Sample records for CONFIGURACION CUADRADA (square configuration)
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1

Simulation and Modelling of Cathodic Protection Systems by the Finite Elements and the Boundary Elements Methods/ Simulación y Modelación de Sistemas de Protección Catódica por los Métodos Numéricos de Elementos Finitos y Elementos de Contorno

Durstewitz, C. Barrios; Almeraya-Calderón, F.; Jaquez, R. Núñez; Tiburcio, C. Gaona; Villafañe, A. Martínez
2005-01-01

Resumen en español En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de modelos matemáticos y simulación de sistemas de protección catódica aplicados a tuberías enterradas. La solución de las ecuaciones diferenciales parciales se obtiene mediante los métodos numéricos de elementos finitos y elementos de contorno. Todo esto con la finalidad de desarrollar un método cuantitativo de predicción de la distribución del potencial y corrientes en el medio y la superficie de la estructura a prote (mas) ger, cubriendo los siguientes aspectos: disminución de los efectos de corrosión debidos a la selección de materiales, configuración geométrica y diseño del sistema. Como problemas de verificación se utilizaron los dos ejemplos mas conocidos: el problema del tanque cuadrado, y el problema del recipiente cilíndrico con el par ánodo / cátodo circulares y concéntricos. Resumen en inglés The development of mathematical models and the simulation of cathodic protection systems applied to buried tubing are presented. The solution of partial differential equations is obtained by numerical methods like finite elements and boundary elements. The purpose is developing a quantitative method of potential distribution prediction on the surface of the buried structure, covering aspects like selection of materials, geometric configuration and design of the system. As (mas) verification problems were used the problem of the square tank, and the problem of the cylindrical container. Finally two cases of buried structures are presented.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

2

¿Violencia episódica o terrorismo íntimo? Una propuesta exploratoria para clasificar la violencia contra la mujer en las relaciones de pareja/ Episodic violence or intimate terrorism? An exploratory proposal to classify violence against women in the context of intimate couple relationships

Ramos Lira, Luciana; Saltijeral Méndez, María Teresa
2008-12-01

Resumen en español El presente trabajo es un ejercicio teórico y estadístico para construir una tipología de la violencia masculina hacia la mujer. Parte de una propuesta que plantea que en las relaciones heterosexuales ocurren dos tipos de violencia física. Uno de éstos puede denominarse violencia episódica, donde uno o ambos integrantes de la pareja realizan algún acto violento sin que esté presente el deseo de controlar o dominar al otro integrante. En el otro, definido como terr (mas) orismo íntimo, el hombre actúa con una clara intención de ejercer un control y dominio tanto violentos como no violentos sobre las conductas, pensamientos y emociones de la mujer. Los grupos construidos se analizan según algunas variables que previamente se ha considerado que se pueden asociar con esta forma de violencia, como las características demográficas, las características relacionadas con la participación económica y la distribución de las labores domésticas en las familias de las mujeres y las características específicas de la relación violenta, en particular el uso de alcohol por parte de la pareja. Método Se analizó una base de datos derivada de un estudio transversal y ex post facto realizado con una muestra de 345 mujeres que asistieron a atención médica de primera vez o subsecuente a una institución del primer nivel en el Distrito Federal. Para construir la tipología, se eligió a las mujeres que habían sufrido al menos una manifestación de violencia física por su pareja en los últimos 12 meses, y se realizó un análisis de escalamiento multidimensional a partir de cinco dimensiones de la violencia emocional. Con base en la clasificación de grupos, se realizaron análisis de varianza y de chi cuadrada con variables demográficas, y otras que la bibliografía ha reportado como relevantes. Resultados Un 30% de las mujeres había sufrido algún episodio de violencia física en el último año. Éstos se clasificaron de la siguiente manera: 1. con violencia física episódica, que incluye a aquellas que no reportaron amenazas, ni intimidación y devaluación (12.5% de la población total); 2. violencia física intimidatoria, que incluye mujeres que reportaron amenazas e intimidación y poca o ninguna devaluación (12.5% de la población total); y 3. terrorismo íntimo, referido a mujeres que sufrieron amenazas e intimidaciones muy frecuentes junto con una devaluación que va de > a > (5% de la población total). Este último grupo es el de más alto riesgo; las mujeres que lo integraron fueron de mayor edad que las de los otros grupos, al igual que sus parejas. Reportaron tener más hijos y más años de vivir con el maltratador, en promedio 18. Tres de cada cinco mujeres tenía un trabajo remunerado, en su mayoría de manera informal, y llevaban la responsabilidad económica del hogar, así como la carga de las actividades domésticas. Sus parejas tenían un consumo de alcohol problemático; de hecho, uno de cada tres se ponía agresivo al ingerirlo. Conclusiones No encontramos relaciones físicamente violentas libres de violencia emocional, ya que, aun cuando la violencia episódica ocurrió sin manifestaciones de amenazas, intimidación y devaluación, las mujeres sí reportaron comportamientos hostiles y expectativas abusivas de parte de sus parejas. Los resultados obtenidos en torno a las variables sociodemográficas, las relacionadas con la participación económica y con las actividades domésticas de las mujeres y sus familiares, y el consumo de alcohol, pueden utilizarse para elaborar un instrumento breve que permita la detección de mujeres en situación de alto riesgo de violencia de pareja. Además, permiten reflexionar en la necesidad de plantear políticas públicas estructurales para enfrentar este problema, como la creación de empleos dignos y bien remunerados para las mujeres. Destaca igualmente la importancia de contar con programas que aborden el consumo de alcohol y la violencia en los hombres, considerando ambos aspectos como ejes de la construcción de la masculinidad tradicional. Resumen en inglés Introduction The concern of this paper comes from a reflection on the phenomenon of violence against women in the context of intimate couple relationships. Even though studies dealing with the issue tend to focus on the presence of physical violence, it should not be forgotten that in the same relationships several types of emotional and sometimes sexual violence may co-exist. Violent men intentionally aim to create a threatening climate against women. To do so, they reso (mas) rt to devaluations, insults, threats, maltreatment, shouting, contempt, intolerance, humiliations, jealousy and accusations. Nevertheless, women are often unaware of many of them given the social tolerance towards overall abuse and the lack of institutional alternatives. There are, however, some difficulties to operationalize these behaviours. It is particularly difficult to measure the characteristic pattern followed by these relationships as this may involve very subtle forms of violence. Likewise, results obtained in the physical and psychological dimensions are usually kept as separate areas or they are presented at best in a mixed form to show the prevalences from the different surveys carried out. This article is a theoretical and statistical exercise aimed at constructing a typology of male violence against women. Its starting point is a proposal posing that in heterosexual relationships two types of violence are present. The first one may be called episodic violence, where one or both members of the couple carry out some violent act without the desire to control or dominate the other partner. In the other one, defined as intimate terrorism, the man acts out with the clear purpose of exerting both a violent and non-violent control and dominion over the woman's actions, thoughts, and emotions. Although it is certainly arguable, it might be interesting to analyze this classification for it is risky to suppose that there are couple relationships where a symmetry in the use of violence exists both on the part of men and women -that is, that women are as violent as men. It is risky because it distorts violence's gender nature by presupposing that the same behaviour may be exerted with the same physical and symbolic strength and that it will have similar consequences. However, we think it is worth taking it into account as a starting point for this analysis. To do so, a database derived from a study conducted among a sample of women attending general medical consultation was used. The main analysis axis was the indicator of having experienced a physically violent behaviour on the part of the partner during the last year. This was related to five emotional violence dimensions which represent different modalities as to their intentionality and impact. The groups thus formed were analyzed considering some variables which were previously regarded as associated to this form of violence, including demographic features, and some other features related to household income participation and the distribution of household keeping chores in the women's families. Specific features regarding the violent relationship, such as the motives behind the physical violence episodes and the role played by alcohol abuse on the part of the male partner in these episodes, were also considered. Method A database derived from a transversal ex post facto study conducted with a 345-women sample attending first-time or subsequent medical attention in a first level institution was analyzed. A structured questionnaire made up of different areas was applied. The following areas were included in this study: 1. Socio-demographic variables from each woman, her male partner and her family. 2. A violence severity scale containing 22 different types of physically violent behaviours from men against women, and 36 emotional violence types. A previous analysis of the latter showed five conceptually congruous dimensions: Devaluation, Threatening behaviours, Intimidation, Hostility, and Abusive expectations. 3. Features of both the relationship and the violent episodes. 4. Alcohol abuse on the part of the partner. To construct the typology, women who had experienced at least one physical violence attack by their partners during the last twelve months were classified, regardless of the frequency and severity of such behaviour. With this sub-sample, a multidimensional escalation analysis was performed with the five emotional violence dimensions reported and these were considered as >. Decisions were then taken as to the configuration obtained and the women were classified in three groups considering both the presence and severity of the physical violence experienced and the frequency of the different forms of emotional violence. Based on these groups classification, variance and chi square analysis were carried out with the variables selected to observe whether these effectively differentiated the women from each group. Results The resulting emotional violence dimensions allowed us to obtain a typology of the sub-sample of women who had experienced physical violence (30% of the total). With this, three groups were formed: 1. episodic physical violence, including women who did not report any threats nor intimidation or devaluation (12.5%); 2. intimidating physical violence, including women who reported threats and intimidation and some or no devaluation (12.5%), and 3. intimate terrorism, which refers to women who suffered very frequent threats and intimidations together with occasional to frequent devaluations (5%). The latter is the highest risk group. Women belonging to this group were older (35 years) than those from the other two groups and so were their partners (40 years). They reported having more children and having lived longer with the abusing partner. Three out of each five had a paid job, mainly informal, and took charge of the money income responsibility of their households. Male partners were the main income providers only in 40% of the instances. Role genders in these families were very traditional as the male partners seldom helped with household keeping cores. Male partners had alcohol abuse-related problems and, in fact, one out of each three got aggressive when he had had any alcohol. The main reasons behind physical violence were male drunkenness, jealousy, and women protecting their offspring. At the other end are the women we classified in the episodic violence group. These were the youngest in the study even when compared to non-abused and intimidating violence victims. These women and their couple's household income participation, and the family members' participation in household keeping cores were similar to those in the no violence group. Their partners had also used alcohol in a comparable amount to that of the intimidating violence group. The main reasons underlying physical violence were male anger and male jealousy, and drunkenness to a lesser degree. Conclusions A considerable amount of women, nearly one out of each three, had experienced some form of physical violence in their couple relationship during the last year, and one out of each five had suffered violence in an abusive context of threats, intimidation and devaluation. Given this, it is important to focus on any type of physical violence as a part of a primary preventive perspective.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

4

Two-neutron interferometry as a probe of the nuclear halo

Marqués, F. M.; Labiche, M.; Orr, N. A.; Angélique, J. C.; Axelsson, L.; Benoit, B.; Bergmann, U. C.; García Borge, María José; Catford, W. N.; Chappell, S. P. G.; Clarke, N. M.; Costa, G.; Curtis, N.; D’Arrigo, A.; Oliveira Santos, F. de; Góes Brennand, E. de; Dorvaux, O.; Freer, M.; Fulton, B. R.; Giardina, G.; Gregori, C.; Grévy, S.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Hanappe, F.; Heusch, B.; Jonson, B.; Le Brun, C.; Leenhardt, S.; Lewitowicz, M.; López, M. J.; Markenroth, K.; Motta, M.; Mueller, A. C.; Nilsson, T.; Ninane, A.; Nyman, G.; Piqueras, I.; Riisager, K.; Saint-Laurent, M. G.; Sarazin, F.; Singer, S. M.; Sorlin, O.; Stuttgé, L.
2000-03-16

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

7

EVALUACIÓN EXPERIMENTAL DE CAPACIDAD MIMO DE ARREGLOS DE ANTENAS PIFA COMPACTOS EN BANDA DE 2.45 GHz/ EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF MIMO CHANNEL CAPACITY FOR COMPACT ARRAYS OF PIFA ANTENNAS AT 2.45 GHz BAND

Carrasco E, Héctor
2007-12-01

Resumen en español En este trabajo se presentan resultados experimentales de medición de canal y evaluación de capacidad MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) de arrays de antenas PIFA (Planar Inverted "F" Antenna) compactos en la banda de frecuencia de 2.45 GHz, en entornos interiores ricos en multitrayecto. Se evalúan dos configuraciones básicas de arrays, Lineal y Cuadrada de cuatro antenas PIFA, cuyas características de bajo perfil y grados de libertad de construcción y configurac (mas) ión constituyen ventajas comparativas para aplicaciones con terminales compactos potables. Las mediciones de la matriz de canal MIMO se hacen utilizando un VNA (Vector Network Analyzer) controlado vía estándar GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus). La capacidad MIMO se evalúa estadísticamente para un gran número de medidas del canal, en espacio y frecuencia, con separación de antenas en cada array de 0,1 a 0,8 longitudes de onda, con el objetivo principal de estudiar el efecto del acoplamiento mutuo en la capacidad MIMO. Los resultados de capacidad medida muestran que las configuraciones propuestas más eficientes pueden operar como mínimo hasta separaciones de antenas en el rango de 0,3 a 0,4 longitudes de onda, sin producir gran degradación de capacidad debido al acoplamiento y bloqueo de señal. Este resultado implica separaciones cercanas a 4 cm y, en consecuencia, arrays significativamente compactos Resumen en inglés This paper presents experimental results of indoor MIMO wireless channel and channel capacity evaluation for compact PIFA (Planar Inverted "F" Antenna) antenna arrays at the 2.45 GHz frequency band. Linear and square array configurations are evaluated using PIFA antenna elements because of its advantages of low profile and flexible configuration design for compact and portable mobile terminals. Measurements are performed using a VNA with GPIB standard for automatic data a (mas) cquisition. MIMO channel capacity results are calculated from a large amount of data combining uncorrelated space and frequency measurements, obtaining results that are statistically representative. Antenna array size from 0.1 to 0.8 wavelengths are tested to evaluate the effect of mutual coupling. Results show that the most efficient configurations can provide high capacity for array size as small as 0.3 to 0.4 wavelengths, which is a significant compact array size for portable wireless terminals (about 4 centimeters for the tested frequency

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

8

Crystal structure determination of 1-pentanol from low-temperature powder diffraction data by Patterson search methods

Ramírez Cardona, M.; Ventolà, L.; Calvet, T.; Cuevas Diarte, M. A.; Rius, Jordi; Amigó, J. M.; Reventós, M. M.
2005-12-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

9

Comportamiento periódico en sistemas oscilatorios de una y dos dimensiones

Pérez-Huerta, J.S.; Meneses-Fabián, C.; Rodríguez-Zurita, G.
2009-06-01

Resumen en español En este trabajo se analiza el comportamiento periódico de sistemas mecánicos bien conocidos de una y dos dimensiones, como lo es la cuerda homogénea, la membrana cuadrada y la membrana circular. Bajo una configuración particular inicial de la posición y velocidad del sistema se estudia la evolución en el tiempo de la superposición de modos normales de oscilación que están presentes según los coeficientes correspondientes (de Fourier o de Bessel-Fourier). De la r (mas) elación entre las diferentes frecuencias temporales de los modos normales presentes, se decide si el movimiento mecánico será periódico o no. Se muestran resultados numéricos de la evolución temporal de los sistemas, verificando si existe periodicidad en el movimiento compuesto. Resumen en inglés In this work, we study the temporal periodic behavior of well-known one and two-dimensional mechanical systems as the vibrating homogenous string, vibrating square membrane and vibrating circular membrane. When an initial configuration of position and velocity of the system is imposed, the temporal evolution of the superposition of the natural modes of vibration is analyzed according to the non-zero Fourier or Bessel-Fourier coefficients. The relations between the tempora (mas) l frequencies of the normal modes are used to verify the periodicity of the mechanical movement. Numerical results show the temporal evolution of the systems and the periodicity or non-periodicity of the composed movement is verified.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)