Resumo em inglês A sample of hydroxyapatite was synthesized and its crystalline structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction by means of the Rietveld method. Two functions were used to fit the peak profiles, modified Voigt (TCHZ) and Pearson VII. The occupational factors and lattice parameters obtained by both models show that the sample does not contain relevant cationic substitutions. The interatomic distances from Ca1 to oxygens O1, O2 and O3 were adequate for a pure hydroxyapatite with (mais) out defect at site Ca1. Besides, the use of multiple lines in planes (300) and (002) associated with the model Pearson VII resulted in good agreement with the TCHZ model with respect to the size-strain effectswith an ellipsoidal shape of crystallites. In conclusion, the procedures adopted in the synthesis of hydroxyapatite produced a pure and crystalline material. The experimental results of transmission electron microscopy confirmed the predicted shape of crystals.