Sample records for ORGANIZACIÓN ESTADO AMERICANOS (organization of american states)
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1

Experiencia de cooperación entre universidad y organización internacional para capacitar enfermeros docentes de la America Latina para la investigación del fenomeno de las drogas/ Partnership between a university and an international organization with a view to drugs research training for Latin American nursing teachers/ Experiência de parceria entre universidade e organismo internacional capacitando enfermeiros docentes da América Latina para investigação do fenômeno da droga

Luis, Margarita Antonia Villar; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de; Mamede, Marli Villela; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto; Chisman, Anna McG
2004-04-01

Resumen en portugués Este artigo trata-se de um relato de experiência de oferta de dois cursos de especialização: "Programa de capacitação em pesquisa para enfermeiros-docentes no estudo do fenômeno das drogas na América Latina" implantados de maneira colaborativa por duas instituições, uma de natureza pública e regional (Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo) e outra, uma organização internacional (CICAD); a primeira com atribuições técnico-cien (mas) tíficas e a segunda responsável pelo apoio financeiro. Esse programa repetiu-se por dois anos consecutivos, em 2002 e 2003. O relato expõe dados sobre o processo de negociação e planejamento didático desde o primeiro curso, a distribuição de conteúdos e atividades, as experiências adquiridas no processo de ensino e as avaliações dos alunos. Segundo os participantes, (alunos, professores e instituições envolvidas) a iniciativa de oferecimento de cursos, em parte presencial e em parte a distância como os realizados, ser uma experiência bem sucedida com desdobramentos políticos, acadêmicos e sociais para todos os envolvidos. Resumen en español Este artículo trata de un relato de experiência de ofrecimiento de docentes de los cursos de especialización; a través del "Programa de capacitación en investigación para enfermeros en el estudio del fenomeno de las drogas en Latino America", planteados de manera colaborativa por dos instituciones, una de carater publico y regional (Escuela de Enfermería de Ribeirão Preto de la Universidad de São Paulo) y otra, una organización internacional (Comisión Interamer (mas) icana para el control del abuso de drogas - CICAD de la Organización de los Estados Americanos - OEA); la primera con atribuciones tecnico-científicas y la segunda responsable por el apoyo financiero. Ese programa se repitió por dos años consecutivos, en 2002 y 2003. El relato expone datos sobre el proceso de negociación y planeamiento didáctico desde el primer curso, la distribución de contenidos y actividades, las experiencias adquiridas en el proceso de enseñanza y las evaluaciones de los alumnos. Según los participantes (alumnos, profesores e instituciones involucradas) la iniciativa de ofrecimiento de cursos, parte presencial y parte a distancia como los realizados, se ha demostrado una experiencia exitosa con repercusiones políticas, academicas y sociales para todos los involucrados. Resumen en inglés This article reports on the experience of the specialization course called: Research training program for nurses to study the drugs pheonomenon in Latin America, which was offered by two institutions, one of which is local (University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto College of Nursing) while the other is an international organization (Interamerican drugs abuse control commission - CICAD of the Organization of American States - OAS). This program was offered consecutively (mas) in 2002 and 2003. The report discloses data on the negotation and didactical planning process for the first course, the distribution of contents and activities, experiences acquired during the teaching process and student evaluations. According to the participating students, teachers and institutions involved, offering partially in-class and partially distance courses, like the above mentioned program, has proved to be a successful experience with political, academic and social repercussions for the participants.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

2

Fundamentos internacionales en torno a los derechos sexuales de jóvenes

MESA BRIBIESCA, ALICIA; RODRÍGUEZ RAMÍREZ, GABRIELA
2004-03-01

Resumen en español Objetivo: Analizar el proceso de desarrollo de los derechos sexuales (DS) de jóvenes en el marco internacional de los derechos humanos para la definición de once DS. Material y métodos: Se analizó el contenido y el proceso de desarrollo de los derechos sexuales a partir de la revisión de los tratados de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU), la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT) y la Organización de Estados Americanos (OEA), opiniones consultivas (mas) de la Corte Interamericana de los Derechos Humanos, las declaraciones y programas de acción de la Conferencia Internacional de Población y Desarrollo (1994) y la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer (1995), así como propuestas de derechos sexuales por parte de organizaciones civiles como la Red Democracia y Sexualidad y la Organización Iberoamericana de la Juventud e instituciones gubernamentales como la Comisión Nacional de Derechos Humanos. Resultados: Se encontraron once derechos sexuales de los jóvenes, que van desde el derecho a la igualdad y respeto por edad, orientación sexual y género, la libertad de conciencia y expresión sexual, el derecho a la educación sexual y a la salud sexual y reproductiva, hasta, el derecho a beneficiarse del progreso científico para mejorar la salud y bienestar sexual. Conclusiones: Los DS expuestos son derechos humanos que sintetizan algunas propuestas que han resultado del diálogo internacional y nacional sobre los derechos de adolescentes y jóvenes. Resumen en inglés Objective: To analyze the process and development of sexual rights (SR) of young in the international mark of the human rights for the definition of eleven SR. Material and Methods: It was analyzed the content and process of development of sexual rights starting from the revision of the treaties of the United Nations (UN), the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the Organization of American States (OAS), advisory opinions of the Interamerican Court of Human Rights (mas) , the declarations and action programs of the International Conference on Population and Development (1994) and the Fourth World Conference on Woman (1995) as well as proposals of sexual rights on the part of civil organizations as the Net Democracy and Sexuality and the Youth's Inter American Organization and government institutions as the National Commission of Human Rights. Results: They were eleven young's sexual rights, since the right to the equality and respect for age, sexual orientation and gender, the freedom of conscience and sexual expression, the right of sexual education and sexual and reproductive health, until, the right to benefit of the scientific progress to improve the health and sexual well-being. Conclusions: Finally you the sexual rights discuss of young starting from treaties and international conferences, as well as the reflections proposed by the National Commission of Human Rights and Mexican and international civil organizations. The exposed SR is human rights that synthesize some proposals that they have been of the international and national dialogue on the rights of adolescents and young.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

3

La organización de estados americanos y la mediación en conflictos internos: El caso venezolano (2002-2004)/ The organization of american states and internal conflict mediation: The case of Venezuela (2002-2004)

Morales Manzur, Juan Carlos
2010-06-01

Resumen en español El deterioro de la situación política venezolana ha puesto en peligro la gobernabilidad democrática en un país caracterizado por una alta polarización política, una conflictividad marcada y siempre creciente y la violencia entre distintos sectores que apoyan al gobierno o le adversan. En este marco y derivado de la ruptura constitucional del 11 de Abril de 2002, la Organización de Estados Americanos ha participado activamente para lograr un acuerdo entre las partes (mas) en pugna. Este trabajo aborda la delicada actuación de ese organismo a través de la revisión biblio-hemerográfica y dado lo reciente del tema se abordó la situación objetivo, concluyéndose que, pese a la participación de la OEA a través de la facilitación del Dr. Gaviria, no estuvieron dadas las condiciones para una reconciliación política, como se demostraría por los hechos posteriores, para coadyuvar en el proceso de pacificación interna de Venezuela y lograr contribuir al mantenimiento de la democracia venezolana, de las más antiguas de América Latina. Resumen en inglés The deteriorating political situation in Venezuela has threatened democratic governance in a country characterized by high political polarization, a notable and ever-increasing conflictive atmosphere and violence among different sectors that support or oppose the government. In this framework and derived from the constitutional breakdown of April 11, 2002, the Organization of American States has been actively involved in achieving agreement between the warring parties. Th (mas) is paper addresses the sensitive performance of that agency through a bibliographic literature review, and given the recent nature of the topic, the situation-objective was approached, concluding that, despite the participation of the OAS through the facilitation of Dr. Gaviria, conditions for political reconciliation were not given, as demonstrated by subsequent events, to assist in the internal pacification process in Venezuela and contribute to maintaining Venezuelan democracy, one of the oldest in Latin America.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

4

La protección del trabajador inmigrante en situación irregular dentro el ordenamiento jurídico venezolano/ Protection of the illegal immigrant worker in Venezuelan legal ordinance

Bermúdez Abreu, Yoselyn; Hernández Jiménez, Orielle
2009-12-01

Resumen en español El trabajador inmigrante en situación irregular es el débil jurídico en la relación laboral, pues sus derechos humanos reconocidos por los Estados y organismos internacionales se infringen debido al grado de superioridad que tiene el patrono, lo cual le permite desconocer tales derechos. Al respecto, el presente artículo tiene como objetivos: Analizar la teoría del débil jurídico bajo el enfoque del Derecho Internacional del Trabajo y el Derecho Internacional Priv (mas) ado del Trabajo, así como establecer la normativa reguladora de la actividad laboral de los trabajadores inmigrantes en Venezuela, haciendo referencia tanto a las normas internacionales formuladas por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas y la Organización de los Estados Americanos, como a las normas internas creadas por el legislador venezolano. Se aplicó la metodología descriptiva y las técnicas de la hermenéutica jurídica y la observación documental en fuentes primarias y secundarias. Se concluye que, en el ordenamiento jurídico venezolano la protección de los trabajadores inmigrantes en situación irregular se fundamenta en los derechos y garantías constitucionales y en los tratados internacionales en materia de derechos humanos y de derechos laborales internacionalmente reconocidos. Resumen en inglés The illegal immigrant worker is the legally weak party in labor relations, since his/her human rights as recognized by States and international organisms are infringed due to the degree of superiority the employer has, which allows him to not recognize such rights. The objectives of this article are: To analyze the theory of legal weakness from the perspective of International Labor Law and International Private Labor Law, as well as establish regulating standards for the (mas) labor activities of immigrant workers in Venezuela, referring to international rules formulated by the United Nations and the Organization of American States, as well as internal rules created by the Venezuelan legislator. Descriptive methodology, hermeneutic legal techniques and documentary observation of primary and secondary sources were applied. Conclusions were that in Venezuelan legal ordinance, the protection of illegal immigrant workers is based on all the constitutional rights and guarantees and on international treaties on human rights and internationally recognized labor rights.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

5

Vibrational fingerprint of the structural tuning in push-pull organic chromophores with quinoid or proaromatic spacers.

Casado, Juan; Moreno Oliva, María; Ruiz Delgado, M. Carmen; Lopez Navarrete, Juan T.; Sanchez, Luis; Matin, Nazario; Andreu, Raquel; Carrasquer, Laura; Garin, Javier; Orduna, Jesús
2007-02-15

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

7

Time scale competition leading to fragmentation and recombination transitions in the co-evolution of network and states.

Vázquez, Federico; González-Avella, Juan Carlos; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; San Miguel, Maxi
2007-09-02

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

10

The Rho/Rac exchange factor Vav2 controls nitric oxide–dependent responses in mouse vascular smooth muscle cells

Sauzeau, Vincent; Sevilla, María A.; Montero, María J.; Bustelo, Xosé R.
2010-01-04

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

12

Tesauro ISOC de Topónimos 2004 (Edición abreviada)

Maldonado Martínez, Ángeles; Rodríguez Yunta, Luis
2004-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

13

Tandem β-fragmentation-hydrogen abstraction reaction of alkoxy radicals in steroidal systems

Boto, Alicia; Freire, Raimundo; Hernández, Rosendo; Suárez, Ernesto
1997-05-02

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

14

Synthesis, structure, and optical properties of 1,4-dithiafulvene-based nonlinear optic-phores

Alías, Silvia; Andreu, Raquel; Blesa, María Jesús; Franco, Santiago; Garín, Javier; Gragera, Aurora; Orduna, Jesús; Romero, Pilar; Villacampa, Belén; Allain, Magali
2007-07-24

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

15

Study of B -> X gamma decays and determination of vertical bar V-td/V-ts vertical bar

Babar Collaboration; López- March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Lees, J. P.; Sánchez, P. D.
2010-09-10

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

16

Structure of a 4-nitroso-5-aminopyrazole and its salts: Tautomerism, protonation, and E/Z isomerism

Holschbach, Marcus H.; Sanz, Dionisia; Claramunt, Rosa M.; Infantes, Lourdes; Motherwell, Sam; Raithby, Paul R.; Jimeno, M. Luisa; Herrero, David; Alkorta, Ibon; Jagerovic, Nadine; Elguero, José
2003-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

17

Solid-phase combinatorial synthesis of peptide-biphenyl hybrids as calpain inhibitors

Montero, Ana; Albericio, Fernando; Royo, Miriam; Herradón García, Bernardo
2004-09-29

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

18

Search for the rare decay B -> Kv(v)over-bar

Babar Collaboration; López- March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Sánchez, P. D.; Lees, J. P.
2010-12-08

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

19

Search for the decay B+ -> Ks(0)Ks(0)pi(+)

Babar Collaboration; Azzolini, Virginia; López-March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Aubert, B.
2009-03-05

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

20

Search for b -> u transitions in B-0 -> (DK)-K-0*(0) decays

Babar Collaboration; Azzolini, Virginia; López-March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Aubert, B.
2009-08-05

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

21

Search for B-meson decays to b1rho and b1K*

Azzolini, Virginia; López-March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Babar Collaboration; Aubert, B.
2009-09-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

24

Propeller-like hydrogen-bonded banana - melamine complexes inducing helical supramolecular organizations

Barberá, Joaquín; Puig, Laura; Romero, Pilar; Serrano, José Luis; Sierra, Teresa
2006-03-15

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

25

Precise Measurement of the e(+)e(-)->pi(+)pi(-)(gamma) Cross Section with the Initial State Radiation Method at BABAR

Babar Collaboration; Azzolini, Virginia; López-March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Aubert, B.
2009-12-04

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

26

Phylogenetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic incongruence in the North American endemic genus Echinacea

Flagel, Lex E.; Rapp, Ryan A.; Grover, Corrinne E.; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Hawkins, Jennifer; Grafenberg, Jessie L.; Álvarez, Inés; Chung, Gyu Young; Wendel, Jonathan F.
2008-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

28

Photochemical Apparatus Organization in the Chloroplasts of Two Beta vulgaris Genotypes

Abadía Bayona, Javier; Glick, Richard E.; Taylor, Scott E.; Terry, Norman; Melis, Anastasios
1985-11-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

29

Observation of the rare decay B-0 -> K-S(0) K-+/-pi(-/+)

Babar Collaboration; Azzolini, Virginia; López-March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Sánchez, P. D.; Lees, J. P.
2010-08-05

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

30

Observation of the chi(c2)(2P) meson in the reaction gamma gamma -> D(D)over-bar at BABAR

Babar Collaboration; Azzolini, Virginia; López-March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Aubert, B.; Sánchez, P. D.
2010-05-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

31

Observation of new resonances decaying to D pi and D*pi in inclusive e(+)e(-) collisions near root s=10.58 GeV

Babar Collaboration; López- March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Sánchez, P. D.; Lees, J. P.
2010-12-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

32

Observation of B meson decays to omega K* and improved measurements for omega rho and omega f(0)

Babar Collaboration; Azzolini, Virginia; López-March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Aubert, B.
2009-03-20

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

33

Nonequilibrium transitions in complex networks: a model of social interaction

Klemm, Konstantin; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi
2003-02-26

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

35

Multiple Models for Rosaceae Genomics

Shulaev, Vladimir; Korban, Schuyler S.; Sosinski, Bryon; Abbott, Albert G.; Aldwinckle, Herb S.; Folta, Kevin M.; Iezzoni, Amy; Main, Dorrie; Arús, Pere; Dandekar, Abhaya M.; Lewers, Kim; Brown, Susan K.; Davis, Thomas M.; Gardiner, Susan E.; Potter, Daniel; Veilleux, Richard E.
2008-05-16

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

36

Mortalidad por causas violentas en adolescentes y jóvenes: un desafio para la Región de las Américas/ Mortality from violent causes in adolescents and young people: a challenge for the Region of the Americas

Yunes, João; Zubarew, Tamara
1999-12-01

Resumen en español Este trabajo describe la tendencia de la mortalidad por homicidios, suicidios, accidentes de tráfico y otras causas externas, en la población total, adolescente y joven, de 16 países de la Región de las Américas. Se utiliza información del período comprendido entre los años 1980 y para el ultimo año disponible de la decada de 1990, proveniente del Banco de Datos de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Se realiza una descripción diferencial de los subgrupos (mas) de adolescentes y jóvenes, por edad y sexo. Los resultados demuestran que en la mayor parte de los países (Canadá, EEUU, Ecuador, México, Chile, Costa Rica, Trinidad & Tobago y El Salvador) hay una tendencia decreciente en la mortalidad por causas externas, tanto en la población total como en adolescentes y jóvenes. Colombia y Brasil son los únicos países analizados que presentan tasas de mortalidad por causas externas francamente ascendentes en los grupos estudiados. Los países con mayores tasas de mortalidad por causas externa en adolescentes y jóvenes, en orden decreciente, son: Colombia, El Salvador, Venezuela, Brasil y Puerto Rico. Los accidentes de tráfico son el determinante principal de la mortalidad por causas externas en la población total como en adolescentes y jóvenes, presentando tendencias decrecientes en casi todos los países estudiados. En 10 países se observa un ascenso progresivo de la mortalidad por homicidio en todos los grupos estudiados (Colombia, Puerto Rico, Trinidad & Tobago, Argentina, Uruguay, Panamá, EEUU, Venezuela, Ecuador y Brasil). Los países con mayores tasa de mortalidad por homicidio entre los varones de 15 a 19 años son, en orden decreciente: Colombia, El Salvador, Puerto Rico, Venezuela y Brasil. Los varones de 20 a 24 años presentan las tasas mas altas de homicidio dentro de los grupos estudiados. Hay un aumento alarmante de la tasa de homicidio en el grupo de varones de 15 a 19 años, especialmente en EEUU y Brasil. La mortalidad por suicidio es un problema creciente entre adolescentes y jóvenes de Cuba, Canadá, EEUU, Trinidad & Tobago, Argentina y El Salvador. Las tasas crecientes de mortalidad por homicidio reflejan la necesidad inminente de programas de vigilancia epidemiológica y de prevención de violencia dirigidos a adolescentes y jóvenes de la Región de las Américas. Resumen en inglés This paper describes mortality trends for homicides, suicides, traffic accidents and other external causes in the entire population, adolescents, and youngsters, from 16 countries in the Region of the Americas. This study used the information compiled by the Pan American Health Organization data bank from 1980 until the last year in the 90's in which data was available for each country. A description of different subgroups of adolescents and young people, by age, and sex, (mas) is provided. Results indicate that in most countries (Canada, USA, Ecuador, Mexico, Chile, Costa Rica, Trinidad and Tobago, and El Salvador), mortality trends due to external causes have been decreasing in the entire population, as well as among adolescents and young people. Colombia and Brazil are the only countries analyzed which have increasing mortality rates by external causes in their populations. The countries with highest mortality rates due to external causes among adolescents and young people, in decreasing order, are: Colombia, El Salvador, Venezuela, Brazil and Puerto Rico. The primary external causes of death in the entire population, as well as among adolescents and young people, are traffic accidents. However, in almost all of the countries analyzed, death rates are decreasing. Ten of the countries analyzed revealed a progressive increase in homicides in all of the age groups studied (Colombia, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, Argentina, Uruguay, Panama, USA, Venezuela, and Brazil). The countries with the highest homicide rates among young men, between 15 and 19 years of age, in decreasing order, are: Colombia, El Salvador, Puerto Rico, Venezuela and Brazil. Young men, between 20 and 24 years of age, were the subgroup with the highest homicide rates. In the United States and Brazil, there is an alarming increase in the homicide rate of boys between 15 and 19 years of age. Suicide is a growing problem among adolescents and young people in Cuba, Canada, USA, Trinidad and Tobago, Argentina, and El Salvador. Increasing mortality rates due to homicide reflect the pressing need for epidemiological surveillance and violence prevention programs directed towards adolescents and young people in the Region of the Americas.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

37

Mortalidad por causas violentas en adolescentes y jóvenes: un desafio para la Región de las Américas/ Mortality from violent causes in adolescents and young people: a challenge for the Region of the Americas

Yunes, João; Zubarew, Tamara
1999-12-01

Resumen en español Este trabajo describe la tendencia de la mortalidad por homicidios, suicidios, accidentes de tráfico y otras causas externas, en la población total, adolescente y joven, de 16 países de la Región de las Américas. Se utiliza información del período comprendido entre los años 1980 y para el ultimo año disponible de la decada de 1990, proveniente del Banco de Datos de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Se realiza una descripción diferencial de los subgrupos (mas) de adolescentes y jóvenes, por edad y sexo. Los resultados demuestran que en la mayor parte de los países (Canadá, EEUU, Ecuador, México, Chile, Costa Rica, Trinidad & Tobago y El Salvador) hay una tendencia decreciente en la mortalidad por causas externas, tanto en la población total como en adolescentes y jóvenes. Colombia y Brasil son los únicos países analizados que presentan tasas de mortalidad por causas externas francamente ascendentes en los grupos estudiados. Los países con mayores tasas de mortalidad por causas externa en adolescentes y jóvenes, en orden decreciente, son: Colombia, El Salvador, Venezuela, Brasil y Puerto Rico. Los accidentes de tráfico son el determinante principal de la mortalidad por causas externas en la población total como en adolescentes y jóvenes, presentando tendencias decrecientes en casi todos los países estudiados. En 10 países se observa un ascenso progresivo de la mortalidad por homicidio en todos los grupos estudiados (Colombia, Puerto Rico, Trinidad & Tobago, Argentina, Uruguay, Panamá, EEUU, Venezuela, Ecuador y Brasil). Los países con mayores tasa de mortalidad por homicidio entre los varones de 15 a 19 años son, en orden decreciente: Colombia, El Salvador, Puerto Rico, Venezuela y Brasil. Los varones de 20 a 24 años presentan las tasas mas altas de homicidio dentro de los grupos estudiados. Hay un aumento alarmante de la tasa de homicidio en el grupo de varones de 15 a 19 años, especialmente en EEUU y Brasil. La mortalidad por suicidio es un problema creciente entre adolescentes y jóvenes de Cuba, Canadá, EEUU, Trinidad & Tobago, Argentina y El Salvador. Las tasas crecientes de mortalidad por homicidio reflejan la necesidad inminente de programas de vigilancia epidemiológica y de prevención de violencia dirigidos a adolescentes y jóvenes de la Región de las Américas. Resumen en inglés This paper describes mortality trends for homicides, suicides, traffic accidents and other external causes in the entire population, adolescents, and youngsters, from 16 countries in the Region of the Americas. This study used the information compiled by the Pan American Health Organization data bank from 1980 until the last year in the 90's in which data was available for each country. A description of different subgroups of adolescents and young people, by age, and sex, (mas) is provided. Results indicate that in most countries (Canada, USA, Ecuador, Mexico, Chile, Costa Rica, Trinidad and Tobago, and El Salvador), mortality trends due to external causes have been decreasing in the entire population, as well as among adolescents and young people. Colombia and Brazil are the only countries analyzed which have increasing mortality rates by external causes in their populations. The countries with highest mortality rates due to external causes among adolescents and young people, in decreasing order, are: Colombia, El Salvador, Venezuela, Brazil and Puerto Rico. The primary external causes of death in the entire population, as well as among adolescents and young people, are traffic accidents. However, in almost all of the countries analyzed, death rates are decreasing. Ten of the countries analyzed revealed a progressive increase in homicides in all of the age groups studied (Colombia, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, Argentina, Uruguay, Panama, USA, Venezuela, and Brazil). The countries with the highest homicide rates among young men, between 15 and 19 years of age, in decreasing order, are: Colombia, El Salvador, Puerto Rico, Venezuela and Brazil. Young men, between 20 and 24 years of age, were the subgroup with the highest homicide rates. In the United States and Brazil, there is an alarming increase in the homicide rate of boys between 15 and 19 years of age. Suicide is a growing problem among adolescents and young people in Cuba, Canada, USA, Trinidad and Tobago, Argentina, and El Salvador. Increasing mortality rates due to homicide reflect the pressing need for epidemiological surveillance and violence prevention programs directed towards adolescents and young people in the Region of the Americas.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

38

Measurements of the semileptonic decays (B)over-bar -> Dl(nu)over-bar and (B)over-bar -> D*l(nu)over-bar using a global fit to DXl(nu)over-bar final states

Babar Collaboration; Azzolini, Virginia; López-March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Aubert, B.
2009-01-15

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

39

Measurement of branching fractions of B decays to K-1(1270)pi and K-1(1400)pi and determination of the CKM angle alpha from B-0 -> a(1)(1260)(+/-)pi(-/+)

Babar Collaboration; Azzolini, Virginia; López-March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Aubert, B.; Lees, J. P.
2010-03-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

40

Measurement of Semileptonic B Decays into Orbitally Excited Charmed Mesons

Babar Collaboration; Azzolini, Virginia; López-March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Aubert, B.
2009-07-31

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

41

Measurement of $B \to X \gamma$ Decays and Determination of $|V_{td}/V_{ts}|$

Babar Collaboration; Azzolini, Virginia; López-March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Aubert, B.
2009-04-23

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

42

La renovación de la atención primaria de salud en las Américas/ Renewing primary health care in the Americas

Macinko, James; Montenegro, Hernán; Nebot Adell, Carme; Etienne, Carissa; Grupo de Trabajo de Atención Primaria de Salud de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud
2007-03-01

Resumen en español El documento "Renewing Primary Health Care in the Americas. A Position Paper of the Pan American Health Organization/WHO" es fruto del mandato de los Estados Miembros de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) para el fortalecimiento de la APS, definido por la resolución CD44.R6 del Consejo Directivo en 2003. Dicho mandato culminó con la Declaración de Montevideo, un compromiso de todos los gobiernos de las Américas para renovar la APS, entendida como la base (mas) de los sistemas de salud de la Región. Los resultados científicos demuestran que la APS es un componente clave para alcanzar la efectividad de los sistemas de salud y puede adaptarse a los diversos contextos sociales, culturales y económicos de los diferentes países. El nuevo contexto mundial hace que cambien las necesidades en salud de la población, por lo que es necesario adaptar los servicios y sistemas de salud para que puedan dar una respuesta adecuada a esas nuevas necesidades. Rescatando el legado de la Conferencia Internacional sobre Atención Primaria de Salud, celebrada en Alma-Ata (Kazajstán, antigua Unión Soviética) en 1978, la OPS propone un conjunto de líneas estratégicas esenciales para adoptar sistemas de salud basados en la APS, construidos sobre los valores de la equidad, la solidaridad y el derecho a gozar del grado máximo de salud posible. El objetivo principal de las líneas estratégicas propuestas es desarrollar o fortalecer los sistemas de salud basados en la APS en toda la Región de las Américas. Esto requerirá un esfuerzo considerable de los profesionales de la salud, los ciudadanos, los gobiernos, la sociedad civil y las agencias de cooperación. Se exponen las líneas estratégicas que deben establecerse a nivel nacional, subregional, regional y mundial. Resumen en inglés At the 2003 meeting of the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the PAHO Member States issued a mandate to strengthen primary health care (Resolution CD44.R6). The mandate led in 2005 to the document "Renewing Primary Health Care in the Americas. A Position Paper of the Pan American Health Organization/WHO [World Health Organization]," and it culminated in the Declaration of Montevideo, an agreement among the governments of the Region of the A (mas) mericas to renew their commitment to primary health care (PHC). Scientific data have shown that PHC, regarded as the basis of all the health systems in the Region, is a key component of effective health systems and can be adapted to the range of diverse social, cultural, and economic conditions that exist. The new, global health paradigm has given rise to changes in the population's health care needs. Health services and systems must adapt to address these changes. Building on the legacy of the International Conference on Primary Health Care, held in 1978 in Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), PAHO proposes a group of strategies critical to adopting PHC-based health care systems based on the principles of equity, solidarity, and the right to the highest possible standard of health. The main objective of the strategies is to develop and/or strengthen PHC-based health systems in the entire Region of the Americas. A substantial effort will be required on the part of health professionals, citizens, governments, associations, and agencies. This document explains the strategies that must be employed at the national, subregional, Regional, and global levels.

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La norma argentina de construcción de tesauros IRAM 32057: necesidad de actualización. 1. El vocabulario controlado/ The Argentine Standard for Thesaurus Construction IRAM 32057: a Need for Updating. 1. The Controlled Vocabulary

Martínez, Ana M.; Mendes, Paola
2009-12-01

Resumen en español Se comparó la norma argentina de construcción de tesauros monolingües (IRAM 32057:1983) con las últimas ediciones de la norma internacional (ISO 2788:1986), las normas nacionales de España (UNE 50106:1990), Estados Unidos (Z39.19:2005) y Gran Bretaña (BSI 8723-2:2005b), así como diversos manuales reconocidos. Se analizaron tanto el alcance y los aspectos formales de la norma, como los conceptos referidos a la normativa sobre el vocabulario controlado. El alcance de (mas) la norma argentina se limita a la construcción de tesauros monolingües, mientras que las nuevas normas estadounidense y británica cubren también diferentes sistemas de organización del conocimiento. En relación con los aspectos formales, la norma argentina carece de tabla de contenido, índice analítico, glosario, bibliografía y algunas secciones y anexos, contando además con muy pocos ejemplos. En cuanto a los aspectos conceptuales, algunas definiciones son incorrectas o desactualizadas, lo mismo que algunas de las recomendaciones para el control del vocabulario. Se concluye que la norma argentina debería revisarse y actualizarse de conformidad con las normas publicadas recientemente y la norma ISO 25964 aún en preparación. Resumen en inglés The Argentine standard for the construction of monolingual thesaurus (IRAM 32057:1983) was compared with the last editions of the international standard (ISO 2788:1986), and the national standards of Spain (UNE 50106:1990), United States (Z39.19:2005), and Great Britain (BSI 8723-2:2005b), and very well known manuals. The scope and formal issues were analyzed, as well as the conceptual issues for controlled vocabulary. The scope of the Argentine standard is limited to the (mas) construction of monolingual thesauri, while the new North-American and British standards also cover different knowledge organization systems. In relation to the formal issues, the Argentine standard has not table of content, analytical index, glossary, bibliography and some sections and annexes, having very few examples. In reference to conceptual issues, some definitions are incorrect or outdated, as well as some recommendations for vocabulary control. We conclude that the Argentine standards should be reviewed and updated in agreement to the recently published standards, and the ISO 25964 standard, still in preparation.

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La equidad en materia de salud vista con enfoque étnico/ Equity in health as seen from an ethnic focus

Torres, Cristina
2001-09-01

Resumen en inglés In this day and age, public policies that aim to improve equity cannot limit themselves to seeking greater access for all to the job market; the lack of equity is also reflected in unequal access to health services, to education, and to political representation. In order to understand and attempt to correct this unequal access, an approach is needed that takes into account all the sociodemographic factors that shape inequality in the Region of the Americas, most notably s (mas) ex, ethnic origin, and race. This paper is the product of a request by the Member States of the Pan American Health Organization for PAHO to make known the influence that race, ethnic origin, and sex have on the state of health and on access to health care services. The paper examines how racial discrimination and other forms of intolerance, the low socioeconomic and educational level of certain ethnic and racial groups, and cultural beliefs exert a decisive influence on individuals' search for health care and their possibilities of enjoying good health. This subject is particularly important this year, when the United Nations is holding its World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Iniciativa Regional de Reforma del Sector de la Salud en América Latina y el Caribe/ The Latin America and Caribbean Regional Health Sector Reform Initiative

Crocco, Pedro; Schroeder, Patricia; Villen, María Teresa; Yen, Edwina
2000-08-01

Resumen en español Muchos países de América Latina y el Caribe están introduciendo reformas que pueden influir profundamente en la forma como se prestan los servicios de salud y en quienes los reciben. Tanto en la Cumbre de las Américas de 1994 como en la "Reunión Especial sobre Reforma del Sector de la Salud" de 1995, organizada por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud/Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS/OMS), el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, el Banco Mundial y otros org (mas) anismos multilaterales y bilaterales, los gobiernos de la Región decidieron apoyar la generación de capacidad de análisis y la capacitación en lo relativo a las reformas del sector de la salud. En consecuencia, en 1997, la OPS y la Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional lanzaron la "Iniciativa Regional de Reforma del Sector de la Salud en América Latina y el Caribe". Esta iniciativa tiene un financiamiento de aproximadamente US$ 10 millones hasta el año 2002 para apoyar actividades en Bolivia, Brasil, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haití, Honduras, Jamaica, México, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Perú y República Dominicana, busca promover una prestación más equitativa y eficaz de los servicios básicos de salud sustentando actividades regionales, y se encuentra ya en su tercer año de implementación. Resumen en inglés Many countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean are introducing reforms that can profoundly influence how health services are provided and who receives them. Governments in the region identified the need for a network to support health reform by building capacity in analysis and training, both at the Summit of the Americas in 1994 and at the Special Meeting on Health Sector Reform, which was convened in 1995 by an interagency committee of the Pan American Health (mas) Organization/World Health Organization, the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, and other multilateral and bilateral agencies. In response, in 1997 the Pan American Health Organization and the United States Agency for the International Development launched the Latin America and Caribbean Regional Health Sector Reform Initiative. The Initiative has approximately US$ 10 million in funding through the year 2002 to support activities in Bolivia, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru. Now in its third year of implementation, the Initiative supports regional activities seeking to promote more equitable and effective delivery of basic health services.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Identificación de las zonas de riesgo ofídico en Córdoba, Argentina, mediante el programa SIGEpi/ Identifying areas of high risk for ophidism in Cordoba, Argentina, using SIGEpi software

Leynaud, Gerardo C.; Reati, Gustavo J.
2009-07-01

Resumen en español OBJETIVOS: Describir la distribución de los accidentes ofídicos en la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina, identificar las zonas de mayor riesgo y analizar la utilidad del programa informático SIGEpi. MÉTODOS: Se recopiló la información relacionada con los 299 accidentes ofídicos notificados en la provincia de Córdoba entre los años 1995 y 2006, tomados del registro oficial de la Dirección de Epidemiología provincial para accidentes por animales venenosos. Para su (mas) localización geográfica se utilizó el programa informático SIGEpi. Se generaron mapas específicos que permitieron identificar, cuantificar y visualizar las zonas vulnerables y de mayor riesgo ofídico. RESULTADOS: Los accidentes se concentraron en el sector norte y oeste de la provincia. A las serpientes del género Bothrops correspondió la mayoría de los accidentes (87,7% del total). Los departamentos con mayor incidencia anual de accidentes de este tipo fueron Pocho y Río Seco ( > 10 accidentes por 100 000 habitantes). Se identificaron tres zonas de mayor riesgo ofídico: una en el extremo oeste de la provincia, una en el extremo norte y otra al norte de Bañados del Río Dulce y la laguna Mar Chiquita. CONCLUSIONES: Los accidentes ofídicos constituyen un importante problema de salud en la provincia de Córdoba, con una incidencia superior en las zonas de mayor carencia económica vinculadas al trabajo rural. El programa SIGEpi constituye una opción adecuada para estudiar problemas de salud pública y resultó eficaz para identificar las zonas de mayor riesgo ofídico. Resumen en inglés OBJECTIVES: To determine the case distribution of accidental ophidism in the Córdoba province of Argentina, identify high risk areas, and evaluate the usefulness of the SIGEpi software program (Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, United States of America). METHODS: Information regarding the 299 cases of accidental ophidism reported in Córdoba in 1995-2006 was collected from the Provincial Epidemiology Department's official records of incidents involving ve (mas) nomous creatures. The SIGEpi software program was used for geographic mapping. Specific maps were produced to identify, quantify, and visualize the danger zones and areas of high risk for ophidism. RESULTS: The incidents occurred mostly in the northern and western areas of the province. Snakes of the Bothrops genus were responsible for the majority of the incidents (87.7% of the total). The departments with the highest annual incidence rates were Pocho and Río Seco ( > 10 incidents per 100 000 residents). Three ophidism high-risk zones were identified: one in far west of the province, another in the far north, and another just north of Bañados del Río Dulce and the Mar Chiquita lagoon. CONCLUSIONS: Accidental ophidism constitutes a major health problem in the Córdoba province where incidence rates are higher than those areas with more severe economic issues tied to rural labor. SIGEpi software is a reasonable choice for studying public health challenges and proved to be effective in identifying areas at high risk for ophidism.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Identidad-alteridad wayuu. Imágenes de lo diverso en la prensa del siglo XIX/ Wayuu Identity -“Alteridad” - 19th Century Press Views on the Diversity of the Images

Paz Reverol, Carmen; Leal Jerez, Morelva; Alarcón Puentes, Johnny
2005-12-01

Resumen en español El presente artículo analizará los procesos de construcción de la identidad-alteridad wayuu según los discursos de las autoridades y habitantes de la Provincia de Maracaibo en el siglo XIX. El trabajo se abordó desde la perspectiva de la antropología histórica que permitió construir una mirada antropológica hacia el pasado en la cual el informante es sustituido por los testimonios de la época. En este caso se utilizaron, sistematizaron y analizaron fuentes hemer (mas) ográficas publicadas en Maracaibo y Caracas entre los años 1836 y 1891. Los wayuu, habitaban en la Península de la Guajira, territorio que ocupaban exclusivamente con poca o nula ingerencia de los estados nacionales (Colombia y Venezuela) y se constituyeron en uno de los grupos amerindios que presentaron más beligerancia, resistencia y capacidad de negociación en la defensa de su territorio y cultura frente a la sociedad hegemónica del siglo XIX. Esta reconstrucción permitirá una aproximación a las imágenes construidas sobre el wayuu, su territorio, su organización socioeconómica, política y cultural, caracterizadas por ser plurivalentes, complementarias y opuestas, en la medida que se desplazan entre el temor y la necesidad del otro, el rechazo y la admiración, la minusvalía y la necesidad de protección para justificar su sometimiento, reducción y potencial uso como mano de obra barata Resumen en inglés Abstract This article analyzes the processes of the creation or forming of the wayuu identity-“alteridad” according to the arguments presented by the inhabitants and authorities of the Province of Maracaibo during the 19th century. The analysis will be undertaken from an historical anthropological perspective allowing us to have an anthropological glance into the past where the informant has been substituted by the historic testimonies of those years. In this case the s (mas) ources were from public library records edited in Maracaibo and Caracas between the years 1836 and 1891. The wayuu people inhabited the Guajira Peninsula, a territory which is occupied, with little or no interference, by two nation states (Venezuela and Colombia). These people make up one of the American-indigenous groups that offered more resistance, belligerence and negotiation capacity in the defense of their territory and culture against the hegemonial society of the 19th century. This historical reconstruction will allow us to have an approximate image of what we believe constitutes the wayúu people, their territory, their social-economic structure, their cultural and political organization, characterized by their multiple diversity, and their ability to be simultaneously complementary and in opposition, as they move between fear of and the need for the other “culture”, rejection and admiration, and the feeling of being in an inferior position, and at the same time the need to protect themselves and to justify their submission, reduction and their potential employment as a cheap labor force

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Highly photostable solid-state dye lasers based on silicon-modified organic matrices

Costela González, Ángel; García Moreno, Inmaculada; Agua, D. del; García Ballesteros, Olga; Sastre Muñoz, Roberto
2007-04-13

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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H-1 Hyperfine Interactions in the Mn-Cluster of Photosystem II in the S-2 State Detected by Hyperfine Sublevel Correlation Spectroscopy

Martínez, J. I.; Yruela Guerrero, Inmaculada; Picorel Castaño, Rafael; Alonso, Pablo J.
2010-11-25

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Gente Sana en Comunidades Saludables: la visión de Salud para Todos en los Estados Unidos de América/ Healthy People in Healthy Communities: the vision of Health for All in the United States of America for 2000-2010

Puentes-Markides, Cristina; Maiese, Deborah; Granthon, Myriam
1999-12-01

Resumen en inglés For the first decade of the new millennium, "Healthy People 2010" will be the official designation of the health promotion and disease prevention policy of the United States of America. The policy's work plan carries on the vision of Health for All that is promoted by the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization and whose attainment will be the responsibility of each and every person on earth. Healthy People in Healthy Communities, as the approac (mas) h to Healthy People 2010 will be called, will have two general objectives for the United States as a whole. One is to increase the years of healthy life, incorporating the concept of quality of life into that of healthy life expectancy. The second objective is to eliminate health disparities. Twenty-eight priority areas and more than 400 goals will be consolidated through community initiatives and close communication among the public, health authorities, and community leaders. The experience of the United States is particularly interesting because it is participatory, as shown by the creation and consolidation of alliances between numerous sectors, bipartisan political support, use of scientific tests to support decisions, and efforts to strengthen data collection processes. The broad acceptance and adoption of the objectives of Healthy People by practically all fifty states reaffirms the initiative's validity in various socioeconomic and cultural contexts. Healthy People 2010 will be launched publicly during a conference that will be held in Washington, D.C., from 24 to 28 January 2000, with support from the Healthy People Consortium and the Partnerships for Networked Consumer Health Information.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Generic absorbing transition in coevolution dynamics

Vázquez, Federico; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; San Miguel, Maxi
2008-03-14

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Fungal degradation of lipophilic extractives in Eucalyptus globulus wood.

Gutiérrez Suárez, Ana; Río Andrade, José Carlos del; Martínez Hernández, María Jesús; Martínez Ferrer, Ángel Tomás
1999-04-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Formation of Dispersive Hybrid Bands at an Organic-Metal Interface

González-Lakunza, N.; Fernández-Torrente, I.; Franke, K. J.; Lorente, N.; Arnau, Andrés; Pascual, J. I.
2008-04-17

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Exploring Multistability in Semiconductor Ring Lasers: Theory and Experiment

Gelens, Lendert; Beri, S.; Van der Sande, Guy; Mezosi, G.; Sorel, M.; Danckaert, Jan; Verschaffelt, Guy
2009-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Exclusive production of Ds+Ds-,D-s*D-+(s)-, and D-s*D-+(s)*(-) via e(+)e(-) annihilation with initial-state radiation

Babar Collaboration; López-March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Sánchez, P. D.; Lees, J. P.
2010-09-29

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Exclusive initial-state-radiation production of the D(D)over-bar, D*(D)over-bar and D*(D)over-bar* systems

Babar Collaboration; Azzolini, Virginia; López-March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Aubert, B.
2009-05-05

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Evaluación externa de la calidad analítica en hematología: una necesidad en América Latina/ External evaluation of analytical quality in hematology: a necessity in Latin America

Fink, Nilda E.; Fernández Alberti, Alejandra; Mazziotta, Daniel
1997-09-01

Resumen en español La garantía de calidad analítica de un laboratorio clínico se logra mediante un sistema de control de calidad interno complementado por un programa de evaluación externa. Esa garantía es la base que fundamenta la confiabilidad de los resultados obtenidos por los laboratorios y su uso en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las enfermedades. En los países de América Latina hay muchos laboratorios que no cuentan con sistemas apropiados de evaluación y control de la cali (mas) dad. Dada la importancia de los diagnósticos basados en datos hematológicos, durante el XI Congreso Latinoamericano de Bioquímica Clínica (México, 1993) la Organización Panamericana de la Salud patrocinó un curso de control de la calidad en hematología en el que participaron Argentina, Chile, Cuba, México, Paraguay, República Dominicana y Uruguay. Como parte del curso se produjeron materiales de control: solución estándar secundario de cianmetahemoglobina (HICN), solución concentrada estabilizada de hemoglobina (Hb) y sangre entera humana preservada con seudoleucocitos. Estos materiales fueron enviados a laboratorios de los siete países participantes para su uso en procedimientos analíticos, con objeto de llevar a cabo posteriormente una evaluación externa del desempeño individual y de la comparabilidad de los resultados en conjunto. Las tareas asignadas fueron: 1) determinación de hemoglobina, hematocrito, y glóbulos rojos y blancos con los métodos en uso en cada laboratorio; 2) registro de los datos obtenidos en formularios especiales para la notificación de datos y 3) envío de dichos formularios al coordinador de cada país. Los resultados fueron analizados en función de los procedimientos analíticos y de los países participantes. Los valores de referencia se establecieron por consenso general de todos los participantes después de someterse al método estadístico de truncamiento. El análisis comparado de los resultados mostró coeficientes de variación (CV) de hematocrito (4,5%), recuento de glóbulos rojos (11,0%) y recuento de glóbulos blancos (22,2%) más altos que los coeficientes obtenidos en los Estados Unidos de América y Europa. En función del procedimiento analítico, los métodos manuales arrojaron CV mayores que los métodos automatizados. Los datos discriminados por país y por procedimiento analítico, sometidos a un análisis de la varianza (ANOVA), mostraron significación estadística solo para el recuento leucocitario (P Resumen en inglés The assurance of analytical quality in a clinical laboratory is achieved through an internal system of quality control complemented by an external evaluation program. Quality assurance provides a foundation for the confidence that is placed in laboratory results and their use in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Many laboratories in Latin American countries do not have appropriate systems in place to evaluate and control quality. Given the importance of diagnoses b (mas) ased on hematologic data, the Pan American Health Organization sponsored a course in quality control in hematology during the XI Latin American Congress of Clinical Biochemistry (Mexico, 1993), in which representatives from Argentina, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Paraguay, Dominican Republic, and Uruguay participated. As part of the course, the following control materials were produced: secondary standard solution of cyanmethemoglobin, stabilized concentrated hemoglobin solution, and preserved human whole blood with pseudoleukocytes. These materials were sent to laboratories in the seven participating countries for use in analytical procedures, and the results were then subjected to an external evaluation to assess individual performance and the comparability of results among the group. The specific tasks carried out were: (1) determination of values for hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red and white blood cell counts by the procedures normally used in each laboratory; (2) recording of the data on special reporting forms; and (3) transmittal of those forms to the coordinator in each country. The results were analyzed with regard to both the procedure used and the participating country. Reference values were established by consensus following application of a statistical method to eliminate outlying values. Comparative analysis of the results showed the coefficients of variation (CV) of the hematocrit (4.5%), red blood cell count (11.0%), and white blood cell count (22.2%) to be higher than those reported from the United States of America and Europe. With regard to analytical procedures, the manual methods yielded larger CV than the automated methods. When analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used on data broken down by country and by procedure, the only statistically significant result was for leukocyte count (P

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Equidad, género y salud: retos para la acción/ Equity, gender, and health: challenges for action

Gómez Gómez, Elsa
2002-06-01

Resumen en inglés The Governing Bodies of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) have mandated that the Organization apply a gender perspective in all aspects of the Organization's activities and its technical cooperation in the area of health with the PAHO Member States. This article points out the need to eradicate unjust gender differences that affect the right and access to health care that is appropriate for women. The piece explains the differences between equity and equality an (mas) d between gender and sex, and how gender equity should come about in the state of health, in health care, and in all people's efforts to engender health. It is hoped the piece will contribute to a better understanding of the situation, thus helping to eliminate inequities that are due to sex, socioeconomic factors, and the distribution of power.

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En busca de los resultados de la cooperación técnica/ In search of the results of technical cooperation

Jourdan Hidalgo, Lily; Manuel Sotelo, Juan
1999-06-01

Resumen en inglés For the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), technical cooperation (TC) is the process by which the PAHO Member States work with the Organization, as equal partners, to identify and reach their own health goals and to promote self-sufficiency in health development, through programs that respond to those countries’ needs and national priorities. Since 1978, PAHO has used the American Regional Planning, Programming, Monitoring, and Evaluation System (AMPES) to esta (mas) blish management procedures and to facilitate decision-making in health TC. As part of AMPES, PAHO uses a "logical approach to project management" to structure the work program of the Organization and to identify the expected results from TC activities and TC resource investments. This project management approach, which replaces the "functional approaches" system used to date, also helps establish a causative relationship between the programmed activities and the results that PAHO expects, and between the activities and the hoped-for outcomes in the countries. As part of an ongoing process of rethinking international health TC, several years ago PAHO began a four-phase study on the usefulness and validity of functional approaches and on the need to propose new ones or to modify existing ones. The results of the initial phase showed it was difficult to classify the activities because the functionalapproaches categories were not mutually exclusive and the TC activities were complex. Further, the expected results did not specify the product for which the PAHO Secretariat was accountable within a certain time frame nor the Secretariat’s level of responsibility. Thus, a new and more flexible classification of expected results was proposed, with the following categories: cooperation networks and alliances; surveillance and information systems; standards and guidelines; research and evaluation studies; plans, projects, and policies; methods, models, and technologies; training programs; promotional campaigns and advocacy; and direct support. In the second phase of the study, it was concluded that the proposed classification system made it possible to more precisely identify the products of PAHO technical cooperation projects, the Organization’s degree of responsibility, and the bases for estimating needed resources. The new system could also facilitate monitoring and evaluation. In addition, the third phase of analyzing the functional approaches has begun. Its objective is to evaluate the effect of technical cooperation based on the changes incorporated in the programming of activities.

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El enfoque sociopolítico para el análisis de las reformas sanitarias en América Latina

Hernández Álvarez, Mario
2003-12-01

Resumen en español Tomando en cuenta el informe sobre la salud mundial 2000, de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, se analiza el porqué el resultado presentado en el mismo es contraproducente, y no concuerda con lo que aprecian la mayoría de los sanitaristas que lo estudian. Se trata entonces de un análisis de contenido del informe sobre la salud mundial 2000 y de otros documentos sobre reforma sanitaria, utilizando el enfoque sociopolítico como método y recurso heurístico o una ma (mas) nera de ver el problema. El debate sobre los sistemas de salud se ha concentrado en el dilema entre equidad y eficiencia. Las posiciones van desde los que consideran que no existe tal dilema, en la medida en que el mercado resuelve directamente la distribución mientras se respete la elección individual, hasta los que piensan que es necesario priorizar la opción política por la equidad para luego desarrollar estrategias de manejo eficiente de los recursos. Así piensa el autor. Profundizando en el caso colombiano, nacionalidad del autor, se afirma que el diseño de la reforma en su país y otros latinoamericanos no logra una garantía de derecho a la salud, tal como se promete. Son componentes de la reforma del sistema en Colombia: aseguramiento obligatorio con un fondo único administrado por el Estado, establecer un plan mínimo obligatorio de beneficios, contratar a los administradores del seguro de pólizas individuales ajustadas a riesgo y desarrollar mecanismos de focalización del gasto público para incorporar al mercado a los extremadamente pobres. Para el análisis de las reformas sanitarias, la perspectiva de las redes de poder organizadas y superpuestas permite explorar la articulación entre las políticas estatales, como las de salud y seguridad social, y las relaciones económicas, sociales y políticas en una sociedad particular. Los estados se construyen en el conflicto entre las fuerzas sociales. Tal conflicto resulta de la relación entre las diferentes órdenes posibles, construidos, vividos e imaginados por las distintas formas de organización social. Se trata entonces de conflictos normativos, sustentados en relaciones sociales y económicas. En el caso de la asistencia médica moderna los sistemas de valores se confrontan para tratar de establecer lo que se considera justo. Esto es, a que se tiene derecho. Allí se ubican los modelos diseñados por la tecnocracia, pero siempre existen muchos más, los que los actores sociales construyen desde su propia concepción. En medio de los conflictos normativos se construyen las culturas políticas, es decir, el conjunto de estructuras simbólicas y prácticas sociales mediante las cuales se ejerce el poder. Así, se producen confrontaciones permanentes entre fuerzas de conservación y de transformación encarnadas en actores sociales, lo que constituye, en un sentido amplio, el «proceso sociopolítico» de las sociedades Resumen en inglés The sociopolitical approach for the analysis of the health reforms in Latin America Taking into account the world health report 2000 of the World Health Organization, it is analyzed why its result is self deefeating and does not agree with what is considered by most of the health specialists studying it. The content of the world health report 2000 and other documents on health reform are analyzed by using the sociopolitical approach as a method and heuristic resource, or (mas) as a way to see the problem. The debate about the health systems is focused on the dilemma between equity and efficiency. The positions vary from those who consider that there is not such a dilemma, as long as the market resolves directly the distribution and the individual election is respected, to those who consider that it is necessary to prioritize the political option for equity to develop further strategies to attain an efficient management of resources. That´s the way the author thinks. Going deep into the Colombian case (the author is Colombian, too), it is asserted that the design of the reform in his country and in other Latin American countries do not guarantee the right to health care, as it is promised. The components of the system reform in Colombia are the following: compulsory insurance with a unique fund administered by the State, to establish a minimum compulsory plan of benefits, to contract the managers of the individual insurance policies adjusted to risk and to develop mechanisms focused on the public expenses to incorporate the extremely poor into the market. To analyze the health reforms, the organized and superposed perspectives of the power networks allows to explore the articulation among the state polycies, such as health and social security and the economic, social and political relations in a particular society. The states are built within the conflict between the social forces. This conflict results from the relation between the different possible orders constructed, lived and imagined by the diverse forms of social organization. They are normative conflicts based on social and economic relations. In the case of modern medical care the systems of values are compared trying to establish what is considered as fair, that is, to what you have the right. The models designed by technocracy are there, but there are always many more that are constructed by the social actors from their own conception. The cultural policies, that is, the set of symbolic structures and social practices by which the power is exerted, are established in the middle of the normative conflicts. This way, permanent confrontations are produced between the forces of conservation and transformation personified in social actors, and it is, in a wide sense, the «sociopolitical process» of societies

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Effects of resonant phonon scattering from internal molecular modes on the thermal conductivity of molecular glasses

Krivchikov, A. I.; Yushchenko, A. N.; Korolyuk, O. A.; Bermejo, Francisco Javier; Fernández-Perea, Ricardo; Bustinduy, Ibón; González, M. A.
2008-01-10

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

64

Eduardo Liceaga y la participación mexicana en la fundación de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud

Viesca Treviño, Carlos
1998-06-01

Resumen en español Se expone la participación mexicana en todas las actividades que dieron como resultado, en la Primera Convención Sanitaria Internacional Panamericana, la creación de la Oficina Sanitaria Internacional que al transcurrir de los años, se convertiría en la Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Se destaca la labor del doctor Eduardo Liceaga, salubrista eminente, presidente del Consejo Superior de Salubridad de México y vicepresidente del primer consejo directivo de la (mas) Oficina Sanitaria Internacional. Se cita entre los antecedentes la integración a la Asociación Americana de Salubridad Pública, corporación de carácter científico que operaba en EE.UU. desde 1872, primero del Dominio del Canadá, después de México y por último de Cuba. Los doctores Liceaga y Carlos J. Finlay presidieron la Asociación Americana de Salubridad Pública. Resumen en inglés The participation of mexicans in all the ativities that -in the First Pan-American International Sanitary Convention, led to the creation of the International Sanitary Office- which with the lapse of time, would become the Pan-American Organization of Health, is reported. The work of Dr. Eduardo Liceaga, mexican eminent improver of health, president of the Superior Council of Salubrity in Mexico, and vice president of the first management Council of the International Sani (mas) tary Office, was emphasized. among the antecedents, the integration to the American Association of Public Salubrity, Scientifical Corporation which was operated en the United States, from 1872, first of the Cadanian Domain, then, of Mexico, and finally of Cuba, is mentioned Doctors Liceaga and Carlos J. Finlay, presided over the American Association of Public Salubrity.

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Docencia universitaria y psicoanálisis: Los aportes de Ignacio Matte Blanco/ Ignacio Matte Blanco, MD, and the development of psychiatry teaching to medical students

Florenzano, Ramón
2009-09-01

Resumen en inglés Ignacio Matte Blanco had an important role in organizing the teaching of Psychiatry in medical school. In this paper we describe his training, that began as a physiologist, but turned into psychiatric and psychoanalysis in his formation in the United States and the United Kingdom during the forties. After returning to Chile, in the Chair of Psychiatry at the Faculty of Medicine of the Universidad de Chile he developed pioneering ideas about undergraduate teaching of psych (mas) iatry, that were exposed not only in Chile but to the Pan-American Health Organization. He advocated decreasing the time spent in lectures, and increase clinical practice and group dynamic experiences centered in the students. He insisted that teaching had to be focused in issues useful for general physicians and non psychiatric specialists, as well as in the need to extend the psychosocial curriculum to the internship. He also pointed to the need of increasing the humanistic formation of medical students. When Matte Blanco emigrated to Rome in 1966, his influences seemed to wane, since most of his disciples ¡eft the Clínica Psiquiátrica Universitaria, where he taught. However, since the eighties, several of his viewpoints have been included in the medical curricula of Chilean schools of medicine (Rev Méd Chile 2009; 137:1248-52)

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Desigualdades territoriales en México derivadas del tratado de libre comercio de América del Norte

Delgadillo Maclas, Javier
2008-04-01

Resumen en español La instrumentación del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN) a partir del año 1994 consolidó una etapa de libe ral ización económica iniciada en México a partir de 1982. La sistemática operación del TLCAN en los distintos sectores de la economía (incorporados a este acuerdo comercial) se vio al mismo tiempo acompañada de efectos territoriales favorables en algunos casos, y de dimensiones críticas para un número importante de regiones y estado (mas) s que componen la federación mexicana. Después de 14 años de su inicio, en este trabajo se analizan los procesos de reestructuración espacial desde entonces generados, las disparidades regionales asociadas al nuevo escenario internacional, y se da cuenta de las relaciones económicas que contraponen a la etapa actual del modelo neoliberal imperante con aquellas otras formas tradicionales de organización excluidas y que aún mantienen en México buena proporción de espacios socialmente marginados Resumen en inglés The coming into force of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) from 1994 consolidated a phase of Mexican economic liberalization that had begun in 1982. The systematic operationalization of the NAFTA in different sectors of the economy (incorporated into this commercial agreement) was also accompanied by favorable spatial impacts in some cases, and unfavorable impacts for a significant number of regions and states of the Mexican federation. Fourteen years on, th (mas) is article analyzes the processes of spatial restructuring that have been generated, the regional disparities associated with the new international scenario, and explains the economic relations that run in opposition to the current stage of the dominant neoliberal model, which has excluded other traditional forms of organization and has kept many areas of Mexico in a condition of social marginalization

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Decadal time-series of SeaWiFS retrieved CDOM absorption and estimated CO2 photoproduction on the continental shelf of the eastern United States

Del Vecchio, Rossana; Subramaniam, Ajit; Schollaert Uz, Stephanie; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Brown, Christopher W.; Blough, Neil V.
2009-01-17

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

69

Dalitz plot analysis of D-s(+)->pi(+)pi(-)pi(+)

Babar Collaboration; Azzolini, Virginia; López-March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Aubert, B.
2009-02-09

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

70

Dalitz plot analysis of B-+/-->pi(+/-)pi(+/-)pi(-/+) decays

Babar Collaboration; Azzolini, Virginia; López-March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Aubert, B.
2009-04-22

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

71

Dalitz plot analysis of B- -> D+pi(-)pi(-)

Babar Collaboration; Azzolini, Virginia; López-March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Aubert, B.
2009-06-11

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

72

Critically evaluated thermochemical properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Roux Arrieta, María Victoria; Temprado, Manuel; Chickos, James S.; Nagano, Yatsuhisa
2008-10-23

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

73

Clustering and Lateral Concentration of Raft Lipids by the MAL Protein

Goldstein Magal, Lee; Yaffe, Yakie; Shepshelovich, Jeanne; Aranda, Juan Francisco; Hirschberg, Koret; Alonso, Miguel A.; de Marco, Maria del Carmen; Gaus, Katharina
2009-08-15

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

75

Catalytic, one-pot synthesis of β-amino acids from α-amino acids. Preparation of α,β-peptide derivatives

Saavedra, Carlos J.; Hernández, Rosendo; Boto, Alicia; Álvarez, Eleuterio
2009-04-24

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

76

Broad lifetime distributions for ordering dynamics in complex networks

Toivonen, Riitta; Castelló, Xavier; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Saramäki, J.; Kaski, K.; San Miguel, Maxi
2009-01-23

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

77

Boundary effects in extended dynamical systems

Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Hernández-García, Emilio; Piro, Oreste
2000-07-26

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

79

Band formation from coupled quantum dots formed by a nanoporous network on a copper surface

Lobo-Checa, Jorge; Matena, Manfred; Müller, Kathrin; Dil, Jan Hugo; Meier, Fabian; Gade, Lutz H.; Jung, Thomas A.; Stöhr, Meike
2009-07-17

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

80

B-meson decays to eta ' rho, eta ' f(0), and eta ' K*

Babar Collaboration; Sánchez, P. D.; López-March, Neus; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Milanés, Diego A.; Oyanguren, Arantza; Lees, J. P.; Sánchez, P. D.
2010-07-29

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

81

Antecedentes de los comportamientos ciudadanos en la organización: Un estudio desarrollado en Colombia/ The background of civic conduct in an organization: a study developed in Colombia

Salgado, Elvira; Chaparro, María Paula
2006-06-01

Resumen en español Este artículo comenta los resultados a los que llegaron las autoras luego de reproducir, con una muestra colombiana, un estudio hecho en Estados Unidos y México, con el objetivo de dilucidar las variables que determinan los comportamientos ciudadanos en la organización. Con estos datos se encuentra una estructura factorial de los comportamientos ciudadanos bastante similar a la obtenida regularmente en las muestras estadounidense y mexicana. Se encuentra, igualmente, q (mas) ue antecedentes importantes como satisfacción, confianza en el jefe y justicia distributiva se comportan en esta muestra tal como se esperaba, pero el testeo de confianza como mediadora no arroja los resultados esperados. Se proponen explicaciones para estos resultados, y con base en éstos y las limitaciones del estudio, algunas líneas de investigación futura. Resumen en inglés This article comments on the results obtained by the authoresses after replication with a Colombian sample of a study made in the United States and Mexico, in order to elucidate the variables that determine civic comportment in an organization. These data produce a factorial structure of civic conduct quite similar to that regularly obtained in the American and Mexico and samples. It is also found that important antecedents, such as satisfaction, confidence in one’s imme (mas) diate superior, and distributive justice behaved as expected in this sample, but the testing of confidence as a mediator did not provide the expected results. Explanations are proposed for these results, and based on them and within the limitations of the study, certain lines for future research are proposed.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

83

Alkaloids from Cassia grandis

Valencia, Emir; Madinaveitia, A.; Bermejo, Jaime; González, Antonio G.; Gupta, M. P.
1995-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

85

A helical, aromatic, peptide nanotube

Marco Crisma, Marco; Toniolo, Claudio; Royo, Soledad; Jiménez, Ana I.; Cativiela, Carlos
2006-11-18

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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2003-11-01

Resumen en inglés The vaccination programs of the countries in the Region of the Americas have produced notable results over the last several decades. In recognition of those accomplishments, in June 2003 the 132nd session of the Executive Committee of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) called on the Member States of PAHO to prepare, within one year, national action plans for the elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) by the year 2010. During the Executive Co (mas) mmittee discussions, praise was given for the sustained efforts of the countries of the Region in the struggle to eradicate measles. The Executive Committee discussions also reiterated the recommendation that the countries establish specific line items for immunization within their national budgets, in order to protect the investments in immunization that the Region's countries have made. The analysis of results of mass vaccination against rubella indicates that the benefits coming from accelerated control greatly exceed the costs associated with the treatment and rehabilitation of children with CRS. Various factors have created an environment that supports the goal of eliminating rubella and CRS from the Americas by the year 2010. These factors include the rapid reduction in morbidity that has come from the accelerated rubella control strategy; the availability of a safe, affordable, efficacious vaccine; the evidence of the cost benefit of vaccinating against rubella; and the broad support provided by the public and by health authorities in the Member States of PAHO.

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4th Workshop on Gonadal Histology of Fishes

Wyanski, David; Brown-Peterson, Nancy
2010-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)