Sample records for electrolysis
from WorldWideScience.org

Sample records 1 - 19 shown.



1

Eletrólise de resíduos poluidores: I - Efluente de uma indústria liofilizadora de condimentos/ Electrolysis of polluting wastes: I - Wastewater from a seasoning freeze-drying industry

Angelis, Dejanira F. de; Corso, Carlos R.; Bidoia, Ederio D.; Moraes, Peterson B.; Domingos, Roberto N.; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C.
1998-02-01

Resumo em inglês Wastewater from a seasoning freeze-drying industry was electrolysed to increase its biodegradability. Stainless-steel electrodes were used at 9.09 A/m², for up to 80 min. Conductivity, pH, biochemical (BOD) and chemical (COD) oxygen demands, Daphnia similis acute toxicity bioassays, and bacteria counting through the plate count agar method were determined after different times of electrolysis. The results (e.g. higher BOD and lower COD) showed that the biodegradability o (mais) f the wastewater was significantly increased; furthermore, Fe2+ ions liberated by the electrodes cause microorganisms to die and, when oxidised to Fe3+, contribute for the flocculation and sedimentation of solid residues.

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2

Solução oxidante gerada a partir da eletrólise de rejeitos de dessalinizadores de água/ Oxidant solution generated by electrolysis from residue of water desalinators

Matos, Jeruza Feitosa de; Mota, Suetônio; Avelino, Francimeyre Freire; Pádua, Valter Lúcio de; Braga, Erika de Almeida Sampaio; Malveira, Jackon Queiroz
2006-06-01

Resumo em português Neste trabalho foram realizados estudos para a produção de solução oxidante a partir de rejeito de dessalinizadores de água pelo processo de eletrólise, visando a sua utilização como desinfetante. O experimento foi realizado em escala de laboratório. Três soluções oxidantes foram geradas eletroliticamente, a partir de rejeitos de dessalinizadores de água com concentrações de 1,7 x 10³ mg; 5,5 x 10³ mg e 10,2 x 10³ mg de Cl-/L. O processo de eletrólise t (mais) inha duração de oito horas e, a cada hora da reação, o pH, a condutividade elétrica, a temperatura e o cloro total eram monitorados. Foi observado que a produção de cloro está diretamente relacionada com a concentração de cloreto; o teor médio de cloro das soluções oxidantes geradas foi de 0,10%; 0,24 % e 0,27 % m/m. Resumo em inglês This work carried out studies about the use of the electrolysis process to produce oxidant solutions from water desalinators wastes for water disinfection. The experiment was conducted in laboratory scale. Three oxidant solutions were generated by electrolysis from wastes of water desalinators that presented concentrations of 1.7 x 10³ mg, 5.5 x 10³ mg and 10.2 x 10³ mg of Cl-/L.The electrolysis process lasted eight hours and the following parameters were monitored eve (mais) ry hour: pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, total chlorine. It was observed that the production of chlorine is directly related to chloride concentration; the average content of chlorine of the oxidant solutions generated from the desalinators wastes was 0.10%, 0.24% and 0.27% m/m.

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3

Desenvolvimento e caracterização de recobrimentos de Ni-Co e de seus óxidos mistos para a produção de oxigênio por eletrólise alcalina da água/ Development and characterisation of coatings of Ni-Co and their mixed oxides for oxygen production by alkaline water electrolysis

Machado, Sergio A. S.; Gallani, Simone C.
1997-12-01

Resumo em inglês This paper describes the development and characterisation of Ni-Co coatings to be used as anodes in water electrolysis. Chemical oxidation of the surface was performed through thermal treatment at 400ºC for 10 h. The resulting surfaces were analysed by X-ray diffraction, EDX, SEM, cyclic voltammetry and constant current electrolysis. The electrochemical oxidation occurring on bare surfaces during electrolysis promotes the formation of thick oxide layers resulting in loss (mais) of activity. In oxidised surfaces the chemical Ni-Co oxide grown during the thermal treatment prevents further oxidation thus retaining their activity towards oxygen evolution. An optimum condition for the growth of mixed oxide with high activity was found for the bath containing 50 g L-1 CoSO4.

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4

Influência da temperatura de calcinação na resistência à corrosão do eletrodo de Ti/SnO2-Sb para eletrooxidação de fenóis em meio de cloreto/ The influence of calcination temperature on the corrosion resistance of a Ti/Sno2-Sb electrode for phenol electrooxidation in chloride medium

Santos, I.D.; Afonso, J.C.; Dutra, A.J.B.
2009-01-01

Resumo em português Neste trabalho foi investigada a eficiência e a resistência à corrosão do eletrodo de Ti/SnO2 dopado com Sb, preparado pelo método Pechini, para oxidação de fenol em meio de cloreto. Os resultados mostraram que sua resistência à corrosão depende da temperatura de calcinação, da morfologia do revestimento e do controle do pH durante a eletrólise. Após 60 min de eletrólise em solução 0,34 mol.L-1 de NaCl na presença de 100 mg.L-1 de fenol a uma densidade d (mais) e corrente fixa de 10 mA.cm-2, com pH controlado entre 7 e 9, as micrografias de MEV mostraram que apenas o eletrodo calcinado 600ºC não sofreu corrosão. Uma redução de 90% da absorbância do fenol (269,5 nm) foi obtida após 60 min de eletrólise a uma densidade de corrente fixa de 10 mA.cm-2 usando o eletrodo calcinado a 600ºC. Resumo em inglês In this paper the influence of calcination temperature on the corrosion resistance of a Ti/SnO2-Sb electrode, prepared according to Pechini's method, and its efficiency for phenol oxidation in chloride medium was investigated. The results showed that the corrosion resistance depends on calcination temperature, coating structure and pH control during the electrolysis. After 60 min of electrolysis of a 0.34 mol·L-1 NaCl solution containing 100 mg·L-1 phenol, at 10 mA·cm- (mais) 2, keeping pH between 7 and 9, only the electrode calcined at 600ºC remained unchanged. A reduction of 90% of the phenol absorbance band (269.5 nm) was achieved after 60 min of electrolysis, at 10 mA·cm-2, with the Ti/SnO2-Sb electrode calcined at 600ºC.

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5

Resistência elétrica dos géis e líquidos utilizados em eletroterapia no acoplamento eletrodo-pele/ Electrical resistance of gels and liquids used in electrotherapy for electrode-skin coupling

Bolfe, Viviane J.; Guirro, Rinaldo R. J.
2009-12-01

Resumo em português OBJETIVO: Avaliar a resistência elétrica inicial e no decorrer do tempo de agentes de acoplamento utilizados na interface eletrodo-pele submetidos a estimulação elétrica com corrente bifásica e corrente contínua. MÉTODOS: A resistência elétrica foi calculada indiretamente pela Lei de Ohm, sendo a tensão elétrica gerada em um equipamento de corrente constante (10 mA, 100 Hz, 100 μs e pulso bifásico quadrado simétrico) e captada por um osciloscópio digit (mais) al. Dez agentes de acoplamento (géis, n=5; líquidos, n=5) foram submetidos à eletrólise com corrente bifásica quadrática simétrica (CB), 0,0134 mA/mm², 100 Hz, 100 μs ou com corrente contínua (CC) a 0,0017 mA/mm² de densidade de corrente, durante 30 minutos, sendo reavaliados a cada 5 minutos. Para análise dos dados, aplicaram os testes de Friedman e Kruskal-Wallis, seguidos de Rank e Dunn, respectivamente, e, para a correlação, empregou-se o coeficiente de Spearman (α=0,05). RESULTADOS: Os valores iniciais de resistência dos géis variaram entre 116,00 e 146,00 Ω, e dos agentes de acoplamento líquidos, entre 106,00 e 4726,67 Ω, apresentando, em sua maioria, correlação positiva com o tempo de eletrólise. Conclusões: Conclui-se que os géis, a água potável e a solução fisiológica são os indicados para a prática da estimulação elétrica terapêutica, pois mantêm a baixa resistência durante o período de estimulação. Por outro lado, o uso de água destilada ou desionizada não é recomendado, pois apresentam alta resistência à passagem da corrente. Resumo em inglês OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the initial and ongoing electrical resistance of different coupling agents used in the skin-electrode interface. The agents were submitted to electrical stimulation with biphasic and direct currents. METHODS: The electrical resistance was calculated indirectly by Ohm's Law. The tension was generated by a constant current generator (10 mA, 100 Hz, 100 µs and symmetrical biphasic square pulse) and captured by a digital oscilloscope. Ten coupling agen (mais) ts (gels, n=5; liquids, n=5) were submitted to electrolysis with symmetrical biphasic square current (BC), 0.0134 mA/mm², 100 Hz, 100 µs or with direct current (DC) at 0.0017 mA/mm² for 30 minutes, being reassessed every 5 minutes. For data analysis the Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied, followed by the rank test and the Dunn test respectively. Also, Spearman's coefficient test was used for correlation analysis (α=0.05). RESULTS: The initial resistance values of the gels varied between 116.00 and 146.00 Ω and of the liquid coupling agents, between 106.00 and 4726.67 Ω, with mostly positive correlation with the time of electrolysis. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that gels, drinking water and saline solution are recommended for the practice of therapeutic electrical stimulation because they maintain low resistance during stimulation. In contrast, the use of distilled or deionized water is not recommended due to the high resistance to the passage of electrical current.

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6

Recuperação de cobre eletrolítico a partir de solução gasta de cubas de eletrodeposição em meio cianídrico/ Electrolitic copper recovery from cyanide spent electroplating solutions

Dutra, Achilles Junqueira Bourdot; Rocha, Genilda Pressato da; Pombo, Felipe Ramalho
2007-01-01

Resumo em português Eletrólitos cianídricos, apesar de sua alta toxicidade, são amplamente empregados pelas indústrias de eletrorrecobrimento devido à qualidade dos depósitos metálicos obtidos. No caso dos depósitos de cobre sobre aço-carbono, após algum tempo de operação contínua, o teor de impurezas, especialmente o de carbonatos alcança valores indesejáveis, prejudicando a qualidade do depósito metálico e tornando, portanto, o banho inadequado. Dessa forma, é gerado um e (mais) fluente denominado sangria que requer tratamento para descarte seguro. Nesse trabalho foi avaliada a possibilidade de se recuperar eletroliticamente o cobre dessa solução de modo a se reutilizar o cobre contido e simultaneamente destruir parte do cianeto, diminuindo a carga tóxica do efluente. Recuperações de cobre em torno de 99,9% e oxidação de 99% do cianeto foram obtidas após cinco horas de eletrólise a 50°C com uma densidade de corrente de 9,4A/cm², a partir de um litro de efluente contendo 26g/L de cobre e 27g/L de cianeto total. Resumo em inglês Despite their toxicity, cyanide electrolytes are widely used by electroplating industries due the high quality of the metallic deposits. In the copper deposition on mild steel, after relatively long periods of continuous operation the build up of impurities, especially carbonates, reach undesirable values, decreasing the deposit quality and turning the solution unsuitable for its purpose. Then, a waste solution known as bleed, which requires treatment for a safe discard, (mais) is generated. In this paper, the possibility of simultaneous copper electrowinning and cyanide oxidation from this effluent, decreasing its hazardousness was evaluated. Copper recoveries around 99.9% and oxidation of 99% of the cyanide were achieved, from an effluent containing 26g/L of copper and 27g/L of cyanide after a five-hour electrolysis at 50° C with a current density of 9.4 A/cm².

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7

Tratamento para obtenção de TaC em superfície de grafite. Parte II: eletrodeposição em meio de fluoretos fundidos/ TaC formation on graphite surface. Part II: electrodeposition from molten fluorides

Izário Fº, H. J.; Vernilli Jr., F.; Pinto, D. V. B. S.; Baccan, N.; Sartori, A. F.
2001-09-01

Resumo em português Este trabalho apresenta a técnica de eletrodeposição de tântalo em meio de fluoretos fundidos, seguida de tratamento térmico para formação do carbeto de tântalo, como uma alternativa de pré-tratamento para tubos de grafite utilizados em determinações analíticas de espectrometria de absorção atômica em forno de grafite. Os experimentos de eletrodeposição foram executados utilizando-se como solução eletrolítica a mistura eutética LiF-NaF-KF com adição (mais) de 15% em massa de K2TaF7. Os ânodos de tântalo foram provenientes de sucata comercial de tântalo, o cátodo foi o próprio tubo de grafite a ser revestido. O revestimento de tântalo foi obtido com alta eficiência de corrente a 750 ° C, em densidade de corrente catódica de 20 mA.cm-2 e tempo de eletrólise de 120 min., sob atmosfera controlada de argônio. O tratamento térmico realizado em atmosfera de argônio, possibilitou a formação de uma perfeita camada de carbeto de tântalo, confirmada através de análise de difratometria de raios X. O depósito, analisado por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (M.E.V.), mostrou-se liso, aderente ao substrato, sem porosidades, incrustações ou microtrincas. Resumo em inglês This paper presents tantalum electrodeposition in molten fluorides followed by thermal treatment, as a pre-treatment technique to graphite tubes used in spectrometry of atomic absorption in graphite oven. The experiments were carried out using the eutectic FLINAK with addition of 15% (weight %) of K2TaF7. The tantalum anodes were made of tantalum commercial scrap; the cathode was the graphite tube to be electroplated. Tantalum coatings were obtained with high current effi (mais) ciency at 750 omicron C temperature, 20 mA.cm-2 current density and 120 minutes electrolysis time, under controlled argon atmosphere. The thermal treatment under argon atmosphere was effective to obtain a perfect tantalum carbide layer; X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed tantalum carbide formation. Based on the scanning electronic microscopy analysis results, it was found that the tantalum carbide deposits were adherent to the substrate and were free of porosities, incrustations and microcracks.

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8

Eletrorrecuperação de cobre e oxidação de cianeto de efluentes cianídricos diluídos gerados por unidade de galvanoplastia/ Copper electrowinning and cyanide oxidation from diluted cyanide wastewaters generated by an electroplating plant

Pombo, F.R.; Dutra, A.J.B.
2008-09-01

Resumo em português Apesar de sua elevada toxicidade, eletrólitos cianídricos são amplamente empregados pelas indústrias de eletrorrecobrimento devido à qualidade dos depósitos metálicos obtidos. Na Casa da Moeda do Brasil, o processo de eletrodeposição de cobre sobre aço carbono é utilizado para a fabricação das moedas de um e cinco centavos, gerando, ao seu final, dois tipos de efluentes: um concentrado, após a sangria de eletrólitos contaminados; e outro diluído, após a l (mais) avagem dos discos eletrorrevestidos de cobre. Em um trabalho anterior, avaliou-se a possibilidade de se recuperar eletroliticamente o cobre e oxidar parte do cianeto existente nos efluentes concentrados, alcançando-se bons resultados para os teores finais de cobre e cianeto livre partindo-se de uma solução contendo 26g/L de cobre e 27g/L de cianeto total. O presente trabalho visou testar em escala de bancada uma célula eletrolítica para o tratamento dos efluentes diluídos, partindo-se de uma solução sintética contendo 200mg/L de cobre e 130mg/L de cianeto livre. Nas condições de vazão de 0,37mL/s e a 50º C, alcançou-se concentrações finais de 0,7mg/L de cobre e 0,08mg/L de cianeto livre para uma corrente elétrica de 1,5A, e menor que 0,5mg/L de cobre e 0,08mg/L de cianeto livre para uma corrente elétrica de 2A, após três horas de eletrólise. Resumo em inglês Despite their high toxicity, cyanide electrolytes are widely used by metal finishing industries due to the quality of metallic deposits obtained. At the Brazilian Mint, the process of copper electroplating onto carbon steel is used to make coins of one and five cents, generating, at the end, two types of wastewaters: one concentrated, after bleeding the contaminated electrolytes; and another diluted, after washing the disks electroplated with copper. In a previous work th (mais) e possibility of electrolytically recovering copper and oxidizing part of the existing cyanide in the concentrated effluents was evaluated, reaching good results for the final concentration of copper and free cyanide starting with a solution containing 26g/L of copper and 27g/L of total cyanide. The present work aimed at testing in a bench scale an electrolytic cell for the treatment of diluted effluents, starting from a synthetic solution containing 200 mg/L of copper and 130 mg/L of free cyanide. Under flow conditions of 0.37mL/s at 50°C, the final concentrations of 0.7mg/L for copper and 0.08mg/L for free cyanide were obtained for an electric current of 1.5A, and less than 0.5mg/L for copper and 0.08mg/L for free cyanide were obtained for an electric current of 2A, after three hours of electrolysis.

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9

Produção de dióxido de manganês eletrolítico para uso em baterias de lítio/ Production of electrolytic manganese dioxide for usage in lithium batteries

Laurindo, Edison A.; Amaral, Fábio A.; Santos, Márcio L. dos; Ferracin, Luiz C.; Carubelli, Ademir; Bocchi, Nerilso; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C.
1999-07-01

Resumo em inglês The e phase of electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) is the structural form most easily converted in the LiMn2O4 spinel used as cathode in lithium batteries. Thus, employing titanium as anode, a study of electrolysis parameters was carried out in order to determine the best conditions to produce an e-EMD suitable for that spinel preparation. The influence of solution temperature (65oC and 90oC) and current density (betw (mais) een 1 mA/cm2 and 17.5 mA/cm2) on the anode potential and the EMD properties was investigated using an aqueous 2.0 mol/L MnSO4 + 0.30 mol/L H2SO4 solution. In any of the electrolysis conditions tested only the e-EMD structure was obtained, but its specific surface area varied with the applied current density and temperature. Drying the e-EMD at temperatures between 60oC and 120oC did not cause any phase changes. To produce a suitable EMD at the highest current density possible without passivation of the titanium anode, the best electrolysis parameters were determined to be 90oC and 15 mA/cm2. The e-EMD thus obtained had a specific surface area (BET) of ca. 65 m2/g.

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10

O coulômetro de sódio: um experimento interessante de eletroquímica/ The sodium coulometer: an interesting electrochemistry experiment

Bonapace, José Alberto P.
2004-08-01

Resumo em inglês The diffusion of sodium through glass, the basis of a sodium coulometer, was revised and modified for the application to present-day light bulbs. Low pressure inert gas-filled incandescent lamps are useless to attain satisfactory results. The inclusion of a 450 V power supply in series with the electrolysis cell provided sufficient potential to overcome the effect of the inert gas molecules inside the bulb.

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11

Estudo da degradação de ranitidina via H2O2 eletrogerado/Fenton em um reator eletroquímico com eletrodos de difusão gasosa/ Study of the ranitidine degradation by H2O2 electrogenerated/Fenton in a electrochemical reactor with gas diffusion electrode

Beati, André A. G. F.; Rocha, Robson S.; Oliveira, Joaquim G.; Lanza, Marcos R. V.
2009-01-01

Resumo em inglês The study of the electrochemical degradation of the ranitidine was developed using an electrochemical reactor with a gas diffusion electrode (GDE) as cathode. The electrolysis experiments was performed at constant current (1 4 A. The process reached a production of 630 mg L-1 of (mais) the H2O2 at 7 A. The ranitidine concentrations was reduced in 99.9% (HPLC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was reduced in 86.7% by electro-Fenton.

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12

Esclerose de pequenos vasos venosos com corrente elétrica galvânica ponteada, em orelhas de coelhos/ Galvanic electric sharp stream and the sclerosis of marginal veins in the ear of rabbits

Santiago, Sergio; Taha, Murched Omar; Fagundes, Djalma José
2001-12-01

Resumo em português Foi idealizado e construido um aparelho que utiliza a corrente elétrica galvânica em baixa amperagem (100m A ,200m A, 300m A) com o propósito de causar esclerose em vasos venosos de pequeno calibre, utilizando a veia marginal da orelha direita do coelho. O presente estudo buscou verificar em modelo experimental, o efeito da corrente elétrica galvânica em baixa amperagem. Foram utilizados 45 coelhos Nova Zelandia, distribuídos em 3 grupos de 15 animais , sendo utiliz (mais) ada a orelha esquerda como controle e a orelha direita como experimento. No grupo experimento os animais do grupo I foram submetidos à corrente elétrica galvânica de 100m A , no grupo II à 200m A, e no grupo III à 300m . No grupo controle, os animais foram submetidos somente ao procedimento mecânico de aplicação da agulha ao longo da veia marginal da orelha esquerda, sendo realizado uma, duas e três aplicações com intervalo de sete dias entre cada aplicação. Todos os animais foram avaliados quatorze dias após a última aplicação, em aspectos macro e microscópicos. Os resultados mostraram que, tanto a corrente elétrica galvânica em baixa amperagem, quanto o simples trauma mecânico da agulha, não são capazes de produzir esclerose na veia marginal da orelha do coelho que seja estatisticamente significante. Resumo em inglês Telangiectases, in accordance with current concepts, must be treated in a surgical way. The most commons surgicals treatments included the electrosurgery, electocauterization and electrolysis. The injury to the peripherical dermal tissue was a problem as the insatisfactory results in the vessels scleroses. Therefore, the aim of this study was estimated the value of one electrical device planned with care and exactness to provide a galvanic electric sharp stream to be used (mais) in a animal model. Thus, 45 white New Zealand adults male rabbits received a electrical galvanic pulse(marginal vein of the right ear) or only the mechanical puncture(marginal vein of the left ear) in three consecutives times at first, second and third weeks. The animals of group I (n=15) received doses of 100m A, group II (n=15) doses of 200m A and group III(n=15) doses of 300m A. Fourteen days after the last application the redness, exudates and ulcers in skin was evaluate.Samples of the vessels and peripherical skin was prepared and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for leukocyte exudates and granulation tissue. Both, electric and mechanical treatment showed no statistical differences,actually the galvanic eletric sharp stream was ineffective to produce sclerosis in the vessels. Another survey, probably using an stronger eletric flow or different means of study, must be provide.

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13

Eletrocatálise e poluição ambiental/ Electrocatalysis and environmental pollution

Gonzalez, Ernesto R.
2000-04-01

Resumo em inglês This work considers mainly the problem of environmental pollution due to the production of energy by burning fossil fuels, particularly in urban vehicles. Electrochemical energy conversion is proposed as a partial solution to this problem, through the use of hydrogen in fuel cells. In both the production of hydrogen by electrolysis and in the electrochemical processes in fuel cells, the key factor is electrocatalysis. The concept of electrocatalysis, the production of catalysts and supported catalysts and their use in practical systems for the conversion of energy is discussed.

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14

Descoloração e degradação de poluentes orgânicos em soluções aquosas através do processo fotoeletroquímico/ Photoelectrochemical discoloration and degradation of organic pollutants in aqueous solutions

Bertazzoli, Rodnei; Pelegrini, Ronaldo
2002-05-01

Resumo em inglês Organic compounds responsible for the color of wastewaters are usually refractory to biological digestion. In this paper the photo-assisted electrolysis process is used for color removal from three of the most colored wastewaters, which are daily generated in large amounts: the E1 bleach Kraft mill effluent, a textile reactive dye effluent and a landfill leachate. Electrolysis was carried out at 26,5 mA cm-2 in a flow reactor in which the anode surface was illuminated by (mais) a 400 W high pressure Hg bulb. In all experiments 70-75% of color reduction was observed which was also followed by a net organic load oxidation.

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15

Deposição eletrolítica catódica e anódica simultâneas para minimizar interferências de cobre e chumbo na determinação espectrofotométrica de cádmio em água e alimentos via reação com Verde de Malaquita e iodeto/ Cathodic and anodic simultaneous electrolytic deposition to minimize copper and lead interferences on spectrophotometric determination of cadmium by the Malachite Green-iodide reaction

Oliveira, Adriana Paiva de; Freschi, Gian Paulo Giovanni; Dakuzaku, Carolina Sinabucro; Moraes, Mercedes de; Crespi, Marisa Spirandeli; Gomes Neto, José Anchieta
2001-12-01

Resumo em inglês Simultaneous electrolytic deposition is proposed for minimization of Cu2+ and Pb2+ interferences on automated determination of Cd2+ by the Malachite Green-iodide reaction. During electrolysis of sample in a cell with two Pt electrodes and a medium adjusted to 5% (v/v) HNO3 + 0.1% (v/v) H2SO4 + 0.5 mol L-1 NaCl, Cu2+ is deposited as Cu on the cathode, Pb2+ is deposited as PbO2 on the anode while Cd2+ is kept in solution. With 60 s electrolysis time and 0.25 A current, Pb2+ (mais) and Cu2+ levels up to 50 and 250 mg L-1 respectively, can be tolerated without interference. With on-line extraction of Cd2+ in anionic resin minicolumn, calibration graph in the 5.00 - 50.0 µg Cd L-1 range is obtained, corresponding to twenty measurements per hour, 0.7 mg Malachite Green and 500 mg KI and 5 mL sample consumed per determination. Results of the determination of Cd in certified reference materials, vegetables and tap water were in agreement with certified values and with those obtained by GFAAS at 95% confidence level. The detection limit is 0.23 µg Cd L-1 and the RSD for typical samples containing 13.0 µg Cd L-1 was 3.85 % (n= 12).

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16

Considerações sobre a eletrogeração de peróxido de hidrogênio/ Considerations on the hydrogen peroxide electrogeneration

Ragnini, Christiane A. R.; Di Iglia, Rosana A.; Bertazzoli, Rodnei
2001-04-01

Resumo em inglês This paper presents some results that may be used as previous considerations to a hydrogen peroxide electrogeneration process design. A kinetic study of oxygen dissolution in aqueous solution is carried out and rate constants for oxygen dissolution are calculated. Voltammetric experiments on vitreous carbon cathode shown that the low saturation concentration drives the oxygen reduction process to a mass transfer controlled process which exhibits low values of limiting cur (mais) rents. Results have shown that the hydrogen peroxide formation and its decomposition to water are separated by 400 mV on the vitreous carbon surface. Diffusion coefficients for oxygen and hydrogen peroxide are calculated using data taken from Levich and Tafel plots. In a series of bulk electrolysis experiments hydrogen peroxide was electrogenerated at several potential values, and concentration profiles as a function of the electrical charged passed were obtained. Data shown that, since limiting current plateaus are poorly defined onto reticulated vitreous carbon, cathodic efficiency may be a good criterion for choosing the potential value in which hydrogen peroxide electrogeneration should be carried out.

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17

Avaliação em escala laboratorial da utilização do processo eletrolítico no tratamento de águas/ Laboratory scale assessment of an electrolytic process for water treatment

Otenio, Marcelo Henrique; Panchoni, Luciana Cadioli; Cruz, Gabriela Correia Araújo da; Ravanhani, Clézio; Bidóia, Ederio Dino
2008-01-01

Resumo em inglês Water treatment uses chlorine for disinfection causing formation of trihalomethanes. In this work, an electrolytic water pre-treatment was studied and applied to the water from a fountainhead. The action against microorganisms was evaluated using cast-iron and aluminum electrodes. Assays were made in laboratory using the electrolytic treatment. After 5 min of electrolysis the heterotrophic bacteria count was below 500 cfu/mL and complete elimination of total and fecal col (mais) iforms was observed. Using electrolytic treatment as a pretreatment of conventional tap water treatment is proposed.

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18

Avaliação dos tratamentos eletroquímico e fotoeletroquímico na degradação de corantes têxteis/ Evaluation of electrochemical and photoelectrochemical methods for the degradation of three textile dyes

Catanho, Marciana; Malpass, Geoffroy Roger Pointer; Motheo, Artur de Jesus
2006-10-01

Resumo em inglês This paper presents the study of the oxidation of three textile dyes (Remazol black B, Remazol Brilliant Orange 3R and Remazol Golden Yellow RNL) using electrochemical and photoelectrochemical methods. In both methods, electrolysis experiments were performed at a current density of 50 mA cm-2 in an aqueous solution of each dye (30 mg L-1), using a photoelectrochemical flow-cell. For all the dyes studied, the photoelectrochemical method was demonstrated to be more efficien (mais) t than the electrochemical one. Photoelectrochemical oxidation resulted in complete decoloration after 90 min of electrolysis and total organic carbon (TOC) removal reached up to 36%. It was observed that the dyes presenting chromophores at higher wavelengths are removed the quickest, which indicates that photosensitised (photoassisted) oxidation occurs. The level of color was reduced to levels below the standards presented in the literature, which indicates the viability of the photoelectrochemical process as part of the treatment of textile effluents.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Avaliação (em escala laboratorial) da aplicação do processo eletrolítico em efluente de lagoa de estabilização de esgoto urbano/ (Laboratory scale) assessment of electrolytic processing of effluent from a urban sewage stabilization lagoon

Claro, Elis Marina Turini; Otenio, Marcelo Henrique; Bidóia, Edério Dino; Silva, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra; Santos, Valdecir dos
2010-01-01

Resumo em inglês Physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were evaluated before and after applying an electrolytic process to effluents of a stabilization lagoon, in the presence or absence of "salt". Chlorine generation and bactericidal properties of the treatments were studied following two experiments. Effluent pH increased with electrolysis time. In the absence of "salt", 20 min electrolysis resulted in a COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) reduction of 44%, along with ca. 99.9% (3 lo (mais) g10 cfu/mL) reduction in total coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria and Escherichia coli. These results indicated that the electrolytic process is a promising complementary technology to improve effluent quality for stabilization lagoons.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)