Studies of development of artificial red blood cell available in emergency and disaster medical treatment. 1. Study of method to separate and remove Hb endoplasmic reticulum from circulating blood. 2. Oxygenation of pedicle flap ischemia region by administering Hb endoplasmic reticulum. 3. Effect of high oxygen affinity Hb endoplasmic reticulum in extreme hemodilution. 4. Analysis of H2O2 elimination mechanism by methemoglobin with L-Tyrosine as substrate. 5. Synthesis, physical properties and oxygen bonding of polyethylene glycol modified albumin-hem.