Euglenophyceae de ambientes lênticos na planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Sul do Brasil: gêneros Euglena Ehr. e Lepocinclis Perty/ Euglenophyceae of lentic environments at the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul State, South of Brazil: genera Euglena Ehr. and Lepocinclis Perty)
Resumo em português São apresentados 28 táxons específicos e infra-específicos dos gêneros Euglena Ehr. e Lepocinclis Perty como resultado do estudo do fitoplâncton e perifíton em ambientes lênticos (lagoas, açude e banhados) da Lagoa do Casamento e ecossistemas associados (30º03'- 30º34'S e 50º25'- 50º47'W) e ecossistemas próximos ao Butiazal de Tapes (30º23'- 30º38'S e 51º16'- 51º29'W) na planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul. As coletas abrangeram as estações de outo (mais) no e primavera de 2003. As áreas úmidas (banhados) associadas à Lagoa do Casamento na primavera de 2003 apresentaram maior riqueza específica destes dois gêneros. Lepocinclis salina Fritsch var. salina foi a espécie que se distinguiu quanto a distribuição por ter ocorrido em 41,2% do total de amostras analisadas. São novos registros para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul e país, L. playfairiana Defl. var. playfairiana e L. boseensis Xie, Qiu & Ling. Resumo em inglês Twenty eight specific and infra-specific taxa of the genera Euglena Ehr. and Lepocinclis Perty are presented as a result of phytoplankton and periphyton study in lentic systems next to Lagoa do Casamento (30º03'- 30º34'S and 50º25'- 50º47'W) and Butiazal de Tapes (30º23'- 30º38'S and 51º16'- 51º29'W), coastal zone of Rio Grande do Sul State. Samples were collected in autumn and spring seasons in 2003. The swamps associated to Lagoa do Casamento in spring of 2003 p (mais) resented more specific richness of these two genera. Lepocinclis salina Fritsch var. salina distinguished by its distribution, occuring in 41,2% of the analized samples. Two taxa are new records for the State and Brazil: L. playfairiana Defl. var. playfairiana and L. boseensis Xie, Qiu & Ling.
Ocorrência de Euglenophyceae pigmentadas em rizipiscicultura na Região do Vale do Itajaí, SC, Sul do Brasil/ Occurrence of pigmented Euglenophyceae in rice-fish fields of the Itajaí River Valley region, Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil
Resumo em português O estudo de uma amostra oriunda do cultivo de arroz irrigado (Oriza sativa L.) associado com criação de carpa comum (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758), em um ambiente raso (20 m² × 0,30 m de prof.), na Região do Vale do Itajaí, Santa Catarina (26º53'33''S, 048º49'41''W), resultou na identificação de 48 morfoespécies da classe Euglenophyceae, representados pelos gêneros Euglena, Lepocinclis, Phacus, Strombomonas e Trachelomonas. O gênero Trachelomonas foi o que (mais) apresentou o maior número de táxons (26%). Destacou-se Euglena caudata Hübnere Euglena sanguinea Ehr. pelo elevado número de indivíduos por lâmina. Vinte e oito táxons são primeiras citações de ocorrência para o estado de Santa Catarina. São fornecidas descrições, chaves dicotômicas, dimensões, relação entre o comprimento e a largura celular (Rc/l), ilustrações dos táxons e distribuição geográfica mundial. Resumo em inglês A sample collected from rice-fish fields (Oriza sativa L. and Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) in shallow water (20 m²× 0.30 m deep) in the Itajai River Valley region, Santa Catarina (26º53'33''S and 48º49'41''W) revealed 48 morphospecies from the class Euglenophyceae represented by the genera Euglena, Lepocinclis, Phacus,Strombomonas and Trachelomonas. Trachelomonas was the best represented genus with 26% of all taxa. The reddish water at the time of sampling was due (mais) to the high number of Euglena caudata Hübnerand Euglena sanguinea Ehr. individuals per plate (bloom). Twenty eight taxa are new records for the state of Santa Catarina. Descriptions, dichotomous keys, size variation, length/width relationship (Rc/l), illustrations and geographic distribution are provided for all taxa.
Resumo em português As Euglenophyceae da ficoflórula do Lago Amapá I, Rio Branco, Estado do Acre, Brasil, constituem uma contribuição ao inventário ficológico do Estado do Acre. Está baseada no estudo de 15 amostras coletadas com rede de plâncton e passagem de frasco aberto em meio à massa de algas, as quais foram fixadas e preservadas com solução de Transeau. Foram identificadas 25 Euglenaceae. Os gêneros Euglena e Trachelomonas foram os mais bem representados em nível qualitativo. Resumo em inglês The Euglenophyceae flora of Lake Amapá I, Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, constitutes a contribution to the phycological inventory of the State of Acre. It is based on the study of 15 samples collected with plankton net and by passing an open flask in areas with dense plankton concentrations. Samples were prepared and preserved with Transeau solution. Twenty five taxons were identified. Genera Euglena and Trachelomonas were the most frequently represented.
Utilização de bioindicadores em diferentes hidrossistemas de uma indústria de papeis reciclados em Governador Valadares - MG/ Use of biological indicators in different hydrosystems of an industry of recycled papers in Governador Valadares - MG
Resumo em português A bacia do rio Doce, quinta maior do estado de Minas Gerais, mostra-se bastante degradada com impactos diretos na vegetação, no solo, na biodiversidade e na qualidade das águas. Sabendo-se da importância da bacia em questão, a utilização de bioindicadores aquáticos representa uma das formas mais modernas para se detectar níveis diferenciados de carga orgânica, sendo premente seu estudo e aplicação. Este trabalho propõe a utilização de organismos microscópi (mais) cos como o fitoplâncton que, aliados a parâmetros físico-químicos, poderiam indicar poluição em seus diferentes níveis. A metodologia utilizada foi estabelecida conforme Sladecek (1973) e Greenberg (1992). Foram amostradas sete estações de coleta no ribeirão Capim, na área de influência de uma empresa de papéis reciclados, objetivando-se detectar possíveis impactos na cadeia trófica. As análises mostraram a ocorrência de 41 taxa, destacando-se a predominância dos gêneros Oscylatoria a Anacystis pertencentes à divisão Cyanophyta nos ambientes de maior estresse, e organismos da divisão Chlorophyta nos demais ambientes amostrados. Observou-se ainda a capacidade de adaptação de alguns gêneros, entre eles Euglena e Navicula, os quais se fizeram presentes em quase todos os ambientes amostrados. Resumo em inglês The Rio Doces basin, which is the fifth greatest basin of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is severely degraded by the direct impacts on vegetation, soil, biodiversity, and water quality. Due to the importance of this basin, the use of aquatic bioindicators is one of the most modern methods to detect differentiated levels of organic matter, and its study and application is a relevant issue. This paper proposes the use microscopic organisms such phytoplankton, which co (mais) mbined with physicochemical parameters, would indicate pollution on its different levels. The applied methodology was according to Sladecek (1973) and Greenberg (1992). It was sampled seven collect stations on the Capim stream, in an area under the influence of a recycling paper industry, being the objective to assess the possible impacts on the trophic chain. The analysis presented the existence of 41 taxa, emphasizing the predominance of Oscilatoria and Anacystis genus, that belong to the Cyanophyta division, on more disturbed areas, while organisms from the Chlorophyta division were identified on the other sampled locations. Moreover, it was observed the ability that some genus like the Euglena and Navicula have to adapt to their environment, since these organisms were present on almost all samples.
Resumo em inglês The engineers of the modern University City are constructing a graceful bridge, named PONTE OSWALDO CRUZ, that crosses a portion of the Guanabara Bay (Fig. 1). The work at west pillar stopped for 3 years (The concret structure in Est. 1). As it will be seen from n.º 1 5 of the fig. 1, Est. I, the base of the structure will have five underground boxes of reinforcement, but, to-day they are just like as five uncovered water ponds, until at present: May 1963. (Est. I (mais) fig. 3, n.º 3 pond n.º 3; A. old level of the water; B. actual level of the water; c. green water; E. mass of bloom of blue algae Microcystis aeruginosa). Soon after SW portion, as 5 cells in series, of the pillar abutments, and also the NE portion nearly opposite in the Tibau Mount will be filled up with earth, a new way will link Rio City and the University City. We see to day Est. I, fig. 1 the grasses on the half arenous beach of the Tibau Point. These natural Cyperaceae and Gramineae will be desappear because of so a new road, now under construction, when completed will be 33 feet above the mean sea level, as high as the pillar, covering exactly as that place. Although rainfall was the chief source of water for these ponds, the first water (before meterorological precipitations of whatever first rain it might fall) was a common tap water mixed with Portland Cement, which exuded gradually through the pores of the concret during its hardenning process. Some data of its first cement water composition are on the chemical table, and in Tab. n.º 4 and "Resultado n.º 1". The rain receiving surface of each pond were about 15 by 16 feet, that is, 240 square feet; when they were full of water, their depth was of 2 feet 3", having each pond about 4,000 gallons. Climatic conditions are obviously similar of those of the Rio de Janeiro City: records of temperature, of precipitation and evaporation are seen on the graphics, figs. 2, 3, 4. Our conceptions of 4 phases is merely to satisfy an easy explanation thus the first phase that of exudation of concrete. We consider the 2nd. phase formation of bacterian and cyanophycean thin pellicel. 3rd. phase - dilution by rains, and fertilisation by birds; the 4th phase - plankton flora and fauna established. The biological material arrived with the air, the rains, and also with contaminations by dusts; with big portion of sand, of earth, and leaves of trees resulted of the SW wind actions in the storming days (See - Est. I, fig. 3, G. - the mangrove trees of the Pinheiro Island). Many birds set down and rest upon the pillar structure, its faeces which are good fertilizers fall into the ponds. Some birds were commonly pigeons, black ravens, swallows, sparrows and other sea mews, moor hens, and a few sea birds of comparatively rare occurence. We get only some examples of tropical dust contaminated helioplankton, of which incipient observations were been done sparcely. See the systematic list of the species of plankters. Phytoplankters - Cyanophyta algae as a basic part for food of zooplankters, represented chiefly by rotiferse, water-fleas Moinodaphnia and other Crustacea: Ostracoda Copepoda and Insecta: Chironomidae and Culicidae larvae. The polysaprobic of septic irruptions have not been done only by heating in summer, and, a good reason of that, for example: when the fifth pond was in polysaprobic phase as the same time an alike septic phase do not happened into the 3rd. pond, therefore, both were in the same conditions of temperature, but with unlike contaminations. Among the most important aquatic organisms used as indicatiors of pollution - and microorganisms of real importance in the field of sanitary science, by authorities of renown, for instance: PALMER, PRESCOTT, INGRAM, LIEBMANN, we choose following microalgae: a) The cosmopolite algae Scenedesmus quadricuada, a common indicator in mesosaprobio waters, which lives between pH 7,0 and it is assimilative of NO[3 subscripted] and NH[4 subscripted]. b) Species of the genus Chlamydomonas; it is even possible that all the species of theses genus inhabit strong-mesosaprobic to polysaprobic waters when in massive blooms. c) Several species of Euglenaceae in fast growing number, at the same time of the protozoa Amoebidae, Vorticellidae and simultaneous with deposition of the decaying cells of the blue algae Anacystis cyanea (= Microcystis) when the consumed oxygen by organic matter resulted in 40 mg. L. But, we found, among various Euglenacea the cosmopolite species (Euglena viridis, a well known polysaprobic indicatior of which presence occur in septic zone. d) Analcystis cyanea (= M. aeruginosa) as we observed was in blooms increasing to the order of billions of cells per litter, its maximum in the summer. Temperatures 73ºF to 82ºF but even 90ºF, the pH higher than 8. When these blue algae was joined to the rotifer Brachionus calyflorus the waters gets a milky appearance, but greenished one. In fact, that cosmopolite algae is used as a mesosaprobic indicator. Into the water of the ponds its predominance finished when the septic polysaprobic conditions began. e) Ankistrodesmus falcatus was present in the 5th pond from 26the. April untill the 26th July, and when N.NH[4 subscripted] gets 1.28 mg. L. and when chlorinity stayed from 0.034 to 0.061 mg. L. It never was found at N.NH[4 subscripted] higher than 1 mg. L. The green algae A. falcatus, an indicatior of pollution, lives in moderate mesosaprobic waters. f) As everyone knows, the rotifer eggs may be widely dispersed by wind. The rotifer Asplanchna brightwelli in our observation seemed like a green colored bag, overcharged by green cells and detritus, specially into its spacious stomach, which ends blindly (the intestine, cloaca, being absent). The stock of Asplanchna in the ponds, during the construction of the bridge "PONTE OSWALDO CRUZ" inhabits alkaline waters, pH 8,0 a 8,3, and when we observed we noted its dissolved oxygen from 3.5 to 4 mg. L. In these ponds Asplanchna lived in 0,2 P.PO[4 subscripted]. (Remember the hydobiological observations foreign to braslian waters refer only from 0.06 to 0,010 mg. L. P.PO[4 subscripted]; and they refer resistance to 0.8 N.NH[4 subscripted]). By our data, that rotiger resist commonly to 1.2 until 1.8 mg. L.N.NH[4 subscripted]; here in our ponds and, when NO[2 subscripted] appears Asplanchna desappears. It may be that Asplanchna were devoured by nitrite resistant animals of by Culicidae or other mosquitoes devoured by Due to these facts the number and the distribution of Asplanchna varies considerabley; see - plates of plankton successions. g) Brachionus one of the commonest members of class Rotatoria was frquently found in abundance into the ponds, and we notice an important biological change produce by the rotifer Brachonus colyciflorus: the occurence of its Brachionus clayciflorus forms pallas, is rare in Brazil, as we know about this. h) When we found the water flea MOinodaphnia we do not record simultanous presence of the blue algae Agmenellun (= Merismopedia).