Sample records for ENERGIA ALMACENADA (stored energy)
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1

VARIACIONES BIOQUÍMICAS E HISTÓLOGICAS ASOCIADAS AL EVENTO REPRODUCTIVO DE LA HEMBRA DE Octopus mimus (MOLLUSCA: CEPHALOPODA)/ HISTOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL VARIATIONS PRODUCED DURING THE REPRODUCTIVE EVENT OF FEMALE Octopus mimus (MOLLUSCA: CEPHALOPODA)

Zamora C, Mauricio; Olivares P, Alberto
2004-01-01

Resumen en español Octopus mimus presenta modalidad reproductiva tipo semélpara. Días antes de la puesta, las hembras dejan de alimentarse y su metabolismo se sustenta con la energía almacenada en el cuerpo, muriendo después del nacimiento de las paralarvas. Mediante estudio histológico y bioquímico se constataron cambios del tejido muscular, la glándula digestiva y del ovario, asociados al único evento reproductivo de la hembra. Después del desove, el ovario no tiene células germ (mas) inales que permitan el desarrollo de un nuevo ciclo reproductivo; la glándula digestiva y el músculo presentan atrofia de sus células, con un gran incremento del tejido conectivo en especial de las fibras colágenas. Las proteínas, glúcidos y lípidos de la glándula digestiva y el músculo decrecen en el período comprendido entre la puesta y la eclosión de los huevos. Las drásticas alteraciones bioquímicas y el deterioro estructural irreversible del músculo y glándula digestiva, disminuyen las expectativas de vida, relacionándose con los cambios degenerativos que se desarrollan en la hembra después de la reproducción Resumen en inglés Octopus mimus has a semelparous modality of reproduction. Days before laying, females stop eating and their metabolism is sustained with energy stored in the body, dying after the paralarvae are born. Through histologic and biochemical study changes of the muscular tissue, digestive gland and ovary, associated to the only reproductive event of the female were verified. After spawning, the ovary does not has germinal cells that permit the development of a new reproductive (mas) cycle. The digestive gland and the muscle present atrophy of their cells, with a great increase of the connective tissue mainly of the collagen fibers. The proteins, glucids and lipids of the digestive gland and the muscle decrease in the period comprised between the laying and the eclosion of the eggs. The drastic biochemical alterations and the irreversible structural deterioration of the muscle anddigestive gland reduce the life expectancy, in relationship to the degenerative changes that are developed in the female after the reproduction

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

2

ESTIMACIÓN DE LA VIDA ÚTIL DE UNA FÓRMULA DIETÉTICA EN FUNCIÓN DE LA DISMINUCIÓN DE LISINA DISPONIBLE/ PREDICTING A DIETETIC FORMULA SHELF LIFE USING THE AVAILABLE LYSINE DECREASE

TORRES, Alexia; GUERRA, Marisa; ROSQUETE, Yrelur
2001-08-01

Resumen en español En este trabajo se determinó la vida útil de una fórmula dietética para niños con síndrome diarréico, empleando la disminución de lisina disponible como indicador de deterioro. Muestras del producto fueron empacadas en envases de material multilaminado (papel-plástico-aluminio) y almacenadas a 25, 30 y 35°C, por dos meses. La lisina disponible fue medida con una frecuencia semanal y los datos fueron analizados para determinar la cinética de la reacción de dete (mas) rioro y su relación con la temperatura. Al finalizar el estudio, la cantidad de lisina disponible remanente fue de 38,5% (a 25°C); 15,3 % (a 30°C) y 14,1% (a 35°C). La cinética de la reacción de deterioro fue de orden uno, dependiente de la temperatura de almacenamiento, según la ecuación de interrelación de Arrhenius, con un valor de energía de activación de 15,17 kcal/mol, por lo que cae dentro del rango de las reacciones de oxidación de lípidos. De acuerdo a las características del producto [contenido de lípidos (17,5%), proteínas (17,3%) y una actividad de agua de 0,46], la disminución de lisina pudiera ser explicada por la interacción de productos de oxidación de lípidos con proteínas. Considerando un valor de 0,422g lis/100g producto como punto crítico, se predijo la vida útil del producto a temperaturas diferentes a las evaluadas. Condiciones de almacenamiento por debajo de 30°C, garantizan un mayor período de vida útil: hasta 9 meses a 15°C, 6 meses a 20°C y 3 meses a 28°C, en función del indicador de deterioro evaluado. Resumen en inglés This study estimated the shelf life of a dietary formula for children with diarrhea, using the decrease of available lysine as an indicator of deterioration. Product samples were packaged in multilaminal pouches (paper-plastic-foil) and stored at 25, 30 and 35°C, for two months. The available lysine was measured weekly and the reaction of deterioration kinetics and its relationship with temperature was calculated. At the end of the study, the remainder of available lysin (mas) e was of 38.5 (at 25°C), 15.3 (at 30°C) and 14.1% (at 35°C).The findings of the study indicated a first order reaction kinetics, dependent on the storage temperature based on the Arrhenius approach, with an activation energy of 15.17 kcal/mol, falling within the lipid oxidation range. According to the product characteristics [lipids content (17.5%), protein (17.3%) and water activity of 0.46], the decrease of available lysine could be explained by the interaction between lipid oxidation products and proteins. Based on a critical value of 0.422 g lysine/100g product, the product shelf life was predicted at temperatures different from those of experimental conditions. At temperatures below 30°C, the shelf life would be extended up to 9 months at 15°C, 6 months at 20°C and 3 months at 28°C, as a function of the chosen indicator.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

3

Variación de los índices gonádico, de rendimiento muscular y de la glándula digestiva de Spondylus princeps (Gray, 1825) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) en Isla Cedros y Punta Eugenia, México/ Variation of gonadal, muscle yield and digestive gland indexes of Spondylus princeps (Gray, 1825) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) at Isla Cedros and Punta Eugenia, Mexico

Villalejo-Fuerte, Marcial; Tripp-Quezada, Arturo; García-Domínguez, Federico
2005-07-01

Resumen en inglés The variation of the gonadal, muscular yield and digestive gland indexes was studied in Spondylus princeps from Punta Eugenia and Isla Cedros, Mexico. Specimens were collected from March to July 1997 and from August to December 2003. Gonadal indexes from 2% to 4% suggest reproductive inactivity from March to May and from October to December. The sustained increase in the index from May to July suggests gonadal maturity (10% of the soft tissues weight in July); the index d (mas) ecreased from 10% to 2% from July to October, corresponding with the spawning period. The muscular yield index showed high values (45-50%) from March to June and diminished sustainedly until August, when the lowest value (37%) was attained. Muscular yield index recovered during September and October with values of 45% staying around 40% during November and December. The muscular yield suggests that during the gonadal maturity, the energy stored in the abductor muscle is not used until the spawning season. The digestive gland index showed the highest value in March and decreased lightly until June, indicating that the energetic substances stored in the digestive gland sustain together with the external food, the gonadal development from July up to September when a fast decrease of the index occurs, suggesting that reserve substances in the digestive gland and in the muscle are used during the spawning period

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

4

Thermal stability of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. anthocyanins in solution and in solid state: effects of copigmentation and glass transition

Gradinaru, G.; Biliaderis, C. G.; Kallithraka, S.; Kefalas, P.; García-Viguera, Cristina
2003-11-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

5

The discovery channel at the Neutrino Factory: $\nu_\mu\to\nu_\tau$ pointing to sterile neutrinos

Donini, Andrea; Fuki, Ken-ichi; Lopez-Pavon, J.; Meloni, Davide; Yasuda, Osamu
2009-08-12

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

6

Suspended sediment fluxes and transport processes in the Gulf of Lions submarine canyons. The role of storms and dense water cascading

Palanques, Albert; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Puig, Pere; Fabrés, Joan; Guillén, Jorge; Calafat, Antoni; Canals, Miquel; Heussner, Serge; Bonnin, Jerôme
2006-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

9

Residuos leñosos de gran tamaño en un torrente de la Cordillera de Los Andes, Chile: su funcionalidad e importancia/ Study on large woody debris in a stream from the Andes Mountains: functionality and importance

Andreoli, Andrea; Carlig, Giovanni; Comiti, Francesco; Iroumé, Andrés
2007-01-01

Resumen en español Se registraron la cantidad, características e impacto morfológico de los residuos leñosos de gran tamaño (large woody debris o LWD) en el torrente Tres Arroyos, situado en la Cordillera de Los Andes, Chile, cuya cuenca alta está cubierta por bosques primarios de los géneros Araucaria y Nothofagus. Se examinaron los residuos leñosos de más de 10 centímetros de diámetro y 1 m de longitud, en un tramo de 1,5 km del cauce principal del torrente que presenta una morf (mas) ología general de step-pool/cascade. La cantidad de LWD en el cauce y sus márgenes inundables fue de 1.500 m³/ha, valor comparable a los registrados en cuencas con bosques antiguos en la costa noroeste de América del Norte. Casi dos tercios del volumen de LWD formaban acumulaciones de troncos y la mitad de ellos se encontraron en las márgenes inundables activas del torrente. El 83% del LWD presentaba señales de haber sido movilizado por el torrente, el 13% se asociaba a caídas naturales de árboles y el resto a aportes por deslizamientos y erosión de laderas. Se observaron diversos tipos de acumulaciones de troncos que alteraban la morfología del canal y cubrían las márgenes del cauce. Se estimó que las acumulaciones de LWD en el tramo estudiado disipan el 27% de la energía potencial total de la corriente de agua. Finalmente, se estimó en 2.000 m³ el volumen de sedimentos depositados en el cauce principal aguas arriba de cúmulos de LWD, correspondiendo aproximadamente al 150% del aporte anual total de sedimentos sólidos de la cuenca Resumen en inglés The study analyzed amounts, characteristics and morphological impact of large woody debris (LWD) in Tres Arroyos torrent of the Chilean Southern Andes draining an old-growth forested basin. All woody debris pieces greater than 10 cm in diameter and 1 m in length were surveyed along a 1.5 km-long stream section presenting a general step-pool/cascade morphology. The total amount of large woody debris within the fluvial corridor was on average 1,500 m³/ha, very high value c (mas) omparable only to data from old-growth forested basins in the Pacific Northwest of North America. Around two thirds of LWD volume were found in accumulations while half of the LWD elements were located on the active floodplain. As much as 83% of the LWD pieces showed signs of in-stream transport, 13% were directly associated to natural tree falls, and the remaining to landslides and bank erosion. Different types of log-jams were observed, some heavily altering channel morphology (log-steps and valley jams), others just lining the channel edges (bankfull bench jams). The percentage of log-steps over the total number of steps is around 22%, whereas the elevation loss due to LWD (log-steps and valley jams) was 27% the total potential energy. Finally, 2,000 m³ of sediments were estimated to be stored in the main channel behind LWD structures, corresponding to approximately 150% of the annual basin sediment yield

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

10
12

Nanocomposite hybrid molecular materials for application in solid-state electrochemical supercapacitors

Cuentas Gallegos, A. K.; Lira-Cantú, Monica; Casañ Pastor, Nieves; Gómez-Romero, P.
2005-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

13

Modelaje y simulación de una bateria de plomo ácido mediante fuentes dependientes de voltaje - corriente y bloques de funciones artméticas/ modeling and simulation of a lead-acid battery using controlled voltage and current sources and arithmetic blocks

Fernández, Herman; Martínez I, Abelardo; Guzmán A, Víctor; Giménez, María Isabel
2005-03-01

Resumen en español El presente trabajo trata sobre el modelaje y la simulación de una batería de plomo-ácido utilizando fuentes dependientes de voltaje y corriente, así como también, bloques aritméticos que forman parte de la biblioteca de las distintas herramientas computacionales orientadas al análisis de circuitos eléctricos y electrónicos. El objetivo de la investigación fue desarrollar un modelo representativo de la operación de las baterías de plomo-acido, basado en bloque (mas) s funcionales que permita entender el comportamiento de los procesos de carga y descarga tomando en consideración la capacidad de carga de un arreglo simple o en configuración serie. Partiendo de las ecuaciones fundamentales de la batería, se construyó un modelo que permite evaluar las fases de carga y descarga, tomando en consideración el estado de carga en que se encuentra la batería. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran el comportamiento preciso del modelo tanto cuando se simula una celda simple como cuando se simula un banco de baterías dispuestas en serie. El modelo propuesto es de gran utilidad cuando se requiere simular sistemas que aprovechan la energía solar, del viento o su combinación. Resumen en inglés The present work deals with the modeling and simulation of a lead-acid battery using controlled current and voltage sources and arithmetic blocks present in the libraries of the different computational tools dedicated to electric and electronic circuit analysis. The research aim was to develop a representative model of lead-acid battery operation, based on functional blocks that enable the understanding of the charge and discharge processes taking into account the load ca (mas) pacity of a simple array or a series configuration. Starting from the battery fundamental equations, a model able to evaluate the charge and discharge stages taking into account the initial stored load in the battery was developed. The results prove the model precise behavior both when simulating a single battery cell and when simulating a series connected battery bank. The proposed model is of great utility when it is required to simulate system using solar or wind energy, or a combination of both.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

14

Maternal nonthyroidal illness and fetal thyroid hormone status, as studied in the streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus rat model

Calvo, Rosa M.; Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella; Escobar del Rey, Francisco; Obregón, María Jesús
1997-03-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

16

Las Secuencias Depositacionales del Plioceno-Cuaternario en la Plataforma Submarina adyacente al Litoral del Este Bonaerense/ Pliocene-Quaternary depositional sequences of the continental shelf adjacent to eastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

Parker, Gerardo; Violante, Roberto A; Paterlini, C. Marcelo; Costa, Irundo P; Marcolini, Susana I; Cavallotto, José L
2008-12-01

Resumen en español Se describen las características sismoestratigráficas, sedimentológicas y morfológicas del sector de plataforma submarina adyacente al este bonaerense. El trabajo se basa en los resultados obtenidos durante el desarrollo de sucesivos proyectos destinados al estudio de la cubierta sedimentaria del Plioceno-Cuaternario y reciente, utilizando metodologías de relevamiento sísmico de reflexión de media a alta resolución y muestreos de sedimentos. El sector de plataform (mas) a estudiado constituye una típica plataforma submarina silicoclástica de margen pasivo, de gran extensión y suave relieve. Su configuración morfológica está caracterizada por relieves aterrazados con una cobertura sedimentaria de depósitos arenosos relicto a palimpsestos que resultaron del retrabajamiento de sistemas costeros de playas, barreras y lagunas litorales durante el retroceso de la línea de costa como consecuencia del ascenso del nivel del mar durante la transgresión postglacial, con una etapa final de remodelado parcial durante el descenso del nivel del mar del Holoceno superior. Se diferencian dos ámbitos, la plataforma interior ("Terraza Rioplatense", entre la línea de costa y los 30/40 m de profundidad) con geoformas ajustadas a la hidrodinámica actual, y la plataforma exterior (entre la isobata de 70 m y el borde exterior de la plataforma en transición al talud), con sedimentos relicto de poca movilidad; en ambas se hallan relieves pre-transgresivos labrados en depósitos marinos y continentales del Plio-Pleistoceno que afloran bajo la cubierta sedimentaria reciente. Un escalón abrupto de 30/40 m de desnivel separa ambas plataformas. La secuencia estratigráfica estudiada está constituida por seis Secuencias Depositacionales (SD 1 a SD 6 de techo a base) que representan paquetes sedimentarios separados por discordancias. La SD 6 constituye la base de la secuencia, y corresponde a depósitos marinos del Mioceno correlacionables con las unidades costeras conocida como "Paranense-Entrerriense-Chapadmalense". La SD 5 son depósitos marinos en transición a continentales equivalentes a la Fm Barranca de los Lobos del litoral marplatense y a la unidad conocida como "Fm Puelches Equivalente" del Plioceno. La SD 4 está caracterizada por sedimentos marinos correspondientes al denominado "Interensenadense" en el litoral bonaerense, de edad aproximada a los 2,41 Ma (Plioceno superior), y se reconocen en ella diversas sismofacies de ambientes marinos, costeros y continentales con una secuencia litológica granodecreciente hacia arriba. La SD 3, marina, tiene la particularidad de tener una distribución saltuaria, a diferencia de las restantes que se extienden de manera uniforme en toda la región, lo que demuestra la ocurrencia, con posterioridad a su depositación, de importantes procesos erosivos probablemente asociados a tectónica y/o glacioeustatismo. La SD 2 representa a los depósitos marinos-costeros formados durante el estadío isotópico 5e (120 ka), que en las llanuras costeras vecinas se lo conoce como "Belgranense", y está constituida por diversas facies entre las que se destacan barreras-lagunas litorales, playas y estuarios. La SD 1 es la cobertura superficial formada durante la transgresión postglacial en ambientes de barreras-lagunas costeras-estuarios. La secuencia integrada por las SD 5 a 1 representa a las transgresiones glacioeustáticas del Plioceno- Cuaternario, con diferentes grados de preservación en la plataforma y el Río de la Plata en virtud de variantes tectónicas y morfológicas. Existe la posibilidad de que no todas las transgresiones marinas ocurridas en la región hayan quedado preservadas en el registro geológico. Resumen en inglés The Argentina Continental Shelf (ACS) is one of the largest and smoothest silicoclastic shelves in the world, condition that resulted from its geotectonic setting in a passive margin adjacent to a continental region with very extended and low-lying coastal plains. As a consequence, Pliocene-Quaternary glacio-eustatic sea-level fluctuations have been very important in its modelling and sedimentary characteristics. The study area is located between 35 and 39º S, the wester (mas) n boundary is the coastline and the eastern boundary in around 55º W that includes the outer shelf border (Fig. 1). The research is based on middle to high-resolution seismic reflection surveys and bottom/ subbottom sampling (piston cores), carried out in the context of several projects that are part of the Framework Project "Reconocimiento Geológico Geofísico del Margen Continental". The information obtained during these projects, as well as the results coming from previous projects and bibliographic compilation, allowed to gather around 4.000 km of seismic lines, 1.200 bottom samples and 92 piston cores (Fig. 2). Morphology: The ACS shows two major features (Figs. 1 and 3): inner shelf (corresponds to Terrace I, Parker et al., 1997, 1999; Violante, 2005) and outer shelf (northern part of Terrace II, Parker et al., 1997; Violante, 2005). The inner shelf extends from the coastline (or the prodelta front in the de la Plata River outlet) to the 30/40 m isobath, and includes the "Rioplatense Terrace" (RT) which represents the surface that has been modelled during the postglacial transgression but not covered by the late Holocene coastal wedge that constitutes the coastal plains. Several lower-order features modelled by the postglacial transgressive and regressive events developed on the RT surface, as the de la Plata river delta, the linear shoals systems and the La Plata Bank (Fig. 1). On the other hand, relict features composed of semiconsolidated plio-pleistocene sediments as Punta Piedras-Alto Marítimo and Restinga de los Pescadores, are significant elements in the inner shelf morphology. The outer shelf is separated from the inner shelf by a high-gradient step between 40-80 m depth (outer border of RT), which becomes, south and southeast Mar del Plata, of lower relief with a rough surface cut by transverse channels and depressions. Further east from the 80 m contourline, the outer shelf can be subdivided in two sectors: north of Querandí lighthouse it is uniformly dipping towards the shelf border, whereas in the southern part it shows a western depression (90 m depth) closer to the outer border of RT, and a eastern shoal-like elevation (75/80 m depth) near the shelf-slope transition (Fig. 3). Sedimentology: The ACS is a silicoclastic shelf where sediment characteristics and distribution are the result of dynamic, oceanographic and climatic factors. The shelf surface is covered by a relict to palimpsestic terrigenous sandy mantle which is the remnant of reworking of the deposits that constituted ancient coastal environments (barriers, coastal lagoons, estuaries) during the coastline retreat that occurred as a result of the postglacial transgressive event as well as during the sediment redistribution during the late Holocene regressive event (Urien and Ewing, 1974; Parker and Violante, 1982; Parker et al., 1999; Violante and Parker, 2000, 2004). The sandy mantle constitutes in the inner shelf a "shoal retreat massif" (in the sense of Swift, 1976) partially reworked in linear shoals systems; outcrops of the underlying plio-pleistocene substratum - partially covered by a discontinuous sheet of pebbles composed of rock fragments and caliche, beach rocks (coquinas) and sand- are common in some parts of the inner shelf. On the other hand, the outer shelf is mainly characterized by outcrops of the same substratum with minor patches of post-transgressive relict sands with a shoal-like morphology (Fig. 4). Sediment dynamic: Coastal dynamic that influenced Holocene and recent sedimentation is the result of three main sediment transport pathways: a) from the south and southeast as a consequence of the dominant oceanic circulation, that brings the relict sands stored on the shelf surface towards the coastal system, b) the regional northwards littoral transport (coastal currents) parallel to the coastline, although local inversions in the general circulation (littoral cells) are evident in the geological record, as in the Mar Chiquita Lagoon area; this transport redistributes along the coast both the shelf sands and the products of coastal erosion, c) The southwards transport of fine (muddy) sediments from the de la Plata River. Stratigraphy: The Neogene stratigraphy was defined by the application of the seismic stratigraphic method following de concepts of Mitchum et al. (1977). Six Depositional Sequences (named SD 1 to 6 from top to bottom) bounded by major seismic reflectors identified by their seismic attributes (amplitude, frequency and continuity) were recognized (Figs. 4 and 5). SD 6 (base of the sequence): corresponds to marine deposits correlated with the Miocene-Pliocene sediments known as "Paranense-Entrerriense-Chapadmalense" in the adjacent coastal areas (Parker et al., 1994, 2005). SD 5: it has seismic and sedimentological characteristics that indicate marine facies at sea changing to nearshore and fluvial facies towards the coast, and is correlated with the upper Pliocene Barranca de los Lobos Fm as well as with the Puelches Equivalente Fm defined by Yrigoyen (1975) and Parker et al. (1994). SD 4: this unit is broadly extended on the shelf with diverse seismic and litho-facies of marine, nearshore, sublittoral, low-energy coastal and continental environments, with an upwards decreasing grain-size sequence; SD 4 is equivalent to the unit known as "Interensenadense" in the adjacent coastal plains and has an upper Pliocene (2.41 Ma) age. SD 3: it is also marine/littoral and has a unique characteristic given by its discontinuous distribution in the nearshore and coastal regions as well as in some places of the shelf (Figs. 4 and 6) as a consequence of deep post-depositional erosive processes probably produced by intensification of tectonic and/ or glacioisostatic adjustments. SD 2: this unit has again a broad regional distribution, and shows different facies that represent diverse nearshore, coastal and continental environments with the particular characteristic of having been deposited as extensive barriers-coastal lagoon systems (Parker et al., 1999; Violante, 2003); it is correlated with the unit known as "Belgranense" in the adjacent coastal areas, and corresponds to the isotopic stage 5e (120 ka). SD 1: represents the uppermost sedimentary sequence formed during the last postglacial transgressive event; it is constituted by a lower transgressive system tract with different environments such as barriers/lagoons systems and estuaries, and an upper highstand system tract with regressive coastal plains, deltas and a mantle of palimpsestic and relict sands formed by reworking of the previous transgressive deposits; in most of the inner shelf surface their deposits are adjusted to the present hydrodynamic conditions (Urien and Ewing, 1974; Parker et al., 1982). Conclusive remarks: The following conclusions can be highlighted: 1) Major geomorphological features are the inner and outer shelf, which correspond to two topographically and sedimentologically different terraces separated by a step. The upper terrace (inner shelf) is a significant feature in the region which is named "Rioplatense Terrace". 2) From the sedimentological point of view, the shelf is silicoclastic; surface deposits resulted from the postglacial transgressive-regressive event. The main difference between the inner and outer shelf is given by the predominance of palimpsestic deposits in the first one and relict deposits with outcrops of the underlying Pliocene-Pleistocene substratum in the second one. 3) The Neogene stratigraphy is defined by seismicstratigraphic units representing Depositional Sequences (SD), which have been characterized on the basis of their seismic and lithological aspects and correlated with geological units known in the adjacent coastal regions. In this way it was described an uppermost, postglacial unit, followed below by a sequence of three transgressiveregressive units equivalent to the "Pampean" (Plio-Pleistocene) deposits, then a underlying unit corresponding to the "Puelches" (upper Pliocene) sands and finally the basal unit correlated with the "Paranense-Entrerriense- Chapadmalense" (Miocene-Pliocene) sequence. 4) Each SD shows a vertical sequence grading from marine (in the base) to continental (in the top) deposits in an upward decreasing grain-size distribution, therefore representing an individual and complete transgressive-regressive event. 5) The different degree of preservation of the SD in the shelf and the de la Plata River not only indicates different tectonic-glacioisostatic behaviours between both regions, but also determines the possibility that other transgressive events than those preserved in the shelf could have occurred but later completely eroded without leaving any record of their deposition.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

17

Land-use effects on the distribution of soil organic carbon within particle-size fractions of volcanic soils in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (Mexico)

Covaleda, Sara; Gallardo, Juan F.; García-Oliva, F.; Kirchmann, H.; Prat, C.; Bravo, M.; Etchevers, Jorge D.
2011-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

18

Influencia del estado de consumibles y del precalentamiento en la susceptibilidad al agrietamiento inducido por hidrógeno en la soldadura de un acero para blindajes

Unfried S, Jimy; Torres L, Edwar; Giraldo, Jorge E; Bastidas O, Uriel
2007-12-01

Resumen en español Fue evaluada la susceptibilidad al agrietamiento inducido por hidrógeno (AIH) en soldaduras de un acero para blindajes bajo especificación MIL A46100 usando un ensayo de implante con geometría modificada, metal de aporte AWS E11018M y el proceso al arco eléctrico con electrodo revestido SMAW con baja entrada de energía. Las soldaduras estudiadas se produjeron con y sin aplicación de precalentamiento, y utilizando electrodos con y sin exposición a condiciones atmosf (mas) éricas. Se encontró que la susceptibilidad al AIH se incrementó bajo condiciones inapropiadas de almacenamiento y manejo de electrodos, mientras que el precalentamiento no tuvo incidencia relevante en el AIH. Resumen en inglés The susceptibility to hydrogen induced cracking (AIH) of welding joints in an armor steel specification MIL A46100 using an implant test with modified geometry, recovering electrodes AWS E11018M and SMAW process with low input energy was evaluated. The welded joints were produced with and without preheating and using welding electrodes with and without exposure to atmospheric conditions. The AIH resistance was severely impaired by improperly stored conditions of the welding electrodes. Preheating conditions did not preclude AIH.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

20

Hydrogen in alpha-iron: stress and diffusion

Sánchez, Javier; Fullea, José; Andrade, Carmen; Andrés Rodríguez, Pedro Luis de
2008-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

21

Hybrid organic–inorganic nanocomposite materials for application in solid state electrochemical supercapacitors

Gómez-Romero, P.; Chojak, Malgorzata; Cuentas Gallegos, A. K.; Asensio, Juan Antonio; Kulesza, Pawel J.; Casañ Pastor, Nieves; Lira-Cantú, Monica
2003-02-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

22

Evidencias sobre el poder de la intención/ Evidence about the power of intention.

Bonilla, Ernesto
2008-12-01

Resumen en español La intención se define como el pensamiento enfocado para realizar una acción determinada. Los pensamientos dirigidos a un fin pueden afectar a los objetos inanimados y prácticamente a toda la materia viva, desde los organismos unicelulares hasta los seres humanos. La emisión de partículas de luz (biofotones) parece ser el mecanismo mediante el cual una intención produce sus efectos. Todos los organismos vivientes emiten una corriente constante de fotones que son un (mas) medio para dirigir señales instantáneas no locales de una parte del cuerpo a otra y a otros seres. Los biofotones son almacenados y emitidos por el ADN del interior de la célula. Cuando el organismo está enfermo se producen cambios en la emisión de estos biofotones. La intención dirigida se manifiesta como una energía eléctrica y magnética, y produce un flujo ordenado de fotones. Nuestras intenciones parecen operar como si fueran frecuencias altamente coherentes capaces de cambiar la estructura molecular de la materia. Para que la intención sea efectiva es necesario escoger el momento apropiado. En efecto, los seres vivientes están armonizados unos con otros y también con la tierra y sus constantes cambios de energía magnética. Se ha demostrado que la energía del pensamiento también puede alterar el medio ambiente. La hipnosis, los estigmas y el efecto placebo también pueden ser considerados como tipos de intención, es decir, como instrucciones enviadas al cerebro durante un estado particular de la conciencia. Los casos de curación espontánea o curación a distancia de enfermedades graves representan instantes de una extrema intención que podemos utilizar para controlar a las enfermedades que amenazan nuestra vidas. Tanto la intención de sanación como la creencia del enfermo en la eficacia de las influencias curativas, promueven su curación. En conclusión, los estudios del pensamiento y de la conciencia están emergiendo como aspectos fundamentales y no como meros epifenómenos que están conduciendo rápidamente a un profundo cambio de paradigmas en la Biología y la Medicina. Resumen en inglés Intention is defined as a directed thought to perform a determined action. Thoughts targeted to an end can affect inanimate objects and practically all living things from unicelular organisms to human beings.The emission of light particles (biophotons) seems to be the mechanism through which an intention produces its effects. All living organisms emit a constant current of photons as a mean to direct instantaneous nonlocal signals from one part of the body to another and (mas) to the outside world. Biophotons are stored in the intracelular DNA. When the organism is sick changes in biophotons emissions are produced.Direct intention manifests itself as an electric and magnetic energy producing an ordered flux of photons. Our intentions seem to operate as highly coherent frequencies capable of changing the molecular structure of matter. For the intention to be effective it is necessary to choose the appropriate time. In fact, living beings are mutually synchronized and to the earth and its constant changes of magnetic energy. It has been shown that the energy of thought can also alter the environment. Hypnosis, stigmata phenomena and the placebo effect can also be considered as types of intention, as instructions to the brain during a particular state of consciousness. Cases of spontaneous cures or of remote healing of extremely ill patients represent instances of an exceedingly great intention to control diseases menacing our lives. The intention to heal as well as the beliefs of the sick person on the efficacy of the healing influences promote his healing. In conclusion, studies on thought and consciousness are emerging as fundamental aspects and not as mere epiphenomena that are rapidly leading to a profound change in the paradigms of Biology and Medicine.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Estudio numérico del efecto de la temperatura ambiental en la convección natural bidimensional en el almacenamiento de granos en silos cilíndricos/ Numerical study of the effect of the environmental temperature in the natural two-dimensional convection of heat in grain stored at cylindrical silos

Carrera-Rodríguez, M; Martínez-González, G. M.; Navarrete-Bolaños, J.L.; Botello-Álvarez, J.E.; Rico-Martínez, R.; Jiménez-Islas, H.
2009-04-01

Resumen en español Se realizó un estudio numérico de la dinámica del almacenamiento de granos en silos, partiendo de las ecuaciones de transporte de momentum y de energía para medios multifásicos. En este trabajo se analizó el efecto del calor de respiración, así como el efecto de tres tipos de condiciones de frontera, dos de ellas constantes (Caso I, θ =1 y Caso II, θ =0) y una dependiente del tiempo (Caso III, simulando el cambio de temperatura durante el ciclo diurno-no (mas) cturno), sobre los patrones de flujo, las isotermas y la transferencia de calor hacia el medio ambiente. Las ecuaciones gobernantes se resolvieron mediante discretización espacial por diferencias finitas de segundo orden e integración implícita para el tiempo. El sistema algebraico obtenido se resuelve mediante Relajación no Lineal. En la simulación, se utilizaron las propiedades para sorgo almacenado en un silo de 44 m³ de capacidad. La estabilidad en los Casos I y II, se alcanzó en un tiempo adimensional (Fo) de 0.3 (que equivale a un tiempo real de 3.01 hrs), mientras que en el Caso III fue de Fo = 20 (equivalente a 200.88 hrs) debido a la periodicidad de la condición de frontera. Para los casos II y III, las condiciones de frontera inducen la formación de flujo multicelular. Resumen en inglés A numerical study on the dynamics of grain storage in cylindrical silos was performed based on transport equations of momentum and energy for multiphase media. The purpose of this study is to analyze simultaneously the effect of the heat of respiration and three types of boundary conditions; two of them constants (Case I, θ =1 and Case II, θ =0) and a time-dependent (Case III, simulating the change of temperature along the day-night cycle) on the flow patterns, (mas) the isotherms and heat transfer to the environment. The governing equations were solved via spatial discretization using second order finite differences and time discretization using an implicit scheme. The set of algebraic equations generated was solved using Nonlinear Relaxation. In this simulation, the thermodynamic properties of sorghum grain stored in a silo of 44 m³ grain capacity were used. Stability for Case I and II, were reached in a dimensionless time (Fo) equals 0.3 (that is equivalent a real time of 3.01 h), while for Case III was for Fo = 20 (equivalent to 200.88 h) because the periodicity of the boundary condition. For cases II and III, the boundary conditions induce the formation of multicellular flow.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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EL ADIPOCITO COMO ÓRGANO ENDOCRINO: IMPLICACIONES FISIOPATOLÓGICAS Y TERAPÉUTICAS/ ADIPOSE TISSUE AS AN ENDOCRINE ORGAN: PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL AND THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS

PÉREZ MAYORGA, MARITZA
2007-07-01

Resumen en español El concepto de tejido adiposo como el sitio de almacenamiento del exceso de energía ha cambiado en la última década y en la actualidad éste se reconoce como un tejido con alta actividad metabólica y como un órgano endocrino importante, capaz de establecer comunicación con el resto del cuerpo mediante la síntesis y la liberación de moléculas activas llamadas adipoquinas, las cuales actúan localmente y a distancia por medio de efectos autocrinos, paracrinos y end (mas) ocrinos. También están implicadas en el control de la ingesta de alimentos, en el balance de energía, en el peso corporal, en la homeostasis de glucosa, en el metabolismo lipídico, en la angiogénesis, en la fibrinólisis, en los procesos pro y antinflamatorios, en el desarrollo sexual y en la reproducción. Todas estas sustancias tienen un papel clave en la patogénesis del síndrome metabólico, integrado por un grupo de factores de riesgo de origen metabólico que se acompañan a su vez de un riesgo aumentado de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y de enfermedades cardiovasculares, de prevalencia cada vez mayor en el mundo y considerados actualmente como una pandemia. Una mejor comprensión de la función endocrina del tejido adiposo y de su papel en la patogénesis de estas enfermedades conducirá al desarrollo de una terapéutica más racional para estos desórdenes. Este artículo pretende integrar el conocimiento acerca de la fisiología del tejido adiposo con su papel en las patologías asociadas y con las posibles opciones terapéuticas para su prevención y tratamiento. Resumen en inglés The concept of adipose tissue as the site where excess energy is stored have changed in the last decade, now, it is recognized as a highly active metabolic tissue and important endocrine organ able to communicate with the rest of body by synthesizing and releasing active molecules called "adipokines" which act locally and distally through autocrine, paracrine and endocrine effects and have been implicated in control of food intake, energy balance, body weight, glucose hom (mas) eostasis, lipid metabolism, angiogenesis, fibrinolysis, pro and anti inflamatory process, sexual development and reproduction. All theses substances, have a key role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, a group of risk factors of metabolic origin that are accompanied by incresed risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, which are becoming more and more prevalent worldwide, being considered now a pandemic. A better understanding of the endocrine function of adipose tissue and its role in the pathogenesis of these diseases will lead to a more rational therapy for these increasingly prevalent disorders. This article pretends to integrate the knowledge about the physiology of the adipose tissue, its role in obesity associated pathologies and the possible new approaches for their prevention and treatment.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Composición bioquímica del ostión Hyotissa hyotis (Linnaeus, 1758) durante La Niña 1998-1999 y El Niño 1997-1998 en el Golfo de California/ Biochemical composition of the oyster Hyotissa hyotis (Linnaeus, 1758) during La Niña 1998-1999 and El Niño 1997-1998 in the Gulf of California

Rodríguez-Astudillo, Sonia; Villalejo-Fuerte, Marcial; García-Domínguez, Federico; Guerrero-Caballero, Rafael; Ramírez-Sevilla, Rodolfo
2007-12-01

Resumen en inglés Changes in biochemical composition of adductor muscle, gonad, and digestive gland of Hyotissa hyotis, and their relationship to reproduction were studied during the events of La Niña (1998-1999) and El Niño (1997-1998). In the last event, adductor muscle was the main storage organ of protein and carbohydrates. Lipids were mainly stored in gonad and digestive gland. Although proteins were the highest concentrated substrate in the three organs studied, they were not utili (mas) zed in reproduction; therefore proteins accumulate in maturity and their highest values occur at spawning during August. Changes in carbohydrates concentration of adductor muscle suggest that this is the most utilized substrate during the reproductive cycle. When comparing the two events, El Niño and La Niña, a significant difference in concentration of protein and carbohydrates occurs in the last period. It is likely that environment conditions prevailing during this period enhance abundance of protein-rich food, especially in summer and autumn. With regards to the accumulated lipid concentration it is concluded that both events El Niño and La Niña did not affect it. In the two events, the highest gonad lipid concentration was noted during reproduction. As decreasing the adductor muscle carbohydrates, lipids of digestive gland and gonad are used up, thus furnishing the needed energy for the rest of the spawning season

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Aspects of the reproductive biology of the toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus (Schneider, 1801) (Pisces: Batrachoididae)

Palazón Fernández, Josè Luis; Sarasquete, M.ª Carmen; Arias García, Alberto Manuel
2001-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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A Portable Readout System for Microstrip Silicon Sensors (ALIBAVA)

Marco Hernández, Ricardo; Alibava Collaboration
2009-06-03

Digital.CSIC (Spain)