Efeito do íon malato no processo de oxidação do ácido ascórbico por oxigênio molecular catalisado por íons cobre(II)/ Malate ion effect on copper(II) catalysed ascorbic acid oxidation by molecular oxygen
Resumo em português Íons cobre(II) catalisam a oxidação de ácido ascórbico por oxigênio molecular. O mecanismo envolve a coordenação dos reagentes ao íon metálico. Íons malato, quando presentes, também se coordenam ao cobre(II) e inibem o efeito catalítico. As constantes cinéticas específicas (k / mol-1 L min.-1) da reação em presença de íons malato são 46,58, 7,11 e 30,00 em valores de pH de 3,5, 4,5 e 5,8, respectivamente. Existe decréscimo do valor de k com o aumento do pH de 3,5 para 4,5, o que está de acordo com a coordenação mais efetiva do malato ao cobre(II). Resumo em inglês Copper(II) ions catalyze the oxidation of ascorbic acid by molecular oxygen. The mechanism involves coordination of the reactants to the metal ion. Malate ions, when present, also coordinates to copper(II) and inhibits the catalytic effect. The specific kinetic constants (k / mol-1 L min.-1) of the reaction in presence of malate ions, are 46.58, 7.11 and 30.00 at pH 3.5, 4.5 and 5.8, respectively. The k value decreases when pH increases from 3.5 to 4.5, which is in accord with the more effectively coordination of the malate to copper(II).
Resumo em inglês A critical study of three methods for the determination of lactic acid (EDWARDS, MENDEL & GOLDSCHEIDER, MILLER & MUNTZ) is presented and some modifications are proposed. It was shown t hat more accurate results could be obtained with Edward's technic when an Iena glass filter is connected with the absorption tube. Before the dropping of the permanganate solution it is necessary to pass a current of air through the reaction flask to avoid the oxidation of the non-lactic ac (mais) id substances which interfere with the reaction. The absorption tube must be maintained at 18°C during the destillation and the titration of the bisulphite binding aldehyde at 4°C. When the sample contains more than 5 mg it is useful to work with greater quantities of the bisulphite. More permanganate is consumed when the lactic acid concentration is higher. The sensivity of the method permits the titration of 0.04 mg to 5 mg of lactic acid in the sample. The calculated error of the method gave 0.018 % and the normal values for blood determined in 20 human cases averaged 10.30 mg per 100 ml (Table VI). MENDEL and GOLDSCHEIDER'S method was modified in the following details: Somogyis deproteinization was performed instead metaphosphoric acid as in the original method; to avoid the evaporation of the acetic aldehyde during the heating time with sulfuric acid a special glass stopped tube is proposed (Fig. 2). The reaction with sulfuric acid and veratrol is performed in an ice bath. Blood proteins precipitants were tried and Somogyi's lattest tecnic showed better results (Table V). Colorimetric readings were done in the PULFRICH photometer using filter S 53 and a 10 mm cup. The method is accurate within an error of 0.23 % and samples of 5 to 70 microg. could be easily determined. Normal values for human blood averaged 10.78 mg per 100 ml. More accurate results were obtained with the technic of MILLER & MUNTZ. Slight modifications were introduced: deproteinization with copper sulfate and sodium tungstate; satured p-hydroxydiphenyl solution according to KOENEMANN which is stable for 5 months when stored in the ice-box. Using the PULFRICH step-photometer the error is 0.17% with samples varying from 0.1 to 10 microg. of lactic acid. The filter employed was S 57 with the 5 mm cup. The method was adapted to 0.1 ml of blood. Normal values for human blood gave an average of 10.58 mg per 100 ml.