Sample records for KAZAKHSTAN (kazakhstan)
from WorldWideScience.org

Sample records 1 - 2 shown.



1

La renovación de la atención primaria de salud en las Américas/ Renewing primary health care in the Americas

Macinko, James; Montenegro, Hernán; Nebot Adell, Carme; Etienne, Carissa; Grupo de Trabajo de Atención Primaria de Salud de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud
2007-03-01

Resumen en español El documento "Renewing Primary Health Care in the Americas. A Position Paper of the Pan American Health Organization/WHO" es fruto del mandato de los Estados Miembros de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) para el fortalecimiento de la APS, definido por la resolución CD44.R6 del Consejo Directivo en 2003. Dicho mandato culminó con la Declaración de Montevideo, un compromiso de todos los gobiernos de las Américas para renovar la APS, entendida como la base (mas) de los sistemas de salud de la Región. Los resultados científicos demuestran que la APS es un componente clave para alcanzar la efectividad de los sistemas de salud y puede adaptarse a los diversos contextos sociales, culturales y económicos de los diferentes países. El nuevo contexto mundial hace que cambien las necesidades en salud de la población, por lo que es necesario adaptar los servicios y sistemas de salud para que puedan dar una respuesta adecuada a esas nuevas necesidades. Rescatando el legado de la Conferencia Internacional sobre Atención Primaria de Salud, celebrada en Alma-Ata (Kazajstán, antigua Unión Soviética) en 1978, la OPS propone un conjunto de líneas estratégicas esenciales para adoptar sistemas de salud basados en la APS, construidos sobre los valores de la equidad, la solidaridad y el derecho a gozar del grado máximo de salud posible. El objetivo principal de las líneas estratégicas propuestas es desarrollar o fortalecer los sistemas de salud basados en la APS en toda la Región de las Américas. Esto requerirá un esfuerzo considerable de los profesionales de la salud, los ciudadanos, los gobiernos, la sociedad civil y las agencias de cooperación. Se exponen las líneas estratégicas que deben establecerse a nivel nacional, subregional, regional y mundial. Resumen en inglés At the 2003 meeting of the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the PAHO Member States issued a mandate to strengthen primary health care (Resolution CD44.R6). The mandate led in 2005 to the document "Renewing Primary Health Care in the Americas. A Position Paper of the Pan American Health Organization/WHO [World Health Organization]," and it culminated in the Declaration of Montevideo, an agreement among the governments of the Region of the A (mas) mericas to renew their commitment to primary health care (PHC). Scientific data have shown that PHC, regarded as the basis of all the health systems in the Region, is a key component of effective health systems and can be adapted to the range of diverse social, cultural, and economic conditions that exist. The new, global health paradigm has given rise to changes in the population's health care needs. Health services and systems must adapt to address these changes. Building on the legacy of the International Conference on Primary Health Care, held in 1978 in Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), PAHO proposes a group of strategies critical to adopting PHC-based health care systems based on the principles of equity, solidarity, and the right to the highest possible standard of health. The main objective of the strategies is to develop and/or strengthen PHC-based health systems in the entire Region of the Americas. A substantial effort will be required on the part of health professionals, citizens, governments, associations, and agencies. This document explains the strategies that must be employed at the national, subregional, Regional, and global levels.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

2

La resistencia a múltiples fármacos: una amenaza para el control de la tuberculosis/ Multiple drug resistance: a threat for tuberculosis control

Cardoso, Ernesto Montoro
2004-07-01

Resumen en inglés Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) was reported soon after the introduction of streptomycin, although it did not receive major attention until recently. It was not considered a major issue in the industrialized world until outbreaks of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) were reported among HIV infected people. Administration of standard short-course chemotherapy (SSCC) with first-line drugs under directly observed therapy (DOT) is the cornerstone of modern TB control. Unfortun (mas) ately, data available on the treatment outcome of MDR-TB cases under routine programmatic conditions suggest that patients with MDR-TB respond poorly to SSCC with first-line drugs. Since 1994, the World Health Organization and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) have conducted anti-TB drug resistance surveys through a network of subregional laboratories and researchers. Drug resistance was present in almost all settings surveyed, and prevalence varied widely across regions. High prevalence of MDR-TB is widespread in the Russian Federation and areas of the former Soviet Union (Estonia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, and Lithuania) as well as Israel, Liaoning and Henan Provinces in China, and Ecuador. The Global Project has surveyed areas representing over one third of notified TB cases. However, enormous gaps still exist in the most crucial areas. The most effective strategy to prevent the emergence of drug resistance is through implementation of the directly observed treatment short (DOTS) strategy. Effective implementation of the DOTS strategy saves lives through decreased TB transmission, decreased risk of emergence of drug- resistance, and decreased risk for individual TB patients of treatment failure, TB relapse, and death. The World Bank recognizes the DOTS strategy as one of the most cost-effective health interventions, and recommends that effective TB treatment be a part of the essential clinical services package available in primary health care settings. Governments are responsible for ensuring the provision of effective TB control through the DOTS strategy. WHO and its international partners have formed the DOTS-Plus Working Group, which is attempting to determine the best possible strategy to manage MDR-TB. One of the goals of DOTS-Plus is to increase access to expensive second-line anti-TB drugs for WHO-approved TB control programmes in low- and middle-income countries.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)