Sample records for SISTEMAS DE ALERTA (warning systems)
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1

Sistemas de alerta: una prioridad en vigilancia epidemiológica/ Warning systems: a priority in epidemiological surveillance

Valencia, R.; Román, E.; García-León, F.J.; Guillén, J.
2003-12-01

Resumen en español Una de las funciones esenciales de la salud pública es reducir el impacto de las situaciones de emergencia, de aquí la necesidad de contar con sistemas de alerta y respuesta rápida. La demanda social como reacción a las enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes, la exposición a riesgos ambientales y la posibilidad de ataques bioterroristas son las circunstancias que han contribuido, en mayor medida, a la puesta en marcha de estos sistemas basados en modelos matemáticos (mas) . La información se obtiene de fuentes muy diversas (p. ej., datos de laboratorio, médicos centinela, o visitas a determinadas páginas web) se integra y, una vez detectada la situación anómala que determina la alerta, se establecen rápidamente medidas de control que permitan reducir los riesgos y limitar los daños. Resumen en inglés One of the functions of public health is to reduce the impact of emergency situations; hence the need to establish an early warning and response system. Community reactions to emerging and reemerging diseases, exposure to environmental risks, and potential terrorist acts are the factors that have that have mainly contributed to the instauration of warning systems based on mathematical models. Information is obtained from diverse sources (for example, laboratory data, sent (mas) inel physicians, or visits to particular websites). Once the data are gathered, and the situation provoking the alert is detected, control measures to reduce risks and minimize damage are taken at the earliest.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

2

Sistemas de alerta: una prioridad en vigilancia epidemiológica/ Warning systems: a priority in epidemiological surveillance

Valencia, R.; Román, E.; García-León, F.J.; Guillén, J.
2003-12-01

Resumen en español Una de las funciones esenciales de la salud pública es reducir el impacto de las situaciones de emergencia, de aquí la necesidad de contar con sistemas de alerta y respuesta rápida. La demanda social como reacción a las enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes, la exposición a riesgos ambientales y la posibilidad de ataques bioterroristas son las circunstancias que han contribuido, en mayor medida, a la puesta en marcha de estos sistemas basados en modelos matemáticos (mas) . La información se obtiene de fuentes muy diversas (p. ej., datos de laboratorio, médicos centinela, o visitas a determinadas páginas web) se integra y, una vez detectada la situación anómala que determina la alerta, se establecen rápidamente medidas de control que permitan reducir los riesgos y limitar los daños. Resumen en inglés One of the functions of public health is to reduce the impact of emergency situations; hence the need to establish an early warning and response system. Community reactions to emerging and reemerging diseases, exposure to environmental risks, and potential terrorist acts are the factors that have that have mainly contributed to the instauration of warning systems based on mathematical models. Information is obtained from diverse sources (for example, laboratory data, sent (mas) inel physicians, or visits to particular websites). Once the data are gathered, and the situation provoking the alert is detected, control measures to reduce risks and minimize damage are taken at the earliest.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

3

ZONAS OSCURAS EN EL SISTEMA DE ALARMA DE ADVERTENCIA DE TSUNAMI EN CHILE/ DARK ZONES IN ALARM SYSTEM OF TSUNAMI OF WARNING OF TSUNAMI IN CHILE

Alvarez, Gabriel; Ramirez, Jorge; Paredes, Lorena; Canales, Miguel
2010-12-01

Resumen en español El territorio chileno cuenta con alrededor de 80.000 km de costa considerando el territorio insular, un dato relevante al momento de considerar la ocurrencia de un tsunami. Las autoridades chilenas, conscientes de este extenso territorio marítimo, han desarrollado un sistema de alerta de tsunami como una responsabilidad estatal y han depositado su control a la oficina nacional de emergencia – ministerio del interior (ONEMI) y en el servicio hidrográfico y ocean (mas) ográfico de la armada de Chile (SHOA). En este artículo hemos realizado experiencias con el objetivo de activar los sistemas de advertencias generando eventos telúricos ficticios y/o eventos telúricos históricos capaces de desatar eventos de tsunami. También se ha propuesto una hipótesis de trabajo que permita, a través de los procedimientos establecidos por ley de la República de Chile, monitorear los tiempos de respuestas de los organismos estatales. Nuestro trabajo de investigación entrega resultados que nos permiten afirmar que existen zonas para eventos hipotéticos que podrían generar tsunamis a los cuales el sistema de alerta no sería eficiente en reaccionar. Para llevar a cabo esta investigación hemos utilizado un software llamado SLAT, basado en ecuaciones simplificadas de propagación de una onda de tsunami que nos permite obtener resultados rápidos y además hemos sometido a prueba el sistema con datos oficiales en los cuales se ha demostrado que el sistema de alerta no fue capaz de reaccionar al evento Atico 8,4 M. ocurrido en Perú Resumen en inglés The Chilean territory has an extensive coastline -about 80.000 km of coast including the territory of its islands – which is an important fact to consider in the event of the occurrence of a tsunami. The Chilean authorities, fully aware of the vast maritime territory, have developed a tsunami warning system. This system constitutes a state responsibility, and its control has been entrusted to the national emergency office - ministry of interior (ONEMI) and hydrographic a (mas) nd oceanographic service of Chilean navy (SHOA). This article deals with experiences carried out in order to activate the warning systems, generating fictional telluric events and / or historical telluric events capable of triggering tsunami occurrences. It also proposes a working hypothesis that will allow monitoring the response of the state agencies, through the procedures established by law in the Republic of Chile. Our research delivers results that allow us to affirm that there are areas for hypothetical events that could generate tsunamis in which the To carry out this research we have used a software called STLAT based on simplified equations of the propagation of a tsunami wave, which has allowed us to get quick results. We have also carried out tests with official data which have shown that the alarm system was not able to respond appropriately to the 8.4 M Atico event that occurred in Peru in 2001

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

4

ALGUNAS PAUTAS PARA ESTABLECER UNA ESTRATEGIA DE VIGILANCIA EPIDEMIOLÓGICA DE LA INFLUENZA AVIAR/ SOME GUIDELINES FOR ORGANIZING AN AVIAN INFLUENZA EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE STRATEGY

Alfonso Zamora, P; Percedo, María Irian; Abeledo, Ma. Antonia; Noda, Julia
2008-08-01

Resumen en español La explosiva y casi simultánea aparición de la influenza aviar (IA) en múltiples países, ha sido interpretada por organismos sanitarios internacionales como evidencia de la debilidad de los sistemas de vigilancia y alerta temprana para advertir el peligro de introducción y difusión de la enfermedad. Los países y regiones pueden adoptar estrategias para la vigilancia de la IA más o menos complejas, en dependencia de los sistemas de vigilancia epidemiológica preest (mas) ablecidos, las características de la industria avícola, los factores de riesgo identificados, y los recursos disponibles, entre otras consideraciones; pero es indiscutible la necesidad de fortalecer tanto la vigilancia pasiva como activa. El nuevo perfil de la IA ha aumentado la disponibilidad de las técnicas y medios para la vigilancia, cuya selección para establecer un algoritmo de diagnóstico efectivo tiene ciertas complejidades. El manejo de la prevención, y eventual control, de situaciones de desastres sanitarios por enfermedades transfronterizas como la IA, colocan a los servicios veterinarios en la necesidad de organizar la estrategia para la vigilancia epidemiológica con el propósito de aumentar las capacidades de alerta y respuesta rápida, incluso desde el nivel técnico-administrativo local. En este artículo se reseñan algunas pautas para establecer la estrategia de vigilancia de la IA. Resumen en inglés The explosive and almost simultaneous appearance of Avian Influenza (AI) in multiple countries worldwide has been interpreted as evidence of weakness of the surveillance and early warning systems for noticing AI introduction and spread hazards. Countries or regions can adopt more or less intensive surveillance systems depending on the surveillance systems pre-established, poultry industry characteristics, risk factors assessed and resources available. However, it is unque (mas) stionable the need of enhancing either passive or active surveillance. The new AI profile has increased the availability of techniques and means for surveillance whose selection has certain complexities for establishing an effective diagnostic algorithm. The prevention management and control of eventual sanitary disasters demand from the Veterinary Services to have an epidemiological surveillance strategy in order to increase the capacities of alert and early responses at local level. In this paper, some guidelines for organizing an Avian Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance System are pointed out.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

5

Asociación entre el perfil sensorial, el funcionamiento de la relación cuidador-niño y el desarrollo psicomotor a los tres años de edad/ Association between the sensory profile, the quality of the infant-parent relationship and the child development, at three years of age

Castillejos-Zenteno, Liliana; Rivera-González, Rolando
2009-06-01

Resumen en español Con la intención de complementar los criterios del DSM-IV, en el caso de los niños pequeños, el Zero to Three/Centro Nacional para Programas Clínicos para Infantes, desarrolló la Clasificación Diagnóstica para los niños de cero a tres años (DC: O-3). El DC: 0-3, constó de cinco ejes. El eje I se refiere al diagnóstico primario, e incluyó los trastornos regulatorios y los trastornos del desarrollo que influyen en diferentes sistemas. Los trastornos regulatorios (mas) son de naturaleza constitucional y de maduración, basados en problemas sensoriales, sensoriomotores o de procesamiento; se caracterizan por dificultades que presenta el niño para regular su comportamiento sensorial, atencional, motor y/o afectivo, así como para organizar estados afectivos positivos, de alerta o acciones para calmarse. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue establecer la asociación entre las características del perfil sensorial con el desarrollo psicomotor del niño. Metodología Para valorar el nivel de desarrollo de los niños se utilizó el Perfil de Conductas de Desarrollo, en su versión revisada (PCD-R). Para reconocer un trastorno regulatorio se utilizó el Sensory Profile que valora el procesamiento sensorial del niño y su repercusión en la vida cotidiana. También analizó el nivel de funcionamiento de la relación cuidador-niño con la escala Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS) del DC: 0-3. Resultados Los niños tuvieron una edad de 43.2+4.2 meses, 50% fueron niñas, el desarrollo mostró coeficientes aproximados de 105+15 puntos y fueron más altos en las niñas que en los niños en todas las áreas excepto habilidad manual, con diferencias significativas en lenguaje expresivo, alimentación y praxis. De manera global el Perfil Sensorial (SP) mostró 17 niños (31 %) con perfil sensorial >; 21 (39%) con sospecha y 16 (30%) en el grupo de >. La relación de trastornos regulatorios entre niños y niñas se dio en una razón de 3:1. Las secciones >, >, > y > presentaron mayor frecuencia de perfiles de los niños por fuera del comportamiento típico (50%). Los factores > e > fueron los más afectados con más del 50% de casos por fuera del rango típico. Todas las áreas del PCD-R tuvieron algún grado de correlación al menos con dos secciones del SP, siendo las áreas emocional/ social y lenguaje expresivo del PCD-R las que mostraron mayor número de correlaciones significativas con las secciones y factores del SP. Las secciones de > y >, fueron las que se correlacionaron con la mayoría de áreas del PCD-R. En el análisis de varianza entre los resultados globales del SP y las medias de los coeficientes del desarrollo mostró diferencias significativas en seis de las nueve áreas evaluadas. La relación cuidador-niño valorada con la escala (PIR-GAS) del DC: 0-3, mostró relación adaptada en 20 casos (37%), relación levemente afectada en 15 casos (28%) y relación disfuncional en 19 casos (35%), no se observó asociación entre los coeficientes del desarrollo del PCD-R según estos tres grupos de funcionamiento de la relación. Mediante análisis de correspondencia se corroboró que a mayor afectación del perfil sensorial, mayor alteración en la relación cuidador-niño. Las diferencias en la integración de estímulos sensoriales, cuando impactan en la vida cotidiana de los niños, guardan una asociación con el desarrollo en diferentes áreas. El funcionamiento de la relación cuidador-niño no fue una variable que modificase el efecto de la asociación entre el perfil sensorial y el desarrollo, ya que no mostró relaciones con el desarrollo psicomotor, pero sí con el perfil sensorial del niño. Resumen en inglés Since the beginning of the last century there were some differences in child-related difficulties in regulation that could not be included in the categories of diagnosis were counted, so they fitted within the learning problems, coordination problems and sometimes until the epilepsy. Decades later, each problem was subject of a separate diagnostic category, which favored the study of diseases, but fragmented the diagnosis for children who had a variety of symptoms that so (mas) me of them were due to a single source. Then the diagnoses increased in coordination disorder, attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity (ADHD), the sensory integration dysfunction, language disorders, and so on. In order to complete the criteria of DSM-IV, in the case of children the Zero to Three/National Center for Clinical Programs for Infants developed a diagnostic classification for children from 0 to 3 years old (DC: O-3). The DC: 0-3, consists of five axes. The Axis I refers to the primary diagnosis, and includes the regulatory disorders and developmental disorders that affect different systems. Regulatory disorders are constitutional in nature, based on sensory problems, or sensorimotor processing, characterized by difficulties of the child to regulate their behavior, sensory, attention, motor and/or emotional, to organize positive affective states, warning or actions to calm down. The objective of the present research was to establish the association between the characteristics of the Sensory Profile, the parent-infant relationship and the psychomotor development of children. Materials and methods To assess the level of development of children was used the Conduct Development Profile, as revised (PCD-R). For the parent-infant relationship was used the Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS). Thus, to recognize a regulatory disorder it was used the Sensory Profile which assess the child's sensory processing and its impact on the daily lives of children. To fit the relationship style in one of the categories, the children and their caregiver play for about 15 minutes with three types of toys, according to the classification of Florey. Statistical analysis For data analysis were conducted descriptive statistics of the general variables and those of primary interest, test Chi² for contingence tables test, correspondence analysis and comparison one-way variance analysis. Analyses conducted using SPSS 12.0 statistical software. Results The children had an average age of 43.2 ± 4.2 months, 50% were girls, development showed ratios of around 105 ± 15 points. The average ratios of development were higher in girls than in boys in all areas except manual skill. The characteristics of sensory profile were established on the basis of results obtained in the SP: 1 7 children (31 %) were located in the group with > sensory profile, which refers to the scores within the parameters of typical performance or have up to two factors with likely difference; 21 children (39%) were located in the > group when the subjects likely to exceed two factors with difference and up to 1 factor with definitive difference, and 1 6 children (30%) in the > group formed by the cases that are more than three factors likely to dispute and/ or difference with more than two final (over four factors outside of the typical performance). Sections of >, >, > and > were those that had a higher frequency of profiles of children outside typical behavior (50%). The section of > was the most frequent typical behavior among children (78%). In relation to the factors, the proportion of children who had values within the typical range in each of the factors of SP was 41 % to 83%, > and > were the most affected by having more than a half of the cases outside of the typical range, while > and > were the least altered, being over 75% of cases characterized as typical performance. At the regulatory disorders assessment boys showed more frequent regulatory disruptions, 44% respect to girls 15% (p > and > areas of the PCD-R showed more significant correlations with sections of the SP, while > and > sections, which were correlated with most of the development areas explored with the PCD-R. The variance analysis comparing the averages of development reached in the PCD-R, according to the SP results showed statistical differences between the averages in six of nine factors evaluated, being the regulatory disorder the group that makes a difference for the respect to two others. The results of the evaluation about the relationship between caregiver and child valued by the scale Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS) DC: 0-3, did not show differences in the average ratios of development in the PCD-R among the three groups that were conducted. Nevertheless was noted that children with affected sensory profile presented problems more frequent in relation to the caregiver. Discussion Data from the study population showed values close to those reported by the respective instruments, discreetly above the expected variance similar to that described in the standardized tests. In the most of the development areas, the group of girls had the highest averages ratios. This results are similar with that are described in the literature. We also found an increased frequency of regulatory disorders in boys, 3:1 or 2:1, which could be related with by patterns of socialization. Respect the parent-infant relationship there not found differences that affect significantly the child development, evaluated with the PCD-R, unless when the relatioship was significantly affected. Differences in integrating sensory stimuli, when impact the daily life of children are related to development in different areas. The functioning of the parent-infant relationship was not a variable that changed the effect of the association between sensory profile and development, as it showed no relations with psychomotor development, but shows relations with the sensory profile of the child. In conclusion, differences in the integration of sensory stimuli, when impacting on the daily lives of children at three years old, have an association with the development so that there are areas of development that appear to be more sensitive than others in a any child who presents regulatory disorder. The functioning of the mother-child relationship showed no relations with psychomotor development, however it did with the sensory profile of the child.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

6

Toxicity assays applied to wastewater treatment

Hernando, María Dolores; Fernández Alba, Amadeo R.; Tauler Ferré, Romà; Barceló, Damià
2005-01-30

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

7

Tendencias en resucitación cardiopulmonar/ Trends in cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Gazmuri, Raúl-Jaime; Álvarez-Fernández, Jesús-Andrés
2009-02-01

Resumen en español Menos del 10% de las personas que sufren una parada cardíaca son resucitados con éxito y regresan a sus hogares para vivir vidas productivas. Nuevos enfoques de la resucitación podrían modificar de forma sustancial este resultado tan triste. Cuatro tendencias en resucitación cardiopulmonar (RCP) parecen tener el mayor potencial para mejorar el pronóstico: los sistemas para la prevención de la parada cardíaca mediante reconocimiento precoz de los signos de alarma e (mas) intervención oportuna; el cambio hacia una resucitación orientada hacia el flujo sanguíneo, enfatizando la realización ininterrumpida de una RCP de alta calidad con un papel limitado de la ventilación; la importancia creciente de la tecnología guiando las intervenciones en resucitación, mejorando el proceso humano de toma de decisiones, y el empleo de la hipotermia. Resumen en inglés Less than 10% of those individuals who suffer an episode of sudden cardiac arrest are successfully resuscitated and return home to live productive lives. New approaches to cardiac resuscitation could substantially improve such dismal outcome. Four current trends in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have the greatest potential for improving outcome: the development of systems that can prevent cardiac arrests through recognition of early warning signs and timely intervent (mas) ion; a shift towards a flow-based resuscitation emphasizing the delivery of high-quality uninterrupted CPR limiting the role of ventilation; the growing role of technology in driving resuscitation interventions, incrementally enhancing the human decision-making process, and the use of hypothermia.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

8

Technological Platforms Based on Micro/Nanobiosensors as Early Warning Systems for Biological Warfare

Lechuga, Laura M.; Tamayo, Javier; Calle Martín, Ana; Calleja, Montserrat; Domínguez, Carlos
2005-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

9

Spatial patterns in chemically and biologically reacting flows

Hernández-García, Emilio; López, Cristóbal; Neufeld, Zoltan
2003-09-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

10

Prediction of daily ozone concentration maxima in the urban atmosphere

Barrero, M. A.; Grimalt, Joan O.; Cantón, Lourdes
2006-01-20

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

11

Posibilidades de mejora en los planes de prevención frente al exceso de temperaturas: Possibilities of Improvement/ Heat Health Warning Systems

Montero Rubio, Juan Carlos; Mirón Pérez, Isidro J.; Criado-Álvarez, Juan José; Linares, Cristina; Díaz Jiménez, Julio
2010-04-01

Resumen en español En el verano de 2003 las temperaturas alcanzadas fueron responsables de un gran número de muertes en el continente europeo. Un año después muchos países habían implantado algún tipo de plan de prevención frente al exceso de temperaturas. Planes que ya habían mostrado su capacidad de prevenir una buena parte de la mortalidad evitable en otras latitudes. Desde entonces, son numerosos los estudios publicados ofreciendo nuevos datos sobre los efectos en salud pública (mas) de una ola de calor, que pueden contribuir a aumentar la eficiencia de estos planes de prevención. Conocer las situaciones meteorológicas de mayor riesgo, definir ola de calor o tener en cuenta el tiempo que el plan debe estar activo a partir del estudio de la relación entre la temperatura y sus efectos en salud, identificar las características meteorológicas que modulan la relación entre la temperatura y la mortalidad, localizar el perfil de las personas de mayor riesgo o diseñar protocolos de actuación con la mayor precisión posible y basado en el conocimiento científico son elementos extraídos de numerosos trabajos realizados en los últimos años que deben ser tenidos en cuenta. Resumen en inglés In the summer of 2003 the temperatures reached were responsible for a large number of deaths in Europe. A year after this fact, many countries had implemented some sort of plan of prevention against excessive temperatures. Plans that had already shown its ability to prevent a large proportion of avoidable mortality in other latitudes. Since then, a lot of papers have been published providing new data on health effects of a heat wave, which can help increase the efficiency (mas) of these prevention plans. Knowing the weather conditions at risk, defining "heat wave" or to take into account the time that the plan should be active from the study of the relationship between temperature and their effects on health, to identify weather patterns that modulate the relationship between temperature and mortality, locate the profile of people at risk or to develop protocols for action as accurately as possible and based on scientific knowledge are elements drawn from studies carried on in recent years that should be taken into account.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

12

Posibilidades de mejora en los planes de prevención frente al exceso de temperaturas/ Heat Health Warning Systems. Possibilities of Improvement

Montero Rubio, Juan Carlos; Mirón Pérez, Isidro J.; Criado-Álvarez, Juan José; Linares, Cristina; Díaz Jiménez, Julio
2010-04-01

Resumen en español En el verano de 2003 las temperaturas alcanzadas fueron responsables de un gran número de muertes en el continente europeo. Un año después muchos países habían implantado algún tipo de plan de prevención frente al exceso de temperaturas. Planes que ya habían mostrado su capacidad de prevenir una buena parte de la mortalidad evitable en otras latitudes. Desde entonces, son numerosos los estudios publicados ofreciendo nuevos datos sobre los efectos en salud pública (mas) de una ola de calor, que pueden contribuir a aumentar la eficiencia de estos planes de prevención. Conocer las situaciones meteorológicas de mayor riesgo, definir ola de calor o tener en cuenta el tiempo que el plan debe estar activo a partir del estudio de la relación entre la temperatura y sus efectos en salud, identificar las características meteorológicas que modulan la relación entre la temperatura y la mortalidad, localizar el perfil de las personas de mayor riesgo o diseñar protocolos de actuación con la mayor precisión posible y basado en el conocimiento científico son elementos extraídos de numerosos trabajos realizados en los últimos años que deben ser tenidos en cuenta. Resumen en inglés In the summer of 2003 the temperatures reached were responsible for a large number of deaths in Europe. A year after this fact, many countries had implemented some sort of plan of prevention against excessive temperatures. Plans that had already shown its ability to prevent a large proportion of avoidable mortality in other latitudes. Since then, a lot of papers have been published providing new data on health effects of a heat wave, which can help increase the efficiency (mas) of these prevention plans. Knowing the weather conditions at risk, defining "heat wave" or to take into account the time that the plan should be active from the study of the relationship between temperature and their effects on health, to identify weather patterns that modulate the relationship between temperature and mortality, locate the profile of people at risk or to develop protocols for action as accurately as possible and based on scientific knowledge are elements drawn from studies carried on in recent years that should be taken into account.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

13

Optical Biosensor devices as early detectors of Biological and Chemical Warfare agents

Lechuga, Laura M.; Mauriz, Elba; Sepúlveda Martínez, Borja; Sánchez del Río, José; Calle Martín, Ana; Armelles Reig, Gaspar; Domínguez, Carlos
2006-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

14

Neuronal apoptosis and reversible motor deficit in dominant-negative GSK-3 conditional transgenic mice

Gómez-Sintes, Raquel; Hernández, Félix; Bortolozzi, Analía; Artigas, Francesc; Avila, Jesús; Zaratin, Paola; Gotteland, Jean Pierre; Lucas, José J.
2007-06-06

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

15

Les molècules que modulen el dolor. Analgèsia i drogodependència, vint-i-cinc anys després del descobriment de les encefalines

Rodríguez, Raquel Emilia; Arsequell, Gemma; Espuña, Gemma; Valencia Parera, Gregorio
2001-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

16

Las enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes: un problema de salud en las Américas/ Emerging and reemerging diseases: a health problem in the Americas

Ridel, Guillermo Mesa; Luis, Iraida Rodríguez; Teja, Julio
2004-04-01

Resumen en inglés In the Region of the Americas the emerging and reemerging infectious diseases that had the greatest impact on health, in terms of their incidence and the number of deaths that they caused during the five-year period of 1999­2003, were: malaria, yellow fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, AIDS, anthrax, and SARS, as well as infection by hantavirus and by West Nile virus. The appearance of epidemics of emerging and reemerging diseases is related to biological, social, and e (mas) conomic factors. Growth in international trade, the movement of large numbers of people across national borders, the variability and genetic adaptability of the causative microorganisms, and inefficiencies in public health systems help to spread infections and epidemics. To avoid or reduce the serious effects of these epidemics, countries should give priority in their national agendas to surveillance of emerging and reemerging diseases and should implement a set of measures to combat the diseases. The most important of these measures is to develop a strategy that is based on early warning and rapid response mechanisms, with personnel and laboratories as well as communications networks that link laboratories with health service providers. This strategy should be backed by priority funding and adequate policies.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

17

Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Forest Condition: Estimation of Chlorophyll content in tolerant Hardwoods

Sampson, P. H.; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo J.; Mohammed, G. H.; Miller, J. R.; Noland, T. L.; Fleming, R. L.
2003-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

18

Early-warning signals for critical transitions

Scheffer, Marten; Bascompte, Jordi; Brock, William A.; Brovkin, Victor; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Dakos, Vasilis; Held, Hermann; Van Nes, Egbert H.; Rietkerk, Max; Sugihara, George
2009-09-03

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

19

Ciclo de vida, importancia agrícola y manejo integrado de la chisa rizófaga Phyllophaga menetriesi Blanchard (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae), en Cauca y Quindío, Colombia/ Life cycle, agricultural importance and integrated management of the rhizophagous whitegrub, Phyllophaga menetriesi Blanchard (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae), in Cauca and Quindío, Colombia

Pardo-Locarno, Luis Carlos; Montoya Lerma, James
2007-01-01

Resumen en español La biología e importancia agrícola de P. menetriesi, especie rizófaga, fue investigado en laboratorio y en cultivos del Cauca y Quindío (Colombia). El ciclo de vida fue anual, la duración de los estados (semanas) fue: huevo 2-3, primer instar 3-4, segundo instar 6-8, tercer instar 20-25, prepupa 2-3, pupa 4-5, adulto macho 4-6 y adulto hembra 4-8. El tamaño corporal (mm) por instar fue: primer instar anchura cefálica 1.85-2.04, anchura corporal 1.05-2.02 y la longi (mas) tud 14.3-19.2, segundo instar 3.3-3.95, 4.02-5.1 y 24-35 respectivamente y en el tercer instar 5.8-6.02, 6.1-7.6, 56-67 respectivamente. El periodo reproductivo, estudiado mediante captura semanal en trampas de luz en Caldono, Cauca (2° 81'N y 76° 55'O, 1.450 msnm, precipitación pluvial 2.191 mm/anuales), fue corto, sincronizado con las lluvias de octubre-noviembre. El impacto económico, estudiado con muestreos mensuales de cuadrantes (1 m-2/25cm de profundidad) en Quimbaya, Quindío (04° 38´ 02" N y 75° 47´ 47" O; 1.274 msnm; 2000 mm/anuales), mostró que cinco larvas m-2 ocasionaron pérdida total de plántulas de maíz y yuca menores de dos meses; la abundancia fluctuó desde cero hasta 8 larvas m-2, evidenciando distribución "parchosa" y mayores densidades en pastizal y yuca. En lotes con antecedentes de la plaga deben monitorearse los adultos con trampas de luz como aviso temprano, catear larvas después de las lluvias de octubre y aplicar control microbiológico preventivo; niveles de 4 o más larvas m-2 podrían conjugar remoción de suelo, uso localizado de control químico e incorporación de fitomasa para fomentar la población de chisas saprófagas, diversidad trófica y enemigos naturales. Resumen en inglés The life cycle of Phyllophaga menetriesi was studied under laboratory conditions using samples taken from different crop systems in the departments of Cauca and Quindio, Colombia . The life cycle is annual and the developmental stages of this species were as follows: egg, 2-3 weeks; first instar, 3-4 weeks; second instar, 6-8 weeks; third instar, 20-25 weeks; prepupa, 2-3 weeks; pupa, 4-5 weeks; and adult, 4-6 weeks for males and 4-8 weeks for females. Cephalic width as w (mas) ell as body width and length (mm) were measured in the three instars, with the following results: first instar: 1.85- 2.04, 1.05-2.02, and 14.3-19.2, respectively; second instar: 3.3-3.95, 4.02-5.1, and 24-35, respectively; and third instar: 5.8-6.02, 6.1-7.6, and 56-67, respectively. The reproductive period of these insects was short and coincided with the rainy season (October-November), based on the results of weekly catches of insects using light traps in Caldono, Cauca (2° 81' N, 76° 55' W, 1450 m.a.s.l., and an annual pluvial precipitation of 2191 mm). To assess the economic impact of the insect, monthly samples were taken in quadrats ( 1 m² and 25 cm deep) in Quimbaya, Quindío (04° 38´ 02" N, 75° 47´ 47"W, 1274 m.a.s.l., and an annual precipitation of 2000 mm). Results showed that 5 larvae/m² produced total loss of maize and cassava plants less than 2 months old. Incidence ranged from 0 to 8 larvae/m², showing an irregular distribution. The highest densities were detected in pastures and in cassava crops. Plots with a history of incidence should be closely monitored using light traps as an early warning system. The presence of larvae should be determined immediately after the October rains and a microbiological control treatment has to be applied as preventive measure. Levels of 4 larvas/m² or above could exact soil removal, localized use of chemicals, and incorporation of phytomass to promote saprophagous grubs, trophic diversity, and natural enemies.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Capacidad de respuesta a emergencias epidémicas: recomendaciones para la autoevaluación nacional/ Response capacity for epidemic emergencies: recommendations for country self-evaluation

Gala, Angela
2005-08-01

Resumen en inglés Communicable diseases that have appeared or reappeared in recent years have demonstrated their great potential for spreading and their capacity to overwhelm a country's resources, causing major emergencies. The recent SARS epidemic showed that only health systems that have been strengthened and that have the response capacity for events of this kind will be able to handle future contingencies. Governments have recognized the need to support initiatives to strengthen their (mas) countries' capacities in surveillance, prevention, and the control of emergencies caused by epidemics. This piece identifies essential components that will make it possible to guide the efforts of governments, with the support of the Pan American Health Organization and other international organizations, toward achieving a common goal: establishing for countries warning and epidemic-emergency response systems that are appropriate and effective.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Aviso de valores de alerta por parte del laboratorio clínico en una red de salud universitaria/ Laboratory alert value reporting by the clinical laboratory at an academic medical network

Guzmán D, Ana María; Solari S, Sandra; Lagos L, Marcela; Poggi M, Helena; Sánchez P, Tomás; Madrid Q, Angélica; Parada B, Jacqueline; Román G, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez P, Luis; Quiroga G, Teresa
2009-09-01

Resumen en inglés Background: An alert value is a result suggesting that the patient is at imminent danger unless appropriate remedial actions begin promptly. Report of alert values (AV) by the clinical laboratories has taken special relevance in recent years due to its contribution to patient's care. Aim: To report results of AV informed during 2007 within the Health Network of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Material and methods: Analysis of AV recorded in a centralized da (mas) tabase of the laboratories of the health network, between January and December, 2007. Results: Total number of AV was 5.366, which represented 0.3% of total examinations and corresponded mainly to the clinical chemistry area. Potassium levels generated the higher number of AV detected, followed by positive blood cultures. Eighty two percent of AV corresponded to hospitalized patients. The greater number of AV was reported to intermediate and intensive care services. Thirty two percent of AV was informed to the physician or professional in charge of the patient within 5 minutes of obtaining the results and 79% within 30 minutes. Conclusions: To obtain a real impact on patient management, it is fundamental to shorten the ¡apse between the obtainment of tests results and the warning, supported on appropriate computerized systems, and to spread the procedure to all personnel involved in patient's care (RevMéd Chile 2009; 137: 1137-44)

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Automated Water Analyser Computer Supported System (AWACSS) Part I: Project objectives, basic technology, immunoassay development, software design and networking

Tschmelak, Jens; Proll, Guenther; Riedt, Johannes; Kaiser, Joachim; Kraemmer, Peter; Bárzaga, Luis; Wilkinson, James S.; Hua, Ping; Hole, J. Patrick; Nudd, Richard; Jackson, Michael; Abuknesha, Ram; Barceló, Damià; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; López de Alda, Miren; Sacher, Frank; Stien, Jan; Slobodník, Jaroslav; Oswald, Peter; Kozmenko, Helena; Korenková, Eva; Tóthová, Lívia; Krascsenits, Zoltan; Gauglitz, Guenter
2005-02-15

Digital.CSIC (Spain)