Resumo em inglês Chromium and potassium-doped iron oxides are widely used as industrial catalysts in the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to produce styrene. They have several advantages but deactivate with time, because of the loss of potassium. Also, they are toxic due to chromium compounds. Therefore there is a need for developing alternative non toxic catalysts without potassium. Then, iron and aluminum compounds were prepared by different methods in this work. Different phases were pr (mais) oduced depending on the preparation method. Aluminum-doped hematite was more active and selective to styrene than the aluminum ferrite. Aluminum acts both as textural and structural promoter in the catalysts.
Caracterização de amostras petroquímicas e derivados utilizando cromatografia gasosa bidimensional abrangente (GCxGC)/ Characterization of petrochemical samples and their derivatives by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography
Resumo em inglês The goal of this article is to discuss the application of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) to petrochemical samples. The use of GCxGC for petroleum and petroleum derivatives characterization, through group type analysis, or BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes), total aromatic hydrocarbons, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur-containing, oxygen-containing, and nitrogen-containing compounds is presented. The capability of GCxGC to provide add (mais) itional specific chemical information regarding petroleum processing steps, such as dehydrogenation of linear alkanes, the Fischer-Tropsch process, hydrogenation and oligomerization is also described. In addition, GCxGC analyses of petrochemical biomarkers and environmental pollutants derived from petrochemicals are reported.
Resumo em inglês Ethylbenzene dehydrogenation in the presence of steam is the main commercial route to produce styrene. The industrial catalyst is chromium and potassium-doped hematite, which easily deactivates with time due to potassium loss. In order to find non-toxic and potassium free catalysts, the promoter action of zinc on hematite was studied in this work. It was found that zinc acts as structural promoter by stabilizing the Fe3+ species (active phase) as maghemite. Although it decreases the specific surface area, it increases four times the catalytic activity as compared to hematite.
Resumo em inglês The catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene in presence of steam is the main commercial route to produce styrene. The industrial catalysts are potassium- and chromia-doped hematite which show low surface areas leading to bad performance and short life. In order to develop catalysts with high areas, the effect of beryllium on the textural properties and on the catalytic performance of this iron oxide was studied. The influence of the amount of the dopant, the starting ma (mais) terial and the calcination temperature were also studied. In sample preparations, iron and beryllium salts (nitrate or sulfate) were hydrolyzed with ammonia and then calcinated. The experiments followed a factorial design with two variables in two levels (Fe/Be= 3 and 7; calcination temperature= 500 and 700ºC). Solids without any dopant were also prepared. Samples were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, surface area and porosity measurements, X-ray diffraction, DSC and TG. The catalysts were tested in a microreactor at 524ºC and 1 atm, by using a mole ratio of steam/ ethylbenzene=10. The selectivity was measured by monitoring styrene, benzene and toluene formation. It was found that the effect of beryllium on the characteristics of hematite and on its catalytic performance depends on the starting material and on the amount of dopant. Surface areas increased due to the dopant as well as the nature of the precursor; samples produced by beryllium sulfate showed higher areas. Beryllium-doped solids showed a higher catalytic activity when compared to pure hematite, but no significant influence of the anion of starting material was noted. It can be concluded that beryllium acts as both textural and structural promoter. Samples with Fe/Be= 3, heated at 500ºC, lead to the highest conversion and were the most selective. However, catalysts prepared from beryllium sulfate are the most promising to ethylbenzene dehydrogenation due to their high surface area which could lead to a longer life.