Sample records for fuel oils
from WorldWideScience.org

Sample records 1 - 8 shown.



1

O emprego da termogravimetria para determinar a energia de ativação do processo de combustão de óleos combustíveis/ The employment of thermogravimetry to determine activation energy in the combustion process of fuel oils

Leiva, Cecilia Rocío Morales; Crnkovic, Paula Manoel; Santos, Antonio Moreira dos
2006-10-01

Resumo em inglês Activation energy (Ea) is a parameter that can be applied to make predictions about the quality of oils to be used in an ICO engine. In this study, Ea was determined by thermogravimetry following two different procedures: ASTM E 1641 and Model-free kinetics. The energies were calculated in the low temperature oxidation (LTO) region for three Brazilian fuel oils (denominated A, B and C) and the results were equal using both methods: 43 kJ mol-1 (alpha=0.1 to 0.9) for oil A (mais) , 48 kJ mol-1 (alpha=0.1 to 0.5) and 65 kJ mol-1 (alpha=0.5 to 0.9) for oil B, and 58 kJ mol-1 (alpha=0.1 to 0.5) and 65 kJ mol-1 (alpha=0.5 to 0.9) for oil C. It was concluded that, among the oils studied, sample A was potentially the best option concerning the behavior in the LTO region.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

2

Desempenho de misturas pré-aquecidas de óleo de soja cru e diesel como combustível para motores agrícolas/ Performance of preheated crude soybean oil-diesel blends as fuel in agricultural engines

Schlosser, José Fernando; Machado, Paulo Romeu Moreira; Camargo, Miguel Neves
2007-10-01

Resumo em português O óleo de soja é um dos óleos vegetais que têm potencial de uso como combustível para motores diesel, pois é renovável, seguro e de fácil utilização. Em temperatura ambiente, o óleo cru apresenta uma viscosidade cerca de dez vezes maior que a do óleo diesel. Para reduzir a viscosidade do óleo de soja a níveis aceitáveis, é necessária uma temperatura de aquecimento em torno de aproximadamente 60°C ou misturá-lo com óleo diesel. O objetivo deste estud (mais) o foi avaliar o desempenho do óleo de soja cru e suas misturas com óleo diesel, pré-aquecidas antes da bomba injetora entre 57°C e 68°C, como combustível para motores diesel. O desempenho das misturas combustíveis foi avaliado num motor monocilíndrico de injeção indireta e comparado com o obtido pelo óleo diesel. Os ensaios de curta duração foram conduzidos entre 1.800 e 2.800rpm, sob condição de plena carga em dinamômetro hidráulico. Ensaios realizados a 68°C apresentaram sempre os melhores valores para torque, potência e consumo específico de combustível do que a 57°C. Uma mistura composta por 70% de óleo de soja e 30% de óleo diesel, aquecida a 68°C, apresentou os melhores resultados. Resumo em inglês Crude soybean oil is one of the vegetable oils that have potential for use as fuel for diesel engines. Soybean oil is renewable, and is safe and easy to handle. At room temperature crude oil has a viscosity about ten times higher than that of diesel oil. To lower soybean oil's viscosity to the acceptable levels a heating temperature at least 60°C is needed or blending with diesel fuel. The objective of this study was evaluating the soybean oil and blends performance a (mais) s a fuel for diesel engines. On both crude soybean oil and soybean oil blends were used pre-heating temperature levels on the range between 57°C and 68°C, before fuel pump. The performance of the fuel blends were evaluated in a single cylinder indirect injection diesel engine and compared with the performance with diesel fuel. Engine tests (short term) were conducted at a range speed from 1800 to 2800rpm under full load conditions on hydraulic absorption brake. The tests performed at 68°C showed always the best values of torque, power and specific fuel consumption that the tests at 57°C. The best experiment results were obtained with the blend containing 70% soybean oil and 30% diesel fuel, heated at 68°C.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

3

Transesterificação de óleos vegetais: caracterização por cromatografia em camada delgada e densidade/ Transesterification of vegetable oils: characterization by thin-layer cromatography and density

Froehner, Sandro; Leithold, Juliana; Lima Júnior, Luiz Fernando
2007-01-01

Resumo em inglês We studied the transesterification of two vegetable oils: soybean and waste frying oil. The main problem of transesterification is related to the measurement of the ethyl ester content. In this work we used a quick analytical method for assessing the ethyl ester fraction of the purified fuel-grade transesterification products by applying a simple correlation with density. If the ester content is higher than 85% by weight the correlation allows the determination by a single density measurement. This method is suitable for control and determines the ethyl ester quickly and simply.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

4

Gliceroquímica: novos produtos e processos a partir da glicerina de produção de biodiesel/ Glycerochemistry: new products and processes from glycerin of biodiesel production

Mota, Claudio J. A.; Silva, Carolina X. A. da; Gonçalves, Valter L. C.
2009-01-01

Resumo em inglês Glycerol is a byproduct of biodiesel production through transesterification of oils and fat. This article discusses the chemical transformation of glycerol in ethers, acetals and esters of high technological applications, especially in the fuel sector. Glycerol hydrogenolysis, dehydration to acrolein and oxidation are discussed as well, to show the potential use of glycerol for production of plastic monomers. Finally, the article shows other transformations, such as syn gas production, epichloridrin and glycerin carbonate.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

5

Determinação da matéria-prima utilizada na produção do biodiesel adicionado ao diesel mineral através de monitoramento seletivo de íons/ Determination of biodiesel raw materials in mineral diesel fuel using selective ion monitoring

Rocha, Daniel de Queiroz; Barros, Diana Kelly; Costa, Everton José Cardoso; Souza, Katiuscia S. de; Passos, Raimundo R.; Veiga Junior, Valdir Florêncio da; Chaar, Jamal da Silva
2008-01-01

Resumo em inglês The selective ion monitoring acquisition mode in mass spectrometry was applied to identify, in the diesel complex matrix, the raw materials (vegetable oil and alcohol) that originate biodiesel. Biodiesel samples obtained from babassu, castor, palm and soybean vegetable oils and pure fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters were used to develop this method, using specific fragments in mass spectrometry and the "window system" in gas chromatography. The commercial Brazilian B2 samples were found to be produced with soybean oil, transesterified with methanol.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

6

Biodiesel: o ônus e o bônus de produzir combustível/ Biodiesel: the charge and the bond of the fuel producing

Silva, Paulo Regis Ferreira da; Freitas, Thais Fernanda Stella de
2008-06-01

Resumo em português A dependência do petróleo e a poluição gerada pelo óleo diesel são as grandes desvantagens do uso deste combustível, o que vem estimulando a busca por fontes energéticas alternativas. Biodiesel é o combustível derivado de óleos vegetais ou de gordura animal que pode substituir total ou parcialmente o óleo diesel derivado de petróleo. Pode ser obtido por diferentes processos, como craqueamento, transesterificação ou esterificação, tendo glicerina como subp (mais) roduto. A transesterificação é o método estimulado pelo Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso de Biodiesel no Brasil, consistindo na reação química de triglicerídios com álcoois (metanol ou etanol) na presença de um catalisador (NaOH). O objetivo desta revisão é discutir as vantagens e as desvantagens que a produção de biodiesel traz para a agricultura e o ambiente e a competição que pode ocorrer por recursos naturais entre a produção de alimentos e a de combustível. O biodiesel, além de ser obtido de fontes renováveis, tem como vantagens a menor emissão de gases poluentes e a menor persistência no solo. Entretanto, o custo de produção atualmente é maior e o balanço energético, apesar de variar com o sistema de produção utilizado, é menos favorável em relação ao óleo diesel. A maior demanda por grãos oleaginosos promoverá a utilização de mais espécies nos sistemas de produção em todo o país. Na Região Sul, tem sido dado maior enfoque às culturas da soja, girassol, canola e mamona. Esta última, incentivada em regiões de baixa disponibilidade hídrica, está sendo melhorada geneticamente para produção de biocombustível. Tem como desvantagem a presença de ricina, substância tóxica ao homem e que pode contaminar o ambiente. O girassol e a canola produzem óleos "nobres" para alimentação humana, com altos teores de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados. O biodiesel constitui-se em uma boa alternativa para a substituição parcial ou total do óleo diesel, mas as vantagens ambientais e agrícolas dependem de estudos pendentes em vários elos da cadeia produtiva. Resumo em inglês The petroleum dependence and the pollution generated by its use are the big disadvantages of this fuel, which demand look for another source of energy. Biodiesel is the fuel obtained from vegetables oils or animal fat, which can substitute petroleum diesel, total or partially. Three processes are possible to obtain biodiesel: cracking, tranesterfication or esterification, having glycerin as a derivate. The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel sti (mais) mulates the transesterification process, which is the chemical reaction of the triglycerides with alcohols (methanol or ethanol) using a catalyst (NaOH). The goal of this revision was to discuss the advantages and disadvantages that biodiesel production can bring for agriculture and environmental and the competition that could occur for natural resources between food and fuel production. The biodiesel obtained from renewable sources has as advantages the lower pollutant it gases emission and lower persistence in the soil. However, it has a higher cost production than petroleum diesel and the energy balance is less favourable, although it can vary with the system production used. The higher demand for oleaginous grains will increase the number of species used in crop production. In the south of Brazil, the species more stimulated are soybean, sunflower, canola and castor plant. Castor, that is an alternative for drought regions, is being genetically modified for fuel production, but it has the big disadvantage of ricin production, which is very poisonous for human and environment. Sunflower produces a very healthy oil for human use, with high levels of fat poliinsaturated acids. Biodiesel is a good alternative to substitute partial or totally petroleum diesel, but the environmental and agricultural advantages depend on studies in every link of its production chain.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

7

Biocombustíveis a partir de óleos e gorduras: desafios tecnológicos para viabilizá-los/ Oils and fats based biofuels: technological chalendges

Suarez, Paulo A. Z.; Santos, André L. F.; Rodrigues, Juliana P.; Alves, Melquizedeque B.
2009-01-01

Resumo em inglês Periodically, during petroleum shortage, fatty acids and their derivatives have been used as alternative fuels to those derived from petroleum. Different approaches have been proposed, including the use of neat fats and oils or their derivatives. Indeed, the utilization of biodiesel produced by alcoholysis of triacilglycerides or esterification of fatty acids, or hydrocarbons obtained from cracking of fatty materials were studied and used in several countries. Increasing (mais) concerns about energy security and climate changes have lead several countries, including Brazil, to start up biofuels programs. Different technologies are currently being developed in order to produce biofuels with economical feasibility. In this work are discussed alternative fatty raw-materials and processing technologies that are currently being studied in order to produce fuels suitable to sustainable substitute diesel fuel.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

8

70º aniversário do biodiesel em 2007: evolução histórica e situação atual no brasil/ 70th anniversary of biodiesel in 2007: historical evolution and current situation in Brazil

Suarez, Paulo A. Z.; Meneghetti, Simoni M. Plentz
2007-01-01

Resumo em inglês Periodically, during petroleum shortages, vegetable oils and their derivatives have been proposed as alternatives to petroleum diesel fuel. Different approaches have been proposed, including the use of pure vegetable oils (or blends) or their derivatives. Indeed, the use of fatty-acid methyl or ethyl esters (usually known as "biodiesel") produced by alcoholysis of triacylglycerides or esterification of fatty acids was initially proposed in Belgium 70 years ago, when the f (mais) irst world patent was deposited. Recently, foreign dependence on diesel fuel and the petroleum crisis have increased the discussion in Brazil on starting to use alternatives to diesel fuel, being biodiesel the alternative of choice for a large petroleum diesel substitution program.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)