Sample records for TERCER SONIDO (third sound)
from WorldWideScience.org

Sample records 1 - 8 shown.



1

Variaciones de la enzima fosfatasa alcalina en la pulpa dental/ Variations of alkaline phosphatase enzyme in the dental pulp

Pons Pinillos, Zoraida; Hernández Rodríguez, Nadia
2005-08-01

Resumen en español En las últimas décadas, numerosas investigaciones se han dedicado al estudio de los mecanismos potenciales implicados en el desarrollo de la caries dental y su prevención, sin embargo, a pesar de haber disminuido gradualmente el índice de caries en la población, son muchos los pacientes que necesitan tratarse la caries dental, tal es así que continuamente se están utilizando diferentes materiales en la búsqueda de aquel que ante una agresión a la pulpa, ayude a u (mas) na respuesta biológica de la misma, conservando de esta forma su integridad. De ahí la importancia de la actividad de la fosfatasa alcalina de la pulpa en el proceso carioso, como una reacción ante el hidróxido de calcio que continuamente se está usando en toda la red docente-asistencial del país. Se seleccionaron 50 dientes monorradiculares, con pulpa viva y con caries de segundo, tercer y cuarto grado y 50 dientes sanos de pacientes de diferentes edades. Se extrajo la pulpa de cada diente y se realizaron improntas (3 por cada muestra), una de las cuales se procesó para obtener orientación morfológica, y las otras 2 para valorar la actividad de la fosfatasa alcalina. Para esto se utilizaron 2 métodos: el de calcio cobalto y el de alpha naftol fosfato de Gomori. Como resultado, se obtuvo que la pulpa tiene más actividad enzimática en caries profunda y que la edad del paciente no determina el aumento o disminución de dicha actividad. Resumen en inglés In the last decades, numerous investigations have been made on the study of potential mechanisms involved in the development of dental caries and their prevention. However, in spite of the gradual reduction of dental caries in the population, a lot of patients need to have their dental caries treated and different materials are continuously used searching for one that before the aggression to the pulp helps it to give a biological response, conserving this way its integri (mas) ty. That's why the activity of the alkaline phosphatase of the pulp in the caries process is important as a reaction to the calcium hydroxide that is constantly utilized in the teaching-health service network of the country. 50 monoradicular teeth with living pulp and with caries of second, third and fourth degree, and 50 sound teeth from patients of different ages were selected. The pulp of each tooth was extracted and impressions were made (3 per sample). One of them was processed to obtain morphological guidance and the other two to assess the activity of alkaline phosphatase. The cobalt calcium method and Gomori's alpha naphthol phosphate method were used to this end. As a result, it was proved that the pulp has a higher enzymatic activity in deep caries and that the age of the patient does not determine the increase or decrease of this activity.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

2

Manometría esofágica en el paciente geriátrico

Naranjo Hernández, Daisy; García Freyre, Irma; Borbolla Busquets, Elvira; Companioni Acosta, Susana; Pascau Illas, Bárbara
1999-09-01

Resumen en español Se estudiaron 112 pacientes mayores de 65 años, con edad promedio de 71,6 años, 65 del sexo femenino y 47 del masculino. Se realizó estudio manométrico del esófago en todos los casos y se compararon los resultados con un grupo de 48 sujetos sanos, 38 del sexo masculino y 10 del femenino, con edad promedio de 28,7 años. El diagnóstico manométrico en el 61,6 % de los casos fue de trastorno motor inespecífico, en el 31,2 % de hernial hiatal, en el 26,7 % de acalasia (mas) esofágica y sólo el 5,3 % presentó un estudio manométrico normal. Se comprobó que la presión de reposo del esfínter esofágico superior, la intensidad y duración de la onda primaria en esófago superior, la longitud y porcentaje de relajación del esfínter esofágico inferior, fueron significativamente menores, para una p Resumen en inglés 112 patients over 65 with an average age of 71.6 years old were studied. 65 of them were females and 47 were males. A manometric study of the esophagus was conducted in all cases and the results were compared with those of a groups of 48 sound individuals, 38 males and 10 females with an average age of 28.7 years old. The manometric diagnosis in 61.6 % of the cases was unspecific motor disorder; in 31.2 %, hiatus hernia; in 26.7 %, esophageal achalasia; and only 5.3 % pre (mas) sented a normal manometric study. It was proved that the resting pressure of the upper esophageal sphincter, the intensity and duration of the primary wave in the upper esophagus, and the lenght and percentage of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter were significantly inferior, for a p

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

3

La respuesta emocional a la música: atribución de términos de la emoción a segmentos musicales/ The emotional response to music: attribution of emotions words to musical segments

Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Díaz, José Luis
2009-02-01

Resumen en español A pesar de que la música se considera habitualmente una fuente de estados afectivos variados diferentes e intensos, no existe una técnica en la ciencia que revele con suficiente fidelidad experimental los procesos y estados emocionales evocados por ella. Es así que el progreso en el entendimiento de la emoción musical depende críticamente del desarrollo de métodos razonablemente seguros para registrar y analizar este peculiar proceso afectivo. El presente estudio se (mas) realizó para desarrollar y probar una técnica diseñada para el estudio de las emociones humanas provocadas por la música. En particular se estudia si diferentes piezas musicales evocan un acuerdo significativo en la selección de términos de la emoción previamente sistematizados entre una población comparable de sujetos humanos. Dado que la música constituye un tipo de lenguaje acústico evolutiva y culturalmente seleccionado para la comunicación de estados emocionales, se puede suponer un acuerdo significativo entre evaluadores de una población homogénea en la atribución de términos de la emoción a segmentos musicales cuidadosamente seleccionados. El sistema de atribución elegido permitió obtener respuestas objetivas, derivadas de la introspección, a segmentos musicales y analizar los datos mediante un procesamiento estadístico apropiado de nivel de acuerdo entre observadores. Los voluntarios fueron 108 estudiantes con una edad promedio de 22 años, de ambos sexos, de cuatro escuelas de nivel superior en los Estados mexicanos de Querétaro y Guanajuato. Las sesiones duraron 90 minutos cada una y se realizaron en un salón adaptado en cada centro pedagógico. En las sesiones de audición y atribución se tocaron 10 obras musicales: cinco del repertorio clásico, cuatro del inventario popular propio y ajeno, así como la sonorización del espectro magnético de una aurora boreal, un fenómeno natural. Los fragmentos seleccionados, divididos en dos a cinco segmentos de 24seg de duración en promedio, se reprodujeron con diferente orden y en dos pasos consecutivos. Primero se tocó la sección completa para que el oyente expresara libremente sus reacciones por escrito. A continuación se tocaron los segmentos de la misma obra y el oyente escogió términos de la emoción que mejor identificaran su respuesta afectiva a cada uno de ellos a partir de un compendio adjunto. El formato de respuestas presentaba un arreglo donde el sujeto realizó la selección y atribución de los términos de la emoción que le evocaron los diferentes segmentos musicales al tiempo de escucharlos. Para esta tarea se proveyó a los sujetos de un esquema circular de términos de la emoción, anexo al formato, el cual se obtuvo a partir de una lista de 328 palabras en castellano que denominan emociones particulares. Los términos fueron agrupados finalmente en 28 conjuntos y 14 ejes de polaridades afectivas opuestas en un modelo circular del sistema afectivo, con un total de 168 términos. Para el análisis estadístico, las atribuciones de todos los sujetos participantes fueron transformadas a rangos y se aplicó la prueba no paramétrica de varianza bifactorial de Friedman para k muestras relacionadas como análisis de acuerdo entre observadores. Los datos se agruparon en las 28 categorías emocionales mencionadas y se probaron las diferencias entre los segmentos musicales. Éstas resultaron significativas en 24 de las 28 categorías emocionales para α = 0.05, con 33 grados de libertad (Fr ≥ 43.88). Para establecer en cuáles segmentos se ubicaban las diferencias, se aplicó la extensión de la prueba de Friedman para comparaciones de grupos con un control y se obtuvo un valor crítico de las diferencias, | R1 - Ru | ≥18.59, con lo cual fue posible graficar el nivel de significancia de todas las categorías emocionales para cada segmento musical. De esta forma se obtuvo el perfil emocional específico de cada fragmento de música para la población analizada. Los resultados muestran que en todos los segmentos musicales hay predominio significativo de una o más categorías de la emoción y que éstos son diferentes para la mayoría de los segmentos. Si, como es verosímil suponer, los términos de la emoción elegidos por los sujetos participantes correspondían efectivamente a estados emocionales particulares, entonces la mayoría de los segmentos musicales elegidos como estímulos parecen generar una respuesta emocional semejante y relativamente específica entre los escuchas, en función de las características de su composición. Esta técnica puede ser útil para generar y analizar estados emocionales específicos en situaciones experimentales y controladas de audición musical. Resumen en inglés Even though music is usually considered a source of intense, diverse, and specific affective states, at the present time there is not a standardized scientific procedure that reveals with reliable confidence the emotional processes and events evoked by music. The progress in understanding musical emotion crucially depends in the development of reasonable secure methods to record and analyze such a peculiar and universally-sought affective process. In 1936 Kate Hevner publ (mas) ished a pioneer study where she used a list of 66 adjectives commonly used to categorize musical compositions arranged in a circle of eight groups of similar emotions. The volunteers selected the terms that seemed appropriate to categorize their emotional experience while they listened to masterpieces by Debussy, Mendelssohn, Paganini, Tchaikovsky, and Wagner. The results were presented in histograms showing a different profile for each piece. Subsequent studies have advanced in the methods and techniques to assess the emotions produced by music but there are many still unresolved difficulties concerning the criteria to choose the musical pieces, the terms of emotion, the design of the experiment, the proper controls, and the relevant statistical tools to analyze the results. The present study was undertaken in order to test and advance an experimental technique designed to evaluate and study the human emotions evoked by music. Specifically, the study intends to prove if different musical excerpts evoke a significant agreement in the selection of previously organized emotion terms within a relatively homogeneous population of human subjects. Since music constitutes a form of acoustic language that has been selected and developed through millennia of human cultural evolution for the expression and communication of emotional states, it is supposed that there will be a significant agreement in the attribution of terms of emotion to musical segments among human evaluators belonging to a relatively homogeneous population. The attribution system allowed both to obtain objective responses derived from introspection and to analyze the data by means of an appropriate statistical processing of data obtained in groups of subjects submitted to carefully selected musical stimuli. Volunteer subjects were 108 college-level students of both sexes with a mean age of 22 years from schools and universities located in the central Mexico. The audition and attribution sessions lasted for 90 min and were conducted in a specially adapted classroom located in each institution. Four criteria were established for the selection of the musical excerpts: instrumental music, homogeneous melody and musical theme, clear and distinct affective tone, and samples of different cultures. The ten selected pieces were: 1. Mozart's piano concerto no. 1 7, K 453, third movement; 2. A sound of the magnetic spectra of an aurora borealis, a natural event; 3. Mussorgsky's Gnome, from Pictures at an Exhibition orchestrated by Ravel; 4. Andean folk music; 5. Tchaikovsky's Fifth Symphony, second movement; 6. >, heavy metal music by Metallica; 7. Japanese Usagi folk music played with koto and shyakuhachi; 8. Mahler's Fifth Symphony, second movement; 9. Taqsim Sigah, Arab folk music played with kamandja, and 1 0. Bach's Inventions in three parts for piano, BMW 797. The selected fragments and their replicas were divided in two to five musically homogeneous segments (mean segment duration: 24 seconds) and were played in different order in each occasion. The segments were played twice during the test. During the first audition, the complete piece was played in order for the subjects to become familiar with the composition and freely express their reaction in writing. During the second hearing, the same piece was played in the separate selected segments and the volunteers were asked to choose those emotion-referring terms that more accurately identified their music-evoked feelings from an adjunct chart obtained and arranged from an original list of 328 Spanish words designing particular emotions. The terms had been previously arranged in 28 sets of semantically related terms located in 14 bipolar axes of opposing affective polarity in a circumflex model of the affective system. The recorded attributions from all the subjects were captured and transformed into ranks. The non-parametric Friedman test of rank bifactorial variance for k related samples was selected for the statistical analysis of agreement. All the data were gathered in the 28 categories or sets of emotion obtained in the previous taxonomy of emotion terms and the difference among the musical segments was tested. The difference was significant for 24 of the 28 emotional categories for α=0.05 and 33 degrees of freedom (Fr ≥43.88). In order to establish in which segments were the main significant differences, the extension of the Friedman test for comparison of groups to a control was undertaken. Thus, after applying the appropriate formula, a critical value of the difference | R1 - Ru | was established at ≥18.59. In this way it was possible to plot the significance level of all 28 emotion categories for each music segment and thereby to obtain the emotion profile of each selected music fragment. The differences obtained for the musical pieces were established both for the significant response of individual emotion, groups of emotions, and the global profile of the response. In all the pieces used, one or more terms showed significance. Sometimes as many as seven terms appear predominant (Mahler, Mozart). In contrast other segments produce only one or two responses (aurora borealis, Arab music). In most musical segments there were null responses implying that there was an agreement concerning not only the emotions that were present, but also those that did not occur. Concerning the global response, there were several profiles recognizable among different pieces. The histogram is slanted to the left when positive and vigorous emotions are reported (Tchaikovsky, Bach). The predominance of emotions in the center-right sector corresponds to negative and quiet emotions (Arab music) or in the fourth sector of negative and agitated emotions (Mahler). Sometimes a > shaped profile was obtained when vigorous emotions predominated (Mahler, Metallica). A bell-shaped response was obtained when calm emotions were reported, both pleasant and unpleasant (Japanese music). There is also music that globally stimulates one of the four quadrants defined in the affective circle, such as pleasant (Mozart), unpleasant (Mussorgsky), exciting (Metallica) or relaxing emotions (Japanese music). The only segment that produced scattered responses in the four sectors of emotions was the aurora borealis. Very similar profiles were obtained with very different pieces, such as the identical responses to Mozart and Andean music. It is necessary to analyze the individual emotion terms to distinguish them. Several common characteristics can be detected in these two pieces, such as fast speed in tempo allegro, binary rhythm, counterpoint figures, and ascending melody, well known features in music composition. In contrast other segments evoked unpleasant responses (Mussorgsky), where fear, tension, doubt or pain was reported. The listener probably concedes a high value to a piece that evokes emotions that normally avoids in the context of a controlled artistic experience.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

4

Evaluation of performance in some ultrasonic procedures for non-invasive thermal estimation into hyperthermia phantoms

Bazán, I.; Ramos, Antonio; Vázquez Valero, Manuela; Vera, A.; Leija, Lorenzo
2008-07-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

5

El gesto instrumental y la voz cantada en la significación musical/ The Instrumental Gesture and the Singing Voice as part of the Musical Significance

Martinez Ulloa, Jorge
2009-06-01

Resumen en español El escrito está articulado en tres partes. En la primera se presenta una breve reflexión sobre las modalidades en que el cuerpo del músico actúa y condiciona el gesto sonoro, tanto en el cantante como en el instrumentista. En la segunda se hace uso de la filosofía de Merleau-Ponty para describir la relación cuerpo-mundo físico y sus implicancias en el conocer. Finalmente, en la tercera parte, se analizan las consecuencias de dicha filosofía para una mejor comprens (mas) ión de lo musical como fruto de cuerpos y dirigido a cuerpos, concluyendo que lo esencial de la música se juega en una fase prediscursiva, como indicalidad del emocionar corpóreo: un ex-cribir el cuerpo más allá de éste Resumen en inglés This article is divided into three parts. In the first part, a brief reflection is presented about the ways in which the musician body acts and at the same time conditions the sound gesture, both among singers and instrument players. In the second part, the author resorts to the philosophical thought of Merleau-Ponty in order to describe the relationship between body and physical world and the ways this relationship influences the process of knowing. Finally, in the third (mas) part, the consequences of this philosophy are analyzed in terms of its contribution to a better understanding of the musical process as something produced by bodies which in turn address itself to other bodies. The conclusion states that the essence of music unfolds itself not in the discourse itself but in a moment antedating the discourse, or apre-discoursive moment, as an indication of the bodily emotion, or a way of projecting the body, beyond the body itself

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

6

Comportamiento del desarrollo sicomotor en el menor de 1 año, en relación con el manejo y funcionamiento familiar

Robaina Suárez, Gloria; Rodríguez, Vania
2000-12-01

Resumen en español Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo del desarrollo sicomotor (DSM) hasta el año de edad, de una muestra de 51 recién nacidos sanos, relacionándolo con el manejo y funcionamiento familiar. El DSM se evaluó por la observación trimestral en la puericultura de las habilidades adquiridas y la aplicación al año de la prueba Brunet-Lezine. Para conocer el manejo familiar se utilizó una encuesta de preguntas cerradas, evaluando como adecuado o inadecuado, segú (mas) n parámetros previamente establecidos. Para el funcionamiento familiar aplicamos la prueba de Smilkstein, que mide el adgar familiar y expresa cualitativamente el funcionamiento como: funcional, moderadamente funcional y disfuncional. El 84,3 % de los niños presentó DSM normal al año, el 15,7 % retardo ligero a partir del tercer trimestre, siendo el lenguaje la esfera afectada; de ellos el 75 % vivía con familias disfuncionales y el 100 % con un manejo inadecuado Resumen en inglés A descriptive and prospective study of the psychomotor development (SMD) up to the first year of life in relation to family management and functioning was conducted in a sample of 51 sound newborn infants. The SMD was evaluated by the trimestral observation in child care of the adquired abilities and the application of the Brunet-Lezine test at one year of age. To know the family management it was used a survey of closed questions. Adequate and inadequate evaluations were (mas) given according to previously established parameters. In order to determine the family functioning we applied the Smilkstein´s test that measures the family Apgar and expresses qualitatively the functioning as: functional, moderately functional and dysfunctional. 84,3 % of the children had a normal SMD at one year of age, whereas 15,7% had mild retardation from the third trimester on, being speech the most affected sphere. Of them 75 % lived with dysfunctional families and 100 % with an inadequate management

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

7

Children's Gestures from 18 to 30 months

Andrén, Mats

This thesis concerns the nature of the gestures performed by five Swedish children. The children are followed from 18 to 30 months of age: an age range which is characterized by a rapid succession of developmental changes in children's abilities to communicate by means of both spoken language and ge...

DRIVER (Spanish)

8

Algunos aspectos relacionados con el embarazo a destiempo en adolescentes

Leyva Sorribe, Virginia; Berroa Bonne, Arelis; Negret Dutel, Delvis; García, Ángel Jorge
2002-08-01

Resumen en español Se realizó un estudio analítico observacional, de tipo caso-control, con 77 embarazadas y 231 no embarazadas, supuestamente sanas, pertenecientes al policlínico docente "José Martí" de la provincia de Santiago de Cuba, durante 1998, con el fin de determinar algunos factores de riesgo de vida familiar y personal, asociados con el embarazo a destiempo. Se halló que gran parte de las adolescentes habían recibido una educación inadecuada por parte de los padres, a dif (mas) erencia de los controles. La mayoría no utilizaban métodos anticonceptivos, aunque los conocían, y existía poca comunicación entre ellas y sus progenitoras en más de la mitad del total de los casos, así como falta de apoyo de su pareja en aproximadamente un tercio de las gestantes. Se aplicó la razón de productos cruzados y el intervalo de confianza, en tanto que para el análisis de la información obtenida se empleó el sistema Epinfo 5, mediante el subprograma Statcal. Se determinó el riesgo atribuible en expuesto porcentual para precisar el impacto que se lograría al actuar sobre los factores predisponentes. Resumen en inglés An analytical and observational case-control study was conducted among 77 pregnant women and 231 apparently sound non-gravid women that received attention at "José Martí" Teaching Polyclinic, in Santiago de Cuba, during 1998, aimed at determining some familiar and personal risk factors associated with early pregnancy. It was found that parents had given an inadequate information to a great number of the adolescents differently from the controls. Most of them did not use (mas) contraceptive methods, eventhough they knew them, and there was little communication between them and their mothers in more than half of the cases. It was also observed lack of support of their partners in approximately one third of the cases. The ratio of cross products and the confidence interval were applied, whereas for the analysis of the collected information, it was used the Epinfo 5 system by the Statcal subprogram. The attributable risk was determined in percentage exposed to know the impact that will be attained on acting on the predisposing factors.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)