Sample records for ESPACIO DE AGUA (CALDERAS ACUOTUBULARES) (water walls)
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1

Efecto de la alta presión hidrostática (APH) en la imbibición de agua, tiempos de cocción y microestructura del Phaseolus vulgaris

Sangronis, Elba; Ibarz, Albert; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Swanson, Barry G
2002-09-01

Resumen en español En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la alta presión hidrostática (APH) en la imbibición de agua, tiempos de cocción y la microestructura de los cotiledones y la cubierta de granos de Phaseolus vulgaris. Los tratamientos a 275, 410, 550 ó 690 MPa a 25ºC por 5 min incrementaron la velocidad de imbibición de agua alcanzando la saturación en la mitad del tiempo. La APH redujo los tiempos de cocción (TC) de los granos sin remojar en un 25% a 39% comparable al de l (mas) os granos remojados en agua por 3 h. Las fotografías con microscopía de barrido (MEB) demostraron una agregación de la matriz proteica, hinchamiento de las paredes celulares y de los gránulos de almidón en las células de los cotiledones de los granos de Phaseolus vulgaris tratados con APH. La cubierta externa perdió su suavidad y las capas celulares se hincharon, comportamiento similar al observado cuando los granos se remojan. La APH parece ser una alternativa para reducir los largos tiempos de preparación del Phaseolus vulgaris. Resumen en inglés Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on water imbibition, cooking times and microstructure of Phaseolus vulgaris. The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on water imbibition, cooking times, and microstructure of cotyledons and seed coats of black beans was evaluated. High pressure treatments at 275, 410, 550 or 690 MPa and 25°C for 5 min increased the rate of water imbibition of black beans. The saturation degree of HHP treated black beans was reached 50% faster tha (mas) n the saturation degree of untreated black beans. High hydrostatic pressure treatments reduced the cooking times (CT) of unsoaked black beans by 25% to 39%, similar to black beans soaked for 3 h. The microstructure of HHP treated beans exhibited protein aggregation in cell protoplasm and swelling of cell walls and starch granules. Seed coats of HHP treated black beans were less smooth than seed coats of untreated black beans. The swelling of palisade, hourglass, and parenchyma cells was also observed in HHP treated black beans such as soaked beans. High hydrostatic treatment is an alternative for reducing the preparation long times of Phaseolus vulgaris.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

2

Contaminación bacteriológica en los sistemas de distribución de agua potable: Revisión de las estrategias de control/ Bacteriological contamination of the drinking water distribution systems: revision of control strategies

De Sousa, Cristina; Colmenares, María Cristina; Correia, Angelina
2008-06-01

Resumen en español La presente investigación tuvo como propósito un análisis de las estrategias para el control de la contaminación bacteriológica, basado en los factores que afectan el deterioro de los sistemas de distribución de agua potable, así como su influencia sobre la calidad del agua suministrada al consumidor. El sistema de distribución es de vital importancia para establecer la calidad final del agua, siendo las biopelículas que se forman en las paredes de las tuberías (mas) la causa de su deterioro. La agrupación de los diferentes microorganismos en colonias se considera como un mecanismo de defensa; estos se benefician de los nutrientes y se hacen fuertes frente a los desinfectantes. Se concluye y se recomienda que como estrategias para controlar la contaminación bacteriológica se debe establecer un programa de mantenimiento en todo el sistema e incluso en los tanques de almacenamiento. También es necesario el control de la corrosión y de los niveles de nutrientes y realizar practicas apropiadas de desinfección; estas medidas deben ser aplicadas por un personal capacitado, el cual debe mantenerse en constante entrenamiento. Resumen en inglés The purpose of this investigation was an analysis of the strategies employed to control bacteriological contamination, based on the factors that affect the deterioration of the drinking water distribution systems, as well as their influence on the quality of the water supplied to the consummers. The distribution system is of vital importance to establish the final quality of the water and the biofilms that form on the tube walls are the cause of their deterioration. The g (mas) rouping of different microorganisms in colonies is considered a defense mechanism; these colonies benefit from the nutrients and develop resistance to disinfectants. The conclusion and the recommendation is that a maintenance program covering the complete system, including the storage tanks, must be established as a strategy for controlling bacteriological contamination. It is also necessary to control corrosion and the level of nutrients and to perform adequate disinfection procedures; these measures must be applied by constantly trained personnel.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

3

Hallazgo de espeleotemas silíceas en rocas graníticas del batolito de Achala, Sierras Pampeanas de Córdoba/ Occurrence of silica speothems in granitic rocks of the Achala batholith, Sierras Pampeanas of Córdoba

Cioccale, Marcela A.; Pasquini, Andrea I.; Depetris, Pedro J.
2008-09-01

Resumen en español Se presentan los primeros resultados en relación con el hallazgo de espeleotemas silíceas en rocas graníticas del batolito de Achala (Córdoba). Estas espeleotemas constituyen formas de acumulación en un ambiente dominado por procesos erosivos; alcanzando un desarrollo de unos de pocos milímetros hasta dos centímetros de espesor. Se localizan en grietas abiertas y paredes de tafonis. Presentan morfologías variadas que incluyen estalactitas y espeleotemas tipo flows (mas) tone. Están compuestas por sílice amorfa (ópalo A), yeso y fragmentos detríticos de cuarzo, feldespatos y micas. El modelado geoquímico, mediante el programa PHREEQC, permite simular la formación de estas espeleotemas a partir de procesos de evaporación del agua que circula a través de la roca fracturada. Resumen en inglés We are reporting on the occurrence of silica speleothems in granitic outcrops of the Achala batholith (Córdoba). Speleothems are accumulation forms which occur in environments dominated by erosive processes. They usually reach a thickness that varies between a few milimeters and 2 cm, and grow in fractures or in taffonis walls. Its morphology is varied and includes stalactites and flowstonetype speleothems. They are mainly composed of amorphous silica (opal-A) and minera (mas) l detritus (quartz, feldspar, and mica). PHREEQC modelling allows simulating the genesis of speleothems, progressively increasing the evaporation of meteoric water that flows through fractured zones.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

4

Influencia de dos geles de clorhexidina en la remoción del barro dentinario

Manzur Conte, Aldo Javier; Castilla Arroyo, Gabriel; Andrade, Luz María; Silva-Herzog Flores, Daniel
2005-05-01

Resumen en portugués a remoção completa da lama do dentinario das garantias da apropriado selou da canalização, não obstante a maioria de substâncias usadas dos irrigadoras não têm capacidade removê-la completamente. Os objetivos da investigação atual eram elaborar dois gel usando clorhexidina a 2% e a um baseia do natrosol, para determinar suas características dos físico químicas da viscosidade e do pH, e avaliar sua capacidade da remoção da lama do dentinario no Terço médi (mas) o e apical da canalização a radicular por meio do uso de microscópio eletrônico de varrer. Para o elaborassem do clorhexidina dos gels a 2% combinado com natrosolao 0.5% e ao 1% foi usado. Os meios e o inferior extraído 32 foram observados o elétronmicroscópio em Terço médio e apical de dos premolares unirradiculares que foi dividido em 4 grupos: 2 experimentais irrigados com o gel do clorhexidina a 0.5 e a 1%respectivamente, 1 controle negativo irrigado com água destilada, e 1 controle positivo com o hipoclorito do sódio ao 5.25% eEDTA a 17%. Não eram as diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre ambos os gels e o controle do negativo do grupo. O controle positivo mostrou valores superiores da limpeza com relação aos outros grupos. A combinação do hipoclorito do sódio e do EDTA mostrou mais grande eficácia na remoção da lama do dentinario, raciocine porque o uso dos gels do clorhexidina para o eliminassem do mesma das paredes das canalizações não é recomendado. Resumen en español La completa remoción del barro dentinario garantiza el adecuado sellado del conducto, sin embargo la mayoría de sustancias irrigadoras utilizadas no poseen la capacidad de removerlo completamente. Los objetivos de la presente investigación fueron elaborar dos geles utilizando clorhexidina al 2% y una base de natrosol, determinar sus características fisicoquímicas de viscosidad y pH, y evaluar su capacidad de remoción de barro dentinario en los tercios medio y apical (mas) del conducto radicular mediante el empleo de microscopía electrónica de barrido. Para la elaboración de los geles se utilizó clorhexidina al 2% combinada con natrosol al 0.5% y al 1%. Se observaron al microscopio electrónico los tercios medio y apical de 32 premolares inferiores unirradiculares extraídos que se dividieron en 4 grupos: 2 experimentales irrigados con gel de clorhexidina al 0.5 y 1% respectivamente, 1 control negativo irrigado con agua destilada, y 1 control positivo con hipoclorito de sodio al 5.25% y EDTA al 17%. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ambos geles y el grupo control negativo. El control positivo mostró valores superiores de limpieza en relación a los demás grupos. La combinación de hipoclorito de sodio y EDTA mostró mayor eficacia en la remoción del barro dentinario, por lo que no se recomienda el uso de los geles de clorhexidina para la eliminación del mismo de las paredes de los conductos. Resumen en inglés Complete removal of smear layer guarantees adecuate seal of the root canal, however most irrigants aren’t able to remove it all. The objectives of the present investigation were: to create two chlorhexidine gels using 2% chlorhexidine and natrosol, to determine their physicochemical characteristics such as viscosity and pH, and to evaluate the removal capacity of smear layer in middle and apical thirds of the root canal using scanning electron microscopy. In the gels man (mas) ufacture were used 2% liquid chlorhexidine combined with 0.5% and 1% natrosol. Middle and apical thirds of root canals from 32 extracted mandibular premolars were observed with scanning electron microscopy. The sample was divided in four groups: two experimental groups irrigated with 0.5% and 1% chlorhexidine gel respectively, one negative control irrigated with distilled water, and one positive control group irrigated with 5.25% sodium hypochloryde and 17% EDTA. No statistical significative differences were found between the gels and the negative control group. There were significative statistical differences between the positive control group and the other groups. Combination of sodium hypochloride and EDTA was more efficient in smear layer removal, therefore the authors don’t recommend the use of chlorhexidine gels for smear layer removal from the root canal walls.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

5

Why most agricultural terraces in steep slopes in semiarid SE Spain remain well preserved since their abandonment 50 years go?

Solé-Benet, Albert; Lázaro, R.; Domingo, Francisco; Cantón, Yolanda; Puigdefábregas, Juan
2010-12-30

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

6

Weathering traces in ancient bricks from historical buildings

López-Arce, Paula; García Guinea, Javier
2004-11-17

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

7

The phi thickening in roots of broccoli plants. An adaptation mechanism to salinity

López-Pérez, L.; Fernández-García, N.; Olmos, Enrique; Carvajal, Micaela
2007-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

8

The effect of desiccation on cell shape in the lichen Parmelia Sulcata taylor

Brown, D. H.; Rapsch, S.; Beckett, A.; Ascaso, Carmen
1987-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

11

Slag and ash chemistry after high-calcium lignite combustion in a pulverized coal-fired power plant

Papastergios, Georgios; Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.; Georgakopoulos, Andreas; Gimeno, D.
2007-03-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

12

Short-term variations in development of a recurrent toxic Alexandrium minutum-dominated dinoflagellate bloom induced by meteorological conditions

Van Lenning, Kees; Vila, Magda; Masó, Mercedes; Garcés, Esther; Anglès, Silvia; Sampedro, Nagore; Morales-Blake, Alejandro; Camp, Jordi
2007-10-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

14

Resistance to broomrape (Orobanche crenata) in faba bean (Vicia faba): cell wall changes associated with prehaustorial defensive mechanisms

Pérez de Luque, Alejandro; Lozano, María Dolores; Moreno, M. T.; Sánchez-Testillano, Pilar; Rubiales, Diego
2007-07-05

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

18

Registro geológico de inundaciones recurrentes e inundación del 4 de octubre de 2005 en la ciudad de Tapachula, Chiapas, México/ Geological record of recurrent flooding and the October 4, 2005 flooding in the city of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico

Murcia, Hugo Fernando; Macías, José Luis
2009-04-01

Resumen en español El 4 de octubre de 2005, la ciudad de Tapachula sufrió el peor desastre de su historia como consecuencia de lluvias prolongadas e intensas asociadas al huracán Stan. En esta ocasión, el nivel del agua del río Coatán, que drena el sector occidental de la ciudad, aumentó paulatinamente hasta su desbordamiento. Los efectos fueron devastadores, cuantificando ~2,000 casas desaparecidas, cerca de 100,000 personas damnificadas, y cuatro puentes y la vía del ferrocarril de (mas) struidos. Los días anteriores al desastre, desde el 1 hasta el 3 de octubre, la precipitación en la zona montañosa cercana al Complejo Volcánico Tacaná fue de 143 mm, mientras que sólo el día 4 fue de 60 mm más (242 mm), alcanzándose periodos de retorno de 20 años. En esta ocasión la inundación ocupó la llanura aluvial, las terrazas más bajas y, en algunos sectores, erosionó la base de otras terrazas más altas produciendo su colapso. En la zona montañosa, la precipitación se mantuvo hasta el día 6 alcanzando periodos de retorno de 100 años. El aumento de la descarga del río Coatán erosionó las márgenes del valle exponiendo depósitos de inundaciones antiguas. El registro estratigráfico evidenció al menos 10 depósitos emplazados durante los últimos 680 años, de los cuales al menos siete han ocurrido en los últimos 105 años. Algunos de estos depósitos jóvenes contienen fragmentos de plástico, tela, vidrio y alambre. Adicionalmente, el registro geológico indica que, en el abanico aluvial donde se encuentra establecida la ciudad de Tapachula, el río Coatán ha mantenido el curso actual durante al menos 1,330 años. A lo largo del río Coatán, en el sector occidental de Tapachula, existen aún sectores urbanizados en las terrazas más bajas dentro del valle que fueron parcialmente erosionadas en octubre de 2005. Posteriormente a la inundación, medidas importantes fueron emprendidas con la creación de un sistema de alerta temprana para monitorear un posible nuevo flujo por el río Coatán y con la canalización antrópica para controlar futuros flujos compuestos de agua y sedimento. Resumen en inglés On October 4th, 2005, the city of Tapachula suffered the worst disaster in historic times as consequence of intense rainfall associated with hurricane Stan. Flooding occurred as the water level of the Coatán river, which drains the western skirts of the city, gradually increased. The flood destroyed ~2,000 houses, four bridges, and the railroad track. About 100,000 inhabitants were affected, although among inhabitants there were no deceased victims. The rainfall record i (mas) n the highlands around the Tacaná Volcanic Complex was 143 mm from October 1st to 3rd and almost 60 mm more only on October 4th (242 mm). The cumulative rain on that day reached a return period of 20 years. By that time, the flow discharge of the Coatán river started to flood the alluvial plain and the lower terraces, and to erode the base of the higher terraces producing their collapse in some sectors. Continuous precipitation on the highlands until October 6th reached a return period of 100 years. The intense erosion produced by the flood exposed old flood deposits on the margins of the Coatán river valley. The stratigraphic record on the new uncovered walls showed at least 10 deposits related to water and sediment flow events that took place during the past 680 years, and at least seven of them occurred during the last 105 years. Some of these young deposits contain fragments of plastic, cloth, glass and wire. The stratigraphic record also indicates that the Coatán river in the Tapachula region has maintained its course during at least 1,330 years. In the western skirts of Tapachula, along the Coatán river, important urban settlements are still located on old terraces that were partially flooded in 2005. After the flooding event, an alert system to monitor possible future floods was established, and a man-made channel was constructed.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

21

Past Hydrological events related to understanding Global Change: An ICSU Research Project

Gregory, K. J.; Benito, Gerardo; Dikau, R.; Golosov, V.; Jones, A. J. J.; Macklin, M. G.; Parsons, A. J.; Passmore, D. G.; Poesen, J.; Starkel, L.; Walling, D. E.
2006-05-15

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

22

PERFORACIONES ESCALARIFORMES EN VASOS DE ÁRBOLES NATIVOS DE CHILE/ SCALARIFORM PERFORATION PLATES IN THE VESSELS OF CHILEAN WOODS

RALLO, Mónica; MONTECINOS, Dayana; MUNDACA, Tania
2008-01-01

Resumen en español Las placas de perforación son aberturas que se encuentran ubicadas en los extremos de los elementos vasos, permitiendo el paso de fluidos de un vaso a otro en dirección longitudinal. Existen varios tipos de placas de perforación, simples, escalariformes, reticuladas, cribosas y combinaciones de placas. En este trabajo se realizó una descripción y clasificación de las perforaciones escalariformes, como un aporte al conocimiento de la estructura anatómica de las made (mas) ras nativas. Determinándose el número de barras en éstas y el espaciamiento entre ellas, para esto se seleccionaron 10 especies de Angiospermas nativas de Chile que presentaban este tipo de perforación en sus vasos. Las especies analizadas fueron Aextoxicon punctatum Ruiz et Pavón, Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser) Schodde, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz et Pavón) Tul., Weinmannia trichosperma Cav., Caldcluvia paniculata (Cav.) D. Don., Eucryphia cordifolia Cav., Citronella mucronata (Ruiz et Pavón) D. Don, Luma apiculata (DC.) Burret, Escallonia revoluta (Ruiz et Pavón) Pers., Azara serrata Ruiz et Pavón Resumen en inglés Perforation plates are openings in the end walls of vessel elements, allowing water flow between neighboring vessel elements in longitudinal direction. There are many types of perforation plates, simple, scalariform, reticulate and foraminate. In this study a classification and description of scalariform plates was made, as a contribution to the knowledge of anatomic wood structure of native species. To determine the number of bars and spaces between bars per scalariform (mas) perforation plate, were selected 10 species of natives Angiosperm of Chile having this type perforation. Species were Aextoxicon punctatum Ruiz et Pavón, Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser) Schodde, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz et Pavón) Tul., Weinmannia trichosperma Cav., Caldcluvia paniculata (Cav.) D.Don., Eucryphia cordifolia Cav., Citronella mucronata (Ruiz et Pavón) D. Don, Luma apiculata (DC.) Burret, Escallonia revoluta (Ruiz et Pavón) Pers., Azara serrata Ruiz et Pavón

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

23

Neutral B-meson mixing from unquenched lattice QCD with domain-wall light quarks and static b quarks

Wennekers, J.; Witzel, O.; Van de Water, R. S.; Soni, A.; Sachrajda, C. T.; Loktik, O.; Izubuchi, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Flynn, J. M.; Dumitrescu, T. T.; Christ, N. H.; Boyle, P. A.; Aoki, Y.; Albertus, Conrado
2010-06-20

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

24

Multicomponent reactive transport modeling at the Ratones uranium mine, Cáceres (Spain)

Marcuello, A.; Gómez, P.; Carrera, Jesús; Ayora, Carlos
2006-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

25

Materiales nanoestructurados basados en polianilina, nanotubos de carbono y grafeno

Benito, Ana M; Maser, Wolfgang; Jiménez Manero, Pablo
2011-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

26

Manure composting and tillage effects on phosphorus levels in runoff in a corn silage system

Yagüe Carrasco, María Rosa; Laboski, C. A. M.; Andraski, T.
2009-11-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

27

Manganese micro-nodules on ancient brick walls

López-Arce, Paula; García Guinea, Javier; García Fierro, José Luis
2002-11-13

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

28

La producción cerámica medieval de Murcia

Navarro Palazón, Julio; Jiménez Castillo, Pedro
1995-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

29

Interaction between Calcite and Phosphorus in Biomineralization Processes in Tufa Carbonates

Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; García del Cura, M.ª Ángeles; Ascaso, Carmen; Ríos, Asunción de los; Wierzchos, Jacek; González Martín, J. A.
2006-03-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

30
31

Improved processing of polyaniline-carbon nanotube nanocomposites via water dispersions

Jimenez, Pablo; Maser, Wolfgang K; Martinez, M. Teresa; Benito, Ana M
2009-03-09

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

32

Immobilization of beta-cyclodextrin in ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer for active food packaging applications

López de Dicastillo, Carol; Gallur, Miriam; Catalá Moragrega, Ramón; Hernández Muñoz, Pilar; Gavara, Rafael
2010-02-20

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

33

Geostrophic Circulation and Heat Flux Across the Flemish Cap, 1988–2000

Gil, Julio; Sánchez, Ricardo; Cerviño López, Santiago; Garabana, Dolores
2004-09-24

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

34

Formation of mesostructured silica in nonionic fluorinated surfactant systems

Esquena, Jordi; Rodríguez-Abreu, Carlos; Solans, Conxita; Kunieda, Hironobu
2006-02-23

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

35

Formación de surcos sedimentarios por cataratas submarinas en el interior del cañón de Cap de Creus

Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Orange, D. L.; Lastras, G.; Canals, Miquel
2008-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

36

Fluorescent, water dispersible polyaniline and its composites with carbon nanotube

Jimenez, Pablo; Maser, Wolfgang K; Martinez, M. Teresa; Benito, Ana M
2009-06-07

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

37

Fluid inclusion analysis of twinned selenite gypsum beds from the Miocene of the Madrid basin (Spain). Implication on dolomite bioformation

Ayllón-Quevedo, Fernando; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Sanz-Montero, M. E.; Rodríguez-Aranda, J. P.
2007-06-29

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

38

Field multi-step limestone and MgO passive system to treat acid mine drainage with high metal concentrations

Caraballo, Manuel A.; Rötting, Tobias S.; Macías, Francisco; Ayora, Carlos; Nieto, José Miguel
2009-09-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

39

Field multi-step limestone and MgO passive system to treat acid mine drainage with high metal concentrations

Caraballo, Manuel A.; Rötting, Tobias S.; Macías, Francisco; Nieto, José Miguel; Ayora, Carlos
2009-09-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

40

Evidence of sediment gravity flows induced by trawling in the Palamós (Fonera) submarine canyon (northwestern Mediterranean)

Palanques, Albert; Martín, Jacobo; Puig, Pere; Guillén, Jorge; Company, Joan B.; Sardà, Francisco
2006-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

41

Estructuras de deformación (¿sismitas?) en la Formación Río Negro, provincia de Río Negro, Argentina

Schillizzi, Roberto; Luna, Liliana; Falco, Juan Ignacio
2010-07-01

Resumen en español A Las estructuras de deformación (ED) en sedimentos blandos comprenden las alteraciones que se producen casi simultáneamente con la sedimentación. Estos procesos se hallan en relación directa con las características internas de los materiales sedimentarios y de los factores externos que actúan sobre ellos. Sus resultados incluyen deformaciones como inyecciones, fracturas, volcanes y laminaciones convolutas que afectan total o parcialmente la estratificación. Los se (mas) dimentos blandos deformados por sismos se incluyen bajo la denominación general de sismitas (seismites). Como objetivo de esta investigación se plantea reconocer, por primera vez, estructuras de deformación ubicadas en la Formación Río Negro presentes en el sector norte del Golfo San Matías, en inmediaciones del Faro Río Negro. La metodología empleada consistió en el reconocimiento y descripción de las estructuras, para lo cual se extrajeron muestras para determinar granulometría, mineralogía y contenido de materia orgánica. Se fotografiaron los distintos sectores con deformaciones con el fin de establecer modelos comparativos. El sector estudiado, de 4 km de extensión, se ubica entre el faro de Río Negro y el inicio del Banco Verde y morfológicamente corresponde a un frente acantilado con orientación ENE-OSO. En él se determinaron las siguientes ED: a- de carga simple, pseudonódulos contiguos y aislados, y estructuras complejas; b- de escape de fluidos y c- estructuras de deslizamiento basal y por presión dirigida. El origen de las deformaciones se debe a las características de las sedimentitas y a los procesos que las afectan tales como los efectos por carga, escapes de fluidos y las presiones dirigidas. Como origen de estos procesos se señalan: la presión de la columna litológica, las olas de tormentas y los terremotos. Por los rasgos hallados las deformaciones del litoral rionegrino tendrían un origen sísmico, proceso ocurrido en un único evento durante el ciclo Andino cuyos inicios se fijan hace aproximadamente 45 Ma. Por otra parte sus techos y bases no se hallan asociados a otros procesos de deformación y sus espesores no exceden el metro de potencia. Además se hallan acotadas a la zona de transición entre los miembros medio y superior de la Formación Río Negro descansando en algunos casos sobre arcilitas y en otros sobre limolitas, originadas en un paleorelieve de interdunas. Resumen en inglés Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSD) are alterations produced almost simultaneously with sedimentation. They are directly related to internal characteristics of sedimentary materials as well as to external factors acting on them. Results derived from such alterations are evidenced as injections, fractures, volcanoes and convolute laminations, among other forms, affecting stratification either totally or partially. Soft-sediment deformation structures resulting from (mas) seisms are known as seismites. The present study aims at determining for the first time the presence of SSD structures in the Río Negro Formation, located in the northern area of San Matías Gulf, near Río Negro Lighthouse, Argentina (Fig. 1). To this end, structures were firstly identified and further described. Samples were subsequently collected for the determination of grain-size, mineralogy and organic matter content. Photographs of the different sectors evidencing deformations were taken in order to determine further comparative models. Morphology in the study area is associated to cliffs with vertical, fractured fronts and with an average height of 70 m in whose base torn-down blocks are accumulated. The geological structure of the study area is related to the Cuenca del Colorado and the Comarca Nordpatagónica, whose basement is mainly composed of Paleozoic and Mesozoic crystalline rocks. The sedimentary tertiary cover from the Miocene-Pliocene is represented by light-blue sandstones of the Río Negro Formation (Andreis, 1965). This unit was formed in an aeolian environment with intercalations of clay-silt shallow lagoons and a marine episode located in the mid area of the Río Negro Formation. At the top of the Río Negro Formation there are Pleistocene-Holocene sedimentites having a thickness of up to 5 m. Within the local structural framework of our study area there are fractures with a NE-SW and a NW-SE direction, which are related with fractures N55º, N90º and N350º azimuth located in the abrasion platform. According to Dzulinsky and Walton (1965), Lowe (1975), Brencley and Newall (1977), Clauss (1993), van Loon (2002), Owen (2003), Neuwerth et al. (2006), Alfaro et al. (2006), Montenat et al. (2007), among others (Table 1), and, taking into account the geometry of deformations, laboratory reconstructions and field observations from our study area, it can be concluded that the classifications of SSD structures tend to establish morphologic and genetic systematizations. The following characteristics were identified in our study area: limited deformations among stratigraphic horizons; a lateral continuity of SSD structures at considerable distances; and a confinement between non-deformed strata and its lithological association with psamitic-pelitic sediments. The study area, which is 4 km long and is located between Río Negro Lighthouse and the beginning of Banco Verde, is from the morphological point of view, a cliffed front with an ENE-WSW orientation. Different types of SSD structures were identified in this area. For example, from the morphological point of view and according to the loading mechanisms observed, simple-load structures (Fig. 2), attached and detached pseudonodules (Figs. 3, 4 and 5) and complex structures (Fig. 6) were identified. Furthermore, from the genetic point of view and according to the intrusion processes observed in soft sediments, water-scape structures (Fig. 7) and plate- or fountain-like deformations (Fig. 8) were found. From the genetic point of view, and based on the collapse and pressure mechanisms observed, basal slumping (Fig. 9) and directed-pressure structures (Fig. 11) were also found. The above-mentioned SSD structures were analyzed and interpreted following Strachan´s model (2002) (Fig. 10) and Laird´s model (1968) (Fig. 12). The origin of SSD structures depends on the characteristics of sedimentites and on the mechanisms that produce them. In the study area, the materials susceptible to deformation come from an interdune environment that is characterized by granulometric variations derived from the fluctuating and restrictive climatic conditions (Cojan and Thiry, 1992) that typify the Río Negro Formation. Fine-grained materials having low cohesion and poor sorting such as the sediments of deformed strata (Fig. 13) produced SSD structures as a result of high pore pressure and liquefaction effects (Tsuchida and Hayashi, 1971; Obermeier, 1996). Grain packing with a porous value as that allows intercommunication among grains and saturated material, is also crucial to the formation of SSD structures. The mineralogic content of deformed levels is composed of i) quartz, chalcedony, orthose, plagioclase, pyroxenes and biotite, opaques (magnetite and ilmenite, autigenic pyrite) in crystalline aggregates; ii) undetermined Fe oxides; and iii) colorless and light-brown unaltered volcanic glass shards, clays identified as smectite-illite interstratified and scarce kaolinite. Grains are mainly subangular and, to a lesser extent, sub-round and round. The surface of the majority of grains in the study area was found clean and with some marks. The percentage of CaCO3 was found to vary from 0.5 to 3% and that of total organic carbon (TOC) was found to reach 1.5%. Deformations may be produced as a result of load deformation mechanisms, fluid escape, basal slumping or pressure-directed displacements. Due to load deformation mechanisms, structures are linked to gravity-related movements occurring during the initial stages of deposition. For these deformations to occur, grain-size at the overlaying levels should be thicker than at the underlying levels, for example, sandstones rather than silstones or claystones. These deformations are related to water saturation at the deformed level (fluidization-liquefaction). Therefore, deformation mechanisms, which involve both expulsion and rotation of fragments as well as fluid escape, are characterized by the action of lithostatic pressure which produces movement (deformation) and by the action of the underlying sedimentary levels. Deformations may also result from a fluid escape mechanism, i.e., from a mechanism associated to i) the spatial arrangement of grains (packing), ii) their shape, iii) their tendency to inequigranularity, and iv) the communication among macro- and micro- pores as well as the high or low sinuosity connection among themselves (Net and Limarino, 2000). Further requirements for deformations to occur include particular thixotrophic conditions, especially the presence of colloids among grains. The rupture of unions of particles either by hitting or by shearing is, among others, a cause which produces an unbalance between hydrostatic pressure and lithostatic pressure. If the latter is altered, the energetic unbalance makes fine sediments flow among the weakly lithified sandstones whose extrusion will occur via both vertical and horizontal pore ducts (Lopez Gamundi, 1986; Clauss, 1993). Basal slumping produces deformations that are associated not only to soft sediments deposited in natural slopes but also to interbedded sand- and mud-levels. Layers tend to have a prismatic-shaped geometry whose materials are under ductile-to-fragile conditions, in which antique layers support younger ones. Once horizontality is affected, movement, which is marked by a rupture of the original slope, begins. The lower levels are expected to transport the upper ones without affecting the original succession of layers. At the delay of movement derived from the compressive effect of the displacement front, fluids extrude forming cones or cut dikes (Fig. 10). Several deformations of this type initiate movement as result of differences in the hydrostatic gradient (Strachan, 2002). Deformations may be also produced as a result of pressure-directed displacements which are conditioned by the compaction level, thickness and ability of materials to deform. Thus, deformations occur because the original level is saturated in water as a result of the ductile behavior of materials (Bracco et al., 2005). Laird (1968) claims that SSD structures should meet some of the following requirements to be considered of seismic origin: slightly curved strata walls and floors to follow the original stratification and interruption of continuity of the stratum that is marked by a scar in which the sedimentary fillings keep their characteristics both above and below stratification. There could be rotated sediment clasts below the discontinuity as a result of a thrust-induced drag of the upper sedimentary packing. These processes could be, in turn, triggered either by the charge or pressure of the lithologic column, storm waves and seismicity. Storm-wave impact may also produce deformation in soft sediments. Nonetheless, no high energy structures such as cross-beddings or tsunami-type chaotic sedimentation were observed in our study area. Noteworthingly, for stormwave-derived liquefaction to occur, waves should reach magnitudes higher than 6 m (Alfaro et al., 2002), this being a phenomenon that was not recorded in our study area. Taken together, findings from the present study indicate that SSD structures in our study area are seismic alterations that occurred in an event during the Andean cycle whose beginnings are traced approximately 45 My ago. The fact that i) both the roofs and bottoms of these structures are not associated to other processes of deformation, ii) their thickness does not exceed one meter, and iii) they are confined to a transitional area between the middle and top members of the Río Negro Formation, lying in some cases on claystones and in some other cases, on siltstones, originated in an interdune paleorelief, confirms their seismic origin.

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El baño árabe de San Nicolás de Murcia. Memoria preliminar

Navarro Palazón, Julio; Robles Fernández, Alfonso
1993-01-01

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Effects of sodium chloride on water potential components, hydraulic conductivity, gas exchange and leaf ultrastructure of Arbutus unedo plants

Navarro García, Alejandra; Bañón, Sebastián; Olmos, Enrique; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús
2007-03-01

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Effect of firing temperature on sintering of porcelain stoneware tiles

Martín-Márquez, Jorge; Rincón López, Jesús María; Romero, Maximina
2008-01-01

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Durability improvement of ancient bricks by cementation of porous media

López-Arce, Paula; Benavente, David; García Guinea, Javier
2005-06-08

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Desigualdades socioeconómicas y mortalidad infantil en Bolivia/ Socioeconomic inequalities and infant mortality in Bolivia

Maydana, Edgar; Serral, Gemma; Borrell, Carme
2009-05-01

Resumen en español OBJETIVO: Analizar las desigualdades socioeconómicas y su relación con la mortalidad infantil en los municipios de Bolivia en 2001. MÉTODOS: Estudio ecológico a partir de los datos del Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda de 2001 para los 327 municipios de los nueve departamentos de Bolivia. La variable dependiente fue la tasa de mortalidad infantil (TMI) y las independientes fueron indicadores socioeconómicos indirectos (la proporción de analfabetos mayores de 1 (mas) 5 años y las características constructivas y sanitarias de las viviendas). Se describió la distribución geográfica por indicador y se analizó la relación entre la TMI y los indicadores socioeconómicos mediante el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman y el ajuste de modelos de regresión de Poisson. RESULTADOS: La TMI estimada para Bolivia en 2001 fue de 67 por 1 000 nacidos vivos. Las tasas fluctuaron entre Resumen en inglés OBJECTIVES: To evaluate socioeconomic inequalities and its relation to infant mortality in Bolivia's municipalities in 2001. METHODS: An ecological study based on data from the 2001 National Census on Population and Housing (Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda) covering the 327 municipalities in Bolivia's nine departments. The dependent variable was the infant mortality rate (IMR); the independent variables were indirect socioeconomic indicators (the percentage of ill (mas) iterates older than 15 years of age, and the building materials and sanitation features of the houses). The geographic distribution of each indicator was determined and the associations between IMR and each socioeconomic indicator were calculate using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and adjusted with Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The resulting IMR for Bolivia in 2001 was 67 per 1 000 live births. Rates ranged from

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Casa Núñez: Buenos Aires, Argentina

Adamo, Sebastián; Faiden, Marcelo
2010-08-01

Resumen en español Esta casa urbana es resultado de la transformación de un antiguo departamento. Cuatro operaciones ponen en relación la organización original con el nuevo programa. Primero se invierten los usos de los dos pisos de la vivienda; se ubican los dormitorios en el primer nivel, liberando la planta superior y su terraza a los usos comunes. Dicha terraza es ocupada por una estructura liviana que permite la integración de la cocina, el comedor y el estar. La cubierta de este a (mas) mbiente se utiliza para crear una expansión que conduce a la transformación del tanque de agua existente en piscina aérea. Finalmente, un dispositivo de sombra incorpora al proyecto las irregularidades de los muros vecinos Resumen en inglés This urban house is the result of the transformation of an old apartment. Four operations are made in relation to the original organization with the new program. First the uses of the two floors are inverted; the bedrooms are placed on the first floor, liberating the upper floor and its terrace to the common spaces. This terrace is occupied by a lightweight structure that integrates the kitchen, living and dining room. The covering of this space is used to create an expan (mas) sion that drives the transformation of the existing water tank in an aerial pool. Finally a shading device incorporates the irregularities of the neighboring walls

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Bloom dynamics and life cycle strategies of two toxic dinoflagellates in a coastal upwelling system (NW Iberian Peninsula)

Bravo, Isabel; Fraga, Santiago; Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Pazos, Yolanda; Massanet, Ana; Ramilo, Isabel
2009-09-23

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Assessing the cleaning methods on the limestone façades in the formerly Workers Hospital of Madrid, Spain

Pérez-Monserrat, Elena M.; Varas, María José; Fort González, Rafael; Álvarez de Buergo, Mónica
2007-06-01

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Arquitectura y paleoambientes de los depósitos fluviales gravosos de la Formación Las Cumbres (Neógeno), en Villa Mervil, La Rioja, Argentina/ Architecture and paleoenvironment of the fluvial gravel deposits of Las Cumbres formation (neogene), Mervil Village, La Rioja, nw-Argentina

Bossi, G.E.; Georgieff, S.M.; Vides, M.E.
2007-07-01

Resumen en español Un corte de la ruta nacional 60, 500 m al oeste de Villa Mervil (Sierras de Mazán, La Rioja) muestra el contacto entre las Formaciones Salicas y Las Cumbres, con excelente exposición de la arquitectura fluvial que pudo ser extendida en tres dimensiones y por más de 700 m en sentido N-S, a ambos lados de la ruta. El corte muestra el contacto entre las Formaciones Salicas (Plioceno) y Las Cumbres (Plio-Pleistoceno). Pueden ser reconocidos cinco estadios de sedimentación (mas) : A-S, el inferior, constituido por areniscas friables fluviales y eólicas; F, de capas tabulares consistentes en limos de barreal y areniscas de planicie de distributarios (escorrenteras y barras efímeras) con abundantes calcretos y rizoconcreciones; B, el mejor preservado y que ha permitido el análisis 3D, de conglomerados arenosos, que corta profundamente los dos estadios inferiores. El Estadio B está organizado en una serie de mesoformas de canal, con barrancas izquierdas (al Oeste) bien definidas. En su etapa final de abandono (Estadio L), fue rellenado por capas tabulares de arenas finas limos pardos, que contienen una arcilita verde y una capa de micrita blanca, que pueden asignarse a un depósito lacustre somero. Finalmente yace sobre todo el conjunto anterior, el Estadio C, de conglomerados finos arenosos que forman un extenso sistema de canales y planicie aluvial pero mal representado en estos afloramientos. Las particularidades de estos depósitos pueden ser comparadas con expresiones locales del ambiente actual: el río Pituil (al oeste de la Sierra de Velasco) la llanura arenosa del Bolsón de Pipanaco y el barreal del Señor de la Peña, donde impera un clima árido con una escasas lluvias estivales, indicado condiciones climáticas similares. Resumen en inglés A cut along the National Road 60, 400 m west of the Mervil Village, a small town located at the southern end of the "Bolsón de Pipanaco" (Pampean Ranges of NW-Argentina) unveils a 3-D fluvial and eolian architecture in beds that belong to the stratigraphic passage between the Salicas (Pliocene) and Las Cumbres (Plio- Pleistocene) Formations (Fig. 1 and 2). Fossil mammals found in the Salicas Formation belong to the Huayquerian fauna that could be dated in the Pliocene (B (mas) ossi et al., 1996). A four-fold classification of contacts hierarchy (Allen, 1983) was used to define individual sedimentary bodies and their associations: order 0, are the contacts between laminas within a laminaset; order 1 are the contacts between laminasets (represented by parallel or crossbedded cogenetic packages); order 2 contacts, cut order 1 contacts and embrace bedded packages or storeys, limited themselves by order 1 contacts, that show a similar genetic emplacement (similar features in outcrops); finally the order 3 contacts, cut and embrace sedimentary bodies limited by order 2 contacts, defining major groups or stages. Five distinct stages were recognized (Fig. 3): a lower A-S stage, covered by an extended floodplain F stage, cut deeply by the gravelly stage B, partially filled by L stage, and covered by the fluvial gravelly C stage at top (Fig. 4 and 5). The sandy A-S stage consists of channel and sandflat deposits formed by alternating fluvial (A) and eolian (S) storeys. Facies assamblage "A" is an association of 9 storeys (Fig. 3) composed of moderate sorted massive or cross-bedded sandstones, with few subrounded pebbles (schists and granites) in or near their concave bases. Most of the A storeys bottoms, are covered by a 1-5 cm thick silty shale drapes slightly disturbed or forming clay galls partially curled and/or removed (Fig. 4b and c). The facies assemblage S, is an association of 6 storeys (painted white in Fig. 5b and c) formed by well-sorted fine to medium size sandstones with occasional mud intraclasts (pebble sizes, not eolian materials probably incorporated by gravity collapse or sudden water sheets). The meter thick silty "F1" storey (Fig. 4 b and e) is composed of 10 to 11 tabular decimeter slightly endurated beds, interpreted as playa lake ("barreal") deposits by comparation with very similar sediments that fill the nearby barreal "El Señor de la Peña" a typical endorheic depression. This "F1" horizon is the source of most irregular blocks found at the foot of the left margin bank cuts of the B stage. The F2 storey (Figs. 3 and 4b) is composed of 0.90 m tabular to lenticular coarse sandstone horizon crowded of calcretes and rhyzoconcretions defining a paleosol horizon. The F3 storey is also composed of massive to crossbedded ill-sorted pebble coarse sandstones. Both F2 and F3 storeys were deposited by sudden floodings not conected to visible channel locations. The F3 storey is not related with the F2 storey calcretization. There are six irregular and lenticular storeys in the "B" stage, defined by concave and convex stratification designs. These storeys could be considered mesoforms in the sense of Bridge (1985, 1993) of the macroform "B". A close correlation of the contacts shown in the two walls of the road cut associated with contact orientation measurements and paleocurrents, allowed to built models of the 3D situation in several evolution steps starting with storey B2 ending up in storey B6 (Figs. 6 a-c). The B channel stage is deeply incised on the F and A-S stages indicating a change of the equilibrium profile. The B stage itself, represented by storeys B5 and B6, were mapped beyond the road cut for an extension of 700 m (in N-S sense) yielding a map that shows a NE-trending low sinuosity river with cut banks, lateral bar deposits, overbank deposits deposits with variable width.The last block (Fig. 6d) shows the abandon "L" stage of lacustrine fillings (see Fig. 3 for stratigraphy relations and Fig. 4 for details), composed of at leat four storeys, three of them (L1, L2 and L3) are fillings of the central part of the pond and a fourth (L4) a clinoform, is a lateral deposit. The stage C outcrops at the top of the wall cuts covering though a third order contact, the stages F, L and B. It is composed of fine to medium size fluvial gravels without visible bank cuts. The very limited lateral and vertical exposures preclude it, from a further discussion. Most paleocurrent measurements were taken in the axis of concave structures (crossbeddings) and the points where the order 2 contacts merge into the basal order 3 contact. The point of merging of the order 2 and 3 contacts in convex stratified bodies, indicates the position of the bar structure, the paleocurrents at their bases show the local direction of the bar slope in this particular stage of growing (Fig. 7). Converging or diverging paleocurrent patterns at the outcrop face combined with vertical textural variations, unveil the position of the outcrop cut in relation to the hidden 3D structure. Most of the mapped architectural features yielded also paleocurrents measurements on cross-bedding and pebble imbrications that were integrated with the textural and structural evidences (Fig. 9). The scheme of Fig. 7 was used in the model of Fig. 9 to position the bar designs on the plan. The model of Fig. 9b, is a cartoon of a slightly ondulate landscape crossed from SSW to NNE by the B stage river channel. Fig. 8 shown the succesive bank cuts created by the B stage channel during its migration to west. Calcretes and rhizoconcretions over convex or tabular gravels storeys, mapped as inside features of channel "B", indicate an ephemeral regime with riparian vegetation (Fig. 9). The Pituil River (Fig. 10) draining the northwest end of the Velasco Range and the sandy plains located north of the Mazán Range and near the center of the "Bolsón de Pipanaco" were used as modern analogs of the ancient Mervil channel system (stages B and A-S respectively). The structural details shown by the Salicas Formation at the Mervil area around the road cut, are also present in the modern analogs, indicating a similar arid climate.

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Aproximación a las comunidades de carófitos que existieron en la Albufera de Valencia a partir del estudio de las oósporas del sedimento

Rodrigo, María A.; Alonso-Guillén, José Luis; Cirujano, Santos; Soulié-Märsche, Ingeborg
2009-12-30

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Anatomía del tejido fotosintético de diez taxa de Opuntia establecidos en el secano árido mediterráneo de Chile/ Anatomy of the photosynthetic tissue in ten taxa of Opuntia established to the mediterranean arid zone of Chile

HERMAN, SILVA; ACEVEDO, EDMUNDO; SILVA, PAOLA
2001-06-01

Resumen en español Se evaluó el efecto de la exposición de cladodios a la radiación en la anatomía del tejido fotosintético de 10 taxa de Opuntia, (plantas con metabolismo ácido crasuláceo, CAM) establecidos en al secano árido de la IV Región de Chile. A nivel del tejido epidérmico se evaluó el grosor de la cutícula, la densidad de estomas y las dimensiones de células oclusivas. En el tejido fotosintetico, se evaluo las dimensiones celulares con el objeto de estimar la superfic (mas) ie de paredes celulares expuestas al intercambio gaseoso por unidad de tejido fotosintético, relación conocida como Ames/A. Los resultados señalan grandes dimensiones celulares y baja densidad estomática, lo que determina un número reducido de estomas por unidad de superficie en relación a especies de otras vías metabólicas (C3 y C4). La comparación entre taxones, muestra diferencias significativas en la relación de áreas Ames/A, parámetro estrechamente relacionado a la capacidad fotosintética. Estas características anatómicas y sus modificaciones en combinación con el metabolismo CAM, contribuyen a su adaptación a condiciones de pluviometría limitada Resumen en inglés The anatomy of the photosynthetic tissue and the effect of cladode exposure to radiation was studied in ten taxa of Opuntia, plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), established in the dry lands of the IV Region of Chile. At the epidermic level the cuticle thickness, stomatal frequency, and dimension of guard cells were evaluated. In the photosynthetic tissue, cell dimensions were determined in order to estimate the area of cell walls exposed to gaseous exchange pe (mas) r unit of photosynthetic tissue (A mes/ A). The results indicate large cell dimensions and low stomata frequency which results in a reduced number of stomata per unit area in relation to species with other metabolic pathways (C3 and C4), The comparison between taxa shows significant differences in the relation of Ames/A areas, a parameter closely associated to the photosynthetic capacity and water use efficiency. The above anatomic characteristics of these plants in combination with pathway CAM contribute to their adaptation to limited rainfall conditions

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A TDR-pressure cell design for measuring the soil water retention curve

Moret Fernández, David; Arrúe Ugarte, José Luis; Pérez, Valero; López Sánchez, María Victoria
2008-07-01

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A Collimated, Ionized Bipolar Structure and a High Density Torus in the Planetary Nebula IRAS 17347-3139

Tafoya, D.; Gómez, Y.; Patel, N. A.; Torrelles, José María; Gómez, José Francisco; Anglada, Guillem; Miranda, Luis F.; Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar de
2009-01-16

Digital.CSIC (Spain)