Sample records for fourth sound
from WorldWideScience.org

Sample records 1 - 6 shown.



1

Subsídio ao melhor conhecimento do tifo exantemático neotrópico no Brasil: presença do virus no leite

Magalhães, Octavio de; Rocha, Adyr
1948-03-01

Resumo em inglês In articles, already published, we have proved that the strain V. B. of Brazilian virus, goes through the placenta (Macacus rhesus) (1) and the apparently normal gastro-intestinal tube (1934-1937) (Canis familiaris) (2). Today we present the idea that the Brazilian virus can reach the milk of an animal even when the latter has only the unapparent disease. In former articles (**), we have shown that the goat (Capra hircus) can be an excellent reservoir of Brazilian virus, (mais) having the strain V. B. in its blood and presenting a Weil Felix reaction high and in “group”, with the disease unapparent. When the goats are bred in the laboratory, and even in some foci of the disease, they give a negative Weil Felix, being zero for all the nine strains of Proteus. In the interior of Brazil, in many localities, goats substitute cows, in supplying milk for children and adults, and in some districts goat’s milk is considered superior to cow’s milk, possessing marvellous qualities for men, women an children. Having proved, now, that goat’s milk can contain the virus even when the animal presents nothing clinically, and having also shown that this virus goes through the digestive tube apparently sound, it is easy to understand how infants-in-arms, that is, only a few months old, living in strictly domestic surroundings, can contract the disease; we have many such cases on record. Protocol of the experiments: Goat nº 2, white, January 1948. This animal had been inoculated with the V. B. strain of the Brazilian virus in June 1947, via intra-peritoneal, presenting nothing then, not even a feverish reaction. On that occasion it was not possible to isolate the virus of the blood, although the Weil Felix reaction was positive, high and in “group”. Now January 17, 1948, seven months later, the same animal was reinoculated with a semple of virus V. B. in the same manner (intra-peritoneal) two days after bringing forth two sturdy kids. The virus V. B. was obtained from guinea-pig n. 7170 whose thermic graph was as follows: Temperatura – 38,8 – 39,1 – 39,5 – 39,4 –39,8 – 40,4 – 40,2 – 40,1 - + Necropsy – Typical lesions. The spleen weighed 5 grammes. With 3c.c. of emulsion from the nervous system of this guinea-pig, we inoculated not only the goat, as also two guineapigs, number 14 and number 5. The following is the thermic graph of one: - Guinea-pig n. 14 – 38,9 – 39,1 – 39,2 – 39.2 – 40,7 – 41,0 – 40,5 – 40,4 – 40,1 - + Typical lesions. Guinea-pig n. 2 presented the following thermic graph after the infective inoculation: - 39,5 – 39,7 – 39,7 – 39,7 – 39,5 – 39,3 – 39,5 – 39,5 – 39,5 – etc. Clinically, this animal presented nothing unusual, feeding well and suckling the kids normally. The Weil Felix reaction was positive, in “group” high very similar to the reaction obtained in June 1947, with the first infective inoculation. On the third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh day after the infective inoculation, we took milk from the goat and inoculated male guinea-pigs via intra-celular and via intra-peritoneal, giving 5 c.c. to each animal. Guinea-pig n. 4663, inoculated with 5 c.c. of milk, via intra-muscular, taken on the third day of the infectaive inoculation, presented the following thermic graph: - 38.8 (*) – 39,1 – 39,0 – 39,1 – 40,1 – 40,1 – 40,8 (**) – 40,8 – Killed – Typical deisions (***). The virus V. B. of this goat, circulated naturally in the blood up to the third day, having passed into the milk, producing nothing in the kids, on account of the natural resistance of these animals to the disease. The Weil Felix reaction and that of Widal for the Burcellas suis, abortus and militensis were negative for the goat and the kids. It is remarkable that, even with inoculation of the living virus after a period of seven months we cannot get a real and absolute immunity of sensitive animals. We shall return to this subject later. The hart Mazama simplicicornis may be a carrier of the virus in Brasil. The experimental serum against the virus of Exanthematic neotropical typhus has not protected guinea-pigs.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

2

Resistência ao cisalhamento de dentes submetidos a duas técnicas de clareamento, pós-restaurados ou não/ Shear strength in teeth subjected to two bleaching techniques, post-restoration or otherwise

SIQUEIRA, Evandro Luiz; SANTOS, Marcelo dos; Di GIROLAMO NETO, João Alfredo; SANTOS, Flôr Luigina Hidalgo Vargas dos
1997-01-01

Resumo em português Os autores testaram a resistência ao cisalhamento de dentes submetidos a duas técnicas de clareamento. Foram utilizados 50 incisivos centrais superiores, divididos em 5 grupos, a saber: controle (só abertura coronária), clareamento sem calor, clareamento catalisado por calor controlado, clareamento catalisado por calor controlado e restauração com resina composta de última geração e dentes hígidos. Após o teste de cisalhamento, constatou-se que, nos dentes subm (mais) etidos ao clareamento dental com perborato de sódio/Peridrol com ou sem aplicações de calor controlado, apesar de estes apresentarem leve diminuição da resistência ao cisalhamento, esta não é estatisticamente significante quando comparada com a dos dentes em que se executa o acesso endodôntico sem clareamento. A restauração do dente após o clareamento dental com adesivo dentinário de 4ª geração e resina fotopolimerizada aumenta a resistência do elemento dental clareado. Não existem diferenças estatísticas de resistência ao cisalhamento entre dentes clareados sem o uso de calor e aqueles em que o calor foi empregado de forma controlada, como preconizado neste estudo. Dentes hígidos apresentam resistência maior do que os dentes clareados com calor, sem calor e aqueles não clareados, com significância estatística no nível de 5%. Já com os dentes clareados e restaurados, os dentes hígidos não mostraram diferenças estatísticas significantes Resumo em inglês The authors tested the shear strength in teeth subjected to two bleaching techniques with use of 50 upper central incisors divided into 5 groups, namely: control (intracoronal access only), bleaching without heat, bleaching catalyzed by controlled heat, bleaching catalyzed by controlled heat and restored with last generation composite resin, and sound teeth. Following the shearing test it was observed that teeth subjected to dental bleaching with sodium perborate/Peridrol (mais) with or without applications of controlled heat, although they presented a slight reduction in shear strength, this was not statistically significant as compared to that from teeth where endodontic access was effected without bleaching. Restoration of the tooth subsequently to dental bleaching with fourth generation dentinal adhesive and photopolymerized resin augments the resistance of the bleached dental element. There are no statistical differences between resistance to shear in bleached teeth without the use of heat with those where heat was employed in a controlled form as preconized in this study. Sound teeth present greater resistance than teeth bleached with heat, without heat, and those not bleached with statistical significance at the level of 5%. When compared to teeth bleached and restored, they did not present significant statistical differences

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

3

Música para uma exposição cartográfica

Kieffer, Anna Maria
2009-06-01

Resumo em português O artigo explora o uso da documentação histórica para composição das duas trilhas musicais que sonorizaram a exposição Cartografia de uma História: São Paulo Colonial, mapas e relatos, exibida no Museu Paulista. A primeira trilha, destinada ao vídeo instalado na sala cujo tema foi América: a quarta parte; a segunda, instalada na sala dedicada à cartografia do sertão e aos relatos da exploração do interior da capitania de São Paulo. Resumo em inglês This paper explores the use of historical documentation as a basis for the composition of two musical scores for an exhibition titled Cartography of a history: colonial São Paulo, maps and accounts, staged at Museu Paulista. The first one was written for a video shown in an exhibition hall dedicated to the topic America: the fourth part; the second score was played in another gallery, serving as a sound track for an exhibition of maps of Brazil's backcountry and accounts related to the exploration of the interior of the captaincy of São Paulo.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

4

Habilidades de leitura de legendas de filmes em escolares do ensino fundamental/ Movie subtitles reading skills of elementary school children

Minucci, Michele Viana; Cárnio, Maria Silvia
2010-09-01

Resumo em português TEMA: as habilidades de leitura de textos fixos em escolares são amplamente conhecidas, no entanto ainda não se sabe como os escolares realizam a leitura de textos móveis e quais habilidades são necessárias para este tipo de leitura. OBJETIVO : avaliar as habilidades de leitura de legendas de filmes em escolares de segunda e quarta série do ensino fundamental de uma escola pública. MÉTODO: análise do nível e habilidades de leitura de legenda de filmes, por meio (mais) da recontagem de um trecho de filme assistido, de forma individual, sem som e com legenda, por 60 escolares, sendo 30 de segunda série e 30 de quarta série, pareados quanto ao gênero e idade. RESULTADOS: não foram encontradas diferenças significantes quanto aos níveis de letramento escolar entre as duas séries. Quanto às habilidades e ao nível de leitura de legenda de filmes os escolares de quarta série obtiveram desempenho significativamente superior aos de segunda série, uma vez que apresentaram habilidades referentes aos níveis de compreensão literal e compreensão independente, enquanto os de segunda série, em média ficaram no nível de decodificação. CONCLUSÃO: os escolares de segunda série estão em nível de decodificação, enquanto os de quarta série encontram-se em nível de compreensão literal de leitura de legenda de filmes, demonstrando que a escolaridade influencia a leitura de legenda de filmes. Entretanto, o grau de letramento escolar não foi um fator significante para a leitura de legenda de filmes. Resumo em inglês BACKGROUND: the abilities of school children for reading static texts have been widely discussed, however little is known about how well they can read dynamic texts and what skills are required for this kind of reading. AIM: to evaluate the skills involved in reading movie subtitles of 2nd and 4th graders of students at the a public school. METHOD: analysis of the level and skills needed for movie subtitles reading, through the retelling of a section of a movie watched in (mais) dividually by 60 students, 30 2nd graders and 30 4th graders matched for age and gender, with no sound and with subtitles. RESULTS: there were no significant differences in the level of school literacy between students of the different school grades. Considering the skills and the subtitles reading level, 4th graders presented a significant better performance when compared to the 2nd graders. Fourth graders presented skills related to the levels of literal comprehension and independent comprehension, whereas 2nd graders where mostly at the decoding level. CONCLUSION: 2nd graders are at the textual decoding level of movie subtitles, while 4th graders are at the literal comprehension level of movie subtitles. This indicates that schooling has an influence on the reading of movie subtitles. However, the school literacy literacy was not a significant factor for movie subtitles reading.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

5

Classificando Regimes Políticos na América Latina, 1945-1999/ Classifying Political Regimes in Latin America, 1945-1999/ Pour un Classement des Régimes Politiques en Amérique Latine entre 1945 et 1999

Mainwaring, Scott; Brinks, Daniel; Pérez-Liñán, Aníbal
2001-01-01

Resumo em inglês This paper is about two related subjects: how to classify political regimes in general, and how Latin American regimes should be classified for the 1945-1999 period. We make five general claims about regime classification. First, regime classification should rest on sound concepts and definitions. Second, it should be based on explicit and sensible coding and aggregation rules. Third, it necessarily involves some subjective judgments. Fourth, the debate about dichotomous (mais) versus continuous measures of democracy creates a false dilemma. Neither democratic theory, nor coding requirements, nor the reality underlying democratic practice compel either a dichotomous or a continuous approach in all cases. Fifth, dichotomous measures of democracy fail to capture intermediate regime types, obscuring variation that is essential for studying political regimes. This general discussion provides the grounding for our trichotomous ordinal scale, which codes regimes as democratic, semi-democratic or authoritarian in nineteen Latin American countries from 1945 to 1999. Our trichotomous classification achieves greater differentiation than dichotomous classifications and yet avoids the need for massive information that a very fine grained measure would require.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

6

Avaliação Cognitiva de Leitura e Escrita: As Tarefas de Leitura em Voz Alta e Ditado/ Cognitive Assessment of Reading and Writing: Reading-Aloud and Spelling Tasks

Pinheiro, Ângela Maria Vieira; Rothe-Neves, Rui
2001-01-01

Resumo em português Tarefas de leitura em voz alta e de tomada de ditado de listas de palavra reais e de não-palavras, isoladas, fazem parte de um conjunto de provas maior -- o Procedimento de Avaliação Cognitiva da Leitura e da Escrita. Com base em Seymour, Pinheiro desenvolveu um teste experimental que se mostrou adequado para avaliação de leitura e de escrita em crianças mineiras da primeira à quarta série do Ensino Fundamental. O procedimento foi retestado, com sucesso, por Capov (mais) illa, Capovilla e Macedo. A partir desses resultados, Pinheiro desenvolve, atualmente, um instrumento computadorizado de avaliação que consiste de tarefas de leitura em voz alta e de tomada de ditado, entre outras. O presente trabalho discute as bases teóricas para a construção das listas de palavras reais e de não-palavras, com ênfase no controle da variável regularidade letra-som/som-letra. Resumo em inglês Reading-aloud and spelling tasks using single word and nonword lists are part of a broader set of tests called Cognitive Assessment Procedure. Based on Seymour, Pinheiro developed an experimental test which seemed suitable for reading and writing assessment of first to fourth graders in Minas Gerais. That procedure was retested by Capovilla, Capovilla and Macedo. Based on those results, Pinheiro is presently involved in developing a computerized assessment procedure, whic (mais) h includes reading-aloud and spelling tasks, among others. This article presents the theoretical basis for the construction of single word and nonword lists, emphasizing the control of letter-sound/sound-letter regularity effect.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)