Sample records for DOLOMITA (dolomite)
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1

Reaction Sintering of Mexican Dolomite – Zircon Mixtures | Sinterización reactiva de mezclas de dolomita mexicana – circón

Rodríguez Galicia, J. L.; Fernández Arguijo, B.; Rendón-Angeles, J. C.; Pena Castro, María del Pilar

[EN] The present work has been conducted aiming to develop additional phase [Ca3SiO5, Ca2SiO4 and/or Ca3Mg(SiO4)2]-bonded magnesia refractory materials via reaction sintering of dolomite-zircon mixtures, employing a Mexican dolomite containing an excess of 3 wt% of CaCO3. The study was based on phas...

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2

Estudio del proceso de sinterización reactiva en sistemas con dolomita mediante termodifractometría de neutrones | Study of reaction sintering in dolomite based systems by neutron termodifractometry

Aza Moya, Antonio H. de; Turrillas Maisterra, Xavier; Rodríguez Galicia, J. L.; Pena Castro, María del Pilar

[ES] La utilización de la difracción de neutrones a alta temperatura, aplicada a la investigación de procesos de sinterización reactiva, permite elestudio de las reacciones que tienen lugar in situ y, debido a su excelente poder de resolución temporal, la identificación de posibles fasestransitori...

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4

Obtención de circonas estabilizadas (Ca,Mg-PSZ) nanocristalinas a partir de mezclas de dolomita y circona monoclínica mediante molienda de alta energía | Stabilized zirconia (Ca, Mg-PSZ) nanocrystalline from dolomite and monoclinic zirconia by means of high-energy milling

Sainz Trigo, María Antonia; Serena Palomares, Sara; Carretero, J.; Caballero Cuesta, Ángel

[ES] El objetivo del presente trabajo es la obtención de materiales cerámicos de circona estabilizada (Ca,Mg-PSZ) nanocristalinamediante molienda de alta energía, a partir de circona monoclínica comercial y una materia prima de alta pureza y bajo costecomo es la dolomita (CaMg(CO3)2). La molienda ...

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5

Obtención de materiales de magnesia – circonato cálcico – silicato dicálcico por sinterización reactiva de mezclas de dolomita – circón. Estudio del procesamiento | Synthesis of magnesia - calcium zirconate – dicalcium silicate materials by reaction sintering of dolomite – zircon mixtures. Processing study

Pena Castro, María del Pilar; Rodríguez, José Luis

[ES] Se ha estudiado la interdependencia entre la densidad en verde y el tamaño de partícula en la sinterización reactiva de mezclasde circón – dolomita. El tamaño del polvo se ha determinado con un analizador de partícula por láser y se ha controladovariando el tiempo de molienda en un molino de ...

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6

Caracterización de niveles de saturación en calcita, dolomita y yeso de las aguas superficiales de la Cuenca del Ebro

Alberto Giménez, Francisco; Navas Izquierdo, Ana María

[EN] Calcite, dolomite, and gypsum are the most abundant minerals in outcroping materials in the Ebro River Basin (NE Spain). The saturation level of these substances play a significant role in the evolution of salinity and carbon content of water runoff wich in turn, has direct influence on agricul...

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8

Estudio del proceso de sinterización reactiva en sistemas con dolomita mediante termodifractometría de neutrones

Aza Moya, Antonio H. de; Turrillas, Xavier; Rodríguez Galicia, J. L.; Pena Castro, María del Pilar
2004-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

10

Petrográfica y Geoquímica de la dolomía hospedante de una mineralización de Zn y Pb. Puesto Gregor, Neuquén, Argentina/ Petrography and geochemistry of a Zn- Pb mineralization hosted in a dolostone, Puesto Gregor, Neuquen, Argentina

Gómez, M. Cristina; Garrido, Mirta; Cesaretti, Nora; Domínguez, Eduardo
2008-07-01

Resumen en español En la Cuenca Neuquina (Argentina) y asociada a la Formación Lajas (Jurásico) se mencionó por primera vez una mineralización de esfalerita y galena asociada a carbonatos. En el área del yacimiento Puesto Gregor, ésta Formación está constituida por una secuencia clástico carbonática. Para caracterizar el ambiente de depositación de la dolomía hospedante de la mineralización de Zn y Pb se realizaron estudios petrográficos y geoquímicos. Entre los últimos los (mas) más utilizados son los análisis e interpretación de isótopos estables (O, C), elementos mayoritarios y trazas e inclusiones fluidas. En el horizonte dolomítico de 0,90 m de espesor y 300 m de corrida se distinguen petrográficamente dos tipos de dolomita: el primer tipo es penetrativo, sin preservación de la fábrica sedimentaria original y es anterior a la mineralización, el segundo tipo está vinculado a la precipitación de sulfuros y consiste en una dolomita de tipo silla de montar (saddle). El estudio de las inclusiones fluidas en la dolomita penetrativa indica la presencia de fluidos orgánicos y fluidos acuosos. Determinaciones microtermométricas sobre inclusiones fluidas acuosas revelaron temperaturas de 140º C. Geoquímicamente la capa presenta proporciones casi estequiométricas y promedios de CaCO3 y MgCO3 iguales al 52 y 48% molar, respectivamente. En cuanto a los elementos trazas, el Sr varió entre 79 y 159 ppm y el Na entre 74 y 225 ppm. Los contenidos de Mn y Fe son mucho más altos que los valores determinados para estos elementos en rocas carbonáticas. El contenido en ETR es bajo y los diagramas de ETR muestran una anomalía negativa de Ce y de Eu. Se determinaron valores de isótopos de C y O. Los valores de ä13 C (VPDB) entre -2,9 y -9 0/00 no son coherentes con los datos informados para calizas marinas de edad jurásica mientras que los valores de ä18O(VPDB) entre -2,6 y -4 0/00 coinciden con los valores informados para carbonatos de igual edad. Los datos de ä18O indican que la interacción entre el fluido y la roca de caja fue baja. Los valores del ä18O del fluido en equilibrio con la dolomía a temperaturas de 140ºC indican que este fluido corresponde a una salmuera de cuenca. Por otro lado, los isótopos de carbono indican un aporte de carbono procedente de la diagénesis de la materia orgánica causada por un aumento de temperatura vinculada al soterramiento de la cuenca. Los resultados petrográficos y geoquímicos son consistentes con la dolomitización de un carbonato de origen marino que sufrió soterramiento. Resumen en inglés In Neuquen Basin, Argentina, a Zn-Pb mineralization was first reported by Garrido et al. (2000). The ore occurs in a carbonatic level located in Puesto Gregor, 50 km SSE from the city of Zapala at 39°11'34'' S, 69° 59'18'' W (Fig. 1). The hosting bed, a dolostone, belongs to a carbonatic-siliciclastic sequence of Lajas Formation, which is part of the Cuyo Group, Jurassic age. In the mineralization of Pb-Zn deposits associated to dolostones, the fluids that were involved (mas) in the ore precipitation process were also related to the dolomitization of the carbonatic rock (Warren, 2000). In this contribution, field, petrographic and geochemical studies were carried out in order to determine the temperature and composition of the dolimitizing fluids. The obtained results were then compared to those obtained from Carbon and Oxygen isotopes (Garrido et al., 2001) to discuss the dolimitization process. The mineralized bed, 0.90 m thick, outcrops for about 300 m along the strike (W-E) and 60 m in the dip direction (Fig. 2). This bed pinches out toward the east and toward the west it is no longer visible, it is cover by scours. Petrographic studies determined that the host rock is a dolostone with a breccia texture that becomes more siliciclastic towards the east grading thus to a fine sandstone with carbonatic cement. The hypogenic mineralization, mainly sphalerite, low quantities of galena, pyrite and marcasite is found within the small fractures. Some ghosts of fossils are still visible, but pervasive dolomitization characterizes the horizon. Two distinct dolomites are recognized by crosscutting relationships: a fine to medium grained crystalline dolomite, and a coarse grained crystalline dolomite related to the mineralization. The fomer shows dark-orange and white crystals which occur as patches or partially filled vugs. These crystals are 120-400 mm in size and exhibit subhedral to anhedral shapes (Fig. 3). According to Sibley and Gregg (1987), the texture is no planar -a- unimodal to polimodal. The latter dolomite presents well developed crystals (> 5 mm); they are translucent with pink color and pearl shine and have crystal faces that look like a pavement and is referred as "saddle" dolomite according to Radke and Mathis (1980). This "saddle" dolomite is found into dissolution cavities or as clusters of crystals located on the wall fractures; it is always associated to the mineralization. Chemical analysis of major, traces and rare earth elements are homogeneous throughout the bed. Mean values are 15% MgO, 29,66% CaO and 40,43 % CO2, with high MnO and Fe2O3 contents. The molar percentages of CaCO3 and MgCO3 indicate near stoichiometric ratio (52% and 48%) with a light excess of Ca (Table 1, Fig. 4). The trace elements Sr, Na, Fe and Mn are used to constrain dolomite evolution. Sr values varies from 79 to 159 ppm and Na from 74 to 225 ppm; Mn and Fe contents are higher than the values determined for carbonatic rocks (Turekian and Wedepohl, 1961). ÓREE and LREE contents are low, and the diagram normalized to chondrite shows a negative anomaly of Eu and a great negative anomaly of Ce. The 13C (VPDB) and 18O (VPDB) values vary from -2,9 to -9(0)/00 and from -2,6 to -4 0/00 respectively (Table 2). The 13C are incoherent with the data recorded for Jurassic marine carbonates (near 0 0/00) while 18O values can be correlated with carbonates of the same age (Veizer et al., 1999). Petrography and chemical analysis allow characterizing the depositional environment of the Zn- Pb mineralized dolostone. The xenotopic texture of the dolomite with no planar crystals, gives evidence that the temperatures of deposition should have been higher than 50-60°C (Gregg and Sibley, 1984). On the other hand, the chemical composition, near ideal dolomites (stoichiometric ratio), indicates slow crystallization at high temperature (Morrow, 1982). Morover, the destructive fabric and the homogeneous composition suggest a high temperature dolomitization (Machel, 2004). Trace element values, mainly Na and Sr, agree with burial dolomites, as well as the fluid inclusions reported for these samples by Cesaretti et al. (2002). The negative Ce anomaly indicates that these rocks were formed in a marine environment. Two different processes of carbonate precipitation can produce negative Ce anomaly (Möller, 1989; Bau and Möller, 1992): deposition from seawater or from hydrothermal solutions equilibrated with highly oxydized sediments. The latter is discarded because of the presence of framboidal pyrite and organic matter, which, along with the Eu negative anomaly indicates that the dolimitization were generated under euxinic conditions. This dolostone is in contact with anoxic mudstones (Los Molles Formation, Cuyo Group). Petrographic and geochemical criteria reflect that the dolomitization were caused by normal or modified sea water in a burial environment at temperatures above 140ºC. In burial or altered dolostones, the oxygen isotopes reflect temperature of precipitation and isotope composition of the dolomitizing fluids. The oxygen isotope values of this dolomitized bed are compatible with the isotope composition of carbonates precipitated from sea water at 25°C. The narrow range in the obtained values indicates that there was no influence of meteoric water during this process (Allan and Mathews, 1982). The homogeneous values of 18O isotope suggest that the physic-chemical conditions remained constant during dolomitization, what is in agreement with the textural and geochemical homogeneity found in the study samples. The 18O isotope values of a fluid equilibrated with carbonate at 140°C indicate that the fluid belongs to a basinal fluid. The 13C isotopes reflect an organic origin for the carbon. This carbon came from the diagenesis of organic matter caused by an increase in temperature during the burial of the basin (Garrido et al., 2001; Cesaretti et al., 2002). In contrast with other MVT deposits of the world, in Puesto Gregor, the dolomitization was slow process acting at high temperatures, what has been confirmed by the homogeneity of the fabric and the narrow range in the isotope and trace elements composition. These conditions were reached during burial of the basin where the rocks interact with the basin fluids associated to the ore minerals.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

11

Fisicoquímica de salmueras e hidrocarburos en cuencas petroleras y en depósitos minerales tipo Mississippi Valley y asociados. Parte II: ejemplos de la Cuenca de Sabinas y la Cuenca del Sureste, México/ Physicochemical characteristics of brines and hydrocarbons in petroliferous basins and Mississipppi Valley type and associated ore deposits. Part II: examples in the Sabinas and Southeast basins, Mexico

González-Partida, Eduardo; Camprubí, Antoni; Canet, Carles; González-Sánchez, Francisco
2008-01-01

Resumen en español En el presente trabajo se utilizan datos procedentes del análisis de inclusiones fluidas a fin de caracterizar el papel de salmueras de cuenca en las cuencas de Sabinas y del Sureste en México, en las que dichas salmueras fueron responsables de la formación de depósitos tipo Mississippi Valley (MVT) y asociados, así como de la migración y acumulación de petróleo, respectivamente. Los depósitos MVT de Pb-Zn presentan salinidades entre 7 y 22 wt.% NaCl equiv. y Th (mas) entre 75° y 150°C. Los mantos de barita asociados al tipo MVT presentan salmueras cloruradas sódicas y calcicas con predominio de esta última, en un rango de 1 a 2 wt.% NaCl y de 8 a 24 wt.% CaCl2, con Th entre 50° y 190°C. Los mantos de celestina asociados al tipo MVT presentan fluidos en inclusiones con salinidades entre 1 y 12 wt.% NaCl equiv. y Th entre 70° y 160°C. Los mantos y brechas de fluorita asociados al tipo MVT presentan fluidos acuosos en inclusiones con salinidades entre 6 y 14 wt.% NaCl equiv. y Th entre 50° y 170°C, e inclusiones de hidrocarburos con Th entre 45° y 90°C. Dichos hidrocarburos son generalmente de dos tipos: (1) con poca concentración de metano (>20% mol) y bajas Th (45° a 60°C), y (2) con concentraciones próximas al 30-40% mol de metano, con Th más altas (60° a 90°C). Las inclusiones de hidrocarburos que presentan una fase acuosa tienen una salinidad de 14 wt.% de NaCl equiv., presentan generalmente baja concentración de CO2 y de azufre, y relaciones CH2/CH3 elevadas, lo que corresponde a alkanos de la cadena C16 formados a presiones de 300 a 160 bar. En la Cuenca del Sureste, los paleofluidos más precoces relacionados a las rocas generadoras de petróleo presentan Th entre 55°C y 145°C, y salinidades entre 0.5 y 1 wt.% NaCl y entre 3 a 21 wt.% CaCl2. Las inclusiones con hidrocarburos presentan Th entre 1 º y 87°C. Las salmueras acuosas presentan concentraciones altas en metano, formadas a presiones ~1200 bar, sugiriendo que las rocas estaban sobrepresurizadas en el momento de la circulación de los paleofluidos. En la etapa de migración se produjeron al menos cinco generaciones de dolomita y se pasó de un régimen litostático a uno hidrostático, a presiones entre 900 y 500 bar y temperaturas de 130° a 150°C, con salinidades entre 1.6 y 12 wt.% NaCl equiv. El llenado de los reservorios se produjo a temperaturas análogas por salmueras acuosas con salinidades entre 2 y 8 wt.% NaCl equiv., mientras que las inclusiones de hidrocarburos presentan una Th entre 40° y 100°C y representan el regreso a condiciones de presión hidrostática, entre 400 y 600 bar. La geoquímica de halógenos, tanto en yacimientos de hidrocarburos como en yacimientos tipo MVT, sugiere la intervención de aguas derivadas de evaporación de agua marina, que sobrepasaron el punto de precipitación de la halita, en equilibrio con procesos de dolomitización. Los valores de δ13C y δ18O en carbonatas de la Cuenca del Sureste presentan valores entre -5 y 2.8‰, y entre -10 y 1.9‰, respectivamente. Tales variaciones en el comportamiento isotópico de los carbonatas se deben principalmente a (1) la introducción de carbono orgánico en el fluido a partir del que se formó la dolomita, derivado de la oxidación del metano, y (2) a un bajo proceso de interacción agua/roca, teniendo la temperatura un papel muy secundario. Para los yacimientos tipo MVT, los valores de δ13C y δ18O se presentan en rangos entre -8 y 2.8‰, y entre -15 y -0.1‰, respectivamente. Estas composiciones se interpretan como debidas a mezclas entre aguas meteóricas y salmueras de cuenca calientes que provocaron la maduración de materia orgánica de la roca encajonante al momento del depósito de las menas. Resumen en inglés Fluid inclusion data are used in this paper to explain the role ofbasinal brines for both the Sabinas and Southeast basins in Mexico, in -which such brines -were responsible for the formation of MVT and associated deposits, and for the migration and accumulation of petroleum, respectively. Salinities and temperatures of homogenization (Th) of fluid inclusions of the Pb-Zn MVT deposits of the Sabinas Basin range from 7 to 22 wt.% NaCl equiv. and Th range from 75° to 150° (mas) C. The barite mantos have aqueous fluid inclusions with sodium and calcium chloride brines, -with dominant CaCl2, that range from 1 to 2 wt.% NaCl and from 8 to 24 wt.% CaCl2, and Th that range from 50° to 190°C. The celestine mantos associated to the MVT type have aqueous fluid inclusions with salinities that range from 1 to 12 wt.% NaCl equiv. and Th that range from 70° to 160°C. Thefluorite mantos and breccias associated with the MVT type have aqueous fluid inclusions with salinities that range from 6 to 14 wt.% NaCl equiv. and Th that range from 50° to 170°C, and hydrocarbon inclusion fluids with Th that range from 45° to 90°C. Such hydrocarbon-bearing inclusions can generally be classified as (1) of low CH4 concentration (>20% mol) and low Th (45° a 60°C) inclusions, or (2) inclusions with higher methane concentrations (about 30-40% mol CH) and higher Th (60° to 90°C). Hydrocarbon-bearing inclusions that show an aqueous phase have salinities of about 14 wt.% NaCl equiv. and generally low CO2 and sulfur concentrations, and high CH2/CH3 ratios, which correspond to C16-chain alkanes that formed at pressures between 160 to 300 bar. In the Southeast Basin the earliest paleofluids associated with Tithonian-Kimmeridgian rocks (petroleum generators) are represented by fluid inclusions that show calcic brines with Th that range from 55 °C to 145 °C and salinities that range from 0.5 to 1 wt.% NaCl and from 3 to 21 wt.% CaCl2. The hydrocarbon-bearing inclusions have Th that range from 1° to 87°C. The aqueous brines may have high methane concentrations, and formed at ~1200 bar, suggesting that the rocks were overpressured during the circulation of paleofluids and their interaction with country rocks. During the migration of such fluids no less than five generations of dolomitization occurred, and the pressure regime shifted from lithostatic to hydrostatic, thus forming hydraulic breccias that were cemented by dolomite and late calcite. Such shift occurred at pressures that ranged from 900 to 500 bar and temperatures from 130° to 150°C, and the salinities of associated fluids range from 1.6 to 12 wt.% NaCl equiv. The filling of reservoirs occurred at similar temperatures, with associated aqueous fluids with salinities ranging from 2 and 8 wt.% NaCl equiv, whereas the aqueous fluids in hydrocarbon-bearing inclusions have Th that range from 40° to 100°C. Such inclusions were trapped during a shift back to the hydrostatic pressure regime, between 400 and 600 bar. In both petroleum and MVT deposits the geochemistry of halogens suggests the occurrence of water derived from the evaporation of seawater that reached the over saturation in halite, in equilibrium with dolomitization processes. Such water mixed with mainly meteoric water during the filling of petroleum reservoirs and during the formation of some ores in MVT and associated deposits. The δ13C and δ18O values in carbonates of the Southeast Basin range from -5 and 2.8‰, and from -10 to 1.9‰, respectively. Such variation in isotopic compositions may be due to (1) the introduction of organic carbon in the fluids that produced dolomitization, after the oxidation of methane, and (2) a process of low water/rock interaction in which the role of temperature would have been marginal. The δ13C and δ18O values in carbonates of MVT and associated deposits in the Sabinas Basin range from -8 to 2.8‰, and from -15 to -0.1‰, respectively. Such variation in isotopic compositions is interpreted as due to the mixing between meteoric water and hot basinal brines that induced the maturation of organic matter within country rocks during the formation of ores.

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12

Rasgos Geoquímicos de las Calizas de la Formación Arroyo Verde (Eoceno), en Punta Colorada. Provincia de Río Negro. Argentina: Reconstrucción Paleoambiental/ Geochemical features of limestones in Arroyo Verde Formation (Eocene) in Punta Colorada. Río Negro Province. Argentina: Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction

Luna, Liliana; Schillizzi, Roberto; Bonuccelli, Renzo
2008-12-01

Resumen en español El creciente desarrollo de la industria cementera ha reactivado la exploración de los yacimientos de calizas en el sur de Argentina. En la zona de Punta Colorada, a 36 km de Sierra Grande, Prov. de Río Negro, se encuentra un depósito de estas rocas pertenecientes a la Formación Arroyo Verde, del Eoceno inferior, originada por una ingresión marina ocurrida el Cretácico superior-Terciario inferior. A través de un estudio técnico se cubicaron 14.806.106 tn de reserva (mas) s medidas y 1.799.174 tn de reservas indicadas en carbonato de calidad menor al 4 % MgO. Se estudió un área de 800 Ha, dividida en 2 zonas ubicadas al norte y al sur de Punta Colorada, separadas por el Arroyo Las Palmas, en el litoral marítimo atlántico. Se determinó una potencia media de 10 m de calizas por medio de perforaciones y perfiles. El análisis de los perfiles permitió establecer 4 niveles compuestos por calizas masivas a granulares, con estratificación entrecruzada, fosilíferas. Microscópicamente se observan bivalvos, equinodermos, corales, foraminíferos y algas. La fracción clástica terrígena, tamaño arena-limo, está compuesta principalmente por cuarzo, feldespato y concreciones arcillosas verdosas. Se analizaron los tenores de CaO, MgO y se calcularon las relaciones Mg/Ca observándose variaciones verticales con aumento del MgO hacia los niveles superiores del yacimiento. Sobre la base de los porcentajes de estos óxidos se clasifica a las rocas en caliza, caliza dolomítica y dolomita calcítica. Se analizaron además Al, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S y Ti, observándose variaciones geoquímicas laterales y verticales que se relacionarían con cambios morfológicos, paleoambientales y de evolución de la cuenca. Se concluye que las calizas están constituidas principalmente por calcita con cantidades variables de MgO. Estas rocas se habrían formado en lagunas costeras de aguas cálidas, con alto contenido en fósforo. En otros sectores de la cuenca se habrían formado áreas pandas, con alimentación intermitente de aguas marinas, que quedaron aisladas temporalmente del ambiente marino dominante idea apoyada por el aumento en el contenido de Na y K. El contenido de Al, Fe, Mn y Ti estaría relacionado con la presencia de material terrígeno; sin embargo, el escaso aporte a la cuenca indicaría condiciones climáticas de aridez con bajo régimen pluvial. La estratificación entrecruzada en el nivel 2 se asocia a corrientes marinas. La abundancia de fósiles fragmentados revelaría la alta energía del medio. Sobre las planicies de marea las trazas de bioturbación de poco espesor, marcarían condiciones de inestabilidad, además de estadios de energía moderada a relativamente baja con tasa de sedimentación de igual calificación. En la etapa final las condiciones de depositación son marinas costeras, someras, con presencia de conchillas enteras dispersas, estratificación entrecruzada y aumento en el contenido de Fe y Mn. Mientras que en otras áreas el aumento en el contenido de azufre como yeso, señalaría una sostenida regresión del mar en dirección SO-NE. Resumen en inglés The fast growing cement industry has reactivated the exploration for calcareous materials in southern Argentina.A carbonatic deposit is found in Punta Colorada, located 36 km from the town of Sierra Grande, Río Negro Province. These rocks, deposited during a Late Cretaceous - Early Tertiary marine ingression, belong to Arroyo Verde Formation (Early Eocene). These coastal deposits have been studied since 1927 by Wichmann, Arnolds (1952), de Alba (1964), Weber (1983) and B (mas) usteros et al. (1998). Rossi de García and Levy (1982) assigned these rocks to the Eocene; Spalletti et al. (1993) located them within the Roca Formation (Rocanense ingression) and Gelós et al. (1992) correlated these rocks with Arroyo Verde Formation (Malvicini and Llambías, 1974). Arroqui Langer et al. (2006) from sedimentologic, geochemical and lithologic data in carbonatic rocks of the Precordillera Argentina established an exploration and exploitation pattern. Bonuccelli (2006) made a similar technical study in Punta Colorada, where 14,806,106 tn of measured reserves and 1,799,174 tn of indicated reserves were determined in a carbonate of less than 4% MgO grade. The study area comprise 800 Ha divided in two zones separated by Arroyo Las Palmas gully and located at the north and at the south of a basement outcrop denominated Punta Colorada, in the atlantic marine coast (Fig. 1). By means of 12 drills cores and 8 stratigraphic profiles, a thickness of 10 m was determined for the limestone. Major and minor chemical elements were determined by ICP-MA in 100 ml with two replicas in Alex Steward laboratories, Mendoza. The criterion of Tucker (1981) was used to classify the limestones by the dolomite percentage. From stratigraphic profiles four levels composed of cross-bedded massive to granular fosiliferous limestones were determined. Microscopically they are composed of a fossiliferous limestone (bioclastic packstone) with bivalves, equinoderms, corals, foraminifera and algae, being algal buildups more abundant in level three. The clastic sand to silt fraction is mainly composed of quartz, feldspar and green clay concretions. CaO and MgO contents and the relationships Mg/ Ca (Tables 1 and 2) in the stratigraphic profiles and drills cores show vertical variations with increasing MgO values toward the upper levels of the sequence. Based on the percentages of these oxides the rocks are classified as limestone, dolomitic limestone and calcitic dolomite. In drill cores Al, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S and Ti contents, indicate lateral and vertical variations that would be related to geomorphological and paleoenvironmental changes and to the basin evolution as well (Fig. 2, Tables 1-3). It is concluded that the limestones are mainly composed of calcite with variable quantities of MgO. These rocks would have been formed in warm lagoons with high P content. At the same time shallower areas with intermittent influx of marine waters would have been developed in other sectors. The increase in the content of Na and K in these sectors would support the idea that these evaporitic deposits were temporarily isolated from the dominant marine environment. Al, Fe, Mn and Ti concentrations would be related to the presence of terrigenous material; however, the scarce contribution to the basin would indicate climatic conditions of aridity with low pluvial regimen. Crossbedding in level 2 is associated to marine currents. The abundance of broken fossils would indicate a highly energy environment. On the tidal flat, the presence of rather thin bioturbation traces (Thalassinoides) would indicate conditions of instability during the development of this ichnofacies, as well as a rather moderate energy with low sedimentation rates. At the final stage, shallow marine, coastal, sedimentation prevail, marked by the abundance of entire shells, cross-bedding and an increment in the Fe and Mn concentration. At the same time in other sectors, the increase in the sulfur content as gypsum, would indicate a sustained SW-NE sea regression.

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13

Zeolites in Tertiary coal from the Çayirhan mine, Beypazari, Turkey

Whateley, M. K. G; Querol, Xavier; Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.; Tuncali, E.
1996-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Transformaciones edáficas y diagenéticas de los depósitos aluviales distales del mioceno de la cuenca de Madrid, área de Paracuellos de Jarama

Bustillo, Mª Ángeles; Alonso-Zarza, Ana María

The distal aluvial fan and the palustrine deposits of the Paracuellos de Jarama area display a variety of specific pedogenic and diagenetic features. The processes affecting these sediments were controlled by: the sedimentary environment, the lithology and initial texture of the sediments and by the...

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Secado del citrato de calcio y magnesio a escala de banco/ Calcium magnesium citrate drying at bench scale

Rodríguez Chanfrau, Jorge E; López Hernandez, Orestes D; Nogueira Mendoza, Antonio
2009-04-01

Resumen en español El citrato de calcio y magnesio es una materia prima obtenida a partir de dolomítas. Como parte de la optimización del proceso tecnológico, se estudió a escala de banco la etapa de secado para predecir su comportamiento a escalas superiores. Los resultados de este estudio mostraron que a partir de las 7:30 h de secado la muestra alcanza un contenido de humedad por debajo del 5 %. Por otro lado, se observó que en las primeras 6 h la cantidad de agua evaporada represen (mas) ta más del 85 % de la cantidad total presente en la muestra. Se concluye que el proceso de secado es adecuado para garantizar que el citrato de calcio y magnesio tenga un contenido de humedad por debajo de lo exigido para materias primas de calidad farmacéutica. Calcium and magnesium citrate is a raw material obtained from dolomite. As part of the optimization of technological process, we studied it at bench scale, the dry stage to predict its behavior at higher scales. Results of this study showed that from 7:30 hours, sample drying reaches a humidity content lower 5 %. Besides, we noted that during the first 6 hours, quantity of evaporation water represents more than 85 % of total quantity present in sample. We conclude that drying process is appropriate to guarantees that calcium and magnesium citrate has humidity content lower than that required for raw products of pharmaceutical quality.

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Room temperature mechanical properties of high alumina refractory castables with spinel, periclase and dolomite additions

Díaz, Luis Antonio; Torrecillas San Millán, Ramón; Simonin, F.; Fantozzi, Gilbert

6 pages, 9 figures.-- Printed version published Nov 2008. | The mechanical properties of refractory castables at room temperature are critical parameters for selecting suitable operating conditions for the structural design of refractory components. In this work, high alumina refractory castables ba...

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Room temperature mechanical properties of high alumina refractory castables with spinel, periclase and dolomite additions

Díaz, Luis Antonio; Torrecillas San Millán, Ramón; Simonin, F.; Fantozzi, Gilbert
2008-06-09

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Reaction Sintering of Mexican Dolomite – Zircon Mixtures

Rodríguez Galicia, J. L.; Fernández Arguijo, B.; Rendón-Angeles, J. C.; Pena Castro, María del Pilar; Valle Fuentes, Francisco José; López-Cuevas, J.
2005-07-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Modelo de producción de biomasa en suelos ácidos de raña corregidos con productos calizos/ Biomass production model for lime amended acid raña-soils

Villa, E.; Vidal, M.
2010-01-01

Resumen en español Se han realizado unos ensayos de campo de dos años de duración encaminados a la corrección de la acidez de un Typic Palexe­rult, de las formaciones de raña de la mese­ta norte de la provincia de León (España). El cultivo ensayado fue una variedad local de centeno, empleándose como materiales calizos en la enmienda del suelo el yeso, do­lomita, caliza y espumas de azucarería, con dosis de 6000 kg ha-1 de CaCO3 equivalente. Además de la analítica general, se de (mas) termi­naron las formas de Al solubles y fácilmente intercambiables (Al-CaCl2), además del Al extraído con KCl y con BaCl2. Los modelos de regresión lineal múltiple de la producción total de biomasa demuestran que durante el primer año son el Al-CaCl2, pH y CICE los parámetros más explicativos de la varianza (R² = 0,82). Por el contrario, durante el segundo año de cultivo son el Al-KCl y el porcentaje de saturación de bases las varia­bles más correlacionadas con la producción (R² = 0,80). Resumen en inglés Field trials were carried out over a pe­riod of two years, aimed at correcting the acidity of a Typic Palexerult in raña for­mations in the northern mesa of León province (Spain). Gypsum, dolomite, limestone and sugar foam waste were em­ployed as liming materials to correct soil acidity, incorporating 6000 kg of CaCO3 equivalent per ha-1, and crop trials were carried out using a local variety of rye. In addition to carrying out a general analy­sis, soluble and easil (mas) y exchanged forms of A1 were identified (Al-CaCl2), as was A1 extracted using KC1 and BaCl2. Multiple linear regression models for total biomass production show that in the first year, variance (R² = 0.82) was largely ex­plained by the parameters Al-CaCl2, pH and CECE. However, in the second year of crop trials, production was most closely correlated with the variables Al-KCl and base saturation percentage (R² = 0.80).

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Mineralogía y estratigrafía de sedimentos neógenos del corredor de la Alpujarra (Cordillera Bética, España)

Ortega Huertas, M.; Nieto, F.; Rodríguez-Fernández, José; López-Garrido, A. C.
1985-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Mineralizaciones de celestina en olistostromas de la depresión del Guadalquivir (NE de Jaén , España)

Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; Ortega-Huertas, M.; Rodríguez, J.; Velilla, Nicolás
1984-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Metasedimentos siliciclásticos proterozoicos en la Sierra de Pie de Palo, San Juan: Procedencia y ambiente tectónico/ Proterozoic Siliciclastic metasediments in Sierra de Pie de Palo, San Juan: Provenance and tectonic setting

Vujovich, GI
2003-12-01

Resumen en español Los metasedimentos del Grupo Caucete aflorantes en la sierra de Pie de Palo constituyen una pieza importante para entender la evolución del margen gondwánico durante el Proterozoico tardío a Paleozoico temprano. Esta secuencia metamórfica está en contacto tectónico, a través del Corrimiento Las Pirquitas, con el Complejo Pie de Palo (Mesoproterozoico). El Grupo Caucete está integrado por dos unidades mayores, una siliciclástica y otra carbonática, y basado en es (mas) tudios de campo entre las quebradas Las Pirquitas y La Petaca y posterior laboratorio, ha sido dividido en cuatro formaciones. La parte siliciclástica incluye a la Cuarcita El Quemado, la que está intercalada con la Formación La Paz, unidad de carácter volcaniclástico. Los carbonatos están representados por la Formación El Desecho (areniscas y limolitas carbonáticas con mármoles dolomíticos) y la Caliza Angacos. Los primeros resultados geoquímicos fueron utilizados para comparar la Cuarcita El Quemado y la Formación La Paz con las metagrauvacas del Complejo Pie de Palo. Su composición mineralógica ha determinado el comportamiento geoquímico de los elementos mayoritarios, mientras que las tierras raras y elementos traza, al estar concentrados principalmente en los minerales pesados, muestran que los procesos sedimentarios han jugado un rol importante en su distribución. Los sedimentos siliciclásticos se habrían originado por la destrucción de rocas corticales procedentes de áreas orogénicas, con un importante componente félsico asociado con rocas ígneas originadas en arcos magmáticos más o menos evolucionados. Los mismos se habrían depositado en una plataforma continental durante el Proterozoico superior (670 Ma, U/Pb en circones detríticos). Resumen en inglés Metasedimentary rocks of the Caucete Group outcropping at the western slope of Sierra de Pie de Palo are an important key to understand the geological evolution of the western margin of Gondwana during late Proterozoic - early Paleozoic times. This metamorphic sequence is in tectonic contact with the mesoproterozoic-age Pie de Palo Complex through Las Pirquitas Fault. The Caucete Group is composed by two major units, one of siliciclastic nature and the other of carbonates (mas) . Between Las Pirquitas y La Petaca valleys this group has been divided in four different units based on detailed field work laboratoy studies. The siliciclastic part of the sequence included the El Quemado Quartzite which is interlayered with La Paz Formation, a volcaniclastic unit. The carbonate sequence is composed by El Desecho Formation (carbonate sandstones and siltstones with dolomite marbles), and by the Angacos Limestone. First geochemical data are used to compare El Quemado Quartzite and La Paz Formation with the metagreywaques units of Pie de Palo Complex. Mineralogical composition of these rocks has played an important role in geochemical behavior of the major oxides. Meanwhile, heavy minerals concentrated trace and RE elements and sedimentary processes constrain their distribution in this type of rocks. The siliciclastic rocks have an upper continental crust provenance, this weathered source area is characterized by dominant felsic component associated with partially evolved magmatic arc acting as the source area. A continental platform is interpreted as the depositional environment site for these sediments during late Proterozoic-time (670 Ma, U/Pb detrital zircon age).

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MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF GLASSES WITH HIGH IRON OXIDE CONTENT

Romero, Maximina; Rincón, Jesús Ma.; González-Oliver, Carlos J.R.; D'Ovidio, Carlos; Esparza, Daniel
2001-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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La Plataforma de Tortosa (Cuenca Catalana) durante el Jurásico Medio: unidades litoestratigráficas, paleogeográficas y ciclos ambientales

Aurell, Marcos; Fernández-López, S. R.; García-Joral, F.; Gómez Fernández, J. J.; Henriques, M. H. P; Martínez, G.; Meléndez, Guillermo; Suárez Vega, L. C.
1998-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Internal features, mineralogy and geochemistry of ferromanganese nodules from the Gulf of Cadiz: The role of the Mediterranean Outflow Water undercurrent

González, F. J.; Somoza, L.; Lunar, Rosario; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín Rubí, J. A.; Torres, T.; Ortiz, J. E.; Díaz del Río, Víctor
2010-03-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Hydrocarbon-derived ferromanganese nodules in carbonate-mud mounds from the Gulf of Cadiz: Mud-breccia sediments and clasts as nucleation sites

González, F. J.; Somoza, L.; Lunar, R.; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín Rubí, J. A.; Torres, T.; Ortiz, J. E.; Díaz del Río, Víctor; Pinheiro, L. M.; Magalhães, V. H.
2009-06-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Hot bending strength and creep behaviour at 1000–1400 °C of high alumina refractory castables with spinel, periclase and dolomite additions

Díaz, Luis Antonio; Torrecillas San Millán, Ramón

6 pages, 8 figures.-- Available online Jul 25, 2008. | The modulus of rupture and creep behaviour of refractory castables at high temperature (1000–1400 °C) with additions of spinel, periclase and dolomite has been studied. Three processing routes for obtaining refractory concretes within the alumin...

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Fluid inclusion analysis of twinned selenite gypsum beds from the Miocene of the Madrid basin (Spain). Implication on dolomite bioformation

Ayllón-Quevedo, Fernando; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Sanz-Montero, M. E.; Rodríguez-Aranda, J. P.

19 pages, 15 figures.-- ISI Article Identifier: 000250347000013.-- Printed version published Sep 1, 2007. | This research work is centred on continental lacustrine gypsum deposits of Miocene age cropping out in the easternmost part of the Madrid Basin. These gypsum deposits, accumulated in a contine...

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Fluid inclusion analysis of twinned selenite gypsum beds from the Miocene of the Madrid basin (Spain). Implication on dolomite bioformation

Ayllón-Quevedo, Fernando; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Sanz-Montero, M. E.; Rodríguez-Aranda, J. P.
2007-06-29

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Field application of industrial by-products as Al toxicity amendments: chemical and mineralogical implications

Illera, V.; Garrido, Fernando; Vizcayno, Carmen; García González, María Teresa
2004-02-24

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Fertilidad y extracción de nutrientes en la asociación maíz-pastos en suelos ácidos del piedemonte Llanero de Colombia/ Fertility and extraction of nutrients in corn-grass association in acid soils of the Piedemont Plains of Colombia

Rincón, Álvaro; Ligarreto, Gustavo A.
2008-08-01

Resumen en español En un oxisol del Centro de Investigaciones La Libertad de Corpoica, a 17 km de Villavicencio, se estableció la asociación de maíz con los pastos B. decumbens, Mulato 1 y Toledo, como medio para recobrar la productividad de una pradera degradada. Los minerales aplicados 45 días antes de la siembra fueron: Ca, 555 kg·ha-1; Mg, 88 kg·ha-1; P, 35 kg·ha-1 y S, 45 kg·ha-1, utilizando como fuente cal dolomítica, roca fosfórica y yeso agrícola; al momento de la siembra (mas) se aplicaron: 31 kg·ha-1 de P, 27 de N (fuente fosfato diamónico); 37,5 de K (fuente cloruro de potasio); 3 de Zn; 0,1 de Cu; 0,5 de B y 1,2 de S (fuente borozinco). A los 15 después de la siembra (dds) se aplicaron 37,5 kg·ha-1 de K. La aplicación de N se fraccionó en dosis de 100 y 200 kg·ha- a los 15 y 35 dds, respectivamente. Los análisis de suelos realizados después de la cosecha del maíz demostraron un mejoramiento de la fertilidad, ya que la saturación de bases aumentó de 24% inicial a 47%, el P disponible pasó de 2 ppm a 11,8 ppm, el S aumentó de 3 ppm a 6 ppm. En el momento de la cosecha, la mayor extracción de N fue la hicieron el grano de maíz y los pastos (43 y 45 kg·ha-1, respectivamente), mientras que el P se presentó en mayor concentración en el grano de maíz (12,7 kg·ha-1). Los pastos y la soca de maíz (tallos y hojas después de la cosecha) se caracterizaron por un mayor contenido de K (40 y 27 kg·ha-1, respectivamente). El Ca, Mg y S fueron más extraídos por los pastos (9; 8 y 6 kg·ha-1, respectivamente); los minerales extraídos en mayor cantidad por el maíz y los pastos fueron N (91%), P (57%) y K (58%), mientras que los de menor extracción fueron Ca (2,2%) y Mg (16%). Resumen en inglés In an oxisol of the Research Center La Libertad of Corpoica located at 17 km of Villavicencio, the corn association with grass B. decumbens, 'Mulato 1', and average 'Toledo' was established for recovering the productivity of degraded grassland. The minerals applied in kg·ha-1 at 45 day before sowing time by hectare were 55 Ca, 88 Mg, 35 P, and 45 S using as a source dolomite lime, phosphoric rock and agricultural gypsum. At the sowing time, it was applied 31 P, 27 N (sou (mas) rce diamonic phosphate), 37.5 K (source potassium chloride), 3 Zn; 0,1 Cu; 0,5 B and 1,2 S (source boronzinc). Up to the 15 day after sowing time (das) it was applied 37,5 K. Nitrogen was applied in dose of 100 and 200 kg·ha-1 at 15 and 35 das. The soil analyses realized after the crop of corn demonstrated an improvement of fertility because the saturation of bases increased from 24% initial to 47%, available phosphorus increased from 2 to 11.8 ppm and sulfur increased from 3 to 6 ppm. In the moment of harvest, the highest extraction of N was carried out by corn grain and grass with 43 and 45 kg·ha-1 respectively, whereas P appeared in highest concentration in corn grain with 12.7 kg·ha-1. The grass and soca of corn (stems and leaves after the harvest) were characterized having the highest content of K with 40 and 27 kg.ha-1, respectively. Ca, Mg and S were more extracted by the grass with 9, 8 and 6 kg·ha-1, respectively. The highest extraction of minerals by the corn and grass were the N, P and K with 91, 57 and 58%, respectively, whereas those of smaller extraction were Ca with 2.2% and Mg with 16%.

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Estudio técnico de la decoración del techo perteneciente a la Sala Capitular del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla

Durán, A.; Robador, M. D.; Jiménez de Haro, María del Carmen; Herrera Quintero, Liz K.; Gimena, P.; Pérez Rodríguez, José Luis
2010-02-09

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Estudio de la materia en suspensión en el Golfo de Cádiz

Palanques, Albert; Plana Llevat, Feliciano; Maldonado, A.
1986-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Estudio arqueométrico de figurillas cerámicas mayas de Calakmul (Campeche, México)

García Heras, Manuel; Reyes Trujeque, J.; Ruíz Guzmán, R.; Avilés Escaño, Miguel Ángel; Ruíz-Conde, Antonio; Sánchez-Soto, Pedro José
2006-07-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Estratigrafía del Grupo Mina Verdun, Proterozoico de Minas, Uruguay/ Stratigraphy of the Mina Verdún Group, Proterozoic of Minas, Uruguay

Poiré, Daniel G.; González, Pablo D.; Canalicchio, José M.; García Repetto, Flavio
2005-12-01

Resumen en español El objetivo del presente trabajo es el de presentar un cuadro estratigráfico para las sedimentitas del área del Cerro Verdún, Minas, Uruguay. Asimismo presentar algunas consideraciones sobre sus características sedimentológicas y sus estromatolitos, a fin de discutir sus condiciones paleoambientales. En el mismo sentido, se realizan inferencias sobre la edad abarcada por estas rocas y sus potenciales correlaciones regionales. Esta sucesión ha permanecido indefinida (mas) en general, mientras que sus calizas fueron alternativamente asignadas a diversas unidades litoestratigráficas. En esta contribución se incluye al conjunto en el Grupo Mina Verdún, el cual está conformado de base a techo por: i) Formación Don Mario (40 m, base no expuesta, lutitas negras), ii) Formación La Toma (15 m, margas verdes oscuras a negras), iii) Formación El Calabozo (170 m, calizas grises, masivas, laminadas y estromatolíticas) y iv) Formación Gibraltar (60 m, techo no expuesto, dolomías en tonalidades pálidas amarillentas, verdes y rosas hasta gris oscuras más calizas rosas y pelitas y margas negras). Conglomerados polimícticos de la Formación Las Palmas cubren a esta unidad mediante una discordancia angular. En contraposición, las cuarcitas del Cerro Verdún se apoyan sobre el Grupo Mina Verdún por contacto tectónico. Las pelitas negras de la Formación Don Mario se habrían depositado en un ambiente reductor de aguas calmas. Se identifica para las mismas, de manera preliminar, un aporte desde una corteza continental superior diferenciada que sufrió una importante meteorización y retrabajo. Las margas de la Formación La Toma reflejan un cambio en la sedimentación, con un pasaje hacia un ambiente de rampa carbonática. Niveles con estromatolitos aparecen en las calizas de la Formación El Calabozo, constituidos esencialmente por columnas de laminación cónica asignables a Conophyton fm. y muy escasos estromatolitos columnares dendroides, mal preservados. Conophyton es considerado como un estromatolito submareal de aguas relativamente profundas. Esto último, sumado a la baja diversidad, sugiere un ambiente marino submareal externo para esta unidad. Correlaciones entre afloramientos locales, definirían una evolución desde una rampa carbonática hasta una plataforma, en las inmediaciones del talud de la misma. La edad de esta unidad aún no se conoce con precisión. Sin embargo, interpretaciones geológicas regionales, sobre la base de los estromatolitos presentes y de datos geoquímicos, sugieren un tiempo de depositación post-arqueano a pre-ediacareano. Resumen en inglés The aim of this contribution is to introduce the stratigraphic framework of the Mina Verdún Quarry, located in the eastern side of Verdún Hill, Minas, Uruguay (Fig. 1), and to characterise their sedimentary units. The paleoenvironments involved are outlined as well as the sedimentological significance of the very well developed stromatolites. The stratigraphic position and composition of this sedimentary succession used to be uncertain and the limestone from the Mina Ve (mas) rdún Quarry was alternatively considered part of diverse litostratigraphic units (Mac Millan, 1933; Caorsi and Goñi, 1958; Bossi et al., 1965; Midot, 1984; Preciozzi et al., 1985; Bossi and Navarro, 2000; Sánchez Betucci, 1998; Sánchez Betucci et al., 2001). From the base to the top (Fig. 2), the sedimentary succession consists of the Mina Verdún Group, Las Palmas Formation and the quartzites of the Verdún Hill (Fig. 3). Mina Verdún Group (Poiré et al., 2003b) is conformed by: Don Mario Formation (Poiré et al., 2003b): 40 m thick, base not exposed; massive and laminated, black shales (Fig 4a), which are rich in organic matter (Fig. 5a). XRD analysis shows manly quartz, with scarce calcite, clay (illite, chlorite, and IS and CS interlayer) and feldspars (Fig. 6). Applying the Bhatia and Crook (1986), Taylor and McLennan (1985) and McLennan et al. (1990, 1993) plots (Fig. 7) their geochemistry suggests a high degree of weathering and reworking in the source area compose of a differentiated upper continental crust. La Toma Formation (Poiré et al., 2003b): 15 m thick; fine-grained, dark green marls (Fig. 4b and c), bearing up to 45 % of silica and 35 % of CaCO3. Petrographically they show micritic crystals of calcite and dolomite, quartz and feldspars (Fig. 5b); lamination is interrupted by stilolytes. Clay minerals are composed mainly by illite and scarce chlorite (Fig. 6). El Calabozo Formation (Poiré et al., 2003b): 170 m thick; grey massive, laminated, and stromatolite limestones (Fig. 4d), bearing up to 93 % of CaCO3 with some collapse breccias as resulting of probably karstic phenomena. In thin section they show homogeneous mosaic of micrite and subsparite calcite (Fig. 5 c and d) with stilolites and corrugated stromatolite lamination. Very abundant calcite with rare quartz, feldspars and illite have been recorded by XRD (Fig. 6). This sedimentary sequence is affected by diagenetic features and a fragile deformation (cleavage foliation, shear zones) which are slightly hiding the stromatolite morphologies (Fig. 8), but the main features of the stromatolites from El Calabozo Formation are still well preserved. Columnar stromatolites assignable to Conophyton fm. are the most abundant group of these organic sedimentary structures. This Conophyton fm. consists of unbranching subcylindrical columnar stromatolites with strikingly conical internal laminae whose apexes define a distinctive axial zone (Figs. 10a, b, c) and their horizontal section display a conspicuously and regularly concentric structure (Figs. 10c, d, f). The internal laminae are commonly continuous from one column to another, in which case vertical sections show upward laminae apexing. Their profile is angulate to geniculate and their plant outline could be round circular to oblong, in which case the axes are strongly orientated. The attitude of the columns is usually straight but sometimes they adopt a recumbent and sinuous posture. The column height is up to 70 cm and the column width is 5 to 20 cm. However, scarce but preserved dendroid branching style stromatolites have been recorded on the field, as well as small, rounded plant outline columnar stromatolites have been observed in cores, which could represent digitate branching stromatolites. Five kilometres to the south, this stromatolitic limestone facies change to deformed laminate limestones (Figs. 4e, f). Furthermore, 40 km to south, the El Calabozo Formation bearing Conophyton stromatolites has been reported by Gaucher et al. (2004a). Gibraltar Formation (Poiré et al., 2003b): 60 m, top not exposed; black marls and shales (Figs, 10a, b, c), pink limestones and dolomite limestones, and light yellow, green, reddish, black and grey dolomites (Fig. 10d, e). The unconformity between the El Calabozo and Gibraltar formations is very irregular, which is interpreted as a karstic palaeorelief. A 4 m thick diagenetic breccia is often in the base of the unit. The Mina Verdún Group is overlaid by red polymictic conglomerates and sandstones (Fig. 10f) of Las Palmas Formation (Poiré et al., 2003b) and is intruded by a subvolcanic longitudinal (E-W) dike swarm. This shows a K-Ar whole rock datum of 485,2 ± 12,5 Ma considered as a minimum cooling (Gonzalez et al., 2004). The quarzites from the Verdún Hill are overlying these units by a tectonic contact. They have been assigned to the Cerro Espuelitas Formation by Gaucher (2000), which are Ediacarean in age. Sedimentological and stratigraphic implications The black shales and claystones of the Don Mario Formation are interpreted as fine deposits in a low energy environment with euxinic conditions, which becomes calcareous to form a carbonatic ramp (La Toma Formation). The latter shows and evolution to a carbonatic algae platform very rich in stromatolites. From a sedimentological point of view, the group Conophyton has been assigned as a deep subtidal stromatolite by Poiré (1987, 2002) based on Precambrian stromatolite cycles from Villa Mónica Formation, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, and Logan et al. (1964) and Donaldson (1976) ideas. In this sense, the low biodiversity, Conophyton abundance and the plant view axes orientation allow to suggest a subtidal marine environment for the El Calabozo Formation, with tidal currents influence (Fig. 11). The strong dolomitization of the Gibraltar Formation and their poor exposure do not allow doing detailed interpretation about paleoenvironments. The age of the Mina Verdún Group is Precambrian but there are not major precisions about that. Unfortunately, the group Conophyton has a wide range during the Precambrian, from Early Proterozoic to Ediacarean, being impossible to define the age of these limestones. More detailed future studies about microstructure of this Conophyton could be useful to distinguish the taxonomy and to determinate its possible age. Pre-Ediacarean stromatolites have also been described 30 km to the north by Sprechmann et al. (1994) and Gaucher et al. (1996) in the Villalba Formation of the Basal Group (Gaucher y Sprechmann, 1995), but their morphologies are completely different. They have recorded stratiform, nodular-stratiform (LLH-C, LLHV) and columnar (SH-V) stromatolites associated with stromatolitic breccias, which were interpreted as intertidal to supratidal deposits. It could represent shallower stromatolite assemblages than the stromatolites from the Mina Verdún. Unfortunately, there are no radiometric data to prove this idea. Very well developed Conophyton ?ressotti and Conophyton fm. have been also recorded in the dolomites of the Villa Mónica Formation (Poiré, 1993) companied by Colonella fm., Cryptozoon fm., Gongylina fm., Gymnosolem fm., Inzeria fm., Jacutophyton fm., Jurusonia nisvensis, Katavia fm., Kotuikania fm., Kussiella fm., Minjaria fm., Parmites fm., Parmites Cf. cocrescens and Stratifera fm. (Poiré, 1989 y 1993), which radiometric age for diagenesis is 795 My (Cingolani y Bonhomme, 1988). This sequence could be correlated with El Calabozo Formation but it shows a poor biodiversity. The Mina Verdún Group is considered as a new lithostratigraphic unit in the Uruguayan stratigraphic framework, which is probably located somewhere between the Basal and Arroyo del Soldado groups.

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El Monasterio de Uclés (Cuenca, España): caracterización y deterioro de los materiales de construcción

Álvarez de Buergo, Mónica; Fort González, Rafael; Gómez-Heras, Miguel
2004-09-30

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

64

El Cretácico del Claustro románico de Santo Domingo de Silos

López Azcona, M. C.; Mingarro, Francisco
1982-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Effects of sand addition on production of lightweight aggregates from Tunisian smectite-rich clayey rocks

Fakhfakh, E.; Hajjajia, W.; Medhioubb, M.; Rocha, F.; López-Galindo, A.; Setti, M.; Kooli, F.; Zargouni, F.; Jamoussi, F.
2007-02-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Effect of spinel content on slag attack resistance of high alumina refractory castables

Díaz, L.A.; Torrecillas San Millán, Ramón; Aza Moya, Antonio H. de; Pena Castro, María del Pilar
2007-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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Deteriorating effects of lichen and microbial colonization of carbonate building rocks in the Romanesque churches of Segovia (Spain)

Ríos, Asunción de los; Cámara, Beatriz; García del Cura, M.ª Ángeles; Rico, Víctor J.; Galván, Virginia; Ascaso, Carmen
2009-01-15

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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75

Ca–Mg kutnahorite and struvite production by Idiomarina strains at modern seawater salinities

González-Muñoz, María Teresa; Linares, Concepción de; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Morcillo, Fernando; Martín-Ramos, Daniel; Arias, José María
2008-06-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

76

Carbonate and Phosphate Precipitation by Chromohalobacter marismortui

Angustias Rivadeneyra, María; Martín-Algarra, Agustín; Sánchez-Navas, A.; Martín-Ramos, Daniel
2006-03-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

79

Bricks in historical buildings of Toledo City: characterisation and restoration

López-Arce, Paula; García Guinea, Javier; Gracia, Mercedes; Obis, Joaquín
2003-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

80

Biochemical mechanisms of stone alteratio carried out by filamentous fungi living in monuments

Torre, María de los Ángeles de la; Gómez Alarcón, Gonzalo; Vizcayno, Carmen; García González, María Teresa
1993-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

81

Análisis experimental de tratamientos floculantes de residuos orgánicos derivados de la producción porcina/ Experimental analysis of flocculant treatments of organic waste from swine production

dos Santos, Alexandre L; Mora, Freddy
2007-04-01

Resumen en español La producción porcina se considera un importante segmento de la agroindustria Brasileña, cuyo desarrollo depende en parte de la estrategia ambiental adoptada por las empresas. Se examinaron experimentos de tratamientos de residuos orgánicos en una agroindustria porcina localizada en el sur de Brasil. Los siguientes tipos de floculantes fueron considerados como cinco experimentos independientes: Tipo-1: hidróxido de calcio, Tipo-2: sulfato de aluminio + hidróxido de c (mas) alcio, Tipo-3: hidróxido de calcio + dolomítico, Tipo-4: dolomítico y Tipo-5: sulfato de aluminio, con las siguientes dosis: 0,00-1,25-2,50-5,00-10,00-20,00 mL. Se analizaron los sólidos totales de la fracción sólida (gm³) en un estudio longitudinal. Un experimento paralelo se realizó para comparar entre los floculantes, con una dosis fija de 20 mL. Debido a que la variable respuesta no presentó una distribución normal, establecido por la prueba de Shapiro-Wilk, se utilizaron los modelos lineales generalizados (GLM) y su extensión para datos correlacionados: Ecuaciones Generalizadas (EG). La distribución Gamma se consideró en este análisis. Todas las ecuaciones evidenciaron un positivo efecto de la dosis sobre la floculación. La cantidad de sólidos totales dependió del floculante, con valores de 8.444 a 21.070 gm³, para Tipo-1 y Tipo-2, respectivamente. Los floculantes Tipo-2, Tipo-4 y Tipo-5 no fueron estadísticamente diferentes, mostrando los valores más altos de sólidos totales. Los floculantes Tipo-1 y Tipo-3 no se debieran considerar debido a su ineficiencia. La cantidad de biofertilizante factible de ser producido sería dependiente del tipo floculante usado en esta agroindustria porcina Resumen en inglés Swine production is an important part of the Brazilian agro-industry whose development depends in part on the environmental strategy adopted by the companies involved in the industry. This study examined organic waste treatment experiments from a swine agro-industry located in southern Brazil. Five experiments were conducted that independently considered the following flocculants: Type-1: calcium hydroxide, Type-2: aluminum sulfate + calcium hydroxide, Type-3: calcium hyd (mas) roxide + dolomite, Type-4: dolomite, and Type-5: aluminum sulfate. All experiments were conducted at the following doses: 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mL. Total solids of the solid fraction (g-nr³) were analyzed in a longitudinal study. A parallel experiment was conducted to compare the treatments at a fixed dose of 20 mL. The analysis was carried out using Generalized Linear Models (GLM) and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). These were used because the response variable did not follow a normal distribution; this was confirmed by Shapiro-Wilk test. The Gamma distribution was considered in both GEE and GLM approaches. All equations evidenced a positive effect of the doses on flocculation. Quantity of the total solids was dependent on flocculant type, with values ranging from 8,444 to 21,070 g-rrr³, for Type-1 and Type-2, respectively. No significant differences were evidenced between Type-2, Type-4 and Type-5 flocculants; these all demonstrated higher total solid values. Type-1 and Type-3 flocculants should not be considered for use due to inefficiency. The quantity of biofertilize feasible for production in this swine industry would be dependent on the flocculant type used

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

83

Alkali-aggregate behaviour of alkali-activated slag mortars: Effect of aggregate type

Puertas, F.; Palacios, M.; Gil-Maroto, A.; Vazquez, Tomás
2009-05-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)