Uma visão das tendências e perspectivas em eletrocromismo: a busca de novos materiais e desenhos mais simples/ A view of tendences and perspectives in electrochromism: searching for new materials and more simple designs
Resumo em inglês Some aspects of electrochromism phenomena are presented in this review paper. A deep literature revision about the subject dealing with materials and device configurations developed in the last years, is presented. Great efforts of the scientific community have been done in this field. On the other hand, new electrochomic devices based on reversible deposition of metals are specially emphasized here. These devices present many advantages such as simple operation and const (mais) ruction and they have also shown high cycling rates. These factors make them suitable for application in display industry. In this way, many concepts used in the developement of electrodeposition baths are very useful for the improvement of these new devices; specially, all knowledge about the use of additives for modifying films microstructure and morfology.
Eletrodos modificados por hidróxido de níquel: um estudo de revisão sobre suas propriedades estruturais e eletroquímicas visando suas aplicações em eletrocatálise, eletrocromismo e baterias secundárias/ Nickel hydroxide modified electrodes: a review study concerning its structural and electrochemical properties aiming the application in electrocatalysis, electrochromism and secondary batteries
Resumo em inglês The present review paper describes the main features of nickel hydroxide modified electrodes covering its structural and electrochemical behavior and the newest advances promoted by nanostructured architectures. Important aspects such as synthetic procedures and characterization techniques such as X-Ray diffraction, Raman and Infrared spectroscopy, Electronic Microscopy and many others are detailed herein. The most important aspect concerning nickel hydroxide is related t (mais) o its great versatility covering different fields in electrochemical-based devices such as batteries, electrocatalytic systems and electrochromic electrodes, the fundamental issues of these devices are also commented. Finally, some of the newest advances achieved in each field by the incorporation of nanomaterials will be shown.
Resumo em inglês The aim of this work is to study the electrochromism and the reaction kinetics of lithium electrointercalation in anodic niobium oxide films. The oxide grown in an acid environment by application of an alternating potential shows interference colour (iridescence) and when reduced in lithium perclorate/PC solution, the intercalation of Li+ ions and electrons causes a reversible colour change (electrochromism), characterized here by electrochemical and optical measurements. (mais) A model where the reaction kinetics is dominated by diffusion of ionic pairs (Li+, e-) in the oxide film permitted the reproduction of current and absorbance temporal dependence, confirming the relationship between the electrochromic and electrochemical reactions. From the results obtained, a relation was established where the colour change is associated to the reduction of Nb+5 to Nb+4 ions with simultaneous cations injection.