents of the clay fraction of our soils commonly have a small sorptive power related to the cations; it follows hence that they do not show a great power of retention of manure with the exception of the montmorrillonitic type.