Sample records for HIDROLOGIA (hydrology)
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1

Estudio de la climatología y la hidrología de la Cuenca del Plata en un conjunto de modelos climáticos globales/ Study of the La Plata Basin climatology and hydrology in a set of global climate models

Saurrala, Ramiro; Barros, Vicente
2009-06-01

Resumen en español La Cuenca del Plata provee de agua potable a millones de personas a través de cinco países en Sudamérica. En el contexto de un potencial cambio futuro en las condiciones medias del clima, los caudales de los ríos de la cuenca podrían verse afectados y en este sentido es de sumo interés poder inferir estos posibles cambios en los caudales para década venideras. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar la habilidad de tres modelos climáticos globales (CNRM-CM3, ECH (mas) AM5-MPI/OM y GFDL-CM2.0) en simular los caudales observados de los principales ríos de la Cuenca del Plata. Para ello, se emplearon las salidas de precipitación y temperatura de esos modelos climáticos para forzar un modelo hidrológico distribuido durante la última década del siglo XX (1990- 1999). Los resultados muestran que los tres modelos presentan serias deficiencias en la representación del ciclo hidrológico y que esas diferencias están principalmente explicadas por los importantes errores que tienen en los patrones de precipitación y temperatura sobre el sur de Sudamérica. Esto determina un fuerte impedimento al potencial uso que se podría dar a estos modelos para inferir posibles cambios futuros en los caudales de los ríos de la región. Resumen en inglés Hydrological modeling is a potent tool that can be useful to, among other things, determine the potential future availability of fresh water on Earth. In particular, the La Plata Basin supplies fresh water to millions of people across five countries. In a context of possible future changes on climate, river streamflows could be affected and in this sense it is of crucial importance to infer these potential changes for the upcoming decades. The objective of this paper is t (mas) o determine the ability of three climate models (CNRM-CM3, ECHAM5-MPI/OM and GFDL-CM2.0) to simulate the observed discharges of the main La Plata Basin rivers. To force the distributed hydrology model, climate models output data included daily minimum and maximum temperature and precipitation during the last decade of last century (1990-1999). Results show that the three models display serious deficiencies to adequately capture the hydrological cycle of the basin and that these deficiencies are mainly due to the important errors in the temperature and precipitation fields over southern South America. This fact poses a strong limitation in the potential use of these models to perform inferences about future changes across the basin.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

2

Estudio anual del zooplancton: composición, abundancia, biomasa e hidrología del norte de Quintana Roo, mar Caribe de México/ Annual study of zooplankton: composition, abundance, biomass and hydrology from the north of Quintana Roo, Mexican Caribbean Sea

Álvarez-Cadena, José N; Ordóñez-López, Uriel; Valdés-Lozano, David; Almaral-Mendívil, Alma Rosa; Uicab-Sabido, Amira
2007-12-01

Resumen en español Se llevaron a cabo muestreos de zooplancton en la zona lagunar y costera del Caribe mexicano, desde Puerto Morelos hasta Cancún. Las recolectas se llevaron a cabo de enero a diciembre de 2004 en 12 localidades. Se identificaron 41 grupos del zooplancton donde los copépodos fueron los más abundantes (61%) seguidos de las larvas de equinodermos (17%) y decápodos (5%). El copépodo Acartia tonsa fue la especie más abundante de este grupo en el Sistema Lagunar Nichupté (mas) (SLN). En la zona marina adyacente los copépodos estuvieron representados en orden de importancia por Acartia spinata, Pseudocalanus sp. y Calanopia americana. En todas las estaciones se capturaron equinodermos del tipo equinopluteus-ofiopluteus, pero con mayor abundancia en el SLN. El quetognato Ferosagitta hispida fue la única especie que se encontró en el SLN, donde fue más abundante. Los decápodos estuvieron representados principalmente por larvas zoeas; las larvas de peces por 54 familias, de las cuales los góbidos de los géneros Ctenogobius sp., Gobionellus sp. y Gobiosoma sp. fueron los mejor representados, particularmente para el SLN. La biomasa fue mayor en el SLN. Resumen en inglés Zooplankton sampling was carried out in the northern coast of the Mexican Caribbean Sea, from Puerto Morelos to Cancun. Captures were made with a conic net 0.4m diameter, 1.40m length and 0.330 mm mesh from January to December 2004 at twelve locations. A total of 41 zooplankton groups were identified. Copepods were the most abundant taxa making up 61%, followed by echinoderms (17%) and decapods (5%). Acartia tonsa at the Nichupte Lagoon System (SLN) over numbered the cope (mas) pod fauna and occasionally the whole zooplankton population. Along the coast Acartia spinata, Pseudocalanus sp, and Calanopia americana were the most important copepods. Echinoderms larvae such as echinopluteus-ophiopluteus were present at all sampled stations but were more abundant at the NLS. For chaetognaths, Ferosagitta hispida dominated, the species was the most abundant and in fact the only species found within the NLS. Decapod larvae were mainly represented by zoea larvae (brachiura). Fish larvae were made up by 54 families, from those, Gobids of the genera Ctenogobius sp., Gobionellus sp. and Gobiosoma sp. were the most abundant, particularly for SLN. Biomass was higher at stations located within the SLN.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

3

El estado trófico de pequeñas lagunas pampeanas, su relación con la hidrología y el uso de la tierra/ The trophic state of small Pampean lakes, its relationship with hydrology and land use intensity

Sosnovsky, Alejandro; Quirós, Rolando
2006-12-01

Resumen en español El estado trófico de las lagunas pampeanas es influenciado tanto por la fertilidad de los suelos y las condiciones hidrometeorológicas como por las actividades humanas. El clima de la región pampeana alterna relativamente extensos períodos de sequía y de inundación. El uso de fertilizantes en las áreas con un intensivo uso agrícola puede afectar el estado trófico de los cuerpos de agua a través del aporte de nutrientes. Entre diciembre de 1999 y abril de 2002 se (mas) estudiaron siete pequeñas lagunas situadas en el NO de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Se analizaron las variaciones en la profundidad máxima, la conductividad, las concentraciones de nutrientes y la clorofila a. Las lluvias fueron intensas durante los años 2000 y 2001. Durante el año 2000, éstas diluyeron las elevadas concentraciones de fósforo de todas las lagunas. Durante el año 2001, las lagunas aumentaron sus concentraciones de fósforo a pesar de las elevadas precipitaciones. Estos resultados contrastantes se explicarían por los diferentes estados tróficos lagunares al inicio de las lluvias otoñales. Durante todo el período de estudio, la biomasa algal se relacionó en mayor medida con la concentración de nitrógeno total más que con la concentración de fósforo total. En general, durante la época estival las lagunas se encontraron sometidas a un balance hídrico negativo y presentaron elevadas concentraciones de nutrientes y de biomasa algal. Sin embargo, la variabilidad hidrológica y el calendario agrícola en la región, alterarían drásticamente la dinámica física, química y biológica de los pequeños cuerpos de agua pampeanos. Resumen en inglés The trophic state of the Pampean shallow lakes is influenced by the soil fertility and the hydrometeorological conditions as well as by the human activities. The climate of the Pampean region alternates between relatively large periods of drought and flood. In areas where agriculture is intensive, nutrient from excesses in the use of fertilizers can affect the trophic state of lakes. From December 1999 to April 2002, seven small shallow lakes located in the NW of the Buen (mas) os Aires province were studied. Changes in the lake depth, water conductivity, nutrients concentrations and chlorophyll a were analyzed. Precipitation was intense during both 2000 and 2001 years. During the first year, the precipitation diluted the high phosphorus concentrations in all the lakes. Despite high precipitation during 2001, the lakes increased their concentrations of phosphorus. These contrasting results could be explained by the different trophic states of the lakes at the beginning of the autumnal precipitation. During the whole study period, algal biomass was more related with nitrogen concentration rather than phosphorous concentration. During the summer season, the lakes generally were under a negative water balance and their nutrients concentrations and algal biomass were high. Nevertheless, the hydrological variability and the agriculture use would alter the physical, chemical and biological parameters of the small Pampean shallow lakes.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

4

Avances más recientes sobre la aplicación de la altimetría radar por satélite en hidrología: Caso de la cuenca amazónica/ The most recent satellite radar altimetry applications in hydrology: The case of the Amazon basin

León Hernández, Juan Gabriel; Domínguez Calle, Efraín Antonio; Duque Nivia, Guillermo
2008-12-01

Resumen en español El presente artículo sintetiza los principios de la altimetría radar por satélite y presenta las aplicaciones más relevantes que dicha tecnología ha aportado al estudio de aguas superficiales continentales bajo un dominio que se comienza a conocer como hidrología espacial. Dentro de estos, uno de los más importantes tiene que ver con la generación de estaciones virtuales (intersección entre el barrido del satélite y un cuerpo de agua: río, lago, mar interior). (mas) Dichas estaciones están siendo actualmente utilizadas como mecanismo de apoyo para el monitoreo hidrológico, especialmente, en lo referente a la densificación de las redes hidrométricas instaladas insitu. Adicionalmente, estas pueden ser caracterizadas con datos provenientes del espacio de la misma manera en que son caracterizadas las estaciones insitu procurando información de carácter hidráulico (pendiente del fondo del cauce, profundidad del flujo cero, coeficiente de Manning, entre otros) que hasta el momento sólo podía ser deducida a partir de mediciones directas en campo. Resumen en inglés This paper summarises the principles of satellite radar altimetry and presents this technology’s most important applications for analysing continental surface water within an area known as spatial hydrology; generating virtual gauging stations is one of its most important applications (intersection between satellite tracking and bodies of water: rivers, lakes, inland seas). These stations are currently being used for supporting hydrological monitoring, especially in incr (mas) easing in-situ gauging station network density. Such spatial data-based virtual stations could thus be characterised in the same way as in-situ gauging stations producing hydraulic data (bed slope, zero flow depth, Manning coefficient, etc) which, until now, could only be directly obtained from in-situ measurements.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

6

COMUNIDAD DE PECES EN LA CIÉNAGA DE AYAPEL, RÍO MAGDALENA (CÓRDOBA) COLOMBIA: CAMBIOS ESPACIO-TEMPORALES EN SU ASOCIACIÓN/ THE FISH COMMUNITY OF THE AYAPEL FLOODPLAIN LAGOON, MAGDALENA RIVER (CÓRDOBA), COLOMBIA: SPACIO-TEMPORAL CHANGES IN ITS ASSEMBLAGE

Ríos-Pulgarín, María I.; Jiménez-Segura, Luz F.; Palacio, Jaime A.; Ramírez-Restrepo, John J.
2008-01-01

Resumen en español Las variaciones espaciotemporales en la estructura de las asociaciones de especies de peces en la ciénaga de Ayapel (Colombia), fueron estudiadas durante el periodo hidrológico 2004-2005. Se capturaron 46 especies, de las cuales, Cyphocharax magdalenae, Roeboides dayi y el género Astyanax fueron las más abundantes y frecuentes. Los resultados mostraron una relación significativa entre las características ambientales de la ciénaga de Ayapel y las asociaciones de esp (mas) ecies. Los cambios en la conformación de las asociaciones fueron más evidentes entre periodos climáticos que entre ambientes. A pesar de la fuerte influencia de la temporalidad climática en la estructura de las asociaciones, el pulso de inundación del río San Jorge, no fue definitivo en estos cambios y si, la hidrología de la cuenca local. Resumen en inglés Time and spatial changes in fish assemblage structure in Ayapel floodplain lagoon (Colombia), were observed during the hydrological cycle 2004-2005. Forty six species were captured. Cyphocharax magdalenae, Roeboides dayi and individuals of the genus Astyanax were the most abundant in number of individuals and the most frequent results showed a significant relationship between environmental characteristics of Ayapel floodplain and species assemblage. Changes in fish assemb (mas) lage structure were defined by hydrological time changes more than spatial ones. Although hydrological time changes were important to fish assemblage, the hydrology of the local basin was more important than the San Jorge river floodplain pulse.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

7

Evaluación del comportamiento hídrico de la ciénaga de Cachimbero, implementando un modelo de balances de flujo/ Use of a flow balance method for the evaluation of the hydrologic behavior of the wetland "ciénaga de Cachimbero"

Molina Giraldo, Nelson; Piza Torres, Carolina; Wills Toro, Álvaro
2007-03-01

Resumen en español La ciénaga de Cachimbero, localizada en el municipio de Cimitarra, Santander, perteneciente a uno de los complejos de humedales inventariados por el Ministerio del Medio Ambiente y caracterizados como palustres, presenta valores ecológicos y ambientales de importancia regional. En este trabajo se realizó una aproximación conceptual y experimental a la hidrología de la ciénaga, determinando los com¬ponentes principales del balance hídrico y planteando un esquema (mas) de evaluación temporal. En este marco se implementó un esquema de observación y análisis de las variables hidrológicas, que permitió la construcción de un modelo de balances de flujo. Los controles básicos corresponden al régimen de lluvias en la cuenca tributaria, las características morfométricas del vaso, los procesos evapotranspirativos y las características del flujo en el caño de conexión con el río Magdalena cuyo nivel establece un control hidráulico aguas abajo. El principal objetivo fue formular un modelo operativo, a escala diaria, del funcionamiento hidrológico natural de la ciénaga, que permitió predecir los patrones temporales de variación de niveles y volúmenes de ésta. Resumen en inglés The Wetland "ciénaga de Cachimbero", located in the municipality of Cimitarra, Santander, has ecological and environmental importance for the region. It has been inventoried by the Ministry of the Environment and been catalogued as Palustral. A combined modeling and experimental approach to the hydrology of the wetland was carried out aiming at establishing a temporal evaluation scheme; the principal components of the water balance were determined. A scheme of observatio (mas) n and analysis of the hydrological variables, allowing the modeling of the flow balance, was implemented. The main objective of this work was then to formulate a daily-scale operative model of the natural hydrology behavior of the wetland aimed at the prediction of the temporal patterns of the water level and volume variations. It was found that the hydrology behavior is primarily controlled by the rain patterns, the morphometric characteristics of the basin (bathymetry), the evapotranspiration processes, and the flow patterns of the river that communicates the wetland with the Magdalena River.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

8

Caracterización ambiental e hidráulico-estructural de la red de acueductos de la población de el Limón, Estado Aragua

Abarca, Oscar; Rodríguez, Steve
2005-04-01

Resumen en español En este trabajo, se realizó la caracterización ambiental de la cuenca hidrográfica del río El Limón, en el sector que comprende las microcuencas abastecedoras de los sistemas de acueducto de la población de El Limón. En la caracterización se estudiaron los aspectos geología, geomorfología, suelos, relieve, clima, hidrografía e hidrología y vegetación. Para ello se creó una base de datos espacial a través del sistema de Información Geográfica (SIG). Las mi (mas) crocuencas estudiadas corresponden a las quebradas Guacamaya, Guamita, Los Rausseos, Corral de Piedra, El Piñal, El Manguito, Valle Verde, La Soledad y Las Mayas, todas afluentes del río El Limón y sobre las cuales se han construido trece sistemas de acueductos, once de ellos de tipo arsenal. También se evaluaron las principales características estructurales y el funcionamiento hidráulico de las obras de captación y aducción de cada acueducto. La caracterización realizada aporta la información necesaria para evaluar las posibilidades de expansión de los sistemas de acueducto, así como sus limitaciones de aprovechamiento. Por otra parte la evaluación de algunas características hidráulicas y estructurales de las obras permitió determinar las principales fallas de operación y mantenimiento de los acueductos, así como las posibles soluciones. Resumen en inglés In this study was carried out the environmental characterization of "El Limón" watershed, in a sector that include the catchment area of the "El Limón" town aqueduct systems. In the characterization the aspects geology, geomorphology, soils, relief, climate, hydrography and hydrology, and vegetation were studied. The catchment area studied corresponds to "Guacamaya", "Guamita", "Los Rausseos", "Corral de Piedra", "El Piñal", "El Manguito", "Valle Verde", " La Soledad " (mas) and "Las Mayas" streams, all tributary of the "El Limón" river, and over one which thirteen aqueducts systems have been built, eleven of those which are of handmade type. The main characteristic and the hydraulic operation of the aqueducts catchment and adduction structures were also evaluated. The carried out characterization contributes the necessary information to evaluate the aqueduct systems expansion possibilities, as well as its use limitations. On the other hand the evaluation of some hydraulic and structural characteristics of the works allowed to determine the main aqueducts operation and maintenance flaws, as well as the possible solutions.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

9

Aproximación multimétrica a la evaluación de la calidad del agua en cuencas con diferentes niveles de intervención antrópica/ Multimetric approach to water quality evaluation of basins with diferent levels of antropic perturbation/ Aproximação multimétrica à avaliação da qualidade da agua em bacias com diferentes níveis de intervenção antrópica

Mancilla, Gabriela; Valdovinos, Claudio; Azócar, Marysol; Henríquez, Mariel; Figueroa, Ricardo
2009-12-01

Resumen en portugués A vegetação riberenha desempenha um conjunto de funções ecossistêmicas. Tem influência sobre a hidrologia, geomorfologia, química da água e subministro de material alóctono, pelo qual é relevante na produtividade e funcionamento, estabilizando ladeiras, regulando a temperatura, filtrando e retendo nutrientes e outorgando habitat às comunidades aquáticas. Este estudo realizou uma aproximação multiparamétrica em rios mediterrâneos do Chile central. Os result (mas) ados mostraram que as variáveis que melhor refletem a distribuição dos macroinvertebrados foram a condutividade e os sólidos dissolvidos, as quais também se correlacionaram significativamente com a qualidade de ribeira e do habitat fluvial. Esta aproximação sugere a avaliação integral do sistema fluvial como uma ferramenta para a conservação e restauração da saúde integral dos ecossistemas aquáticos. Resumen en español La vegetación ribereña desempeña un conjunto de funciones ecosistémicas. Tiene influencia sobre la hidrología, geomorfología, química del agua y suministro de material alóctono, por lo cual es relevante en la productividad y funcionamiento, estabilizando laderas, regulando la temperatura, filtrando y reteniendo nutrientes y otorgando hábitat a las comunidades acuáticas. Este estudio realizó una aproximación multiparamétrica en ríos mediterráneos de Chile ce (mas) ntral. Los resultados mostraron que las variables que mejor reflejan la distribución de los macroinvertebrados fueron la conductividad y los sólidos disueltos, las cuales también se correlacionaron significativamente con la calidad de ribera y del hábitat fluvial. Esta aproximación sugiere la evaluación integral del sistema fluvial como una herramienta para la conservación y restauración de la salud integral de los ecosistemas acuáticos. Resumen en inglés The riparian zone vegetation performs several functions for the ecosystem. It influences the hydrology, geomorphology, water chemistry; and supplies of allocthonous materials; therefore, it is important for the productivity and functioning of fluvial systems, stabilizing slopes, regulating temperature, filtering and retaining nutrients, and providing habitat to aquatic communities. This study followed a multiparametric approach in Central Chile mediterranean streams. The (mas) results showed that the variables that better reflect the distribution of macroinvertebrates were conductivity and dissolved solids. These variables also correlated significantly with bank quality and stream habitat. This approximation suggests the integral evaluation of a stream system as a tool for conservation and restoration of integral health of aquatic ecosystems.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

10

CARACTERIZACIÓN GENÉTICA DE LOTES DE Brycon orbignyanus UTILIZADOS EN PROGRAMAS DE REPOBLAMIENTO/ GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Brycon orbignyanus STOCKS USED IN RESTOCKING PROGRAMS

Lopera B, Nelson; Ribeiro P, Ricardo; Sirol N, Rodolfo; Povh, Jayme; Gomes, Patricia; Streit Jr, Danilo; Vargas M, Lauro
2008-01-01

Resumen en español Objetivo. Caracterizar genéticamente dos lotes y una progenie de Brycon orbignyanus destinados para programas de repoblamiento, utilizando la técnica molecular de RAPD (Random amplified polymorphic DNA). Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 58 reproductores originarios de dos piscícolas ubicadas en las ciudades de Castillo (A:30 individuos) y Porto Ferreira (C:28 individuos), mantenidos en cautiverio hace seis años en la estación de acuicultura e hidrología de la Du (mas) ke Energy Internacional (Geração Paranapanema) (São Paulo-Brasil). Treinta larvas de la progenie del lote A (B) también se analizaron. Resultados. Los 14 primers usados produjeron 87 fragmentos de los cuales 70.11% fueron polimórficos. Fueron observadas diferencias (p≤0.05) en la frecuencia de 31 fragmentos, con tres exclusivos para el lote A. Los valores de divergencia, distancia e identidad genética mostraron que la diversidad genética del lote A fue mantenida en la progenie y que existe una baja diferenciación entre los lotes de reproductores. El análisis de variancia molecular mostró que la mayor parte de la variación está dentro de cada lote (87.45%) y no entre ellos (12.55%). Este resultado se corroboró con los valores de F ST (0.125) y con el dendrograma, que indicaron una moderada diferenciación genética, sin la formación de agrupamientos. Conclusiones. La diversidad genética fue preservada en la progenie debido al manejo eficiente de la reproducción. No hubo una diferenciación genética entre los lotes de reproductores, debido posiblemente a que el origen natural de ambos fue el río Paraná. Resumen en inglés Objective. To genetically characterize two Brycon orbignyanus stocks and one progeny intended for restocking programs using the molecular technique RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA). Materials and methods. Fifty eight broodstocks native to two fish farms in the cities of Castilho (A:30 individuals) and Porto Ferreira (C:28 individuals) were analyzed. The fish had been maintained for six years in captivity in the aquaculture and hydrology station of Duke Energy Inter (mas) national (Geração Paranapanema. São Paulo - Brazil); thirty larvae of progeny from the stock A (B) were also analyzed. Results. The fourteen primers used produced 87 fragments of which 70.11% were polymorphic. Differences were observed (p≤0.05) in the frequency of 31 fragments, with three exclusive from stock A. The values for divergence, distance and genetic identity showed that genetic diversity of stock A was maintained in progeny and that a low differentiation exists among reproductive stocks. Analysis of Molecular variance showed that most of the variation is inside each stock (87.45%) and not between them (12.55%). This result was corroborated with F ST (0.125) values and with the dendrogram indicating a moderate genetic differentiation, without cluster formation. Conclusions. Genetic variability was maintained in progeny, possibly because both were native to the Paraná river.

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11

Gasificación de residuos de invernadero para la obtención de energía eléctrica en el sur de españa: ubicación mediante sig/ Gasification of greenhouse residues for obtaining electrical energy in the south of spain: localization by gis/ Gaseificação de resíduos de invernadeiro para a obtenção de energía elétrica no sul da espanha: localização mediante sig

Manzano Agugliaro, Francisco
2007-02-01

Resumen en portugués Avaliou-se a viabilidade técnica para o estabelecimento de uma planta gaseificadora que gere energia elétrica a partir da biomassa procedente dos resíduos vegetais de invernadeiro (RVI) na costa de Granada, sul da Espanha. Para isto primeiro se estabeleceu um modelo para a estimação da biomassa estacional procedente dos RVI tendo em conta os distintos cultivos habituais na zona e na superfície de invernadeiros real, para finalmente estimar se existe suficiente bioma (mas) ssa para o funcionamento da planta gaseificadora. Posteriormente, se buscou a localização idônea para a planta mediante a utilização de técnicas SIG (Sistema de Informação Geográfica), primeiro obtendo zonas possíveis, em função da distância a vias de comunicação principal e distâncias a linhas elétricas de alta tensão, em segundo lugar eliminando aquelas zonas que têm algum tipo de restrição, e finalmente avaliando as soluções restantes com critérios de proximidade a determinados recursos como hidrologia superficial, núcleos de invernadeiros etc. Resumen en español Se evaluó la viabilidad técnica para el establecimiento de una planta gasificadora que genere energía eléctrica a partir de la biomasa procedente de los residuos vegetales de invernadero (RVI) en la costa de Granada, sur de España. Para ello primero se estableció un modelo para la estimación de la biomasa estacional procedente de los RVI teniendo en cuenta los distintos cultivos habituales en la zona y la superficie de invernaderos real, para finalmente estimar si (mas) hay suficiente biomasa para el funcionamiento de la planta gasificadora. Posteriormente, se buscó la ubicación idónea para la planta mediante la utilización de técnicas SIG (Sistema de Información Geográfica), primero obteniendo zonas posibles, en función de la distancia a vías de comunicación principal y distancias a líneas eléctricas de alta tensión, en segundo lugar eliminando aquellas zonas que tienen algún tipo de restricción, y finalmente evaluando las soluciones restantes con criterios de proximidad a determinados recursos como hidrología superficial, núcleos de invernaderos etc. Resumen en inglés The technical viability of a gasification plant in the coast of Granada, south of Spain using vegetable biomass from greenhouse residues to produce electrical energy was evaluated. The first step was to establish a model to calculate the locally produced biomass, considering the usual crops and greenhouse surface. It was estimated whether there is enough available biomass for the operation of a gasification plan. Afterwards, the appropriate location for the plant was sear (mas) ched using GIS (Geographical Information System) techniques, firstly identifying possible areas according to their proximity to main roads and high voltage transmission lines, and discarding restricted zones. Finally, several solutions were evaluated applying criteria of proximity to resources such as suface hydrology, greenhouse concentration, etc.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

12

Caracterización florística e hidrológica de turberas de la Isla Grande de Chiloé, Chile/ Floristic and hydrological characterization of Chiloé Island peatlands, Chile

DÍAZ, MARÍA F; LARRAÍN, JUAN; ZEGERS, GABRIELA; TAPIA, CAROLINA
2008-12-01

Resumen en español Las turberas son ecosistemas reconocidos mundialmente por actuar como grandes reservorios de agua dulce, afectando el clima y la hidrología local; por ser sumideros de carbono; por albergar especies únicas, contribuyendo así a la biodiversidad; y porque significan un recurso económico para la sociedad. La vegetación de las turberas es dominada por plantas que crecen a ras de suelo formando densas poblaciones, en especial musgos del género Sphagnum o plantas vascular (mas) es de la familia de las Ciperáceas o Juncáceas. Presentan altos niveles freáticos y una profunda capa de materia orgánica (turba) bajo la capa viva de plantas. La tala y quema de bosques en sitios con drenaje pobre han generado un tipo de ecosistema similar a las turberas donde crece principalmente el musgo Sphagnum (turberas antropogénicas o "pomponales"), pero donde la acumulación de turba aún es muy baja. Mientras las turberas naturales son utilizadas para la extracción de turba, en las turberas antropogénicas se cosecha el musgo vivo que se encuentra en la superficie. Las consecuencias ecológicas después de ambas actividades extractivas son distintas. El objetivo de este trabajo es hacer una comparación de la composición florística y de los niveles freáticos entre turberas naturales y antropogénicas. Fueron estudiadas turberas naturales y antropogénicas con y sin extracción de Sphagnum. Se registraron 74 taxa (ocho liqúenes, 19 briófitas y 47 de plantas vasculares). Las diferencias en composición florística nos permiten distinguir entre turberas naturales y antropogénicas. Los niveles freáticos también difieren entre sitios, siendo menos superficiales en turberas naturales y antropogénicas sin extracción, que en turberas antropogénicas con extracción de Sphagnum. Debido a la inexistencia de nieves eternas en la Isla de Chiloé, la alteración hidrológica de estos reservorios de agua dulce proveniente de las lluvias puede traer graves consecuencias ecológicas Resumen en inglés Peatlands are globally known as major deposits of fresh water and carbón, affecting the planet's weather and local hydrology; for bearing unique plant and animal species, contributing to biodiversity; and because they represent a major economic resource to humanity. Peatlands are dominated by plants forming dense populations, especially Sphagnum moss and vascular plants belonging to the Cyperaceae and Juncaceae. They present high water table levéis and a deep organic ma (mas) tter layer (peat) below the living layer of plants. The use of fire and logging to clear forests in poor drainage soils have generated a kind of ecosystem similar to peatlands, dominated by Sphagnum moss, where peat accumulation is very low or absent (anthropogenic peatlands or "pomponales"). Compared with natural peatlands, they share the presence of Sphagnum, but they are very different in the use human beings give to them. While natural peatlands are used for peat extraction, anthropogenic peatlands are harvested for the superficial layer of living moss. The ecological consequences after both extractive activities are also different. The aim of this work is to compare the floristic composition and water table levéis between natural and anthropogenic peatlands. We sampled natural and anthropogenic peatlands with and without Sphagnum extraction. We registered 74 taxa (eight lichens, 19 bryophytes and 47 vascular plants). Differences in floristic composition allow us to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic peatlands. Water table levéis also differ between study sites, being less superficial in natural and anthropogenic peatlands without moss extraction. The hydrological alterations after peatland exploitation would bring serious ecological consequences to Chiloé island, since its only source of water comes from rainfall and is stored in these large reservoirs called peatlands

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

13

Análisis y modelamiento espacial de información climática en la cuenca de Cuitzeo, México/ Spatial analysis and modeling of climate variables in the Cuitzeo Basin, Mexico

Leal-Nares, Oscar Adrián; Mendoza, Manuel E.; Carranza González, Eleazar
2010-08-01

Resumen en español La disponibilidad de información climática de calidad y espacialmente distribuida es importante para el desarrollo de investigación en distintas disciplinas como la Hidrología, Agronomía, Climatología y Ecología. Este artículo se propone obtener un modelo espacialmente distribuido de precipitación y temperatura de la cuenca del lago de Cuitzeo, a partir de métodos de interpolación que utilizan variables climáticas y geográficas apoyado en la aplicación de lo (mas) s análisis de correlación y regresión simple y múltiple, uso de herramientas propias de los sistemas de información geográfica. Para ello se elaboraron tres diferentes modelos: el primero con las 17 estaciones que se encuentran en la cuenca (Modelo cuenca); el segundo con 24 estaciones localizadas a menos de 10 km del límite de la cuenca (Modelo buffer 10) y el tercero con 30, localizadas a menos de 20 km de distancia del parteaguas (Modelo buffer 20). Con base en los resultados de confiabilidad, el mapa final de temperatura media, fue el mapa de regresión basado en el modelo buffer 20 corregido por la adición del mapa de anomalías, el cual presentó un valor de R²= 0.73 y un RMSE=0.64 °C. En los mapas de precipitación se observaron mejores resultados de confiabilidad para los modelos elaborados con la información del modelo buffer 20. El mapa final de precipitación anual fue el obtenido a partir del mapa de regresión sin corrección por residuales, presentando un coeficiente de determinación R² = 0.746 y un RMSE de 55.51. Con base en el análisis de confiabilidad, ambos modelos tienen coeficientes de determinación aceptables (Prob>F= 0.05); sin embargo, los modelos podrían mejorarse de contar con una mayor cantidad de estaciones al interior de la cuenca, ya que la cantidad y calidad de los datos es una variable que afecta los resultados de un modelamiento. Los mapas finales, son de importancia para modelar la distribución espacial de tipos de vegetación, así como especies vegetales, ya que el clima es un factor fundamental que junto con otras variables como la altitud, suelos, pendientes, exposición, entre otros, determinan la distribución de las comunidades vegetales y sus especies. Resumen en inglés Climatic information with suficient quality and spatially distributed is an essential requirement for developing research in several disciplines, such as Hydrology, Agronomy, Climatology and Ecology. In the present paper we attempt to reach to a model of the spatial distribution of precipitation and temperature in the lake Cuitzeo basin, based on interpolation methods using climatic and geographic variables and supported by the application of correlation analysis, simple (mas) and multiple regression and the use of geographic information systems. Three models were developed: one including 17 stations within the basin (Basin model); a second including 24 stations located at less than 10 km from the basin's water shed (Buffer 10 model); and a third using 30 stations located at less than 20 km from the catchment's water divide (Buffer 20 model). Based on the results of confidence analysis, the final average temperature map was the regression map resulting from the Buffer 20 model corrected by the addition of the anomaly map, with R2=0.72 and RMSE of 0.64 °C. In precipitation maps, the highest confidence results were derived from the data from the Buffer 20 model. The final annual precipitation map was obtained from the regression map without correction by residuals, with R2=0.746 and RMSE=55.51 °C. Confidence analysis shows that both models had statistically significant determination coeficients (Prob. > F=0.05), however, models could be improved by the availability of more stations within the basin, given that the quantity and quality of data is a variable having an effect on the output of model application. The resulting final maps are relevant for modeling the spatial distribution of types of vegetation cover and of plant species, because climate, together with altitude, slope, exposure and other factors, is fundamental for determining the distribution of plant communities and of their component species.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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CARACTERIZACION ECOLOGICA DE HUMEDALES DE LA ZONA SEMIARIDA EN CHILE CENTRAL/ WETLANDS ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CENTRAL CHILE SEMI-DRY AREA

Figueroa, Ricardo; Suarez, María Luisa; Andreu, Asunción; Ruiz, Víctor H; Vidal -Abarca, María R
2009-01-01

Resumen en español Uno de los ecosistemas naturales más amenazados del planeta son los humedales, que a pesar de su reconocida importancia, son poco valorados, lo que cobra mayor relevancia en Chile donde existen muy poca información sobre este tipo de ambientes. Este trabajo reúne antecedentes sobre tipología, hidrología, usos del suelo, unidades paisajísticas e impactos de 20 humedales de las regiones IV y V (Coquimbo y Valparaíso, Chile Central). El período de muestreo abarcó de (mas) l 2 al 10 de julio de 2007 correspondiente a la fase húmeda del ciclo hidrológico anual. Se analizaron distintos parámetros físico-químicos: profundidad, ancho de lámina de agua, tipología del sustrato, temperatura del agua, pH y conductividad; y biológicos: vegetación acuática y de ribera, macroinvertebrados y fauna piscícola. Finalmente, para determinar el estado de conservación de estos humedales se aplicó el índice del Estado de Conservación de Ecosistemas Lénticos Someros (ECELS), propuesto por la Agencia Catalana del Agua. En general se trata de ecosistemas de tamaño medio, no superior a 50 has, aunque el Complejo del Yali (región V) supera las 500 ha. La mayoría son permanentes, con valor medio de pH de 7.84 (rango = 7.1 y 9.4) y conductividad de 11918,16 uS/cm, pero con un rango muy amplio (entre 665 y 52200 uS/cm), lo cual muestra el distinto origen de las aguas que mantienen estos humedales. En cuanto a la vegetación acuática Ceratophyllum chilensis, es el macrófito más habitual, pero siempre en humedales de baja conductividad. La comunidad de invertebrados acuáticos está compuesta por 42 taxa pertenecientes a 29 familias. Los insectos es el grupo más diversificado (17 familias) y de ellos, los dípteros con 8 familias. En cuanto a la fauna piscícola, se recolectaron cuatro especies: la lisa (Mugil cephalus) de origen marino, y tres exóticas: gambusia (Gambusia holbrooki), gambusia manchada (Cnesterodon decemmaculatus), y chanchito (Cichlasomafacetum). La aplicación del ECELS evaluó sólo dos humedales de máxima calidad, 5 la calidad fue buena, en 7 fue media y en 6 mala (5) o muy mala (1) Resumen en inglés Wetlands are one of the most threatened natural ecosystems on the planet. In spite of their recognized importance, wetlands are not highly valued. This is particularly true in Chile, where little information is available regarding this type of environment. This paper presents data on the typology, hydrology, land uses, landscape units, and impact of 20 wetlands in regions IV (Coquimbo) and V (Valparaiso) of central Chile. Samples were taken from 2 to 10 July 2007, during (mas) the wet phase of the annual hydrological cycle. We analyzed a variety of physical-chemical (depth, width of the water surface, substrate typology, temperature, pH, water conductivity) and biological parameters (aquatic and shoreline vegetation, macroinvertebrates, ichthyic fauna). We used the Index of the State of Conservation of Shallow Lentic Ecosystems (ECELS), proposed by the Catalan Water Agency, to determine the state of conservation of these wetlands. In general, this index deals with mid-sized ecosystems that do not exceed 50 ha although, herein, the Yali complex (Region V) is an exception (>500 ha). Most of these systems are permanent and average 7,84 in pH (range = 7,1-9,4) and 11918,2 uS/cm in conductivity (range = 665-52200 uS/cm). The very wide range showed different origins of the waters that sustain these wetlands. As for the aquatic vegetation, Ceratophyllum chilensis is the most common macrophyte in low-conductivity wetlands. The aquatic invertebrate community is composed of 42 taxa belonging to 29 families. Insects constitute the most diverse group (17 families), particularly the dipterans (8 families). Four fish species were collected during sampling. One, flathead mullet or lisa (Mugil cephalus), has marine origins and the other three are exotic species: mosquito fish or gambusia (Gambusia holbrooki), ten spotted live-bearer (Cnesterodon decemmaculatus), and chameleon cichlid (Cichlasomafacetum). According to the ECELS, the quality of these wetlands is maximum in only two cases, good in five, regular in seven, poor in another five cases, and very poor in one case

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Water interchange between the Ría of Vigo and the coastal shelf

Prego Reboredo, Ricardo Francisco J.; Fraga Rodríguez, Fernando; Ríos, Aida F.
1990-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Towards a resolution of the raptor-grouse conflict in upland Britain - the application of decision modelling with stakeholders

Redpath, S. M.; Arroyo, Beatriz; Leckie, F. M.; Bacon, P.; Bayfield, N.; Thirgood, S. J.; Gutiérrez, Rocky J.

DRIVER (Spanish)

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The palaeoflood record of the Gardon river, France: A comparison with the extreme 2002 flood event

Sheffer, N. A.; Rico, M.; Enzel, Y.; Benito, G.; Grodek, T.

A paleoflood study in the Gardon River gorge in southern France identified extreme floods larger than any modern or historically gauged flood. During the course of our study, an extreme flood on the 8–9th of September 2002 claimed the lives of 21 people and caused millions of Euros worth of damage t...

DRIVER (Spanish)

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The catastrophic floods of AD 1617 in Catalonia (northeast Spain) and their climatic context | La crue catastrophique de 1617 en Catalogne (nord-est de l'Espagne) et son contexte climatique

Thorndycraft, V. R.; Barriendos, M.; Benito, G.; Rico, M.; Casas, A.

[EN] This paper presents a reconstruction of the catastrophic floods of AD 1617 in Catalonia (northeast Spain). Compilation of archival data sources shows that heavy rainfall occurred from 2 to 6 November 1617 and that the resultant flooding caused severe damage throughout the region, including the ...

DRIVER (Spanish)

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Tasas de acreción y características de los sedimentos actuales en el parque nacional Las Tablas de Daimiel (Ciudad Real)

Angeler, D. G.; Sánchez Carrillo, Salvador; Álvarez Cobelas, Miguel; Vizcayno, Carmen
2000-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

22

TDR application for automated water level measurement from Mariotte reservoirs in tension disc infiltrometers

Moret-Fernández, David; López Sánchez, María Victoria; Arrúe Ugarte, José Luis

DRIVER (Spanish)

23

Stress detection in orchards with hyperspectral remote sensing data

Kempeneers, P.; Backer, S. de; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo J.; Delalieux, S.; Sepulcre-Cantó, G.; Morales, F.

En: Remote Sensing for Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Hydrology VIII .--Proceedings of the International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE), 11 September 2006 , Stockholm, Sweden | A technique is presented for detecting vegetation crop nutrient stress from hyperspectral data. Experiments are condu...

DRIVER (Spanish)

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Series temporales de variables hidrobiológicas en un estuario tropical (Brasil)/ Hydrobiological time series in a tropical estuary (Brazil)

Noriega, Carlos E; Muniz, Katia; Flores-Montes, Manuel J; Macêdo, Silvio J; Araujo, Moacyr; Feitosa, Fernando A; Lacerda, Sirleys R
2009-04-01

Resumen en español RESUMEN Este trabajo muestra los resultados de series temporales en el estuario de Barra de Jangadas en el Noreste de Brasil. El estudio fue realizado durante siete días consecutivos desde una marea de sicigia a una de cuadratura, en una estación fija durante el periodo seco (enero) y lluvioso (julio), en 2001. Se analizaron parámetros meteorológicos (precipitación pluviométrica, evaporación, intensidad de los vientos), hidrológicos (temperatura, salinidad, pH, ox (mas) ígeno disuelto-OD y tasa de saturación, DBO5, nutrientes (NH3+NH4, NO2-, NO3- , PO4-3, SiO2)), batimetría, intensidad de las corrientes y clorofila-α. El análisis de componentes principales (ACP), explicó el 80% de la varianza total, mostrando una relación inversa entre nutrientes y OD, salinidad y pH. Este análisis mostró una correlación positiva entre la bajamar y los nutrientes, indicativo de polución de origen antropogénica. La temperatura del agua varió poco estacionalmente, similar a la clorofila-α que caracterizó un ambiente eutrófico con valores superiores a 20 mg m-3. Mayores concentraciones de sal ocurrieron en el mes estival y sin mostrar estratificación vertical. El oxígeno disuelto varió significativamente entre ambos períodos. Los valores totales de nitrógeno y fósforo inorgánico disuelto en julio fueron en promedio 2 y 5 veces superiores a los de enero, respectivamente. Las medias de N:P variaron de 35:1 en enero a 8:1 en julio, siendo ambos, el fosfato y el nitrógeno limitantes para el crecimiento del fitoplancton. Diferencias día/noche evidenciaron que, en enero, el amonio decreció en mayor proporción que el resto de los compuestos nitrogenados, indicativo de la asimilación por los organismos autotróficos durante el día Resumen en inglés ABSTRACT This paper presents a hydrobiological time series at Barra de Jangadas estuary in Northeastern Brazil. Studies were carried out during seven consecutive days from a spring to a neap tide, in one fixed station during the dry (January) and rainy (July) seasons, in 2001. The meteorology (rainfall, evaporation, wind intensity), hydrology (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen-DO and relative saturation, BOD5, nutrients (NH3+NH4, NO2-, NO3-, PO4-3, SiO2)), bathy (mas) metry, current intensity and, chlorophyll-α, were studied. The principal component analysis (PCA) explained 80% of the total variance showing an inverse relationship between nutrients and DO, salinity and pH. This analysis showed a positive correlation between low tide and nutrients, indicating anthropogenic pollution. The water temperature presented low seasonal variation, similar to chlorophyll-α, which presented values over 20 mg m-3, characterizing a eutrophic environment. Higher salt concentrations were registered during the dry season with no vertical stratification. DO varied significantly in both seasons. Total dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved inorganic Phosphorus values in July were in general 2 to 5 times higher than values registered in January, respectively. The average N/P ratio varied from 35:1 in January to 8:1 in July, being both phosphate and nitrogen limiting for phytoplankton growth. Night/day differences showed that in January, ammonia decreased in higher proportion than the other nitrogen compounds indicating assimilation by the autotrophic organisms during the day

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Sedimentology of high-stage flood deposits of the Tagus River, Central Spain

Benito, G.; Sánchez-Moya, Y.; Sopeña, A.

This paper details the sedimentology of high-stage flood deposits, with the definition of sedimentary environments and their characteristic sequences, along two bedrock reaches of the Tagus River (Central Spain). High-stage flood deposits accumulated in bedrock canyons include slackwater flood depos...

DRIVER (Spanish)

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Sedimentation in the semi-arid freshwater wetland Las Tablas de Daimiel (Spain)

Sánchez Carrillo, S.; Álvarez Cobelas, Miguel; Angeler, D. G.

Despite sedimentation being recognized as a very important process in wetlands, very little is known about its dynamics. This study analyzed sedimentation on a short-term scale in the semiarid floodplain wetland Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park (central Spain). In monthly sampling intervals durin...

DRIVER (Spanish)

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Reconciling Gamebird Hunting & Biodiversity (REGHAB)

Viñuela, Javier; Arroyo, Beatriz

Gamebird hunting is an important socio-economic activity in Europe involving millions of people, euros and hectares. It can provide benefits to biodiversity through, e.g. the maintenance or management of habitats. However, it may also have negative implications for biodiversity through e.g. the ille...

DRIVER (Spanish)

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REGHAB Project (Reconciling Gamebird Hunting and Biodiversity): Conclusions that may have political application in the near future

Viñuela, Javier; Arroyo, Beatriz

2 pages.-- Javier Viñuela and Beatriz Arroyo are Project Coordinators. | Among the several conclusions reached during this Concerted Action, that have been reflected in several reports already delivered or to be delivered in short, we have selected those that we feel may have a more clear political ...

DRIVER (Spanish)

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REGHAB Project (Reconciling Gamebird Hunting and Biodiversity): Conclusions from Workshop III (Amboise, 30-31 May 2002)

Arroyo, Beatriz; Viñuela, Javier

13 pages.-- Project Deliverable no 22.-- Third of three reports on REGHAB Workshop Conclusions. | The primary aim of this workshop, the last one to be held within the course of the project, was to present a synthesis of the information and conclusions gathered during the Concerted Action, to discuss...

DRIVER (Spanish)

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REGHAB Project (Reconciling Gamebird Hunting and Biodiversity): Conclusions from Workshop II (Aberdeen, 9-10 February 2002)

Arroyo, Beatriz

19 pages.-- Project Deliverable no 17.-- Second of three reports on REGHAB Workshop Conclusions. | The primary aim of this workshop, the second of three to be held within the course of the project, was to evaluate existing legal ways of reducing the conflict between raptors and hunting, to present a...

DRIVER (Spanish)

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REGHAB Project (Reconciling Gamebird Hunting and Biodiversity): Conclusions from Workshop I (Ciudad Real, 24-25 September 2001)

Arroyo, Beatriz; Viñuela, Javier

15 pages.-- Project Deliverable no 11.-- First of three reports on REGHAB Workshop Conclusions. | The primary aim of this workshop, the first of three to be held within the course of the project, was to present a summary of the available data in relation to aspects relevant to conflicts between hunt...

DRIVER (Spanish)

34

Palaeoflood record of the Tagus River (Central Spain) during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene

Benito, G.; Sopeña, A.; Sánchez-Moya, Y.; Machado, M. J.; Pérez González, Alfredo

Palaeoflood hydrology of the Tagus River (Central Spain) was reconstructed from slackwater deposits and palaeostage indicators in two canyon reaches located at El Puente del Arzobispo in the central part of the catchment (35,000 km2 in drainage area) and in Alcántara, at the lower part of the catchm...

DRIVER (Spanish)

35

Palaeoflood hydrology: insight into rare events and extreme flood discharges

Benito, G.; Thorndycraft, V. R.

Les études paléohydrologiques permettent la reconstitution de chronologies de crue à partir des traces laissées par les sédiments de crue ou l'érosion du courant. Ces marques géologiques donnent une indication sur le niveau atteint par des crues anciennes, sur des périodes de quelques siècles à plus...

DRIVER (Spanish)

36

Palaeoflood hydrology and its role in applied hydrological sciences

Benito, G.; Thorndycraft, V. R.

This paper is a review of the methodology of palaeoflood hydrology. In particular, we focus on recent developments and the credibility of the palaeoflood data produced. The use of slackwater flood deposits as a physical record of water surface elevations reached by past floods enables the calculatio...

DRIVER (Spanish)

37

Nutrient dynamics and eutrophication patterns in a semiarid wetland: the effects of fluctuating hydrology

Sánchez Carrillo, S.; Álvarez Cobelas, Miguel

A three-year study was carried out in Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park, a Spanish semi-arid wetland, to describe eutrophication patterns and the responses of the main primaryproducers in contrasting inundation years. Total and dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus, phytoplankton chlorophyll-a(monthly...

DRIVER (Spanish)

38

Modelling the impact of forest loss on shallow landslide sediment yield, Ijuez river catchment, Spanish Pyrenees

Bathurst, J. C.; Moretti, G.; El-Hames, A.; Beguería, S.; García-Ruiz, J. M.

The SHETRAN model for simulating the sediment yield arising from shallow landslides at the scale of a river catchment was applied to the 45-km2 Ijuez catchment in the central Spanish Pyrenees, to investigate the effect of loss of forest cover on landslide and debris flow incidence and on ...

DRIVER (Spanish)

39

Management tools for reconciling bird hunting and biodiversity

Kenward, Robert

30 pages.-- REGHAB Project: Report on Workpackage 4 – Deliverables no 14-16. | Previous work-packages have reviewed socio-economic aspects of hunting (WP 1), potential benefits for conservation of biodiversity (WP 2) and problems for biodiversity (WP 3). | In recent years, much social pressure has d...

DRIVER (Spanish)

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Influencia de las masas boscosas en el régimen hídrico de una cuenca semiárida, Chile/ Influence of the wooded masses on hydric regime in a semiarid river basin, Chile

PIZARRO T, ROBERTO; BENITEZ G, ANDRES; FARIAS D, CESAR; JORDAN D, CRISTIAN; SANTIBAÑEZ Q, FERNANDO; SANGUESA P, CLAUDIA; FLORES V, JUAN PABLO; MARTINEZ A, ENZO; ROMAN A, LEONARDO
2005-01-01

Resumen en español Este artículo analiza la influencia que tienen las masas boscosas en la producción de agua de la cuenca del río Purapel, ubicada en la zona central de Chile. Esta cuenca tiene una superficie de 264,6 km² y se ha visto afectada por procesos de sustitución vegetacional, pasando de bosques nativos a una forestación masiva, principalmente de la especie Pinus radiata (D. Don). El análisis multitemporal realizado, mostró que la cobertura vegetal varió del 0% de plantac (mas) iones forestales en el año 1957, al 51,7% para el año 1997. La metodología estudió el uso del suelo en los años 1957, 1978 y 1997; se analizaron las precipitaciones y se estudiaron los caudales y los hidrogramas de hora en hora; se analizó la variación de las reservas de agua a escala mensual y anual, se analizaron los coeficientes de escorrentía mensual y anual, se estudiaron los caudales máximos, y finalmente, su relación con la cobertura vegetal y la producción de agua entre los años 1960 y 2000. Los resultados permiten concluir que para la cuenca del río Purapel, no se observan diferencias estadísticas en las cantidades de agua generadas por los escurrimientos en los 40 años estudiados. Las oscilaciones observadas en las variables hidrológicas se deberían a los montos e intensidades de precipitación ocurridos y a la alta variabilidad intermensual. Sólo las reservas mensuales muestran un comportamiento distinto, ya que tienden a incrementarse en el periodo 1979/2000. Ello se debería a las importantes precipitaciones caídas en la década del 80, y no directamente a un cambio del tipo de cobertura vegetal Resumen en inglés This article analyzes the influence which they have the wooded masses in the water production of the river basin of the Purapel river, located in the central zone of Chile. This river basin has a surface of 264., km² and it has been affected by processes of vegetational substitution, happening of native forests a massive forestation, mainly of Pinus radiata (D.Don). The made multitemporary analysis, showed that the vegetal cover I vary of 0 per cent of forest plantations (mas) in 1957, 51,7 per cent for year 1997. The methodology studied the use of the ground in 1957, 1978 and 1997; the precipitations were analyzed and the flow and hidrogramas of hour in hour studied; the variation of the water reserves was analyzed on monthly scale and annual, the runoff coefficients of monthly and annual were analyzed, the maximum flow, and finally, their relation with the vegetal cover and the water production studied between years 1960 and 2000. The results allow to conclude that for the river basin of the Purapel river, differences in the observed hydrology behavior in the 40 studied years do not exist. The oscillations observed in the hydrologyc variables would have to the amounts and happened intensities of precipitation and to the high intermonthly variability. Only the monthly reserves show a different behavior, since they tend to be increased in 1979/2000 period. It would have to important precipitations fallen in the decade of the 80, and not directly to a change of the type of vegetal cover

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

42

Influence of the Yesa reservoir on floods of the Aragón River, central Spanish Pyrenees

López-Moreno, J. I.; Beguería, S.; García-Ruiz, J. M.

The Yesa reservoir, the largest Pyrenean reservoir, was constructed in 1959 to supply water to new irrigated areas in the Ebro Depression, NE Spain. It is filled from October to May-June and then releases large quantities of water in the summer via the Bardenas Canal. The results confirm that the fr...

DRIVER (Spanish)

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Impact of hunting management practices on biodiversity

Arroyo, Beatriz; Beja, Pedro

82 pages.-- REGHAB Project: Report on Workpackage 2 – Deliverable no 7. | The objectives of this workpackage are to synthesise the available data on the effects of gamebird management and hunting on biodiversity. In particular, the objectives of WP2 are to review available information on the effect ...

DRIVER (Spanish)

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Identifying erosive periods by using RUSLE factors in mountain fields of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

López-Vicente, Manuel; Navas, Ana; Machín Gayarre, Javier

The definitive version is available at: http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/12/issue2.html | The Mediterranean environment is characterized by strong temporal variations in rainfall volume and intensity, soil moisture and vegetation cover along the year. These factors play a key role on soil erosio...

DRIVER (Spanish)

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Identifying erosive periods by using RUSLE factors in mountain fields of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

López-Vicente, M.; Navas, A.; Machín, J.

The Mediterranean environment is characterized by strong temporal variations in rainfall volume and intensity, soil moisture and vegetation cover along the year. These factors play a key role on soil erosion. The aim of this work is to identify different erosive periods in function of the temporal c...

DRIVER (Spanish)

46

Identifying erosive periods by using RUSLE factors in mountain fields of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

López-Vicente, M.; Navas, A.; Machín, J.

The Mediterranean environment is characterized by strong temporal variations in rainfall volume and intensity, soil moisture and vegetation cover along the year. These factors play a key role on soil erosion. The aim of this work is to identify different erosive periods in function of the temporal c...

DRIVER (Spanish)

48

Historical hydrology for studying flood risk in Europe | L'hydrologie historique pour une meilleure connaissance du risque inondation en Europe

Brázdil, Rudolf; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Benito, G.

[EN] Historical hydrology can be defined as a research field occupying the interface between hydrology and history, with the objectives: to reconstruct temporal and spatial patterns of river flow and, in particular, extreme events (floods, ice phenomena, hydrological droughts) mainly for the period ...

DRIVER (Spanish)

49

Global Change and Water Resources in the Mediterranean Mountains: Threats and Opportunities

Beguería, S.; López-Moreno, J.I.; Lana-Renault, N.; Nadal-Romero, E.; Serrano-Muela, P.; Latron, J.; Regüés-Muñoz, D.

DRIVER (Spanish)

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Geomorfología y sedimentología de la Cuenca Superior del Río Salado (Sur de Santa Fe y Noroeste de Buenos Aires, Argentina)/ Geomorphology and sedimentology of the upper basin of the Salado River (Southern Santa Fe and NW Buenos Aires provinces; Argentina)

Iriondo, Martín; Kröhling, Daniela
2007-07-01

Resumen en español El S de la provincia de Santa Fe y el NO de la provincia de Buenos Aires forman parte del Mar de Arena Pampeano (Sistema Eólico Pampeano), que ha sufrido una secuencia de episodios áridos y húmedos a lo largo de los últimos períodos del Pleistoceno. El paisaje actual resulta fundamentalmente de la influencia del período húmedo del Estadio Isotópico 3 (EIO 3; 64-36 ka) y de la actividad eólica durante un clima seco del Holoceno tardío (3,5-1,4 ka). La secuencia d (mas) e eventos sedimentológicos y geomorfológicos fue la siguiente: Durante el período húmedo del EIO 3 se desarrolló una red fluvial de llanura, que actualmente forma la alta cuenca del Río Salado de Buenos Aires, labrada sobre sedimentos de la Fm Carcarañá. Posteriormente se depositó la Formación Teodelina, por sedimentación eólica. Esta tiene 10 a 12 m de espesor típico y unos 5 m en áreas sometidas a erosión; está compuesta por limo grueso arenoso y arena fina limosa, con modas principales entre 125-250 y 53-62 μm, color 10YR 6/4 (marrón amarillento) y similares. La composición mineralógica de la fracción entre 53 y 62 μm está dominada por vidrio volcánico, con feldespato, cuarzo y alteritas como accesorios. La redondez y esfericidad de los granos varían entre bajas y moderadas, con dos poblaciones. En el Pleistoceno final ocurrió un episodio eólico predominantemente erosivo, dominado por vientos del oeste que labraron cientos de depresiones de miles de metros de extensión. Ocurrió una sedimentación discontinua de loess arenoso de hasta 2 m de espesor con granulometría bimodal. El período Hypsithermal del Holoceno Medio (8,5-3,5 ka) estuvo caracterizado por un clima cálido y húmedo con régimen údico, que generó un suelo en los terrenos loéssicos y produjo el ascenso del nivel del agua en las lagunas y pantanos. El Holoceno tardío, entre 3,5 y 1,4 ka, estuvo dominado por un clima seco, con formación de campos de dunas denominadas aquí Formación San Gregorio. Está formada por arena muy fina a fina, suelta, masiva, color marrón amarillento, y compuesta por trizas vítreas, alteritas y feldespatos como componentes principales y cuarzo como componente secundario; los minerales pesados son de procedencia serrana. La época actual está caracterizada por un exceso de agua en el paisaje; el proceso sedimentológico más relevante es la movilización de grandes volúmenes de sales disueltas, particularmente cloruros y sulfatos. Resumen en inglés The geomorphology, Late Quaternary stratigraphy, sedimentology and hydrology of the upper basin of the Salado River were investigated. The study area is located in S Santa Fe and NW Buenos Aires provinces (11.000 km²) and comprises the NE sector of the Pampean Sand Sea (defined by Iriondo and Kröhling, 1995; Figures 1 and 2). The methodology applied in this study produced conclusions of stratigraphic and paleoclimatic nature. Works were performed in photographic and ima (mas) ges cabinet, in the field and laboratory. In cabinet, the geological cartography produced by the first author in former projects was issued, particularly the geological map of Santa Fe province, in 1:500.000 scale (Iriondo, 1987; Figure 3), the map of the South American plains (Iriondo, 1990a; Petit Maire et al., 1999) and the map of the Pampean Sand Sea in scale 1:1.000.000 (Iriondo, 1992). That was complemented with satellite images and photomosaic analyses, integrated with classical topographic quadrangles of IGM. Field works made in the region covered a period of two decades. The first expedition was done in the year 1985, during a dry inter-annual period which favored the description of geological profiles and collection of fossils in the bottom of channels. Further expeditions were made in the 1990's, resulting in the elaboration of the regional stratigraphy (Figure 4; Kröhling, 1998; Iriondo and Kröhling, 1995). The last three field surveys, between the years 2001 and 2004 (during the present humid period), were focused on the studies of dune fields, with areal sampling (about 50 samples) and the recovering of sedimentary cores (41 m drilled). Four stratigraphic boreholes were made in the study area and a complementary one outside it, with recovering of undisturbed samples and complemented with geotechnical S.P.T. tests. The main boreholes were drilled in Teodelina (34°11´lat. S; 61°31´long.W; 88 m a.s.l.; Santa Fe; Figure 5) and in San Gregorio (34°17' lat. S y 61°55´ long. W; 102 m a.s.l, Santa Fe). Laboratory analises comprises grain size analysis by sieving at intervals of ¼ Φ between 125 and 37 μm. For mineralogical determinations were applied loose grain techniques (in the very fine sand fraction) and X-ray diffractometry (on total samples; Figure 6). Complementary, morphoscopic determinations were carried out in the 74 μm fraction. Two geological formations of eolian origins are widespread in the region, Teodelina Fm (Late Pleistocene) and San Gregorio Fm (Late Holocene), which are formally defined here. The Teodelina Fm has a typical thickness of 10 to 12 m and has been eroded up to 5 m in some areas; it is composed of sandy coarse silt and silty fine sand, with main modes at 125-250 μm and 53-62 μm; the colour is yellowish brown and similar ones. The mineral composition of the 53-62 μm fraction is dominated by volcanic glass, with feldspars, quartz and alterites as accessory minerals. Roundness and sphericity of the grains vary from low to moderate, with two populations. The San Gregorio Fm is more than 7 m thick. It is composed of loose, massive, yellowish brown in color, very fine to fine sand (Figures 7a and 7b). The mineral composition is dominated by vitreous shards, alterites and feldspars as its main components and quartz as a secondary component; main heavy minerals were originated in the Pampean Ranges. The geomorphology of the area and the present hydric dynamics are controlled by eolian geoforms generated during the Late Quaternary. The exception is the fluvial collector in S Santa Fe which is a paleochannel of the Tercero river, controlled by tectonics (Figure 8). The study area underwent a sequence of dry and humid episodes during the Late Quaternary. Basically, the present landscape is the result of the influence of a humid climate which took place in the Oxygen Isotopic Stage 3 (OIS 3; 64-36 ka) and the eolian activity produced by a dry climate in the Late Holocene (3.5- 1.4 ka). The sequence of sedimentary and geomorphic events deduced from the data of this research was the following: during the humid OIS 3, a fluvial net developed; it forms at present the upper basin of the Salado River of Buenos Aires, and is carved in the Carcarañá Formation (OIS 3; Kröhling, 1999). In a subsequent dry episode (Late Pleistocene), the Teodelina Formation was sedimented by eolian and associated processes. A largelly erosive eolian phase occurred after Teodelina Fm accumulation; it was characterized by Western winds that carved hundreds of large deflation hollows. A discontinuous sedimentation of a sandy loess up to 2 m thick with bimodal grain size distribution covered the minor accidents of the landscape. The humid period of the Middle Holocene (8.5-3.5 ka) was characterized by a warm and humid climate with an udic soil regime, which generated a soil profile on the loessic terrains and provoked the water level rising in lakes and swamps. The Late Holocene, from 3.5 to 1.4 ka BP, was characterized by a dry climate that produced the development of parabolic dune fields, named here as the San Gregorio Formation. An interesting geomorphological feature of the study area is represented by numerous shallow lakes occupying large deflation hollows generated by W winds. That indicates a shift of the Westerlies to the N up to 34° lat. S at the Upper Pleistocene-Lower Holocene interval (Figure 9). During the Little Ice Age the studied area underwent an arid climate with dominance of SW winds that produced a general mobilization of sand to the NE (Figure 10); the inherited shallow lakes were transformed in playas (Dangavs and Mormeneo, 2006). The present dynamics is dominated by an excess of water in the landscape as a consequence of the Present humid climate and the morphosedimentological control referred above. The significant sedimentological process is the mobilization of large volumes of dissolved salts, mainly chlorides and sulphates.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

51

Gamebird hunting and biodiversity conservation: synthesis, recommendations and future research priorities

Viñuela, Javier; Arroyo, Beatriz

19 pages.-- REGHAB Project: Report on Workpackage 6 – Deliverables no 21 and 23. | In many European regions, gamebird hunting is an important socio-economic activity in rural areas, involving millions of people, euros and hectares. Gamebird management has historically been performed in many areas, a...

DRIVER (Spanish)

52

Fluvial geomorphology and hydrology in the dispersal and fate of pyrite mud particles released by the Aznalcóllar mine tailings spill

Gallart, F.; Benito, G.; Martín Vide, J. P.; Benito, A.; Prió, J. M.; Regüés, D.

The Agrio-Guadiamar River reach affected by the Aznalcóllar mine tailings spill can be divided into three main sectors taking account of geomorphic characteristics and human-induced changes. Along the first 15 km, the valley presents the characteristics of a middle fluvial reach of moderate sinuosit...

DRIVER (Spanish)

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Flujos de los aportes de agua continental a la ría de Arosa

Rosón, Gabriel; Pérez, Fiz F.; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Ríos, Aida F.
1991-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

54

Factores que dan origen al minado de acuíferos en ambientes áridos: caso Valle de San Luis Potosí/ Factors causing the mining of aquifers in arid environments: case of San Luis Potosí valley

Noyola-Medrano, María Cristina; Ramos-Leal, José Alfredo; Domínguez-Mariani, Eloísa; Pineda-Martínez, Luis Felipe; López-Loera, Héctor; Carbajal, Noel
2009-08-01

Resumen en español El análisis de datos históricos y recientes de hidrogeología, geofísica, cambio de uso del suelo, clima y las prácticas de manejo del recurso hídrico apuntan a una continua disminución de los volúmenes de agua subterránea. Esto revela que el acuífero del Valle de San Luis Potosí se comporta como un recurso minado. El sistema está formado por un acuífero somero en medio granular en depósitos aluviales, un acuífero intermedio de material sedimentario compuest (mas) o por gravas, arenas y limos semiconsolidados y un acuífero profundo en un medio fracturado de origen volcánico, denominado Latita Portezuelo. Los factores que afectan negativamente la recarga hacia el valle son: la baja permeabilidad de los materiales rocosos que bordean al valle y que inhiben la infiltración hacia el subsuelo, la baja precipitación y alta evaporación característica de regiones áridas, la erosión de suelos deforestados en las sierras aledañas que impiden la retención de agua, y la construcción de presas en materiales rocosos de baja permeabilidad que reducen drásticamente el flujo de agua a zonas de infiltración en el valle. Adicionalmente, las edades del agua en el medio granular van de 1300 a 2300 años, mientras que en el medio fracturado van de 5300 a 6300 años, indicando ritmos muy lentos de recarga. Los últimos balances hidrogeológicos anuales correspondientes a los años 1995 y 2002 indican que el déficit se incrementó de 36.6×10(6) a 42.5×10(6) m³/año. Estos balances coinciden en la existencia de un desequilibrio en la extracción que duplica a la recarga, y dadas las condiciones climáticas del área, conlleva a una condición de minado del agua subterránea en el Valle de San Luis Potosí. Resumen en inglés The analysis of historical and recent data on hydrology, geophysics, land use change, climate and water resources management points to a continue decrease of groundwater reserves, which indicates that groundwater mining is taking place in the San Luis Potosi Valley aquifer. The system is formed by a shallow aquifer in a granular medium in alluvial depositions, a middle one of sedimentary material formed by gravels, sands and unconsolidated loams, and a deep aquifer in a v (mas) olcanic fractured medium, named Latita Portezuelo. The factors negatively affecting the recharge into the valley are: a low permeability of rocky materials surrounding the valley that inhibit the water infiltration into the soil, the scarce precipitation and high evaporation characteristic of arid zones, the soil erosion by deforestation in mountain ranges that prevent water retention, and water dams built on low permeability materials that restrain water runoff to infiltration zones in the valley. Additionally, the ages of the water in the granular aquifer range from 1300 to 2300 years and from 5300 to 6300 years in the fractured aquifer. Hydrogeological balances from 1995 and 2002 show that the deficit has increased from 36.6×10(6) to 42.5×10(6) m³/year. These balances reveal a shortage, with extraction doubling the recharge. According to the climatic and geological conditions in the area, the groundwater in the San Luis Potosi Valley reached a condition of mining.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

56

Evaluación de dos métodos de determinación de la evapotranspiración de referencia en condiciones semiáridas

Villar i Mir, Josep Maria; Martínez-Cob, Antonio; Fuertes Lázaro, Santiago Javier
1998-07-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

57

Estimated Future Production of Desalinated Seawater in the MENA Countries and Consequences for the Recipients

Bashitialshaaer, Raed; Persson, Kenneth M; Larson, Magnus

Seawater desalination constitutes an important source for water supply to the population bordering the Arabian Gulf, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Red Sea. Desalination has advantages and disadvantages which may depend on the region, location, technology, impact and amount of fresh water production...

DRIVER (Spanish)

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Estado actual del conocimiento sobre el arsénico en el agua de Argentina y Chile: origen, movilidad y tratamiento

Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.; Galindo, Griselda; Parada, Miguel Ángel; Gimeno, D.; García-Vallés, M.; Saavedra Alonso, Julio
2005-10-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

59

Environmental Assessment of Brine Discharge Including Wastewater Collection in the Arabian Gulf

Bashitialshaaer, Raed; Flyborg, Lena; Persson, Kenneth M

The environmental effects of brine discharge in the Arabian/Persian Gulf have been assessed. The Arabic Gulf is a wide and shallow system having a horizontal shear dominance. The management choice of mixing brine with wastewater to reduce the salt content in the discharge has also been considered. A...

DRIVER (Spanish)

61

El agua en la ciudad andalusí

Navarro Palazón, Julio; Jiménez Castillo, Pedro
2010-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

65

Conceptual Framework for Mangrove Restoration in the Yucatán Peninsula

Zaldívar-Jiménez, M. Arturo; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A.; Teutli-Hernández, Claudia; Comín, Francisco A.; Andrade, José Luis; Pérez Ceballos, Rosela
2010-09-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

66

Combined palaeoflood and rainfall-runoff assessment of mountain floods (Spanish Pyrenees)

Rico, M.; Benito, G.; Barnolas, A.

This paper reports a comparative study of the use of palaeohydrological and hydrological techniques to estimate magnitude and frequency of floods applied to two high-gradient, small catchments located in the Spanish Central Pyrenees: the Arás basin, 18.6 km2; the Montardit basin, 15.2 km2. Palaeohyd...

DRIVER (Spanish)

67

Combined palaeoflood and rainfall-runoff assessment of mountain floods (Spanish Pyrenees)

Rico, M.; Benito, G.; Barnolas, A.

This paper reports a comparative study of the use of palaeohydrological and hydrological techniques to estimate magnitude and frequency of floods applied to two high-gradient, small catchments located in the Spanish Central Pyrenees: the Arás basin, 18.6 km2; the Montardit basin, 15.2 km2. Palaeohyd...

DRIVER (Spanish)

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Calidad y uso de las aguas termales del sur de la cuenca río Salí, Argentina

Galindo, Griselda; Dapeña, C.; Pomposiello, M. C.; Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.; Gimeno, D.
2004-10-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

70

Caesium-137 dating applied to slackwater flood deposits of the Llobregat River, NE Spain

Thorndycraft, V. R.; Benito, G.; Walling, D. E.; Sopeña, A.; Sánchez-Moya, Y.; Rico, M.; Casas-Planes, A.

During a palaeoflood study of the Llobregat River (NE Spain), analysis of 137Cs was carried out on slackwater flood deposits to obtain an improved flood chronology for the most recent flood sediments. At the Monistrol study reach, 137Cs was measured in flood deposits preserved in valley side rock al...

DRIVER (Spanish)

71

BASE DE DATOS ECO-HIDROLOGICA DE LOS RIOS DE CHILE: UNA HERRAMIENTA DE GESTION PARA LOS ECOSISTEMAS ACUATICOS/ ECO-HYDROLOGICAL DATABASE OF CHILEAN RIVERS: A TOOL FOR MANAGEMENT OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM

Peredo-Parada, M; Martínez-Capel, F; Garófano-Gomez, V; Atenas, M; Riestra, F
2009-01-01

Resumen en español El conocimiento de las especies nativas de Chile se caracteriza por ser insuficiente, incompleto, fragmentado y poco actualizado, lo cual constituye una de las principales limitantes para desarrollar estrategias de conservación de especies o planes de conservación y recuperación de sistemas acuáticos. Lo anterior cobra mayor importancia dada la mayor presión que tienen actualmente estos ecosistemas en el país. Para paliar este vacío se ha confeccionado una Base de (mas) Datos Eco-Hidrológica de los ríos de Chile. Esta base de datos cuenta con información hidrológica, fisicoquímica de las aguas, sedimentológicas e información íctica. Esta última información se ha basado en recopilación bibliográfica de literatura referente a distribución de peces, dividida en tres niveles (I, II y III) de acuerdo al detalle y escala espacial de la información (macroescala, mesoescala y microescala, respectivamente). La Base de Datos Eco-Hidrológica confeccionada la conforman 393 estaciones fluviométricas, 361 estaciones de calidad del agua, 92 estaciones sedimentológicas y un total de 1580 registros de peces distribuidos a lo largo de todo Chile. Esta base de datos se ha integrado en la plataforma de gestión "Clasificación Eco-hidrológica de los ríos de Chile" (REC-Chile), la cual se construyó basándose en los factores medioambientales que controlan el régimen hídrico de un río. La utilización conjunta de la base de datos junto con REC-Chile permitirá desarrollar una mejor planificación y gestión de los ecosistemas acuáticos en Chile Resumen en inglés The limited knowledge of Chilean native species is one of the main constraints to develop conservation strategies for species or conservation planning and rehabilitation of aquatic ecosystems. To fill this gap it was developed an Eco-Hydro logical Database of the Chilean rivers. This database contains information about hydrology, water quality, substrate and fish information. The latter information was based on literature collection concerning on fish distribution, divide (mas) d into three levels (I, II and III) according to detail and spatial scale of the information (macro, meso and microscale, respectively). The database has 393 hydro logical stations, 361 water quality stations, 92 substrate stations and a total of 1580 fish records distributed throughout Chile. This database has been integrated into the management platform «River Environmental Classification of Chilean Rivers» (REC-Chile), which was built based on environmental factors which control the hydrological pattern of a river. The joint use of the database along with REC-Chile will further develop planning and management of aquatic ecosystems in Chile

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

72

Assessing the Effect of Climate Oscillations and Land-use Changes on Streamflow in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

Beguería, Santiago; López-Moreno, Juan I.; Lorente, Adrián; Seeger, Manuel; García-Ruiz, José María

Plans to increase the amount of irrigated land in Mediterranean countries should consider how changes in climate and land-use affect water resources. In this study, both precipitation and temperature were used to analyze regional trends in discharge in the basins of the Central Spanish Pyrenees sinc...

DRIVER (Spanish)

73

Applications of palaeoflood hydrology and historical data in flood risk analysis

Benito, G.; Ouarda, Taha; Bárdossy, A.

Floods are the most common natural disaster in the world and are becoming a more and more important problem with large economic losses and social disruption. Technical measures for mitigating flood impacts are included within three basic categories: predictive, preventive and corrective measures. Pr...

DRIVER (Spanish)

75

An introduction to Mediterranean deep-sea biology | Introducción a la Biología del Mediterráneo profundo

Sardá, Francisco; Canals, Miquel; Tselepides, Anastasios; Calafat, Antoni; Flexas, María Mar; Espino, Manuel

Publicación online disponible en: http://www.icm.csic.es/scimar/index.php | [EN] This chapter presents the state of the art concerning the deep-sea Mediterranean environment: geology, hydrology, biology and fisheries. These are the fields of study dealt with in the scientific papers of this volume. ...

DRIVER (Spanish)

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An introduction to Mediterranean deep-sea biology

Sardà, Francisco; Canals, Miquel; Tselepides, Anastasios; Calafat, Antoni; Flexas, María del Mar; Espino, Manuel; Tursi, Angelo
2004-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

77

An ecohydrological modelling approach for assessing long-term recharge rates in semiarid karstic landscapes

Contreras, Sergio; Boer, Matthias M.; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Domingo, Francisco; García García, Mónica

16 pages, 7 figures, 5 tables.-- Printed version published on Mar 2008. | An ecohydrological water balance method based on the hydrological equilibrium hypothesis was developed to estimate long-term annual recharge rates in semiarid karstic landscapes. Recharge was predicted from the difference betw...

DRIVER (Spanish)

78

Aggregating spatial heterogeneity in a bush vegetation patch in semi-arid SE Spain: A multi-layer model versus a single-layer model

Were, Ana M.; Villagarcía, Luis; Domingo, Francisco; Moro, María J.; Dolman, A. J.

12 pages, 5 figures.-- Printed version published on Jan 2008. | In semi-arid areas, where vegetation is sparse and clumped, models used to estimate evapotranspiration (λE) consider soil and plants as different sources of evaporation. When working at higher scales of heterogeneity, the modelling of s...

DRIVER (Spanish)

79

A new TDR waveform analysis approach for soil moisture profiling using a single probe

Moret-Fernández, David; Arrúe Ugarte, José Luis; López Sánchez, María Victoria; Gracia Ballarín, Ricardo

DRIVER (Spanish)

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A long-term flood discharge record derived from slackwater flood deposits of the Llobregat River, NE Spain

Thorndycraft, V. R.; Benito, G.; Rico, M.; Sopeña, A.; Casas, M.; Sánchez-Moya, Y.

Slackwater palaeoflood deposits were identified along two bedrock gorge study reaches of the Llobregat River, at Pont de Vilomara and Monistrol de Montserrat. The compiled palaeoflood record consists of two principal flood series: (a) a relatively complete record of low to high magnitude flood event...

DRIVER (Spanish)