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2

Detecção eletroquímica em eletroforese capilar/ Electrochemical detection in capillary electrophoresis

Silva, José Alberto Fracassi da
2003-01-01

Resumo em inglês This review focuses the development of electrochemical detection systems coupled to capillary electrophoresis. Conductometric, amperometric, voltametric, and potentiometric modes of detection are reviewed. The positioning of the electrodes, interferences of high electric field, and the materials employed in the fabrication and modification of the electrodes are discussed. The advantages of the use of electrochemical detection with capillary electrophoresis, regarding to t (mais) he sensitivity and selectivity, is exemplified with a large number of applications. Also, the use of electrochemical detection systems in microchip technology is addressed.

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3

Detecção precoce: é possível prevenir a esquizofrenia?/ Early detection: is it possible to prevent schizophrenia?

Louzã, Mário Rodrigues
2007-01-01

Resumo em português CONTEXTO:A detecção e a intervenção precoces na esquizofrenia são uma área nova de pesquisa em grande expansão. OBJETIVO: Revisar a literatura atual sobre a detecção e intervenção precoces em esquizofrenia. MÉTODO: A literatura foi pesquisada por meio do PubMed, manuais e referências bibliográficas utilizando termos como: "alto risco", "intervenção precoce", "detecção precoce", "esquizofrenia", "psicose precoce". RESULTADOS: Utilizando os paradigmas de p (mais) revenção seletiva e de prevenção indicada de outras áreas da Medicina, a detecção e a intervenção precoces na esquizofrenia procuram estudar as manifestações iniciais da esquizofrenia, antes que o quadro psicótico tenha se manifestado claramente. CONCLUSÃO: A detecção e a intervenção precoces de pessoas com risco de desenvolver psicose visam reduzir o tempo de psicose não-tratada, melhorar a evolução e o prognóstico da esquizofrenia e talvez evitar que a pessoa chegue a desenvolver a doença. Resumo em inglês BACKGROUND: The early detection and intervention in schizophrenia are new areas of research in great expansion. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature about early detection and intervention in schizophrenia. METHOD: Literature was studied by means of PubMed, manuals and bibliographic references and used the search terms: "high risk", "early intervention", "early detection", "schizophrenia", "early psychosis". RESULTS: Using paradigms of selective and indicated prevention of (mais) other fields of Medicine, it studies the initial manifestations of schizophrenia, even before clear psychotic symptoms are manifest. CONCLUSION: Early detection and intervention of individuals at risk to develop psychosis aim to reduce the duration of untreated psychosis, to improve the course and outcome of the disease, and maybe prevent the manifestation of schizophrenia in predisposed individuals.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

4

Detecção de Toxoplasma gondii no sêmen de ovinos naturalmente infectados/ Toxoplasma gondii detection in the semen of naturally infected sheep

Moraes, Érica P.B.X; Faria, Eduardo B; Batista, André M; Freitas, Antonio Carlos; Silva, Jean Carlos R; Albuquerque, Pedro Paulo F; Mota, Rinaldo A
2010-11-01

Resumo em português O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a eliminação de Toxoplasma gondii no sêmen de carneiros naturalmente infectados. Foram utilizados 65 reprodutores submetidos inicialmente à pesquisa de anticorpos anti-T. gondii por meio da técnica de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI). Os carneiros sorologicamente positivos foram submetidos à colheita de sêmen para detecção do DNA de T. gondii. Na sorologia observaram-se 6/65 (9,2%) carneiros positivos, enquanto no PCR neste (mais) d de sêmen 4/6 (66,6%) carneiros foram positivos. Conclui-se que a detecção, por meio da técnica da PCR nested, da forma proliferativa de T. gondii no sêmen de carneiros naturalmente infectados, reforça a necessidade de se pesquisar sobre a possibilidade da transmissão horizontal do parasito via sêmen na espécie ovina. Resumo em inglês The aim of this paper was to study the Toxoplasma gondii shedding in the semen of naturally infected rams. Sixty-five rams were initially submitted to anti-T. gondii antibody detection by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). Serologically positive rams were then submitted to semen collection for T. gondii DNA detection. In the serology, 6/65 (9.2%) rams were positive, while in the nested PCR of semen there were 4/6 (66.6%) positive rams. It can be concluded that detection o (mais) f the proliferative form of T. gondii in semen of naturally infected rams by the nested PCR technique reinforces the need to investigate possible horizontal transmission of this parasite via semen in sheep.

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5

Detecção de adulterações em produtos alimentares contendo leite e/ou proteínas lácteas/ Detection of adulterations in food products containing milk and/or milk proteins

Veloso, Ana Cristina A.; Teixeira, Natércia; Ferreira, Isabel M.P.L.V.O.; Ferreira, Margarida A.
2002-07-01

Resumo em inglês A critical review of the most relevant analytical methodologies for quality and authenticity control of dairy products and foods containing milk proteins is presented. Chromatographic, electrophoretic and immunological methods are used for: detection of cow's milk in ewe and goat milks, detection of whey added to milk, detection of caseins and/or whey proteins in non-lactic foods and study compounds resulting from milk proteins degradation. Techniques based on polimerase chain reaction are also suitable for detection of cow's milk on cheeses of ewe and goat milks.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

6

Detecção de Epstein-Barr vírus no carcinoma da nasofaringe: implicações numa área de baixo risco/ Epstein-Barr virus detection in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: implications in a low-risk area

Breda, Eduardo; Catarino, Raquel Jorge Ferreira; Azevedo, Isabel; Lobão, Marisa; Monteiro, Eurico; Medeiros, Rui
2010-06-01

Resumo em português Têm sido publicados vários estudos acerca da infecção por Epstein-Barr vírus (EBV) e o desenvolvimento de carcinoma da nasofaringe (NPC). As prevalências dos tipos histológicos e a presença de infecção latente pelo EBV são diferentes em regiões endémicas e não endémicas. OBJETIVO: O objectivo deste estudo consistiu na detecção de EBV em tecido tumoral da nasofaringe e sangue periférico de doentes com NPC e em indivíduos saudáveis, provenientes duma ár (mais) ea não-endémica, de baixo risco. MÉTODOS: Detecção de EBV em amostras de doentes com carcinoma da nasofaringe e indivíduos saudáveis. Neste estudo de série foram avaliadas as implicações clínicas da presença de EBV circulante no sangue periférico de doentes com carcinoma da nasofaringe. RESULTADOS: Este estudo indica que a frequência de casos EBV positivos detectados no sangue periférico é superior em tumores de estádio mais avançado. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados indicam que se observam diferenças na pesquisa do vírus Epstein-Barr no grupo de doentes com NPC e no grupo controlo, sem tumor. Este estudo pode ajudar na compreensão dos mecanismos biológicos do cancro da nasofaringe e da correlação destes tumores com a infecção por EBV numa área não-endémica, de baixo risco. Resumo em inglês Several studies have been published concerning Epstein-barr virus (EBV) infection and nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) development. The incidences of histological types are different according to endemic or non-endemic regions. Latent EBV infection is found in almost all cases of NPC in endemic regions, but normally absent in type I carcinomas, more common in non-endemic regions. AIM: The purpose of this hospital-based study was to analyze the presence of EBV in nasopharyngeal (mais) tumor tissues and in peripheral blood of nasopharyngeal cancer patients and healthy individuals, in a low risk, non-endemic area. METHODS: EBV detection in samples of nasopharyngeal cancer patients and healthy individuals. RESULTS: This study indicates that the frequency of EBV positive cases in peripheral blood is higher in advanced tumor stages. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rates of NPC have a distinct distribution. Since the prevalence of this disease is low in occidental countries, little is known about the biology of these tumors in non-endemic areas. We observed statistically significant differences in EBV detection between the NPC patient group and the control group. This study may help to understand the biological mechanisms of NPC and the correlation of EBV infection with this disease, in a low risk, non-endemic region.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

7

Detecção da resistência a antibióticos de bactérias isoladas de casos clínicos ocorridos em animais de companhia/ Detection of antibiotic resistance in clinical bacterial strains from pets

Poeta, P.; Rodrigues, J.
2008-04-01

Resumo em inglês The identification of different bacterial strains and the occurrence of antibiotic resistance were investigated in several infection processes of pets as skin abscess with purulent discharge, bronco alveolar fluid, earwax, urine, mammary, and eye fluid. Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were the most detected in the different samples. A high frequency of antimicrobial resistance has been observed and this could reflect the wide use of antimicrobials in pets, making the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment to become more complicated.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

8

Detecção de Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculada experimentalmente em amostras de leite cru por método convencional e PCR multiplex/ Detection of E. coli O157:H7 experimentally inoculated in raw milk samples by conventional method and multiplex PCR

Garcia, P.M.; Arcuri, E.F.; Brito, M.A.V.P.; Lange, C.C.; Brito, J.R.F.; Cerqueira, M.M.O.P.
2008-10-01

Resumo em português Padronizou-se um método de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) multiplex para detecção de Escherichia coli O157:H7 e avaliou-se a eficiência da PCR e de um método de cultivo convencional em placas na detecção desse patógeno experimentalmente adicionado em leite estéril e em leite cru com baixa contagem bacteriana total (média de 4,01 x 10³ UFC/ml) e com alta contagem bacteriana (média de 2,10 x 10(6) UFC/ml). Foram padronizadas duas reações de PCR com o u (mais) so dos primers: "A" (RfbF; RfbR e FLICh7F/FLICh7R) e "B" (SLT-IF/SLTIR e SLT-IIF/SLT-IIR). A detecção de E. coli O157:H7 (1UFC/ml) a partir do leite estéril e do leite cru com baixa contaminação bacteriana foi possível quando se utilizou o método de contagem em placas e a PCR. A sensibilidade dos dois métodos foi menor quando se testou o leite cru com alta contaminação microbiana, sendo o método convencional mais sensível. Os resultados indicam que a presença de outros microrganismos, em alta quantidade no leite, dificulta a detecção de E. coli O157:H7 pelos métodos utilizados. Resumo em inglês This experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of the raw milk bacterial count on the efficiency of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction and a conventional plate count method for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7. This pathogen was experimentally inoculated into sterile milk, raw milk with low bacterial count (count mean of 4.01 x 10³ cfu/ml) and, raw milk with high bacterial count (mean 2.10 x 10(6) cfu/ml). Two protocols of PCR were standardized u (mais) sing primers "A" (Rfbf and Rfbr and FLICh7F/FLICh7R) and "B" (SLT-IF/SLTIR and SLT-IIF/SLT-IIR). Both conventional plate count and PCR methods were able to detect the presence of E. coli O157:H7 in either sterile milk or raw milk with low bacterial count initially inoculated with 1cfu of E. coli O157:H7 per ml. The sensibility of both methods for high-contaminated raw milk samples was lower, being the conventional approach more sensitive. These results indicate that high bacterial count in raw milk can affect E. coli O157:H7 detection.

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10

Detecção de Aethalion reticulatum (L., 1767) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) em alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L.) e observações sobre sua ocorrência/ Detection of Aethalion reticulatum (L., 1767) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) in clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum L.) and observations of its occurrence

Rando, J.S.S; Lima, C.B
2010-06-01

Resumo em português O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência da cigarrinha Aethalionidae em alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L.) no município de Bandeirantes-PR. Plantas com cerca de dois anos, na fase reprodutiva, com inflorescências, flores, frutos e sementes, serviram como fonte para a coleta de ninfas e adultos das cigarrinhas. Registrou-se em alfavaca-cravo a espécie Aethalion reticulatum e a interação com as formigas Camponotus rufipes e C. crassus. Resumo em inglês The aim of this work was to report the occurrence of the leafhopper Aethalionidae in clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum) in Bandeirantes Municipality, Paraná State, Brazil. Plants around two years old, in the reproductive phase, presenting inflorescences, flowers, fruits and seeds, were used as source for collection of leafhopper nymphs and adults. In clove basil, the species Aethalion reticulatum was recorded, in addition to its interaction with the ants Camponotus rufipes and C. crassus.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

11

Detecção molecular de herpesvírus bovino 1 e 5 em amostras de encéfalo conservadas em formol e emblocadas em parafina provenientes de bovinos com doença neurológica/ Molecular detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from cattle with neurological disease

Arruda, Laura P.; Nakazato, Luciano; Dutra, Valéria; Lemos, Ricardo A.A.; Nogueira, Ana P.A.; Cruz, Raquel A.S.; Pescador, Caroline A.; Colodel, Edson M.
2010-08-01

Resumo em português A infecção por herpesvírus bovino (BoHV) é uma das principais causas de doença neurológica em bovinos na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. O uso de técnicas moleculares de diagnóstico representa uma contribuição importante para o estudo dessa doença. Este trabalho descreve o uso de uma técnica específica de PCR multiplex para identificar BoHV-5 e BoHV-1 em 76 amostras de encéfalo de bovinos fixadas em formol e incluídas em parafina. Com base nas alterações (mais) histológicas, as amostras foram separadas em 2 grupos: o Grupo 1 era composto de 40 amostras de bovinos com meningoencefalite necrosante característica da infecção por BoHV; no Grupo 2 estavam 36 amostras de casos com encefalite não-supurativa inespecífica. Identificação de BoHV-5 foi constatada em 40% das amostras do grupo 1 e em 33% das amostras do grupo 2. Não houve amplificação de DNA de BoHV-1 em nenhuma amostra. Resumo em inglês Bovine herpesvirus (BoHV) is an important cause of neurological disease in cattle in the Midwest Brazil. The application of molecular diagnostic techniques represents an important contribution for the study of BoHV. This paper describes the detection of BoHV-5 and BoHV-1 by a specific multiplex PCR assay in 76 paraffin-embedded samples from central nervous system (CNS) of cattle with neurological disorders. The samples were divided into 2 groups according to the histologi (mais) cal features: Group 1 was composed of 40 cases of necrotizing meningoencephalitis (characteristic of BoHV infection), and Group 2 was composed of 36 cases of nonspecific nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis. Positive results for BoHV-5 accounted for 40% of the samples in the group 1 and 33% in the group 2. No detection of BoHV-1 was recorded.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

12

Detecção de ácidos nucléicos de Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., herpesvirus bovino e vírus da diarréia viral bovina, em fetos bovinos abortados e em animais mortos no perinatal/ Detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., bovine herpesvirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus nucleic acids in aborted fetuses and bovines dead perinatal

Cortez, A.; Castro, A.M.G.; Heinemann, M.B.; Soares, R.M.; Leite, R.C.; Scarcelli, E.; Genovez, M.E.; Alfieri, A.A.; Richtzenhain, L.J.
2006-12-01

Resumo em inglês Samples of 114 bovine fetuses and 10 calves, which dead in perinatal period, were examined for detection of DNA. The most common detected agent was Brucella spp. in 17 samples (13.7%) followed by Leptospira spp. in 4 cases (3.2%),bovine herpesvirus (BHV) and bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV) in 3 animals (2.4%) each, and 1 for the association of BVDV and BHV. In 77.4 % (96/124) of the samples it was not possible to detect any agent.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

13

RMN 2D: Detecção inversa e gradiente de campo na determinação estrutural de compostos orgânicos/ 2D NMR: Inverse detection and field gradient in structure determination of organic compounds

Kaiser, Carlos R.
2000-04-01

Resumo em inglês A view of the general aspects involving the 2D NMR spectroscopy using inverse detection and field gradient techniques is presented through the analysis of a sesquiterpene.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

14

Aumento na detecção de casos de hanseníase em São Luís, Maranhão, Brasil, de 1993 a 1998: a endemia está em expansão?/ Increase in leprosy detection rates in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, from 1993 to 1998: is the endemic expanding?

Figueiredo, Ivan Abreu; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da
2003-04-01

Resumo em português Foi realizado estudo epidemiológico descritivo sobre detecção de casos novos de hanseníase em São Luís, Maranhão, Brasil, de 1993 a 1998, a partir da criação de banco de dados com 2.796 notificações. Foram calculados coeficientes de detecção brutos e específicos por sexo, forma clínica e faixa etária. Foi analisada sua tendência temporal por meio dos modelos de ajuste linear, exponencial, geométrico e logarítmico. Evidenciou-se tendência de aumento às (mais) custas do sexo feminino e das formas paucibacilares, principalmente da tuberculóide, e mais acentuada na população de 15 a 19 anos. O percentual da detecção em menores de 15 anos indicou necessidade de busca ativa da doença nesta população. Resumo em inglês A descriptive epidemiologic study on the detection of new leprosy cases was conducted in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, from 1993 to 1998. A database was created for the purpose, covering 2,796 reported cases. General detection rates were calculated, as well as specific rates by gender, clinical type, and age group. Linear, exponential, geometric, and log adjustment models were performed to analyze time trends in the disease. An increase in detection was observed, involvi (mais) ng mostly female and paucibacillary cases, mainly of tuberculoid leprosy. The increase in detection was most evident in the 15 to 19 year-old population. The percentage of detection under 15 indicated the need for active case search in this group.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

15

Aumento na detecção de casos de hanseníase em São Luís, Maranhão, Brasil, de 1993 a 1998: a endemia está em expansão?/ Increase in leprosy detection rates in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, from 1993 to 1998: is the endemic expanding?

Figueiredo, Ivan Abreu; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da
2003-04-01

Resumo em português Foi realizado estudo epidemiológico descritivo sobre detecção de casos novos de hanseníase em São Luís, Maranhão, Brasil, de 1993 a 1998, a partir da criação de banco de dados com 2.796 notificações. Foram calculados coeficientes de detecção brutos e específicos por sexo, forma clínica e faixa etária. Foi analisada sua tendência temporal por meio dos modelos de ajuste linear, exponencial, geométrico e logarítmico. Evidenciou-se tendência de aumento às (mais) custas do sexo feminino e das formas paucibacilares, principalmente da tuberculóide, e mais acentuada na população de 15 a 19 anos. O percentual da detecção em menores de 15 anos indicou necessidade de busca ativa da doença nesta população. Resumo em inglês A descriptive epidemiologic study on the detection of new leprosy cases was conducted in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, from 1993 to 1998. A database was created for the purpose, covering 2,796 reported cases. General detection rates were calculated, as well as specific rates by gender, clinical type, and age group. Linear, exponential, geometric, and log adjustment models were performed to analyze time trends in the disease. An increase in detection was observed, involvi (mais) ng mostly female and paucibacillary cases, mainly of tuberculoid leprosy. The increase in detection was most evident in the 15 to 19 year-old population. The percentage of detection under 15 indicated the need for active case search in this group.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

18

Papel do teste de detecção rápida do antígeno do estreptococcus beta-hemolítico do grupo a em pacientes com faringoamigdalites/ Role of rapid antigen detection test for the diagnosis of group-A beta-hemolytic streptococcus in patients with pharyngotonsillitis

Araujo Filho, Bernardo Cunha; Imamura, Rui; Sennes, Luiz Ubirajara; Sakae, Flávio Akira
2006-02-01

Resumo em português O Streptococcus beta-hemolítico do grupo A (SGA) é o agente etiológico mais comum das faringoamigdalites (FA). O diagnóstico etiológico correto e tratamento adequado evitam complicações supurativas e não-supurativas da faringoamigdalite estreptocócica, entretanto, métodos clínicos de diagnóstico não são confiáveis. Os métodos rápidos de detecção do antígeno do SGA podem ser utilizados no diagnóstico deste agente e evitar uso indevido de antibióticos. (mais) OBJETIVOS: Os autores objetivaram avaliar a sensibilidade e especificidade dos testes rápidos para detecção do antígeno do SGA em nosso meio. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo. METODOLOGIA: Oitenta e um pacientes com faringoamigdalite aguda, atendidos no PS-ORL do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, no período de maio de 2001 a abril de 2002, foram submetidos a duas coletas simultâneas de material de orofaringe com swabs. O teste rápido de detecção do SGA foi confrontado com a cultura em placa agar-sangue ("gold standard" para o diagnóstico etiológico). RESULTADOS: De 81 pacientes, 56% tiveram teste rápido positivo e 44% negativo; 40.7% apresentaram crescimento de SGA na cultura; a sensibilidade e especificidade do teste rápido foram, respectivamente, 93,9% e 68,7%. O valor preditivo negativo e positivo foram, respectivamente, 94,2% e 67,4%. CONCLUSÕES: A alta sensibilidade do exame permite utilizá-lo com intuito de identificar pacientes com SGA. Os testes de detecção rápida do antígeno estreptocócico se mostraram uma importante arma coadjuvante no diagnóstico etiológico das faringoamigdalites. Resumo em inglês Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS) is an important pharyngotonsillitis etiologic agent. Correct etiologic diagnosis and early treatment prevent suppurative and non-suppurative complications of streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis, however, clinical diagnostic methods are not reliable. Within this context, rapid detection methods of GAS antigen are useful to diagnose this agent. AIM: The objective of the present study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity o (mais) f rapid GAS antigen detection tests used in Brazil. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical prospective. METHODS: Eighty-one patients with clinical diagnosis of acute pharyngotonsillitis seen at the otorhinolaryngology emergency department of University Hospital, FMUSP, between May 2001 and April 2002, were submitted to two simultaneous collections of oropharyngeal material using swabs. Rapid GAS antigen detection test was compared to culture on blood agar, the gold standard for the diagnosis of this etiologic agent. RESULTS: Among the 81 studied patients, the rapid test was positive in 56% and negative in 44%. GAS growth in culture was observed for 40.7% of the patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were, respectively, 93.9% and 68.7%, and the negative and positive predictive values were 94.2 and 67.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the high sensitivity of the test permits its use for the identification of patients with GAS. Rapid streptococcal antigen detection tests have been shown to be an important supporting tool in the etiologic diagnosis of pharyngotonsillitis.

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19

Papel do teste de detecção rápida do antígeno do estreptococcus pyogenes do grupo a em pacientes com faringoamigdalites/ Role of rapid antigen detection test for the diagnosis of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus in patients with pharyngotonsillitis

Araujo Filho, Bernardo Cunha; Imamura, Rui; Sennes, Luiz Ubirajara; Sakae, Flávio Akira
2005-04-01

Resumo em português O Streptococcus pyogenes do grupo A (SGA) é o agente etiológico mais comum das faringoamigdalites (FA). O diagnóstico etiológico correto e tratamento adequado evitam complicações supurativas e não-supurativas da faringoamigdalite estreptocócica, entretanto, métodos clínicos de diagnóstico não são confiáveis. Os métodos rápidos de detecção do antígeno do SGA podem ser utilizados no diagnóstico deste agente e evitar uso indevido de antibióticos. OBJETIV (mais) OS: Os autores objetivaram avaliar a sensibilidade e especificidade dos testes rápidos para detecção do antígeno do SGA em nosso meio. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Oitenta e um pacientes com faringoamigdalite aguda, atendidos no PS-ORL do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, no período de maio de 2001 a abril de 2002, foram submetidos a duas coletas simultâneas de material de orofaringe com swabs. O teste rápido de detecção do SGA foi confrontado com a cultura em placa agar-sangue ("gold standard" para o diagnóstico etiológico). RESULTADOS: De 81 pacientes, 56% tiveram teste rápido positivo e 44% negativo; 40.7% apresentaram crescimento de SGA na cultura; a sensibilidade e especificidade do teste rápido foram, respectivamente, 93,9% e 68,7%. O valor preditivo negativo e positivo foram, respectivamente, 94,2% e 67,4%. COMENTÁRIOS FINAIS: A alta sensibilidade do exame permite utilizá-lo com intuito de identificar pacientes com SGA. Os testes de detecção rápida do antígeno estreptocócico se mostraram uma importante arma coadjuvante no diagnóstico etiológico das faringoamigdalites. Resumo em inglês Group A b-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS) is an important pharyngotonsillitis etiologic agent. Correct etiologic diagnosis and early treatment prevent suppurative and non-suppurative complications of streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis; however, clinical diagnosis is not reliable. Within this context, rapid detection methods of GAS antigen are useful to diagnose this agent. AIM: The objective of the present study was to determine sensitivity and speci (mais) ficity of rapid GAS antigen detection tests used in Brazil. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical prospective. METHOD: Eighty-one patients with clinical diagnosis of acute pharyngotonsillitis seen at the otorhinolaryngology emergency department of the University Hospital, FMUSP, between May 2001 and April 2002 were submitted to two simultaneous collections of oropharyngeal material using swabs. The rapid GAS antigen detection test was compared to culture on blood agar, the gold standard for the diagnosis of this etiologic agent. RESULTS: Among the 81 patients studied, the rapid test was positive in 56% and negative in 44%. GAS growth in culture was observed in 40.7% of the patients. Sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were, respectively, 93.9% and 68.7%, and the negative and positive predictive values were 94.2 and 67.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that high sensitivity of the test allows its use in the identification of patients with GAS. Rapid streptococcal antigen detection tests have been shown to be an important adjuvant tool in the etiologic diagnosis of pharyngotonsillitis.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

20

ELISA indireto para detecção de IgG antivírus da doença de Newcastle em soro de codorna/ Indirect ELISA for the detection of IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus in quail serum

Oliveira, D.D.; Folgueras-Flatschart, A.V.; Flatschart, R.B.; Resende, J.S.; Abreu, J.T.; Martins, N.R.S.
2007-10-01

Resumo em inglês An indirect ELISA for the detection of japanese quail IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was developed. The secondary anti-quail IgG was produced in Balb/c mice, by inoculating Freund's complete adjuvant emulsified japanese quail-IgG extract. The purification of IgG was achieved using the caprilic acid method. The ELISA was compared to the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test for antibodies to NDV. ELISA cut-off point was established through TG-ROC analysis. (mais) Total correlation was observed between the ELISA and the HI, being the ELISA efficient in the identification of positive and negative sera, with high sensitivity and specificity (100%). These results validate the use of the indirect ELISA as an alternative for the detection of NDV-specific IgG in japanese quail sera, with the advantage of high sensitivity and automation.

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22

Perfil de sensibilidade antimicrobiana e detecção do gene ISS pela reação em cadeia da polimerase na tipificação de Escherichia coli patogênica em codornas de corte sob inspeção sanitária/ Profile of antimicrobial resistance and detection of iss gene by the polymerase chain reaction in the typification of pathogenic Escherichia coli in meat type quails under sanitary inspection

Abreu, Dayse Lima da Costa; Franco, Robson Maia; Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo do; Pereira, Virginia Léo de Almeida; Alves, Fernanda Martinez Xavier; Almeida, Juliana Ferreira de
2010-05-01

Resumo em português A patogenicidade das cepas de Escherichia coli está relacionada à expressão de fatores de virulência encontrados em elementos genéticos denominados plasmídios. O patotipo APEC, responsável por diferentes tipos de doenças em aves, pode apresentar o gene iss que aumenta a resistência das cepas de E. coli aos efeitos líticos do soro, além da resistência a diversos antimicrobianos. Este estudo foi conduzido para detectar E. coli em traquéias de codornas destinada (mais) s ao abate e avaliar, pela presença do gene iss e o perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana, o potencial patogênico para aves e humanos dos isolados obtidos. Foram coletadas 180 traquéias de codornas para detecção de E. coli, determinação do perfil de resistência a agentes antimicrobianos e posterior detecção, por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), do gene iss. Das traquéias analisadas, 8,9 % (16/180) foram positivas para E. coli, sendo obtidos 20 isolados deste agente. A maioria dos isolados foi resistente à Tetraciclina (16/20), seguida pela Ceftazidima (13/20) e Ácido Nalidíxico (12/20), sendo apenas um resistente à Amoxicilina. A detecção do gene iss ocorreu em 55% (11/20) dos isolados. A presença do gene iss e a resistência a múltiplos antimicrobianos dos isolados obtidos neste estudo pode indicar um possível potencial patogênico das cepas de E. coli tanto para codornas quanto para outros tipos de aves e animais e mesmo para o ser humano que fique em contato com as mesmas. Resumo em inglês The pathogenicity of Escherichia coli strains is partially related to the expression of virulence factors genes, present in genetic elements called plasmids. APEC strains responsible for diseases in birds may present the iss gene which increases the resistance of E. coli strains to the lityc effect of the host's serum, besides resistance to several antimicrobials. This study was conduced in order to detect E. coli in tracheae of meat-type quails and to evaluate, by the pr (mais) esence of the iss gene and the profile of antimicrobial susceptibility, the pathogenic potential of the isolated samples for birds and humans. One hundred and eighty tracheae of quails were collected for detection of E. coli, antimicrobial sensitivity tests, and for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for detection of iss gene. From the examined quails, 8.9 % (16/180) were positive for E. coli, from which 20 strains of this bacterium were obtained. Most of them were resistant to Tetracycline (16/20), followed by Ceftadizime (13/20) and Nalidixic-acid (12/20) and only one isolate was resistant to Amoxicillin. The detection of iss gene occurred in 55% (11/20) of the isolates, indicating that these strains had the potential to be pathogenic not only for quails, but also for other kinds of birds, other animals and even human beings that would be in contact with these E. coli isolates.

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Tuberculose multirresistente: Detecção directa em amostras respiratórias com o método de genética molecular MTBDRplus®/ Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: Rapid molecular detection with MTBDRplus® assay in clinical samples

Macedo, Rita; Amorim, António; Pereira, Edna
2009-05-01

Resumo em português Uma das principais problemáticas no controlo da tuberculose é o aparecimento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente (TB -MR) e tuberculose extensivamente resistente (TB -XDR). A detecção precoce da resistência a fármacos, directamente a partir de amostras respiratórias, é essencial para que se assegure o tratamento atempado, adequado e eficaz da tuberculose, bem como para prevenir a disseminação destes casos de especial gravidade. O nosso objectivo foi avaliar (mais) a sensibilidade e comparar os resultados obtidos com um método de genética molecular disponível comercialmente - MTBDRplus® - e o isolamento, identificação e testes de sensibilidade clássicos, directamente a partir de amostras respiratórias. Estudamos 68 amostras, com baciloscopia positiva. O MTBDRplus® permitiu identificar, directamente a partir das amostras respiratórias, o complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis em todos os casos em que o estudo cultural e a identificação clássica chegaram a esse mesmo resultado. Nas amostras em que culturalmente isolámos estirpes sensíveis, com o MTBDRplus® encontrámos sempre perfis genéticos do tipo selvagem (63,2%). Relativamente às amostras em que culturalmente isolámos estirpes resistentes, com o MTBDRplus® encontrámos sempre perfis genéticos com mutações ou com ausência do perfil do tipo selvagem (36,8%). Este estudo permitiu concluir que o MTBDRplus® assegura a detecção rápida de resistências a fármacos em estirpes do complexo M. tuberculosis, com resultados totalmente sobreponíveis aos obtidos com os métodos bacteriológicos clássicos. Resumo em inglês Nowadays, the greatest concern of tuberculosis control programmes is the appearance of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Rapid determination of drug resistance in clinical samples, with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), is the prerequisite for initiating effective chemotherapy, ensuring successful treatment of the patient and preventing further spread of drugresistant isolates. The aim of our study was to determine the s (mais) ensitivity of the new MTBDRplus® assay in comparison to culture, identification and classic DST, directly from smear-positive clinical specimens. A total of 68 smear-positive sputum specimens were processed by both the classical mycobacteriological methods and the molecular assay, MTBDRplus®. MTBDRplus® assay allowed an accurate identification of MTC species by detection of the specific band in all samples, from which we also isolated and identified MTC strains by culture methods. In the samples from which we isolated susceptible strains (63.2%), wild type patterns were found using MTBDRplus ® assay. The samples from which we isolated resistant strains (36.8%) showed specific mutations associated with the correspondent resistant phenotype. Our study indicated that this assay allows rapid detection of resistance, always in agreement with classic methods.

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Otimização da imunoistoquímica para detecção de herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (BHV-5) em tecidos do sistema nervoso central fixados com formaldeído/ Optimization of immunohistochemistry for Bovine Herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5) detection on formalin-fixed tissues of the central nervous system

Hübner, S.O.; Pescador, C.; Corbellini, L.G.; Driemeier, D.; Spilki, F.R.; Roehe, P.M.
2005-02-01

Resumo em português Com o objetivo de otimizar a técnica de imunoistoquímica para detecção de herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (BHV-5) em tecidos do sistema nervoso central fixado em formaldeído, foram avaliados diferentes métodos de digestão enzimática, diferentes anticorpos e reagentes para bloqueio de reações inespecíficas. As reações apresentaram a máxima intensidade de coloração específica e a quantidade mínima de coloração de fundo quando foram usadas protease de Streptom (mais) yces griseus (0,1%) ou proteinase K de Tritirachium album limber (0,05%), mediante incubação durante 15 minutos a 37°C. Entre os anticorpos monoclonais analisados, dois foram capazes de detectar BHV-5. As reações inespecíficas foram bloqueadas mais efetivamente pela incubação do tecido com caseína (0,5%), durante cinco minutos, ou leite em pó (2,5%), durante 60 minutos, ou soro eqüino (2,5%), durante 60 minutos. Com a técnica otimizada foi possível a detecção de BHV-5 em material de arquivo. Resumo em inglês In order to optimize immunohistochemical technique (IHC) for detection of Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5) on formalin-fixed sections of central nervous system, different methods of enzymatic digestion, use of different antibodies and products for blocking of nonspecific reactivity were evaluated. The reactions showed the highest intensity of specific coloration and the minimum amounts of background when protease from Streptomyces griseus (0.1%) or proteinase K from Trit (mais) irachium album limber (0.05%) were used, incubating for 15 minutes at 37°C. Only two of the tested monoclonal antibodies specifically labelled BHV-5 antigen. The nonspecific reactions were blocked through incubation of tissues with casein (0.5%) for five minutes or powdered milk (2.5%) for 60 minutes or equine serum (2.5%) for 60 minutes. The optimized immunohistochemical method allowed the detection of BHV-5 antigen in histopathological archives.

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Sensores ópticos com detecção no infravermelho próximo e médio/ Near and mid infrared optical sensors

Lima, Kássio M. G.; Raimundo Jr., Ivo M.; Silva, Andréa Monteiro S.; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda
2009-01-01

Resumo em inglês Optical chemical sensors with detection in the near and mid infrared region are reviewed. Fundamental concepts of infrared spectroscopy and optical chemical sensors are briefly described, before presenting some aspects on optical chemical sensors, such as synthesis of NIR and IR reagents, preparation of new materials as well as application in determinations of species of biological, industrial and environmental importance.

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Um equipamento de eletroforese capilar com detecção condutométrica construído em laboratório/ A laboratory-made capillary electrophoresis equipment with conductometric detection

Böckel, Wolmir J.; Martini, Emilse M. A.; Samios, Dimitrios; Piatnicki, Clarisse M. S.
2005-12-01

Resumo em inglês A new construction of a capillary electrophoresis instrument with a universal conductivity detector (oscillometric detector) is described. The performance of the electrophoresis equipment was evaluated through the separation and detection of inorganic anions and cations in aqueous solutions. The results reproduced those found in the literature for the investigated probe ions, showing an efficient separation and good repeatability.

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Determinação simultânea de cátions empregando eletroforese capilar com detecção condutométrica sem contato em equipamento construído em laboratório/ Simultaneous determination of cations by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection performed in a home-made equipment

Carvalho, Leandro M. de; Spengler, Cristiane; Lima, Ana Paula S. de; Raabe, Alice; Martini, Mariele; Nascimento, Paulo C. do; Bohrer, Denise
2009-01-01

Resumo em inglês This work describes the development of a home-made capillary electrophoresis (CE) system based on the capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D) for the separation of the metallic species Zn2+, Cr3+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ e Tl+. A background electrolyte composed of MES/Histidine 0,02 mol L-1 (pH 5.0) was optimized for the separation of the metallic species by using organic solvents and complexing agents as additives. The system allowed the determ (mais) ination of the metallic species using MES/Histidine 0,02 mol L-1 and methanol 5% (pH 5.0) as a background electrolyte, 15 kV separation voltage and hydrodynamic injection by gravity.

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Eficiência dos testes COPAN (Microplate e Single) na detecção de resíduos de antimicrobianos no leite/ Efficacy of COPAN (Microplate and Single kits) in detection of antimicrobials residues in milk

Tenório, C.G.M.S.C.; Cerqueira, M.M.O.P.; Viegas, R.P.; Resende, M.F.S.; Clinquart, D.L.; Santos, A.K.R.; Souza, M.R.; Penna, C.F.A.M.
2009-04-01

Resumo em português Avaliou-se a eficiência dos testes microbiológicos COPAN (Microplate e Single) para detecção de resíduos de 13 antimicrobianos inoculados em leite isento de resíduos. Foram utilizadas quatro concentrações, sendo a primeira equivalente à metade do limite de detecção declarado pelo fabricante (C1); a segunda equivalente ao limite máximo de resíduos (LMR) estabelecido pela legislação brasileira (C2); a terceira equivalente ao limite de detecção declarado pel (mais) o fabricante (C3); e a quarta equivalente ao dobro do limite de detecção declarado pelo fabricante (C4). Os testes apresentaram 100% de sensibilidade na detecção de amoxicilina, ampicilina, cloxacilina, penicilina, tilosina, sulfadiazina, sulfametoxazol, e 96,7% na detecção de oxacilina para as concentrações informadas pelo fabricante como limite de detecção. Em relação às concentrações estabelecidas pela legislação brasileira, verificou-se que os testes foram capazes de detectá-las para a maioria dos antimicrobianos avaliados. Os testes não se mostraram eficientes na detecção das concentrações estabelecidas pela legislação para eritromicina, oxitetraciclina, tetraciclina, trimetoprim e gentamicina (Microplate). Resumo em inglês The efficacy of the microbiological kits COPAN (Microplate and Single) for detection of antimicrobials residues was tested. Thirteen drugs were inoculated into milk without residues at four concentration levels: C1 - half of the detection threshold declared by the manufacturer, C2 - the maximum residues threshold established by the Brazilian legislation, C3 - the detection threshold declared by the manufacturer, and C4 - two fold the detection threshold declared by the ma (mais) nufacturer. The tests showed 100% efficient in detection of amoxicillin, cloxacillin, penicillin, tilosin, sulfadiazine, and sulfa methoxazol; and 96.7% for oxacillin considering the concentration stated by the manufacturer as threshold level. Regarding the concentrations established by the Brazilian legislation, all tested kits were able to detect most of the evaluated antimicrobials. The kits were not efficient in detection of the concentration levels established by the Brazilian legislation for erythromycin, oxytetracyclin, tetracyclin, trimetoprim, and gentamycin (Microplate).

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Validação de métodos alternativos qualitativos na detecção de patógenos alimentares/ Validation of qualitative alternative methods in the detection of food-born pathogens

Freitas, Elaine Ibrahim de; Lemos, Anderson Almeida de; Marin, Victor Augustus
2006-12-01

Resumo em português As Doenças de Origem Alimentar (DOA) são um perigo de grande relevância para a saúde humana e para a economia dos indivíduos, famílias e nações. O risco de disseminação de microrganismos patogênicos vem crescendo continuamente, e programas de controle de qualidade microbiológica são empregados em toda a cadeia de produção alimentar a fim de minimizar o risco de infecção e/ou intoxicação. A utilização de métodos de detecção alternativos de microrgan (mais) ismos é uma das ferramentas que podem ser utilizadas para garantir a segurança microbiológica dos produtos. Contudo, para que a metodologia utilizada forneça resultados confiáveis é necessário que ela seja validada. A validação deve garantir, por meio de estudos experimentais, que o método atenda às exigências das aplicações analíticas, assegurando a confiabilidade dos resultados, devendo apresentar níveis adequados de acurácia, precisão, limite de detecção, robustez, repetitividade, reprodutibilidade, especificidade, linearidade e exatidão. Embora existam diversos guias descrevendo a validação de métodos analíticos, comparativamente, pouco se tem dito a respeito da validação de métodos microbiológicos e, menos ainda, de métodos moleculares. O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer uma revisão dos parâmetros necessários para validação de métodos alternativos qualitativos na detecção de patógenos alimentares. Resumo em inglês Food-Born Diseases (FBD) are a considered an important hazard for human health and the economy on individual, family and national level. The risk of dissemination of pathogens increases continuously and microbiological quality control programs are employed in the entire food chain in order to minimize the risk of infection and/or intoxication. The use of alternative methods for the detection of microorganisms is one of the tools for granting the microbiological safety of (mais) the products. For obtaining reliable results however the method needs to be validated. The purpose of the validation is to ensure through experimental studies that the method is meeting the requirements of analytical applications, ensuring the reliability of results and adequate levels of accuracy, precision, detection limit, solidity, repeatability, reproducibility, specificity, linearity and exactness. Although there are some guides describing the validation of analytical methods, comparatively little has been said regarding validation of microbiological methods and even less with respect to molecular methods. The aim of this work is to review the parameters necessary for validating qualitative alternative methods in the detection of food-born diseases.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

30

Validação de métodos alternativos qualitativos na detecção de patógenos alimentares/ Validation of qualitative alternative methods in the detection of food-born pathogens

Freitas, Elaine Ibrahim de; Lemos, Anderson Almeida de; Marin, Victor Augustus
2006-12-01

Resumo em português As Doenças de Origem Alimentar (DOA) são um perigo de grande relevância para a saúde humana e para a economia dos indivíduos, famílias e nações. O risco de disseminação de microrganismos patogênicos vem crescendo continuamente, e programas de controle de qualidade microbiológica são empregados em toda a cadeia de produção alimentar a fim de minimizar o risco de infecção e/ou intoxicação. A utilização de métodos de detecção alternativos de microrgan (mais) ismos é uma das ferramentas que podem ser utilizadas para garantir a segurança microbiológica dos produtos. Contudo, para que a metodologia utilizada forneça resultados confiáveis é necessário que ela seja validada. A validação deve garantir, por meio de estudos experimentais, que o método atenda às exigências das aplicações analíticas, assegurando a confiabilidade dos resultados, devendo apresentar níveis adequados de acurácia, precisão, limite de detecção, robustez, repetitividade, reprodutibilidade, especificidade, linearidade e exatidão. Embora existam diversos guias descrevendo a validação de métodos analíticos, comparativamente, pouco se tem dito a respeito da validação de métodos microbiológicos e, menos ainda, de métodos moleculares. O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer uma revisão dos parâmetros necessários para validação de métodos alternativos qualitativos na detecção de patógenos alimentares. Resumo em inglês Food-Born Diseases (FBD) are a considered an important hazard for human health and the economy on individual, family and national level. The risk of dissemination of pathogens increases continuously and microbiological quality control programs are employed in the entire food chain in order to minimize the risk of infection and/or intoxication. The use of alternative methods for the detection of microorganisms is one of the tools for granting the microbiological safety of (mais) the products. For obtaining reliable results however the method needs to be validated. The purpose of the validation is to ensure through experimental studies that the method is meeting the requirements of analytical applications, ensuring the reliability of results and adequate levels of accuracy, precision, detection limit, solidity, repeatability, reproducibility, specificity, linearity and exactness. Although there are some guides describing the validation of analytical methods, comparatively little has been said regarding validation of microbiological methods and even less with respect to molecular methods. The aim of this work is to review the parameters necessary for validating qualitative alternative methods in the detection of food-born diseases.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Implementação de um sistema de eletroforese capilar com detecção de fluorescência induzida por laser/ Development of a laser induced fluorescence detection scheme for capillary electrophoresis

Santos, Marcia R.; Tavares, Marina F. M.; Rubim, Joel C.
2000-10-01

Resumo em inglês A capillary electrophoresis system using laser induced fluorescence detection is described. A Raman system equipped with a microscope has been used to focus the laser beam on the capillary giving a lateral resolution of 1.5 mm. The fluorescence signal of the analyte (ZnPcTS - tetrasulfonated zinc-phthalocyanine) was collected by the microscope objectives and analysed by a monochromator with confocal characteristics equipped with a CCD detector. Electropherograms obtained (mais) with this system were compared to those obtained on a commercial instrument, showing that the described system presents a lower detection limit and better resolution.

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Avaliação da reação em cadeia da polimerase e do isolamento bacteriológico convencional na detecção de Salmonella Dublin em amostras de fezes de bezerros infectados experimentalmente/ Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction and standard microbiological techniques for detection of Salmonella Dublin in fecal samples of infected calves

Silva, D.G.; Silva, D.R.; Silva, P.R.L.; Cícero, E.A.S.; Ferraz, A.L.J.; Lemos, M.V.F.; Fagliari, J.J.
2010-06-01

Resumo em inglês The efficiency of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) combined with selective enrichment broth was compared with the standard microbiological techniques for detection of Salmonella Dublin in fecal samples of 10 to 15-days-old Holstein calves, experimentally infected with 10(8) CFU of Salmonella Dublin. Seventy-six fecal samples were analyzed using PCR associated with selenite cystine (SC) and Muller-Kauffmann tetrathionate (TMK) broths and standard microbiological techniq (mais) ues. Regardless of the selective enrichment broth used, the standard microbiological techniques were significantly better than PCR in detection of positive samples of Salmonella Dublin. However, the simultaneous use of both techniques provided detection of a larger number of positive samples. The SC broth was the best option as selective enrichment in both techniques.

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Testes bioquímico (albumina e proteína de ligação da vitamina D) e molecular (gene KIT) para detecção de marcadores genéticos para pelagem tobiana em cavalos Pampa e Paint/ Biochemical (albumin and vitamin D-binding protein) and molecular (KIT gene) tests for detection of genetic markers for Tobiano coat color in Pampa and Paint horses

Coelho, E.G.A.; Oliveira, D.A.A.; Teixeira, C.S.
2010-06-01

Resumo em português Foram utilizados 159 cavalos Pampa, registrados na Associação Brasileira dos Criadores de Cavalo Pampa, e um grupo-controle, de 32 cavalos da raça Paint, ambos os grupos provenientes de plantéis de diferentes regiões brasileiras, com o objetivo de comparar os testes bioquímico e molecular para detecção de marcadores genéticos para pelagem tobiana em cavalos Pampa. Houve diferença significativa (P(mais) mas o mesmo fato não ocorreu com os da raça Paint. Os resultados mostraram que o marcador molecular (KIT) foi mais eficiente na identificação dos prováveis cavalos homozigotos do que os marcadores bioquímicos albumina (Al) e proteína de ligação da vitamina D (Gc), em ambas as raças. Resumo em inglês In this study, 159 Pampa horses, registered at the Associação Brasileira dos Criadores de Cavalo Pampa, and a control group of 32 Paint horses, both coming from herds located in different Brazilian regions, were used to compare biochemical and molecular tests for detection of genetic markers for the Tobiano coat color pattern in Pampa horses. Difference (P(mais) ts showed that the molecular marker (KIT) was more efficient to identify the probable homozygous dominant horses than the biochemical markers albumin (Al) and vitamin D-binding Protein (Gc), in both breeds.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Processamento auditivo, resolução temporal e teste de detecção de gap: revisão da literatura/ Auditory processing, temporal resolution and gap detection test: literature review

Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Schochat, Eliane
2008-01-01

Resumo em português TEMA: processamento auditivo temporal e resolução temporal. OBJETIVO: realizar revisão teórica sobre processamento auditivo e resolução temporal, bem como sobre os diferentes parâmetros de marcadores utilizados em testes de detecção de gap e como eles podem interferir na determinação dos limiares. CONCLUSÃO: o processamento auditivo e a resolução temporal são fundamentais para o desenvolvimento da linguagem. Em virtude dos diferentes parâmetros que podem ser utilizados no teste em questão, os limiares de detecção de gap podem variar consideravelmente. Resumo em inglês BACKGROUND: temporal auditory processing and temporal resolution. PURPOSE: promote a theoretical approach on auditory processing, temporal resolution, and different parameters of markers used at various gap detection tests and how they can interfere in threshold determination. CONCLUSION: auditory processing and temporal resolution are key-factors for language development. The diverse parameters that can be used in the study of gap detection thresholds can result in quite discrepant thresholds.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Quimiossensores cromogênicos e fluorogênicos para a detecção de analitos aniônicos/ Chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensors for detection of anionic analites

Zimmermann-Dimer, Lizandra Maria; Machado, Vanderlei Gageiro
2008-01-01

Resumo em inglês The detection of anionic species is a field which is currently attracting increasing interest. Research is carried out not only to gain a better understanding of biological events that anions participate in, but also to ascertain the potential contribution of the anionic chemosensors to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of species of interest in the areas of industry, medicine, the environment, and chemistry. This review summarizes several aspects related to the m (mais) ain strategies used in anion sensing. Each strategy discussed is illustrated with its potential applications citing recent examples. The prospects for their use in several areas are also described.

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Análise de ácidos graxos por eletroforese capilar utilizando detecção condutométrica sem contato/ Analysis of fatty acids by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection

Oliveira, Marcone A. L.; Lago, Claudimir L. do; Tavares, Marina F. M.; Silva, José Alberto Fracassi da
2003-12-01

Resumo em inglês This article describes a novel approach to the separation of fatty acids ranging from 8 to 20 carbons using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection. Complete separation of nine linear chain fatty acids (from C8:0 to C20:0) was achieved in 15 min under normal polarity operation. Limits of detection ranged from 35 to 319 µmol L-1 for C20:0 to C8:0, respectively. The optimized running electrolyte composition was 5.0 mmol L-1 phosphate buffer at pH (mais) 7, 4.0 mmol L-1 dimethyl-b-cyclodextrin, 2.0 mmol L-1 trimethyl-b-cyclodextrin, acetonitrile 50% (v/v), and methanol 20% (v/v). The applicability of the separation system was demonstrated by the analysis of coconut vegetable oil.

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Influência do aumento do acesso à atenção básica no comportamento da taxa de detecção de hanseníase de 1980 a 2006/ The influence of increased access to basic healthcare on the trends in Hansen's disease detection rate in Brazil from 1980 to 2006

Penna, Maria Lucia Fernandes; Oliveira, Maria Leide W.; Carmo, Eduardo Hage; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Temporão, José Gomes
2008-01-01

Resumo em português A taxa de detecção da hanseníase no Brasil aumentou nas duas últimas décadas do século XX, sendo que a reforma sanitária ocorreu no mesmo período. A taxa de detecção é função da incidência real de casos e da agilidade diagnóstica do sistema de saúde. Utilizou-se a cobertura vacinal por BCG como uma variável procuradora do acesso à atenção primária em saúde. Uma regressão log-normal foi ajustada à taxa de detecção de 1980 a 2006, com o tempo, temp (mais) o ao quadrado e da cobertura do BCG como variáveis independentes, sendo positivo o coeficiente de regressão desta última variável, sugerindo que o comportamento da taxa de detecção da hanseníase refletiu a melhora de acesso à atenção primária no período estudado. A tendência de aumento da taxa de detecção se reverte em 2003, indicando o início de uma nova fase no controle da hanseníase. Resumo em inglês Brazilian Hansen's disease detection rate rose during the 80s and 90s of the 20th century. The Brazilian health system reform happened during the same period. Detection rate is a function of the real incidence of cases and the diagnostic agility of the health system. Coverage of BCG immunization in infants was used as a proxy variable for primary healthcare coverage. A log-normal regression model of detection rate as a function of BCG coverage, time and time square was ad (mais) justed to data. The detection rate presents an upward trend throughout the period and with a downturn beginning in 2003. The model showed a statistically significant positive regression coefficient for BCG coverage, suggesting that detection rate behavior reflects the improvement of access to health care. The detection rate began a trend towards decline in 2003, indicating a new phase of Hansen's disease control.

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Oxidação de proteínas por oxigênio singlete: mecanismos de dano, estratégias para detecção e implicações biológicas/ Singlet oxygen-mediated protein oxidation: damage mechanisms, detection techniques and biological implication

Ronsein, Graziella E.; Miyamoto, Sayuri; Bechara, Etelvino; Di Mascio, Paolo; Martinez, Glaucia R.
2006-06-01

Resumo em inglês Proteins are potential targets for singlet molecular oxygen (¹O2) oxidation. Damages occur only at tryptophan, tyrosine, histidine, methionine, and cysteine residues at physiological pH, generating oxidized compounds such as hydroperoxides. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which ¹O2, hydroperoxides and other oxidized products can trigger further damage. The improvement and development of new tools, such as clean sources of ¹O2 and isotopic lab (mais) eling approaches in association with HPLC/mass spectrometry detection will allow one to elucidate mechanistic features involving ¹O2-mediated protein oxidation.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Estudo da vantagem da orelha direita em teste de detecção de gap/ Study of the right ear advantage on gap detection tests

Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Schochat, Eliane
2008-04-01

Resumo em português A habilidade auditiva de resolução temporal consiste no tempo mínimo requerido para segregar ou resolver eventos acústicos. Esta habilidade é fundamental para a compreensão da fala e pode ser avaliada por testes de detecção de gap. Alguns estudos apontam uma vantagem da orelha direita sobre a esquerda em tarefas de resolução temporal, já que existe um papel preferencial do hemisfério esquerdo na análise dos aspectos temporais do estímulo acústico. OBJETIVO: (mais) Determinar se existem diferenças de resposta (limiares de detecção de gap e porcentagem de acertos) entre as orelhas direita e esquerda para um teste de detecção de gap. Forma de Estudo: Experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O teste de detecção de gap foi aplicado em 100 indivíduos adultos, após a realização de outros testes audiológicos para descartar possíveis alterações auditivas e/ou do processamento auditivo. RESULTADOS: Foram observados limiares de detecção de gap e porcentagens médias de acertos semelhantes para as orelhas direita e esquerda, independente da orelha de início do teste. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve vantagem de uma orelha sobre a outra na tarefa de detecção de gap. Resumo em inglês Temporal resolution hearing skills are based on the minimum time necessary to segregate or solve acoustic events. This skill is fundamental for speech comprehension and can be assessed by gap detection tests. Some studies point to a right ear advantage over the left ear in temporal resolution tasks, since there is a preferential role of the left hemisphere in analyzing the temporal aspects of the acoustic stimulus. AIM: determine if there are response differences (gap det (mais) ection thresholds and percentage of correct answers) between right and left ears in a gap detection test. Study: experimental. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the gap detection test was applied to 100 adult individuals, after carrying out other audiologic tests in order to rule out possible hearing and/or auditory processing disorders. RESULTS: We observed gap detection thresholds and average correct answers percentages, which were similar for both ears, regardless of which ear started the test. CONCLUSION: There was no ear advantage in the gap detection task.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Determinação de citrato de sildenafila e de tadalafila por cromatografia líquida de ultraeficiência com detecção por arranjo de diodos (CLUE-DAD)/ Determination of sildenafil citrate and tadalafil by ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (UPLC-DAD)

Ortiz, Rafael Scorsatto; Antunes, Marina Venzon; Linden, Rafael
2010-01-01

Resumo em inglês A simple ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of sildenafil citrate and tadalafil was developed and validated. Sample preparation was dissolution in methanol, followed by centrifugation and dilution (1:10) with methanol. Analysis was performed in an Acquity® UPLC system with Acquity® BEH C18 column (2.1 x 50 mm, with 1.7 μm particles). The elution was isocratic with phosphate buffer pH 2.3 and acetonitrile (65:35, v/v) (mais) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. The method presented adequate specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy and allowed the determination of the drugs in seized forensic samples.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Determinação de bromato em melhoradores de farinha por cromatografia de troca iônica com detecção espectrofotométrica/ Bromate determination in flour improvers by ion exchange chromatography with spectrophotometric detection

Dallago, Rogério Marcos; Nascimento Filho, Irajá do; Zanella, Renato; Maroneze, Aline Machado
2005-08-01

Resumo em inglês KBrO3 is registered by the FAO/OMS as a genotoxic and carcinogenic compound. In spite of this, KBrO3 is still employed by Brazilian bakeries. Nowadays ion exchange chromatography (IEC) is the most rapid and trustful method for BrO3- analysis. When at high concentrations, chloride ions can interfere in the BrO3- analysis, if the detection is performed by electrical conductivity. On the other hand, spectrophotometric detection, presented here is based on the absorption of B (mais) rO3- in the ultraviolet region (210 - 230 nm) where the absortion of chloride ions is very low, thus making possible the qualitative and quantitative analysis of BrO3- in flour improver samples.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Determinação de 3,4-metilenodioximetanfetamina (MDMA) em comprimidos de Ecstasy por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detecção por fluorescência (CLAE-DF)/ Determination of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in Ecstasy tablets by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD)

Costa, José Luiz da; Pintao, Estela Regina; Corrigliano, Célia Maria Castro; Negrini Neto, Osvaldo
2009-01-01

Resumo em inglês This paper describes the development and validation of simple and selective analytical method for determination of 3.4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in Ecstasy tablets, using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Analysis was performed in a reversed phase column (LiChrospher 100 C18, 150 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm), isocratic elution with phosphate buffer 25 mmol/L pH 3.0 and acetonitrile (95:5, v/v). The method presents adequate linearity, selec (mais) tivity, precision and accuracy. MDMA concentration in analyzed tablets showed a remarkable variability (from 8.5 to 59.5 mg/tablet) although the tablet weights were uniform, indicating poor manufacturing control thus imposing additional health risks to the users.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Avaliação do desempenho analítico do método de determinação de TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon) por detecção no infravermelho/ Validation of method for the determination of TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon) by infrared detection

Nascimento, A. R.; Ziolli, R.L.; Ararun, Jr, J.T.; Pires, C.S.; Silva, T.B.
2008-01-01

Resumo em português No presente trabalho os parâmetros de desempenho (validação intralaboratorial) da metodologia de determinação de TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) foram determinados por detecção na região do infravermelho com o equipamento da Infracal TOG/TPH, visando aplicação em amostras de areia contaminadas com petróleo. Os ensaios foram realizados utilizando Óleo Marine Fuel 380, com densidade igual 0,987 g cm-3 e viscosidade de 5313 cP a 20°C. Este óleo foi fornecido (mais) pelo Centro de Pesquisa da Petrobrás (CENPES/PETROBRÁS/RJ), sendo o mesmo óleo derramado no acidente ocorrido em janeiro de 2000, na Baia de Guanabara, RJ, quando 1.300 m3 vazaram do duto que interliga a REDUC (Refinaria Duque de Caxias, RJ) ao terminal da Ilha d’Água/RJ, atingindo praias. Os resultados da validação indicaram que o desempenho da metodologia foi favorável à aplicação que se destina. Entre os parâmetros metrológicos obtidos neste trabalho, o limite de detecção do método foi de 4,06 mg L-1, consideravelmente inferior à faixa de concentração normalmente obtida para amostras em tais situações. Resumo em inglês This work deals with an optimization of TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon) analysis methodology for samples of contaminated sands, validating the infrared detection technique through the use of Infracal TOG/TPH equipment. Tests were validated using Marine Fuel 380 oil, density 0.987 g cm-3 and viscosity 5313 cP at 20 ºC. This oil sample was kindly supplied by Petrobras Research Centre (CENPES), and is the same oil that leaked from a pipeline in REDUC Refinery on January 2 (mais) 000, contaminating several beaches in Guanabara Bay, including Anil and Mauá. The validation results suggested that the methodology performance was adequate for this application. Amongst the metrological parameters obtained from this work, the detection limit, 4.06 mg L-1, was a plus; since it was far below to the concentration range obtained from this samples.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Desenvolvimento e validação de um método analítico para a determinação de histamina em vinhos utilizando cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detecção por fluorescência/ Development and validation of an analytical method for the determination of histamine in wines using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

Prestes, Osmar D.; Presta, Michele A.; Kolberg, Diana I. S.; Zanella, Renato; Rossato, Simone B.; Penna, Neidi G.; Hecktheuer, Luisa H. R.
2007-02-01

Resumo em inglês A rapid and efficient method for the analysis of histamine in wines using HPLC with fluorescence detection after derivatization was developed and validated. The method LOD and LOQ values were 0.25 and 0.50 mg L-1 respectively. The repeatability and intermediary precision for the instrument and for the method presented RSD values of 3.7 and 2.9%, and 6.0 and 5.6%, respectively. The recoveries were 95.5 and 89.9% for the fortification levels of 2 and 10 mg L-1. The method w (mais) as applied to determine the histamine content in Cabernet Sauvignon wines, which presented values between 1.2 and 5.7 mg L-1.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Determinação de corantes marcadores do tipo azo e antraquinona em combustíveis por cromatografia líquida com detecção eletroquímica/ Determination of azo and anthraquinone dyes in fuels sample using hplc with electrochemical detection

Trindade, Magno Aparecido Gonçalves; Rinaldo, Daniel; Vilegas, Wagner; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin
2010-01-01

Resumo em inglês An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection has been developed and applied to the determination of Solvent blue 14 (SA-14) and Solvent red 24 (SV-24) in fuel samples. The dyes were better separated on C18 column, using a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and ammonium acetate (90:10, v/v). Detection was carried out at an oxidation potential of +0.85V. The detector response was linear at concentration range of 7.50 (mais) ×10-8 - 1.50×10-6 mol L-1 (r = 0.997) for SA-14 and SV-24, respectively. The method was used to quantify these dyes in fuels samples with satisfactory accuracy and precision.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Damage detection methods in bridges through vibration monitoring : evaluation and application Métodos de detecção de dano em pontes mediante a utilização de técnicas de monitorização dinâmica : avaliação e aplicação

Estrada, Rolando Salgado

Tese de doutoramento In this thesis, a detailed analysis of the most important vibration-based damagedetection methods applied to bridge structures is addressed. Special attention isfocused on those methods capable to detect damage only with information providedfrom a damage stage of the structure...

DRIVER (Portuguese)

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Optimização da determinação de ésteres de toxinas diarreicas e avaliação da sua citotoxicidade

Rodrigues, Susana Margarida Correia Alves, 1972-

O estudo da contaminação de moluscos bivalves com toxinas do tipo diarreico (DSP) foi realizado em amostras de diversas espécies da costa portuguesa, recorrendo à cromatografia líquida com detecção por espectrometria de massas (LC-MS). Os resultados revelaram que o ácido ocadáico (AO) e a dinofisist...

DRIVER (Portuguese)

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Determinação de parâmetros de validação de métodos cromatográficos para análise de 5-hidroximetilfurfural e açúcares em amostras de processo de produção de polímero biodegradável/ Determination of validation parameters to chromatographic methods in 5-hydroxymethilfurfurol and sugar analysis to samples from production process of biodegradable polymer

Santos, A. F. dos; Ribeiro, C. A.; Polese, L.; Ernandes, J. R.; Kesserlingh, S. M.; Nonato, R. V.
2006-01-01

Resumo em português A eficiência de métodos para análise de 5-hidroximetilfurfural por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detecção na região do ultravioleta e determinação de sacarose, glicose e frutose por cromatografia líquida com detecção por índice de refração foi avaliada. Após otimização das condições analíticas, os principais parâmetros de validação (linearidade, limite de quantificação, limite de detecção, recuperação, sensibilidade e precisã (mais) o) foram determinados e demonstraram que os procedimentos analíticos podem ser aplicados para o controle do processo de produção de poli(3-hidroxibutirato). Resumo em inglês The efficiency of methods for the analysis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) and determination of sucrose, glucose and fructose by HPLC with refractive index detection (HPLC-RI) was evaluated. After optimization of the analytical conditions, the main validation parameters (linearity, quantification limit, detection limit, recovery, sensitivity and precision) were determined and demonstrated that the a (mais) nalytical procedures could be applied to control the process of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Validação do método de extração e quantificação de 7-hidróxi- 4',6-dimetóxi-isoflavona em culturas de células em suspensão e calos de Dipteryx odorata/ Validation of the methodology for extration and quantitation of the 7-hydroxy-4',6-dimethoxylisoflavone in suspension cells and callus cultures of Dipteryx odorata

Fernandes, Renata dos Santos; Lourenço, Miriam Vergínia; Miranda, Carlos E. S.; França, Suzelei de Castro; Januário, Ana Helena
2009-01-01

Resumo em português O presente trabalho consiste no desenvolvimento e validação de um método analítico por CLAE/DAD para a detecção da 7-hidróxi-4',6-dimetóxisoflavona em culturas de células em suspensão e calos de Dipteryx odorata cultivados in vitro. Os parâmetros de validação: curva analítica, linearidade, precisão, recuperação, limite de detecção e limite de quantificação foram avaliados e os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o procedimento analítico proposto para (mais) a detecção e dosagem desta isoflavona está dentro dos parâmetros recomendados pela RE899/03-ANVISA, podendo ser utilizado para o controle de qualidade de culturas de células cultivadas in vitro desta espécie vegetal. Resumo em inglês The present work consists of the development and validation of HPLC analytical methodology for the evaluation of 7-hydroxy-4',6-dimethoxyisoflavone in cells suspension and callus culture of Dipteryx odorata. The validation parameters: analytical curve, linearity, precision, recovery, detection limit and quantification limit were determined and they demonstrated that the analytical procedures for the detection and quantification for this isoflavone follow the requeriments (mais) of regulatory RE899/03- National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) and could be applied to cells culture quality control of this vegetal species.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Evidência de alterações de permeabilidade vascular na dengue: quando a dosagem de albumina sérica define o quadro?/ Plasma leakage detection in severe dengue: when serum albumin quantification plays a role?

Brito, Carlos A.A.; Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima M.P.; Lucena-Silva, Norma
2007-04-01

Resumo em português Evidência de extravasamento vascular decorrente do aumento da permeabilidade capilar caracteriza e diferencia febre hemorrágica da dengue. Este artigo avalia o valor de albumina sérica na detecção de alterações de permeabilidade vascular em casos de dengue. Quatorze pacientes diagnosticados com febre hemorrágica da dengue em dois hospitais privados em Recife, Brasil, entre janeiro e maio de 2002 foram seguidos com dosagens diárias de hematócrito e albumina séri (mais) ca. Ultra-son e Raio X de tórax foram realizados. Oito (57%) casos apresentaram hemoconcentração de 20% ou mais. Hipoalbuminemia foi detectado em dez (71%) pacientes. Dosagem de albumina sérica aumentou a detecção de alterações de permeabilidade em seis (43%) casos na qual a hemoconcentração foi inferior a 20% e os sintomas foram compatíveis com um a resposta imune exacerbada. Raio-X foi normal em todos os casos. A utilização, portanto, de dosagem de albumina sérica aumenta a sensibilidade de detecção de casos de febre hemorrágica da dengue. Resumo em inglês Evidence of vascular leakage due to increased capillary permeability characterizes and differentiates dengue hemorrhagic fever. This article assesses the value of serum albumin for detecting vascular permeability abnormalities in dengue cases. Fourteen patients diagnosed with dengue hemorrhagic fever at two private hospitals in Recife, Brazil, between January and May 2002 were followed up with daily hematocrit and serum albumin assays. Ultrasound scans and chest X-rays we (mais) re also performed. Eight (57%) of the cases presented hemoconcentration of 20% or more. Hypoalbuminemia was detected in ten patients (71%). Serum albumin assays increased the detection of permeability abnormalities in six cases (43%) in which the hemoconcentration was less than 20% and the symptoms were compatible with an exacerbated immune response. The X-rays were normal in all cases. Thus, the use serum albumin quantification increased the sensitivity of dengue hemorrhagic fever detection.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Resolução temporal: análise em pré-escolares nascidos a termo e pré-termo/ Temporal resolution: analysis in term and preterm preschoolers

Fortes, Ana Beatriz; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo; Azevedo, Marisa Frasson de
2007-04-01

Resumo em português TEMA: processamento auditivo. OBJETIVO: verificar o comportamento auditivo de resolução temporal de crianças na faixa etária de cinco a seis anos, nascidas pré-termo, sem evidências de alterações neurológicas e compará-lo com o mesmo comportamento auditivo de crianças na mesma faixa etária, nascidas a termo, com baixo risco para alteração do desenvolvimento, considerando as variáveis: limiar de detecção de intervalo de tempo por freqüência sonora pré-e (mais) stabelecida apresentada na forma binaural e monoaural por ordem de orelha que iniciou o teste e gênero. MÉTODO: 70 sujeitos: 44 nascidos a termo reunidos em grupos de 20 indivíduos do sexo feminino e 24 do sexo masculino, denominado Grupo 1, e 26 nascidos pré-termo, sendo 12 indivíduos do sexo feminino e 14 do sexo masculino, denominado Grupo 2, foram submetidos a avaliação audiológica composta por audiometria tonal limiar, limiar de reconhecimento de fala, imitânciometria e aplicação do teste de fusão auditiva denominado de Random Gap Detection. RESULTADOS: os nascidos a termo apresentaram menores limiares de detecção de intervalo de tempo no teste de fusão auditiva, nas formas de apresentação binaural e monoaural em todas as freqüências sonoras pré-estabelecidas, do que os nascidos pré-termo com diferença estatisticamente significante. As médias dos limiares de detecção de intervalo de tempo do Grupo 1 aumentaram conforme a freqüência sonora aumentou. No Grupo 2 não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes quanto as médias de limiares de detecção de intervalo de tempo na forma de apresentação binaural e monoaural. CONCLUSÃO: os nascidos pré-termo se diferenciam dos nascidos a termo quanto ao comportamento auditivo de resolução temporal e o teste de fusão auditiva utilizado pode servir como ferramenta para a avaliação do processamento auditivo, uma vez que a detecção precoce de alteração dos processos temporais indica uma intervenção para minimizar ou evitar futuros prejuízos de linguagem. Resumo em inglês BACKGROUND: auditory processing. AIM: to verify the hearing behavior of temporal resolution in children with ages from five to six years, who were born preterm, with no evidence of neurological alterations and to compare this behavior to that observed in children of the same age, who were born at term, with low risk for developmental disorders, taking into consideration the variables of: threshold detection gaps through pre-established frequency, binaural and monaural pre (mais) sentation, order of stimuli presentation and gender. METHOD: 70 children divided in two groups: Group 1 with 44 children who were born at term (20 female and 24 male) and Group 2 with 26 preterm children (12 female and 14 male). Children were submitted to audiologic evaluation composed of audiometry, speech response threshold, acoustic impedance test and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT). RESULTS: children who were born at term presented lower threshold detection gaps in the RGDT, for both monaural and binaural stimuli presentation, in all of the pre-established frequencies when compared to preterm children. This difference between the groups was statistically significant. The average threshold detection gaps of Group 1 rose according to the increase of frequency. For Group 2 statistically significant differences were not found regarding the average of threshold detection gaps, for both monaural and binaural stimuli presentation. CONCLUSION: preterm children differ from those born at term regarding the hearing behavior of temporal resolution. The RGDT can be used as a tool to evaluate the hearing process, once the early detection of alterations in temporal processes indicates the need for intervention in order to minimize or avoid future language impairments.

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Aplicabilidade da metodologia de reação de polimerase em cadeia em tempo real na determinação do percentual de organismos geneticamente modificados em alimentos/ Applicability of the real-time polymerase chain reaction based-methods in quantification of genetically modified organisms in foods

Barros, Natália Eudes Fagundes de; Oliveira, Edna Maria Morais; Marin, Victor Augustus
2008-02-01

Resumo em português A detecção de organismos geneticamente modificados na cadeia alimentar é um aspecto importante para todos os assuntos envolvidos no controle de matéria-prima, na indústria de alimentos e na distribuição. A rotulagem e a rastreabilidade de organismos geneticamente modificados são questões atuais que são consideradas para o comércio e a regulamentação. Atualmente, a rotulagem de alimentos processados contendo material transgênico detectável é exigida pela le (mais) gislação brasileira. O governo brasileiro publicou Decreto nº 4.680 em abril de 2003, que exige rotulagem para todos os alimentos ou ingredientes de alimento, com o limite para rotulagem de 1%. Embora a tecnologia de reação em cadeia da polimerase tenha algumas limitações, a alta sensibilidade e especificidade explicam sua escolha por parte dos laboratórios interessados em realizar análises de detecção de organismos geneticamente modificados e seus derivados. Entre os métodos atualmente disponíveis, aqueles baseados na reação em cadeia da polimerase geralmente são aceitos, considerando a sensibilidade e a confiabilidade na detecção de material geneticamente modificado-derivado em análises de rotina. Neste artigo, apresenta-se uma revisão de métodos atualmente disponíveis baseados na reação em cadeia da polimerase para detecção, identificação e quantificação de organismos geneticamente modificados e seus derivados, discutindo sua aplicabilidade e suas limitações. Resumo em inglês Detection of genetically modified organisms in the food chain is an important issue for all subjects involved in raw material control, food industry and distribution. Both labeling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered for trade and regulation. Currently, labeling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by the Brazilian legislation. The Brazilian government published the Decree (mais) nº 4.680 in April 2003, which requires labeling for all foods or food ingredients, with a stricter labeling threshold of 1%. Although polymerase chain reaction technology has some limitations, the high sensitivity and specificity explain why it has been the first choice of most analytical laboratories interested in detection of genetically modified organisms and their derived products. Among the currently available methods, polymerase chain reaction-based methods are accepted, considering the sensitivity and reliability for detection of genetically modified-derived material in routine analysis. In this paper, a review of currently available polymerase chain reaction methods for screening and quantifying genetically modified-derived ingredients is presented, discussing their applicability and limitations.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Cryptosporidium spp. no ambiente aquático: aspectos relevantes da disseminação e diagnóstico/ Cryptosporidium spp. in aquatic environment: the principal aspects of dissemination and diagnostic methods

Lima, Erilane de Castro; Stamford, Tânia Lucia Montenegro
2003-01-01

Resumo em português A criptosporidiose é uma doença de importância para a saúde pública. A via de transmissão do Cryptosporidium parvum é associada freqüentemente à contaminação de água. Porém, estudos epidemiológicos revelam que sua incidência no ambiente aquático é subestimada. A falta de método apropriado de detecção para a pesquisa dos oocistos em amostras de água contribui para isso. O artigo discute vários aspectos do tema, dentre eles, a ocorrência desse patóge (mais) no no ambiente aquático e os avanços nos métodos de detecção. Apesar da existência de técnicas de biologia molecular para a identificação do agente, métodos parasitológicos ainda apresentam resultados satisfatórios. A reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR) é um método de detecção promissor. A identificação dos oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. na amostra de água é influenciada pelo número de oocistos presentes, pela sensibilidade do método e pelo método de concentração dos oocistos na amostra, cujo aperfeiçoamento é fundamental para a precisão da análise e pesquisa do parasito. Resumo em inglês Criptosporidiosis is an important problem of public health. The role of Cryptosporidium parvum as a waterborne pathogen has been documented. But epidemiological features of this parasitic protozoon lead to the assumption that the incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. in aquatic environmental is under-estimated. The lack of sensitive detection methods adapted for oocysts detection in water contributed to this under-reporting. This review paper discusses the theme, including th (mais) e occurrence of these pathogens in aquatic environmental and the available detection methods. Although the molecular biology technique used for identification of the agent, the parasitological diagnostics' method continue to show satisfactory results. Polimerase chain reaction (PCR) is a promising detection method and the potencial use in the detection of C. parvum in water has been described. The Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts identification in water samples depends on the number of oocysts, sensibilty of methods, and the concentration technique and this step is fundamentally to precision of test.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

55

Cryptosporidium spp. no ambiente aquático: aspectos relevantes da disseminação e diagnóstico/ Cryptosporidium spp. in aquatic environment: the principal aspects of dissemination and diagnostic methods

Lima, Erilane de Castro; Stamford, Tânia Lucia Montenegro
2003-01-01

Resumo em português A criptosporidiose é uma doença de importância para a saúde pública. A via de transmissão do Cryptosporidium parvum é associada freqüentemente à contaminação de água. Porém, estudos epidemiológicos revelam que sua incidência no ambiente aquático é subestimada. A falta de método apropriado de detecção para a pesquisa dos oocistos em amostras de água contribui para isso. O artigo discute vários aspectos do tema, dentre eles, a ocorrência desse patóge (mais) no no ambiente aquático e os avanços nos métodos de detecção. Apesar da existência de técnicas de biologia molecular para a identificação do agente, métodos parasitológicos ainda apresentam resultados satisfatórios. A reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR) é um método de detecção promissor. A identificação dos oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. na amostra de água é influenciada pelo número de oocistos presentes, pela sensibilidade do método e pelo método de concentração dos oocistos na amostra, cujo aperfeiçoamento é fundamental para a precisão da análise e pesquisa do parasito. Resumo em inglês Criptosporidiosis is an important problem of public health. The role of Cryptosporidium parvum as a waterborne pathogen has been documented. But epidemiological features of this parasitic protozoon lead to the assumption that the incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. in aquatic environmental is under-estimated. The lack of sensitive detection methods adapted for oocysts detection in water contributed to this under-reporting. This review paper discusses the theme, including th (mais) e occurrence of these pathogens in aquatic environmental and the available detection methods. Although the molecular biology technique used for identification of the agent, the parasitological diagnostics' method continue to show satisfactory results. Polimerase chain reaction (PCR) is a promising detection method and the potencial use in the detection of C. parvum in water has been described. The Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts identification in water samples depends on the number of oocysts, sensibilty of methods, and the concentration technique and this step is fundamentally to precision of test.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Perspectivas de eliminação da hanseníase como problema de saúde pública no Estado do Paraná, Brasil/ Prospects for the elimination of leprosy as a public health problem in the State of Paraná, Brazil

Silva Sobrinho, Reinaldo Antonio da; Mathias, Thaís Aidar de Freitas
2008-02-01

Resumo em português A hanseníase, moléstia infecto-contagiosa endêmica, constitui ainda problema de saúde pública na maioria dos estados brasileiros, embora, nos últimos anos, venha apresentando queda importante em seu coeficiente de prevalência. Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar a perspectiva de eliminação da hanseníase no Estado do Paraná por meio dos coeficientes de detecção e de prevalência, nos anos de 2000 a 2005, além do sexo, idade, forma clínica, classificação (mais) operacional e número de lesões de pele. A fonte de informações foi o banco de dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) e o programa Tabnet. Os coeficientes de detecção e de prevalência da hanseníase no Paraná permaneceram sem alteração no período de estudo. Verificou-se, no Paraná, segundo as Regionais de Saúde, que o coeficiente de detecção da hanseníase foi, em sua maioria, alto ou muito alto. Quanto à prevalência, oito Regionais de Saúde alcançaram a meta de eliminação. Conclui-se que o Estado do Paraná está próximo de alcançar a meta de eliminação da hanseníase. Recomenda-se o fortalecimento das ações para que a eliminação da doença como um problema de saúde pública seja uma realidade. Resumo em inglês Leprosy, an endemic contagious/infectious disease, is still a public health problem in most States of Brazil, despite an important decrease in the prevalence rate in recent years. The current study aims to analyze the prospects for the elimination of leprosy in the State of Paraná, based on detection and prevalence rates for the years 2000 to 2005, in addition to data on gender, age, clinical form, operational classification, and number of skin lesions. Data were obtaine (mais) d from the Reportable Diseases Information System (SINAN) and the Tabnet software. Leprosy detection and prevalence rates in Paraná remained unaltered during the study period. The leprosy detection rates were high or very high in the majority of the health districts in the State. In terms of prevalence, eight health districts had reached the goal of eliminating the disease. In conclusion, the State of Paraná is close to reaching the goal of eliminating leprosy. Based on the study results, actions are recommended to eliminate the disease as a public health problem.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Perspectivas de eliminação da hanseníase como problema de saúde pública no Estado do Paraná, Brasil/ Prospects for the elimination of leprosy as a public health problem in the State of Paraná, Brazil

Silva Sobrinho, Reinaldo Antonio da; Mathias, Thaís Aidar de Freitas
2008-02-01

Resumo em português A hanseníase, moléstia infecto-contagiosa endêmica, constitui ainda problema de saúde pública na maioria dos estados brasileiros, embora, nos últimos anos, venha apresentando queda importante em seu coeficiente de prevalência. Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar a perspectiva de eliminação da hanseníase no Estado do Paraná por meio dos coeficientes de detecção e de prevalência, nos anos de 2000 a 2005, além do sexo, idade, forma clínica, classificação (mais) operacional e número de lesões de pele. A fonte de informações foi o banco de dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) e o programa Tabnet. Os coeficientes de detecção e de prevalência da hanseníase no Paraná permaneceram sem alteração no período de estudo. Verificou-se, no Paraná, segundo as Regionais de Saúde, que o coeficiente de detecção da hanseníase foi, em sua maioria, alto ou muito alto. Quanto à prevalência, oito Regionais de Saúde alcançaram a meta de eliminação. Conclui-se que o Estado do Paraná está próximo de alcançar a meta de eliminação da hanseníase. Recomenda-se o fortalecimento das ações para que a eliminação da doença como um problema de saúde pública seja uma realidade. Resumo em inglês Leprosy, an endemic contagious/infectious disease, is still a public health problem in most States of Brazil, despite an important decrease in the prevalence rate in recent years. The current study aims to analyze the prospects for the elimination of leprosy in the State of Paraná, based on detection and prevalence rates for the years 2000 to 2005, in addition to data on gender, age, clinical form, operational classification, and number of skin lesions. Data were obtaine (mais) d from the Reportable Diseases Information System (SINAN) and the Tabnet software. Leprosy detection and prevalence rates in Paraná remained unaltered during the study period. The leprosy detection rates were high or very high in the majority of the health districts in the State. In terms of prevalence, eight health districts had reached the goal of eliminating the disease. In conclusion, the State of Paraná is close to reaching the goal of eliminating leprosy. Based on the study results, actions are recommended to eliminate the disease as a public health problem.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

58

Amplificação de mRNA de tireoglobulina no sangue de pacientes com carcinoma diferenciado da tireóide: qual o seu verdadeiro significado?/ Thyroglobulin mRNA amplification in peripheral blood of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: what does it really mean?

Coelho, Sabrina Mendes; Vaisman, Mário; Carvalho, Denise Pires de
2006-06-01

Resumo em português Apesar do excelente prognóstico, aproximadamente 20-40% dos pacientes com carcinoma diferenciado da tireóide (CDT) evoluem com recidiva tumoral e o prognóstico está relacionado principalmente à detecção precoce da doença. Desta forma, o acompanhamento permanente dos pacientes com exames sensíveis é fundamental. A tireoglobulina (Tg) sérica já demonstrou importância como marcador de recidiva. Entretanto, sua dosagem apresenta ainda algumas dificuldades, como a (mais) interferência com anticorpo anti-Tg, e a sensibilidade dependente do nível de TSH. A amplificação de mRNA tumor-específico extraído a partir de células neoplásicas na corrente sangüínea apresentou resultados iniciais promissores. No entanto, após quase uma década de estudo da detecção do mRNA de Tg no sangue, ainda não foi estabelecida sua real contribuição no acompanhamento dos pacientes com CDT. Após análise crítica dos estudos publicados, verifica-se a enorme diversidade de protocolos empregados e resultados conflitantes. Desta forma, até o momento, a amplificação de mRNAs tireóide-específicos não é superior à dosagem de Tg sérica existente. A possibilidade de transcrição ilegítima e splicing alternativo são fatores que podem interferir com a especificidade do método. Resumo em inglês Despite the excellent prognosis, differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) may recur in 20-40%, and prognosis is particularly related to early detection of recurrent disease. Therefore, long-term follow-up with sensitive tests is need. Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) has an established role as a tumor marker of relapse. However, there are technical limitations of Tg immunoassays, in special, the interference of anti-Tg antibodies and the method sensitivity is dependent on TSH stimu (mais) lation. Detection of circulating malignant cells by amplification of tumor-specific mRNA showed initial promising results. However, almost one decade of studies of Tg mRNA detection in peripheral blood, its real contribution for DTC follow-up had not yet been established. After a critical analysis of published data, it is clear that there are many protocol differences and conflicting results. Therefore, it seems that amplification of thyroid-specific mRNAs is not superior to sensitive Tg assays and illegitimate transcription and alternative splicing of Tg are factors that may influence mRNA test specificity.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

59

Validação de metodologia para dosagem de porfirinas urinárias por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência/ Validation of a high performance liquid chromatography method for quantification of urinary porphyrins

Alves, Atecla Nunciata Lopes; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Sumita, Nairo Massakazu; Della Rosa, Henrique Vicente
2007-12-01

Resumo em português Porfirinas são produtos originados da biossíntese do heme. As enzimas envolvidas neste processo podem ter sua atividade inibida por fatores genéticos, adquiridos ou uma combinação de ambos, acarretando um aumento sérico do substrato correspondente que será eliminado pela urina. Considerando-se a importância do diagnóstico precoce nas alterações da biossíntese do heme, o objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um método de cromatografia líquida de alta efici� (mais) �ncia (CLAE) com detecção por fluorescência, sensível o suficiente para identificar cinco frações de porfirinas urinárias: uroporfirina (8-carboxil porfirina), heptaporfirina (7-carboxil porfirina), hexaporfirina (6-carboxil porfirina), pentaporfirina (5-carboxil porfirina) e coproporfirina I e III (4- carboxil porfirinas). Métodos de extração por detecção espectrofotométrica não são sensíveis para este propósito. O cromatógrafo utilizado, da marca Shimadzu, é composto de duas bombas, injetor automático e detector de fluorescência (RF-535) com excitação de 400 nm e emissão de 620 nm. Foi utilizada uma coluna de fase reversa com um programa de gradiente linear. O método desenvolvido apresentou linearidade de 8,0 a 120,0 µg/L para as frações de interesse, demonstrando ser adequado na identificação e quantificação das porfirinas com diferentes grupos carboxílicos, importantes para o diagnóstico precoce e acompanhamento de porfirias. Resumo em inglês Porphyrins are products that originate from the heme biosyntetic pathway. Enzymes that take part in this route can have their activity inhibited due to inherited/acquired or both factors resulting in increased serum heme precursor that will be eliminated in urine. Considering the importance of early detection of heme biosynthesis alterations, the purpose of this study was to establish a high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection, to det (mais) ect five fractions of porphyrins: uroporphyrin (8-carboxyporphyrin), heptaporphyrin (7-carboxyporphyrin), hexaporphyrin (6-carboxyporphyrin), pentaporphyrin (5-carboxyporphyrin) and coproporphyrin I and III (4- carboxyporphyrin). Extraction methods with spectrophotometric detection are not sensitive enough for this purpose. The HPLC (Shimadzu Co., Kioto, Japan) was composed of two high-pressure pumps, auto-sampler and fluorescence detector (RF-535) with excitation at 400 nm and emission at 620 nm. The sample was eluted from a reversed-phase column with a linear gradient. The linearity of the method was from 8.0 to 120 µg/L for all fractions, proving its ablility to identify and quantify porphyrins with differents carboxylic groups for early diagnosis and follow-up of porphyrias.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Ácidos orgânicos em aguardentes produzidas em alambique e em coluna/ Organic acids in sugarcane spirits' fractions produced in stills and columns

Serafim, Felipe Augusto Thobias; Buchviser, Silmara França; Galinaro, Carlos Alexandre; Franco, Douglas Wagner; Novaes, Fernando Valadares
2011-01-01

Resumo em inglês The concentration of 14 organic acids of 50 sugarcane spirits samples was determined by gas chromatography using flame ionization detection. The organic acids analytical quantitative profile in stills and column distilled spirits from wines obtained from the same must were compared. The comparison was also carried in "head", "heart" and "tail fractions of stills distilled spirits. The experimental data were analyzed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and pointed out t (mais) hat the distillation process (stills and column) strongly influences the lead spirits' organic acid composition and that producers' operational "cuts off" to produce "tail", "heart" and "head", fractions should be optimized.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

61

Vitaminas lipossolúveis em alimentos: uma abordagem analítica/ Fat-soluble vitamins in food: an analytical approach

Paixão, José A. da; Stamford, Tânia L. M.
2004-02-01

Resumo em inglês This study concerns certain problems inherent to the determination of fat-soluble vitamins in food, from extraction methods to identification and quantification. The discussion involves the main official and unofficial extraction methods coupled with spectrophotometric and HPLC techniques in which vitamins samples are obtained through liquid-liquid-solid and liquid-liquid-solid-solid extraction, indispensable to the analytical separation of different chemical compounds wi (mais) th vitamin functions. A saponification stage, possibly coupled with supercritical fluid extraction appears to be mandatory in the determination of vitamins A and E in their alcoholic forms. Alternative identification and quantification procedures are outlined: biological and chemical assays, analytical separations by HPLC (normal and reversed-phase), UV detection (all fat-soluble vitamins) and fluorescence detection (retinoids and tocopherols). Automation from sample preparation to quantification stages increases the data acquisition rate.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

62

Validação de métodos para determinação de fluoxetina em cápsulas/ Validation of methods for determination of fluoxetine capsules

Fregonezi-Nery, Marlene Maria; Baracat, Marcela Maria; Casagrande, Rubia; Machado, Hodnei Takashi; Miglioranza, Bruna; Gianotto, Elisabeth Aparecida dos Santos; Dalmas, José Carlos
2008-01-01

Resumo em inglês A UV spectrophotometric method was developed and validated and a chromatographic method was adapted from the American Pharmacopeia for the analysis of Fluoxetine Hydrochloride capsules. Ethanol was used as solvent for the spectrophotometric method, with detection and determination at 276 nm. The separation for the chromatographic method was carried out using the reversed-phase column LC-8, triethylamine buffer, stabilizer free tetrahydrofuran and methanol (5:3.5:1.5), pH (mais) 6.0 as mobile phase and detection at 227 nm. The results obtained for both methods showed to be accurate, precise, robust and linear over the concentration range 100.00 - 300.00 µg/mL and 40.00 - 80.00 µg/mL of fluoxetine hydrochloride for the spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods, respectively. The accuracy of the methods was evaluated by a recovery test and showed results between 98.89 and 101.10%.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

63

Validação de método para determinação de ácidos orgânicos voláteis em efluentes de reatores anaeróbios empregando cromatografia líquida/ Method validation for the determination of volatile fatty acids in wastewaters from anaerobic reactors employing liquid chromatography

Cerqueira, Maristela Barnes Rodrigues; Dias, Adriana Neves; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Santana, Fabrício Butierres; D'Oca, Marcelo Gonçalves Montes; Primel, Ednei Gilberto
2011-01-01

Resumo em inglês This work deals with the method validation for the determination of acetic, propionic and butyric acids (VFAs) in wastewaters from anaerobic reactors by HPLC-DAD. Separation was performed using a C18 column and the mobile phase composition were water pH 3.0 and methanol 90:10 (v/v). The detection and quantification was carried out at 220 nm. The method shows good linearity (r²>0.996), with adequate accuracy (89-102%) and relative standard deviations lower than 18%. The m (mais) atrix effect was considered low (-4.1, -3.9 and 1.4%). The developed method is fast, simple and cheap; and it was applied in wastewater samples from anaerobic reactor.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

64

Utilização de técnicas eletroanalíticas na determinação de pesticidas em alimentos/ Electroanalytical techniques for the determination of pesticides in foods

Galli, Andressa; De Souza, Djenaine; Garbellini, Gustavo S.; Coutinho, Cláudia F. B.; Mazo, Luiz H.; Avaca, Luis A.; Machado, Sergio A. S.
2006-02-01

Resumo em inglês The aim of this work is to discuss selected applications of electroanalytical techniques for the detection of pesticides in foods and beverages, published in the last ten years. The applications involved different working electrodes for the electroanalytical determination of pesticides, namely amperometric biosensors, cholinesterase-based biosensors, polymer-modified electrodes, ultramicroelectrodes and hanging mercury drop electrodes. They were used for several voltammet (mais) ric and amperometric techniques in different analytical procedures for the detection and quantification of different classes of pesticides in different food matrices.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

65

Using middle-infrared reflectance for burned area detection

Santos, Renata Libonati dos, 1980-

A strategy is presented that allows deriving a new index for burned areadiscrimination over the Amazon and Cerrado regions of Brazil. The index is based oninformation from the near-infrared (NIR) and middle-infrared (MIR) channels of the ModerateResolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). A tho...

DRIVER (Portuguese)

66

Using CLIPS to detect network intrusions

Alípio, Pedro; Carvalho, Paulo; Neves, José

This paper shows how to build a network intrusion detection system by slightly modifying NASA's CLIPS source code, introducing features such as single and multiple string pattern matching, certainty factors and time-stamp operators. Several Snort functions and plugins were adapted and used for packe...

DRIVER (Portuguese)

68

Toxicity effects of fungicide residues on the wine-producing process

Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Andrade, João V.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Estevinho, Letícia M.

We report the detection of several fungicide residues (Dichlofluanid, Benomyl, Iprodione, Procymidone and Vinclozolin) in redand white bottled wines from two Portuguese wine-producing zones. Studies were done in order to evaluate the active compoundtransfer percentage from grapes to the final prod...

DRIVER (Portuguese)

69

The utility of screening for perinatal depression in the second trimester among Chinese: a three-wave prospective longitudinal study

Lau, Ying; Wong, Keung Fu Daniel; Chan, Sin Kin

This paper aims to study the pattern of perinatal depressive symptomatology and determine the predictive power of second trimester perinatal depressive symptoms for future perinatal periods. A population-based sample of 2,178 women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in the sec...

DRIVER (Portuguese)

70

The Design of OPTIMISM, an Opinion Mining System for Portuguese Politics


We present the design of OPTIMIST an Opinon mining system for detection and classification of opinions about relevant political actors We present the design of OPTIMIST an Opinon mining system for detection and classification of opinions about relevant political actors

DRIVER (Portuguese)

71

Repetições CAG: candidatos na gênese das psicoses funcionais

Lima, Ivanor Velloso Meira
1999-10-01

Resumo em português O autor discorre sobre a instabilidade do DNA em regiões de repetições CAG e sua associação com doenças que afetam o SNC e apresentam o fenômeno da antecipação genética. Revisa também os achados de antecipação em famílias com transtorno bipolar e esquizofrenia, assim como as investigações com o método RED (Repeat Expansion Detection) e com o anticorpo 1C2, que apontam para uma participação desse mecanismo mutacional na determinação genética das psicoses funcionais. Resumo em inglês The author comments about the DNA instability associated with CNS's diseases which display genetic anticipation. He reviews the evidence of anticipation in bipolar and schizophrenia families. He also presents the RED (Repeat Expansion Detection) investigations and screenings with the antibody 1C2 which demonstrated the participation of this mutational mechanism on the functional psychosis genesis.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

72

Reflexos da reflexividade mediatizada: os professores do ensino secundário e os rankings escolares

Melo , Maria Benedita de Lemos Portugal e

Procurámos, compreender, nesta investigação, em que medida o jornal Público – media de referência no campo da imprensa escrita portuguesa – poderá potenciar a reflexividade dos actores sociais. Ao detectarmos, através da análise de conteúdo, em que condições e em que termos se produziu a reflexivida...

DRIVER (Portuguese)

73

Recentes avanços e novas perspectivas dos eletrodos íon-seletivos/ Recent advances and new perspectives of ion-selective electrodes

Torres, Karin Yanet Chumbimuni; Marzal, Percy Calvo; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo; Bakker, Eric
2006-10-01

Resumo em inglês This paper describes the recent progress in the development of polymeric membranes for ion-selective electrodes. The importance of knowing the mechanism of potential development in membranes for ion-selective electrodes to reach lower detection limits and improve selectivity are discussed. Recent advances and future trends of research on ion-selective electrodes are also reported.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

74

Quantification of tocopherols and tocotrienols in Portuguese olive oils using HPLC with three different detection systems

Cunha, S.C.; Amaral, J.S.; Fernandes, J.O.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.

Three different HPLC detection systems were compared for the determination of tocopherols andtocotrienols in olive oil: fluorescence and diode array connected in series, ultraviolet, and evaporativelight scattering. The best results were obtained with the fluorescence detector, which was successfu...

DRIVER (Portuguese)

75

Produção de substratos sers eficientes através da deposição de ouro sobre um molde de microesferas de poliestireno/ Production of efficient sers substrates by depositing gold over a polystyrene beads template

Santos, Diego Pereira dos; Andrade, Gustavo Fernandes Souza; Sant'Ana, Antônio Carlos; Temperini, Marcia L. A.
2010-01-01

Resumo em inglês This work reports on the SERS activity of a nanostructured substrate that was obtained by electrodepositing gold over a template consisting of polystyrene microspheres. This substrate displayed superior SERS performance for the detection of 4-merctaptopyridine as compared to a conventional roughened Au electrode. In order to investigate the substrate capability for the detection at low concentration limits, a series of Rhodamine 6G (1 nM) spectra were registered. Our spec (mais) tral dynamics data is in agreement with single-molecule behavior, showing that the control over the substrate morphology is crucial to enable the production of highly reproducible and sensitive SERS substrates.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

76

Processamento temporal auditivo: relação com dislexia do desenvolvimento e malformação cortical/ Temporal auditory processing: correlation with developmental dyslexia and cortical malformation

Boscariol, Mirela; Guimarães, Catarina Abraão; Hage, Simone Rocha de Vasconcellos; Cendes, Fernando; Guerreiro, Marilisa Mantovani
2010-12-01

Resumo em português TEMA: processamento temporal auditivo e dislexia do desenvolvimento. OBJETIVO: caracterizar o processamento temporal auditivo em escolares com dislexia do desenvolvimento e correlacionar com malformação cortical. MÉTODO: foram avaliados 20 escolares, com idade entre 8 e 14 anos, divididos em grupo experimental (GE) composto por 11 escolares (oito do gênero masculino) com o diagnóstico de dislexia do desenvolvimento e grupo controle (GC) composto por nove escolares (s (mais) eis do gênero masculino) sem alterações neuropsicolinguísticas. Após avaliações neurológica, neuropsicológica e fonoaudiológica (avaliação de linguagem e leitura e escrita) para obtenção do diagnóstico, os escolares foram submetidos à avaliação audiológica periférica e posteriormente aplicou-se o teste Random Gap Detection Test e/ou Random Gap Detection Test Expanded. RESULTADOS: observou-se diferença estatisticamente significante entre os escolares do GE e GC, com pior desempenho para o GE. A maioria dos escolares do GE apresentou polimicrogiria perisylviana. CONCLUSÃO: escolares com dislexia do desenvolvimento podem apresentar alterações no processamento temporal auditivo com prejuízo no processamento fonológico. Malformação do desenvolvimento cortical pode ser o substrato anatômico dos distúrbios. Resumo em inglês BACKGROUND: temporal auditory processing and developmental dyslexia. AIM: to characterize the temporal auditory processing in children with developmental dyslexia and to correlate findings with cortical malformations. METHOD: twenty school-aged children, ranging in age from 8 to 14 years were evaluated. These children were divided into two groups: the experimental group (EG) was composed by 11 children (eight were male) with developmental dyslexia and the control group (C (mais) G) was composed by nine normal children (six were male). After neurological assessment and verification of the intellectual level, language, reading and writing skills in order to determine the diagnosis, children underwent a peripheral audiological evaluation and Random Gap Detection Test and/or Random Gap Detection Test Expanded. RESULTS: a statistically significant difference between children in the EG and CG were observed, with children in the EG presenting worst performances. Most of the children in the EG presented perisylvian polymicrogyria. CONCLUSION: children with developmental dyslexia may present temporal auditory processing disorders with deficits in phonological processing. Cortical malformations may be the anatomical substrate of these disorders.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Pesquisa de células malignas circulantes em pacientes com melanoma maligno de coróide/ Detection of circulating malignant cells in patients with uveal melanoma

Fernandes, Bruno F.; Antecka, Emilia; Passos, Gilberto dos; Burnier Jr., Miguel N.
2007-08-01

Resumo em português OBJETIVO: Avaliar a possibilidade de identificação de células malignas circulantes nas amostras de sangue periférico de pacientes brasileiros com melanoma maligno de coróide enviadas para análise no exterior. MÉTODOS: Os marcadores melan-A e tirosinase foram usados para detectar a presença de células malignas circulantes, pela transcrição reversa seguida de reação em cadeia da polimerase e análise seqüencial de DNA (RT-nested-PCR), em seis pacientes com mel (mais) anoma maligno de coróide, diagnosticados no Brasil. RESULTADOS: Cinco pacientes deste grupo (83,33%) foram considerados positivos. A reação de RT-nested-PCR foi positiva para melan-A em quatro (66,7%) e positiva para tirosinase em quatro (66,7%) dos seis pacientes testados. Três (50%) pacientes foram positivos para os dois marcadores. Um (16,7%) paciente foi negativo para ambos marcadores. CONCLUSÃO: A pesquisa de células malignas circulantes usando RT-nested-PCR, foi positiva na maioria dos pacientes estudados. A qualidade das amostras de sangue periférico dos pacientes brasileiros foi mantida no material preservado mesmo após ter sido enviado ao exterior. Resumo em inglês PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to detect circulating malignant cells (CMCs) in oversea-shipped blood samples of patients with uveal melanoma diagnosed in Brazil. METHODOS: Melan-A and tyrosinase were the two markers used for the detection of CMCs, using reverse transcriptase nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested-PCR) in 6 patients with uveal melanoma. The expression of beta-actin and GAPDH were used to assess the quality of the material. RESULTS: Five patient (mais) s (83.33%) tested positive for the presence of CMCs. The RT-nested-PCR was positive for melan-A in 4 patients (66.7%) and positive for tyrosinase in 4 (66.7%) of the 6 patients. Three (50%) patients were positive for both markers. One (16.7%) patient was negative for both markers. All negative controls were negative. CONCLUSION: The quality of the blood samples shipped overseas, from patients with uveal melanoma, was preserved. The detection of CMCs using RT-nested-PCR was positive in the majority of the patients.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

78

Peróxido de hidrogênio: importância e determinação/ Hydrogen peroxide: importance and determination

Mattos, Ivanildo Luiz de; Shiraishi, Karina Antonelli; Braz, Alexandre Delphini; Fernandes, João Roberto
2003-05-01

Resumo em inglês A brief discussion about the hydrogen peroxide importance and its determination is presented. It was emphasized some consideration of the H2O2 as reagent (separated or combined), uses and methods of analysis (techniques, detection limits, linear response intervals, sensor specifications). Moreover, it was presented several applications, such as in environmental, pharmaceutical, medicine and food samples.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Otimização e validação de métodos analíticos para determinação de BTEX em água utilizando extração por headspace e microextração em fase sólida/ Evaluation of analytical methods for BTEX analysis in water using extraction by headspace (HS) and solid phase microextraction (SPME)

Heleno, Fernanda F.; Lima, Aniel C.; Afonso, Robson J. C. F.; Coutrim, Mauricio X.
2010-01-01

Resumo em inglês Three analytical methods for the determination of BTEX in water were optimized and validated. With the best method the analytes were extracted of 10 mL of sample with 2.50 g of NaCl in headspace vial of 20 mL by HS and SPME to 40 ºC for 30 min for adsorption and to 250 ºC for 4 min for desorption and were analyzed by GC-MS. The recovery was between 97.9% and 104.3%, and the limit of detection was 2.4 ng L-1 for o-xylene. This method was using to analyze BTEX in water supply and surface water in Ouro Preto city. No sample had concentrations of BTEX above the legislation.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

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Otimização de metodologia para derivação de desoxinivalenol através de planejamento experimental/ Optimization of the methodology for deoxynivalenol derivatization by experimental planning

Garda, Jaqueline; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana
2008-01-01

Resumo em inglês The objective of this work was to optimize the derivatization reaction for determining deoxynivalenol (DON) by gas chromatography employing an experimental planning procedure. The factors were: temperature, reaction time, catalyst and trifluoroacetic anhydride concentration. The relative peak areas were used to evaluated the effects. The best conditions for DON derivatization were 200 µL TFAA and 18 mg sodium bicarbonate for 6 min at 74 ºC for 7 to 21 µg of DON. Under these conditions, the detection limit was 1.4 µg of DON.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

81

O estado da arte da cromatografia associada à espectrometria de massas acoplada à espectrometria de massas na análise de compostos tóxicos em alimentos/ The state of the art of chromatography associated with the tandem mass spectrometry for toxic compound analyses in food

Chiaradia, Mariza C.; Collins, Carol H.; Jardim, Isabel C. S. F.
2008-01-01

Resumo em inglês Chromatography combined with several different detection systems is one of the more used and better performing analytical tools. Chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection gives highly selective and sensitive analyses and permits obtaining structural information about the analites and about their molar masses. Due to these characteristics, this analytical technique is very efficient when used to detect substances at trace levels in complex matrices. In this p (mais) aper we review instrumental and technical aspects of chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and the state of the art of the technique as it is applied to analysis of toxic substances in food.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

82

Nanocompósitos de poliuretana termoplástica e nanotubos de carbono de paredes múltiplas para dissipação eletrostática/ Thermoplastic polyurethane and multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposites for electrostatic dissipation

Lavall, Rodrigo L.; Sales, Juliana A. de; Borges, Raquel S.; Calado, Hallen D. R.; Machado, José C.; Windmöller, Dario; Silva, Glaura G.; Lacerda, Rodrigo G.; Ladeira, Luiz O.
2010-01-01

Resumo em inglês Polyurethane/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites have been prepared with nanotube concentrations between 0.01 wt% and 1 wt%. MWCNT as-synthesized samples with ~74 nm diameter and ~7 μm length were introduced by solution processing in the polyurethane matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images demonstrated good dispersion and adhesion of the CNTs to the polymeric matrix. The C=O stretching band showed evidence of perturbation of the hydrogen int (mais) eraction between urethanic moieties in the nanocomposites as compared to pure TPU. Differential scanning calorimetry and positron anihilation lifetime spectroscopy measurements allowed the detection of glass transition displacement with carbon nanotube addition. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites was significantly increased with the addition of CNT.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

83

Métodos imunoquímicos para análise de contaminantes ambientais: conceitos, estado da arte e perspectivas/ Immunochemical methods for analysis of environmental contaminants: concepts, state of the art and perpectives

Nunes, Gilvanda Silva
2005-06-01

Resumo em inglês Immunoassay techniques provide simple, powerful and inexpensive methods for analysis of environmental contaminants. However, the acceptance of immunoassays is dependent on the clear demonstration of quality and validity compared to more traditional techniques. In this review, primarily, the understanding and the fundamentals of immunoassay methods are given in order to make good use of immunoassays, especially of EIA tests. Special attention is given to the concepts relat (mais) ed to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) formats, such as inhibition concentration at 50% (IC50), detection limit (LOD), cross-reactivity (CR %). It is also explained why some immunoassays are quantitative methods whereas others can only be used as screening methods. A list of main commercial kits for detection of priority pollutants is given in order to help analysts. Others formats, such as flow-injection immunoassay analysis (FIIA), immunoassay chromatography and immunosensors are also cited.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

84

Método para a determinação de hexazinone e tebutiuron em água/ Method for determination of hexazinone and tebuthiuron in water

Ferracini, Vera L.; Queiroz, Sonia C. N.; Gomes, Marco A. F.; Santos, Gustavo L.
2005-06-01

Resumo em inglês This work presents an alternative method for determination of the herbicides tebuthiuron and hexazinone in ground water. The extraction was made with dichloromethane and the analyses by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using reversed-phase column, C-18, mobile phase methanol/water 50:50, v/v, detection and quantification at 247 nm. The following validation parameters were obtained: limit of detection of method 0.02 and 0.03 µg L-1, limit of quantificat (mais) ion of method 0.07 and 0.09 µg L-1; linear range limit of quantification of instrument - 300 µg L-1 (r² > 0.998); recoveries from 90.3 to 108.2% and 90.3 to 101.6%; intermediary precision (%RSD)

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

85

Multímetro interfaceado de baixo custo para aquisição de dados/ A low cost multimeter for data acquisition

Richter, Eduardo M.; Rocha, Fábio R. P.; Angnes, Lúcio
2004-04-01

Resumo em inglês A digital multimeter (~U$ 240.00 on the national market) connected to a microcomputer by a RS-232 serial interface is proposed for data acquisition in equipment with analog output. Data are measured at the rate of 2 points per second and stored in text files by the software that accompanies the device, running in a Windows environment. The performance of the multimeter was verified by monitoring the transient signals generated in flow injection systems associated with flu (mais) orimetric, spectrophotometric and flame photometric detection. In addition, the performance of the proposed device was similar to that attained by employing an interface card with a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter for acquisition of the signals generated by a capillary electrophoresis equipment with oscillometric detection.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

86

Metodologias analíticas para determinação das fumonisinas em milho e alimentos à base de milho/ Analitycal metodologies for the determination of fumonisins in maize and maize-based food products

Lino, Celeste M.; Silva, Liliana J. G.; Pena, Angelina S.
2006-04-01

Resumo em inglês Fumonisins are mycotoxins occurring worldwide, mainly in maize and maize-based food products, which could affect animal and human health. This paper reviews analytical methodologies for the determination of these fungal toxins in foods. It includes extraction, cleanup, derivatization procedures, detection, quantification, and confirmation procedures. Initial attempts at gas chromatographic methods and thin layer chromatography were supplanted by liquid chromatographic met (mais) hods, mainly performed with fluorometric detection, or mass spectrometry detection, enabling the analysis of polar and thermolabile chemicals without chemical derivatization, which results in lower limits of detection. Alternative methods, such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay or zone capillary zone electrophoresis, are also described.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

87

Metodologia para análise simultânea de ácido nicotínico, trigonelina, ácido clorogênico e cafeína em café torrado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência/ HPLC analysis of nicotinic acid, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid and caffeine in roasted coffee

Alves, Sandriel Trindade; Dias, Rafael Carlos Eloy; Benassi, Marta de Toledo; Scholz, Maria Brígida dos Santos
2006-12-01

Resumo em inglês A reverse phase liquid chromatography method was developed for simultaneous determination of trigonelline, caffeine, nicotinic and chlorogenic (5-CQA) acids in roasted coffee. A gradient of acetic acid/acetonitrile was used as mobile phase and detection was carried out in the UV. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile/water (5:95 v/v) at 80 ºC/10 min. Good recovery (89 to 104%), repeatability and linearity were obtained. Detection limits of 0.01, 0.15, 0.04 and 0.0 (mais) 4 mg mL-1 were observed for nicotinic acid, trigonelline, 5-CQA and caffeine. The method, applied to arabica and robusta coffees with different degrees of roasting, was efficient and fast (~35 min) and also allowed identification of cinnamic acids.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

88

Levels of ochratoxin A in serum from urban and rural Portuguese populations and estimation of exposure degree

Lino, C. M.; Baeta, M. L.; Henri, M.; Dinis, A. M. P.; Pena, A. S.; Silveira, M. I. N.

Urban and rural population exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA) in central zone of Portugal was investigated in three places: Coimbra, Verride and Ereira. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T6P-4PYYTY1-6/1/d92ebdd35d9b9545c0b4cc338410924b

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89

Investigation of the occurrence of pesticide residues in rural wells and surface water following application to tobacco

Bortoluzzi, Edson C.; Rheinheimer, Danilo S.; Gonçalves, Celso S.; Pellegrini, João B. R.; Maroneze, Aline M.; Kurz, Márcia H. S.; Bacar, Nádia M.; Zanella, Renato
2007-01-01

Resumo em inglês In this work the exposure of wells and surface water to pesticides, commonly used for tobacco cropping, was assessed. Water consumption wells and surface water flows were sampled at different times. After a preconcentration step with solid phase extraction (SPE), the selected pesticides were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) or high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). No pesticides were detected (mais) in the well water samples and surface water flow in the winter season. However, in the spring and summer higher concentrations of chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid were found in the water source samples. Atrazine, simazine and clomazone were also found. The occurrence of pesticides in collected water samples was related with the application to tobacco.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

90

Internet traffic forecasting using neural networks

Rocha, Miguel; Sousa, Pedro; Cortez, Paulo, 1971-; Rio, Miguel

The forecast of Internet traffic is an important issue that has received few attention from the computer networks field. By improving this task, efficient traffic engineering and anomaly detection tools can be created, resulting in economic gains from better resource management. This paper presents ...

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91

Improved line/edge detection and visual reconstruction

Rodrigues, João Miguel Fernandes; du Buf, J. M. Hans

DRIVER (Portuguese)

92

Fungos anaeróbios do rúmen de bovinos e caprinos de corte criados em pastagens tropicais/ Ruminal anaerobic fungi of beef cattle and beef goats raised on tropical pastures

Abrão, F.O.; Barreto, S.M.P.; Geraseev, L.C.; Duarte, E.R.
2010-06-01

Resumo em inglês The presence of anaerobic fungi structures was evaluated in ruminal juice of beef goats and beef cattle raised in the North of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The strains were collected from 18 Anglo-Nubian crossbred male goats and 23 Nellore crossbred steers during the dry period of the year. Physical-chemical characteristics of the juice were evaluated and direct examination with KOH digestion was performed for anaerobic fungi detection. Structures of these fungi were detected in (mais) samples of 14 (77.8%) goats and 17 (73.9%) steers. The monocentric fungi frequency (56.5%) was significantly higher in cattle than polycentric fungi frequency (26.1%). This study is the first report of anaerobic ruminal fungi in these ruminants in Brazil and showed high prevalence of theses microorganisms in the ruminal ecosystem of both animals.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

93

Freqüência de Malassezia pachydermatis em otite externa de cães/ Frequency of Malassezia pachydermatis in canine external otitis

Leite, C.A.L.; Abreu, V.L.V.; Costa, G.M.
2003-02-01

Resumo em inglês The occurrence of Malassezia pachydermatis in the ears of dogs with otitis externa, comparing both direct exam and growth on culture method was evaluated. Auditory cerumen/exsudate specimens of 50 dogs with otitis externa were analized for M.pachydermatis. Stained by Giemsa, were prepared and microscopically analysed for budding yeasts. Each sample was cultured on modified Sabouraud glucose agar incubated at 28°C (82.4 F) for detection of M. pachydermatis. The frequency (mais) of M. pachydermatis from auditory meatus of otitic dogs was 79% (direct microscopy) and 88% (growth on modified Sabouraud glucose agar), and no difference between the results provided by both methods used in the fungus detection was observed.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

94

Extração em fase sólida (SPE) e micro extração em fase sólida (SPME) de piretróides em água/ Solid-phase extraction (SPE) and solid-phase microextraction of pyrethroids in water

Barrionuevo, Wilma Regina; Lanças, Fernando Mauro
2001-04-01

Resumo em inglês The pyrethroids bifenthrin, permethrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and solid phase microextraction (SPME). The analysis were performed on a gas chromatograph with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Octadecil Silano-C18, Florisil and Silica stationary phases were studied for SPE. Better results were obtained for Florisil which gave recoveries from 80% to 108%. Pyrethroids extraction by SPME showed a linear response and a (mais) detection limit of 10 pg ml-1. Although the data showed that the two extraction methods were able to isolate the pesticide residues from water samples, the best results were obtained by using SPME which is more sensitive, faster, cheeper, being a more useful technique for the analysis of pyrethroids in drinking water.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

95

Estratégias de pré-concentração em eletroforese capilar: parte 2. Manipulação da velocidade da fase dispersa/secundária/ Preconcentration strategies in capillary electrophoresis: part 2. Manipulation of the disperse/secondary velocity

Moraes, Maria de Lourdes L. de; Tavares, Marina F. M.; Pereira, Elisabete A.
2010-01-01

Resumo em inglês This work describes CE preconcentration strategies based on the effect of manipulation of the disperse/secondary velocity. Introduced by Terabe et al. in 1984, micellar electrokinetic chromatography is a powerful separation approach that increases the usage of electrokinetic phenomena for the separation of nonionic compounds. The main disadvantage of MEKC is the low concentration sensitivity associated with the limited optical path length for on-capillary photometric dete (mais) ction and the limited volume of sample solution that can be injected. This paper compiles on-line concentration strategies for neutral analytes by sample stacking and sweeping in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

96

Estimation of ochratoxin A in portuguese population: New data on the occurrence in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

Pena, A.; Seifrtová, M.; Lino, C.; Silveira, I.; Solich, P.

With increasing knowledge of the persistence of OTA in the food chain, exposure to this mycotoxin is a potential human health hazard to humans, and evaluating its presence in populations has become highly important. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T6P-4JXR90G-4/1/ae320edca66d234021aec8...

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97

Determinação simultânea de resíduos de cloranfenicol, tianfenicol e florfenicol em leite bovino por cromatografia eletrocinética micelar/ Simultaneous determination of chloroamphenicol, thiamphenicol and florfenicol residues in bovine milk by micellar electrokinetic chromatography

Pezza, Leonardo; Ríos, Àngel; Nozal, Leonor; Arce, Lourdes; Valcárce, Miguel
2006-10-01

Resumo em inglês A micellar electrokinetic chromatographic method (MEKC) is described for determining residues of amphenicols(chloramphenicol,thiamphenicol and florfenicol) in bovine milk. MEKC is conducted by using a separation buffer consisting of 20 mM Na2HPO4, 10 mM Na2B4O7, 50 mM SDS at pH 8.0; UV detection at 210 nm and 10 kV of voltage. The limit of detection ranged from 4.3-5.3 µg L-1. The MEKC method was applied for the simultaneous determination of amphenicols in milk samples s (mais) piked with amphenicols at three concentration levels: 10, 30 and 50 µg L-1. Recoveries ranging from 91-105% were obtained by following a simple extraction/preconcentration procedure.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

98

Determinação simultânea de precursores de serotonina - triptofano e 5-hidroxitriptofano - em café/ Simultaneous determination of serotonin precursors - tryptophan and 5-hidroxytryptophan - in coffee

Martins, Ana Carolina C. L.; Silva, Tarliane M.; Gloria, M. Beatriz A.
2010-01-01

Resumo em inglês Epidemiological studies attributed positive effects in the central nervous system (CNS) to coffee. Among possible active constituents, serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the CNS, is present; but dietary sources do not cross the blood-brain barrier. Tryptophan and 5-hidroxytryptophan (5-HTP) are serotonin precursors and can affect brain concentrations. An ion-pair-HPLC, post-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde and fluorimetric detection before and after hydrolysis wi (mais) th NaOH and extraction with methanol:water was developed for the simultaneous determination of these compounds. It was selective, sensitive (LOD = 0.3 and 0.2 μg/mL), precise (91.3 and 94.2% recovery for tryptophan and 5-HTP, respectively), and linear from 0.3 to 40 μg/mL for both compounds. It was applied to green and roasted arabica and robusta coffees.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

99

Determinação espectrofotométrica simultânea de cobre e ferro em álcool etílico combustível com reagentes derivados da ferroína/ Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of iron and copper using ferroin reagents

Teixeira, Leonardo S. G.; Brasileiro, João F.; Borges Jr., Mário M.; Cordeiro, Paulo W. L.; Rocha, Sarah A. N.; Costa, Antonio C. Spínola
2006-07-01

Resumo em inglês In the present work three ferroin reagents were studied for the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of iron and copper: 1,10-phenanthroline, 2,2'-bipyridine and 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine. Effect of pH, conditions, order reagent addition, interferences, amount of reagents, lineal range, sensitivity and stability of each system were compared. The 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine can be used for determination of iron in the presence of copper with a de (mais) tection limit of 5 µg L-1 and coefficient of variation of 2.0%; However it was not possible to determine directly copper in the presence of iron with this reagent. 1,10-phenanthroline can be used for simultaneous determination of the metallic ions with detection limits of 7 and 8 mg L-1 and coefficients of variation of 1.8 and 2.3% in the determination of iron and copper, respectively. The results showed also that 2,2'-bipyridine can be used for simultaneous determination of the metallic ions with detection limits of 11 and 32 µg L-1 and coefficients of variation of 1.9 and 2.5% in the determination of iron and copper, respectively. The reagents were used for spectrophotometric determination of iron and copper in ethanol fuel.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

100

Determinação do teor de edta remanescente em soluções de limpeza de equipamentos industriais/ Determination of edta content in cleaning solutions after their use in industrial equipaments

Rodella, Arnaldo Antonio
2007-08-01

Resumo em inglês Cleaning solutions containing EDTA are widely employed to remove incrustation despite of the costs involved. The free content of EDTA in commercial solutions may be determined by mixing an aliquot to ammonium oxalate and using a standard calcium solution as titrant. The end-point is detected by the formation of insoluble calcium oxalate after all EDTA is complexed. A system for turbidimetric detection of the end-point was envisaged to substitute the visual detection, whic (mais) h impaired the analyses of dark samples. The proposed method was tested with real samples and good accuracy and precision was obtained.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

101

Determinação de ácido valpróico em soro por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector de arranjo de diodos (CLAE-DAD), após derivatização com brometo de fenacila/ Determination of valproic acid in serum by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), after derivatization with phenacyl bromide

Antunes, Marina Venzon; Nagel, Viviane; Linden, Rafael; Werlang, Helenice Orosco; Hermes, Daniela
2009-01-01

Resumo em inglês Valproic acid (VA) is a drug used to control seizures in several epileptic conditions. In VA pharmacotherapy, therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended to obtain adequate seizure control and avoid toxicity. The aim of this study was to validate a method for the determination of valproic acid in serum, employing high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), after derivatization with phenacyl bromide. The calibration curve (y=0.0133x-0.0025) (mais) presented good linearity with r²=0.9999. Accuracy (101-115%), intra-assay precision (4.53-8.15%) and inter-assay precision (3.15-6.77%) were acceptable. The quantification limit was 2.0 µg/mL. The method presented similar results to enzyme immunoassay.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

102

Determinação de pesticidas organofosforados em água usando microextração em fase sólida e CGAR-EM/ Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water using SPME-GC-MS

Silva, Fernando Carvalho; Cardeal, Zenilda de Lourdes; Carvalho, Ciomara Rabelo de
1999-04-01

Resumo em inglês Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been applied to direct extraction of 11 organophosphorus pesticides in water using a 100 mm fiber polydimethylsiloxane. The method was evaluated with respect time of exposure, detection limits (LODs), linearity and precision. The detection limits (S/N = 3) depend of each pesticide and varie about ng/L levels. The linearity was satisfactory with coefficients of correlation usually greater than 0.993. The precision of the method was determined by extraction from 4.0 mg/L aqueous standard with coefficients of variation between 5.7 to 17.2%.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

103

Determinação de paracetamol pela inibição da reação quimiluminescente do luminol-hipoclorito de sódio em um sistema de análise em fluxo empregando o conceito de multicomutação/ Determination of paracetamol using a flow injection analysis with multicommutation and chemiluminescence detection

Oliveira, Geiser G.; Janegitz, Bruno C.; Batistão, Marina B.; Salami, Fernanda H.; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando; Leite, Oldair D.
2009-01-01

Resumo em inglês A flow injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of paracetamol in pharmaceutical formulations is described. It is based on the consumption of the sodium hypochlorite by paracetamol and decreases of the analytical signal. The analytical curve was linear in the paracetamol concentration range from 5.0 x 10-6 to 5.0 x 10-5 mol L-1, with a detection limit of 1.8 x 10-6 mol L-1. The RSDs were 2.0 and 1.2% respectively for 2.0 x 10-5 and 4.0 x 10-5 mol L-1 paracetamol solutions (n = 10) and a sampling frequency of 180 h-1 was obtained.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

104

Determinação de arsênio em amostras da cadeia produtiva de frangos de corte por espectrometria de absorção atômica com forno de grafite/ Determination of arsenic in chicken and chicken production-related samples using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

Dionísio, Amália G. G; Gonzalez, Mário H; Nóbrega, Joaquim A
2011-01-01

Resumo em inglês Chicken meat is largely consumed in human nutrition and it is produced in extremely large scale in some countries, including Brazil. In this work graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used for determination of arsenic in chicken and chicken production-related samples. These samples were digested employing a microwave-assisted procedure in closed vessels using a 7 mol L-1 nitric acid solution plus concentrated hydrogen peroxide. The concentration range of tot (mais) al As determined in chicken production-related samples varied from 1.30 to 29.8 mg kg-1 of As. The detection and quantification limits reached were 0.055 and 0.182 mg kg-1, respectively (n = 15).

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

105

Determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in Portuguese maize and maize-based samples by HPLC with fluorescence detection

Lino, C.; Silva, L.; Pena, A.; Silveira, M.

Abstract Fumonisins B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) are the main members of a family of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium proliferatum, and other fungi species of the section Liseola. The present work shows the results of comparative studies using two different procedures fo...

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107

Detection by ELISA of predators of Prays oleae (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in a portuguese olive orchard

Lozano, C.; Morris, T.; Campos, M.; Pereira, J.A.; Bento, Albino

Over 900 predators were collected during two years from a Portugueseorganic olive orchard, and tested in a serological bioassay for Prays oleae predation.The highest number of predators tested positive during the phyllophagous andantophagous generations of P. oleae. Ants were the most commonly fo...

DRIVER (Portuguese)

108

Desenvolvimento de um método reflectométrico ambientalmente mais amigável para a determinação de metoclopramida em formulações farmacêuticas/ Development of an environmentally more benign reflectometric method for the determination of metoclopramide in pharmaceutical formulations

Doretto, Keity Margareth; Gotardo, Mara Andréia; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo
2010-01-01

Resumo em inglês A simple and more environmentally friendly method by combined spot test-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for determining metoclopramide in pharmaceutical formulations is described. The method is based on the reaction between metoclopramide and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, in the presence of HCl, producing a colored compound (λmáx = 580 nm) on the filter paper. The linear range was from 5.65 x 10-4-6.21x10-3 mol L-1 (r = 0.999). The limit of detection was 1.27 x 10 (mais) -4 mol L-1. The proposed reflectometric method was applied successfully to the determination of metoclopramide in pharmaceuticals and it was favorably compared with the Brazilian or British Pharmacopoeia methods at 95% confidence level.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

109

Desenvolvimento de metodologia analítica para determinação de colesterol em ração para ruminantes através de planejamento experimental fatorial/ Development of an analytical method for cholesterol determination in feed for ruminants using factorial experimental design

Bandeira, Cecília Muller; Ferreira, José Maria; Bragagnolo, Neura; Mariutti, Lilian Regina Barros
2008-01-01

Resumo em inglês A chromatographic method was developed for cholesterol determination in feed for ruminants using response surface methodology. Among the five approaches of sample preparation methods tested, the saponification of the sample without heating presented less interference in the gas chromatography. The method presented a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.3%, recoveries between 84 and 87% and detection limit of 0.001 mg of cholesterol per g of feed.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

110

Cromatografia unificada/ Unified chromatography

Mühlen, Carin von; Lanças, Fernando Mauro
2004-10-01

Resumo em inglês The scope of this study encompasses an overview of the principles of unified chromatography as well as the principles of chromatographic techniques as applied to unified systems, which include gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography, high temperature and high pressure liquid chromatography, micro-liquid chromatography, enhanced fluidity chromatography, and solvating gas chromatography. Theoretical considerations and individual instrum (mais) ental parameters such as mobile phase, sample introduction system, columns, and detection system are also discussed. Future applications of this separation approach are discussed.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

111

Avaliação de solventes de extração por ultrassom usando-se cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência para a determinação de hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos em solos contaminados/ Evaluation of solvent extraction by ultrasound by using high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated soils

Cotta, Jussara Aparecida Oliveira; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Landgraf, Maria Diva
2009-01-01

Resumo em inglês A method using ultrasonication extraction for the determination of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), selected by the USEPA and NIOSH as "consent decree" priority pollutants, in soil by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was studied. Separation and detection were completed in 20 min with a C18 columm, acetonitrile-water gradient elution and ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence detections. The detection limits, for a 10 µL of solution injection, wer (mais) e less than 9,917 ng/g in UV detection and less than 1,866 ng/g in fluorescence detection. Several organic solvents were tested for extraction of the 17 PAHs from soils. Acetone was the best solvent among the three solvents tested, and the order of the extraction efficiencies was: acetone>methanol>acetonitrile. Ultrasonication using acetone as solvent extraction was used to evaluate the biodegradation of those compounds in contaminated soil during a vermicomposting process.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

112

Avaliação de contaminantes inorgânicos e orgânicos em álcool combustível utilizando eletroforese capilar/ Evaluation of inorganic and organic contaminants in alcohol fuel by capillary electrophoresis

Pereira, Elisabete A.; Tavares, Marina F. M.; Stevanato, Alessandra; Cardoso, Arnaldo A.
2006-02-01

Resumo em inglês This work reports the analysis of inorganic and organic contaminants in alcohol fuel samples using capillary electrophoresis. Chloride and sulfate were analyzed in nitrate/ monochloroacetic acid at 10 mmol L-1 concentration each under indirect UV detection (210 nm). The analysis of aldehydes is based on the 216 nm detection of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazoline hydrazone adducts. The running buffer consisted of 20 mmol L-1 tetraborate , 40 mmol L-1 sodium dodecyl sufate and 12 mm (mais) ol L-1 beta-ciclodextrin. Both methodologies were applied to real samples indicating inorganic ion concentrations from 0.15 to 6.64 mg kg-1 and aldehydes from 32.0 to 91.3 mg L-1.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

113

Applying matrix decomposition techniques to edge detection operators

Sousa, Leonel; Salvado, José

In this paper decomposition techniques are applied to derivative operators, used for image edge detection. It is shown that the application of decomposition techniques to common edge detectors can result in substantial savings in computing time. For a 25x25 Laplacian of Gaussian, mask, an improvemen...

DRIVER (Portuguese)

114

Aplicação da técnica de dispersão da matriz em fase sólida (DMFS) na análise de pesticidas em quiabo por CG-EM/ Application of the matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) technique in the analysis of pesticides in okra by GC-MS

Dórea, Haroldo Silveira; Lopes, Waneide Gomes
2004-12-01

Resumo em inglês A matrix solid phase dispersion and gas chromatography-mass selective detection method for the simultaneous determination of monocrotophos, methyl parathion, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in okra is described. Analyses of 2 g of fortified okra (0.05-0.75 mg kg-1) showed an average recovery of 96.2% (71.4-128.4%) and average relative standard deviation of 11.7% (1.4-37.1%). The cypermethrin recovery at the lower level was above 130%. The limit of detection ranged from 0.02 (mais) to 0.15 mg kg-1. The procedure was applied to the okra samples and has found 0.56 mg kg-1 of cypermethrin-cis, 0.75 mg kg-1 of cypermethrin-trans and 2.71 mg kg-1 of deltamethrin.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

115

Análise por componentes principais de espectros nexafs na especiação do molibdênio em catalisadores de hidrotratamento/ Principal component analysis of nexafs spectra for molybdenum speciation in hydrotreating catalysts

Faro Jr, Arnaldo da C.; Rodrigues, Victor de O.; Eon, Jean-G.; Rocha, Angela S.
2010-01-01

Resumo em inglês Bulk and supported molybdenum based catalysts, modified by nickel, phosphorous or tungsten were studied by NEXAFS spectroscopy at the Mo L III and L II edges. The techniques of principal component analysis (PCA) together with a linear combination analysis (LCA) allowed the detection and quantification of molybdenum atoms in two different coordination states in the oxide form of the catalysts, namely tetrahedral and octahedral coordination.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

116

Análise de compostos sulfurados em efluentes gasosos de refinaria de petróleo/ Analysis of sulfur compounds in petroleum refinery gaseous effluents

Afonso, Júlio Carlos; Pereira, Kátia da Silva
2010-01-01

Resumo em inglês This work discusses an analytical procedure for analysis of sulfur compounds in treated petroleum refinery gaseous effluents using a sulfur chemiluminescence detector with dual plasma burner (SCD-DP). Calibration was accomplished by using standards and gaseous streams of known concentration of sulfur compounds. The response factors agree with the calibration table of ASTM standard D 5504 (2008). The detection range for sulfur compounds is in μg m-3. The analytical pr (mais) ocedure allowed the construction of a chromatographic chart of sulfur compounds present in several refinery gaseous effluents. SO2 was the most difficult compound to be determined because of its high reactivity.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

117

Alendronato de sódio: metodologias para análise quantitativa/ Sodium alendronate: methods for analytical quantitation

Ribeiro, Ana Ferreira; Volpato, Nadia Maria
2005-10-01

Resumo em inglês This paper presents a review of some published proposals for the analysis of sodium alendronate. The drug is an aminobisphosphonate compound used to inhibit the osteoclastic resorption of bone, and different methods were developed for its quantitative determination. These methodologies employed reversed-phase or ion-exchange HPLC analysis, both associated with different detectors: UV and fluorescence detection after derivatization of the drug, conductivity and refractive (mais) index detectors, as well as the indirect UV detection. Titrimetry and spectrophotometry (with previous complexation of the drug), which are simpler procedures, were also described, but they showed poor specificity when compared to liquid chromatography.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

118

A data mining approach to predict forest fires using meteorological data

Cortez, Paulo, 1971-; Morais, Aníbal de Jesus Raimundo

Forest fires are a major environmental issue, creating economical and ecological damage while endangering human lives. Fast detection is a key element for controlling such phenomenon. To achieve this, one alternative is to use automatic tools based on local sensors, such as provided by meteorologica...

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