Resumo em português A partir de reflexões sobre a mulher e a feminilidade no período vitoriano, a explosão do mercado literário no século XIX e o acesso da mulher à educação, à literatura e ao jornalismo, o texto introduz a obra de Marianne North, pintora inglesa que viajava com o objetivo de pintar a flora de outros países, particularmente a exótica flora tropical. Marianne tornou-se uma das mais famosas viajantes globetrotters de sua época, ao percorrer inúmeros países, como (mais) Canadá, Estados Unidos, Jamaica, Brasil, Teneriffe, Japão, Bornéu, Java, Ceilão, Singapura, Índia, Gales, Austrália, Nova Zelândia, Tasmânia, África do Sul, as ilhas Seychelles e Chile. No total, ela deixou registrado aproximadamente 727 gêneros (quase 1.000 espécies) de plantas, algumas bem pouco conhecidas dos estudiosos. O texto trata, pois, da dupla condição de Marianne North como pintora e como autora de relatos dos países visitados. No Brasil, por exemplo, ela viveu entre 1872 e 1873. Seu profissionalismo e objetividade a distinguem das demais viajantes do século XIX. Resumo em inglês Starting from reflections about woman and femininity in the Victorian era, the explosion of literary market in the 19th century, and the access of women to education, literature, and journalism, this text introduces the work of Marianne North, English painter who used to travel aiming to paint the flora of other countries, particularly the exotic tropical flora. Marianne became one of the most famous globetrotter travelers of her time, visiting several countries such as C (mais) anada, USA, Jamaica, Brazil, Tenerife, Japan, Borneo, Java, Ceylon, Singapore, India, Wales, Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, South Africa, Seychelles Islands, and Chile. In total, she left registers of about 272 genres (almost 1000 species) of plants, some of them little known by the experts. Hence, the text deals with the dual condition of Marianne North as a painter and author of reports about the visited countries. In Brazil, for instance, she lived between 1972 and 1873. Her professionalism and objectivity distinguish her from the other travelers of 19th century.
Resumo em português Desde 1914, com o trabalho inicial de Castellani, pesquisadores de diversos países teem assinado o encontro de toxoplasmose humana, o que foi até recentemente objeto de controvérsias. Como resultado dos trabalhos de Torres, Levaditi & coL, Wolf, Cowen & Paige, Pinkerton & Henderson e Sabin, a questão do parasitismo do homem por Toxoplasma, deve ser encarada considerando-se que teem sido descritos casos duvidosos e casos não duvidosos: a) Duvidosos, são os casos refe (mais) ridos por Castellani (Ceilão, 1914); Fedorovitch (Mar Negro, 1916); Chalmers & Kamar (Sudão, 1920); e Bland (Londres, 1930-31). b) Não duvidosos são os relatados por Janku (Praga, 1923); Torres, (Rio de Janeiro, 1927); Wolf & Cowen (New-York, 1937); Richter (Chicago, 1936: diagnósticado por Wolf & Cowen em 1938); Wolf, Cowen & Paige (New-York, 1939); Hertig (Massachusetts, 1935: diagnósticado por Pinkerton & Weinman em 1940); Pinkerton & Weinman (Lima-Peru, 1940); Sabin (dois casos, Cincinnati, 1941); Pinkerton & Henderson (dois casos, St. Louis, 1941); Paige, Cowen & Wolf (três casos, New-York, 1942); e De Lange (Amsterdam, 1929: diagnósticado por Paige, Cowen & Wolf em 1942). Destes relatos considerados como casos não duvidosos de toxoplasmose humana, 10 representam uma doença congênita (Torres e Paige, Wolf & Cowen) ocorrendo em crianças recemnascidas ou de poucos meses de vida. Como nas vezes em que foi possivel examinar as mães dessas crianças tratava-se de mulheres com aspecto sadio, concluiu-se que a moléstia, embora sumamente grave e mortal, pode apresentar uma forma inaparente. Em dois casos, provas de soro proteção demonstraram essa infecção materna inaparente, pelo encontro de anticorpos neutralizantes para Toxoplasma (Paige, Cowen & Wolf). Nada obstante não ter sido feito um estudo microscópico detalhado em todos os casos, a doença caracteriza-se por uma meningoence falomielite granulomatosa (Wolf & Cowen), associada frequentemente à miocardite e corioretinite. Os sintomas apresentados pelos pacientes, foram: febre, convulsões, distúrbios respiratórios, hidrocefalia, cianose, vômitos, labidade de temperatura, etc., sendo sinal diagnóstico de máxima importância, o encontro de focos de calcificação cerebral profunda e corioretinite em recem nascido (Dyke, Wolf, Cowen, Paige & Caffey) . Em dois casos de toxoplasmose verificados em pacientes de seis e oito anos respectivamente, foi encontrada uma encefalite clinicamente atípica, sendo que um deles sarou (Sabin). Os três casos restantes foram descritos em adultos; num deles as lesões não eram típicas (havia concomitância de infecção por Bartonella bacilliformis) e nos outros dois, a doença assumiu uma "forma exantemática", simulando as febres maculosas (Pinkerton & Henderson), sendo o achado mais importante microscopicamente, uma pneumonia intersticial. Alem da semelhança clínica, tambem os focos de encefalite encontrados nessa "forma exantemática" da toxoplasmose, são semelhantes aos descritos nas... Resumo em inglês Since Castellani's initial work in 1914, investigators of various countries have pointed out the occurrence of human toxoplasmosis, a fact which, still not long ago, was a matter of controversy. As resulting from the works of Torres, Levanditi & coworkers, Wolf, Cowen & Paige, Pinkerton & Henderson and Sabin, the problem of parasitism in man by Toxoplasma has to be faced taking into consideration that there have been described doubtful and undoubtful cases. Doubtful are t (mais) he cases reported by Castellani (Ceylon, 1914); Fedorovitch (The Black Sea, 1916); Chalmers & Kamar (Sudan, 1920); and Bland (London, 1930-31). Undoubtful are those reported by Janku (Praga, 1923); Torres (Rio de Janeiro, 1927); Wolf & Cowen (New York, 1937); Richter (Chicago, 1936: diagnosed by Wolf & Cowen in 1938); Wolf, Cowen & Paige (New York, 1939); Hertig (Massachusetts, 1935: diagnosed by Pinkerton & Weinman in 1940); Pinkerton & Weinman (Lima, Peru, 1940); Sabin (2 cases, Cincinnati, 1941); Pinkerton & Henderson (2 cases, Saint Louis, 1941); Paige, Cowen & Wolf (3 cases, New York, 1942); and De Lange (Amsterdam, 1929: diagnosed by Paige, Cowen & Wolf in 1942) .Of these reports considered as undoubtful cases of human toxoplasmosis, 10 represent congenital disease (Torres and Paige, Wolf & Cowen), having occurred in either new born or a-few-month-old children. As in the cases, in which it was possible to examine the mothers of those children, these women were of a healthy appearance, the conclusion was drawn that the disease, although extremely severe and fatal, can present an unapparent form. In 2 cases, serum protection tests proved such an unapparent infection of the mothers, in whom neutralizing antibodies against Toxoplasma were met with (Paige, Cowen & Wolf). Although no detailed microscopical study has been made in all cases, the disease is characterized by granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis (Wolf & Cowen), often associated with myocarditis and chorioretinitis. The symptoms presented by the patients were: fever, convulsions, respiratory disturbances, hydrocephalus, cyanosis, vomiting, temperature lability, etc., the diagnostic sign of the greatest importance being the presence of foci of profound cerebral calcification and chorioretinitis in new born (Wolf, Cowen & Paige). In 2 cases of toxoplasmosis verified in one 6 and the other 8 years old, patients, an encephalitis, clinically atypical, was met with, one of them having recovered his health (Sabin). The remaining three cases were described in adults; in one of them the changes were not typical (these was a concomittant infection by Bartonella bacilliformis) and in the two others the disease assumed an "exanthematous form", simulating a macular fever (Pinkerton & Henderson), the most important microscopical evidence being an interstitial pneumonia. Apart from the clinical similarity, also the encephalitis foci met with in this "exanthematous form" of toxoplasmosis resemble those described in "macular fevers"
Resumo em inglês The following species is excluded from the neotropical fauna: Hesperia yva Plötz, 1886, mentioned by EVANS (1955) as Mucia yva, is an Asian species, probably a synonym of Suastus gremius (Fabricius, 1798). The following species are transferred to the neotropical region: Aurina dida EVANS, 1939, described from Sierra Leoa, Africa, and Hesperia subviridis Plötz, 1886, a species of Penicula EVANS, 1955, described from São Paulo, Brazil, was erroneously transferred by EVAN (mais) S (1957) to Ceylon (=Sri Lanka). The types species of two genera are changed: Hydraenomia aberrans Draudt, 1924 is the new type of Clito EVANS, 1953, and Cantha calva EVANS, 1955 is the new type of Cantha EVANS, 1955 (ICZN, Art.70.3.2.). Popilio clito Fabricius, 1787, designated by EVANS(1953) as the type species of CLito,is a species of Milanion Godman & Salvin, 1895. Cyclopides celeus Mabille, 1891, designated by EVANS(1955) as the type species of Cantha, is a species of Vehilius Scudder, 1872. The following taxa are nom. nov.: Enosis schausi for Hesperia misera Schaus, 1902, praeocc. (Lucas, 1856); Jongiana for Surina de Jong, 1983, praeocc. (Walker, 1869 [Lepidoptera]). The following taxa is a nom. nud.: Polygonus mimeticus J. Zikán & W. Zikán, 1968. The following taxa are sp. rev.: Aethilla haber (Mabille, 1891);
Resumo em inglês On the 10th of july the author found about 36 km. from Natal, capital of the brazilian State Rio Grande do Norte, at 5º 47' southern latitude, a new kind of Dendrocephalus which he proposes to name ornatus on account of the brillant scarlet colour of the caudal appendices. The female (Pl. 1) reaches 12 mm. in length and shows black eggs in its breeding cavity; the male attains 16 mm. and is much stouter, while its second antennae (which in Pl. 2 are seen in front of the (mais) first pair) show the most complicated structure, so far seen and delineated. They form the principal feature of the species which was caught in the muddy water of a large and deep puddle, formed by rain at the side of the road. This later dried up, while the specimens brought alive to the capital died in a few days. The second species, a Cyclestheria, was observed in a permanent natural pond in a suburb of Natal. Like other specimens from Matto Grosso and Paraguay, it was determined as hislopi BAIRD, the only known species. THIELE thought that the brazilian species might be separated under the name sarsiana, but the comparison of the specimens with other descriptions and drawings does not support this view. The strangest fact about this species is its distribution which includes western India (Nagpur), Ceylon, Australia (Queensland), Celebes, East Afrika and Sansibar, only the first place being considerably north of the equator. This distribution is very hard to explain, as there are not only large distances by land, but wide stretches of sea between these places, so that the supposition of a gradual transport by man or animals does not help much. Transportation by means of aquatic birds, if possible, must be extremely rare while the supposed landconnections in former geological periods can hardly furnish a satisfactory explanation. At any rate, it seems very wonderful that the same type should have kept true over such distances and through countless generations while other phyllopods seem to have formed not only varieties but many new species and even genera.