Sample records for OSCURECIEMIENTOS (ILUMINACION) (end losses)
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1

Comportamiento de viviendas de ferrocemento bajo cargas cíclic/ Behavior of ferrocement housing under cyclical loads

Bedoya Ruiz, Daniel; Álvarez Betancur, David
2009-07-01

Resumen en español La escasez de vivienda en el mundo ha llevado desde hace varios años a la búsqueda de nuevos materiales y sistemas alternativos para su construcción. El ferrocemento desde hace más de 25 décadas viene siendo estudiado y aplicado como solución de vivienda en varios países; Colombia, uno de ellos. En este trabajo se presenta parte de los resultados de una investigación acerca del comportamiento de las viviendas de ferrocemento bajo cargas cíclicas. Se probaron dos (mas) módulos de vivienda a escala real construidos con paneles prefabricados de pared delgada de ferrocemento. Sobre cada módulo de ferrocemento se realizaron ensayos de carga cíclica y se evaluó su comportamiento. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la sensibilidad de este sistema estructural ante varios ciclos de carga, con pérdidas de rigidez cercanas al 20% para los primeros ciclos y hasta un 85% al final de los mismos. Resumen en inglés The shortage of dwelling in the world has taken for several years to the search of new materials and alternative systems for its construction. For more than 25 decades, ferrocement has been studied and applied as a dwelling solution in several countries, among them Colombia.. This article refers to the results of a research about seismic behavior of ferrocement dwellings. Two modules built on real scale with prefabricated panels of ferrocement thin wall were used. On each (mas) module of ferrocement, tests of cyclical load were carried out, and its behavior was evaluated. The obtained results showed the sensitivity of this structural system under several cycles of load, with losses of rigidity near to 20% for the first cycles and up to 85% at the end of the same.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

2

Evaluación de las pérdidas económicas por eventos de falla reproductiva asociadas a brucelosis bovina en hembras y explotaciones de la cuenca lechera de Tizayuca, Hidalgo, México/ Evaluation of the Economic Losses of Events Associated With Reproductive Failure in Female Bovine Brucellosis and Dairy Farms of the Basin of Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico

Xolalpa Campos, Víctor Manuel; Pérez Ruano, Miguel; Córdova Izquierdo, Alejandro
2010-03-01

Resumen en español Con el objetivo de determinar las pérdidas financieras asociadas a brucelosis, se estudiaron 20 unidades de producción lechera (UPL) de la Cuenca de Tizayuca, Hidalgo, México, que aplicaban diferentes subprogramas de control de la enfermedad. Para estimar las pérdidas se utilizaron los eventos que se relacionaron significativamente con la brucelosis (abortos, nacimientos prematuros, tumores uterinos, celos perdidos y becerros nacidos muertos). Las pérdidas más altas (mas) por eventos de falla reproductiva se presentaron en las UPL que aplicaron la variante sólo vacuna; las más bajas se encontraron en las que eliminan de inmediato a las reactoras a brucelosis, y donde segregan y eliminan las vacas reactoras al final de su vida productiva. Así, de esos subprogramas la variante que reemplaza con animales del mismo hato, vacuna y elimina (20,26 USD) obtuvo una pérdida por animal tres veces inferior a la variante que sólo vacuna (70,00 USD). Resumen en inglés With the objective of determining the financial losses for events of reproductive failure caused by the bovine brucellosis, 20 Units of dairy production of Tizayuca Agricultural and Industrial Complex (CAITSA), Hidalgo, Mexico. There were distributed proportionally in the 5 control programs of the disease applied in this basin. They were used to estimate the losses for reproductive failure for brucellosis with the events that were related significantly with the brucellosi (mas) s (abortions, premature births, uterine tumors, lost heats and stillborn. The highest losses for events of reproductive failure were observed had in the dairy production units attributed to the variant of the program that single vaccine and the lowest were in the UPL that eliminate immediately brucellosis reactors, independently to the of the origin of the animals and where it is segregated to the reactors to brucellosis and they are eliminated at the end of their productive life, standing out inside this variant that replacement with animals reared in the herd and it eliminates (20.26 USD) with a loss three times inferior to the variant that only vaccine (70.00 USD).

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

3

Arteritis viral equina: Una Revisión/ Equine Viral Arteritis: A Review

Perozo, Edison
2005-07-01

Resumen en español La arteritis viral equina (AVE) es una enfermedad viral contagiosa de los equinos causada por un arterivirus (virus arteritis equina) que ha sido frecuentemente confundida con enfermedades que presentan una clínica similar, especialmente con aquellas enfermedades causadas por herpesvirus tipo 1 y 4 o con la influenza viral equina. Esta patología ha demostrado causar grandes pérdidas económicas en la industria equina mundial, al reportarse abortos epidémicos y muerte (mas) de ejemplares, generalmente asociado con la movilización de caballos, observándose una rápida propagación del virus, la cual puede ocurrir en hipódromos, clubes ecuestres, exposiciones, subastas o haras. Esta patología debe su nombre a las características y lesiones constantes a nivel de las arteriolas y vasos de mediano calibre en los caballos infectados. La AVE es muy parecida a otras enfermedades equinas, que al final del siglo XIX y al inicio del siglo XX, fueron referidas por una variedad de términos clínicos que describen la enfermedad, como por ejemplo infección celulolítica, ojo rojo, etc. No es sino hasta 1953, después del seguimiento de un síndrome respiratorio reproductivo en yeguas, de la raza Standardbred, cerca de Bucyrus (Ohio, EUA), que el virus de la AVE fue identificado etiológicamente diferente de la Rinopneumonitis Equina producida por los herpesvirus tipo 1 y 4 y el virus de la Influenza Equina. Debido a la importancia de esta patología para la industria equina la presente revisión tiene como fin dar a conocer las características del agente causal, la distribución, el modo de transmisión, signología e inmunidad, así como los aspectos referentes al diagnóstico, control y prevención de la enfermedad.   Resumen en inglés Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a contagious viral disease of the equine caused by arterivirus (equine arteritis virus) that had frequently been overviewed with other diseases that have clinical representation particulary caused by herpesvirus type 1 and 4 or equine viral influenza. This pathology has demonstrated that causes important economical losses worldwide, in the equine industry by causing abortion outbreaks and animals death often associated with horse congregati (mas) on and mobilizations. Also, this pathology has a fast dissemination of the virus that may happen at racetrack, jockey clubs, auctions and farms. Lesions and characteristics in the arteriolas in infected horses originated the named in the past. The EVA is very similar to older equine diseases, like those refered at the end of XIX and the beginning of XX centuries due to the variety of clinical terms that describes the disease, as cellulite infection and pink eye, etc. In 1953, the virus was identified as differed from etiological entity different to the Equine Rinopheumonitis caused Influenza. This new identification took place after a reproductive syndrome outbreak in Standardbred mares, near to Bucyrus (Ohio, USA). Because of the importance of this pathology for equine industry worldwide, the objective of this review was to illustrate the characteristics of the virus, distribution of the disease, transmition, clinical signs, immunity, and features such as diagnosis, control and prevention of the disease.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

5

Winter barley performance under different cropping and tillage systems in semiarid Aragon (NE Spain)

Moret-Fernández, David; Arrúe Ugarte, José Luis; López Sánchez, María Victoria; Gracia Ballarín, Ricardo
2007-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

6

Vitamin C, Provitamin A Carotenoids, and Other Carotenoids in High-Pressurized Orange Juice during Refrigerated Storage

Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Plaza, Lucía; Ancos Sigueiro, Begoña de; Cano Dolado, María Pilar
2003-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

8

Transpiration and canopy conductance in young apricot (Prunus armenica L.) trees subjected to different PAR levels and water stress

Barradas, V. L.; Nicolás Nicolás, Emilio; Torrecillas Melendreras, Arturo; Alarcón Cabañero, Juan José
2005-08-22

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

9

Thermal postharvest treatments for improving pomegranate quality and shelf life

Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Tudela, Juan Antonio; Villaescusa, Raquel
2000-04-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

10

The anthelmintic effect of heather supplementation may not always be associated with antinutritional effects in grazing goats

Frutos, Pilar; Ferreira, L. M. M.; Hervás, Gonzalo; García, Urcesino; Moreno Gonzalo, Javier; Ferre, Ignacio; Celaya, Rafael; Ortega Mora, Luis M.; Osoro, Koldo
2009-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

11

The ATLAS semiconductor tracker end-cap module

Fleta, Celeste; Martí García, Salvador; Lacasta Llácer, Carlos; Fuster, Juan; Rafí, Joan Marc; García García, Carmen; Stugu, Bjarne; Mellado, B.; Bernabéu, José; García-Navarro, José Enrique; Ullán Comes, Miguel; González González, Francisco; González Sevilla, Sergio; Modesto, Pablo; Campabadal, Francesca; Llosá, Gabriela; Lozano Fantoba, Manuel; Costa, María José; Escobar, Carlos; Pellegrini, Giulio; Rodríguez Oliete, Rosario; Sánchez Martínez, Francisco Javier; Strachko, V.; Civera, José Vicente; Miñano, Mercedes; Oye, O. K.; Sospedra, Luis
2007-02-28

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

13

Stability of Paprika without Supplementary Antioxidants during Storage under Industrial Controlled Conditions

Pérez Gálvez, Antonio; Hornero Méndez, Dámaso; Mínguez Mosquera, María Isabel
2009-05-05

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

15

Selección de la fecha de siembra como estrategia de adaptación a los efectos del estrés térmico sobre los rendimientos simulados de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en un área montano baja del centro-occidente de Venezuela/ Planting date selection as an adaptation strategy to elevated temperature effects on simulated yields of dry bean in a low mountainous area of Midwestern Venezuela

Warnock de Parra, R; Guillén, L; Puche, M; Silva, O; Morros, M
2007-09-01

Resumen en español El estrés causado por las altas temperaturas sobre los rendimientos de sistemas de producción comerciales de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) con riego puede ser reducido a través de la optimización de la fecha de siembra. Empleando 41 años de información climática diaria, se cuantificaron y evaluaron los rendimientos simulados de siete materiales genéticos de caraota en un área (09°43´ N - 09°46´ N, 69°37´ O - 69°40´ O y 1228 msnm - 1502 msnm) productora (mas) ubicada en las estribaciones andinas del centro-occidente de Venezuela, a los fines de realizar recomendaciones técnicas en cuanto a las fechas de siembra más prometedoras para diferentes niveles de productividad. Se aplicó el modelo CROPGRO-Bean del programa DSSAT V. 3,5 utilizando información local de clima, suelo y manejo agronómico. Los resultados indicaron que para el 75% de los productores locales que aplican riego, el desplazamiento de la fecha de siembra hacia finales de año (en los meses de octubre-noviembre) mejoraría las expectativas de niveles alcanzables de rendimientos hasta en 12%, mientras que las siembras en mayo podrían provocar reducciones de hasta 16% en promedio. Para el 25% de productores restantes, que no aplican riego, la mejor fecha de siembra se ubica en el mes de mayo, a entrada de lluvias. Resumen en inglés Consequences of elevated temperatures on yield losses of commercial dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production systems may be reduced by proper management of planting date. By using 41 years of daily climatic information, simulated yields were quantified and assessed for 7 dry bean genetic materials in a low mountainous area (09°43´ N - 09°46´ N, 69°37´ O - 69°40´ O and 1228 msnm - 1502 msnm) of Midwestern Venezuela with the purpose of developing suitable plantin (mas) g date recommendations for various production levels. The CROPGRO-Bean (DSSAT V. 3,5) model was applied using local climate, soil and management information as input data. Results showed that the best planting date for 75% of local bean growers who irrigate is toward the end of the rainy season, during the months of OctoberNovember, which would improve expected yields as much as 12%, while plantings in May would reduce expected yields as much as 16% on average. The most suitable planting date for the remaining 25% of growers that do not irrigate is during the beginning of rainy season (May).

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

16

Response of a mixed Philippine seagrass meadow to experimental burial

Duarte, Carlos M.; Terrados, Jorge; Agawin, Nona S. R.; Fortes, Miguel D.; Bach, Steffen; Kenworthy, W. Judson
1997-02-27

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

17

Reduced dietary intake of carbohydrates by obese subjects results in decreased concentrations of butyrate and butyrate-producing bacteria in feces

Duncan, Sylvia H.; Belenguer, Álvaro; Holtrop, Grietje; Johnstone, Alexandra M.; Flint, Harry J.; Lobley, Gerald E.
2007-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

18

Quaternary paleoclimatology, neotropical biodiversity, and potential effects of global warming.

Rull, Valentí; Vegas-Vilarrúbia, Teresa; Nogué, Sandra; Montoya, Encarnación; Cañellas-Boltà, Nuria; Lara, A.
2007-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

19

Quaternary paleoclimatology, neotropical biodiversity, and potential effects of global warming

Rull, Valentí; Vegas-Vilarrúbia, Teresa; Nogué, Sandra; Montoya, Encarnación; Cañellas-Boltà, Nuria; Lara, A.
2007-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

21

Problema de la agencia y la cultura corporativa estalinista/ The agency problem and Stalinist corporate culture/ Problème de l'agence et la culture corporative stalinienne

Gorbaneff, Yuri
2004-07-01

Resumen en español El problema de la agencia es de los obstáculos para la eficiencia de las organizaciones. A partir de Alchian y Demsetz (1972), la teoría sugiere dos soluciones: la propiedad privada y la cultura corporativa. Sin embargo, aislar el efecto de la cultura sobre las organizaciones no es fácil. La "ingeniería social" estalinista ofrece un material interesante para evaluar los efectos de la cultura corporativa sobre el sistema económico. Acá se sostiene la hipótesis de qu (mas) e los dirigentes soviéticos, al enfrentar los crecientes costos de la agencia tuvieron que inventar otro método, que no fuera la propiedad privada ni el control democrático directo sobre el aparato productivo, para controlar la pérdida de la agencia. Ellos recurrieron a la implantación de la cultura corporativa heroica a nivel nacional. Este trabajo muestra que la propaganda política, el arte, la literatura, los movimientos populares y el culto a la personalidad de Stalin fueron las herramientas gerenciales clave para implantar la cultura corporativa heroica, indispensable en la economía planificada. Su aplicación fue exitosa y generó las condiciones necesarias para la industrialización entre 1920 y 1930 y para el alto desempeño de la economía soviética durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. La segunda hipótesis consiste en que el fantasma de la agencia, ahuyentado entre 1920 y 1950 por la cultura heroica estalinista, terminó devorando la economía planificada. Resumen en inglés The agency problem is one of the obstacles hampering organisations' efficiency. The theory suggests two solutions: private property and corporate culture. However, isolating culture's effect on organisations is no easy matter. Stalinist social engineering provides interesting material for evaluating corporate culture's effects on an economic system. The hypothesis is as follows. Soviet management, when confronted by growing agency costs, had to invent another (mas) method for reducing agency losses which could not be private property or direct democratic control over the means of production. They had recourse to nationally implanting the heroic corporate culture. It was successfully applied and generated the necessary conditions for industrialisation during 1920-1930 and for the Soviet economy's high performance during the Second World War. The heroic corporate culture's disappearance after Stalin's death awoke the ghost of agency. Having performed effectively from the 1960s onwards, the Soviet economy began to decline, ending with Perestroika at the end of the 1980s. The second hypothesis consists of the ghost of agency, banished from 1920-1950 by heroic Stalinist culture, returning to devour the planned economy.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

22

Perfecionamiento del Modelo Adoma Mediante la Inclusión de la Ambigüedad en Algunos de sus Parámetros/ Perfecting of the Adoma Model by Means of the Inclusion of the Ambiguity in Someone of its Parameters

Moreno, Edilson; López, Marco; Merino, Gabriel
2006-06-01

Resumen en español En la presente investigación se perfeccionó el Modelo Sistema de Administración de Maquinaria Agrícola (ADOMA), mediante la inclusión de las pérdidas económicas por retraso en la ejecución de las labores, además se incorporó la incertidumbre asociada a estas pérdidas utilizando lógica difusa. Para tal fin se elaboró un sistema de soporte de toma de decisiones que apoya la programación de las labores basado en lógica difusa, llamado Sistema de Soporte de Dec (mas) isión con Lógica Difusa (FLDSS). Se recopiló información de pérdidas por retraso de cuatro cultivos frecuentes en la VIII Región de Chile. Los valores de pérdida fueron convertidos en valores difusos y representados por números difusos trapezoidales. Posteriormente los números difusos fueron ordenados para establecer la prioridad en la ejecución de las labores y la asignación de las máquinas. Para validar el modelo se elaboró un escenario con cuatro cultivos con información de pérdida económica y dos cultivos sin información; los datos se introdujeron en el modelo ADOMA y en el modelo ADOMA con FLDSS. Los resultados indican que se logra una programación que se ajusta mejor a los requerimientos de un escenario con cultivos múltiples, privilegiando aquellos cultivos de mayor interés económico para el agricultor; además, las labores son programadas dentro de las fechas establecidas Resumen en inglés In this work the Administration System of Agricultural Machinery Model (ADOMA) was improved, by including the economic losses due to tardiness in the operations execution, in addition, the uncertainty associated to economic losses was incorporated by using fuzzy logic. To this end, a decision support system was developed that performs the operation scheduling based on fuzzy logic. This system is called the Fuzzy Logic Decision Support System (FLDSS). The information about (mas) economic losses for tardiness of four common crops in the VIII Region of Chile was compiled. The values of losses were converted to fuzzy values and represented by fuzzy trapezoidal numbers. Subsequently, the fuzzy numbers were ranked in order to assess the priority in the execution of the operations and the assignment of machines. To validate the model, a stage was elaborated with crops for which information related to economic losses were available and with two crops without this type of information. The data were introduced in both models ADOMA and ADOMA FLDSS models. The results indicated that the obtained scheduling adjusts better to the requests of a stage with multiple crops, privileging those crops of greater economic importance to the farmer, in addition, the operations schedule was programmed within the established dates

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

23

Ozonoterapia en úlceras flebostáticas

Díaz Hernández, Orestes; Castellanos González, Roberto
2001-06-01

Resumen en español La úlcera flebostática es una afección frecuente en la población y por su tendencia a la cronicidad ocasiona importantes pérdidas económicas personales y sociales. Se realizó un estudio para evaluar el efecto bactericida y favorecedor del trofismo celular del ozono; para esto se utilizó un grupo estudio formado por 22 pacientes a los cuales se les aplicó ozonoterapia local y a otros 22 , tratamiento convencional. En el grupo estudio lograron negativizar el cultiv (mas) o bacteriológico el 90,9 % (20/22) y cicatrizaron el 90,9 %, mientras que en el grupo control negativizaron el cultivo el 77,7 % (17/22) y cicatrizaron 59,1 % (13/22). El 63,6 % de los pacientes del grupo estudio necesitaron menos de 20 sesiones de ozono para negativizar el cultivo bacteriológico y el 45,5 % de los enfermos del grupo control entre 20 y 30 sesiones. El 86,4 % de los pacientes del grupo estudio cicatrizaron su lesión con 20 a 30 sesiones de tratamiento, mientras que el 45,5 % del grupo control cicatrizaron con más de 30 sesiones. Podemos concluir que la ozonoterapia local es un método eficaz y económico en el tratamiento de las úlceras flebostáticas en los miembros inferiores Resumen en inglés Phleboblastic ulcer is a frequent affection in the population and due to its trend to chronicity it causes significant social, personal and economic losses. We conducted a study to assess the bactericidal and favourable effect of cellular trophism. To this end, we used a study group consisted of 22 patients, who were administered local ozone-therapy and other 22 who received a conventional treatment. In the study group, 99.9 % (20/22) proved to be negative to the bacterio (mas) logical culture and 90.9 % healed. In the control group, 77.7 % (17/22) had negative results and 59.1 % (13/22) healed. 63.6 % of the patients in the first group requiered less than 20 applications of ozone to obtain negative results. However, 45.5 % of the patients in the control group needed from 20 to 30 applications. 86.4 % of the patients in the study group healed with 20 to 30 applications, whereas 45.5 % of the patients in the control group healed with more than 30 applications. We concluded that local ozone-therapy is a safe and inexpensive method in the treatment of phleboblastic ulcers in the lower limbs

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

24

Overland water and salt flows in a set of rice paddies

Playán Jubillar, Enrique; Pérez-Coveta, Olga; Martínez-Cob, Antonio; Herrero Isern, Juan; García-Navarro, P.; Latorre, B.; Brufau, P.; Garcés, J.
2008-06-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

25

Organic carbon and nitrogen losses influenced by vegetation removal in a semiarid mediterranean soil

Martínez-Mena García, M. Dolores; Álvarez-Rogel, José; Castillo Sánchez, Victor Manuel; Albaladejo Montoro, Juan
2002-12-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

30

Modified atmosphere packaging of pomegranate

Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Villaescusa, Raquel; Tudela, Juan Antonio
2000-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

31

Modelling the impact of forest loss on shallow landslide sediment yield, Ijuez river catchment, Spanish Pyrenees

Bathurst, James C.; Moretti, Greta; El-Hames, Ahmed; Beguería, Santiago; García-Ruiz, José María
2007-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

32

Los malestares masculinos: Narraciones de un grupo de varones adultos de la Ciudad de México/ Male uneasiness: narratives from a male adult group from Mexico City

Fleiz Bautista, Clara; Ito Sugiyama, Ma. Emily; Medina-Mora Icaza, Ma. Elena; Ramos Lira, Luciana
2008-10-01

Resumen en español Introducción Los malestares asociados con estados depresivos en los hombres han sido poco reconocidos y aún menos abordados. Esta diferencia entre el malestar y su atención se origina en factores como una clasificación rígida y dual del padecimiento, la falsa concepción de que es un problema sólo de mujeres y el estigma social que dificulta que el hombre acepte y enfrente estados de ánimo negativos que afectan su calidad de vida. En este artículo presentamos un e (mas) studio de corte cualitativo que desde la perspectiva comprensiva-interpretativa y el enfoque de género pretendió desentrañar la construcción social del malestar, con el fin de profundizar en el entendimiento de la forma en que los hombres manifiestan y viven este malestar. Método El estudio se llevó a cabo con cuatro varones adultos y para seleccionarlos se utilizó la estrategia de muestreo intencional intensivo. Se buscó seleccionar cuidadosamente pocos casos que pudieran caracterizar al objeto de estudio. Se seleccionaron varones que hubieran vivido una pérdida importante, a los cuales se les dio una explicación detallada del estudio y de sus objetivos. Se llevaron a cabo entrevistas en profundidad y se recopiló la información por medio de una guía temática. Se elaboraron categorías de análisis para clasificar la información a partir de esta guía y los objetivos del estudio. Estas categorías se agruparon de acuerdo con sus significados y generaron otras subcategorías de análisis, las cuales permitieron, a su vez, realizar un análisis más preciso de la información. Resultados El análisis se centró en las vivencias de cuatro varones: Manuel, de 30 años; Oscar, de 36; José, de 40 y Rodrigo, de 48, todos residentes de la Ciudad de México. Dos de ellos terminaron la preparatoria (Manuel y Rodrigo) y los otros dos estudiaron una licenciatura (Óscar y José). Su estado civil era heterogéneo: Óscar era soltero, Rodrigo era viudo, José era casado, pero estaba separado y Manuel vivía en unión libre. De todos ellos se describen las pérdidas más importantes que han originado su malestar y la relación que guardan con otros aspectos de la subjetividad masculina, como la sexualidad, el cuerpo, la violencia, el deporte y el trabajo. La pérdida de la pareja. Es una de las principales experiencias vividas por los cuatro varones entrevistados, en función de la cual se encontraron causas comunes de ruptura: la violencia física y psicológica de ellos hacia sus parejas, su infidelidad y la insatisfacción de la mujer en su vida sexual con su pareja. La pérdida de la salud. Ocasionada por alguna enfermedad crónica o alguna lesión grave. Como ya se preveía, ésta fue una experiencia que produjo malestar en dos de ellos (José y Manuel) y que tuvo un fuerte impacto en su identidad masculina, sobre todo en dos ejes importantes de la subjetividad: el cuerpo y la sexualidad. La pérdida del trabajo. El testimonio de Óscar permite comprender lo que significa el mundo laboral en la vida de los hombres. Sin embargo, cuando no pueden acceder al mundo del trabajo, los hombres enfrentan estados de crisis y malestar, con fuertes repercusiones en su identidad de género. Manifestaciones del malestar masculino ante las pérdidas. Aparecieron expresiones físicas como dolores musculares, problemas para conciliar el sueño, flojera y descuido en el arreglo personal. Las expresiones emocionales más frecuentes fueron los sentimientos de tristeza, enojo, ira y deseos de venganza. Otras manifestaciones estuvieron muy vinculadas con la forma en que aprendieron a >, como no llorar, no mostrarse vulnerables ante los demás, no exteriorizar los sentimientos y aguantar el dolor en general. Resumen en inglés Introduction Distresses related to depressive conditions in men have not been sufficiently acknowledged, and yet less studied. The difference between distress and its attention is originated in factors such as a rigid and dual classification of the problem, a false conception that it is a >, and the social stigma that leads men to accept and face negative emotional states that affect their life quality. This article shows the results of a qualitative stu (mas) dy which sought to uncover the social construction of distress from a gender approach and to deepen the understanding about the way men live it and exteriorize it. The concept of loss was taken as a methodological strategy throughout the study to access the male distress experiences, considering that, before an emotionally meaningful loss or an unfavorable event, individuals may react using those experiences. Method Four adult men participated in the study; they were selected using an intensive intentional sampling strategy. We carefully selected only a few cases, seeking to characterize the object of study and to obtain profound information based on reality; they were males who had suffered an important loss. They received a detailed explanation of the study and its objectives, voluntarily accepted to participate and allowed the recording of the interviews. Confidentiality and anonymity were guaranteed. The information was gathered by means of in depth interviews and a thematic guide. We developed categories of analysis from the guide and the study objectives to classify data. Categories were grouped according to their meanings and they generated subcategories that allowed a deeper and more precise analysis. Results The analysis focused on the experiences of four men: Manuel (30 years old), Oscar (36), José (40), and Rodrigo (40). They lived in Mexico City. Manuel and Rodrigo completed high school education, while Oscar and José obtained a college degree. They had different marital status: Oscar is single, Rodrigo is a widower, José is separated from his wife, and Manuel lived together with his girlfriend. Their most important and emotionally meaningful losses, which had caused distress, are described as well as the relationship these had with other aspects of their masculine subjectivity, such as sexuality, the body, violence, sports and work. Loss of couple. Losing the couple was one of the most important experiences the four men lived. This had common causes: psychological and physical violence, cheating, and sexual dissatisfaction. Manuel and Rodrigo spoke about extremely violent episodes where they were beaten-up by their fathers and schoolmates during childhood, followed by brawls during youth as a way of gaining respect. They also said they later reproduced this violence in their relationships with women. Both were jealous and controlling men, but they used different ways to intimidate their couples. Manuel did not use physical, but psychological violence. Instead of psychologically controlling his couple, Rodrigo used to act violently against her. Different elements can be identified from the experience of these men, which entwine in the distress-gender-violence relationship: > jealousy that triggers violence and using physical or psychological violence as a means for controlling and subordinating the couple. Once they committed and act of violence, they experienced guilt and fear of neglecting that lead them to the rarely kept promise of never doing it again. These events are usually minimized, naturalized, and hardly acknowledged. In the case of cheating, it is important to consider the context where breaking-up takes place, since it is necessary to incorporate other relevant elements of masculine subjectivity: the relationship with the body, the practice of sexuality, the forced heterosexuality, and the continuous evaluation of manhood through social pressure from other men (father, brothers, uncles, and friends). Manuel's experience represents an example of this, because his link with sports and the fitness world allowed him to model his body in order to keep an appealing figure for women and a vehicle for socializing with other men that had similar interests. Being a part of this fellowship allowed Manuel to become a personal trainer and to have several affairs while he was living together with his couple. He said his interest in women and the constant cheating had four basic reasons: the context where fitness takes place, living together for a long time with the same person, feeling sexually unsatisfied, and the realization that her partner showed little interest at home and in doing housework. Thus, in the relationship distress-gender-cheating, when she finds out about him cheating and decides to break-up with him and she leaves him, become the causes on Manuel's distress. José told that problems in his sexual life caused the end of his relationship. He lost his interest in sex and ceased contact with his wife for five or six years because on a genital infection. He also had diabetes since his youth, which also contributed to his lack of interest in sex. José was reluctant to seek medical or psychological help, so his wife decided not to stay with him anymore. Then he reacted with sorrow, impotence, and anger, feelings he considered as a depressive phase. Loss of health. The loss of health could be the result of a chronic illness or a severe injury. It was a distress generating experience for two of them, which had an important impact on their masculine identity in two basic axes: the body and the sexual life. The experiences of José and Manuel allow recognizing the difficulty that men face when they try to accept and admit their own illness and vulnerability, as well as their reticence for taking care of their bodies and health. José said his first painful event was when he was diagnosed with the diabetes at age 25; it was a total self-image change. > who had to take medication for life. The most traumatic situation Manual had lived was when one of his girlfriends stabbed him in his heart during a fight. This changed the meaning of his life and body; he was downhearted for seven years, affecting his work and his social and sexual life. The origin of distress is beyond losing a couple or health in these cases, because, deep down this distress-health-gender relationship, the problem is in losing the ability to fight or in stopping being sexually active, and therefore in not being able to sustain the gender based commands. Loss of job. Oscar talked about one of this distress generating experiences. Even though he considered himself a competent architect, he had not reached a position where he could get enough social success and economic balance. His story offers the possibility of understanding the meaning of a well-paid job in the life of men: the notion of value as a self-reference, the illusion of self-nomination as someone different and unique, the possibility of recognition and appreciation from others, and the money and power. These elements interact to structure what seams to be one of the most important axes for masculine identity. Because when men cannot enter into the working world, they face crisis and distress periods, which in turn have negative repercussions on their gender identity. Male expressions before losses. There were some fundamental physical expressions of distress: muscular pain, difficult in sleeping, laziness, and untidy appearance. The most frequent emotional expressions included sadness, anger, rage, and vindictive impulses. Other manifestations were more related to the way they have learned to > by repressing their feelings: not to cry, not to be vulnerable before others, not to show any feelings, and to endure pain.

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33

Leaf nutrient concentration as an indicator of Populus and Tamarix response to flooding

Gónzalez, Eduardo; Muller, Etienne; Comín, Francisco A.; González-Sanchis, María
2010-11-20

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

34

Large bulk Micromegas detectors for TPC applications

Jover, G.; Lux, T.; Rodríguez, A. Y.; Sánchez, F.; Cervera Villanueva, Anselmo; Hansen, Christian; Monfregola, Laura
2009-02-05

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

35

Inter-Group Conflict and Intra-Group Punishment in an Experimental Contest Game

Abbink, Klaus; Brandts, Jordi; Herrmann, Benedikt; Orzen, Henrik
2008-01-15

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

36

Influence of paclobutrazol on water consumption and plant performance of Arbutus unedo seedlings

Navarro García, Alejandra; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús; Bañón, Sebastián
2007-01-04

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

37

Influence of Fallowing Practices on Soil Water and Precipitation Storage

Moret-Fernández, David; Arrúe Ugarte, José Luis; López Sánchez, María Victoria; Gracia Ballarín, Ricardo
2006-04-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

38

In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion Study of Broccoli Inflorescence Phenolic Compounds, Glucosinolates, and Vitamin C

Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel; Vallejo, Fernando; Pérez-Vicente, Antonio; García-Viguera, Cristina
2003-12-16

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

39

Implications of a RAD54L polymorphism (2290C/T) in human meningiomas as a risk factor and/or a genetic marker

Leone, Paola E; Mendiola, Marta; Alonso, Javier; Paz-y-Miño, César; Pestaña, Ángel
2003-03-04

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

41

Impact of minimal processing on orange bioactive compounds during refrigerated storage

Plaza, Lucía; Crespo, Inés; Pascual-Teresa, Sonia de; Ancos Sigueiro, Begoña de; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Muñoz, Marina; Cano Dolado, María Pilar
2011-01-15

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

43

Health-Promoting Compounds in Broccoli as Influenced by Refrigerated Transport and Retail Sale Period

Vallejo, Fernando; Tomás Barberán, Francisco; García-Viguera, Cristina
2003-04-10

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

44

Generation of high-confinement step-like optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by swift heavy ion-beam irradiation

Olivares, J.; García, G.; García Navarro, A.; Agulló-López, F.; Caballero, O.; García Cabañes, A.
2005-04-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

45

Evaluation of two different aeration systems for composting two-phase olive mill wastes

Cayuela, M. L.; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel Ángel; Roig, Asunción
2006-03-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

47

Effect of refrigerated storage on vitamin C and antioxidant activity of orange juice processed by high-pressure or pulsed electric fields with regard to low pasteurization

Plaza, Lucía; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Ancos Sigueiro, Begoña de; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Cano Dolado, María Pilar
2006-08-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

48

Efecto de los cambios microclimáticos sobre la fisiología del maíz durante el riego por aspersión

Martínez-Cob, Antonio; Cavero Campo, José; Aibar, Joaquín; Puig Basa, Miriam
2007-11-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

49

EELS Analysis of Micas

Livi, K.; Abad, Isabel; Veblen, David; Nieto, F.
2001-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

50

Dynamics of surface barley residues during fallow as affected by tillage and decomposition in semiarid Aragon (NE Spain)

López Sánchez, María Victoria; Arrúe Ugarte, José Luis; Álvaro-Fuentes, Jorge; Moret-Fernández, David
2005-07-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

52

Disparate roles of ATR and ATM in immunoglobulin class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation

Pan-Hammarström, Qiang; Lähdesmäki, Aleksi; Zhao, Yaofeng; Du, Likun; Zhao, Zhihui; Wen, Sicheng; Ruiz-Pérez, Victor L.; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K.; Goodship, Judith A.; Hammarström, Lennart
2006-01-23

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

54

Bio-degradation of olive mill wastewater sludge by its co-composting with agricultural wastes

Paredes, C.; Bernal Calderón, M. Pilar; Cegarra Rosique, Juan; Roig, Asunción
2002-10-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

57

Are the high-growth recovery periods over?

Rodríguez Mendizábal, Hugo; Camacho, Máximo; Pérez Quirós, Gabriel
2009-04-20

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

58

Are aneuploidy and chromosome breakage caused by a CINgle mechanism?

Martínez-Alonso, Carlos; Van Wely, Karel H. M.
2010-06-13

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

59

Análisis y evaluación de riesgo de túneles carreteros en explotación/ Risk assessment models for road tunnels in operation

Martínez Montes, Germán; del Cerro Grau, José; Alegre Bayo, Javier; Ordóñez García, Javier
2007-08-01

Resumen en español Tras los fatales accidentes en los últimos años, la seguridad en la explotación de túneles de carreteras se ha convertido en una prioridad de la política de transportes a nivel internacional y en especial en la Unión Europea. Esta circunstancia se ha traducido principalmente en la exigencia del análisis y evaluación de riesgo en aquellos túneles que por sus singulares características así lo aconsejan. A lo largo del presente artículo se analiza el marco concep (mas) tual del riesgo en ingeniería, así como las principales opciones metodológicas existentes para el análisis de riesgo en túneles en explotación, deterministas y probabilísticas. La conclusión del estudio es la utilización generalizada de las primeras completadas con un estudio deterministic o centrado en aquellos casos cuyas consecuencias presentan unas mayores pérdidas en términos absolutos para la sociedad Resumen en inglés After tunnel fire catastrophes at the end of the 1990's, the safety at road tunnel operations has become a priority on transportation policies at international level especially inside the European Union. This circumstance has required the analysis and risk assessment in those tunnels that for their special characteristics it is highly recommended. This article presents a biographical review in the topic along with a research of risk assessment models for road tunnels. The (mas) main conclusion of this study is the need of applying probabilistic models complemented by determinist studies centred in cases which may present biggest losses to the society

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