Sample records for ORGANIZACION INTERNACIONAL DE NORMALIZACION (international standard organization)
from WorldWideScience.org

Sample records 1 - 20 shown. Select sample records:



3

The effects of soluble salts at the metal/paint interface: advances in knowledge

Fuente, Daniel de la; Chico, Belén; Morcillo, Manuel
2006-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

4

The Standard Model prediction for eps'/eps

Pallante, Elisabetta; Pich, Antonio; Scimemi, Ignazio
2001-06-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

5

Single- and multi-analyte determination of gonadotropic hormones in urine by Surface Plasmon Resonance immunoassay

Treviño, Juan; Calle Martín, Ana; Rodríguez Frade, José M.; Mellado, Mario; Lechuga, Laura M.
2009-08-11

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

6

Selection of internal control genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR studies during tomato development process

Expósito Rodríguez, Marino; Borges, Andrés Antonio; Borges Pérez, Andrés Antonio; Pérez, José A.
2008-12-22

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

8

Overview of BioCreAtIvE: critical assessment of information extraction for biology

Hirschman, Lynette; Yeh, Alexander; Blaschke, Christian; Valencia, Alfonso
2005-05-24

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

9

La resistencia a múltiples fármacos: una amenaza para el control de la tuberculosis/ Multiple drug resistance: a threat for tuberculosis control

Cardoso, Ernesto Montoro
2004-07-01

Resumen en inglés Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) was reported soon after the introduction of streptomycin, although it did not receive major attention until recently. It was not considered a major issue in the industrialized world until outbreaks of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) were reported among HIV infected people. Administration of standard short-course chemotherapy (SSCC) with first-line drugs under directly observed therapy (DOT) is the cornerstone of modern TB control. Unfortun (mas) ately, data available on the treatment outcome of MDR-TB cases under routine programmatic conditions suggest that patients with MDR-TB respond poorly to SSCC with first-line drugs. Since 1994, the World Health Organization and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) have conducted anti-TB drug resistance surveys through a network of subregional laboratories and researchers. Drug resistance was present in almost all settings surveyed, and prevalence varied widely across regions. High prevalence of MDR-TB is widespread in the Russian Federation and areas of the former Soviet Union (Estonia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, and Lithuania) as well as Israel, Liaoning and Henan Provinces in China, and Ecuador. The Global Project has surveyed areas representing over one third of notified TB cases. However, enormous gaps still exist in the most crucial areas. The most effective strategy to prevent the emergence of drug resistance is through implementation of the directly observed treatment short (DOTS) strategy. Effective implementation of the DOTS strategy saves lives through decreased TB transmission, decreased risk of emergence of drug- resistance, and decreased risk for individual TB patients of treatment failure, TB relapse, and death. The World Bank recognizes the DOTS strategy as one of the most cost-effective health interventions, and recommends that effective TB treatment be a part of the essential clinical services package available in primary health care settings. Governments are responsible for ensuring the provision of effective TB control through the DOTS strategy. WHO and its international partners have formed the DOTS-Plus Working Group, which is attempting to determine the best possible strategy to manage MDR-TB. One of the goals of DOTS-Plus is to increase access to expensive second-line anti-TB drugs for WHO-approved TB control programmes in low- and middle-income countries.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

10

La renovación de la atención primaria de salud en las Américas/ Renewing primary health care in the Americas

Macinko, James; Montenegro, Hernán; Nebot Adell, Carme; Etienne, Carissa; Grupo de Trabajo de Atención Primaria de Salud de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud
2007-03-01

Resumen en español El documento "Renewing Primary Health Care in the Americas. A Position Paper of the Pan American Health Organization/WHO" es fruto del mandato de los Estados Miembros de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) para el fortalecimiento de la APS, definido por la resolución CD44.R6 del Consejo Directivo en 2003. Dicho mandato culminó con la Declaración de Montevideo, un compromiso de todos los gobiernos de las Américas para renovar la APS, entendida como la base (mas) de los sistemas de salud de la Región. Los resultados científicos demuestran que la APS es un componente clave para alcanzar la efectividad de los sistemas de salud y puede adaptarse a los diversos contextos sociales, culturales y económicos de los diferentes países. El nuevo contexto mundial hace que cambien las necesidades en salud de la población, por lo que es necesario adaptar los servicios y sistemas de salud para que puedan dar una respuesta adecuada a esas nuevas necesidades. Rescatando el legado de la Conferencia Internacional sobre Atención Primaria de Salud, celebrada en Alma-Ata (Kazajstán, antigua Unión Soviética) en 1978, la OPS propone un conjunto de líneas estratégicas esenciales para adoptar sistemas de salud basados en la APS, construidos sobre los valores de la equidad, la solidaridad y el derecho a gozar del grado máximo de salud posible. El objetivo principal de las líneas estratégicas propuestas es desarrollar o fortalecer los sistemas de salud basados en la APS en toda la Región de las Américas. Esto requerirá un esfuerzo considerable de los profesionales de la salud, los ciudadanos, los gobiernos, la sociedad civil y las agencias de cooperación. Se exponen las líneas estratégicas que deben establecerse a nivel nacional, subregional, regional y mundial. Resumen en inglés At the 2003 meeting of the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the PAHO Member States issued a mandate to strengthen primary health care (Resolution CD44.R6). The mandate led in 2005 to the document "Renewing Primary Health Care in the Americas. A Position Paper of the Pan American Health Organization/WHO [World Health Organization]," and it culminated in the Declaration of Montevideo, an agreement among the governments of the Region of the A (mas) mericas to renew their commitment to primary health care (PHC). Scientific data have shown that PHC, regarded as the basis of all the health systems in the Region, is a key component of effective health systems and can be adapted to the range of diverse social, cultural, and economic conditions that exist. The new, global health paradigm has given rise to changes in the population's health care needs. Health services and systems must adapt to address these changes. Building on the legacy of the International Conference on Primary Health Care, held in 1978 in Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), PAHO proposes a group of strategies critical to adopting PHC-based health care systems based on the principles of equity, solidarity, and the right to the highest possible standard of health. The main objective of the strategies is to develop and/or strengthen PHC-based health systems in the entire Region of the Americas. A substantial effort will be required on the part of health professionals, citizens, governments, associations, and agencies. This document explains the strategies that must be employed at the national, subregional, Regional, and global levels.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

11

La norma argentina de construcción de tesauros IRAM 32057: necesidad de actualización. 1. El vocabulario controlado/ The Argentine Standard for Thesaurus Construction IRAM 32057: a Need for Updating. 1. The Controlled Vocabulary

Martínez, Ana M.; Mendes, Paola
2009-12-01

Resumen en español Se comparó la norma argentina de construcción de tesauros monolingües (IRAM 32057:1983) con las últimas ediciones de la norma internacional (ISO 2788:1986), las normas nacionales de España (UNE 50106:1990), Estados Unidos (Z39.19:2005) y Gran Bretaña (BSI 8723-2:2005b), así como diversos manuales reconocidos. Se analizaron tanto el alcance y los aspectos formales de la norma, como los conceptos referidos a la normativa sobre el vocabulario controlado. El alcance de (mas) la norma argentina se limita a la construcción de tesauros monolingües, mientras que las nuevas normas estadounidense y británica cubren también diferentes sistemas de organización del conocimiento. En relación con los aspectos formales, la norma argentina carece de tabla de contenido, índice analítico, glosario, bibliografía y algunas secciones y anexos, contando además con muy pocos ejemplos. En cuanto a los aspectos conceptuales, algunas definiciones son incorrectas o desactualizadas, lo mismo que algunas de las recomendaciones para el control del vocabulario. Se concluye que la norma argentina debería revisarse y actualizarse de conformidad con las normas publicadas recientemente y la norma ISO 25964 aún en preparación. Resumen en inglés The Argentine standard for the construction of monolingual thesaurus (IRAM 32057:1983) was compared with the last editions of the international standard (ISO 2788:1986), and the national standards of Spain (UNE 50106:1990), United States (Z39.19:2005), and Great Britain (BSI 8723-2:2005b), and very well known manuals. The scope and formal issues were analyzed, as well as the conceptual issues for controlled vocabulary. The scope of the Argentine standard is limited to the (mas) construction of monolingual thesauri, while the new North-American and British standards also cover different knowledge organization systems. In relation to the formal issues, the Argentine standard has not table of content, analytical index, glossary, bibliography and some sections and annexes, having very few examples. In reference to conceptual issues, some definitions are incorrect or outdated, as well as some recommendations for vocabulary control. We conclude that the Argentine standards should be reviewed and updated in agreement to the recently published standards, and the ISO 25964 standard, still in preparation.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

12
13

Information-based compact Pose SLAM

Ila, Viorela Simona; Porta Pleite, Josep Maria; Andrade Cetto, Juan
2010-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

14

Gliomas cerebrales de bajo grado en el adulto

Suárez, Julio César; Zunino, S; Viano, Juan Carlos; Herrera, Enrique; Theaux, R; Surur, A; Jarchum, G; Lavarda, M; Sonzini Astudillo, B; Arneodo, M
2008-03-01

Resumen en español Objetivo. Bajo esta denominación se incluyen a los astrocitomas fibrilares y protoplasmáticos, a los oligodendrogliomas, y a los oligoastrocitomas o tumores mixtos, que corresponden a los grados II de la nueva clasificación de la OMS . Los astrocitomas de bajo grado representan el 15% de los gliomas hemisféricos cerebrales en el adulto. Los oligodendrogliomas tienen una incidencia del 4% (2,4). Presentamos la experiencia de nuestro grupo de trabajo con este tipo de tu (mas) mores entre enero de 1972 y diciembre de 2006. Material y método. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de 25 pacientes adultos que presentaron esta variedad de tumor, de los cuales 15 eran mujeres y 10 varones, que representan el 15,6% de los gliomas cerebrales en este grupo etario. Resultados. Quince eran astrocitomas fibrilares, ocho oligodendrogliomas y dos oligoastrocitomas. El principal estudio de imagen fue la resonancia nuclear magnética con espectroscopia. El tratamiento dependió de la ubicación y del volumen tumoral, siendo la cirugía y la radioterapia las modalidades terapéuticas mas empleadas. El tumor recidivó en 16 enfermos, con una media de 37 ± 21 meses después del diagnóstico, cuyas histopatologías mostraron ser: astrocitomas anaplásicos en 7 y glioblastomas multiformes en 9. Han fallecido 16 enfermos, 14 por el tumor cerebral, uno por cáncer de lengua y otro por embolia pulmonar producida a los 10 días de la cirugía, con una mediana de sobrevida de 44 meses (10 días a 120 meses). De los 9 pacientes que viven, 7 tienen oligodendrogliomas, 2 astrocitomas, y uno tiene un oligoastrocitoma; 7 requieren medicación antiepilética, ninguno tiene secuelas neurológicas, con una mediana de sobrevida de 36 meses (6 a 120 meses); dos han tenido recidiva, correspondientes a un oligodendroglioma y a un oligoastrocitoma, a los 22 y 60 meses respectivamente del diagnóstico, en los dos casos el tumor pasó de ser un grado II a grado III. Conclusión. La frecuencia relativa del 15,6% de todos los gliomas del adulto en nuestra serie coincide con cifras internacionales. Edad menor de 40 años, convulsiones como síntoma de presentación y extensión de la resección quirúrgica son factores pronósticos favorables de importancia, junto con un bajo índice del Ki 67 en los astrocitomas y la presencia de alteraciones en los cromosomas 1p y 19q en los oligodendrogliomas. La IRM en sus variedades estándar, con gadolinio, espectroscopia y funcional es el estudio más útil durante las diferentes alternativas del proceso diagnóstico y los estudios inmunohistoquímicos juntos con los de biología molecular son los mas importantes para el pronóstico de estos tumores. Resumen en inglés Objective. Gliomas reviewed in this article are grade II tumors according to the World Health Organization (WHO), that include: fibrillary and protoplasmic astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas or mix tumors (1,2,3).Low grade astrocytomas constitute 15% of brain tumors in adults, while low grade oligodendrogliomas represent 4% (2,4). We present our experience with this type of tumor operated on between January 1972 and December 2006. Material and Method. (mas) The clinical reports of 25 patients with this type of tumor were analyzed, 15 women and 10 men, which represent 15,6% of hemispheric brain gliomas in adults in our series. Results. Fifteen were fibrillary astrocytomas, 8 oligodendrogliomas and 2 oligoastrocytomas. Treatment depended on tumor localization and size. Surgery and radiotherapy were the therapeutic modalities most frequently used. Tumor recurrence was observed in 16 patients, with a media of 37+/- 21 months after diagnosis: 7 anaplastic astrocytomas and 9 glioblastomas multiforme. In this series, 16 patients died with a median of 44 months (10 days to 120 months) after diagnosis. Cause of death were: tumor itself, in 14 cases, tongue cancer in 1, and pulmonary embolism after surgery in another. From the 9 surviving patients, 6 have oligodendrogliomas, 2 astrocytomas and 1 an oligoastrocytoma. Seven patients need antiepileptic drug and none of them presents neurological sequels. The survival mediana was 36 months (6 to 120 months). Two of them had two recurrences between 22 and 60 months after diagnosis, one oligodendroglioma and the other an oligoastrocytoma; in both cases tumors grade II became tumors grade III. Conclusion. The relative incidence of 15,6% in adult gliomas of our series is similar to the international experience. Age, younger as 40 years, seizures, as clinical presentation, extension of surgical resection, low Ki 67 index in astrocytomas, and loss of chromosome 1p and 19q in oligodendrogliomas are favorable prognostic factors. IRM standard, with gadoline, with spectroscopy and functional is the main image study for diagnosis, and inmunohistochimestry together with molecular biology studies are important for tumor prognosis.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

15

Gestión de la calidad en una unidad de cuidados intensivos: implementación de la norma ISO 9001:2008/ Management of Quality in an Intensive Care Unit: Implementation of ISO 9001:2008 international standard

Lorenzo Torrent, R.; Sánchez Palacios, M.; Santana Cabrera, L.; Cobian Martinez, J.L.; García del Rosario, C.
2010-10-01

Resumen en español Los sistemas de gestión de la calidad permiten priorizar acciones para que se pueda mantener la seguridad y la eficacia de las tecnologías sanitarias. En la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) de nuestro hospital se ha implementado un plan de gestión de la calidad, que ha obtenido el reconocimiento como "Servicio Certificado que gestiona sus actividades según la norma UNE-EN ISO 9001:2008". Con la aplicación del sistema de gestión de la calidad se logra detectar las (mas) necesidades que puede cubrir el servicio, esto con el fin de lograr la satisfacción del paciente, familiar o personal sanitario del resto de los servicios del hospital, mejorar las comunicaciones dentro y fuera del servicio, conseguir una mayor comprensión de los procesos de la organización y control de riesgo, delimitar responsabilidades de forma clara a todo el personal, llevar a cabo una mejor utilización del tiempo y los recursos y, por último, mejorar, si cabe, la motivación del personal. Resumen en inglés The Quality Management Systems make it possible to prioritize actions to maintain the safety and efficacy of health technologies. The Intensive Care Unit of our hospital has implemented a quality management plan, which has obtained accreditation as "Service Certificate that manages its activities according to UNE-EN ISO 9001:2008" standard. With the application of quality management system, it has been possible to detect the needs that the Service can cover in order to ob (mas) tain the satisfaction of the patient, relative or health personnel of the other services of the hospital, to improve communications inside and outside of service, to secure greater understanding of the processes of the organization and control of risk, to delimit responsibilities clearly to all the personnel, to make better use of the time and resources and, finally, to improve the motivation of the personnel.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

16

Flavor physics in the quark sector

Martínez-Vidal, Fernando; Pich, Antonio
2010-09-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

17

Evaluación de funcionalidad, discapacidad y salud para la rehabilitación psicosocial de pacientes asilados por trastornos mentales graves/ Evaluation of functioning, disability, and health status for psychosocial rehabilitation among institutionalized patients with severe mental disorders

Robles García, Rebeca; Medina Dávalos, Rafael; Páez Agraz, Francisco; Becerra Rodríguez, Benjamín
2010-02-01

Resumen en español Introducción En este reporte se presentan los resultados de la evaluación de funcionalidad, discapacidad y estado de salud de las personas con trastornos mentales graves y persistentes que se encuentran asiladas en el Centro de Atención Integral en Salud Mental de Estancia Prolongada (CAISAME-EP) del Instituto Jalisciense de Salud Mental (SALME), la instancia de la Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Jalisco que se encarga de la atención psiquiátrica de la entidad. El (mas) estudio se llevó a cabo para impulsar el desarrollo de políticas y programas de atención en salud mental locales que puedan elevar el estatus funcional y el bienestar vital de estos individuos. Adicionalmente se proporcionan los primeros datos de validez y confiabilidad, en población mexicana con trastornos mentales graves y persistentes, de la versión en español del apartado de > de la lista corta de cotejo de la CIF. Método Los pacientes hospitalizados en los pabellones de la institución denominados > fueron evaluados con base en: 1. el apartado de > de la lista corta de cotejo de la CIF (AP-LC-CIF); 2. la Escala de Evaluación de la Actividad Global (EEAG) y 3. el Perfil de Habilidades de la Vida Cotidiana (PHVC). Resultados De un total de 205 usuarios, el 64.9% eran de sexo masculino. Tenían una edad promedio de 40.28±14.39 años y se encontraban hospitalizados hacía 18.04±10.29 años. El diagnóstico más frecuente fue el retraso mental severo (29.8%), le siguió el moderado (15.6%), la esquizofrenia residual e indiferenciada (8.3%), y la esquizofrenia paranoide (7.8%). El 48.8% de la muestra presentó alguna otra enfermedad física (n=102). La mayoría de los usuarios tuvieron entre 31 y 40 de puntuación en la EEAG (n=54, 26.3%); el área de mayor deterioro en actividades de la vida cotidiana (PHVC) fue la relativa al contacto social interpersonal, seguida de la de autocuidado; y los dominios del AP-LC-CIF con mayor disfunción fueron: vida comunitaria, social y cívica; vida doméstica; interacciones y relaciones interpersonales, y áreas principales de la vida. Conclusiones Se identificaron tres grandes grupos de pacientes con enfermedades mentales graves y persistentes asilados en el Estado de Jalisco, México; con necesidades de atención diferentes entre sí. Por una parte, existe un alto porcentaje de usuarios con retraso mental pronunciado que no requiere de atención psiquiátrica continua bajo una norma hospitalaria costosa, sino cuidados en un ambiente protegido que no sea un hospital psiquiátrico. Por otro lado, prácticamente un 70% de los pacientes asilados en la institución es teóricamente susceptible de rehabilitación comunitaria y no hay razón que justifique que vivan en un hospital psiquiátrico. Sin embargo, un tercer grupo de pacientes, que constituye además un altísimo porcentaje, ha estado asilado ahí durante muchos años lo que implica sumar a las tareas para implementar un sistema de rehabilitación comunitaria, un proceso de desinstitucionalización psiquiátrica. La presente evaluación de la discapacidad y la funcionalidad de la población asilada en la institución fue de utilidad para al menos dos asuntos. En primer lugar, para demostrar la adecuación del apartado de actividades y participación la CIF para evaluar a la población psiquiátrica con trastornos mentales graves. Y en segundo lugar, para impulsar la planeación y desarrollo de instancias y programas de rehabilitación psiquiátrica comunitaria en la entidad. Idealmente, éstos deberán implementarse resolviendo las necesidades de capacitación específica del personal, así como el estigma y discriminación que asecha a estos pacientes y sus familias. Resumen en inglés Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) made a major shift on the outcomes of illness, diseases, and interventions from clinical indicators to those related with levels of functioning and disability, as well as the possibility to determine areas of improvement on a case-by-case basis. Along with this theoretical approach, a new instrument was proposed to WHO members: the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The instrument is f (mas) lexible, easy to apply in different clinical scenarios (it is not attached to a cluster of diseases), culturally adapted in several languages, and complementary to clinical and para-clinical information. In psychiatry, the use of the ICF may be highly valuable to establish the preserved areas of functioning as well as the most salient disabilities to formulate a proper case management, and then, to plan adequate public policies. This report includes the results of an evaluation of functioning, disability and heath dimensions, along with the psychometric properties of the ICF checklist, among people with severe and persistent mental disorders that have been institutionalized in a psychiatric hospital in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. Method Subjects: Inmates of a 50 year old psychiatric facility, dependent from the Mental Health Institute of Jalisco (SALME), within the frame of the Ministry of Health of the State of Jalisco in Mexico. This facility is divided in acute wards, were patients are hospitalized in acute phases of severe and persistent mental disorders, and > wards which have existed since the origins of the hospital and became a place where people were abandoned and finally stayed institutionalized under the State's support and supervision. The later population was included in this evaluation. Measures: A psychiatrist (AM), previously trained on the administration of the ICF, supervised the evaluation of: 1) the > domains of the Short list of ICF proposed by WHO (AP-ICF); 2) The American Psychiatric Association's Global Assessment of Functionality Scale (GAF); and 3) The Life Skills Profile(LKP). Results A total sample of 205 subjects was included; they were 64.9% males, with a mean age of 40.28±14.39 years old. The mean hospitalization time was 18.04±10.29 years. Psychiatric diagnosis distribution was: severe mental retardation (MR) (29.8%); moderate MR (15.6%), residual or undifferentiated schizophrenia (8.3%), and paranoid schizophrenia (7.8%). A concurrent physical illness was identified in 48.8% (n=112) of the subjects. Salient health problems were: epilepsy (n=47, 22.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=6, 2.9%), diabetes (n=5, 2.4%), and systemic arterial hypertension (n= 4, 2%). AP-ICF validity and reliability: Correlations between AP-ICF domains and GAF were all moderate (between -.51 to -.71), negative and statistically significant. Cronbach's alphas were as follows: a) Learning and applying knowledge: .85 for the first qualifier, and .89 for the second; b) General tasks and demands: .90 and .92; c) Communication: .93 for both qualifiers; d) Movement: .78 for the first qualifier, and .89 for second qualifier; e) Self Care: .94 and .96; f) Domestic Life Areas: .91 and .95; g) Interpersonal Interactions: .79 and .91; h) Major Life Areas: .59 and .70; i) Community, Social and Civic Life: .75 and .72. Functionality and disability among institutionalized patients: In the Global Assessment of Functioning measure, subjects distribution belonging to punctuations ranges were: 31-40 points(n=54, 26.3%); 11-20 points (22.9%,n=47); 21-30 points (21%,n=43); 41-50 points (14.6%,n=30); 51-60 points (11.2%, n=23); 61-70 points (2.9%, n=6), and 1% felled in the > range. On the Life Skills Profile (LSP), means and standard deviations were as follows: a) Self Care: row score= 19.85 ± 3.42, percentage transformation= 49.64% ± 8.56; b) Social Communication: row score= 16.70±3.42, percentage transformation= 41.76% ± 9.39; c) Communication with contact: row score= 14.00 ± 2.60, percentage transformation= 58.35% ± 10.85; d) Communication without contact: row score= 9.39 ± 2.47, percentage transformation= 39.12% ± 10.30; e) Autonomy Life: row score= 11.87 ±1.89, percentage transformation= 42.40% ± 6.76. Major > (ICF) dysfunction domains were as follows: Community, social and civic life, Domestic life areas, Interpersonal interactions, and Major life areas. For the first qualifier, mean row scores and percentage transformations for all activities and participation domains were: a) Learning & applying knowledge: 14.66 ± 5.40, 61.09% ± 22.5; b) General Tasks and demands: 4.78 ± 2.6, 59.75% ± 33.22; c) Communication: 8.88 ± 6.4, 44.43% ± 32.35; d) Movement: 2.63 ± 3.8, 10.99% ± 15.89; e) Self Care: 9.21 ± 8.5, 28.79% ± 26.73; f) Interpersonal Life Interactions: 20.06 ± 5.7, 71.67% ± 20.41; g) Major Life Areas: 15.15 ± 6.5, 63.15% ± 27.08; h) Community, Social & Civic Life: 17.42 ± 2.7, 87.10% ± 13.86. For the second qualifier, mean row scores and percentage transformations for all activities and participation domains were: a) Learning & applying knowledge:12.34 ± 5.8, 51.44% ± 24.33; b) General Tasks and demands: 3.91 ± 2.63, 48.90% ± 32.96; c) Communication: 7.36 ± 6.21, 36.82% ± 31.07; d) Movement: 2.24 ± 3.58, 9.34% ± 14.93; e) Self Care: 5.80 ± 7.15, 18.12% ± 22.37; f) Interpersonal Life Interactions: 16.88 ± 7.49, 52.77% ± 23.40; g) Major Life Areas: 13.5 ± 7.18, 56.25% ± 29.92; h) Community, Social & Civic Life: 14.29 ± 5.11, 71.48% ± 25.58. Conclusions In this study we identified three mayor groups of institutionalized patients, with different needs of attention. First, a group of people with severe disability, that do not require a permanent psychiatric hospitalization supervision and could benefit from treatment and increase quality of life in other kind community care facilities. A major second group (around 70% of patients) that are theoretically candidates for community rehabilitation and social reinsertion, in whom there is no scientific argument to justify their institutionalization in a psychiatric hospital. Reasons for this reality are to be explored in further social and service history implementation. A third subgroup of patients had been hospitalized many years, and for them, given the need of constant supervision is necessary and an alternative permanent assistance may be granted, but the psychiatric hospital is not the facility designated for them. Functioning and disability evaluation of persons with severe and persistent mental disorders that are institutionalized in the Mental Health Institute of Jalisco, Mexico, was useful to motivate and develop local communitarian psychiatric rehabilitation facilities and programs. Finally, we suggest that > domains of ICF checklist are a valid and reliable tool to evaluate Mexican psychiatric patients.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

18

Estudio epidemiológico de sucesos traumáticos, trastorno de estrés post-traumático y otros trastornos psiquiátricos en una muestra representativa de Chile/ Epidemiology of trauma, PTSD and other psychiatric disorders in a representative population of Chile

Pérez Benítez, Carlos I.; Vicente, Benjamín; Zlotnick, Caron; Kohn, Robert; Johnson, Jennifer; Valdivia, Sandra; Rioseco, Pedro
2009-04-01

Resumen en español Durante la década de 1990 en los Estados Unidos (EU), el conocimiento sobre el trastorno de estrés post-traumático (TEPT) evolucionó de estudios específicos en un principio, sobre veteranos de guerra y sobre víctimas de desastres, a estudios epidemiológicos más tarde, sin embargo, la epidemiología del TEPT en países en desarrollo ha sido un área poco estudiada hasta ahora. Los expertos en el área de trauma han propuesto que los sucesos traumáticos que ocurren (mas) en la niñez son más perjudiciales para la salud mental que aquellos que ocurren más tarde en la vida. Este trabajo revisa los resultados de un estudio epidemiológico llevado a cabo en Chile. Específicamente, se revisan los resultados sobre las tasas de prevalencia del TEPT, traumas asociados más frecuentemente con él, así como la comorbilidad de este trastorno con otros trastornos psiquiátricos a lo largo de la vida. Igualmente se analizaron las diferencias del TEPT en cada sexo, así como la exposición a traumas en una muestra representativa de chilenos. Además se comparó la prevalencia de trastornos psiquiátricos en personas que sufrieron su primer trauma durante la niñez, durante la edad adulta, o que no reportaron traumas durante su vida. En estos estudios epidemiológicos se usaron módulos del TEPT y trastorno de personalidad antisocial (TPA) de la entrevista diagnóstica siguiendo los criterios del DSM-III-R (DIS-III-R). Para evaluar el resto de los trastornos psiquiátricos se usó la Entrevista Diagnóstica Internacional Compuesta (CIDI). Estos instrumentos fueron administrados en tres ciudades chilenas a 2390 personas mayores de 15 años. Para estimar los errores estándares (EE) debido al diseño de la muestra y a la necesidad de ajuste se usó el método Taylor de linearización seriada. También se usó un análisis de regresión logística para examinar la relación entre el TEPT, los factores demográficos de riesgo y el tipo de trauma. Además se utilizó la regresión logística multivariada para evaluar si la relación entre el TEPT y el sexo pudiera ser explicada por medio de otros factores de riesgo, así como para calcular las tasas y la oportunidad relativa (razón de productos cruzados) de trastornos psiquiátricos a lo largo de la vida. El primer análisis arrojó que la prevalencia de TEPT a lo largo de la vida fue de 4.4% (2.5% para hombres y 6.2% para mujeres). De los hechos traumáticos reportados, la violación sexual tuvo una correlación más alta con el TEPT que los demás hechos traumáticos. Las mujeres tuvieron más probabilidades de experimentar TEPT que los hombres, después de controlar la variable asalto violento. El segundo análisis evidenció que los que habían sufrido traumas a lo largo de la vida tuvieron mayor probabilidad de tener un trastorno psiquiátrico en comparación con aquellos que no reportaron traumas. También se encontró que los que sufrieron su primer trauma durante la infancia tuvieron más probabilidad de desarrollar trastornos de pánico a lo largo de la vida que aquellos que sufrieron su primer trauma en la edad adulta, independientemente del número de traumas que sufrieron y de las diferencias demográficas. Aunque Chile tiene un contexto histórico-cultural y una economía diferente a otros países en los que se ha estudiado anteriormente la epidemiología del TEPT, el presente estudio reflejó tendencias similares a las reportadas en estudios previos. Los hallazgos expuestos enfatizan la importancia de investigar la prevalencia del TEPT, los patrones de comorbilidad del TEPT y las diferencias de sexo en la prevalencia del TEPT en diferentes países. También estos resultados sugieren que los sucesos traumáticos en la infancia (y no en la adultez) pueden estar relacionados con la ocurrencia de trastornos psiquiátricos específicos. Resumen en inglés In the last decade, our understanding of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has progressed from studies of war veterans and specific disaster victims to studies that examine the epidemiology of PTSD in the United States (USA) population. Epidemiologic data on PTSD in developing countries is an understudied area with the majority of studies were developed in the USA and other developed countries. Of the few epidemiological surveys undertaken in other countries, most of t (mas) hem have focused its interest on the prevalence rates of PTSD and its risk factors for following specific traumatic events. Besides increasing the international normative and descriptive data base on PTSD, an examination of prevalence rates and risk factors for PTSD in a socio-political and cultural context (that is markedly different to established market economies) can deepen our understanding of the phenomenology and determinants of PTSD. Although many psychiatric diagnoses can be related with previous traumatic experiences, PTSD has been identified as a disorder that requires a previous traumatic exposure for its diagnosis. A growing literature strongly suggests that early exposure to traumatic events disrupts crucial normal stages of childhood development and predisposes children to subsequent psychiatric sequelae. A series of epidemiological studies has demonstrated that childhood sexual abuse is associated with a range of psychiatric disorders in adulthood that includes mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, even after adjusting for possible confounds, such as family factors and parental psychopathological disorders or other childhood adversities. There is little evidence of diagnostic specificity of childhood sexual abuse, although a consistent finding has been that alcohol and drug disorders are more strongly related to childhood sexual abuse than other psychiatric disorders. Other forms of childhood traumas have been less well studied. This article reviews the findings of an epidemiological study that took place in Chile and examined prevalence rates of PTSD, traumatic events most often associated with PTSD, comorbidity of PTSD with other lifetime psychiatric disorders, gender differences in PTSD as well as trauma exposure in a representative sample of Chileans. This article also reported a comparison of prevalence rates of various psychiatric disorders among persons who reported the first trauma during their childhood, those who reported the first trauma during their adulthood, and those with no trauma history. The study was based on a household-stratified sample of people defined by the health service system to be adults (aged 15 years and older). The study was designed to represent the population of Chile. This analysis is limited to three geographically distinct provinces, chosen as being representative of the distribution of much of the population. The interviews were administered to a representative sample of 2390 persons aged 15 to over 64 years. The measures used were the DSM-III-R PTSD and antisocial personality disorder modules from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and modules for a range of DSM-III-R diagnoses from the Composite International Diagnostic. Traumatic events were categorized into one of 11 categories: military combat, rape, physical assault, seeing someone hurt or killed, disaster, threat, narrow escape, sudden injury/ accident, news of a sudden death or accident, other event (e.g. kidnapping, torture), or other experience. The translation into Spanish was conducted using the protocol outlined by the World Health Organization. The interviewers were all university students in their senior year studying social sciences. Taylor series linearization method was used to estimate the standard errors due to the sample design and the need for weighting. The analysis was conducted using procedures without replacement for non-respondents. The region, province, comuna, and district selected were used as the defined strata. Logistic regression with the corresponding 95% confidence interval was used to examine associations among PTSD, demographic risk factors, and trauma type. To examine whether the association between PTSD and gender could be explained by other risk factors, multivariate logistic regression analyses were also conducted. The first analysis found that the lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 4.4% (2.5% for men and 6.2% for women). Among the traumatic events, rape was most strongly associated with PTSD diagnosis. Among those exposed to traumas, women were significantly more likely to develop PTSD than men, after controlling for assaultive violence. The second analysis revealed that exposure to a lifetime trauma was associated with a higher probability of psychiatric morbidity in comparison with no trauma exposure. Traumas with childhood onset were significantly related to lifetime panic disorder, independent of number of lifetime traumas and demographic differences. This revealed that women had more probabilities than men of developing PTSD once they are exposed to trauma, independent of previous traumas, experiences of sexual assault, other violent experiences or level of education. Some authors have proposed that women have a higher vulnerability than men to develop PTSD and that there are sex differences in brain morphology, in the social interpretation of trauma, or/and in the peritraumatic dissociative experience. Although many theories have been proposed to explain this gender difference in PTSD, more research is needed to evaluate them empirically. This study highlights the importance of investigating the prevalence of PTSD, the patterns of comorbidity of PTSD, as well as gender differences of PTSD in non-English speaking countries. Although Chile has a different historical and socio-cultural context with respect to other countries in which the epidemiology of PTSD has been examined, in general, this study achieved similar results as those found in other studies. The results showed that PTSD is not an uncommon psychiatric illness, it is associated with a high degree of psychiatric comorbidity, it is more likely to predate other psychiatric disorders. Also, the results showed that men are more likely to be exposed to traumas than women, women are more likely than men to develop PTSD, and that PTSD is associated with relatively high treatment utilization. However, compared to another country in Latin America, such as Mexico, Chile has a lower prevalence of PTSD and trauma exposure, which may due to socio-economic factors, such as less inequity between the wealthy and the poor and less violence, crime, and poverty in Chile than Mexico. These studies also suggest that traumatic events that occur in childhood are related to specific disorders rather than those that occurred later in life. Individuals with childhood interpersonal trauma exposure are more likely to suffer from lifetime panic disorder, agoraphobia or PTSD compared to those who experience interpersonal trauma as an adult. However, research should examine the specificity of these disorders in relation to various types of childhood traumas. Limitations of the current study include the use of lay interviewers who, despite acceptable levels of reliability and validity, may be less accurate than clinicians as interviewers. Also the retrospective recall of lifetime disorders is likely to be less accurate than a more recent time frame. The sample used in this study does not show nation wide perspective, because the Southern portion of the country which includes much of the indigenous population was excluded. This study, like most epidemiological studies, did not use an-depth or validated index of trauma, which may have diluted findings. Since this study was cross-sectional, a direct cause-effect relationship cannot be assumed between trauma exposure and subsequent disorders.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

21

Corrosión atmosférica de metales en condiciones climáticas extremas

Chico, Belén; Fuente, Daniel de la; Morcillo, Manuel
2000-06-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

22

Comparación entre referencias de las prevalencias de sobrepeso y obesidad, estimadas a través del Índice de Masa Corporal, en niños de Argentina/ Comparison between references of the overweight and obesity prevalence, through the Body Mass Index, in Argentinean children

Padula, Gisel; Salceda, Susana A
2008-12-01

Resumen en español La evaluación de la situación nutricional de los niños, depende en gran medida de las curvas de crecimiento utilizadas. El objetivo de esta investigación es comparar las prevalencias de sobrepeso y obesidad estimadas con tres referencias internacionales en una población de niños, a través del Índice de Masa Corporal. Se incluyeron 737 niños/as nacidos de término sanos, de 2 a 5 años (estudio transversal). La Participación fue voluntaria y consentida. Se establ (mas) eció el Índice de Masa Corporal (kg/m²). Las técnicas de medición se basaron en guías nacionales. Las referencias utilizadas fueron: 1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (>Pc85: sobrepeso; > Pc95: obesidad); 2. International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) (valores límites sexo-edad específicos) y 3. Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) (+2 desvíos estándar: sobrepeso; >+3: obesidad). Los resultados fueron evaluados estadísticamente mediante el programa Epi Info 6.0 (χ², p Resumen en inglés The evaluation of child nutritional status is highly dependent on the growth charts used. The aim of this study was to compare different references assessing overweight and obesity in children population, through the Body Mass Index. A total of 737 healthy children born at term, aged 2-5 years, were included (cross-sectional study). The participation was voluntary and consent. Body Mass Index (kg/m²) was estimated. The measurements techniques were based on national guide (mas) lines. We compared three references: (1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (>Pc85: overweight; >Pc95: obesity; (2) International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) (sex-age-specific body mass index cut-offs); (3) World Health Organization (WHO) (+2 standard deviation: overweight; +3: obesity). The Epi Info 6.0 software was used to the statistical evaluation ((χ2, p≤ , 05%). The prevalence of overweight was 1,1 and 2,33 times higher in CDC application respect to the IOTF and the WHO references respectively. The prevalence of overweight was 2,1 times higher in IOTF application respect to the WHO references (p=, 00001). The prevalence of obesity was 5,4 and 23,9 times higher in CDC application respect to the IOTF and the WHO references respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 4,4 times higher in IOTF application respect to the WHO references (p=, 0000001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity, calculated through the BMI, differs substantially according to the reference and cut-off points used. In the absence of even a single criterion, each of the references should be used with care.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

23

Children's Gestures from 18 to 30 months

Andrén, Mats

This thesis concerns the nature of the gestures performed by five Swedish children. The children are followed from 18 to 30 months of age: an age range which is characterized by a rapid succession of developmental changes in children's abilities to communicate by means of both spoken language and ge...

DRIVER (Spanish)

25

4th Workshop on Gonadal Histology of Fishes

Wyanski, David; Brown-Peterson, Nancy
2010-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)