Sample records for lead minerals
from WorldWideScience.org

Sample records 1 - 8 shown.



1

Avaliação do nível de chumbo, em solo de várzea, proveniente da reciclagem de baterias/ Evaluation of the lead level, in low land soil, originated from a recycling of batteries

Wowk, Gisele I. T. H.; Melo, Vander de F.
2005-12-01

Resumo em português Visando caracterizar e quantificar os minerais da fração argila e avaliar a contaminação por chumbo (Pb) ocasionada por efluentes de uma empresa recicladora de sucatas de baterias no município de Paula Freitas, PR, coletaram-se amostras de solo de várzea em cinco perfis. Além dos teores totais, as amostras de solo foram submetidas a análises químicas seqüenciais para determinação de diferentes formas de Pb: solúvel, trocável, ligado à matéria orgânica, li (mais) gado aos óxidos de alumínio e ferro e residual. A fração argila, estudada por difratometria de raios-X e análise termogravimétrica diferencial, apresentou altos teores de caulinita e menores de gibbsita, material amorfo e goethita. Todos os solos da várzea apresentaram teores de Pb superiores aos encontrados no solo sob mata (testemunha), evidenciando a contaminação ambiental. O perfil P2 indicou o maior potencial de contaminação do nível freático, pois continha maior teor de Pb total (2.399,6 µg cm-3) associado ao elevado teor do metal, na forma trocável (adsorção não específica). A alta superfície específica dos óxidos de Fe e Al de baixa cristalinidade promoveram maior retenção de Pb nos solos contaminados. Resumo em inglês In order to characterize and to quantify the minerals of the clay fraction and to evaluate the contamination by lead (Pb) caused by effluents from a recycling company of waste batteries in Paula Freitas, Paraná state, Brazil , samples of low land soil were collected from five profiles. Besides the total levels, the soil samples were submitted to sequential chemical analyses for the determination of different Pb forms: soluble, exchangeable, linked to organic matter, link (mais) ed to alluminiun and iron oxides and residual. The clay fraction, studied by X-ray diffraction and differential thermogravimetric analysis, presented high levels of kaolinite and small amounts of gibbsite, amorphous material and goethite. All samples of low land soil presented Pb levels superior to the ones found in the soil under forest (control), showing clearly the environmental contamination. The P2 profile showed the greatest potential of contamination of the freatic level because it had the highest level of total Pb (2,399.6 µg cm-3) associated with the high level of metal in the exchangeable form (non-specific adsorption). The high specific surface of Al and Fe oxides of low crystalinity was responsible for a higher retention of Pb in the contaminated soils.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

2

Composição química de diferentes fontes de fósforo e deposição de metais pesados em tecidos de suínos/ Chemical composition of different phosphorus sources and heavy metal deposition in tissues of swines

Teixeira, A.O.; Lopes, D.C.; Ribeiro, M.C.T.; Lopes, J.B.; Ferreira, V.P.A.; Vitti, D.M.S.S.; Moreira, J.A.; Pena, S.M.
2005-08-01

Resumo em português Foram utilizados 112 leitões com peso inicial de 28,68kg, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 8×2 (oito tratamentos x dois sexos), sete repetições e dois animais por baia. As dietas foram formuladas com base no fósforo total, sendo estas à base de milho e de farelo de soja. O fósforo foi suplementado utilizando-se os fosfatos: bicálcico (FBC); monobicálcico (MBC); supertriplo (ST); supersimples (SS); rocha Catalão (ROCHA); mistura de fonte (mais) s (MIST) e ácido fosfórico (AcF); e dieta-controle, sem o fósforo suplementar (CONT). Avaliou-se previamente a composição química de amostras de fontes de fósforo disponíveis no mercado. Os fosfatos MBC, FBC e AcF apresentaram baixo nível de contaminação por metais pesados. Observou-se variação no teor de metais pesados entre as marcas comerciais de supertriplo. O consumo do fosfato resultou em acúmulo de cobre nos músculos. A dieta-controle provocou acúmulo de chumbo e zinco no fígado, e a mistura de fontes e supertriplo ocasionou acúmulo de cádmio no fígado. A utilização de fontes alternativas de fósforo menos elaboradas influenciou a deposição de minerais no fígado e nos músculos dos suínos. Resumo em inglês One hundred twelve pigs averaging weight of 28.68kg, were allotted to a completely randomized blocks with seven replicates of two animals per box. The treatments consisted in factorial 8×2 (eight phosphorus sources x two sexes). The experimental diets were formulated based on corn and soybean meal and the phosphorus was supplemented through phosphate dicalcium (FBC), monodicalcium (MBC), triple superphosphate (ST), simple superphosphate (SS), Catalão rock (ROCHA), (mais) mixture of sources (MIST), and phosphoric acid (AcF) in addition to a control diet without supplemental phosphous (CONT). Samples of phosphorus sources available in the market were evaluated for particle size and chemical composition. The MBC, FBC and AcF showed a low level of heavy metal contamination, but a variation in the heavy metal composition for ST was observed. Swines fed on CONT diet showed lead and zinc accumulation in the liver. Swines fed on triple superphosphate and mixture of sources diets showed cadmium accumulation in the liver. Swine fed on ST diet showed copper accumulation in the muscles. Swine diets formulated with alternative and less elaborated sources of phosphorus caused liver and muscles deposition of minerals.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

3

Surto de polioencefalomalacia por ingestão excessiva de enxofre na dieta em bezerros no Rio Grande do Sul/ Outbreak of polioencephalomalacia in cattle consuming high sulphur diet in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Cunha, Paulo H.J. da; Bandarra, Paulo M.; Dias, Marcelo M.; Borges, Alexandre S.; Driemeier, David
2010-08-01

Resumo em português Neste trabalho descreve-se surto de polioencefalomalacia em bovinos decorrente da ingestão de dieta com excessiva concentração de enxofre em uma propriedade no Rio Grande do Sul. O lote era composto por 30 bezerros, mantidos em um piquete com azevém (Lolium multiflorum) e suplementados com ração e sal mineral. Seis bezerros morreram e dois deles foram necropsiados; amostras de tecido hepático para dosagem de chumbo e fragmentos do sistema nervoso central para histo (mais) patológico foram colhidos. Um dos bezerros foi examinado antes da morte e sinais neurológicos encefálicos foram constatados. Foi estabelecido o teor de enxofre nos componentes da dieta e água, a produção de sulfeto de hidrogênio ruminal em cinco bovinos do mesmo lote e realizada PCR de um bloco de parafina para detecção de DNA do herpevirus bovino tipo 5. O consumo total de enxofre foi de 0,38% da matéria seca fornecida aos animais e as dosagens de sulfeto de hidrogênio ruminal em animais do mesmo lote variaram de 1.000 a 2.500ppm. Os achados histopatológicos indicaram necrose laminar do córtex cerebral. Não foi detectado chumbo na amostra de tecido hepático e não foi identificado DNA do herpesvirus bovino tipo 5 no encéfalo. O quadro clínico de síndrome cerebrocortical associado aos elevados valores do sulfeto de hidrogênio ruminal, alta ingestão de enxofre na dieta e os achados histopatológicos permitem estabelecer o excesso de enxofre como causador da polioencefalomalacia. Resumo em inglês An outbreak of polioencephalomalacia in cattle caused by ingestion of high sulphur diet, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil is described. One group of 30 calves was kept in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) pasture and supplemented with concentrate and minerals. Six calves died, necropsy was performed in two of them and liver samples (for lead determination) and fragments of central nervous system were collected. Clinical and neurological examination was performed in one ca (mais) lf and confirmed brain involvement. Sulphur content on dietary components and water, ruminal hydrogen sulfide production in five calves of the same group and PCR from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cerebral tissues to detect bovine herpesvirus 5 DNA was perfomed. The total sulphur intake was 0.38% dry matter and the values of ruminal sulfide concentration ranged from 1,000 to 2,500ppm. Lead It was not detected in the liver samples and PCR was negative for bovine herpesvirus 5. The brain lesions were characterized by laminar neuronal necrosis. The clinical signs of cerebrocortical syndrome associated with high ruminal sulfide values, elevated intake of dietary sulphur and histological lesions confirmed that the excess of sulphur caused the polioencephalomacia in these calves.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

4

Estudo por microscopia óptica e lupa das características mineralógicas e microestruturais do clínquer aplicado ao processo de moagem e qualidade do cimento

Souza, Vládia Cristina Gonçalves; Sampaio, Carlos Hoffmann; Tavares, Luis Marcelo Marques
2002-04-01

Resumo em português Tem sido largamente estudada a influência das características mineralógicas e microestruturais do clínquer sobre a sua moabilidade, devido ao alto custo dessa etapa na fabricação de cimento e às exigências de qualidade do mercado. Nesse trabalho, usaram-se o microscópio óptico e a lupa para descrever e analisar as amostras de partículas de diversos tamanhos de clínquer, provenientes de uma fábrica situada no sul do Brasil. Através desse estudo, foi constatad (mais) a, nas amostras coletadas, a ocorrência de um alto grau de corrosão dos minerais de alita e belita. Foi igualmente observado que o tamanho das partículas não influencia na quantidade de microfissuras, por serem essas de origem físico-química e não mecânica. Portanto pôde ser concluído que a corrosão originou uma extensa rede porosa, facilitando a formação de microfissuras, o que aumentará, por sua vez, a moabilidade do clínquer, mas às custas de uma redução considerável na qualidade do cimento. Resumo em inglês Have been widely studied influence clinker's micro structural and mineralogical characteristics on its grinding behaviour, due to high cost of this stage at the end of the fabrication process and the requirements of market quality. In this work, one used the optical microscope and the magnifying glass to describe and analyze the samples of particles of various sizes of clinker, deriving from a factory at south of Brazil. Through this study, it was evidenced, in the sample (mais) s collected, the occurrence of a high degree of corrosion the minerals of alite and belite. It was even observed that the size of particles do not influence the quantity of microcracks, because that is of physical-chemical origin and it do not mechanical. Therefore, it was concluded that corrosion lead to formation of a large quantity of pores and many channels, make easy the formation of microcracks, that increase, in turn, the grinding behaviour of cement clinker, but at expenses of a considerable reduction in the cement quality.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

5

Desempenho de novilhas búfalas terminadas em confinamento em resposta ao uso de promotor de crescimento ou de esferas de chumbo no útero/ Buffalo heifer's performance fattened in feedlot in response of the utilization of growth promoter or lead sphere introduced in the uterus

Marques, J.A.; Iwayama, P.T.; Prado, I.N.; Albuquerque, K.P.; Scomparin, V.X.; Nascimento, W.G.
2006-12-01

Resumo em português Avaliaram-se ganho de peso, ingestão e conversão alimentar de matéria seca e rendimento de carcaça quente de 20 novilhas bubalinas, confinadas, com média de peso de 350kg e média de idade de 16 meses. Os animais permaneceram em baias coletivas durante 84 dias e foram alimentadas com silagem de cana-de-açúcar + 1% de uréia e concentrado. Os tratamentos foram: VAZ - novilhas vazias, PRC - novilhas com implante de promotor de crescimento e CHU - novilhas com 100 esf (mais) eras de chumbo introduzidas no útero. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso com seis repetições no tratamento VAZ e sete repetições em PRC e CHU. O peso final, ganho médio diário e conversão alimentar da matéria seca foram mais elevados para as búfalas do tratamento PRC, respectivamente, 445,0kg; 1,2kg e 9,7kg de MS/kg de ganho de peso vivo, em comparação com as do tratamento VAZ, respectivamente, 412,6kg; 0,9kg e 11,4kg de MS/kg de ganho de peso vivo e as do tratamento CHU, respectivamente, 407,9kg; 0,8kg e 12,2kg de MS/kg de ganho de peso vivo. Peso final, ganho médio diário e conversão alimentar da matéria seca das búfalas dos tratamentos VAZ e CHU não diferiram entre si. Para o rendimento de carcaça quente não foi observado efeito entre tratamentos. Resumo em inglês A completely randomized design with three treatments and seven replicates was used to evaluate the daily weight gain, dry matter intake, feed:weight gain ratio and hot carcass yield of 20 buffalo heifers averaging 350kg and 16 months of age, kept in feed lot for 84 days. Animals were fed on sugar cane silage + 1% of urea and soybean, corn meal and salt minerals. The treatments were EMP - open heifers GPR - growth promoter implanted heifers and LEA - heifers with 100 lead (mais) spheres introduced in the uterus. The GRP animals showed higher body weight, daily weight gain and feed:weight gain ratio (444.0kg, 1.2kg and 9.7kg/kg) in comparison to EMP animals (412.6kg, 9kg and 11.4kg /kg) and LEA animals (407.9, 8kg and 12.2kg/kg), respectively. No significant mean differences between EMP and LEA animals for all the studied traits and no treatment effect on carcass yield were observed.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

6

Deficiências de minerais/ Mineral deficiencies

Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato
2007-08-01

Resumo em português Neste artigo procuramos relatar a situação mundial e brasileira com relação aos micronutrientes, em especial sobre os minerais. Os elementos químicos minerais desempenham funções de grande importância no organismo humano, sendo indispensáveis para o desenvolvimento e a saúde dos indivíduos. Ainda não existe uma avaliação global do estado nutricional dos indivíduos em relação a esses micronutrientes no Brasil, mas os estudos existentes apontam para a neces (mais) sidade do acompanhamento das tendências alimentares que poderiam levar às suas deficiências com conseqüências adversas para a saúde da população e o desenvolvimento do nosso país. Resumo em inglês In this paper we will try to report the Brazilian micronutrients status, as well as in worldwide, specifically for minerals. Minerals have major importance on human body, becoming indispensable for the development and health of individuals. There is not yet an integral assessment of micronutrient status in the Brazilian subjects, but there are some studies pointing to the need of observation of alimentary tendencies that might lead to deficiencies, with adverse consequences to the population’s health and the development of our country

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

7

Características físico-químicas da carcaça e da carne de novilhas submetidas ao anestro cirúrgico ou mecânico terminadas em confinamento/ Carcass and meat traits of feedlot finished heifers submitted to surgical or mechanical anoestrous

Marques, Jair de Araújo; Prado, Ivanor Nunes do; Moletta, José Luiz; Prado, Ivor Martin do; Prado, Juliana Martin do; Macedo, Lívia Maria Araújo; Souza, Nilson Evelázio de; Matsushita, Makoto
2006-08-01

Resumo em português Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da simulação da prenhez (introdução de 100 esferas de chumbo no útero - CHU) e da ovariectomia (retirada dos ovários - OVA) sobre as características físico-químicas da carcaça e da carne de novilhas. Foram utilizadas 19 novilhas mestiças (½ Nelore x ½ Red Angus), com 18 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 257,8 kg, terminadas em confinamento recebendo uma dieta à base de silagem de milho (41%) e (mais) farelo de soja e milho (59%). O peso vivo ao abate, sem diferença entre tratamentos, foi de 324,1; 323,3 e 303,0 kg para as novilhas dos tratamentos VAZ, CHU e OVA, respectivamente. Da mesma forma, não houve diferença entre tratamentos para peso de carcaça quente (171,1 kg), comprimento de carcaça (113,8 cm), comprimento de perna (68,2 cm), espessura do coxão (21,0 cm), área de olho-de-lombo (57,3 cm²), espessura de gordura de cobertura (4,0 mm), proporções de músculo (62,6%), osso (16,0%) e gordura (21,7%), relação músculo/osso (3,9), relação músculo + gordura (porção comestível)/osso (5,3), perdas por cocção (24,3%), perdas do congelamento à cocção (30,9%), maciez (7,1 pontos), suculência (6,6 pontos) e palatabilidade (6,6 pontos). Os parâmetros cor, textura e marmoreio também não diferiram entre os tratamentos, apresentando, respectivamente, 4,0; 4,4 e 3,7 pontos. Não houve diferença significativa para os teores de cinzas (1,1%) e PB (21,8%) e para as concentrações de extrato etéreo total (2,9%) e colesterol (49,6 mg/100g) do músculo Longissimus dorsi. Portanto, a ocorrência do estro não alterou as características analisadas. Resumo em inglês This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pregnancy simulation (placement of 100 lead spheres in the uterus-LEAD) and ovariectomy (OVAE) on traits of carcass and meat of heifers finished in feedlot. Animals not pregnant and with intact ovary were used as the control (CTRL). Nineteen crossbred heifers (½ Nelore x ½ Red Angus) averaging 18 months of age and 257.8 kg of body weight were used. Animals were fed a diet containing (% DM): 41% of corn silag (mais) e and 59% of soybean meal, corn, and trace minerals. No significant differences were observed for slaughter weight, which averaged 324.1, 323.3, and 303.3 kg, respectively, for CTRL, LEAD, and OVAE treatments. Similarly, there were no significant differences among treatments for the following variables: hot carcass weight (171.1 kg), carcass length (113.8 cm), hind limb length (68.2 cm), cushion thickness (21.0 cm), loin eye area (57.3 cm²), fat thickness (4.0 mm), percentages of muscle (62.6%), bone (16.0%), and fat (21.7%), muscle/fat ratio (3.9), muscle plus fat/bone ratio (5.3), cooking losses (24.3%), freezing to cooking losses (30.9%), tenderness (7.1 points), juiciness (6.6 points), and flavor (6.6 points). The color, texture, and marbling parameters also did not differ averaging 4.0, 4.4, and 3.7 points, respectively, among treatments. In addition, no significant differences were found to contents of ash (1.1%), crude protein (21.8%), total fat (2.9%), and cholesterol (49.6mg/100g) in the Longissimus dorsi muscle. Thus, it can be concluded that estrus did not affect carcass characteristics.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

8

Anatomia e desenvolvimento ontogenético de Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer/ Anatomy and ontogenetical development of Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer

Dedecca, D. M.
1957-01-01

Resumo em português O presente estudo anatômico de Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer tem por finalidade fornecer informações básicas necessárias ao estudo da anatomia comparada das principais espécies e variedades de cafeeiros, cultivadas no Estado de São Paulo. Nesta primeira contribuição o autor realiza o estudo anatômico detalhado dos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos da variedade typica, não se limitando apenas à anatomia descritiva dos diversos órgãos, mas também, se (mais) mpre que possível, discutindo o desenvolvimento ontogenético das diversas partes do cafeeiro. No estudo da raíz e do caule procurou-se estabelecer a duração do desenvolvimento primário, assinalando o local de aparecimento, primeiramente do câmbio vascular e, posteriormente, do felógeno ou câmbio suberoso. Na discussão da anatonia das folhas mereceu especial atenção o estudo das domácias, sua morfologia e possível função. As flores são estudadas detalhadamente nos seus diversos elementos. Nos capítulos referentes à anatomia do fruto e da semente, além do estudo puramente descritivo das suas estruturas são ainda discutidas as diversas modificações verificadas durante o desenvolvimento do ovário e dos óvulos, respectivamente em fruto e sementes. Resumo em inglês The knowledge of the anatomy of Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer should be considered as a basic contribution to the comparative study of the anatomy of coffee species and varieties cultivated in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The detailed investigations carried out on the vegetative and reproductive organs of the coffee plant revealed the following. The roots at the end of the primary growth present a protostelic, poliarch (6, 7, 8, 9, 11 primary xylem bundles), an (mais) d exarch structure, the following tissues or zone of tissues being visible: root cap, epidermis, exodermis, cortex, endodermis, pericycle, primary phloem and primary xylem. This primary growth has a very short duration and is very soon followed by the secondary growth, formed from a vascular cambium which makes its first appearance in a region localized approximately 5 cm from the root apex. Phellogen arises first in the pericycle and later in phloem and gives origin to a relatively thin periderm; this protective layer replaces the epidermis that is gradually killed and sloughs away. Lateral roots originate from pericyclic cells situated at the protoxylem outer edges. The origin of all stem tissues, as well as those of the leaves, can be traced back to a dome-shaped shoot apex, which measure 220-360 microns in diameter and 48-120 microns in its major height; this shoot apex interpreted under the terms of Schmidt's theory shows to possess a tunica composed of two or three cell layers, and a corpus, represented by a central core of irregularly arranged cells. Differentiation of meristematic tissue initiates at the distance of 800-900 microns from the shoot apex, but the complete primary tissue differentiation is only achieved in a region situated 2.5 cm from the shoot apex. Stem cross sections at this level exhibit the following tissue zones: epidermis, angular collenchyma, cortical parenchyma, pericycle, primary phloem, primary xylem and pith. No distinct endodermis is visible. The vascular cambium, firstly visible in a region distant 2.5 cm from the shoot apex, originates from procambial cells localized between the xylem and phloem, being at the beginning only fascicular; the cells of the primary rays undergo cambiform meristematic activity, and interfascicular cambium is thereby formed between the vascular bundles. Following a centripetal differentiation the cambial derivatives give rise to a continuous band of secondary xylem and secondary phloem. Older stem cross sections present a periderm which is about 70 microns thick. Cork cambium arises from the innermost cells of cortex and produces cork externally and phelloderm internally. Petiole presents a tricyclic structure, exhibiting three vascular bundles, the major one corresponding to the mid-rib; all the bundles show a normal orientation of the xylem and phloem tissues. Secondary vascular bundles are also present towards the wings of the petiole cross section. The structure of foliage blade is that of typical leaves of dorsiventral symmetry. At an early stage the blade consists of seven layers of relatively undifferentiated cells. At maturity, just one layer of palisade parenchyma and ten to twelve layers of spongy cells are present. Upper epidermis is uniseriate and formed only by epidermal cells proper; uniseriate lower epidermis exhibits these cells and stomata which are of the rubiaceous type, being formed by two guard cells and two subsidiary cells. Remarkable is the occurrence on the lower epidermis of certain structures called domatiae; the constancy of these structures on the lower epidermis of the leaves of Coffea and a few other rubiaceous genera has been considered an important taxonomic characteristic for genera identification. On the other hand, the domatia localization, shape, size and constitution, as well as the presence or absence of stomata on their outermost cell layer or the presence or absence of hairs on the borders of the domatia aperture, have shown to be important characteristics to be utilized in the differentiation of Coffea species and varieties. In Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer the ,domatiae are localized at the very angle formed by the secondary veins with the mid-rib, have a vesicular shape and open externally through an elliptical or round pore which measures 200-260 microns in diameter; the borders of the pore are nearly glabrous, a few hairs appearing only in a region distant from the borders; very few stomata are also present on the outermost cell layer of the domatia. Stipule structure is similar to that of foliage blade, but no differentiation between palisade parenchyma and spongy cells is apparent. The inflorescence is of the homotatic type, the lateral axes being very short; consequently the flowers are disposed in axilar glomerules; bracteoles are in number of two pairs for each flower set, being respectively lanceolate and triangular, and presenting the same structure of the stipules. Calyx is very rudimentary; the sepals resemble the leaves anatomically, and present only a trace supply; the petals are united in a tube forming a salver-shaped corolla, presenting a single vascular trace each. Stamens are epipetalous and have also a single trace as vascular supply; the anthers are two-celled, opening lengthwise. At maturity each anther exhibits in cross section four pollen-sacs, surrounded by an uniseriate epidermis, two fiber layers and a narrow strip of tapetum vestiges. Microsporogenesis is reported to be normal by several authors. Pollen grains are numerous, globose, with a very thick, smooth, and 3-4-sulcate exine. Pistil is represented by an inferior ovary, terminal style and two stigmatic branches. Ovary is normally two-celled, each one bearing a single anatropous ovule on a central placenta; funicle is very short, and the embryo-sac is of the normal type, monosporic, 8-nucleate. Anatomically the ovary shows to be formed by uniseriate epidermes, the outer one presenting stomata; between the epidermes there is parenchymatous tissue, and distributed in this thick parenchyma there are 2 or 3 concentric vascular bundle series. The coffee fruit is a drupe, containing normally two seeds; exceptionally there is the occurrence of three or more seeds in the cases of tri-celled or pluri--celled ovaries, or through false polyembryony when bi-celled ovaries present more than one ovule in each cell. On the other hand, by abortion of an ovule one-seeded fruit may be formed (peaberry). Ripe fruits have a fleshy and thick pericarp. Fruit development brings about a series of chemical and morphological modifications that lead to a reduction in the thickness of pericarp, from 1.5 mm in ripe fruits to 0.4 in dried fruits. Exocarp is represented by a single layer of hardened and lignified cells, with scattered stomata. Mesocarp is formed by several layers of polyhedric, large and lignified cells, the innermost of which are somewhat compressed and flattened. Amidst these cells are visible the vascular bundles showing a great amount of fibers. Endocarp is about 100 microns thick and constitutes in the ripe fruits the so-called "seed parchment". Studied in cross section the endocarp shows to be formed by 5-6 layers of intercrossing strong fibers, what gives this zone of tissue an extraordinary strength. Maceration allows the detailed examination of the individual fibers which measure 350-370 microns in length by 20-45 microns in transverse diameter. The cell walls are very thick and provided with ramiform pits; cell lumen is almost occluded. The coffee seeds or coffee beans are elliptical or egg-shaped, plane-convex, possessing a longitudinal furrow on the plane surface. Seed coat is represented by the so-called "silver skin", which ontogenetically originates from the primine, the single ovule integument. This seed coat is about 70 microns thick and anatomically shows to be constituted by an outer layer of fibers somewhat similar to the endocarp fibers; they are, however, shorter, measuring the longest ones 180-320 microns in length and 18-30 microns in transverse diameter. Their thick walls are provided with round, elliptical, or elongated simple pits. The size of these fibers, the thickness and number of pits on their walls are considered by Chevalier as important taxonomic characteristics for the differentiation of Coffea species. Completing the silver skin structure there are several layers of amorphic parenchyma tissue, and a layer of indistinct cells which originate from the innermost cell layer of the primine. On the other hand, the fibers had their origin from the outermost cell layer of the primine. Endosperm is foimed by polyhedric cells of very thick cellulosic walls, functioning the cellulose in this case as food storage. With the aid of a special technique plasmodesmata can be detected in the primary-pit-fields of the endosperm cell walls. The endosperm tissue seems to present differences in the structure and chemical composition of its various layers; thus, at the level of the embryo cavity the cells are flattened and elongated constituting a region which probably désintégrâtes during embryo development. The outer layers represented by hard endosperm slough away as a cap that involves the cotyledons of seedlings obtained from completely naked seeds. This cap resembles the seed parchment in gross morphology. The inner layers are considered soft endosperm. As to the chemical composition, the endosperm cells besides Water, contains protein, the alkaloids caféine and coffearine, oil, sugar, dextrins, pentosans, cellulose, caffetannic acids, minerals, various acids and minor constituents. The small embryo, localized at the bottom of the seed, on its convex surface is represented by an hypocotyl and two adherent cordiform cotyledons. Very seldom there is the occurrence of embryo with 3 or 4 cotyledons.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)