Resumo em inglês In articles, already published, we have proved that the strain V. B. of Brazilian virus, goes through the placenta (Macacus rhesus) (1) and the apparently normal gastro-intestinal tube (1934-1937) (Canis familiaris) (2). Today we present the idea that the Brazilian virus can reach the milk of an animal even when the latter has only the unapparent disease. In former articles (**), we have shown that the goat (Capra hircus) can be an excellent reservoir of Brazilian virus, (mais) having the strain V. B. in its blood and presenting a Weil Felix reaction high and in group, with the disease unapparent. When the goats are bred in the laboratory, and even in some foci of the disease, they give a negative Weil Felix, being zero for all the nine strains of Proteus. In the interior of Brazil, in many localities, goats substitute cows, in supplying milk for children and adults, and in some districts goats milk is considered superior to cows milk, possessing marvellous qualities for men, women an children. Having proved, now, that goats milk can contain the virus even when the animal presents nothing clinically, and having also shown that this virus goes through the digestive tube apparently sound, it is easy to understand how infants-in-arms, that is, only a few months old, living in strictly domestic surroundings, can contract the disease; we have many such cases on record. Protocol of the experiments: Goat nº 2, white, January 1948. This animal had been inoculated with the V. B. strain of the Brazilian virus in June 1947, via intra-peritoneal, presenting nothing then, not even a feverish reaction. On that occasion it was not possible to isolate the virus of the blood, although the Weil Felix reaction was positive, high and in group. Now January 17, 1948, seven months later, the same animal was reinoculated with a semple of virus V. B. in the same manner (intra-peritoneal) two days after bringing forth two sturdy kids. The virus V. B. was obtained from guinea-pig n. 7170 whose thermic graph was as follows: Temperatura 38,8 39,1 39,5 39,4 39,8 40,4 40,2 40,1 - + Necropsy Typical lesions. The spleen weighed 5 grammes. With 3c.c. of emulsion from the nervous system of this guinea-pig, we inoculated not only the goat, as also two guineapigs, number 14 and number 5. The following is the thermic graph of one: - Guinea-pig n. 14 38,9 39,1 39,2 39.2 40,7 41,0 40,5 40,4 40,1 - + Typical lesions. Guinea-pig n. 2 presented the following thermic graph after the infective inoculation: - 39,5 39,7 39,7 39,7 39,5 39,3 39,5 39,5 39,5 etc. Clinically, this animal presented nothing unusual, feeding well and suckling the kids normally. The Weil Felix reaction was positive, in group high very similar to the reaction obtained in June 1947, with the first infective inoculation. On the third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh day after the infective inoculation, we took milk from the goat and inoculated male guinea-pigs via intra-celular and via intra-peritoneal, giving 5 c.c. to each animal. Guinea-pig n. 4663, inoculated with 5 c.c. of milk, via intra-muscular, taken on the third day of the infectaive inoculation, presented the following thermic graph: - 38.8 (*) 39,1 39,0 39,1 40,1 40,1 40,8 (**) 40,8 Killed Typical deisions (***). The virus V. B. of this goat, circulated naturally in the blood up to the third day, having passed into the milk, producing nothing in the kids, on account of the natural resistance of these animals to the disease. The Weil Felix reaction and that of Widal for the Burcellas suis, abortus and militensis were negative for the goat and the kids. It is remarkable that, even with inoculation of the living virus after a period of seven months we cannot get a real and absolute immunity of sensitive animals. We shall return to this subject later. The hart Mazama simplicicornis may be a carrier of the virus in Brasil. The experimental serum against the virus of Exanthematic neotropical typhus has not protected guinea-pigs.
Classificando Regimes Políticos na América Latina, 1945-1999/ Classifying Political Regimes in Latin America, 1945-1999/ Pour un Classement des Régimes Politiques en Amérique Latine entre 1945 et 1999
Resumo em inglês This paper is about two related subjects: how to classify political regimes in general, and how Latin American regimes should be classified for the 1945-1999 period. We make five general claims about regime classification. First, regime classification should rest on sound concepts and definitions. Second, it should be based on explicit and sensible coding and aggregation rules. Third, it necessarily involves some subjective judgments. Fourth, the debate about dichotomous (mais) versus continuous measures of democracy creates a false dilemma. Neither democratic theory, nor coding requirements, nor the reality underlying democratic practice compel either a dichotomous or a continuous approach in all cases. Fifth, dichotomous measures of democracy fail to capture intermediate regime types, obscuring variation that is essential for studying political regimes. This general discussion provides the grounding for our trichotomous ordinal scale, which codes regimes as democratic, semi-democratic or authoritarian in nineteen Latin American countries from 1945 to 1999. Our trichotomous classification achieves greater differentiation than dichotomous classifications and yet avoids the need for massive information that a very fine grained measure would require.