Utilização de hidrocortisona em eqüinos submetidos a isquemia e reperfusão no jejuno e suas conseqüências sobre o cório laminar/ Hydrocortisone in horses submitted to jejunal isquemia and reperfusion and its effects in the laminar corium
Resumo em português Estudou-se o efeito da administração de succinato sódico de hidrocortisona (SSH) no desenvolvimento de lesões no cório laminar de eqüinos. Doze animais foram submetidos à laparotomia sob anestesia geral e à isquemia total em dois segmentos do jejuno, enquanto três foram usados como controle. Após uma hora de isquemia, seis animais receberam 4,0mg/kg de SSH por via intravenosa (grupo T) e seis receberam placebo (grupo NT). Após duas horas de isquemia foi restabe (mais) lecido o fluxo de sangue local e, decorridas duas horas de reperfusão, foi realizada a laparorrafia e permitiu-se a recuperação anestésica. Após 12 horas do início da reperfusão, os animais foram sacrificados e deles colhidas amostras de tecido laminar para avaliação histomorfológica. As alterações avaliadas ao microscópio óptico foram quantificadas por escores que variaram de 0 a 3. Os escores para lesão no tecido laminar foram semelhantes nos animais dos grupos T (0,41) e NT (0,54), permitindo concluir que a hidrocortisona não acentuou as lesões produzidas no tecido laminar após a isquemia e reperfusão no jejuno. Resumo em inglês To evaluate whether hydrocortisone sodium succinate (HSS) aggravates lesions in the laminar tissue secondary to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR), two segments of the jejunum were isolated in 12 halothane-anesthetized horses, and total ischemia was induced on them. Three other horses were used as controls. One hour after the onset of the ischemia, HSS (4.0mg/kg) was administered intravenously to six animals (T group) and saline to the others (NT group). After two h (mais) ours of ischemia and two hours of reperfusion the abdomen was closed and the horses were allowed to recover from anesthesia. After 12 hours of reperfusion the horses were euthanatized and biopsy specimens were taken from the laminar tissue and the lesions were evaluated and scored. No significant differences between T (0.41) and NT (0.54) groups for laminar lesion scores were observed. The results indicate that HSS did not produce harmful effects in the laminar tissue, suggesting that the occurrence of undesirable effects in the digit are not a limiting factor for using this drug to treat equine patients with acute abdomen.
Resumo em português A lesão inicial na erupção do sarampo parece ser a necrose hialina de células epidérmicas, quer isoladas, quer em pequenos grupos. A associação das lesões epidérmicas a alterações do derma é, contudo, precoce, ocorrendo já na erupção com 12 horas de duração. No período compreendido entre a 12ª e a 36ª horas de duração da erupção, são geralmente encontradas, no mesmo fragmento de pele, lesões em fases diversas de evolução, ìntimamente associ (mais) adas, constando de minúsculas vesículas evoluindo para vésico-pústulas que sofrem, posteriormente, dessecamento e descamação. É considerada como alteração patognomônica da erupção do sarampo, embora incostante, a presença de células paraqueratósicas com as inclusões intranucleares descritas por TORRES & TEIXEIRA (1932 b). As lesões do derma, bem conhecidas, constam de edema das papilas e infiltração da pars papillaris e da reticullaris por grandes mononucleares, alguns encerrando numerosos grânulos irregulares, intensamente corados (células de MALLORY-MEDLAR-LIPSCHÜTZ). São apresentados argumentos segundo os quais tais células seriam macrófagos que fagocitaram grânulos de queratoialina, em consequência de desordens no processo de cornificação determinadas pelo vírus. A formação de vesículas e pústulas, cuja devida apreciação exige o exame microscópico, caracterizada a erupção do sarampo. Tal característica aproxima esta doença, geralmente incluída no grupo das doenças exantemáticas, do grupo das doenças pustulosas (varicela, zoster, varíola e alastrim). As lesões epidérmicas não foram mais achadas, 72 horas após o início da erupção, ao passo que as dérmicas persistiam sob a forma de manguitos perivasculares bem definidos, associados à moderada proliferação de fibrócitos. Resumo em inglês Hyaline necrosis of epidermal cells either single or in clumps represents apparently the primary change in the measles eruption. Lesions occur, however, very soon in the corium and could be demonstrated twelve hours after the onset of the eruption. The early lesions (twelve to thirty-six hours) in the epidermis show usually different stages in a single slide examined. They are described as minute vesicles and pustules; in older lesions the pustules have dried up forming t (mais) hickened plaques in and beneath cornified layer. Parakeratotic cells with intranuclear bodies first described by TORRES & TEIXIERA (1932 b) while inconstant are regarded as a pathognomonic change in measles eruption. Edema of the papillary layer and perivascular infiltrations in the reticular layer by large mononuclears some of them containing small irregular deeply stained granules (MALLORY-MEDLAR-LIPSCHÜTZ' cells) are well known changes largely referred in the literature. Evidence is here submitted in support of the opinion that such cells correspond to macrophages with keratohyaline granules phagocited as a consequence of changes in cornification determined by the virus itself. Microscopic examination is necessary for the demonstration of the minute vesicles and pustules which are such an important detail in the histology of the measles eruption as it establishes connections between measles usually considered in the group of exanthematous diseases with chicken-pox, zoster, small-pox and alastrim (pustulous diseases). Epidermal changes are no more found seventy-two hours after the onset of the eruption while well-defined mantles of cells about the vessels and a moderate proliferation of fibrocytes is noticed in the corium.
A lepra tuberculoide, ou melhor, a lesão tuberculoide na lepra, representa uma fase de transição desta dermatose e não uma forma clínica autônoma: novos achados bacterioscópicos na linfa subcutânea de leprosos
Resumo em inglês The A., after an intorductory history of his experience in leprosy, discusses the more convinient routine method of classification of leprosy cases, basing it in the facte that every case is mixt, i. e. when the skin shows any lesion the nerves of that region are also affected by the bacilli. Studying by a new thecnics, which he baptised before as "Lleras' method", the scarching of the agent of leprosy in tuberculoid cases, by examination of sub-corium lymph obtained from (mais) the lesion, he discovered new forms of the Hansen bacillus, which describes briefly, arriving at the following conclusions: 1. The A., after discussing about the evolution and clinical classification of leprosy, describes new forms of the HANSIN bacillus, discoverd in the lymph extracted from subcutis of leprosy lesion. 2. In 100 % of tuberculoid cases (total studied 29) the A. found, in the subcutis lymph, bacilli, granules, clubs or other forms of HANSEN bacillus. 3. Such bacteriological findigs and the proved mutation of tuberculoid leprosy into lepromatous type, demolished the basis of the so-called "polar" classification of leprosy. 4. Considering the proved facts already referred to, the A. arrived at the conclusion that 50 % of all papers published about tuberculoid leprosy, within the last ten years, are fanciful. 5. The presence, in the subcutis of lepers, of metamorphosic forms of HANSEN bacillus, is the cause of common relapses of negativated cases by treatment, which fact suggests a new therapeutics method to destroy such elements in loco, and exiges more strict examination before release of interned patients.
Resumo em português Trinta e dois cães foram submetidos ao tamponamento seroso da junção esofagogástrica, com o objetivo de investigar experimentalmente o processo de reparação mucosa. A operação constou de cardiotomia, interessando um centímetro do esôfago e dois centímetros do estômago. Esta secção foi obliterada pelo fundo gástrico, originando uma superfície serosa elíptica, voltada para o lúmen, com três centímetros de comprimento por um centímetro de maior largura. (mais) Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos de oito cães cada (Grupos: 1, 2, 3 e 4), sacrificados após uma, duas, quatro e oito semanas respectivamente. Os resultados foram avaliados quanto aos aspectos clínicos, pós-operatórios, e da análise macro e microscopicas dos espécimes obtidos. A evolução pós-operatória mostrou pequena morbidade, sem sinais de obstrução do trato digestivo. Ficou demonstrado à macroscopia, que a área do tamponamento exibe, na primeira semana, aspecto de lesão ulcerada, com fundo necrótico; na segunda e quarta semanas houve redução da área cruenta, até a completa cicatrização, melhor observada na oitava semana. À microscopia, a membrana serosa desapareceu precocemente, dando lugar a infiltrado inflamatório com intensa neoformação vascular, que serviu de leito para a proliferação epitelial.A neoepitelização fez-se das bordas para o centro da lesão. No esôfago, em camadas pluricelulares, completou-se em duas semanas, e no estômago, com epitélio unicelular estava completa na quarta semana. Resumo em inglês Thirty two dogs were operated on in order to evaluate the mucosal regeneration of the serosal patch at the gastroesophageal junction. The operation began with a cardiotomy involving one centimeter of the esophagus and two centimeters of the stomach, originating an elliptical serosal surface three centimeters long and one centimeter large. turned to the digestive lumen. The animals were divided into four groups of eight dogs each and named: 1, 2, 3 and 4; they were sacrifi (mais) ced after one, two, four and eight weeks respectively. The results were evaluated by post-operative clinical aspects, macro and microscopic analysis. Post-operative morbidity was low, without signs of digestive tract obstruction. Macroscopically, the patch area at the first week became an ulcerated lesion, with a necrotic bottom; at the second and fourth weeks there was a progressive reduction of the ulcer, from its boundaries to the center, until the complete healing at the eighth week. Microscopically, the serous membrane disappeared early and it was replaced by inflamatory cells and severe neovascular formation, which fitted as a bed to the epithelial proliferation. The neo-epithelization occurred from the periphery to the center of the lesion. At the esophagus this process was completed within two weeks, with multiple layers of cells; at the stomach, within four weeks, with an unicellular epithelium. The corium, showing an inflamatory reaction at the first week, with fibrinoid necrosis and polimorphonuclear cells, changed to a fibroblastic proliferation with mononuclar cells at the second and fourth weeks and, finally, to fibrosis at the eighth week. In the animals sacrificed lately there was regeneration of the smooth muscle layer of the esophagus. At electronic microscopy, the neo-epithelium of the esophagus had all the layer which constitute the normal esophageal epithelium.
Resumo em inglês According to E. Chagas (1938), South-American Kala Azar is a widespread disease from the jungle, several cases being reported from North Brazil (Estado do Pará: Marajó Island, Tocantins and Gurupi river valleys; Estados do Piauí and Ceará: coast and hinterland). Other cases were found in Northeast Brazil (Estados de Pernambuco, Alagôas and Sergipe: coast and hinterland; Estado da Bahia: hinterland). A few cases were described from Estado de Mato-Grosso (Brazil), Prov (mais) incia de Salta and Território do Chaco (Argentine), and Zona contestada do Chaco (Paraguai-Bolívia). A well defined secondary anemia associated with enlargement of the liver and spleen are the chief symptoms. Death usually occurs in cachexia and with symptoms of heart failure. Half the patients were children aged less than ten years (CHAGAS, CASTRO & FERREIRA, 1937). Quite exhaustive epidemiological researches performed by CHAGAS, FERREIRA, DEANE, DEANE & GUIMARÃES (1938) in Municipio de Abaeté (Estado do Pará, Brazil) gave the incidence of 1.48% for the natural infection in human, 4.49% in dogs, and 2.63% in cats. The infection was arcribed (CUNHA & CHAGAS, 1937) to a new species of Leishmania (L. chagasi). Latter CUNHA (1938) state, that it is identical to L. infantum. ADLER (1940) found that so far it has been impossible to distinguish L. chagasi from L. infantum by any laboratory test but a final judgment must be reserved until further experiments with different species of sandflies have been carried out. Skin changes in canine Kala Azar were signaled by many workers, and their importance as regards the transmission of the disease is recognized by some of them (ADLER & THEODOR, 1931, 2. CUNHA, 1933). Cutaneous ulcers in naturally infected dogs are referred by CRITIEN (1911) in Malta, by CHODUKIN & SCHEVTSCHENKO (1928) in Taschkent, by DONATIEN & LESTOCQUARD (1929) and by LESTOCQUARD & PARROT (1929) in Algeria, and by BLANC & CAMINOPETROS (1931) in Greece. Depilation is signaled by YAKIMOFF & KOHL-YAKIMOFF (1911) in Tunis, by YAKIMOFF (1915) in Turkestan. Eczematous areas or a condition described as "eczema furfurace" is sometimes noted in the areas of depilation (DONATIEN & LESTOCQUARD). The skin changes noticed by ADLER & THEODOR (1932) in dogs naturally infected with Mediterranean Kala Azar can be briefly summarized as a selective infiltration of macrophages around hair follicles including the sebaceous glands and the presence of infected macrophages in normal dermis. The latter phenomenon in the complete absence of secondary infiltration of round cells and plasma cells is the most striking characteristic of canine Kala Azar and differentiates it from L. tropica. In the more advanced stages the dermis is more cellular than that of normal dogs and may even contain a few small dense areas of infiltration with macrophages and some round cells and polymorphs. The external changes, i. e., seborrhea and depilation are roughly proportional to the number of affected hair follicles. In dogs experimentally infected with South-American Kala Azar the parasites were regularly found in blocks of skin removed from the living animal every fortnight (CUNHA, 1938). The changes noticed by CUNHA, besides the presence of Leishmania, were perivascular and diffuse infiltration of the cutis with mononuclears sometimes more marked near hair follicles, as well as depilation, seborrhea and ulceration. The parasites were first discovered and very numerous in the paws. Our material was obtained from dogs experimentally infected by Dr. A. MARQUES DA CUNHA