Sample records for creosote
from WorldWideScience.org

Sample records 1 - 9 shown.



1

Alcatrão ou creosoto de eucalipto na produção de adesivos fenólicos para colagem de madeira/ Wood adhesives from eucalyptus tar and creosote

Pimenta, Alexandre Santos; Vital, Benedito Rocha; Fujiwara, Fred Yukio
1997-08-01

Resumo em inglês This study has shown that Eucalyptus tar and creosote can be used in phenolic adhesive formulations (resols) for wood products bonding. Some adhesives were prepared substituting 0; 17.7; 35.0 and 67.0% of the phenol by anhydrous tar and 0; 15.0 e 28.5% by creosote. In gluing Brazilian pine veneers, eucalypt tar and creosote based adhesives required longer pressing times for curing than conventional phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. By using 13C NMR, the number of carbons in (mais) side chains and hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl and methoxyl groups related to 100 aromatic rings could be estimated in tar and creosote. In creosote, after reaction with excess formaldehyde in alkaline medium, only 0,28 hydroxymethyl groups was detected per phenolic ring. This low amount of hydroxymethylation explains the lack of reactivity in curing observed when creosote was introduced in a standard adhesive formulation.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

2

Contaminação do solo com antraceno e creosoto e o crescimento vegetal e a colonização micorrízica pelo Glomus etunicatum/ Soil contamination with anthracene and creosote: impact on plant growth and mycorrhizal colonization by Glomus etunicatum

Paula, Alessandra Monteiro de; Siqueira, José Oswaldo de; Soares, Claúdio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa
2007-08-01

Resumo em português A contaminação do solo por compostos orgânicos, especialmente os hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos (HAPs) de petróleo, é um problema crescente e que traz graves conseqüências ambientais. Para avaliar os impactos causados por esses compostos, torna-se necessário conhecer seus efeitos sobre as plantas e a microbiota rizosférica associada. No presente estudo avaliaram-se os efeitos de antraceno e creosoto no crescimento e na colonização micorrízica de Bra (mais) chiaria brizantha e Pueraria phaseoloides. Antraceno e creosoto foram aplicados a um solo infestado com o fungo micorrízico Glomus etunicatum, sendo: antraceno nas concentrações de 0; 0,25; 0,5; 0,75 e 1 g kg-1 solo; e creosoto nas concentrações de 0; 0,5; 1; 2 e 3 g kg-1 solo. O solo com os tratamentos foi colocado em tubetes (290 cm³) e semeado com as plantas-teste, as quais foram cultivadas por seis semanas. Verificou-se que o antraceno não afetou o crescimento da puerária e teve pequeno estímulo no crescimento da braquiária na dose mais baixa, enquanto o creosoto reduziu o crescimento da braquiária e não teve efeito na puerária. Entretanto, ambos os contaminantes inibiram a colonização micorrízica da puerária, atingindo redução de cerca de 90 % em relação ao controle. Em concentrações bem inferiores às encontradas em solos contaminados, a colonização micorrízica foi inibida em 50 %, ficando evidente o potencial de impacto desses poluentes na relação planta-fungo micorrízico. Na braquiária não foi encontrada colonização micorrízica. Fica evidenciada a resposta diferenciada das duas espécies estudadas aos contaminantes e o acentuado efeito negativo destes sobre a colonização micorrízica. A puerária, por ter se mostrado insensível aos HAPs, nas concentrações estudadas, apresenta potencial para aplicação na fitorremediação de áreas impactadas por esses contaminantes. Resumo em inglês Soil contamination by organic compounds, especially by the petroleum-derived, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), is a growing problem with serious environmental consequences. To evaluate the environmental impact of these products it is important to understand their effects on plants and the associated microbiota. The effects of PAHs on growth and mycorrhizal colonization of Brachiaria brizantha and Pueraria phaseoloides were evaluated here. Two PAHs, anthracene and (mais) creosote, were applied to a soil infested with the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum at varied concentrations: anthracene (0; 0.25; 0.5; 0.75 and 1 g kg-1 soil) and creosote (0; 0.5; 1; 2 and 3 g kg-1 soil). This soil was packed into plastic tubes (290 cm³) where test plants were sown and grown for six weeks. It was found that anthracene did not affect pueraria growth and had a slight stimulus on brachiaria growth at the lowest concentration, whereas creosote had no effect on pueraria either, but inhibited brachiaria growth. Both contaminants inhibited mycorrhizal colonization in pueraria by about 90 %, compared to the control. At concentrations below those found in contaminated soils, AM colonization was inhibited by 50 %. The potential impact of these products on plant-AM fungus relationships is quite evident here. No colonization was found in brachiaria, regardless of the presence of PAHs. The results showed a differentiated sensitivity of the plants to the contaminants and their marked negative effect on G. etunicatum root colonization. In the evaluated concentration range, pueraria was insensitive to both compounds, which indicates the species for further studies on phytoremediation of areas under the impact of these contaminants.

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3

Efeitos da purificação e do enriquecimento do creosoto vegetal na preservação da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, após 48 meses de instalação do ensaio de campo/ Effects of the purification and enrichment of wood tar creosote on preservation of Eucalyptus grandis wood, after 48 months of field testing

Paes, Juarez Benigno; Vital, Benedito Rocha; Della Lucia, Ricardo Marius; Della Lucia, Terezinha Maria Castro
2002-08-01

Resumo em português O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da purificação e do enriquecimento do creosoto vegetal contra xilófagos, após 48 meses de instalação do ensaio de campo. Por destilação do alcatrão vegetal, obteve-se o creosoto vegetal bruto (creosoto 1), recuperado à temperatura de 110-255 °C. Uma fração dos destilados foi lavada com solução a 9% de bicarbonato de sódio, para obter o creosoto vegetal purificado (creosoto 2). Os creosotos 1 e 2 foram enr (mais) iquecidos com 3% de naftenato de cobre; 3% de naftenato de zinco; 3% de naftenato de cobalto; 2% de TBTO; 2% de tribromofenato de tributil-estanho; 2% de pentaclorofenol; ou 0,4% de trióxido de arsênico. Estacas obtidas do alburno de Eucalyptus grandis foram tratadas pelo processo de célula cheia. A eficiência das soluções de creosoto vegetal foi comparada com a do creosoto mineral. O ensaio foi instalado em três localidades (Viçosa, Ponte Nova e Leopoldina). Os resultados indicam que o creosoto 2 + pentaclorofenol foi superior aos creosotos 1 e 2 + TBTO, aos creosotos 1 e 2 + naftenato de zinco e ao creosoto 1 puro, sendo semelhante ao creosoto mineral. O creosoto 2 foi superior ao creosoto 1 apenas para a localidade de Leopoldina. De modo geral, a vida média da madeira não-tratada ficou entre 12 e 24 meses, a da madeira tratada com o creosoto 1 + TBTO entre 24 e 37 meses e a da tratada com o creosoto 1 + naftenato de zinco entre 37 e 48 meses e a com o creosoto 1 + naftenato de cobalto, creosoto 2 puro e creosoto 2 + naftenato de zinco ou TBTO foi de 48 meses. No atual estágio da pesquisa, não é possível estimar a vida média da madeira tratada com as demais soluções preservativas testadas, pois ainda não atingiram os 60% das estacas quebradas. Resumo em inglês The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of purifying and enriching wood tar creosote against wood decay after 48 months in field testing. By distillation of wood tar, the crude wood tar (creosote 1) was recovered at a temperature of 110-255 °C. A fraction of the distilled was washed with a solution of sodium bicarbonate at 9%, resulting in purified wood tar creosote (creosote 2). Creosotes 1 and 2 were enriched with 3% copper naphtenate; 3% zinc naphten (mais) ate; 3% of cobalt naphtenate; 2% TBTO; 2% tributil-tin tribromophenate; 2% pentachlorophenol; or 0.4% arsenic trioxide. Stakes of Eucalyptus grandis sapwood were treated by following the full cell process. The efficiency of wood tar creosote solutions was compared with that of coal tar creosote. The essay was established in three locations (Viçosa, Ponte Nova and Leopoldina -Minas Gerais, Brazil). The results showed that creosote 2 + pentaclorofenol was superior to creosotes 1 and 2 + TBTO, to creosotes 1 and 2 + zinc naftenato and to pure creosote 1, being similar to coal tar creosote. Creosote 2 was superior to creosote 1, only in Leopoldina. In general, the average life of untreated wood was between 12 and 24 months. The average life of wood treated with creosote 1 + TBTO was between 24 and 37 months, while that ofwood treated with creosote 1 + zinc naftenato, between 37 and 48 months and that of wood treated with creosote 1 + cobalt naftenato, pure creosote 2, creosote 2 + zinc naftenato or + TBTO was 48 months. At this stage of research it is not possible to estimate the treated wood average life, as compared with the other tested preservative solutions, it since 60% of the stakes did not break.

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4

Efeito da variação do ph e da temperatura de síntese no desempenho de adesivos à base de creosoto vegetal desmetilado-formaldeído/ Effect ph variation and synthesis temperature on the performance of thermosetting adhesive formulations based on demethylated wood creosote-formaldehyde

Santos, Crístian Bacelar; Pimenta, Alexandre Santos; Vital, Benedito Rocha; Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio de A.
2003-08-01

Resumo em português O objetivo deste trabalho foi a produção de adesivos para madeira a partir de creosoto desmetilado. Para isto, foram sintetizadas diferentes formulações de adesivos para madeira a partir de creosoto desmetilado e paraformaldeído, variando-se o pH inicial da formulação (12,00, 12,25, 12,50, 12,75, 13,00, 13,25 e 13,50) e a temperatura de síntese (60 e 70 °C), para possibilitar a verificação dos melhores pHs e da melhor temperatura para elaboração do adesivo. F (mais) oi verificado, por meio da avaliação do gel time, que a melhor temperatura de síntese foi 70 °C. Foram realizadas, então, análises por DSC (calorimetria diferencial exploratória), para obtenção dos parâmetros cinéticos e caracterização das formulações adesivas de creosoto desmetilado sintetizadas a 70 °C. Os adesivos foram utilizados para colagem, a quente (160 °C) e sob pressão (12 kgf/cm²), de lâminas de Araucaria angustifolia. Após a colagem, foram realizados os ensaios de resistência mecânica ao cisalhamento por tração, para condição seca e úmida. Verificou-se que a resistência da linha de cola e a porcentagem de falha na madeira para os adesivos de creosoto desmetilado sintetizados a 70 °C foram inferiores às do adesivo de fenol-formaldeído sintetizado em laboratório, que foi utilizado como padrão. Resumo em inglês The objective of this work was the production of adhesives based on demethylated creosote for bonding of wood. Different formulations of demethylated wood bcreosote/formaldehyde were evaluated aiming at improving their bonding properties. The initial pH value and the synthesis temperature were varied in order to obtain the best values for producing the adhesives. Thus, seven pH values (12.00, 12.25, 12.50, 12.75, 13.00, 13.25, and 13.50) and two different temperatures (60 (mais) °C and 70 °C) were applied. It was observed by gel time evaluation that the best synthesis temperature was 70 °C. The kinetic parameters were obtained through DSC analysis (differential scanning calorimetry) to characterize the demethylated creosote adhesive formulations synthesized at 70 °C. The adhesives were used for hot bonding (160 °C) and under pressure (12 kgf/cm²) on Araucaria angustifolia sheets. After bonding, mechanical resistance tests were carried out under both dry and wet conditions. It was verified that shear strength and wood failure under dry and wet conditions for demethilated wood creosote-based adhesives synthesized at 70 °C were lower than for laboratory-synthesized phenol-formaldehyde adhesive, used as standard.

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5

Corrosividade causada por soluções produzidas com creosoto vegetal/ Corrosion caused by solutions produced with wood tar creosote

Paes, Juarez Benigno; Vital, Benedito Rocha; Della Lucia, Ricardo Marius; Della Lucia, Terezinha Maria Castro
2002-10-01

Resumo em português Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a corrosividade de soluções preservativas preparadas com creosoto vegetal. Por destilação do alcatrão vegetal, obteve-se o creosoto vegetal bruto, recuperado à temperatura de 110-255 ºC. Uma fração deste destilado foi lavada com solução a 9% de bicarbonato de sódio, obtendo-se o creosoto vegetal purificado. Ambas as frações foram enriquecidas com 3% de naftenato de cobre; 3% de naftenato de zinco; 3% de naftenato (mais) de cobalto; 2% de TBTO; 2% de tribromofenato de tributil-estanho; 2% de pentaclorofenol; ou 0,4% de trióxido de arsênico. Foram preparadas 16 soluções preservativas, sendo 14 enriquecidas, além do creosoto vegetal bruto e do creosoto vegetal purificado. Placas de aço SAE 1006 foram expostas por 6 horas às temperaturas de 25, 45 e 100 ºC, à ação corrosiva dessas soluções. A corrosividade das soluções de creosoto vegetal foi comparada à corrosividade causada pelo creosoto mineral. As soluções preparadas com creosoto vegetal purificado foram menos corrosivas que suas similares preparadas com creosoto vegetal bruto, sem, no entanto, atingir a baixa corrosividade do creosoto mineral. Resumo em inglês The objective of this research was to evaluate the corrosiveness of preservative solutions prepared with wood tar creosote. By distilling of wood tar, crude wood tar creosote was recovered at a temperature of 100-255 ºC. A fraction of this product was washed with a solution of sodium bicarbonate at 9%, resulting in purified wood tar creosote. Both fractions were enriched with 3% copper naphtenate, 3% zinc naphtenate, 3% cobalt naphtenate, 2% TBTO, 2% tributhyl-tin tr (mais) ibromophenate, 2% pentachlorophenol, or with 0.4% arsenic trioxide. A total of 16 preservative solutions were prepared of which 14 were enriched, besides the crude wood tar creosote and the purified wood tar creosote. SAE 1006 steel plates were exposed for 6 hours at temperatures of 25, 45 and 100 ºC, to the corrosive action of those solutions. The corrosiveness of wood tar creosote solutions was compared with that caused by coal tar creosote. The solutions with purified wood tar creosote were less corrosive than similar solutions prepared with crude wood tar creosote, although being more corrosive than the coal tar creosote.

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6

Corrosão de parafusos fixados à madeira tratada com soluções de creosoto vegetal/ Corrosion of screws fixed into wood treated with wood tar creosote solutions

Paes, Juarez Benigno; Benedito Rocha, Vital; Della Lucia, Ricardo Marius; Della Lucia, Terezinha Maria Castro
2002-05-01

Resumo em português O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a corrosão de parafusos auto-rosqueáveis fixados à madeira tratada com soluções preservativas preparadas com creosoto vegetal, em condições de campo. Obteve-se o creosoto vegetal bruto por meio da destilação à temperatura de 110 - 255ºC do alcatrão vegetal. Uma fração dos destilados foi lavada com solução a 9% de bicarbonato de sódio, obtendo-se o creosoto vegetal purificado. Ambas as frações foram enriquecidas (mais) com 3% de naftenato de cobre; 3% de naftenato de zinco; 3% naftenato de cobalto; 2% de TBTO; 2% de tribromofenato de tubutil-estanho; 2% de pentaclorofenol; ou 0,4% de trióxido de arsênico. Foram preparadas 16 soluções, sendo 14 enriquecidas, além do creosoto vegetal bruto e do creosoto vegetal purificado. Estacas confeccionadas com madeira de alburno de Eucalyptus grandis foram tratadas pelo processo de célula- cheia (processo Bethell). Após o tratamento, parafusos auto-rosquéaveis de ferro zincado foram fixados às estacas. O ensaio foi instalado em três localidades da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais (Viçosa, Ponte Nova e Leopoldina). A corrosividade das soluções de creosoto vegetal foi comparada à causada pelo creosoto mineral. As soluções preparadas com creosoto vegetal purificado foram menos corrosivas que suas similares preparadas com creosoto vegetal bruto, assemelhando-se ao creosoto mineral. Resumo em inglês The objective of this research was to evaluate the corrosion of screws fixed into wood treated with preservative solutions of wood tar creosote. The crude wood tar creosote was obtained through distillation of wood tar at 110 - 255ºC. A fraction of this product was washed with a solution of sodium bicarbonate at 9%, resulting in purified wood tar creosote. Both fractions were enriched with 3% of copper naphtenate, 3% of zinc naphtenate, 3% of cobalt naphtenate, 2% of (mais) TBTO, 2% of tributhyl-tin tribromophenate, 2% of pentachlorophenol, or with 0.4% of arsenic trioxide. A total of 16 preservative solutions were prepared, of which 14 were enriched, besides the crude wood tar creosote and the purified wood tar creosote. Stakes made of Eucalyptus grandis sapwood were treated following the full-cell process (Bethell's process). After the stakes treatment, screws of iron covered with zinc were fixed into the wood stakes. The assay was carried out in three locations (Viçosa, Ponte Nova and Leopoldina - in Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil). The corrosiveness of solutions of wood tar creosote was compared with the one caused by coal tar creosote. The solutions with purified wood tar creosote were less corrosive than those prepared with crude wood tar creosote, being similar to the coal tar creosote.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Portuguese)

7

Alterações nucleares das cellulas do figado nas infecções de Macacus Rhesus e M. Cynomolgus pelo virus da febre amarella

Torres, C. Magarinos
1928-01-01

Resumo em português No figado de um Macacus rhesus inoculado por BEAUREPAIRE ARAGÃO com sangue deum caso benigno de febre amarella e no qual elle descreveu symptomas e lesões typicas semelhantes ás obidas por STOKES, BAUER e HUDSON pela inoculação com o virus africano no mesmo animal, encontrámos alterações nucleares da mesma natureza das assignaladas, no herpes zoster, herpes symptomatico, varicella e virus III do coelho e descriptas ora sob o nome de "inclusões acidophilas intranu (mais) cleares" (LIPSCHÜTZ, GOODPASTURE), ora sob o de "degeneração oxychromatica" (LAUDA e LUGER). Alterações nucleares semelhantes da cellula hepatica encontrámos, posteriormente em 13 M. rhesus e 2 M. cynomolgus inoculados com e virus brasileiro da febre amarella o qual fôra isolado independentemente por BEAUREPAIRE ARAGÂO e depois por A. MARQUES DA CUNHA e J. MUNIZ de dois casos benignos de febre amarella, tendo sido um dos macacos injectado directamente com o sangue do doente; dois macacos foram inoculados com Aedes aegypti infectados em homem e em macaco; os animais foram anímaes empregados em passagens em serie do virus pelo macaco, e talvez esse facto explique até certo ponto, as notaveis differenças por vezes encontradas nas alterações histopathologicas do figado, visto como, em condições naturaes, o virus nunca passa directamente de homem para homem. A intensidade com que se apresenta a degeneração oxychromatica de modo algum está na dependencia das alterações do conteúdo gorduroso, necrose e necrobiose encontradas; em um caso, ella era a unica alteração presente no figado, sendo então particularmente intensa. As inclusões acidophilas intranucleares (degeneração oxychromatica) não foram encontradas em diversos M. rhesus não inoculados e mortos por causas obscuras; no entanto, em taes figados eram presentes infiltração e degeneração gordurosas associadas a alterações de necrose e necrobiose. Alguns estadios (figuras intranucleares "em borboleta" e "em ameba", v. fig. g e h, Est. colorida) sendo abundantes, facilitam, em virtude de sua configuração especial, o reconhecimento da degeneração oxychromatica em córtes feitos segundo uma technica rapida (pequenos fragmentos de figado fixados em formol aquecido a 60°C.-trinta minutos, córtes em congelação, hematoxylina, eosina, alcool absoluto, phenol-xylol-creosoto, xylol, balsamo), não tendo, afóra isso, importancia especial. Ao passo que a degeneração e infiltração gordurosa, bem como a necrose e a necrobiose da cellula hepatica apresentam variações consideraveis em sua intensidade de um para outro animal em uma passagem em serie não interrompida do virus pelo M. rhesus, chegando mesmo a faltar interamente em dois animaes cujo figado, no entanto, mostrou-se capaz de reproduzir symptomas e lesões typicas na passagem seguinte, as inclusões acidophilas intranucleares (degeneração oxychromatica), de regra, se encontram com muito maior regularidade... Resumo em inglês In the liver of one Macacus rhesus injected by BEAUREPAIRE ARAGÂO with blood of one benign case of yellow fever and in which he described (1) symptoms and typical lesions similar to those obtained by STOKES, BAUER and HUDSON in M. rhesus injected with the African virus, it has been found (2) changes in the nuclei analogous to those refered to in herpes zoster, symptomatic herpes, varicella and virus III infection of rabbits, and described either under the name of "acidop (mais) hilic intranuclear inclusions" (LIPSCHÜTZ, GOODPASTURE), either as "oxychromatic degeneration" (LAUDA and LUGER). Similar changes inthe nuclei of liver cells were afterwards found by me in 13 M. rhesus and 2 M. cynomolgus injected with the Brazilian virus of yellow fever recovered independently by BEAUREPAIRE ARAGÂO (3) and A. MARQUES DA CUNHA and J. MUNIZ (4) from two benign cases of yellow fever; one of these monkeys was directly injected with the blood from the patient; two were injected with Aedes aegypti after having fed upon the blood of yellow fever patients or experimentally infected M. rhesus; the others were monkeys used in an unbroken series of passages of the virus through M. rhesus, and perhaps this accounts for notable differences found in the histopathology of the liver from case to case, as under natural conditions the virus never passes directly from man to man. The degree in which the oxychromatic degeneration occurs is in no way dependent upon the degree in which fatty and necrobiotic changes are found; in one instance it was the only change present in the liver, being there particularly intense. The acidophilic intranuclear inclusions (oxychromatic degeneration) were not present in several M. rhesus not inoculated and dying of tuberculosis or obscure causes; notwithstanding in these livers, fatty infiltration and degeneration associated to necrobiotic changes were found. Some stages ("butterfly" and "entamoeba-like" intranuclear figures, s. coloured Plate figs. g, and h) are rather frequent and by its characteristic shape facilitate the recognition of oxychromatic degeneration in sections made by a rapid technique (small pieces of liver fixed in folmaldehyde heated to 60ºC-thirty minutes, frozen sections, hematoxylin, eosin, absolute alcohol, phenol-xylol-creosote, xylol, balsam) having no peculiar importance besides this. Since the fatty degeneration and infiltration, necrosis and necrobiosis of the cells present considerable variations in degree from case to case in an unbroken series of passages of the virus through M. rhesus, lacking in two animals the liver of which was able to reproduce typical symptoms and lesions in the following passage, the acidophilic intranuclear inclusions (oxychromatic degeneration), as a rule, were found with much more regularity...

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8

Tratamento eclético da lepra: 20 anos de experiência

Souza-Araújo, H. C. de
1949-06-01

Resumo em inglês The author gives the clinical records of 20 patients, 14 of which were treated during 17 months, and the rest much less. The method used for treatment was the ecclectical — preferred by the A. since many years —, in which he associates electricity with minor surgery, chaulmestrol (pure or with 0.5 p. c. iodine or 4 p. c. creosote) and other auxilliary curative agents. The chaulmoogra derivatives were used daily as nostrils tamponage (2 p.c. mentholated or thymolated est (mais) er), periodically by injections inside the enlarged lymph nodes and nerve abscesses, and twice weekly by subcutaneous infiltrations (MUIR method) 5 c.c. each, and chaulmoogra soap tablets per os. The galvanocauterisation session was once per week, on active leprotic lesions, followed by painting with 30 p. c. trichloracetic acid solution. All 20 patients were bacilliferous before treatment, and became stronger positive after some months treatment. At the end 14 negativated and 6 remained positive and sometimes bacilli being very scanty. 16 out of 20 gave interesting serological reactions, viz.: Wassermann, Stern, Kahn. Rubino, Witebsky and Gaté (Formol-gel) positive in 5; Stern, Rubino. Witebsky and Gaté positive and Wassermann and Kahn negative in 2; Stern. Kahn, Witebsky and Gaté positive and Wassermann anticomplementary in 1; Wassermann. Stern, Kahn, Rubino and Gaté negative in 1. in the beginning, and a few months later Stern. Witebsky and Gaté becoming positive; Stern. Rubino. Witebsky and Gaté positive and anticomplementary W. in 1; Stern, Witebsky and Gaté positive and Wassermann. Kahn and Rubino negative in 1; Witebsky and Gaté positive and Wassermann, Stern, Kahn and Rubino negative in 1; Witebsky 3 times anticomplemantary and strongly positive Gaté in 1; Wassermann and Gaté positive in 1; Stern and Rubino positive in 1 and Stern test negative in one. In 7 cases high Formol-gel were associated with a high sedimentation index. Many cases had very high S.I. being a false measure of the severity of the disease; others remained very high notwithstanding the great improvement of the disease. All patients with more than 12 months treatment became practically symptom free. Lepra reaction amongst them was rare and always started by embolic rash, being controlled by destruction of such skin lesions by galvanocauterisation. In a few cases the lepromata infiltrated with "Subintrol" (a 3 p. c. special chaulmoogra soap prepared by Dr. ASTROGILDO MACHADO) were completely destroyd and never relapsed. In October 1946 Dr. ERNEST MUIR saw here a few cases treated by the author's method and suggested the combination of Diasone with galvanocauterisation which is being done now with satifactory results. The second part of this paper, reporting many leprosy cases treated by the so-called ecclectical method, which are symptom free and negativated since five to ten years, will be published as soon as the sulfone-therapy be summarised in some reliable scientific report to be compared with.

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9

Desenvolvimento de mudas de café em recipientes de lâminas de Pinho-do-Paraná preservadas/ Preservation of wood recipients by chemicals and their influence on the growth of coffee seedlings

Figueiredo, J. I.; Brilho, Cícero Côrte; Toledo, Sérgio V.; Ghilardi, E.
1964-01-01

Resumo em português Lâminas de pinho-do-paraná (Araucaria angustifolia Bert), comumente empregadas como recipientes para mudas de café, foram submetidas a tratamento com preservativos diversos. Utilizaram-se, em várias concentrações: sulfato de cobre, mistura cromo-arseno-fluo-fenólica, creosôto e óleo usado de motores. A eficiência dos preservativos foi, em ordem decrescente: creosôto, mistura de creosôto e óleo usado de motores, respectivamente nas proporções 20:80 e 50:50, (mais) óleo usado de motores, sulfato de cobre a 3%, mistura cromo-arseno-fluo-fenólica e sulfato de cobre a 1,5%. Não foi observado qualquer efeito tóxico das substâncias preservadoras, sôbre as mudas de café. Resumo em inglês The establishment of coffee plantations in São Paulo is being done by planting one or several coffee seedlings per hole. The seedlings used are generally grown in special recipients made of thin sheets of pine wood. Due to the long time that the seedlings remain in the nursery before they are transplanted to the field, the recipient preservation against rotting becomes necessary. In the present paper the influence of the following chemical compounds on the recipient pres (mais) ervation was discussed: creosote, creosote and burned oil, copper sulphate at 3 per cent, chromo-arsene-fluo-phenolic at 2 per cent and copper sulphate at 1.5 per cent. Polyethylene bags were also used for seedling growth comparison. Fourteen months after the seedling transplantation the recipients were examined in order to evaluate their decaying state. Creosote and burned oil isolatedly or in their mixture gave the best results. The height and weight of the aerial part of the seedlings were not influenced by the chemicals used in the wood recipient preservation (Table 1). Taller and heavier seedlings were obtained using polyethylene bags (Table 2).

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