Sample records for COLOIDES (colloids)
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1

SERS en coloides | SERS on colloids

Sánchez-Cortés, Santiago

[ES] Los coloides metálicos nanoparticulados se han venido empleando de manera muy frecuente en los últimos años en espectroscopía SERS (Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering) debido a las propiedades ópticas y electroquímicas adecuadas de estos materiales. Este hecho contrasta, sin embargo, con el rela...

DRIVER (Spanish)

2

MINERALOGÍA Y GENESIS DE ALGUNOS SUELOS DE CENIZAS VOLCÁNICAS DE CHILOÉ CONTINENTAL, CHILE/ Mineralogy and origin of some volcanic ash soils of continental Chiloé, Chile

Besoain M, Eduardo; Peralta P, Mario; Massaro M, Silvana
2000-04-01

Resumen en español Se estudiaron cuatro Andisoles provenientes de los volcanes Hornopirén y Hualaihué o volcán Apagado, situados en Chiloé Continental, provincia de Palena, X Región (41º 53’S). Los suelos están localizados en las faldas de los volcanes, en un relieve abrupto cubierto con una densa foresta pluvial, muy húmeda, de 4.000 a 5.000 mm de precipitación anual, y temperatura media anual de 10ºC. Se describió la morfología de los suelos y se determinaron sus propiedades (mas) químicas, físicas y mineralógicas. Los pediones son profundos y sus variaciones texturales sugieren la participación de varios episodios eruptivos. Todos los suelos se caracterizan por tener un horizonte A grueso, con elevado contenido de materia orgánica (12-25% C-orgánico), valores elevados a moderados de retención de agua a 1500 kPa, altos valores de retención de fósforo (>90%), con la excepción de los horizontes sub-superficiales del suelo Pululil. La CIC es moderada a alta y la saturación de bases es muy baja. El contenido de vidrios volcánicos es muy alto (59-88%) y tiende a aumentar con la profundidad del perfil; la mayoría de los vidrios tienen burbujas. Los coloides de los suelos son alofánicos, pero en la superficie prevalecen los complejos Al, Fe-húmicos. Sílice opalina también se encuentra en el horizonte A de todos los pediones. Los suelos satisfacen las propiedades ándicas y pertenecen al Orden de los Andisoles, suborden de los Udands Resumen en inglés Four andisols from volcanoes Hornopirén and Hualaihué or Apagado, located in continental Chiloé, X Region (41º 53’S) were studied. The soils are located on the slopes of the volcanoes, on a very steep elevation covered with dense rain forest. The local climate averages 4,000 -- 5,000 mm annual rainfall and a mean annual temperature of 10ºC. The soils were described morphologically and their chemical, physical and mineralogical properties were determined. The horizon (mas) s are deep and their textural variation suggests various eruptions. All the soils were characterized by a thick dark A horizon with high organic matter content (12-25% organic carbon); high to moderate water retention at 1,500 kPa; high phosphate retention values (>90%), with the exception of the subsurface horizon of Pululil soil. The content of volcanic glass is very high (59-88%) and tends to increase with the depth of the profile; most of the glass contains bubbles. Soil colloids are allophanic, but at the surface Al, Fe-humic complexes predominate. Opaline silica is also found in A-horizons of all pedons. The soils satisfy the andic properties and belong to the Order of Andisols and Sub-Order of Udands

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

3

Reemplazo de volumen: Coloides (II)

Mena Miranda, Vivian R.; Lobaina Bárzaga, Gladis A.; Vialat Soto, Vivian; Pérez Souto, Emilio; Torriente Blanco, Norberto
2004-06-01

Resumen en español El reemplazo de volumen constituye un pilar en el tratamiento de los pacientes con hipovolemia absoluta. Actualmente se preconiza el uso de coloides sintéticos por ser más seguros en relación con los productos derivados de la sangre. Los dextranos existen de varios pesos moleculares, y son los más utilizados los de bajo peso molecular. Actualmente muchos autores no los recomiendan por las complicaciones reológicas que aparecen tras su uso. Las gelatinas son otro grup (mas) o de coloides sintéticos, la más utilizada en la actualidad es el gelafusin, que se deriva del cartílago bovino, aunque su indicación en Cuba ha disminuido después del reporte de la enfermedad de las vacas locas. Su tiempo en el lecho vascular dura alrededor de 4 horas. Otro coloide sintético es el almidón, este también existe de varios pesos moleculares, preferiblemente se utiliza el de bajo peso molecular, y tiene pocas reacciones adversas. El reemplazo de volumen adecuado evita el fenómeno de hipovolemia asociado al de repercusión, por lo que debe ser utilizado de forma adecuada. La mezcla de soluciones es uno de los propósitos de la terapia actual. Resumen en inglés Volume replacement is a milestone in the treatment of patients with absolute hypovolemia. Nowadays, it is suggested the use of synthetic colloids for being safer compared with blood derivatives. There are dextrans with different mollecular weights. Those of low mollecular weight are the most used. At present, many authors do not recommend them due to the rheological complications appearing after their use. The gelatins are other group of synthetic colloids. Gelasufin is t (mas) he most used now. It is derived from the bovine cartilage, although its indication in Cuba has decreased after the report of the mad cow disease. It lasts at about 4 hours in the vascular bed. Another synthetic colloid is starch, which also has different mollecular weights. That with low mollecular weight is preferably used and it has a few adverse reactions. The adequate volume replacement avoids the phenomenon of hypovolemia associated with reperfussion, so it should be used correctly. The mix of solutions is one of the purposes of the current therapy.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

4

Reemplazo de volumen: Coloides (I)

Lobaina Bárzaga, Gladis A.; Mena Miranda, Vivian R.; Vialat Soto, Vivian; Rojo Cáceres, Ibis; Pleguezuelos Rodríguez, Eduardo
2004-06-01

Resumen en español El reemplazo de volumen tiene el objetivo de lograr una adecuada perfusión al nivel celular y evitar que se sobreañada al proceso de isquemia el de reperfusión. Este fenómeno depende fundamentalmente de la interrelación entre el volumen sanguíneo, el tono vascular y el funcionamiento de la bomba cardíaca. La alteración de uno de ellos produce diferentes tipos de shock, para constituir el volumen el factor más afectado; este puede ser real y/o funcional, de ahí l (mas) as diferencias en el manejo de la hemodinamia en el paciente críticamente enfermo. Los coloides en la actualidad, constituyen una opción eficaz para los diferentes casos de hipovolemia. Resumen en inglés The volume replacement is aimed at attaining an adequate perfussion at the cellular level and at preventing that the reperfussion be overadded to the ischemic process. This phenomenon depends mainly on the interrelation between the blood volume, the vascular tone and the functioning of the heart pump. The alteration of one of them produces different types of shock To be the most affected factor, the volume may be real and/or functional. That's why there are differences in (mas) the management of the hemodynamics in the critically ill patient. Colloids are at present an efficient option for the different cases of hypovolemia.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

5

Soluciones utilizadas en el tratamiento de la hipovolemia

Mena miranda, Vivian R.; Ruza Tarrío, Francisco; Castro Pacheco, Bertha L.
2001-06-01

Resumen en español Se realizó una actualización sobre el uso de las sustancias más utilizadas en el reemplazo de volumen. Se plantea que la controversia entre el uso de cristaloides/coloides aún mantiene vigencia, aunque se trata de hallar la sustancia ideal que restablezca la volemia de forma adecuada, con el mínimo de reacciones adversas y costo. Dentro de los coloides se enfatizó en las desventajas del uso de la albúmina y su sustitución por otros expansores de volumen de tipo co (mas) loide, donde se encuentran las gelatinas y los almidones. Otro tipo de sustancias transportadoras de oxígeno están en fase de ensayo clínico, como son los fluorocarbonos y las hemoglobinas sintéticas, sin que se haya encontrado superioridad de tipo terapéutico. Resumen en inglés An updating on the most used substances in volume therapy is made. It is stated that the controversy aroused by the use of crystalloids/colloids is still standing, although efforts are made to find the ideal substance to reestablish volemia in an appropiate way with the minimum of adverse reactions and cost. As regards colloids, emphasis is made on the disadvantages of the use of albumin and its substitution by other colloid volume expanders, such as gelatins and starches (mas) . Other types of oxygen transporting substances as fluorocarbons and synthetic haemoglobins are under clinical assay. No therapeutic superiority has been found yet.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

6

Modulación inflamatoria en el shock traumático/ Inflammatory modulation in traumatic shock

MATEO DE ACOSTA A, DAVID A; BEDOLLA O, EDGAR; MAKIPOUR J, JOHN; WAISSBLUTH G, JHONELLE A
2010-08-01

Resumen en español Universalmente se considera el Shock hipovolémico de origen hemorrágico como una importante causa de morbi-mortalidad. Durante los últimos años se ha redefinido los conceptos de la reanimación con líquidos intravenosos en los pacientes con choque hipovolémico y establecido los conceptos de reanimación hipotensa con el uso de nuevos coloides derivados del almidón, tales como el hidroxietil-almidón en solución electrolítica balanceada (Hextend®). Así mismo, se (mas) ha reportado el beneficio que conlleva el uso de modificadores de la cascada inflamatoria en modelos experimentales de sujetos sometidos a choque hipovolémico hemorrágico. Productos como el etil piruvato y la BIIB513, un inhibidor selectivo del intercambiador Na+/H+ tipo 1, han sido estudiados sólo experimentalmente en modelos roedores, empleando coloides como principal elemento de reanimación. Al mejorar el perfil hemodinámico, parámetros cardíacos y niveles de mediadores inflamatorios, estos compuestos constituyen una base cierta para ser incluidos en estudios clínicos en un futuro próximo. La respuesta inflamatoria sistémica está íntimamente implicada en la patogénesis de la Falla Orgánica Múltiple, aumentando la mortalidad tardía de pacientes que sobreviven las etapas tempranas del shock hipovolémico hemorrágico traumático. Su modulación experimental con el etil piruvato o bien la BIIB513 ha dado excelente resultado tanto en modelos experimentales in vivo como in vitro Resumen en inglés Hemorrhagic hypovolemic shock secondary to trauma is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. During the last few years, new concepts have emerged and the guidelines of fluid resuscitation in these patients have been redefined. The concept of hypotensive resuscitation has been established and new colloid solutions based on starch have been manufactured, been hydroxyethyl starch in a balanced electrolytic solution, the most studied and successful one. It ha (mas) s been reported, as well, the positive effects of the pharmacologic modulation of the inflammatory pathways in experimental model subjects submitted to hypovolemic shock. Products such as, ethyl pyruvate and the Na+/H+ type 1 inhibitor, BIIB513, have been Studies only experimentally in rodent models using colloids as the primary resuscitation fluid. The significant improvement in the hemodinamyc, pattern and the cardiac and inflammatory indexes and mediators, has created the basis for their use in clinical trials in the near future. The systemic inflammatory response is an important cause of multiple organ failure that increases the late mortality of patients surviving the initial early phases of hypovolemic traumatic shock and its experimental modulation in rodent models with products such as ethyl pyruvate and BIIB513 has produced excellent in vivo and in vitro results

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

7

CARBONO ORGÁNICO Y PROPIEDADES DEL SUELO/ Soil organic carbon and soil properties

Martínez H, Eduardo; Fuentes E, Juan Pablo; Acevedo H, Edmundo
2008-01-01

Resumen en español El carbono orgánico del suelo (COS) se relaciona con la sustentabilidad de los sistemas agrícolas afectando las propiedades del suelo relacionadas con el rendimiento sostenido de los cultivos. El COS se vincula con la cantidad y disponibilidad de nutrientes del suelo, al aportar elementos como el N cuyo aporte mineral es normalmente deficitario. Además, al modificar la acidez y la alcalinidad hacia valores cercanos a la neutralidad, el COS aumenta la solubilidad de var (mas) ios nutrientes. El COS asociado a la materia orgánica del suelo proporciona coloides de alta capacidad de intercambio catiónico. Su efecto en las propiedades físicas se manifiesta mediante la modificación de la estructura y la distribución del espacio poroso del suelo. La cantidad de COS no solo depende de las condiciones ambientales locales, sino que es afectada fuertemente por el manejo del suelo. Existen prácticas de manejo que generan un detrimento del COS en el tiempo, a la vez hay prácticas que favorecen su acumulación. En este trabajo se discute la relación entre carbono orgánico, propiedades químicas, físicas, biológicas y el manejo del suelo. Además se plantean metodologías para estudiar los flujos de C0(2) del suelo a la atmósfera Resumen en inglés Soil organic carbon (SOC) is related to the sustainability of the agricultural systems affecting soil properties linked to crop yield. SOC affects the amount and availability of soil nutrients, contributing elements as N, usually deficient. In addition, SOC modify the acidity and the alkalinity towards values near the neutrality, and then it increases the solubility to several nutrients. SOC associated to the soil organic matter provides colloids having high cation exchan (mas) ge capacity. Its effect on the physical properties of the soil is reflected in the soil structure and pore size distribution. SOC concentration depends on the local environmental conditions, but it is also affected strongly by the soil management practices. There are managements that decrease SOC and viceverse other practices that favor the accumulation. The present review deals with the influence of SOC on the chemical, physical, biological properties of the soil and how it is affected by soil management. We also describes methodologies to study C0(2) fluxes from soil to atmosphere

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

8

Shock, ¿qué hay de nuevo?

López Rodríguez, Marta Sofía; Areu Regateiro, Alejandro Jesús
2003-03-01

Resumen en español El shock es un síndrome común de diversas causas que se inicia por una disminución de la perfusión hística, donde la microcirculación tiene una función crítica. En estudios recientes se profundiza en la terapéutica que debe ser inmediata, pues amenaza la vida e incluye: soporte respiratorio, soporte circulatorio, monitoreo metabólico, hemodinámica y tratamiento específico. El uso de cristaloides versus coloides es controversial y depende del criterio del médi (mas) co. Se evidencia la utilidad de la amrinona (ionotropo), sobre todo en pacientes en shock séptico, y como vasopresor la vasopresina. El monitoreo de la concentración plasmática del ácido láctico es necesario por su relación con la mortalidad por shock. La mortalidad del shock séptico, a pesar de múltiples investigaciones, continúa elevada. Los inhibidores de la óxido-nítrico sintasa (S metil-isiotiourea) de reciente utilización, parece alentador al inhibir la isoforma inducible (iNOS) y de igual forma la inmunoterapia, pero se necesitan de nuevos estudios para evaluar su eficacia clínica Resumen en inglés Shock is a commom syndrome originated by different causes that starts with a decrease of histic perfusion, where macrocirculation has a critical function. In recent studies, emphasis has been made on the fact that therapeutics should be immediate in the face of this life menace and should include respiratory support, circulatory support, metabolic monitoring, hemodynamics and specific treatment. The use of crystalloids versus colloids is controversial and depends on the m (mas) edical criterion. The usefulness of amrinone (ionotrope), mainly in patients with septic shock, and of vasopressin as a vasopressor is proved. The monitoring of the plasmatic concentration of the lactic acid is necessary due to its relation with mortality from shock. The mortality from septic shock is still high, in spite of the multiple investigations made. The recent utilization of nitric oxide synthase (S methyl-isothiourea) inhibitors seems to be encouraging on inhibiting the inductible isoform (iNOS), the same as immunotherapy, but new studies are necessary to evaluate its clinical efficiency

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

9

Albúmina en el paciente crítico: ¿Mito o realidad terapéutica?/ Albumin in the critically ill patient: myth or real therapeutics?

PACHECO V, SUZANNA; WEGNER A, ADRIANA; GUEVARA Q, RICHARD; CÉSPEDES F, PAMELA; DARRAS M, ENRIQUE; MALLEA T, LUIS; YÁÑEZ P, LETICIA
2007-08-01

Resumen en español La albúmina es la principal determinante de la presión oncótica plasmática. La reducción de sus niveles séricos se asociaría a malos resultados clínicos, fundamentalmente, en la población de pacientes críticos, por lo cual su administración exógena resulta una estrategia terapéutica atractiva y ampliamente difundida. Su uso, sin embargo, ha sido cuestionado en el último tiempo, no existiendo a la fecha una clara evidencia de su real eficacia y/o utilidad. Ob (mas) jetivo: Revisar los conceptos fisiológicos y fisiopatológicos que subyacen al uso de albúmina sintética y evaluar la racionalidad de su utilización en distintas situaciones patológicas, intentando perfilar las condiciones clínicas que pudieran o no beneficiarse de su administración. La hipoalbuminemia en el paciente crítico está dada principalmente por un fenómeno de redistribución, secundario a cambios en la permeabilidad capilar (escape transcapilar), y la correlación entre presión osmótica plasmática y concentración de albúmina en individuos sanos, se pierde en condiciones críticas. A pesar de la literatura existente, no se han logrado acuerdos sobre las indicaciones para el uso de albúmina, ya que en los distintos contextos clínicos revisados, (resucitación, sepsis, post quirúrgicos, quemados, síndrome nefrótico, SDRA), no aparecen ventajas significativas en la morbimortalidad al compararla con el uso de cristaloides u otros coloides sintéticos, sin dejar de mencionar además el costo económico que representa su uso. Se requieren guías clínicas de consenso, basadas en la evidencia, que establezcan recomendaciones acerca de los beneficios e indicaciones de esta herramienta terapéutica, que por ahora aparece con indicaciones muy limitadas en los pacientes críticos Resumen en inglés Under normal conditions, the plasmatic oncotic pressure is determined mainly by albumin. Numerous trials in critically ill patients have showed that hypoalbuminemia is associated to poor outcome. So, the administration of exogenous albumin is an attractive therapeutic strategy, widely spread in different clinical scenes. Nevertheless, its use has been questioned in the last period and up to date there is no clear evidence of the real effectiveness and/or utility. This art (mas) icle reviews the physiological and pathophysiological concepts that would justify the use of synthetic albumin. According to current literature, discussion about the rationality of its use in different pathological situations exists, trying to outline those clinical conditions that could or could not benefit with its administration. Certainly, clinical guidelines with recommendations about the benefits and indications of this therapy are required. Hypoalbuminemia in the critically ill patient is produced principally by redistribution, secondary to changes in capillary permeability: "transcapillary leakage". The crucial interrelation between osmotic plasmatic pressure and albumin concentration in healthy individuals is lost in several critical conditions. Agreements on indications for use of albumin have not been achieved, since in different clinical context (resuscitation, sepsis, post-surgical, burns, nephrotic syndrome, ARDS) there are no significant advantages in morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients, compared to other cristalloids or synthetic colloids used. It is extremely important to develop clinical guidelines with recommendations on benefits and indications for the use of albumin in critically ill patients

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

10

SÍNDROME DE DISFUNCIÓN MULTI-ORGÁNICA POR VIRUS DENGUE 3 EN NIÑOS DE NEIVA, HUILA COLOMBIA/ Multi-organic dysfunction syndrome caused by dengue 3 in children of Neiva Huila, Colombia

Salgado, Doris Martha; Vega, Martha Rocío; Panqueva, César Alberto; Garzón, Marisol; Rodríguez-Godoy, Jairo Antonio
2008-06-01

Resumen en español Antecedentes. El dengue es la principal enfermedad viral transmitida por vectores en el mundo, con un número creciente de casos en Neiva. La presentación clínica del choque por fiebre dengue hemorrágica (FDH) está demostrando un compromiso de órganos diferentes al endotelio, con una mayor complejidad y gravedad de la enfermedad, probablemente asociado al serotipo circulante. Objetivo. Alertar sobre la aparición de la disfunción orgánica múltiple en niños afecta (mas) dos por dengue. Resultados. Se describe el diagnóstico de disfunción orgánica múltiple en tres niñas; dos niñas de siete meses y una de tres años. Con una evolución de cuatro días de fiebre, ingresaron en estado de choque resistente a la reanimación con cristaloides y coloides, con taquicardia, arritmias ventriculares, CPK MB de 524 UI/L, AST de 2157 UI/L y ALT de 226 UI/L, coagulopatía de consumo con prolongación de TTP y TP sin trombocitopenia severa y alteración metabólica caracterizada por acidemia e hipoglucemia en las tres niñas. Se aplica el puntaje para disfunción orgánica multiple con promedio de 23 y evidencia de mayor compromiso cardíaco, hepático y hematológico. En los tres casos se demostró la presencia de dengue 3 mediante RT-PCR. Discusión. Se compara con reportes similares encontrados en la literatura y se hace una correlación fisiopatológica breve. Conclusión. Se debe empezar a pensar en la presentación de formas de la fiebre dengue hemorrágica que comprometen otros órganos, ampliando la definición de severidad por dengue como en los casos descritos, que faciliten un enfoque e intervención oportuna. Resumen en inglés Background. Dengue is the main arthropod -transmitted viral disease in the world with a growing number of cases in Neiva, Colombia. Clinical presentation of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is showing compromise of organs different from endothelium which could be associated to the circulating serotype and/or host immunological factors. Objetive. To alert about the association of multiple organic dysfunction (MOD) and DHF. Results. MOD associated to DHF is described in three (mas) girls with an average of 16 months of age, two 7-months-old and 1 three year old. The evolution of fever at the beginning was 4 days; they had shock resistant to usual treatment with crystalloids and colloids with tachycardia, ventricular arrhythmia, increased CPK MB, AST and ALT, coagulopathy with prolonged PTT and PT but without severe thrombocytopenia, metabolic alteration with acidemia and hypoglicemia in the three girls. Score for MOD was applied with an average of 23 and evidence of myocardial, hepatic and hematological major compromise. dengue 3 was showed by RT-PCR. Discussion. Similar reports are compared with these cases and probable physiopathological mechanisms are discussed. Conclusion. It has to be stressed that DHF might affect different organs, because of this definition of severity in dengue has to be reconsidered. An early thinking in different organs affected might help to introduce an opportune intervention or treatment.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

11

Use of exudated gum produced by Samanea saman in the potabilization of the water/ Uso del exudado gomoso producido por Samanea saman en la potabilización de las aguas

González, Griselda; Chávez, Magaly; Mejías, Donaldo; Mas y Rubí, Marielba; Fernández, Nola; León de Pinto, Gladys
2006-04-01

Resumen en español En la clarificación del agua potable se utiliza sulfato de aluminio para remover materia coloidal y sustancias orgánicas, mejorando la calidad del agua. Elevadas concentraciones de aluminio residual en el agua potable tienen implicaciones en la salud humana, siendo necesario el desarrollo de coagulantes alternativos, ambientalmente aceptables para reemplazar los productos químicos. En esta investigación se estudió el exudado gomoso de Samanea saman como coagulante na (mas) tural, estableciendo su dosis óptima mediante la prueba de jarro y determinando los parámetros: turbidez, color, pH, alcalinidad total, número más probable y conteo de heterótrofos, usando agua turbia sintética inoculada con un cultivo puro de Escherichia coli y solución de coagulante en dosis de 10-500 mg/L, con valores de turbidez inicial entre 10-100 NTU. La dosis óptima del coagulante resultó entre 10-25 mg/L, obteniendo disminuciones significativas en los valores de turbidez (1NTU) y color (5 UC), los valores de pH y alcalinidad total no presentaron variaciones significativas, los coliformes fecales y totales tuvieron remociones significativas (99,7% y 99,8% respectivamente) y el conteo de heterótrofos de observó con 0 UFC. Los parámetros evaluados cumplen con los estándares establecidos para garantizar la calidad del agua para consumo humano, usando el exudado gomoso de Samanea saman, demostrando la eficiencia de este coagulante natural. Resumen en inglés For the clarification of drinking water aluminium sulphate is used to remove colloids and organic substances to improve the water quality. High concentrations of residual aluminium in the drinkable water can have implications on human health, thus, it is necessary to develop alternative environmentally acceptable coagulants. The exudates gums from Samanea saman were studied as natural coagulants, establishing optimum dose according to the jar test and determining paramete (mas) rs such as: turbidity, colour, pH, total, alkalinity, MPN and heterotrophic count; using synthetic turbid water inoculated with pure culture of E. Coli and coagulant solution on the volume range of 50 to 500 mg/L. The initial turbidity used was between 10 to 100 NTU. The optimum coagulant dose was found to be between 10 to 25 mg/L, with significant reduction of turbidity and colour, i, e,: 1 NTU for turbidity and 5 U for colour. The pH and total alkalinity did not present significant variations. On the other hand, for fecal coliforms a significant removal of 99.7%, and for total coliforms (99.8%) was found. And finally, the heterotrophic count was observed with 0 UFC. The parameters evaluated using the exudates gum from Samanea saman, comply with the standard established to guarantee the quality of water for human consumption, showing the efficiency of this natural coagulant.

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12

Viscoelasticity and mass transfer in phenol–CTAB aqueous systems

Varade, Dharmesh; Rodríguez-Abreu, Carlos; Delgado, José Gregorio; Aramaki, Kenji
2007-09-28

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

13

Uses of clay minerals in semisolid health care and therapeutic products.

Viseras, C.; Aguzzi, C.; Cerezo, P.; López-Galindo, A.
2007-04-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

15

Tuning of texture and surface chemistry of carbon xerogels

Mahata, N.; Pereira, M. F. R.; Suárez García, Fabián; Martínez Alonso, Amelia; Díez Tascón, Juan Manuel; Figueiredo, J. L.
2008-05-10

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

16

Trasplante hepático en niños menores de 10kg: Factores perioperatorios y mortalidad temprana

González, Luis Fernando; Ariza Cadena, Fredy; Vidal, Carlos Andrés; Zuluaga, Diego
2007-03-01

Resumen en español Métodos: Se consultó nuestra base de datos institucional en búsqueda de pacientes menores de 10 kg. llevados a trasplante hepático ortotópico (THO) en un periodo de 10 años. Se registraron las variables demográficas y clínicas preoperatorias relevantes y el estado de severidad de la enfermedad al ingreso mediante la escala para enfermedad hepática terminal en pacientes pediátricos (PELD). Cada paciente fue seguido por 3 meses o hasta su deceso. Una vez estratifi (mas) cados los datos por tipo de donante y año de procedimiento, se analizaron las variables perioperatorias que tuvieran una asociación significativa con mortalidad postoperatoria temprana mediante el análisis univariado y regresión logística. Se consideraron significativos valores de p Resumen en inglés Methods: Our Institutional Database was used to find paediatric patients under 10 kg who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) during a period of 10 years. Relevant perioperative demographic and clinical variables and the severity status at the moment of surgery, according to the Paediatric End Liver Disease Score (PELD) were recorded. Each patient was followed for 3 months or until his/her death. Once the data was stratified by type of donor and year of proced (mas) ure, perioperative variables were analyzed for a significant association with important morbid outcomes and early postoperative mortality. Results: Thirty patients were identified. No significant differences were found between OLT techniques when comparing preoperative status, surgical events or mortality. Severe thrombocytopenia and hipoalbuminemia were significantly associated with early mortality [RR: 3.5 (IC95%: 1.94-6.18) p=0.03; RR: 2.7 (IC95%: 1.1-7.21p = 0.04; respectively]. Patients whose suffer severe intraoperative hypothermia (

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

17

Total and immobilized enzymatic activity of organic materials before and after composting

Moreno, J. L.; Jindo, K.; Hernández Fernández Muñoz, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos
2007-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

18

Thyroglobulin peptides associate in vivo to HLA-DR in autoimmune thyroid glands

Muixí, Laia; Carrascal, Montserrat; Alvarez, Iñaki; Daura, Xavier; Martí, Mercè; Armengol, Maria Pilar; Pinilla, Clemencia; Abian, Joaquín; Pujol-Borrell, Ricardo; Jaraquemada, Dolores
2008-07-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

19

The influence of surfactant mixing ratio on nano-emulsion formation by the pit method

Izquierdo, P.; Feng, Jin; Esquena, Jordi; Tadros, Tharwat F.; Dederen, Joseph C.; García, María José; Azemar Sazatornil, Nuria; Solans, Conxita
2005-05-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

20

The association of DNA and stable catanionic amino acid-based vesicles

Rosa, Mónica; Morán, María del Carmen; Miguel, Maria da Graça; Lindman, Björn

15 pages, 14 figures.-- Printed version published on Jul 5, 2007. | Cationic surfactants associate strongly to DNA and compact but are often toxic. The interaction of some novel cationic amino acid-basedsurfactants, which may enhance transfection and appear to be nontoxic, is described. Acationic a...

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21

The association of DNA and stable catanionic amino acid-based vesicles

Rosa, Mónica; Morán, María del Carmen; Miguel, Maria da Graça; Lindman, Björn
2007-01-13

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

22

The adsorption kinetics of 1-N-L-tryptophan–glycerol-ether surfactants at the air–liquid interface: effect of surfactant concentration and alkyl chain length

Delgado Andrade, Cristina; Merchán, M. Dolores; Velázquez, M. Mercedes; Pegiadou, Sofía; Pérez, Lourdes; Infante, María Rosa
2004-01-13

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

24

Synthesis of Mullite Powders Through a Suspension Combustion Process

Burgos-Montes, Olga; Moreno, Rodrigo; Colomer, María T.; Fariñas, Juan C.
2006-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

25
26

Synthesis and study of molecular interactions between phosphatidyl choline and two laminin derived peptides hydrophobically modified

Alsina, M. Asunción; Ortiz, A.; Polo, D.; Comelles Folch, Francesc; Reig Isart, Francesca

6 pages, 3 tables, 5 figures. | Two peptides based on the active SIKVAV sequence were synthesized and hydrophobically modified through attachment of a myristoyl residue to the amino terminal group. A comparative study was carried out on the physicochemical properties of both parent and hydrophobical...

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27
28

Synthesis and physicochemical study of the laminin active sequence: SIKVAV

Almiñana, Nuria; Alsina, M. Asunción; Espina, Marta; Reig Isart, Francesca
2003-06-04

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

29

Surface instability of Serpentine in Aqueous Suspensions

Tartaj, P.; Cerpa, A.; García González, María Teresa; Serna, C. J.
2000-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

31
32

Studies of formation of W/O nano-emulsions

Porras, M.; Solans, Conxita; González, C.; Martínez, A.; Guinart, A.; Gutiérrez, José M.
2004-10-13

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

34

Stabilization of Paraffin Emulsions Used in the Manufacture of Chipboard Panels by Liquid Crystalline Phases

Mújika-Garai, R.; Aguilar-García, C.; Juárez-Arroyo, F.; Covián-Sánchez, I.; Nolla, J.; Esquena, Jordi; Solans, Conxita; Rodríguez-Valverde, M. A.; Tejera-García, R.; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M. A.; Hidalgo-Álvarez, R.
2007-08-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

37

Short haired wormlike micelles in mixed nonionic fluorocarbon surfactants

Sharma, Suraj Chandra; Rodríguez-Abreu, Carlos; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Aramaki, Kenji
2007-05-29

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

38

Self-aggregation in dimeric arginine-based cationic surfactants solutions

Weihs, Daphne; Danino, Dganit; Pinazo Gassol, Aurora; Pérez, Lourdes; Franses, Elias I.; Talmon, Yeshayahu
2005-01-13

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

39

SERS en coloides

Sánchez-Cortés, Santiago
2004-04-05

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

40

Rheological Behavior and Slip Casting of Al2O3–Ni Aqueo Suspensionsus

Sánchez-Herencia, Javier A; Hernández, Nicolas; Moreno, Rodrigo
2006-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

42

Recubrimientos sol-gel obtenidos por deposición electroforética (EPD) sobre metales

Ferrari Fernández, Begoña; Moreno, Rodrigo; Durán Carrera, Alicia Amparo; Castro, Y.
2000-12-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

43

Quantitative analysis of bacterial adhesion to fish tissue

Vendrell, Daniel; Balcázar, José Luis; Calvo, Ana Cristina; Blas, Ignacio de; Ruiz-Zarzuela, Imanol; Gironés, Olivia; Múzquiz, José Luis
2009-03-21

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

44

Protección contra la corrosión de aleaciones de aluminio mediante recubrimientos sol-gel

Damborenea, Juan de; Conde, A.; Durán Carrera, Alicia Amparo
2002-05-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

46

Procedure for preparation of thin sheets of collodial crystal, and product thus obtained

Cervelló, Antonio Agustín; Ocaña Jurado, Manuel; Míguez García, Hernán Ruy
2007-12-13

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

48

Polymer depletion-driven colloids, and polymer-surface interactions

Cerdà, Joan J.

270 págs.-- Texto en inglés.-- Memoria de investigación de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, Facultad de Física y del Departamento de Física Interdisciplinar del Instituto Mediterráneo de Estudios Avanzados (IMEDEA-CSIC/UIB).-- Fecha de presentación: 18 Mayo 2005. | The purpose of this thesis is...

DRIVER (Spanish)

50

Piezo-spectroscopic characterization of alumina-aluminium titanate laminates

Portu, Goffredo de; Bueno, Salvador; Micele, Lorenzo; Baudín, Carmen
2006-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

53

Phase and rheological behavior of the polymerizable surfactant CTAVB and water

Soltero, J. F. A.; Álvarez-Ramírez, J. G.; Fernández, V. V. A.; Tepale, N.; Bautista, F.; Macías, E. R.; Pérez-López, J. H.; Schulz, P. C.; Manero, O.; Solans, Conxita; Puig, J. E.
2006-06-19

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

54

Permeability investigations of phospholipid liposomes by adding cholesterol

Cócera, Mercè; López Serrano, Olga; Coderch Negra, M. Luisa; Parra Juez, José Luis; Maza, Alfons de la
2003-06-16

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

55

Optimization of nano-emulsions prepared by low-energy emulsification methods at constant temperature using a factorial design study

Pey, C. M.; Maestro, Alicia; Solé, Isabel; González, Carmen; Solans, Conxita; Gutiérrez, José M.

7 pages, 6 figures, 5 tables.-- Printed version published Oct 5, 2006.-- Issue title: Papers from "Formula IV: Frontiers in Formulation Science", an International conference organised by the RSC, held in London, July 4-7th 2005. | The aim of this work is the study and optimization of composition and...

DRIVER (Spanish)

56

Optimization of nano-emulsions prepared by low-energy emulsification methods at constant temperature using a factorial design study

Pey, C. M.; Maestro, Alicia; Solé, Isabel; González Azón, Carmen; Solans, Conxita; Gutiérrez, José M.
2006-03-06

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

57

Non-destructive characterisation of alumina/aluminium titanate composites using a micromechanical model and ultrasonic determinations: Part II. Evaluation of microcracking

Hernández, M. G.; Bueno, Salvador; Sánchez Martín, Teresa; Anaya Velayos, José Javier; Baudín de la Lastra, Carmen
2008-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

59

Nickel Sheets from Suspensions of the Metallic Powders in Water

Mora Alfonso, Mario; Moreno, Rodrigo; Sánchez Herencia, Antonio Javier
2008-10-07

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

60

New Cooperative Effects in Ballistic Deposition of Hard Disks

Faraudo, Jordi

4 pages, 4 figures.-- PACS nrs.: 68.43.Mn, 82.70.Dd. | In this Letter, we analyze the problem of monolayer formation onto a flat surface by deposition of hard particles. Our detailed computer simulations of ballistic deposition of hard disks show significant deviations from the classical analytical ...

DRIVER (Spanish)

62

Nano-emulsions preparation by low energy methods in an ionic surfactant system

Solè, Isabel; Maestro, Alicia; Pey, C. M.; González, Carmen; Solans, Conxita; Gutiérrez, José M.

6 pages, 1 table, 9 figures.-- Printed version published Oct 5, 2006.-- Issue title: Papers from "Formula IV: Frontiers in Formulation Science", an International conference organised by the RSC, held in London, July 4-7th 2005. | The emulsion inversion point method was used to form nano-emulsions in...

DRIVER (Spanish)

63

Nano-emulsions preparation by low energy methods in an ionic surfactant system

Solé, Isabel; Maestro, Alicia; Pey, C. M.; González Azón, Carmen; Solans, Conxita; Gutiérrez, José M.
2006-03-06

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

64

Nano-emulsions

Solans, Conxita; Izquierdo, P.; Nolla Anguera, Jordi; Azemar Sazatornil, Nuria; Garcia-Celma, M. J.
2005-08-30

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

65

Método de precipitación controlada de ZnO: estudio de las diferentes etapas mediante conductividad específica

Rodríguez Páez, Jorge Enrique; Moure Jiménez, Carlos; Durán Botia, Pedro; Fernández Lozano, José Francisco
1998-06-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

66

Multilayer coatings with improved reliability produced by aqueous electrophoretic deposition

Ferrari Fernández, Begoña; González, Sergio; Moreno, Rodrigo; Baudín, Carmen
2006-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

69

Mineral-content and particle-size effects on the colloidal properties of concentrated lateritic suspensions

Cerpa, A.; García González, María Teresa; Tartaj, P.; Requena, J.; Garcell L.; Serna, C. J.
1999-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

70

Microbial oceanography of the dark ocean's pelagic realm

Arístegui, Javier; Gasol, Josep M.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Herndl, Gerhard J.
2009-04-16

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

72

Langmuir monolayers of the zwitterionic surfactant hexadecyl 1-N-l-tryptophan glycerol ether

Velázquez, Mercedes M.; Ortega, Francisco; Monroy, Francisco; Rubio, Ramón; Pegiadou, Sofía; Pérez, Lourdes; Infante, María Rosa
2005-03-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

73

Land use and soil carbon accumulation patterns in South African

Almendros, G.; Zancada, M. C.; Pardo Fernández, María Teresa
2005-01-13

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

76

Interaction forces between particles stabilized by a hydrophobically modified inulin surfactant

Nestor, Jérémie; Esquena, Jordi; Solans, Conxita; Luckham, Paul F.; Musoke, Michael; Levecke, Bart; Booten, Karl; Tadros, Tharwat F.
2007-03-15

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

77

Influence of water in the lamellar rearrangement of internal wool lipids

Coderch Negra, M. Luisa; Méndez, Sandra; Martí, Meritxell; Pons, Ramón; Parra Juez, José Luis

6 pages, 4 figures.-- PMID: 17643969 [PubMed].-- Printed version published on Oct 15, 2007. | Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was applied to a new lipid model arrangement, which was achieved by concentrating or diluting internalwool lipid liposome suspensions in varying water concentrations. Th...

DRIVER (Spanish)

78

Influence of water in the lamellar rearrangement of internal wool lipids

Coderch Negra, M. Luisa; Méndez, Sandra; Martí Gelabert, Meritxell; Pons Pons, Ramón; Parra Juez, José Luis
2007-06-17

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

79

Influence of Calcium and Sodium concentration on the Microstructure of Bentonite and Kaolin

Stawinski, Janusz; Wierzchos, Jacek; García González, María Teresa
1990-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

80

Hydrophobic peptide interactions with phospholipids

Reig Isart, Francesca; Juvé, A.; Sospedra, Patricia; Rodríguez, L.
2004-10-28

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

81

Highly concentrated (gel) emulsions, versatile reaction media

Solans, Conxita; Esquena, Jordi; Azemar Sazatornil, Nuria
2003-05-21

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

82

High dissolved extracellular enzymatic activity in the deep central Atlantic Ocean

Baltar, Federico; Arístegui, Javier; Gasol, Josep M.; Sintes, Eva; van Aken, Hendrik M.; Herndl, Gerhard J.
2010-02-11

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

83

Generación controlada de nanocoloides de plata en materiales silíceos amorfos

Gil, C.; García Heras, Manuel; Carmona, N.; Villegas Broncano, María Ángeles
2004-04-30

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

84

Full spectrum enhancement of the light harvesting efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells by including colloidal photonic crystal multilayers

Mihi Cervelló, Antonio Agustín; López-Alcaraz, Francisco Javier; Míguez García, Hernán Ruy
2006-05-09

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

85

Free-radical polymerization of styrene in worm-like micelles

Becerra, F.; Soltero, J. F. A.; Puig, J. E.; Schulz, P. C.; Esquena, Jordi; Solans, Conxita
2003-12-08

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

86

Forming of Ceramic Laminates Comprising Thin Layers of a Few Particles

Nicolaidis, Ilias; Gurauskis, Jonás; Baudín de la Lastra, Carmen; Moreno, Rodrigo; Sánchez Herencia, Antonio Javier
2009-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

88

Formation and stability of nano-emulsions

Tadros, Tharwat F.; Izquierdo, P.; Esquena, Jordi; Solans, Conxita
2004-05-20

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

89

Formation and properties of miniemulsions formed by microemulsions dilution

Pons Pons, Ramón; Carrera Altarriba, Imma; Caelles, Jaume; Rouch, J.; Panizza, P.
2003-10-04

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

90

Fate of persistent organic pollutants in the water column: Does turbulent mixing matter?

Jurado, Elena; Zaldívar, José Manuel; Marinov, Dimitar; Dachs, Jordi
2007-06-25

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

91

Facile synthesis of stable subnanosized silver clusters in microemulsions

Ledo-Suárez, Ana; Rivas, José; Rodríguez-Abreu, Carlos; Rodríguez, María José; Pastor, Elena; Hernández-Creus, Alberto

5 pages, 6 figures.-- PMID: 17943930 [PubMed].-- Supplementary information (figures S1-S5) available at: http://www.wiley-vch.de/contents/jc_2002/2007/z702427_s.pdf | Metallic clusters are very important for technological applications, owing to their fascinating and unusual properties. However, adva...

DRIVER (Spanish)

92

Facile synthesis of stable subnanosized silver clusters in microemulsions

Ledo-Suárez, Ana; Rivas, José; Rodríguez-Abreu, Carlos; Rodríguez, María José; Pastor, Elena; Hernández-Creus, Alberto; Oseroff, Saul B.; López Quintela, Arturo
2007-10-17

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

93

Exchange bias in laterally oxidized Au/Co/Au nanopillars

Balcells Argemi, Lluis; Martínez, B.; Iglesias, O.; García-Martín, J.M.; Cebollada, Alfonso; García, A.

Au/Co/Au nanopillars fabricated by colloidal lithography of continuous trilayers exhibit an enhanced coercive field and the appearance of an exchange bias field with respect to the continuous layers. This is attributed to the lateral oxidation of the Co interlayer that appears upon disk fabrication....

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94

Exchange bias in laterally oxidized Au/Co/Au nanopillars

Balcells Argemi, Lluis; Martínez Perea, Benjamín; Iglesias, O.; García-Martín, José Miguel; Cebollada, Alfonso; García-Martín, Antonio; Armelles Reig, Gaspar; Sepúlveda Martínez, Borja; Alaverdyan, Yury
2009-02-09

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

95

Evidence of zeolitic-like domains in mesostructured aluminosilicates: FTIR spectroscopy of basic probe molecules

Sánchez, M.T.; Agúndez, J.; Pérez-Pariente, J.; Márquez-Alvarez, C.; Onida, B.; Garrone, E.
2007-07-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

96

Evaluation of sampling devices for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface microlayer coastal waters

Guitart, Carlos; García-Flor, Nuria; Dachs, Jordi; Bayona Termens, Josep María; Albaigés Riera, Joan
2004-01-15

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

97

Estructuras de deformación (¿sismitas?) en la Formación Río Negro, provincia de Río Negro, Argentina

Schillizzi, Roberto; Luna, Liliana; Falco, Juan Ignacio
2010-07-01

Resumen en español A Las estructuras de deformación (ED) en sedimentos blandos comprenden las alteraciones que se producen casi simultáneamente con la sedimentación. Estos procesos se hallan en relación directa con las características internas de los materiales sedimentarios y de los factores externos que actúan sobre ellos. Sus resultados incluyen deformaciones como inyecciones, fracturas, volcanes y laminaciones convolutas que afectan total o parcialmente la estratificación. Los se (mas) dimentos blandos deformados por sismos se incluyen bajo la denominación general de sismitas (seismites). Como objetivo de esta investigación se plantea reconocer, por primera vez, estructuras de deformación ubicadas en la Formación Río Negro presentes en el sector norte del Golfo San Matías, en inmediaciones del Faro Río Negro. La metodología empleada consistió en el reconocimiento y descripción de las estructuras, para lo cual se extrajeron muestras para determinar granulometría, mineralogía y contenido de materia orgánica. Se fotografiaron los distintos sectores con deformaciones con el fin de establecer modelos comparativos. El sector estudiado, de 4 km de extensión, se ubica entre el faro de Río Negro y el inicio del Banco Verde y morfológicamente corresponde a un frente acantilado con orientación ENE-OSO. En él se determinaron las siguientes ED: a- de carga simple, pseudonódulos contiguos y aislados, y estructuras complejas; b- de escape de fluidos y c- estructuras de deslizamiento basal y por presión dirigida. El origen de las deformaciones se debe a las características de las sedimentitas y a los procesos que las afectan tales como los efectos por carga, escapes de fluidos y las presiones dirigidas. Como origen de estos procesos se señalan: la presión de la columna litológica, las olas de tormentas y los terremotos. Por los rasgos hallados las deformaciones del litoral rionegrino tendrían un origen sísmico, proceso ocurrido en un único evento durante el ciclo Andino cuyos inicios se fijan hace aproximadamente 45 Ma. Por otra parte sus techos y bases no se hallan asociados a otros procesos de deformación y sus espesores no exceden el metro de potencia. Además se hallan acotadas a la zona de transición entre los miembros medio y superior de la Formación Río Negro descansando en algunos casos sobre arcilitas y en otros sobre limolitas, originadas en un paleorelieve de interdunas. Resumen en inglés Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSD) are alterations produced almost simultaneously with sedimentation. They are directly related to internal characteristics of sedimentary materials as well as to external factors acting on them. Results derived from such alterations are evidenced as injections, fractures, volcanoes and convolute laminations, among other forms, affecting stratification either totally or partially. Soft-sediment deformation structures resulting from (mas) seisms are known as seismites. The present study aims at determining for the first time the presence of SSD structures in the Río Negro Formation, located in the northern area of San Matías Gulf, near Río Negro Lighthouse, Argentina (Fig. 1). To this end, structures were firstly identified and further described. Samples were subsequently collected for the determination of grain-size, mineralogy and organic matter content. Photographs of the different sectors evidencing deformations were taken in order to determine further comparative models. Morphology in the study area is associated to cliffs with vertical, fractured fronts and with an average height of 70 m in whose base torn-down blocks are accumulated. The geological structure of the study area is related to the Cuenca del Colorado and the Comarca Nordpatagónica, whose basement is mainly composed of Paleozoic and Mesozoic crystalline rocks. The sedimentary tertiary cover from the Miocene-Pliocene is represented by light-blue sandstones of the Río Negro Formation (Andreis, 1965). This unit was formed in an aeolian environment with intercalations of clay-silt shallow lagoons and a marine episode located in the mid area of the Río Negro Formation. At the top of the Río Negro Formation there are Pleistocene-Holocene sedimentites having a thickness of up to 5 m. Within the local structural framework of our study area there are fractures with a NE-SW and a NW-SE direction, which are related with fractures N55º, N90º and N350º azimuth located in the abrasion platform. According to Dzulinsky and Walton (1965), Lowe (1975), Brencley and Newall (1977), Clauss (1993), van Loon (2002), Owen (2003), Neuwerth et al. (2006), Alfaro et al. (2006), Montenat et al. (2007), among others (Table 1), and, taking into account the geometry of deformations, laboratory reconstructions and field observations from our study area, it can be concluded that the classifications of SSD structures tend to establish morphologic and genetic systematizations. The following characteristics were identified in our study area: limited deformations among stratigraphic horizons; a lateral continuity of SSD structures at considerable distances; and a confinement between non-deformed strata and its lithological association with psamitic-pelitic sediments. The study area, which is 4 km long and is located between Río Negro Lighthouse and the beginning of Banco Verde, is from the morphological point of view, a cliffed front with an ENE-WSW orientation. Different types of SSD structures were identified in this area. For example, from the morphological point of view and according to the loading mechanisms observed, simple-load structures (Fig. 2), attached and detached pseudonodules (Figs. 3, 4 and 5) and complex structures (Fig. 6) were identified. Furthermore, from the genetic point of view and according to the intrusion processes observed in soft sediments, water-scape structures (Fig. 7) and plate- or fountain-like deformations (Fig. 8) were found. From the genetic point of view, and based on the collapse and pressure mechanisms observed, basal slumping (Fig. 9) and directed-pressure structures (Fig. 11) were also found. The above-mentioned SSD structures were analyzed and interpreted following Strachan´s model (2002) (Fig. 10) and Laird´s model (1968) (Fig. 12). The origin of SSD structures depends on the characteristics of sedimentites and on the mechanisms that produce them. In the study area, the materials susceptible to deformation come from an interdune environment that is characterized by granulometric variations derived from the fluctuating and restrictive climatic conditions (Cojan and Thiry, 1992) that typify the Río Negro Formation. Fine-grained materials having low cohesion and poor sorting such as the sediments of deformed strata (Fig. 13) produced SSD structures as a result of high pore pressure and liquefaction effects (Tsuchida and Hayashi, 1971; Obermeier, 1996). Grain packing with a porous value as that allows intercommunication among grains and saturated material, is also crucial to the formation of SSD structures. The mineralogic content of deformed levels is composed of i) quartz, chalcedony, orthose, plagioclase, pyroxenes and biotite, opaques (magnetite and ilmenite, autigenic pyrite) in crystalline aggregates; ii) undetermined Fe oxides; and iii) colorless and light-brown unaltered volcanic glass shards, clays identified as smectite-illite interstratified and scarce kaolinite. Grains are mainly subangular and, to a lesser extent, sub-round and round. The surface of the majority of grains in the study area was found clean and with some marks. The percentage of CaCO3 was found to vary from 0.5 to 3% and that of total organic carbon (TOC) was found to reach 1.5%. Deformations may be produced as a result of load deformation mechanisms, fluid escape, basal slumping or pressure-directed displacements. Due to load deformation mechanisms, structures are linked to gravity-related movements occurring during the initial stages of deposition. For these deformations to occur, grain-size at the overlaying levels should be thicker than at the underlying levels, for example, sandstones rather than silstones or claystones. These deformations are related to water saturation at the deformed level (fluidization-liquefaction). Therefore, deformation mechanisms, which involve both expulsion and rotation of fragments as well as fluid escape, are characterized by the action of lithostatic pressure which produces movement (deformation) and by the action of the underlying sedimentary levels. Deformations may also result from a fluid escape mechanism, i.e., from a mechanism associated to i) the spatial arrangement of grains (packing), ii) their shape, iii) their tendency to inequigranularity, and iv) the communication among macro- and micro- pores as well as the high or low sinuosity connection among themselves (Net and Limarino, 2000). Further requirements for deformations to occur include particular thixotrophic conditions, especially the presence of colloids among grains. The rupture of unions of particles either by hitting or by shearing is, among others, a cause which produces an unbalance between hydrostatic pressure and lithostatic pressure. If the latter is altered, the energetic unbalance makes fine sediments flow among the weakly lithified sandstones whose extrusion will occur via both vertical and horizontal pore ducts (Lopez Gamundi, 1986; Clauss, 1993). Basal slumping produces deformations that are associated not only to soft sediments deposited in natural slopes but also to interbedded sand- and mud-levels. Layers tend to have a prismatic-shaped geometry whose materials are under ductile-to-fragile conditions, in which antique layers support younger ones. Once horizontality is affected, movement, which is marked by a rupture of the original slope, begins. The lower levels are expected to transport the upper ones without affecting the original succession of layers. At the delay of movement derived from the compressive effect of the displacement front, fluids extrude forming cones or cut dikes (Fig. 10). Several deformations of this type initiate movement as result of differences in the hydrostatic gradient (Strachan, 2002). Deformations may be also produced as a result of pressure-directed displacements which are conditioned by the compaction level, thickness and ability of materials to deform. Thus, deformations occur because the original level is saturated in water as a result of the ductile behavior of materials (Bracco et al., 2005). Laird (1968) claims that SSD structures should meet some of the following requirements to be considered of seismic origin: slightly curved strata walls and floors to follow the original stratification and interruption of continuity of the stratum that is marked by a scar in which the sedimentary fillings keep their characteristics both above and below stratification. There could be rotated sediment clasts below the discontinuity as a result of a thrust-induced drag of the upper sedimentary packing. These processes could be, in turn, triggered either by the charge or pressure of the lithologic column, storm waves and seismicity. Storm-wave impact may also produce deformation in soft sediments. Nonetheless, no high energy structures such as cross-beddings or tsunami-type chaotic sedimentation were observed in our study area. Noteworthingly, for stormwave-derived liquefaction to occur, waves should reach magnitudes higher than 6 m (Alfaro et al., 2002), this being a phenomenon that was not recorded in our study area. Taken together, findings from the present study indicate that SSD structures in our study area are seismic alterations that occurred in an event during the Andean cycle whose beginnings are traced approximately 45 My ago. The fact that i) both the roofs and bottoms of these structures are not associated to other processes of deformation, ii) their thickness does not exceed one meter, and iii) they are confined to a transitional area between the middle and top members of the Río Negro Formation, lying in some cases on claystones and in some other cases, on siltstones, originated in an interdune paleorelief, confirms their seismic origin.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

98

Enrichment of organochlorine contaminants in the sea surface microlayer: An organic carbon-driven process

García-Flor, Nuria; Guitart, Carlos; Ábalos, Manuela; Dachs, Jordi; Bayona Termens, Josep María; Albaigés Riera, Joan
2005-06-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

99

Effect of the nature of exogenous organic matter on pesticide sorption by the soil

Iglesias-Jiménez, E.; Poveda, E.; Sánchez Martín, M.J.; Sánchez Camazano, M.
1997-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

100

Densification and crystalization kinetics of mullite diphasic gels from non_isothermal dilatometry experiments | Cinética de cristalización y sinterización de geles difásicos de mullita a partir experimentos no isotérmicos de dilatometría

Orgaz, F. (ICV)

[EN] Mullite (3 AI2O3_2 SiO2) was processed by mixing silica and alumina colloids at pH below 3 in a high shear blender. The gelswere sieved to ‹ 125 microns and cold isostatically pressed to form rods. The various processes involved during the sinteringprocess such as condensation-polymerization ...

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102

Conformado por vía coloidal de recubrimientos en la cara interna de un tubo de acero

Ferrari Fernández, Begoña; Moreno, Rodrigo; Rodríguez Galicia, J. L.; Rojas, E.
2004-03-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

103
104

Comportamiento coloidal de un caolín deshidratado

Ferrari Fernández, Begoña; Moreno, Rodrigo; Lange, F. F.
2000-04-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

105

Comparison of sampling devices for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in the sea surface microlayer

García-Flor, Nuria; Guitart, Carlos; Bodineau, Laurent; Dachs, Jordi; Bayona Termens, Josep María; Albaigés Riera, Joan
2005-04-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

106

Comparative physicochemical study of SIKVAV peptide and its retro and retro-enantio analogues

Almiñana, Nuria; Alsina, M. Asunción; Ortiz, A.; Reig Isart, Francesca
2004-11-16

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

107

Cluster-forming systems of ultrasoft repulsive particles: statics and dynamics

Likos, Christos N.; Mladek, Bianca M.; Moreno Segurado, Ángel J.; Gottwald, Dieter; Kahl, Gerhard

6 pages.-- PACS nrs.: 64.70.Dv; 82.30.Nr; 61.20.Ja; 82.70.Dd.-- Special issue of Computer Physics Communications based on the Conference on Computational Physics 2007 - CCP 2007. | In this paper, we present a short review as well as novel results on a recently established counterintuitive phenomenon...

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108

Cluster-forming systems of ultrasoft repulsive particles: statics and dynamics

Likos, Christos N.; Mladek, Bianca M.; Moreno Segurado, Ángel J.; Gottwald, Dieter; Kahl, Gerhard
2008-01-29

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

109

Cluster Crystals in Confinement

Van Teeffelen, Sven; Moreno Segurado, Angel J.; Likos, Christos N.

17 pages, 19 figures.-- PACS numbers: 64.70.Dv, 82.30.Nr, 61.20.Ja, 82.70.Dd. | A large class of fluids of particles interacting via ultrasoft, repulsive pair potentials crystallize into cluster crystals. Here, we employ density functional theory and computer simulations to study the behavior of a s...

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110

Cluster Crystals in Confinement

Van Teeffelen, Sven; Moreno Segurado, Ángel J.; Likos, Christos N.
2008-08-09

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

111

Ceramide effects in the bicelle structure

Barbosa-Barros, L.; Maza, Alfons de la; López-Iglesias, C.; López, Olga

9 pages, 4 figures, 1 table.-- Online version available Dec 3, 2007. | This work describes the effects of the inclusion of ceramides with different chain lengths in the structure of bicelles formed by dimyristoylphosphocholine (DMPC) and dihexanoylphosphocholine (DHPC). By using a number of physical...

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112

Ceramide effects in the bicelle structure

Barbosa-Barros, L.; Maza, Alfons de la; López-Iglesias, Carmen; López Serrano, Olga
2008-03-20

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

113

Ceramic particles obtained using W/O nano-emulsions as reaction media

Porras, M.; Martínez, A.; Solans, Conxita; González, Carlos; Gutiérrez, José M.
2005-07-18

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

114

Catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes on stainless steel: Characterization and frictional properties

Abad Roldán, Manuel David; Sánchez López, Juan Carlos; Berenguer Murcia, A.; Golovko, V. B.; Cantoro, M.; Wheatley, A. E. H.; Fernández Camacho, Asunción; Johnson, B. F. G.; Robertson, J.
2008-11-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

115

AFM investigations during the nanostructure formation in FeZrB alloys

Paredes Nachón, Juan Ignacio; Prida, V. M.; Gorria, P.; Hernando, B.

5 pages, 4 figures. -- Printed version published 15 Apr 2007. -- Issue title: Non-Crystalline Solids 8: Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Non-Crystalline Solids, 8th International Workshop on Non-Crystalline Solids (Gijón, Spain, 20-23 June 2006) | We present a study by intermittent c...

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116

AFM investigations during the nanostructure formation in FeZrB alloys

Paredes Nachón, Juan Ignacio; Prida, V. M.; Gorria, P.; Hernando, B.
2007-03-09

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

117

A synthetic alternative to natural lecithins with antimicrobial properties

Pérez, Lourdes; Infante, María Rosa; Pons Pons, Ramón; Morán, María del Carmen; Vinardell, M. Pilar; Mitjans, Montserrat; Pinazo Gassol, Aurora
2004-05-14

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

118

Coloides

Lozano Losada, Abner
2005-06-01

Resumen en español En esta presentación se hace un recuento histórico de la aplicación de terapias intravenosas para reanimación básica en campos de batalla y epidemias por causa infecciosa. Se analizan las propiedades reológicas y efectos vasculares, renales y hepáticos de las diferentes sustancias cristaloides, coloides, dextranos y poligelatinas. Aunque la aplicación, el tiempo, la dosis y la patología básica son controversiales el autor indica una serie de razones basadas en l (mas) as recomendaciones del consenso en 1995 y diversos grados de evidencia, para inclinarse por el uso de coloides con las excepciones debidas a cada caso en particular. Resumen en inglés In this article we review some topics about the historical application of liquid solutions by intravenous route in emergency conditions like basic reanimation in the battle field or in acute infectious diseases. We describe the rheological properties and dynamic effects of several substances like crystalloids, colloids, hestartash and polygelatins over the cardiovascular system, renal function and hepatic metabolism. Although, its administration, time intervals, dosis and (mas) the pathological conditions of the patients, generate controversial betwen authors and physicians, we recomend its use based in the consensus statement about colloid volumen expanders (1995) and evidence based medicine.

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