Sample records for HOLLIN (soot)
from WorldWideScience.org

Sample records 1 - 15 shown.



1

Diseño y construcción de un prototipo controlado para carburización gaseosa de aceros utilizando alcoholes/ Designing and constructing a controlled prototype for steel gaseous carburisation using alcohols

Obando B, Johnny F.; Castro P., Álvaro; Trujillo, Carlos Alexander
2006-04-01

Resumen en español En esta investigación se realizó el diseño, construcción y prueba de un equipo a escala de laboratorio para tratamientos térmicos con atmósfera controlada para el estudio de la carburización gaseosa de aceros con alcoholes. El equipo posee las siguientes características: producción controlada de una atmósfera gaseosa compuesta hasta por tres gases y dos líquidos volátiles, una zona de reacción isotérmica, inerte y hermética, y una zona de análisis de gases (mas) que retiene sólidos y líquidos condensables y que cuenta con sensores de presión y de dióxido de carbono. Se hicieron ocho ensayos con el alcohol metílico, etílico, n-propílico, isopropílico y tertbutanol, encontrándose que el alcohol metílico carburiza y produce una baja cantidad de hollín pero profundiza poco en la pieza, el etanol descarburiza y forma grandes cantidades de hollín, el n-propanol, isopropanol y el tertbutanol proveen buenos potenciales de carbono y profundidades de capa con una gran formación de hollín y alquitrán, siendo en orden ascendente en producción de hollín y alquitrán el n-propanol, el tertbutanol y el isopropanol. Resumen en inglés This article deals with designing, constructing and testing a laboratory scale apparatus for heat treatment with controlled atmosphere. The equipment was used for studying steel carburisation with alcohols. The equipment has an area for the controlled production of a gas atmosphere composed by up to 3 gases and 2 volatile liquids, an inert and hermetic isothermal reaction area and a gas analysis area which retains solids and condensable liquids. The equipment was provided (mas) with pressure and carbon dioxide concentration sensors. Eight experiments were carried out with methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol and tertbutanol as carbon source. The results showed that methanol caused carburisation but layer depth was small and produced a low quantity of soot, ethanol caused decarburisation and formed large quantities of soot, n-propanol, isopropanol and the tertbutanol provided good carbon potential and layers having good depth with good soot and tar production. Soot and tar production followed this order: n-propanol

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

2

Bases del manejo clínico de la intoxicación por humo de incendios «Docohumo Madrid 2010»/ Basis for the clinical management of fire smoke poisoning "Docohumo Madrid 2010"

Dueñas-Laita, A.; Burillo Putze, G.; Alonso, J.R.; Bajo, A.; Climent, B.; Corral, E.; Felices, F.; Ferrer, A.; Hernández Frutos, M.P.; Nogué, S.; Puiguriguer, J.
2010-12-01

Resumen en español La intoxicación por humo es la principal causa de morbimortalidad en los incendios. El humo es una mezcla de partículas carbonáceas suspendidas en aire caliente y gases tóxicos. De todos ellos, el monóxido carbono (CO) y fundamentalmente el ácido cianhídrico (CNH) son los que van a provocar la anoxia tisular. Las manifestaciones clínicas de la intoxicación por humo son variables. Algunas de las manifestaciones potenciales podrían ser: irritación ocular, dolor d (mas) e garganta, estridor laríngeo, disfagia, esputo carbonáceo, tos, disnea, laringoespasmo, broncoespasmo, síndrome coronario, coma, hipoxemia, acidosis láctica, cianosis y muerte. En la evaluación de estos enfermos la presencia de hollín en nariz, boca o esputo sugiere intoxicación grave. Niveles de lactato superiores a 10mmol/l indican cifras de cianuro mayores de 40micromol/l. La pulsicooximetría ha supuesto un avance importante para el diagnóstico, valoración y seguimiento de estos pacientes. En el tratamiento será indispensable valorar la necesidad de una intubación temprana. La administración de oxígeno al 100% será esencial. Como antídoto para el cianuro, el de primera elección es la hidroxicobalamina. Su administración ha de ser precoz. Los criterios de administración son: paciente que ha inhalado humo (restos de hollín en boca, faringe o esputo) y que tenga alteraciones neurológicas (confusión, coma, agitación, convulsiones) y además presenta una de las siguiente circunstancias: bradipnea, parada respiratoria, parada cardiorrespiratoria, shock, hipotensión, láctato >8mmol/l o acidosis láctica. Logicamente el resto del manejo será convencional en función de síntomas o complicaciones. Resumen en inglés Poisoning by smoke is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in fires. Smoke is a mixture of carbonaceous particles suspended in hot air and toxic gases. Of these, carbon monoxide (CO) and primarily hydrocyanic acid (CNH), are those that provoke tissue anoxia. The clinical manifestations of smoke poisoning are variables. Some of the potential manifestations could be: eye irritation, sore throat, laryngeal stridor, dysphagia, carbonaceous sputum, cough, dyspnea, laryngo (mas) spasm, bronchospasm, coronary syndrome, coma, hypoxemia, lactic acidosis, cyanosis and death. In the assessment of these patients the presence of soot in the nose, mouth or sputum suggests serious poisoning. Lactate levels higher than 10mmol/L indicates levels of cyanide major than 40micromole/L. The pulse co-oximetry has assumed an important step forward for the diagnosis, appraisal and monitoring of these patients. In the treatment it will be essential to assess the need of an early intubation. The administration of oxygen to the 100% will be essential. As an antidote to the cyanide, the first-choice is the hydroxocobalamin. Its administration has to be early. Its administration criteria are: patient who has inhaled smoke (remnants of soot in the mouth, pharynx or sputum) and has neurological disorder (confusion, coma, agitation, seizures) and also presents one of the following circumstances: bradypnea, respiratory arrest, cardiorespiratory arrest, shock, hypotension, lactate >8mmol/L or lactic acidosis. Logically, the rest of the management will be conventional depending on symptoms or complications.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

3

Asociación entre manifestaciones respiratorias atópicas y contaminantes primarios de la atmósfera

Álvarez Sintes, Roberto; Álvarez Sintes, Rogelio; Álvarez Castro, Manuel Rogelio; Toledo Vila, Herio
1997-06-01

Resumen en español Se realizó un estudio prospectivo en 94 pacientes asmáticos atendidos en el consultorio del médico de la familia No. 43 perteneciente al Policlínico Docente "Antonio Maceo" del municipio Cerro de Ciudad de La Habana. Durante un año (12 meses consecutivos) relacionamos las eventualidades diarias de su estado de salud con los siguientes contaminantes primarios de la atmósfera: dióxido de nitrógeno, dióxido de azufre y hollín. Las muestras fueron analizadas en el L (mas) aboratorio de Higiene del Aire del Instituto Nacional de Higiene y Epidemiología del Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba. El análisis estadístico se realizó utilizando el entrecruzamiento de variables, regresión múltiple, el método de paso a paso del paquete estadístico SPSS/PC Plus. Se realizó la matriz de correlación lineal paramétrica. Se obtuvo una correlación directa significativa entre la coriza, la tos, las crisis de asma y los contaminantes primarios de la atmósfera. Resumen en inglés A prospective study of 94 asthmatic patients receiving attention at the family physician's office No. 43 from the "Antonio Maceo" Teaching Polyclinic in Cerro municipality, Havana City, was conducted. During a year (12 months in a row) we related their daily health status to the following primary air pollutants: nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and soot. The samples were analyzed at the Air Hygiene Laboratory of the National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Minist (mas) ry of Public Health. The statistical analysis was made by using the intercrossing of variables, the multiple regression, and the step by step method of the SPSS/PC Plus statistical package. The parametric lineal correlation matrix was also calculated. There was a significant direct correlation among coryza, cough, asthma crises, and the primary air pollutants.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

4

Detección del hongo defoliador Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii en plantaciones de Pseudotsuga menziesii de Valdivia, Chile/ Detection of the needle cast fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii in plantations of Pseudotsuga menziesii of Valdivia, Chile

Osorio O, Moisés
2007-01-01

Resumen en español Se reportó una situación de anormalidad en plantaciones de pino oregón (Pseudotsuga menziesii) en los alrededores de Valdivia, Chile, lo que motivó la realización de una prospección sanitaria. Se analizaron rodales de pino oregón de 2 a 34 años de edad y también plantas de vivero. Se constató que en árboles de todas estas edades el follaje mostraba síntomas variables que iban desde el color verde normal, hasta el amarillo-pardo. Mediante una lupa se observaron (mas) en el envés de las acículas numerosas estructuras globosas, muy pequeñas, de color negro, alineadas a lo largo de las bandas estomáticas, las que en conjunto daban un aspecto negruzco o de hollín. Estas estructuras se encontraban en acículas de árboles de todas las edades prospectadas y de toda la gama sintomatológica manifestada en ellos. En los casos más extremos, la copa de los árboles presentaba defoliación, permaneciendo sólo las acículas del último período vegetativo. Los análisis microscópicos permitieron determinar que tales estructuras correspondían a ascocarpos (pseudotecios) del hongo Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, reconocido como patógeno foliar del pino oregón. Se reseña el significado de la presencia de este agente en otras regiones del mundo y se propone para Chile el inicio de estudios multidisciplinarios para abordar el problema Resumen en inglés A situation of abnormality in plantations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in the environs of Valdivia, Chile, was reported, which motivated a sanitary prospection. Stands of Douglas-fir of 2 to 34 years old and seedlings of a nursery were analyzed. It was stated that in trees of all these ages the foliage showed variable symptoms, from the normal green colour, until the brown yellow. By means of a magnifying glass, numerous very small spherical structures of black (mas) colour on the underside of infected needles were observed, aligned throughout the stomatics bands, which altogether gave a blackish aspect or of soot. These structures were in needles of trees of all the prospected ages and all showed symptomatological range in them. In the most extreme cases, the crown of the trees presented defoliations, and only needles of the last vegetative period were present. The microscopic analyses allowed to determine that the structures corresponded to ascocarps (pseudothecia) of the Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii fungus, recognized as pathogenic foliar of the Douglas-fir. These meaning of the presence of this agent in the other regions of the world is reviewed and beginning of mutidisciplinary studies set out for Chile to approach the problem is proposed

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

5

Programa de Protección Ambiental y Bioseguridad en el Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente/ Environmental protection and biosecurity program at the National Institute of Psichiatry Ramón de la Fuente

Nieto, Itzchel; Murillo, Susana; Rojo, Maricela; Asai, Miguel
2008-04-01

Resumen en español A partir de 1998, en el Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente (INPRF) se iniciaron las actividades del Programa de Protección Ambiental y Civil (PPAyC). Sus objetivos son dar cumplimiento a los requisitos legales, prevenir riesgos, generar estrategias de atención a emergencias, capacitar a la población interna y mejorar el uso y aprovechamiento de los recursos institucionales. El propósito del presente trabajo es presentar los resultados obtenidos des (mas) pués de nueve años de trabajo del PPAyC en las áreas de manejo de residuos biológico-infecciosos, ahorro de energía eléctrica, uso y optimización de agua potable, control de emisiones a la atmósfera de los equipos fijos de combustión, seguridad radiológica y simulacros de emergencia. Residuos peligrosos biológico-infecciosos (RPBI). Con el objeto de reducir riesgos y prevenir accidentes, en el INPRF se implementó un procedimiento operativo para el manejo de los residuos peligrosos biológico-infecciosos en todas las áreas generadoras. Los resultados de las estrategias aplicadas muestran que la cantidad de los residuos y sus costos de manejo han disminuido gradualmente y se han observado mejores prácticas de manejo de residuos por parte de los trabajadores involucrados, con la consecuente reducción de riesgos. Ahorro de energía. Ante la necesidad de optimizar el uso de la energía, disminuir costos y crear conciencia entre la población, se implementó en todo el país el programa de ahorro de energía. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que, a partir de la implementación de las estrategias de ahorro en el INPRF, se obtuvo una reducción en el consumo de energía de 9.6% anual acumulado entre 2004 y 2005. Uso y aprovechamiento de agua potable. A partir de 2003, en el INPRF se implementaron medidas destinadas a disminuir el consumo per capita de agua potable que se recibe por la red municipal y optimizar su uso en las instalaciones. Como resultado se observó una disminución gradual en el uso de agua potable, de tal manera que, de los 170 litros/persona que se utilizaban en 2003, en 2006 únicamente se utilizaron 98 litros/persona. Seguridad radiológica. El programa de seguridad radiológica en el INPRF se inició con el objeto de minimizar los riesgos y efectos adversos que pudieran generar los materiales radiactivos en la salud del personal expuesto ocupacionalmente (POE), prevenir accidentes y cumplir con la normatividad. Como resultado de estas acciones, ningún POE ha excedido el máximo valor de dosis total acumulada (DTA) de radiaciones ionizantes permitido por la Comisión Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardas (CNSNS) para cuerpo total. Por otro lado, a la fecha no se han registrado accidentes o contaminación con materiales o residuos radiactivos. Simulacros. En el INPRF se implementó un programa de protección civil, cuya labor principal fue la de capacitar periódicamente a los trabajadores para responder ante situaciones de emergencia. Como resultado de los simulacros de sismo que se han realizado (40 parciales y siete generales), se han reducido gradualmente los tiempos de desalojo de los inmuebles y la detección oportuna y sistemática de elementos de seguridad que requieren ser reparados o instalados. Emisiones a la atmósfera. En cumplimiento con la normatividad vigente en la Ciudad de México, en el INPRF se elaboró el programa de mantenimiento anual preventivo y correctivo de las dos calderas que dotan de agua caliente a la institución. Como resultado, se detectó la necesidad de sustituir los equipos por otros que utilizaran tecnología más limpia. Esto favoreció el cumplimiento de los límites máximos permitidos para emisiones gaseosas contaminantes y los costos de mantenimiento se redujeron. Discusión La implementación de diversas estrategias en materia de protección ambiental y civil y la capacitación reducen los riesgos del personal y protegen los bienes inmuebles y el entorno de la ciudad que habitamos. Resumen en inglés Since the beginning, mankind has been subjected to various natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, droughts and wildfires. Therefore, societies have to organize themselves in order to cope with nature, provide support to each other and to protect the most vulnerable individuals and their properties. Depending on their social organization, some countries have developed their response strategies in the field of civil protection faster than others. After S (mas) eptember 19th, 1985, when an earthquake of Richter magnitude of 8.1 affected Mexico City, the Mexican government decided to establish the guidelines of the National Civil Protection System (SINAPROC). After a few years, the Environmental Protection and Ecological Equilibrium Law was published. This environmental protection regulation is specific and is directed to minimize the negative impact over the environment that could be generated through industrial activities, as well as from research centers, hospitals, and others institutions. To ensure full compliance with the Mexican regulations, in 1998 the Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente (INPRF) initiated the Environmental and Civil Protection Program (ECPP). The aim of this program is to meet the legal and operational requirements applicable to an institution which has biomedical research, administration and hospitalization areas. In addition, the ECPP is in charge of giving workers training and generating specific strategies for environmental management in all activities that take place at the Institute. By establishing compliance guidelines to meet the government regulations on environmental and civil protection, the INPRF would develop strategies for minimizing risks, as well as staff training to enhance the use of institutional resources and reduce the response time to deal with emergencies. Objective Since its foundation, the environmental and civil protection program at the INPRF has had two basic objectives: 1. to attend the legal and operative requirements in a third level institution conformed by hospitalization, teaching, research and administrative areas, and 2. to offer continuous training to the internal population of a hospital in order to minimize work risks, to make an optimum use of the institutional resources and to reduce the response time of the workers in emergency situations. To develop and implement such an environmental and civil protection program, the following areas have been considered: Biohazardous wastes, saving electricity, use and optimization of drinking water, control of air emissions from stationary combustion equipment, radiation safety and emergency response procedures. The purpose of this work is to show the results achieved by ECPP after nine years since its inception. Results Biohazardous wastes (BW), by definition, are those materials generated during medical care which contain biological agents that may cause adverse effects to human health and the environment. BW are generated frequently in biomedical research areas, clinical laboratories and hospitals. In order to minimize risks and prevent accidents, INPRF implemented since 1997 an operating procedure for handling biohazardous wastes in all generating areas. Some of those strategies are directed to training medical personnel (physicians, nurses and clinical laboratory technicians) about the identification and classification of biohazardous wastes. Moreover, we have designed and distributed different kinds of written ads in order to help people to recognize and separate wastes correctly. Besides the latter actions, the INPRF hired a registered and certificated company which provides the proper recollection, treatment and final disposal of biological wastes, according to current legal ordinances. As a result of those strategies in the handling of biohazardous wastes in the Institution, the amount of wastes and their disposal costs have gradually decreased. Through staff training, personnel have learned to do a proper segregation of wastes, reducing the quantities of BW and therefore reducing risks. Energy saving. As a way to optimize the institutional resources, as well as reducing costs and creating awareness among the people, the INPRF's Energy Saving program was implemented in 2003. Since 2003, when ECPP began implementing the saving strategies, accumulated energy consumption per year had a 9.6% reduction between 2004 and 2005. Use of potable water. In the search for strategies to optimize the use of potable water that is received through the municipal network, in 2003 the INPRF-ECPP implemented measures aimed not only at reducing the per capita consumption of potable water but also to give it a proper use on the institution areas. As a result of these saving measures, there was a gradual decrease in the use of drinking water. So, from the 170 liters/person-day used in 2003, during 2006 only 98 liters/person-day were used. Radiological safety. Due to the adverse effects to human health that could result from exposure to radioactive materials, an institution that uses this kind of material in its basic biomedical research area must implement the necessary actions to minimize the risk of contamination for users and work areas. For that reason, the INPRF began the Radiological Safety Program, which had as its main objectives to minimize the risks and to prevent accidents involving radioactive materials based on regulation compliance. As a result of these strategies, the maximum value of the total dose accumulated per year of ionizing radiation received by personnel exposed who has carried out research in this institution in recent years has been of 3.14 mSv. Therefore, it had not exceeded the annual limit dose of ionizing radiation allowed for the total body by the Comisión Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardas (CNSNS) of 50 mSv = 5rem. To date, there has been no accidents or contamination with radioactive materials or wastes in the INPRF. Emergency simulations. Considering the need of being prepared for emergencies and to comply with the regulation that establishes the compulsory conducting simulations in INPRF, the Internal Committee for Civil Protection (ICPC) conducts periodic training of employees on risk prevention, through courses and simulations of situations of earthquake, attempt of fire, handling of hazardous substances spills and first aid. As a result of the earthquake simulations that have been carried out at the INPRF, the time of evacuation of workers, hospitalized patients and floating population from buildings has gradually reduced. An additional advantage of conducting emergency simulations has been the early detection of systematic security features that need to be repaired or installed. Emissions to air. In recent years, increasingly strict regulation and monitoring of gaseous emissions generated by stationary and mobile sources in Mexico City has been established. In order to comply with the current regulations, it became necessary to develop a program of annual preventive and corrective maintenance of combustion equipment that is used to provide hot water, and to make periodic analysis of gaseous emissions. Among the parameters that have to be reported are: temperature of combustion gases, monoxide and dioxide carbon content, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide percentages and generated soot.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

7

Magnetic studies and scanning electron microscopy — X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses of road sediments, soils and vehicle-derived emissions

Chaparro, Marcos A. E.; Marié, Debora C.; Gogorza, Claudia S. G.; Navas Izquierdo, Ana; Sinito, Ana M.
2010-10-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

9

Influence of soot carbon on the soil-air partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Ribes, Sandra; Van Drooge, Barend L.; Dachs, Jordi; Gustafsson, Ørjan; Grimalt, Joan O.
2003-05-10

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

10

Hydrogen adsorption studies on single wall carbon nanotubes

Ansón Casaos, Alejandro; Callejas, M. Alicia; Benito, A. M.; Maser, Wolfgang K.; Izquierdo Pantoja, María Teresa

6 pages, 4 figures.-- Issue title: Carbon '03 Conference (Oviedo, Spain, Jul 6-10, 2003). | Hydrogen adsorption data on as-grown and heat-treated single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) obtained by a volumetric procedure using a Quantachrome Autosorb-1 equipment are presented. The amounts of hydrogen...

DRIVER (Spanish)

11

Hydrogen adsorption studies on single wall carbon nanotubes

Ansón Casaos, Alejandro; Callejas, M. Alicia; Benito, Ana M; Maser, Wolfgang K; Izquierdo Pantoja, María Teresa; Rubio Villa, Begoña; Jagiello, J.; Thommes, M.; Parra Soto, José Bernardo; Martinez, M. Teresa
2004-02-10

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

12

Combined removal of diesel soot particulates and NOx over CeO2–ZrO2 mixed oxides

Atribak, Idriss; Bueno López, Agustín; García García, Avelina

DRIVER (Spanish)

13

Coal char combustion under a CO2-rich atmosphere: Implications for pulverized coal injection in a blast furnace

Gómez Borrego, Ángeles; Osório, Eduardo; Casal Banciella, M.ª Dolores; Vilela, Antonio C. F.
2008-06-06

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

15

Char refiring under O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres. Implication for PCI injection in blast furnace

Álvarez Rodríguez, Diego; Casal Banciella, M.ª Dolores; Gómez Borrego, Ángeles; Osório, Eduardo; Vilela, Antonio C. F.
2007-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)