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4

FMI y Banco Mundial: Se profundiza la crisis/ The IMF and the World Bank: The Crisis Deepens

Bello, Walden
2006-08-01

Resumen en español Con motivo de la realización en Washington DC de las reuniones de primavera del Banco Mundial (BM) y del Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI), en este artículo se presenta un análisis de la situación actual de ambas instituciones. Gracias a la crisis financiera asiática de 1997, en la que tuvo mucha responsabilidad directa el FMI, la legitimidad de esta institución nunca llegó a recuperarse. Situación similar le ocurrió en otras regiones del globo, como América L (mas) atina, donde dos importantes prestatarios, Argentina y Brasil, optaron por saldar plenamente sus deudas para independizarse de la institución. Acciones como estas han su-mido al FMI en importantes problemas financieros. El BM, aunque no carga con una imagen tan negativa, está también atravesando una crisis institucional que tiene su manifestación más protuberante en su crisis presupuestaria. Es la luz de ese diagnóstico negativo que el autor analiza el accionar de esas instituciones y las tareas próximas a ser emprendidas por los movimientos críticos a ellas. Resumen en inglés Motivated by the spring meeting between the IMF and the World Bank in Washington D.C., this article offers an analysis of both institutions. As a result of the 1997 Asian crisis, for which the IMF had a direct responsibility, this financial institution never recovered its earlier legitimacy. This situation is reflected in Latin America where two important borrowers - Argentina and Brazil - opted to pay off their outstanding debts in order to become independent of the IMF. (mas) Actions like this have precipitated important financial problems in the institution. The World Bank, while not weighed down with such a negative image, is nevertheless undergoing an institutional crisis in which its own financial crisis plays an important role. In the light of this negative diagnosis, the author analyzes the options for the institutions and the tasks faced by those who criticize them.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

5

Identificación de las zonas de riesgo ofídico en Córdoba, Argentina, mediante el programa SIGEpi/ Identifying areas of high risk for ophidism in Cordoba, Argentina, using SIGEpi software

Leynaud, Gerardo C.; Reati, Gustavo J.
2009-07-01

Resumen en español OBJETIVOS: Describir la distribución de los accidentes ofídicos en la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina, identificar las zonas de mayor riesgo y analizar la utilidad del programa informático SIGEpi. MÉTODOS: Se recopiló la información relacionada con los 299 accidentes ofídicos notificados en la provincia de Córdoba entre los años 1995 y 2006, tomados del registro oficial de la Dirección de Epidemiología provincial para accidentes por animales venenosos. Para su (mas) localización geográfica se utilizó el programa informático SIGEpi. Se generaron mapas específicos que permitieron identificar, cuantificar y visualizar las zonas vulnerables y de mayor riesgo ofídico. RESULTADOS: Los accidentes se concentraron en el sector norte y oeste de la provincia. A las serpientes del género Bothrops correspondió la mayoría de los accidentes (87,7% del total). Los departamentos con mayor incidencia anual de accidentes de este tipo fueron Pocho y Río Seco ( > 10 accidentes por 100 000 habitantes). Se identificaron tres zonas de mayor riesgo ofídico: una en el extremo oeste de la provincia, una en el extremo norte y otra al norte de Bañados del Río Dulce y la laguna Mar Chiquita. CONCLUSIONES: Los accidentes ofídicos constituyen un importante problema de salud en la provincia de Córdoba, con una incidencia superior en las zonas de mayor carencia económica vinculadas al trabajo rural. El programa SIGEpi constituye una opción adecuada para estudiar problemas de salud pública y resultó eficaz para identificar las zonas de mayor riesgo ofídico. Resumen en inglés OBJECTIVES: To determine the case distribution of accidental ophidism in the Córdoba province of Argentina, identify high risk areas, and evaluate the usefulness of the SIGEpi software program (Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, United States of America). METHODS: Information regarding the 299 cases of accidental ophidism reported in Córdoba in 1995-2006 was collected from the Provincial Epidemiology Department's official records of incidents involving ve (mas) nomous creatures. The SIGEpi software program was used for geographic mapping. Specific maps were produced to identify, quantify, and visualize the danger zones and areas of high risk for ophidism. RESULTS: The incidents occurred mostly in the northern and western areas of the province. Snakes of the Bothrops genus were responsible for the majority of the incidents (87.7% of the total). The departments with the highest annual incidence rates were Pocho and Río Seco ( > 10 incidents per 100 000 residents). Three ophidism high-risk zones were identified: one in far west of the province, another in the far north, and another just north of Bañados del Río Dulce and the Mar Chiquita lagoon. CONCLUSIONS: Accidental ophidism constitutes a major health problem in the Córdoba province where incidence rates are higher than those areas with more severe economic issues tied to rural labor. SIGEpi software is a reasonable choice for studying public health challenges and proved to be effective in identifying areas at high risk for ophidism.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

6

¿Más allá del "Consenso de Washington"? Un enfoque desde la política de algunas propuestas del Banco Mundial

Vilas, Carlos M.

[ES] Durante la última década las recomendaciones de política del Banco Mundial han puesto énfasis en la reforma institucional y en un papel más activo del Estado en la promoción de las transformaciones económicas orientadas hacia el mercado. La atención prestada a estos temas contrasta con la traye...

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12

Política exterior de los EE.UU. hacia Colombia: el paquete de ayuda de 1.300 millones de dólares de apoyo al Plan Colombia y la Región Andina

Díaz Rivillas, Borja

[ES] El final del segundo mandato del presidente Bill Clinton supuso un cambio importante en la estrategia de los EE.UU. hacia el conflicto armado colombiano. Washington dejó de apoyar el proceso de paz, y pasó a tener un enfoque más belicista, que culminó con la aprobación por parte del Congreso de...

DRIVER (Spanish)

13

Paleoenvironmental Changes during the Last 4000 yr in the Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Machado, M. J.; Pérez-González, A.; Benito, G.

In the Tigray region at the northern Ethiopian Highlands, paleoenvironmental reconstruction based on several infilled valley deposit sequences suggests that the past 4000 yr comprised three major wetter periods (ca. 4000–3500 yr B.P., 2500–1500 yr B.P., and 1000–960 yr B.P.), during which soils were...

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14

Number and size of last-glacial Missoula floods in the Columbia River valley between the Pasco Basin, Washington, and Portland, Oregon

Benito, G.; O'Connor, Jim E.

Field evidence and radiocarbon age dating, combined with hydraulic flow modeling, provide new information on the magnitude, frequency, and chronology of late Pleistocene Missoula floods in the Columbia River valley between the Pasco Basin, Washington, and Portland, Oregon. More than 25 floods had di...

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15

Nature and Culture in Prehistoric Amazonia Using G.I.S. to reconstruct ancient ethnogenetic processes from archaeology, linguistics, geography, and ethnohistory

Eriksen, Love

This thesis investigates the socio-cultural and linguistic development of pre-Columbian Amazonia, with a particular focus on the period between 500 BC and AD 1500. In assembling and analyzing data from archaeology, linguistics, ethnohistory, ethnography, and geography in a Geographical Information S...

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17

Mediterranean vegetable soup consumption increases plasma vitamin C and decreases F2-isoprostanes, prostaglandin E2 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in healthy humans

Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M. Pilar; Ancos, Begoña de; Plaza, Lucía; Olmedilla, Begoña; Granado Lorencio, Fernando; Martín, Antonio
2006-03-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

18

Las Redes Integradas de Servicios de Salud desde la realidad cubana/ Integrated health service networks on the basis of the Cuban realities

López Puig, Pedro; Morales Suárez, Ileana del Rosario; Lara Menchaca, Sara; Martínez Trujillo, Nelcy; Lau López, Santiago; Soler Cárdenas, Silvio F.
2009-12-01

Resumen en español Introducción En el mes de mayo del año 2008, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y su Representación en La Habana, a través del Ministerio de Salud Pública cubano, entregó a la Escuela Nacional de Salud Pública la primera versión del Documento de Posición de la Organización sobre las Redes Integradas de Servicios de Salud titulado "Sistemas Integrados de servicios de salud. Conceptos, Opciones de Política y Hoja de Ruta para su implementación en Las Amé (mas) ricas. Washington, D.C., 8 de mayo de 2008." Objetivos Hacer aportes conceptuales, revisión y sistematización de la información y visión crítica del tema. Métodos La Escuela Nacional de Salud Pública creó, para el cumplimiento del encargo, un grupo de trabajo con profesores propios que en ocho sesiones de trabajo cumplieron el objetivo planteado y aportaron, en las áreas conceptuales, constructos aplicables a la realidad cubana. Resultados En la red de servicios de Cuba se cumplen los presupuestos de la integración propuestos por la OPS. Los conceptos sugeridos en el documento son susceptibles de mejoras estructurales que pueden ser adecuadas a las realidades de cada país. Conclusiones El tema de las Redes Integradas de Servicios de Salud es de alta complejidad y requiere aproximaciones sucesivas tanto en lo conceptual como en el desarrollo de instrumentos para su medición. Aparentemente, en ningún país o en sus contextos se está totalmente exento de grados variables de integración/fragmentación de sus redes de servicios de salud. La integración de una red de servicios de salud es un proceso no una meta. La determinación del grado y tendencia del par integración/fragmentación en la realidad cubana y el establecimiento de modelos para su estudio son retos para la salud pública del país. Resumen en inglés Introduction On May 2008, the Pan-American Health Organization and its official headquarters in Havana, through the Ministry of Public Health of Cuba, gave the National School of Public Health the first version of the PAHO Position Document on the Integrated Health Service Systems entitled "Integrated Health Care Systems: Concepts, Political Choices and Waybill for the implementation in the Americas, Washington, D.C, May 8th, 2008". Objectives To make conceptual contribut (mas) ions, to review and systematize information and to thoroughly analyze this topic. Methods For the fulfilment of this task, the National School of Public Health established a working group of professors who, in eight working sessions, were able to attain the set objective and to contribute constructs applicable to the Cuban realities in the conceptual areas. Results The Cuban health service network puts into practice the PAHO integration assumptions. Regarding the concepts suggested in the document, there is room for structural improvements that may be adapted to the realities of each country. Conclusions The topic of the Integrated Health Service Networks is highly complex and requires a series of approaches both in the conceptual field and in the development of measuring instruments. Apparently, different levels of integration/fragmentation are present in the health care service networks of every country. The integration of a health service network is a process rather than a target. Determining the level and tendency of the integration/fragmentation pair in the Cuban realities and setting the study models represent challenges for the public health care in the country.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

19

Las Redes Integradas de Servicios de Salud desde la realidad cubana/ Integrated health service networks on the basis of the Cuban realities

López Puig, Pedro; Morales Suárez, Ileana del Rosario; Lara Menchaca, Sara; Martínez Trujillo, Nelcy; Lau López, Santiago; Soler Cárdenas, Silvio F.
2009-12-01

Resumen en español Introducción En el mes de mayo del año 2008, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y su Representación en La Habana, a través del Ministerio de Salud Pública cubano, entregó a la Escuela Nacional de Salud Pública la primera versión del Documento de Posición de la Organización sobre las Redes Integradas de Servicios de Salud titulado "Sistemas Integrados de servicios de salud. Conceptos, Opciones de Política y Hoja de Ruta para su implementación en Las Amé (mas) ricas. Washington, D.C., 8 de mayo de 2008." Objetivos Hacer aportes conceptuales, revisión y sistematización de la información y visión crítica del tema. Métodos La Escuela Nacional de Salud Pública creó, para el cumplimiento del encargo, un grupo de trabajo con profesores propios que en ocho sesiones de trabajo cumplieron el objetivo planteado y aportaron, en las áreas conceptuales, constructos aplicables a la realidad cubana. Resultados En la red de servicios de Cuba se cumplen los presupuestos de la integración propuestos por la OPS. Los conceptos sugeridos en el documento son susceptibles de mejoras estructurales que pueden ser adecuadas a las realidades de cada país. Conclusiones El tema de las Redes Integradas de Servicios de Salud es de alta complejidad y requiere aproximaciones sucesivas tanto en lo conceptual como en el desarrollo de instrumentos para su medición. Aparentemente, en ningún país o en sus contextos se está totalmente exento de grados variables de integración/fragmentación de sus redes de servicios de salud. La integración de una red de servicios de salud es un proceso no una meta. La determinación del grado y tendencia del par integración/fragmentación en la realidad cubana y el establecimiento de modelos para su estudio son retos para la salud pública del país. Resumen en inglés Introduction On May 2008, the Pan-American Health Organization and its official headquarters in Havana, through the Ministry of Public Health of Cuba, gave the National School of Public Health the first version of the PAHO Position Document on the Integrated Health Service Systems entitled "Integrated Health Care Systems: Concepts, Political Choices and Waybill for the implementation in the Americas, Washington, D.C, May 8th, 2008". Objectives To make conceptual contribut (mas) ions, to review and systematize information and to thoroughly analyze this topic. Methods For the fulfilment of this task, the National School of Public Health established a working group of professors who, in eight working sessions, were able to attain the set objective and to contribute constructs applicable to the Cuban realities in the conceptual areas. Results The Cuban health service network puts into practice the PAHO integration assumptions. Regarding the concepts suggested in the document, there is room for structural improvements that may be adapted to the realities of each country. Conclusions The topic of the Integrated Health Service Networks is highly complex and requires a series of approaches both in the conceptual field and in the development of measuring instruments. Apparently, different levels of integration/fragmentation are present in the health care service networks of every country. The integration of a health service network is a process rather than a target. Determining the level and tendency of the integration/fragmentation pair in the Cuban realities and setting the study models represent challenges for the public health care in the country.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

20

La Revista Médica de Chile en una biblioteca de ciencias en la Internet/ Revista Médica de Chile in a library of sciences in Internet

Reyes B, Humberto
2001-02-01

Resumen en inglés Medical journals published in non-English languages face a handicap: their worldwide readership and citation are reduced in comparison to journals published in English. This handicap is worse for small journals edited in developing countries, regardless of whether they publish original research articles including abstracts in English. To facilitate the international diffusion of selected Chilean scientific journals, the "Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y (mas) Tecnológica" enforced the program "SciELO Chile" with a web site in Internet (www.scielo.cl) including the full text of articles published in recent issues. Revista Médica de Chile is the first Chilean medical journal that appears in this web site, sponsored by the National Library of Medicine, Washington D.C. We expect that this web site will give a favorable input to authors of articles published in our journal (Rev Med Chile 2001; 129: 131-32)

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

23

Gente Sana en Comunidades Saludables: la visión de Salud para Todos en los Estados Unidos de América/ Healthy People in Healthy Communities: the vision of Health for All in the United States of America for 2000-2010

Puentes-Markides, Cristina; Maiese, Deborah; Granthon, Myriam
1999-12-01

Resumen en inglés For the first decade of the new millennium, "Healthy People 2010" will be the official designation of the health promotion and disease prevention policy of the United States of America. The policy's work plan carries on the vision of Health for All that is promoted by the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization and whose attainment will be the responsibility of each and every person on earth. Healthy People in Healthy Communities, as the approac (mas) h to Healthy People 2010 will be called, will have two general objectives for the United States as a whole. One is to increase the years of healthy life, incorporating the concept of quality of life into that of healthy life expectancy. The second objective is to eliminate health disparities. Twenty-eight priority areas and more than 400 goals will be consolidated through community initiatives and close communication among the public, health authorities, and community leaders. The experience of the United States is particularly interesting because it is participatory, as shown by the creation and consolidation of alliances between numerous sectors, bipartisan political support, use of scientific tests to support decisions, and efforts to strengthen data collection processes. The broad acceptance and adoption of the objectives of Healthy People by practically all fifty states reaffirms the initiative's validity in various socioeconomic and cultural contexts. Healthy People 2010 will be launched publicly during a conference that will be held in Washington, D.C., from 24 to 28 January 2000, with support from the Healthy People Consortium and the Partnerships for Networked Consumer Health Information.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

24

Encuesta telefónica sobre posición al dormir en lactantes menores de un año que asisten a una muestra de salas cuna privadas en Santiago de Chile/ Infant sleep position in private day care centers in Santiago, Chile

Herskovic L, Pedro; Cabello C, Carlos; Dossi C, M. Teresa; Jacard C, Marcela; Schatloff B, Oscar; Serrano A, Cristián; Toro V, M. Pilar
2001-11-01

Resumen en español El síndrome de muerte súbita infantil es causa significativa de mortalidad infantil en Chile y otros países. Un factor de riesgo conocido es colocar lactantes en prono para dormir. Un estudio reciente realizado en Estados Unidos demostró fallas al respecto ya que en 49% de salas cuna encuestadas lactantes dormían en prono. Objetivo: conocer las conductas que dice adoptar el personal de una muestra de salas cuna de Santiago, respecto de la posición en que son colocad (mas) os a dormir lactantes menores. Pacientes y Método: realizamos una encuesta telefónica a 126 salas cuna de Santiago para determinar la posición al dormir de los lactantes. No se visitó las salas cuna para validar las respuestas. Resultados: Obtuvimos respuesta de 91 en que dijeron atender lactantes menores. Sesenta y tres declararon tener normas sobre el tema, pero solamente 20 eran escritas (22%). Entre las salas cuna que dijeron tener norma, 38% incluía la posición prona como única o como alternativa. Cincuenta y siete salas cuna (63%) declararon tener lactantes menores durmiendo en prono y en 17 (19%) exclusivamente en prono. Conclusión: Un alto porcentaje de salas cuna mantienen el factor de riesgo para muerte súbita "posición prona al dormir" presente en la práctica diaria. Se debe mejorar la información sobre el tema para disminuir este factor de riesgo de muerte súbita Resumen en inglés Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a major cause of infant mortality in Chile and other countries. A significant risk factor is placing infants to sleep in the prone position. A recent survey carried out in Washington D.C. found that 43% of day care centers were unaware of the association between SIDS and sleep position, and that in 49% of centers infants were sometimes placed prone. Our purpose was to obtain information about conducts related to sleeping position of (mas) infants that attend a sample of day care centers in Santiago. Methods: We performed a telephonic survey of 126 day care centers in Santiago. The centers were not visited by the authors to validate the answers. Results: 91 centers looking after infants of less than 12 months took part. 63 (69%) said that they had policies about sleeping position but only 20 (22%) had a written policy. 24 centers contested that their policy stated prone as the preferred or alternative position. 57 (63%) contested that some infants slept prone, and in 17 all the infants did. Conclusions: A high percentage of day care centers use this risk factor in their routine. More information is needed for Chilean child care providers about the association between sleep position and SIDS

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

25

Election interviews in the spanish political campaign of 1996 : strategies for building discursive credibility

Morales López, Esperanza

In this paper, the author presents the analysis and interpretation of several interviews with the leaders of the three major Spanish political parties during the election campaign in March 1996. The analysis of those interviews examines the rhetorical and discursive practices constructed by those p...

DRIVER (Spanish)

30

A new genus of Poecilochaetidae (Polychaetous annelids) in the mediterranean : Elicodasia mirabilis

Laubier Lucien; Ramos Jeanete

In the framework of a general study of the benthic communities located on the continental shelf in the Bay of Rosas (on the Spanish Catalonian coast of the Mediterranean), several specimens of a new genus belonging to the small family Poecilochaetidae Hannerz, 1956 were recovered. The object of thi...

DRIVER (Spanish)

31


2001-07-01

Resumen en inglés This piece summarizes a document entitled "Critical Issues in Health System Performance Assessment," which was prepared for the Regional Consultation of the Americas on Health Systems Performance Assessment, a meeting held in Washington, D.C., 8 to 10 May 2001. That gathering came about in response to the publication, by the World Health Organization (WHO), of its World Health Report 2000. Done by an advisory group, the Report focused on a comparative evaluation of the pe (mas) rformance of the health systems of the WHO Member States. The task of preparing the Report was hindered by a series of factors, from the scar-city of basic data in some countries to the lack of reliable indicators--and especially uniform ones--that would make it possible to draw general conclusions. With a view to overcoming these deficiencies, an innovative methodology was conceived for the Report, based on the evaluation of processes and outcomes, which would make it possible to make valid comparative analyses. Unfortunately, the suitability of the methodology that was used in the Report has been criticized internationally and has led the WHO Director-General to take concrete steps for the next Report, which will come out in October 2002, in order to have improved results. This piece describes measures that need to be taken conceptually and methodologically, with an emphasis on changes in the system for evaluating health system performance and on involving every WHO Member State in the analysis of the data.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)