Sample records for DESACTIVACION (deactivation)
from WorldWideScience.org

Sample records 1 - 11 shown.



1

Estudio de la desactivación del catalizador PW-Amberlita en la epoxidación de limoneno con peróxido de hidrógeno/ Studying PW-Amberlite catalyst deactivation in limonene epoxidation by hydrogen peroxide

Barrera Zapata, Rolando; Villa de P., Aída Luz; Montes de Corrrea, Consuelo
2009-12-01

Resumen en español El catalizador PW-Amberlita es activo para la epoxidación de limoneno en condiciones trifásicas, pero se desactiva durante la reacción. En esta contribución se evaluó la estabilidad del catalizador en la reacción y la recuperación de la actividad catalítica al tratarlo con varios solventes. Se encontró que el catalizador recupera el 99% de su actividad inicial cuando se lavó con tolueno y que la recuperación fue de 95 y 97% cuando se utilizaron etanol o acetona (mas) como solventes de lavado, respectivamente. Las pruebas de lixiviación mostraron que la reacción no continuaba al separar el catalizador de la mezcla de reacción, confirmando la ausencia de lixiviación de la fase activa del catalizador. Mediante análisis FTIR se evidenció que las especies características del complejo fosfotungstato no se modificaron con reutilizaciones sucesivas del catalizador. Resumen en inglés The PW-Amberlite catalyst is active for limonene epoxidation in triphasic conditions; it becomes deactivated in reaction conditions. Catalyst stability during the reaction and recovery of catalyst activity when it was treated with several solvents were evaluated. It was found that the catalyst recovered 99% of its initial activity when it was washed with toluene and that the recovery was 95% and 97% when ethanol or acetone were used as washing solvents, respectively. Leac (mas) hing tests showed that the reaction did not continue when the catalyst was removed from the reaction mixture, confirming the absence of leaching during the catalyst's active phase. FTIR analysis revealed that the characteristic species of the phosphotungstate complex did not vary with successive reusing of the catalyst.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

2

Novedades en el Tratamiento Conductual de Niños y Adolescentes/ Development of Behavior Therapy with Children and Adolescents

Ferro García, Rafael; Vives Montero, Carmen; Ascanio Velasco, Lourdes
2009-01-01

Resumen en español Este trabajo expone cinco nuevas formas de tratamiento conductual en niños, adolescentes y sus padres. Se describe la Terapia de Interacción Padres-hijos como una terapia nueva dedicada al manejo de conductas. Además, se describen las aplicaciones en este ámbito de la Psicoterapia Analítica Funcional y la Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso (ACT) que forman parte de la tercera generación de Terapia de Conducta. También se analizan dos terapias que han recibido una (mas) influencia clara de esta nueva ola de terapia, la Terapia Familiar Integrativa y la Terapia de Desactivación Modal. Finalmente, se concluye y analiza lo que aportan cada una. Resumen en inglés This paper outlines five new types of behavior therapy with children, adolescents and their parents. The Parent-Child Interaction Therapy is described as a new therapy for behavior management. Then, Functional Analytic Psychotherapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) are described as third generation applications of behavior therapy. Two additional therapies that have been influenced by this new wave of therapy are also discussed -the Integrative Family Therapy and the Mode Deactivation Therapy. As a conclusion, contributions of all these therapies are summarized.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

3

Una revisión bibliográfica sobre hidrodecloración catalítica en fase líquida/ A review of liquid-phase catalytic hydrodechlorination

Ardila Arias, Alba Nelly; Montes de Correa, Consuelo
2007-12-01

Resumen en español Se presenta una visión general de la problemática actual de las emisiones de compuestos organoclorados ligeros, y las principales características y ventajas de la hidrodecloración catalítica en fase líquida. Se describen los mas importantes catalizadores utilizados en el proceso de hidrodecloración, haciendo énfasis en los de paladio; su naturaleza, actividad y desactivación. Se explica detalladamente el efecto de varios parámetros, tales como: HCl producido, so (mas) lvente, base y agente reductor utilizados en el proceso de hidrodecloración. Finalmente, se muestran los principales resultados de estudios cinéticos, el tipo de reactores usados, y se resumen los aspectos más relevantes de la revisión bibliográfica. Resumen en inglés This survey was aimed at introducing the effect of light organochlorinated compound emissions on the environment, particularly on water, air, soil, biota and human beings. The characteristics and advantages of liquid phase catalytic hydrodechlorination as a technology for degrading these chlorinated compounds is also outlined and the main catalysts used in the hydrodechlorination process are described. Special emphasis is placed on palladium catalysts, their activity, the (mas) nature of active species and deactivation. The effect of several parameters is introduced, such as HCl, solvent, base addition and type of reducing agent used. The main results of kinetic studies, reactors used and the most important survey conclusions are presented.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

4

Characterization of Pd/Ce0.8Tb0.2Ox/La2O3-Al2O3 by means of Thermal Programmed Reduction (TPR), Thermal Programmed Desorption (TPD) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA)/ Caracterización de Pd/Ce0.8Tb0.2Ox/La2O3-Al2O3 mediante las técnicas de Reducción Térmica Programada (TPR), Desorción Térmica Programada (TPD) y Análisis Térmico Gravimétrico (TGA)

Finol, Dora M.; Moncada Z., Adriana I.; Méndez M., Jonathan E.; Sánchez A., Jorge L.; Vidal M., Hilario
2002-12-01

Resumen en español Resumen Se preparó un catalizador de Pd/Ce0.8Tb0.2Ox/La2O3-Al2O3 y fue caracterizado mediante las técnicas de TPD de H2 y O2, TPR, y TGA. Como muestras de referencia se prepararon catalizadores más simples del tipo Pd/CeO2 y Pd/Al2O3. Se observó una progresiva desactivación en los catalizadores Pd/Ce0.8Tb0.2Ox/La2O3-Al2O3 y Pd/Al2O3 conforme aumenta la temperatura de reducción, la cual es significativa a 700°C. El Pd/Ce0.8Tb0.2Ox/La2O3-Al2O3 experimenta cambios irr (mas) eversibles cuando se somete a tratamientos a elevadas temperaturas (900°C). Los estudios de TPR demostraron que la reducción del Pd ocurre en dos etapas, y que el Pd/Ce0.8Tb0.2Ox/La2O3-Al2O3 se reduce en un intervalo de temperaturas mucho mayor que el observado en el catalizador Pd/CeO2. En los diagramas de TGA de los catalizadores Pd/Ce0.8Tb0.2Ox/La2O3-Al2O3 y Pd/Al2O3 se observó la existencia de fenómenos de histéresis en el par redox PdO « Pdº. Como lo demuestran estos resultados y los de TPD de O2, en el óxido mixto de Ce/Tb soportado se favorece la oxidación del paladio a más altas temperaturas que las observadas en el catalizador Pd/Al2O3. Resumen en inglés Abstract A Pd/Ce0.8Tb0.2Ox/La2O3-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared and characterized by using TPD of H2 and O2, TPR and TGA measurements. Pd/CeO2 and Pd/Al2O3 catalysts were used as reference samples. Pd/Ce0.8Tb0.2Ox/La2O3-Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3 catalysts showed a deactivation with the increase of the reduction temperature, specially at 700°C. The Pd/Ce0.8Tb0.2Ox/La2O3-Al2O3 catalyst had irreversible changes when it is heated at high temperatures (900°C). The studies of TPR showe (mas) d that the Pd is reduced in two steps, and that the Pd/Ce0.8Tb0.2Ox/La2O3-Al2O3 catalyst is reduced in a larger interval of temperature than the Pd/CeO2 catalyst. In the TGA diagrams of Pd/Ce0.8Tb0.2Ox/La2O3-Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3 catalysts, was observed the existence of hysteresis in the redox couple PdO « Pdº. These results, in good agreement with the TPD-O2 ones, showed that in the supported mixed oxide of Ce/Tb the palladium oxidation occurs at higher temperatures than in the Pd/Al2O3 catalyst.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

5

Urination, defecation and erection control system in neuropathy patients.

Villa Sanz, Rosa; Aguiló Llobet, Jordi; Calderón, Enric
2001-11-29

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

6

Modeling of the Deactivation of CaO in a Carbonate Loop at High Temperatures of Calcination

González García, Belén; Grasa, Gemma S.; Alonso Carreño, Mónica; Abanades García, Juan Carlos

7 pages, 8 figures.-- Printed version published Dec 3, 2008. | Calcium oxide is being proposed as a regenerable sorbent for CO2 at high temperatures via a carbonation/calcination loop. It is well-known that natural sorbents lose their capacity to capture CO2 as the number of the carbonation/calcinat...

DRIVER (Spanish)

7

La epigenética y los estudios en gemelos en el campo de la psiquiatría/ Epigenetics and twin studies in psychiatric domains

González Ramírez, Adriana Estrella; Díaz Martínez, Alejandro; Díaz-Anzaldúa, Adriana
2008-06-01

Resumen en español La secuencia de ADN genómico que caracteriza a nuestra especie constituye la piedra fundamental de la vida humana; parte de ella se refleja en la secuencia del ARN y a través de éste se dicta la información necesaria para que nuestras células produzcan proteínas. La genética contribuye de manera importante a los avances en el campo médico. Los descubrimientos genéticos han permitido desarrollar estrategias para modificar, prevenir y proponer nuevas terapias para (mas) diversas enfermedades. En el siglo XIX, Gregor Johann Mendel desarrolló un modelo teórico capaz de predecir la naturaleza y propiedades de los mecanismos de la herencia, que sigue siendo indispensable para explicar la base de la herencia humana. Otro suceso determinante en la historia de la Medicina se dio a conocer casi nueve décadas después cuando James Watson y Francis Crick describieron su modelo estructural para el ADN. Posteriormente se introdujeron la clonación posicional y la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa; más recientemente se publicó cerca del 99% de la secuencia del genoma humano. El período actual se conoce como la era post-genómica, ya que además de descifrar genomas completos, los investigadores pretenden, entre otras cosas, esclarecer los mecanismos que influyen en la activación e inactivación de los genes, lo cual en parte involucra un nivel epigenético. En las ciencias médicas los gemelos constituyen un grupo idóneo para abordar el estudio de las enfermedades hereditarias. En este tipo de padecimientos suelen observarse similitudes entre parientes, en especial si se trata de gemelos monocigóticos. Sin embargo, aun en este tipo de hermanos se detectan diferencias importantes. Parámetros como los grados de concordancia y porcentajes de heredabilidad han puesto de manifiesto que un gemelo monocigótico puede presentar trastornos hereditarios que su co-gemelo nunca tendrá. La epigenética es el estudio de los cambios en la función de los genes que no afectan la secuencia del ADN, por modificaciones que tienen lugar principalmente en las citosinas de éste y en las histonas de la cromatina. Se ha determinado que las modificaciones epigenéticas son mucho más frecuentes que aquellas que modifican la secuencia del ADN, por lo que constituyen uno de los fundamentos de la diversidad biológica, muestran la manera en que el ambiente puede modular la expresión genética y contribuyen así a nuestro fenotipo. Esta revisión reúne datos sobre la posible relevancia de la epigenética en el estudio de los trastornos mentales y como posible explicación parcial de las diferencias observadas entre gemelos >. Un conocimiento más profundo de los patrones epigenéticos podría contribuir a identificar factores de riesgo para estos trastornos. Resumen en inglés The sequence of the human genome integrates the keystone of our life. Part of it is transcribed to RNA, which in turn provides the information required by our cells to produce proteins. Discoveries in the genetics field have been essential to medicine and have been used to develop strategies to modify, prevent and propose new therapeutic approaches for human diseases. In the 19th Century, Gregor Johann Mendel developed a theoretical model which was able to predict in an a (mas) ccurate way hereditary mechanisms; indeed, his laws still explain the basis of human inheritance. Almost ninety years later, James Watson and Francis Crick announced their double-helix model of the DNA molecule. Then, positional cloning and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were introduced; more recently, almost 99% of the sequence of our genome was made public. The current period of time is known as the post-genomic era, due to the fact that researchers are not only obtaining the complete sequences of thousands of genomes, but are also searching for clues that may help understand the mechanisms that affect gene activation and deactivation, in which epigenetic factors are also involved. In medical domains, twins constitute a suitable group to study inherited disorders. Dizygotic or fraternal twins are produced by different egg and sperm cells, and even when these two fertilization events occur simultaneously, dizygotic twins share approximately the same percentage of genetic material than any pair of siblings, that is, around 50%. Some authors have suggested that the tendency for spontaneous dizygotic twinning could be attributed to a double ovulation which is genetically determined in an autosomal dominant manner. Monozygotic, as opposed to dizygotic twins, are produced by a single zygote whose cells are dissociated and originate two independent organisms; approximately a third of monozygotic twins are separated before the 5th day after fertilization, and the rest between the 5th and the 15th day. Most monozygotic twins are very similar; nevertheless, some few exceptions prove that in fact they actually do not have to be identical. Relatives of a person with a mental disorder tend to share traits associated with this disease, especially if the patient and the relative are monozygotic twins. However, important differences may be detected even between each pair of identical twins. Parameters such as concordance and heritability have shown that a monozygotic twin can develop an inherited disorder while his or her co-twin will always be disease-free. In addition to differences in susceptibility to inherited diseases, this kind of twins can display dissimilarities in somatic cell mutations (more overtly noticeable when ageing), their set of antibodies and T cell receptors, their number of mitochondrial DNA molecules, and chromosome X inactivation patterns in women, all of which are the main subject of many ongoing studies. A recent report shows that from 160 monozygotic twin pairs who were 3 to 74 years old, epigenetic patterns were identical early in life, but differences were more obvious at older ages, especially if twins were raised apart or if they had different medical history. Medical conditions, but also environmental factors such as pregnancy tobacco exposure, physical activity, and diet could contribute to differences in epigenetic patterns. It has been shown that epigenetic modifications (or epi-mutations) are more frequent than the ones that modify DNA sequence, so they are part of the fundamental causes of biological diversity, and they show how environment can modulate gene expression and contribute to our phenotype. Even when twin studies are sometimes considered purely genetic, they also give information about the influence of environmental factors. However, it is important to consider with caution the results from this type of studies. Heritability estimates are not unchangeable facts. They depend on the sample being analyzed, the genes involved in the specific sample, the characteristics of the environmental factors which members of this group were exposed to, and the precise moment the study was done. Epigenetics refers to changes that do not alter the DNA sequence but affect gene function due to chemical modifications which mainly occur in DNA cytosines and in chromatin-related histones. Epigenetic processes are covalent modifications which include the addition of functional groups (methyl, acetyl, phosphate, etc.) or proteins (ubiquitin, SUMO, etc.) to the DNA molecule or to associated proteins. These modifications contribute to the activation or inhibition of transcription, which leads to changes in messenger ARN expression that can ultimately influence the onset of disease. Pseudogenes are still being excluded while new genes are being confirmed in our genome sequence, but the current estimates indicate that each one of our nucleated cells contains almost 22000 genes (excluding mitochondrial DNA) which encode for polypeptides and more than 4,000 whose final product is RNA. Gene expression is partially controlled by DNA coiling around globular proteins called histones, which constitute a structure known as chromatin, a DNA-protein complex that represents the packaging of 3.25 billion base pairs of our genetic information. Physical and chemical chromatin modifications can also affect gene expression by changing DNA-protein interactions; in general terms, genes are inhibited when chromatin is packed and they are active when it is free. These dynamic states are controlled by epigenetic reversible modifications on DNA methylation or by changes in histones. It has been shown that subtle epigenetic differences between any two human beings are associated with dissimilar final chromatin remodeling, as well as expression/repression of genes.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

8

Efecto del lipopolisacárido en cultivos de células dendríticas humanas y su inhibición por la polimixina B/ Effect of lipopolysaccharides on human dentritic cell cultures and its inhibition by polymyxin B

Cuéllar, Adriana; Fonseca, Ángela; Gómez, Alberto
2004-12-01

Resumen en español Algunos estímulos de maduración utilizados en cultivos de células dendríticas, como las proteínas recombinantes obtenidas en sistemas bacterianos o los extractos proteicos de ectoparásitos, contienen lipopolisacáridos (LPS) y su presencia afecta el comportamiento de las células dendríticas en cultivo. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto del LPS en un sistema de cultivo de células dendríticas humanas y la actividad de la polimixina B como inhibidor del efecto d (mas) el LPS. Para esto, los monocitos obtenidos a partir de sangre periférica humana se diferenciaron a células dendríticas con IL-4 y GM-CSF y como estímulo de maduración se utilizó LPS o PGE2/FNTá. La expresión de marcadores y la secreción de citocinas se evaluaron por citometría de flujo. Los resultados mostraron que la preexposición a endotoxina disminuyó la expresión de CD83, inhibió la secreción de IL-12p70, FNTá e IL-10 y disminuyó la secreción de IL-6 en células dendríticas. Además, la utilización de 10 mg/ml de polimixina B fue efectiva en la inhibición de la actividad de 1 mg/ml de LPS y la máxima concentración de polimixina B que no afectó la morfología de las células fue de 50 mg/ml. En conclusión, la polimixina B es efectiva para inhibir la actividad del LPS en los cultivos de células dendríticas. Resumen en inglés Dendritic cells have been described as effective antigen presenting cells. Human dentritic cells are highly susceptible to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) tolerance, consisting of a differential deactivation state in which some cellular functions are impaired. LPS tolerance can be experimentally induced in vitro, in which the presence of LPS strongly affects the behavior of cultured dendritic cells. Recombinant proteins obtained from bacterial systems or protein extracts of ecto (mas) parasites containing LPS can be used as stimuli to enhance maturation processes in these cells. The present study evaluated the effect of LPS in human dendritic cell cultures, and the activity of polymyxin B as an inhibitor of the LPS effect. Dendritic cells were obtained from peripheral blood monocytes in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF, followed by exposure with LPS and PGE2/TNFá. Surface markers and cytokine levels were evaluated by flow cytometry. The dendritic cells pre-exposed to single doses of endotoxin demonstrated a reduced capacity to mature, reduced CD83 expression, inhibited secretion of IL-12, TNFá, IL-10 and diminished secretion of IL-6. Furthermore, polymyxin B at 10 mg/ml inhibits LPS activity at 1 mg/ml. The maximum polymyxin B concentration with no effect on cellular morphology was 50 mg/ml. Consequently, polymyxin B was determined to be an effective LPS inhibitor in dendritic cell cultures.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

9

Device used for multiple experimental test on solid materials and a flow control system.

Corma, Avelino; Hernandez Fenollosa, Juan; Serra Alfaro, José Manuel
2003-06-17

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

10

Crotonaldehyde Hydrogenation on Rh/TiO2 catalysts. In situ DRIFTS studies

Reyes, P.; Melián-Cabrera, I.; López Granados, M.; García Fierro, José Luis; Aguirre, Mª del Carmen
2001-10-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

11

Aplicación de la terapia de afrontamiento del estrés en dos poblaciones con alto estrés: pacientes crónicos y personas sanas/ Effectiveness of stress management therapy in two populations with high stress: chronic patients and healty people

Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel; Robles-Ortega, Humbelina; Navarrete-Navarrete, Nuria; Jiménez-Alonso, Juan
2009-06-01

Resumen en español Introducción Actualmente, el estrés se considera un factor de riesgo para la salud. Diversos estudios ponen de manifiesto que altos niveles de estrés presentan mayor número de quejas, tanto en el nivel físico como psicológico. En este contexto, se han desarrollado programas dirigidos a un adecuado afrontamiento del estrés, que han resultado eficaces en la modificación de variables emocionales. Sin embargo, no se ha estudiado la eficacia de la terapia en la mejorí (mas) a de síntomas somáticos. Por otra parte, existen enfermedades en que, por la modulación inmunológica que produce, el estrés puede actuar exacerbando el curso de ésta. Un prototipo de lo anterior es el lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES), enfermedad de carácter autoinmune que suele conllevar importantes niveles de dolor y deterioro de diferentes sistemas, con lo que a su vez produce altos niveles de estrés en los pacientes que lo padecen. También está ampliamente demostrado que el estrés puede actuar como exacerbador de la enfermedad. Pese a ello, no se ha llevado a cabo ningún estudio que tenga como objetivo comprobar la eficacia de la terapia de afrontamiento al estrés por sus consecuencias físicas y emocionales. Por ello, el objetivo de este estudio ha sido valorar la eficacia de la terapia cognitivo-conductual en el manejo del estrés para comprobar si disminuye la percepción de los síntomas somáticos autoinformados, tanto en personas sanas como en personas con lupus. Material y método En este estudio han participado 52 personas, de las cuales 22 eran pacientes con lupus y 30 eran personas con alto estrés. Para evaluar el nivel de estrés hemos utilizado el Inventario de Vulnerabilidad al Estrés y la Escala de Experiencias Vitales Recientes (SRLE); para evaluar la depresión, el Inventario de Depresión de Beck (BDI); para la ansiedad, el Inventario de Ansiedad Rasgo (STAI-R); y para los síntomas somáticos autoinformados, la Escala de Síntomas Somáticos-Revisada (ESS-R). Además, en los pacientes con LES, se obtuvo el índice SLEDAI o índice de actividad de la enfermedad. Ambos grupos se evaluaron en las diferentes variables psicológicas descritas previamente antes y después del tratamiento. La terapia recibida fue de tipo cognitivo-conductual y se desarrolló a lo largo de 13 sesiones de hora y media. Resultados Los resultados mostraron que ambos grupos presentaban una reducción estadísticamente significativa en experiencias vitales estresantes [F(1 .50) = 28.6; p Resumen en inglés Introduction Stress is currently considered a health risk factor. Numerous studies have shown that people with high levels of perceived stress present a greater number of complaints at both the physical and psychological levels. In this context, programs have been developed directed toward adequately coping with stress, and the effectiveness of these programs on the symptomatology of a psychological nature in healthy persons with a high level of perceived stress has been (mas) shown. However, there have been fewer studies that have shown whether this type of therapy affects the somatic symptomatology of healthy people in any way. On the other hand, programs for chronically ill patients directed toward achieving a better adaptation to their life conditions are equally effective. A population that presents considerably high levels of stress is the one consisting of people suffering from a chronic illness. Thus, through the immunological modulation it produces, the stress may be exacerbating the course of the disease. One prototype of this is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is a syndrome whose clinical expression depends on the degree to which there is a convergence of an immune regulation disorder and a strong genetic base, hormonal influence, and various exogenous agents. SLE can be manifested by general malaise, fever, fatigue, weight loss, skin rashes, joint inflammation, anemia, inflammation of the lymphatic glands, lowering of the defenses against infection, and cardiac, kidney, neurological, and pulmonary alterations. This autoimmune disease is usually associated with high levels of pain and impairment in different systems, producing high levels of stress in the patients who suffer from it. Nevertheless, although stress has already been shown to be one environmental factor that can produce a worsening in lupus symptoms, there have been no studies carried out with the objective of testing the effectiveness of stress management therapy and its physical and emotional consequences in these patients. For this reason, this study has a double objective: on the one hand, to corroborate, once again, the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural stress management therapy in the control of certain psychological processes and, on the other hand, to take one more step by testing whether there is a reduction in the perception of self-reported somatic symptoms both in healthy people and in those with a chronic disease. Material and method Fifty-two people participated in this study. Twenty-two were patients with lupus from the University Hospital in Granada. The other 30 were people without chronic diseases who attended the Psychological Attention Service at the University of Granada to receive therapy for coping with stress, as they claimed to have high levels of it. To evaluate the level of stress, we used the Stress Vulnerability Inventory by Beech, Burns and Scheefield, and the Scale of Recent Life Experiences (SRLE) by Kohn and Macdonald. To evaluate depression, we used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and for anxiety, the Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-R) by Spielberger, Gorsuch and Lushene. For the self-reported somatic symptoms, we used the Revised Somatic Symptoms Scale (SSS-R) by Sandín, Valiente and Chorot. In addition, in the patients with SLE, the SLEDAI index, or Index of Activity of the Disease, was obtained. The therapy received was cognitive-behavioural in nature, and it was carried out during 13 sessions which were grouped in the following blocks: Conceptualization of the stress, cognitive restructuring; Deactivation techniques; Approaching the self-management of the pain; Social skills; Time control and organization; Personality pattern and its relationship with health; Anger management; Humour and optimism as coping strategies. Results Results showed that both groups presented a statistically significant reduction in stressful life experiences [F(1 .50) = 28.6; p

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)