Sample records for COQUE (coke)
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1

Análisis del Consumo de Coque de Petróleo en Algunos Sectores Industriales/ Consumption Analysis of Petroleum Coke in Some Industrial Segments

Santos, Aldo R; Silva, Rogério J
2008-01-01

Resumen en español Se analiza el consumo de coque de petróleo y el aumento de su producción en los últimos años. El procesamiento de los petróleos pesados genera menos fracciones leves y más fracciones pesadas, desequilibrando la matriz energética. Para retornar el equilibrio, la industria petrolífera opta por aumentar el número de unidades de craqueamiento, que consumen las fracciones pesadas y producen fracciones más livianas, generando como residuo el coque. Los diversos usos d (mas) el coque generan contaminantes cuya emisión es regulada en distinta forma en distintos países. Se concluye que, cualquiera que sea la ruta a seguir para la utilización del coque de petróleo, los consumidores deberán considerar los patrones de emisión de contaminantes, principalmente de dióxido de azufre Resumen en inglés Petroleum coke consumption and the increase of its production during the recent years are analyzed. The processing of heavy oils produces less light fractions and more heavy fractions, unbalancing the energetic matrix. To balance this, the petroleum industry usually raises the number of coking units, which consumes the heavy fractions and produces lighter fractions, generating coke as residue. The different forms of using coke generate pollutants that are regulated and co (mas) ntrolled in different forms by different countries. It is concluded that, independent of the form in which petroleum coke is consumed, the users should consider the amount of pollutants emitted, mainly sulfur dioxide

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

2

CATALIZADORES DE Co, Fe Y Ni SOPORTADOS SOBRE COQUE PARA LA LICUEFACCIÓN DIRECTA DE CARBÓN/ Co, Fe AND Ni CATALYSTS SUPPORTED ON COKE FOR DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION/ CATALISADORES DE Co, Fe E Ni NUM SUPORTE DE COQUE PARA A LIQUEFAÇÃO DIRECTA DE CARVÃO

Jiménez, José A; Villalba, Óscar A; Rodríguez, Luís I; Hernández, Orlando; Agámez, Yazmin Y; Díaz, José de J
2008-08-01

Resumen en portugués Foram preparados catalisadores de metais de transição num suporte de coque por impregnação com uma solução do complexo de metal-tioureia, obtidos a partir dos sais precursores de cloreto de cobalto, cloreto de níquel ou sulfao de ferro y amônia. A formação de enxofre sobre a superfície do suporte foi realizado mediante a descomposição do complexo. Os catalisadores produzidos foram usados na liquefação directa de um carvão betuminoso meio volátil (Yerbabue (mas) na No1) de Cundinamarca num reactor Parr descontinuo de 250 ml a 723 K y uma pressão de hidrogênio de 8,0 MPa na presença de tetralina como solvente doador de hidrogênio, com um tempo de residência de 1 hora. Os resultados dos ensaios catalíticos mostram, para todos os catalisadores, uma boa conversão do carvão e rendimentos significativos na fracção orgânica e indicam que o método de preparação proposto do catalisador é efectivo e, eventualmente, permitiria substituir os processos convencionais de sulfuração com H2S. Resumen en español Se prepararon catalizadores de metales de transición soportados en coque por impregnación con una solución del complejo de metal-tiourea, obtenido a partir de las sales precursoras de cloruro de cobalto, cloruro de níquel o sulfato de hierro y amonio. La formación del sulfuro sobre la superficie del soporte se realizó mediante la descomposición del complejo. Los catalizadores producidos se usaron en la licuefacción directa de un carbón bituminoso medio volátil ( (mas) Yerbabuena No 1) de Cundinamarca en un reactor Parr discontinuo de 250 mL a 723 K y una presión de hidrógeno de 8,0 MPa en presencia de tetralina como solvente donor de hidrógeno, con un tiempo de residencia de una hora. Los resultados de los ensayos catalíticos muestran, para todos los catalizadores, una buena conversión del carbón y rendimientos significativos en la fracción de aceites e indican que el método de preparación propuesto del catalizador es efectivo y, eventualmente, permitiría remplazar los procesos convencionales de sulfuración con H2S. Resumen en inglés Transition metal catalysts supported on coke were prepared by impregnation with a solution of complex of metal-thiourea, that is produced from salt precursors of cobalt chloride, nickel chloride or iron sulfate and ammonium. Sulphide formation on the support surface was generated by decomposition of the metal complex. The catalysts obtained were used in direct coal liquefaction of a medium volatile bituminous coal (Yerbabuena No 1) from Cundinamarca using a 250 mL Parr re (mas) actor at 723 K, and a hydrogen pressure of 8.0 MPa, with a reaction time of 1 h and using tetralin as hydrogen-donor solvent. The catalytic results show, for all samples, both a good coal conversion and an enhancement of the yield of oils, this indicates that the proposed preparation method of catalyst is effective and, that eventually, the H2S sulphidation conventional process could be replaced.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

3

Formación de la textura del coque de petróleo en coquizadores retardados/ Formation of petroleum coke texture during delayed coking

REQUENA, ALEJANDRO; PÉREZ, MARÍA M; DELGADO, LUISA A
2008-09-01

Resumen en español Se procesaron distintos residuales en unidades de coquización retardada a escala piloto y comercial y se compararon las propiedades físicas, químicas y texturales de los coques obtenidos en cada caso. Los resultados evidencian que la naturaleza química de los residuales condiciona la textura del coque, sin embargo, las condiciones operacionales, el perfil térmico y el desprendimiento de los gases durante la coquización pueden afectar fuertemente el desarrollo de mes (mas) ofase y la formación de la textura del coque. Los resultados también sugieren que las plantas pilotos diseñadas para simular el rendimiento en productos livianos y coque, no resultan apropiadas para predecir las propiedades texturales de los coques obtenidos, dado que cambios en las condiciones de operación y/o las variaciones introducidas con el cambio de escala y condiciones de turbulencia propias de los tambores industriales, pueden modificar sustancialmente las propiedades físicas del medio de reacción y por ende las propiedades de los coques obtenidos. Resumen en inglés Physical, chemical end textural properties of cokes obtained from the processing of four residua in pilot and commercial scale delayed coking units are compared. Results reveal that, even though the chemical nature of the residua influences the coke’s texture, operational parameters regarding thermal profiles and gas evolution during the coking process significantly affect the texture development and formation. Consequently, results suggest that pilot plants designed to (mas) simulate light product and coke yield do not accurately predict the structural properties of the coke since variations introduced due to scale changes modify the physical properties of the coke.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

4

Resultados de la simulación de gasificación del coque de petróleo mexicano de las refinerías de Ciudad Madero y Cadereyta/ Results of the simulation of gasification of the mexican petroleum coke from the refineries of Ciudad Madero and Cadereyta

González-Rocha, J.C; Longoria-Ramírez, R; Urquiza-Beltrán, G
2008-06-01

Resumen en español En este trabajo se evalúa energéticamente la gasificación del coque de petróleo de las refinerías de Cd. Madero y Cadereyta de México. La evaluación energética del gas sintético (gassin) se centra principalmente en la composición química del gassin limpio (gasl) y sus características energéticas: el poder calorífico, la potencia energética, la eficiencia de gas frío y la eficiencia térmica de gasificación. Los resultados de la simulación indican que la (mas) gasificación del coque de Cadereyta denominado CRC, produce un gasl con mejor rendimiento y características energéticas que el gasl obtenido al gasificar el coque de petróleo de Cd. Madero, denominado CRM. Cuando se gasifica el CRC, la razón de producción de gasl obtenida es de 2.07 kg gas l/kg coque, mientras que la razón de producción de gasl para el CRM es de 1.89 kg gas l/kg coque.El poder calorífico del gasl del CRC es de 12 729.56 kJ/kg gasl mientras que para el CRM es de 11 639.13 kJ/kg gasl. La potencia energética del gasl del CRC es mayor con una diferencia de 25.87 GJ/h, con respecto a la potencia energética del gasl del CRM. Con las condiciones de operación especificadas, en la gasificación del coque de petróleo CRC se generan energía a razón de 26.46 MJ/kg coque, mientras que al gasificar el coque de petróleo CRM se generan 22.09 MJ/kg coque. Actualmente, el coque producido en la refinería de Cd. Madero se consume en las plantas de potencia de Tamuín, San Luis Potosí, México, mientras que el coque que produce la refinería de Cadereyta se usa en la industria cementera. Resumen en inglés This paper evaluates in terms of energy the gasification of the petroleum coke from the refineries of Cd Madero and Cadereyta in Mexico. The energy evaluation of the synthetic gas (syngas) focuses mainly on the chemical composition of the clean syngas (gasl) and its energy characteristics: heating value, the energy power, the cold gas efficiency and the thermal efficiency of gasification. The results of the simulation indicate that the gasification of the petroleum coke f (mas) rom Cadereyta called CRC, produces a gasl with better performance and energy characteristics than those obtained when gasifying the coke of petroleum from Cd. Madero, called CRM. When the CRC is gasified, the rate of production of gasl obtained is of 2.07 kg gas l/kg coque, while the rate of production of gasl for the CRM is 1.89 kg gas l/kg coque. The HHV of the gasl of the CRC is 12 729.56 kJ/kg gasl while for the CRM is 11 639.13 kJ/kg gasl. The energy power of the gasl of the CRC is greater, with a difference of 25.87 GJ/h, with regard to the energy power of the gasl of the CRM. Under the specified conditions of operation, energy is generated ata rate of 26.46 MJ/kg coque coke in the gasification of the CRC coke of petroleum, while when gasifying the CRM coke of petroleum 22.09 MJ/kg coque are generated. Currently, the petroleum coke produced in the refinery of Madero is consumed in the power plants of Tamuín, San Luis Potosí, Mexico, while the petroleum coke produced by the refinery of Cadereyta is used in the cement industry.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

5

Eliminación de Bandas Calientes en Reformador de Gas Natural/ Elimination of Hot Bands in a Natural Gas Reformer

Correa, D.J.
2004-01-01

Resumen en español El objetivo de este trabajo fue encontrar las causas de la formación de bandas calientes por deposición de coque en un reformador de gas natural, que provoca la salida de servicio de la unidad y mayores costos de producción. Se recurrió a la literatura para determinar las variables que tienen incidencia en esta problemática y se creó un trazador que cuantifica la formación de coque, denominado Índice de Obstrucción. Se analizó sistemáticamente el impacto de las (mas) distintas variables y se relacionaron con la evolución del Índice de Obstrucción, siempre tomando información de la propia planta industrial. Descartando todas las hipótesis, excepto la presencia de hidrocarburos livianos, se determinó que el problema de las bandas calientes no se origina en el propio horno de reforma, sino aguas arriba del proceso, en el desulfurador Resumen en inglés The purpose of this study was to find the causes of formation of hot bands due to coke deposition in a natural gas reformer which caused the unit to go out of service, resulting in higher production costs. A literature study was made to determine the variables which affected the incidence of this problem, and to produce an index which quantified the formation of coke, named Obstruction Index. The impact of different variables was systematically analyzed and these variable (mas) s were related to the evolution of the Obstruction Index, always taking into account the information from the industrial plant studied. All hypotheses were discarded except that relating to the presence of light hydrocarbons. It was determined that the problem of the hot bands did not originate within the reforming unit, but rather upstream of the process in the desulfurization unit

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

6

DESARROLLO DE UN CATALIZADOR ESTABLE DE NIQUEL SOBRE ALUMINA PARA EL REFORMADO DE METANO CON DIOXIDO DE CARBONO

BECERRA, A.; DIMITRIJEWITS, M.; ARCIPRETE, C.; CASTRO-LUNA, A.
2000-03-01

Resumen en español Un catalizador de Ni (10.6% p/p) soportado sobre gamma alúmina, reducido a alta temperatura (> 1100 K), resultó activo y estable para el reformado de metano con dióxido de carbono. El soporte de gama alúmina fue obtenido por una técnica sol-gel. El catalizador mantuvo su actividad durante más de 100 horas a 973 K, produciendo muy poco coque (< 1% en peso). Los resultados experimentales de actividad fueron analizados satisfactoriamente a la luz de un modelo pseudo homogéneo Resumen en inglés Ni (10.6 wt.-%) supported on gamma alumina obtained through a sol-gel technique, and reduced at high temperature (> 1100 K), was found to be an active and stable catalyst for the carbon dioxide reforming of methane. The catalyst kept its activity for 100 h or longer at 973 K, giving little coke on the catalyst (< 1 w.-%). The measured conversion data were fitted with a pseudo homogeneous model

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

7

Simulación de un Sistema de Gasificación Integrado a un Ciclo Combinado/ Simulation of an Integrated Gasifier Combined Cycle System

Martínez, Eliseo; Vicente, William; Salinas-Vázquez, Martín
2006-01-01

Resumen en español Se presenta la aplicación de un modelo numérico para simular un sistema de gasificación integrado a un ciclo combinado. El modelo considera un enfoque global para cada uno de los equipos del sistema y una condición de equilibrio químico para la composición del gas de síntesis. El combustible que se utiliza es coque de petróleo y se caracteriza de la forma CmHnNsSr. Los balances de materia y energía aplicados al sistema se resuelven mediante el método de Gauss-Jo (mas) rdan. Los resultados se comparan con datos de plantas en operación. El análisis comparativo muestra que la metodología para la evaluación técnica de sistemas de gasificación integrados a ciclos combinados es aceptable Resumen en inglés A numerical model is used for simulating an integrated gasifier combined cycle system. The model considers a general approach for each piece of equipment in the system and the chemical equilibrium for the composition of the syngas. Coke is used as the fuel, and is described by the form CmHnNsSr. Mass and energy balances are solved using the Gauss-Jordan method. The results were compared with data obtained from plants in operation. The comparative analysis showed that the evaluation methodology for the integrated gasifier combined cycle system was acceptable

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

8

Deshidratación catalítica de etanol a etileno sobre HMOR y HZSM-5 modificada con hierro y cobre/ Catalytic dehydration of ethanol to ethylene over HMOR HZSM-5 modified with copper and iron

Agudelo, José Luis; Montes de C., Consuelo
2005-12-01

Resumen en español Se estudió la deshidratación catalítica de etanol a etileno en fase gaseosa sobre HMOR (Si/Al = 6.5), HZSM-5 (Si/Al = 29), Cu-HZSM-5 (Si/Al = 98) y Fe-HZSM-5 (Si/Al = 151); a presión atmosférica y en un intervalo de temperaturas entre 120-300°C. Los catalizadores soportados en HZSM-5 fueron activos a temperaturas por encima de 260°C, obteniéndose conversiones superiores al 60%. El etileno fue el producto predominante en la deshidratación. La presencia de cobre en (mas) la zeolita HZSM-5 incrementó levemente la actividad catalítica a alta temperatura, mientras que con la adición de hierro la conversión de etanol disminuyó. La zeolita HMOR fue activa a temperaturas menores de 200°C, pero se desactivó rápidamente a 240°C debido a la formación de coque. Resumen en inglés Catalytic dehydration of ethanol to ethylene on HMOR (Si/Al = 6.5), HZSM-5 (Si/Al = 29), Cu-HZSM-5 (Si/Al = 98) and Fe-HZSM-5 (Si/Al = 151) was studied at atmospheric pressure and 120oC - 300ºC. ZSM-5 supported catalysts were active at temperatures over 260ºC, achieving more than 60% conversion. Ethylene was predominantly produced as a dehydration product. Incorporating Cu did not significantly improve catalytic activity compared to HZSM-5. H-MOR was very active at low temperatures but deactivated rapidly at 240ºC, most probably due to coke formation.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

9

Modificación de la relación zeolita-matriz en los catalizadores de FCC y su impacto en los rendimientos y la calidad de los destilados medios/ Modification of the Zeolite-Matrix Ratio in FCC Catalysts and its Impact on Yields and Quality of Middle Distillates/ Modificaçâo da relaçâo zeólita-matriz nos catalizadores de FCC e seu impacto nos rendimentos e qualidade dos destilados medios

Chanagá-Quiroz, Tania; Giraldo-Duarte, Sonia; Almanza-Pubiano, Luis
2009-01-01

Resumen en portugués Com o objetivo de analisar a influência da composição do catalisador nos rendimentos e qualidade a produtos, em especial o óleo leve de reciclo (LCO), prepararam-se sete catalisadores com diferentes relações zeólita-matriz, utilizando como ligante alumina ou sílice. Foram avaliados com duas cargas, uma parafínica e a outra naftênica, em uma unidade de micro-atividade (MAT). Os resultados mostram que ao aumentar a relação zeólita-matriz no catalisador e ao ava (mas) liar-se com o gasóleo naftênico, obtém-se aumentos nas conversões, rendimentos a gasolina, LCO, gás seco e gás liquefeito de petróleo (GLP), menores rendimentos a slurry e menor qualidade do LCO, devido ao aumento de aromáticos. Ao avaliar os catalisadores com o gasóleo parafínico, os aumentos na relação zeólita-matriz envolvem aumentos nas conversões, os rendimentos a gás seco, GLP, gasolina e coque; ao contrário, os rendimentos a LCO e slurry diminuem com o aumento do conteúdo de zeólita. A qualidade do corte de LCO melhora notavelmente com a carga parafínica; entretanto, a zeólita tem um efeito negativo na qualidade deste. Resumen en español Con el propósito de analizar la influencia de la composición del catalizador en los rendimientos y la calidad a productos, en especial al aceite liviano de ciclo (ALC), se prepararon siete catalizadores con diferentes relaciones zeolita-matriz, utilizando como ligante alúmina o sílice. Se evaluaron con dos cargas, una parafínica y la otra nafté-nica, en una unidad de microactividad (MAT). Los resultados muestran que al aumentar la relación zeolita-matriz en el cata (mas) lizador y al evaluarse con el gasóleo nafténico, se obtienen aumentos en las conversiones, rendimientos a gasolina, ALC, gas seco y gas licuado de petróleo (GLP), menores rendimientos a slurry y menor calidad del ALC, debido al incremento de aromáticos. Al evaluar los catalizadores con el gasóleo parafínico, los aumentos en la relación zeolita-matriz involucran incrementos en las conversiones, los rendimientos a gas seco, GLP gasolina y coque; por el contrario, los rendimientos a ALC y slurry son disminuidos con el aumento del contenido de zeolita. La calidad del corte de ALC se ve notablemente mejorada con la carga parafínica; sin embargo, la zeolita tiene un efecto negativo en la calidad de este. Resumen en inglés The specific effects of varying the zeolite/matrix ratio in the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and the catalyst effects on activity and selectivity for light cycle oil (LCO) yield from the cracking of feedstocks of different physicoche-mical characteristics , were studied using a microactivity test (MAT) and two feedstocks, aliphatic and naphthe-nic. With a naphthenic feedstock, highest conversions, gasoline, LCO, dry gas and LPG yields are obtained by increasing zeolite/ (mas) matrix ratio. Diminishment in slurry yield and in the quality of LCO due to the content of aromatics in LCO are also obtained. With aliphatic feedstock conversions, dry gas, LPG, gasoline and coke yields are improved; LCO and slurry yields are decreased with the increased use of zeolite in the catalyst. The quality of LCO is improved with aliphatic feedstocks; however, zeolite produced a negative effect on this quality.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

10

Generación de petróleo mediante experimentos de pirólisis: revisión sobre el conocimiento actual/ Petroleum generation through pyrolisis experiments: a review

Santamaría Orozco, Demetrio Marcos; Amezcua Allieri, Myriam Adela; Carrillo Hernández, Teresita de Jesús
2009-12-01

Resumen en español El proceso de generación de hidrocarburos es un tema complejo que involucra diversos aspectos. Los modelos de generación del petróleo han ido cambiando sus enfoques, aunque desde sus inicios se ha supuesto que el petróleo proviene de la transformación de la materia orgánica que se encuentra atrapada en las rocas generadoras. Para simular la formación del petróleo en laboratorio y sus reacciones químicas, se han realizado diversos experimentos de pirólisis en sus (mas) distintas modalidades. Sin embargo, las temperaturas y presiones de los experimentos son siempre diferentes a las que ocurren en la naturaleza y, por ende, se deben hacer los ajustes o calibraciones necesarios para estimar la temperatura real a la que ocurrió la generación de los hidrocarburos. Los primeros modelos numéricos de generación ya consideraban que, conforme se incrementaba la temperatura, el kerógeno generaba bitumen y éste generaba aceite y gas. Con el incremento de la temperatura se craqueaban los compuestos complejos de petróleo y ocurría una serie de reacciones paralelas de primer orden a distintas constantes de velocidad. Más tarde, se descubrió que no solamente se generaban hidrocarburos líquidos y gaseosos, sino también pre-coque y coque. La temperatura afectaba fisicoquímicamente al petróleo, y los parámetros cinéticos se obtenían a través de la distribución de las energías de activación con un sólo factor de frecuencia. Las variaciones en la composición de los productos derivados del kerógeno se deben a su composición original y a los procesos de poli-condensación y aromatización. Los modelos utilizaron diferentes fracciones del petróleo, haciéndose cada vez más precisos, mediante la consideración de una cinética multicomponente. Los modelos más recientes consideran a las fracciones de saturados y aromáticos, incluyendo a las resinas y asfaltenos. Actualmente se han incluido a los iso- y ciclo-alcanos, así como a los alquil-aromáticos. Los programas computacionales que simulan la generación de hidrocarburos en 1D, 2D y 3D hasta ahora, consideran 14 clases químicas para el modelado multicomponente. Se espera que cada vez sean más las clases químicas que se involucren en los modelos cinéticos y que los resultados sirvan para predecir la calidad y cantidad de hidrocarburos antes de perforar un nuevo pozo y descubrir algún yacimiento. Resumen en inglés The hydrocarbon generation process is a complex issue that involves several aspects. The petroleum generation models have been changing their approaches, although from the beginning, it has been supposed that the petroleum comes from organic matter transformation that is trapped into the source rocks. To simulate the chemical reactions of petroleum formation at laboratory, they have been carried out several pyrolysis experiments in their different modalities. However, the (mas) temperatures and pressures of the lab experiments are always different from those that occur in nature, therefore matches or calibrations are necessary to make the estimation of the real temperature to which each event happened. The frst numerical models of generation considered that, as the temperature increases, the kerogen generated bitumen and this last generated oil and gas. With the increment of temperature, the complex compounds of petroleum were cracked through a series of frst order parallel reactions and velocity constants. Later, it was discovered that liquid and gas hydrocarbons were not only generated, but also pre-coke and coke. The temperature affected the physical-chemical properties, and the kinetic parameters were obtained through the distribution of the activation energy and only one frequency factor. The variations in the composition of the kerogen-derived products were due to poli-condensation and aromatization processes. The models began to consider different fractions of the petroleum, and then they became more precise, due to the consideration of multicompound kinetics. The most recent models consider the saturated and aromatic fractions, including resins and asphaltenes compounds. Recently, models have included the iso and cycloalkanes, as well as the alkyl aromatics. The software that simulates the hydrocarbon generation in 1D, 2D and 3D up to now considers 14 chemical classes for the multicompound modeling. It is expected that every time there will be more chemical classes that are involved in the kinetic models and their results will be good to predict the quality and quantity of hydrocarbons before drilling a new well and finding a reservoir.

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11

ESMECTITA PILARIZADA CON Al-Ce, MODIFICADA CON ÓXIDO DE POLIETILENO. EMPLEO COMO SOPORTE CATALÍTICO PARA EL NÍQUEL/ Al-Ce PILLARED SMECTITE MODIFIED WITH POLYETHYLENE OXIDE. USE AS NICKEL CATALYTIC SUPPORT/ ESMECTITA PILARIZADA COM Al-Ce MODIFICADA COM ÓXIDO DE POLIETILENO, UTILIZADA COMO UN SUPORTE CATALITICO PARA O NIQUEL

Daza, Carlos Enrique; Puentes, Fabián; Moreno, Sonia; Molina, Rafael
2009-08-01

Resumen en portugués Uma esmectita natural foi modificada pelo meio de uma mistura com uma solução de Al-Ce, na presença de um surfactante do tipo nonionic (óxido de polietileno). A intercalação foi realizada assistida por ultra-som para facilitar a homogeneização da mistura e da difusão das espécies no espaço interlamelar da argila mineral. Nós estudamos o efeito do peso argila-surfactante e as potencialidades destes materiais como suporte para os catalisadores do níquel. A aná (mas) lise termogravimétrica indicou que a decomposição da superfície é completa a 500 °C. Espectros DRIFT e DRX sugerem que a incorporação do surfactante ocorre preferencialmente na superfície externa da argila e que foi modificada pelo meio dum processo do pilarização. O aumento da quantidade de surfactante provoca uma perda de cristalinidade do material. A presença da surfactante induziu a formação do mesoporous no material. O TPR-H2 mostrou que a mudança na presença do surfactante favorece a redução do Fe neste mineral. Também foi possível a identificação de uma formação de espécies reduzíveis do níquel na superfície do meio que. Encontraram-se um aumento do níquel-suporte a interação e reducibilidad em 700 °C com H2 puro para os catalisadores feitos de materiais com superfície modificada. Catalisadores foram obtidos com boa distribuição de níquel na superfície, e tamanho do cristal menores de 10nm e estabilidade térmica limitada. O catalisador suportado em argila modificada com surfactante mostrou melhor atividade catalítica na reforma do metano a 700 °C (WHSV =60Lg-1h-1) com baios níveis de formação de coque. Resumen en español Se modificó una esmectita natural con soluciones mixtas de Al-Ce en presencia de un tensoactivo de tipo no iónico (óxido de polietileno). La intercalación se llevó a cabo asistida por ultrasonido para favorecer la homogenización de la mezcla y la difusión de especies hacia la interlámina del mineral. Se estudió el efecto de la relación tensoactivo-arcilla y la potencialidad de estos materiales como soportes catalíticos para el níquel. Los análisis termogravim (mas) étricos indicaron que la descomposición del tensoactivo se da a 500 °C. Los espectros DRIFT y DRX sugieren que la incorporación del tensoactivo se presenta en la superficie externa del mineral, el cual fue pilarizado. El aumento en la cantidad de tensoactivo causó pérdida de cristalinidad del material. La presencia del tensoactivo induce la formación de mesoporos. Los TPR-H2 indicaron que la modificación en presencia del tensoactivo favorece la reducibilidad del Fe del mineral. Se identificaron diferentes especies reducibles de Ni sobre la superficie del soporte, evidenciándose un aumento en la interacción níquel-soporte y en la reducibilidad a 700 °C con H2 puro para los catalizadores obtenidos a partir de los materiales modificados con tensoactivo. Se obtuvieron catalizadores con buena distribución del níquel en la superficie, tamaños de cristalitos menores de 10 nm y estabilidad térmica limitada. Los catalizadores modificados con tensoactivos soportados sobre arcillas presentaron mejores actividades catalíticas en el reformado de metano con CO2 a 700 °C (WHSV =60Lg-1h-1) con menores niveles de formación de coque. Resumen en inglés A natural smectite was modified with Al-Ce solutions in the presence of Non-ionic surfactant (polyethilene oxide). The intercalation was carryingoutby ultrasound assistance in order to promote homogenization of the slurry and the diffusion of species into the lamellar space of mineral clay. The effect of surfactant-clay ratio and the potential of these solids like nickel catalytic supports were investigated. Thermogravimetical analysis indicated that the surfactant decomp (mas) osition it is completed at 500 °C. DRIFT and XRD spectra suggest that the incorporation of the surfactant is on the external surface of clay and that the mineral was pillared. The increase in the surfactant ratio causes a lose of cristallinity material. The presence of surfactant induced mesoporous formation in the material. TPR-H2 indicated that the modification in presence of surfactant promotes the reducibility of Fe in the mineral. Several Ni reducible species on the support surface were identified. The interaction Ni-support and the reducibility with pure H2 at 700 °C were increased when the mineral clay was modified with the surfactant. Catalysts with good nickel distribution, particle size under 10nm and thermal stability limited was obtained. Ni-Catalyst supported on surfactant modified clays showed the best catalytic performance in the CO2 reforming of methane at 700 °C (WHSV =60Lg-1h-1) whit the lowest coke formation.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

14

Valoración de trabajos clásicos en la historia de la genética/ Recognition of classical works in the history of genetics

Cruz-Coke M, Ricardo
2003-02-01

Resumen en inglés The classical Mendelian genetics forged the development of biomedical sciences in the twentieth century. However, the classical works that allowed the sequencing of human genoma, have not received the recognition that they deserve. The author does a historical revision of works, considered classic in genetics and its specialties such as cytogenetics, biochemical genetics, immunogenetics and molecular genetics, published between 1990 and 1999. Authors that received the Nob (mas) el Prize are identified and the works are sorted in chronological order. Most founders of genetics specialties, have not received the Nobel Prize. Only 26 of 80 classical works have been awarded with such distinction. Almost all founders of Mendelian genetics and human cytogenetics, have been unrewarded. The author proposes to create the "Johan Gregory Mendel Prize" for geneticists (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 220-4)

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

15

Unidades litoestratigráficas do Ordovícico da região de trás-os-Montes (Zona Centro-Ibérica, Portugal)

Sá, Artur A.; Meireles, Carlos; Coke, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Marco, J. C.
2005-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

16

Tracing the combustion of coal blends in a thermobalance by optical microscopy

Osório, Eduardo; Ghiggi, M. L. F.; Vilela, Antonio C. F.; Kalkreuth, W. D.; Álvarez Rodríguez, Diego; Gómez Borrego, Ángeles
2007-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

17

Síntesis biográfica del doctor Salvador Allende G/ Biographical notes on Salvador Allende, MD

Cruz-Coke M, Ricardo
2003-07-01

Resumen en inglés Thirty years have elapsed since the tragic death of Salvador Allende, MD. He occupies a high position as a symbol of the fall of real socialism. He became the most famous physician/politician of his times in Chile and the tracks of his life became imprinted, during the past century, in the pages of Revista Médica de Chile. This is a proper time to reconstruct his historical memory from a more reflexive perspective (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 809-14)

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

18

Suitability of Gray-King pyrolysis to evaluate coking pressure

Casal Banciella, M.ª Dolores; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia; Álvarez García, Ramón; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen
2007-05-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

19

Steel-making slag as catalyst for dry reforming of CH4

Fidalgo Fernández, Beatriz; Bermúdez, J. M.; Arenillas de la Puente, Ana; Menéndez Díaz, José Ángel
2009-11-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

20

Rheological Behaviour of Coal Modified by Waste Plastics and Lubricating-Oils

Melendi Espina, Sonia; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia; Álvarez García, Ramón; Castro, Miguel; Steel, Karen; Snape, Colin E.
2007-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

21

Removal of naphthalene from aqueous solution on chemically modified activated carbons

Ovín Ania, M.ª Concepción; Cabal Álvarez, Belén; Pevida García, Covadonga; Arenillas de la Puente, Ana; Parra Soto, José Bernardo; Rubiera González, Fernando; Pis Martínez, José Juan
2007-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

22

Reducción carbotérmica de pirolusita para la obtención de ferromanganeso y escoria, adecuados al desarrollo de materiales de soldadura

Cruz Crespo, A.; García Sánchez, L. L.; Quintana Puchol, R.; Perdomo González, L.; Gómez Pérez, C. R.; Jiménez Vielsa, G. E.; Cores Sánchez, A.
2004-06-30

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

25

Pérdida de flúor en piezas dentarias permanentes expuestas a refrescos: estudio comparativo in vitro/ Fluor loss in permanent teeth exposed to beverages: Comparative study in vitro

Núñez, P; Olate, S; Sanhueza, A; Núñez, G
2006-04-01

Resumen en español Introducción: La exposición a refrescos y zumos de frutas se encuentra en constante aumento, siendo su principal característica la elevada acidez que presentan. Con estas alteraciones del equilibrio oral, la perdida mineral de la estructura dentaria es muy frecuente. Nuestro objetivo fue identificar la cantidad de flúor perdido de una pieza dentaria y comparar el efecto de dos bebidas presentes en el mercado. Metodología: Se formaron dos grupos con 15 premolares cada (mas) uno, extraídos por indicación de ortodoncia; las piezas no presentaban patologías clínicas. El experimento consistió en la aplicación de un amortiguador de fuerza iónica para posteriormente llevarlo a una curva de calibración. Luego con un pH metro (ORION, modelo 920 A) se obtuvo los datos de pH de las bebidas; luego, durante 30 minutos se sumergió en la respectiva bebida para que con el electrodo se obtuviera los resultados de flúor presente. Se realizo la prueba estadística T test para muestras independientes. Resultados: cada vez más estudios confirman el impacto de los ácidos en la cavidad oral y su papel en la erosión dentaria. En nuestro estudio se aprecio un pH de 3,1 para la bebida de naranja y 2,5 para la bebida cola. Además arrojo diferencia significativa de la pérdida de flúor según la bebida aplicada (p Resumen en inglés Introduction: The exposure of soft drinks and fruit juices is constantly increasing and the main caracteristic of these beverages is the high acidity. This alteration of oral balance causes a more frequent loss of dental minerals. Our main objective was to identify the quantity loss of fluor of a tooth and compare this effect caused by two different kinds of soft drinks. Methodology: 30 bicuspids were put in two different groups, 15 in each, extracted by ortodontics indic (mas) ation The tooth did not have evidence of clinical pathology. The experiment consisted in applying an ionic buffer, and later put the results in a calibration curve. So with a pH-Meter (Orion, model 920 a) the pH value was obtained. Then the tooth was submerged for 30 minutes in the soft drink and with the electrode the result of the presente quantity of fluor was obtained. The statistic T-test for independent proof where done. Results: more and more research confirm the impact of the acid in the mouth and its role in dental erosion. In our research the pH value of the orange drink was 3.1 and the value for the coke drink was 2.5. Otherwise it shows a statistic difference of the loss of fluor by the different drinks (p

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

26

Production of synthetic tars and other carbonaceous materials comprises polymerization of anthracene oil and carbonization to provide coke.

Fernández Soto, Adela Laura; Granda Ferreira, Marcos; Menéndez López, Rosa M.ª; Bermejo Mayoral, Jenaro
2001-08-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

27

Production of Sponge Iron Powder by Reduction of a By-product of the Steelmaking Industry

Martín, M.I.; López, F.A.; Rabanal, M.E.; Torralba Castelló, José Manuel
2010-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

28

Primary tar of different coking coal ranks

Casal Banciella, M.ª Dolores; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia; Álvarez García, Ramón; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen
2008-08-08

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

29

Posibles actuaciones para la minimización del impacto ambiental de los humos de la sinterización siderúrgica

García Carcedo, Fernando; Ayala, Nancy J.; Isidro, A.; Moro, A.; Cornejo, N.; Ferreira, S.; Hernández Fernández, Ángel; Cobo Guzmán, Antonio; Alaiz, E.; García, J. R.
2004-08-30

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

30

Plastic wastes, lube oils and carbochemical products as secondary feedstocks for blast-furnace coke production

Melendi Espina, Sonia; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen; Álvarez García, Ramón; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia
2009-11-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

31

Peregrinaciones a las fuentes de la medicina clásica/ A journey to the foundations of classical medicine

Cruz-Coke M, Ricardo
2007-08-01

Resumen en inglés The author narrates his trips, between 1951 and 2006, to the main historical sites of antique medicine, where physicians of pre-Columbian cultures of Mexico and Peru, Egypt, Greco Latin culture and Islamic civilizations, lived. The trip ends with a visit to medieval European medicine before Renaissance. A description of the main historical sites and the features of these medical and sanitary cultures is made. In antique civilizations, diseases were considered a punishment (mas) of pagan deities. Supernatural and magical influences were decisive in medical practice. The Greco Latin culture of Galen and Hippocrates freed manhood from these causes of diseases and gave a rational basis to the practice of medicine. The Islamic civilization allowed the transmission of Greco Latin culture to medieval Europe. This permitted the renaissance of European creativity and the foundation of modern scientific medicine in the sixteenth century. The author highlights the main virtues of classical Greco Latin medicine, that are the foundations of humanistic thoughts that will restrin the technological revolution of modern medicine (RevMéd Chile 2007; 135:1076-81)

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Optical Microscopy and SEM Study of Pyrolytic Carbon Deposits from Coke Ovens

Barranco, Richelieu ; Patrick, John W. ; Snape, Colin E. ; Wu, Tao ; Poultney, Ruth M. ; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen

The presence of pyrolytic carbon deposits can cause a number of serious problems in the operation of a coke oven. The main objective of the investigation was to study the nature and characteristics of pyrolytic carbon deposits in industrial coke ovens, with particular emphasis on the nature of the c...

DRIVER (Spanish)

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Optical Microscopy and SEM Study of Pyrolytic Carbon Deposits from Coke Ovens

Barranco, Richelieu; Patrick, John W.; Snape, Colin E.; Wu, Tao; Poultney, Ruth M.; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia
2007-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

34

Obtainment of sponge iron by reduction of a steelmaking by-product

Martín Hernández, María Isabel; López Gómez, Félix Antonio; Rabanal Jiménez, María Eugenia; Torralba Castelló, José Manuel
2009-11-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

35

Nova localidade com escifocrinóides no Silúrico do sinclinório de Moncorvo (Zona Centro-Ibérica, Portugal)

Sá, Artur A.; Coke, Carlos; Piçarra, José Manuel; Gutiérrez-Marco, J. C.
2003-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

36

Normas bioéticas de UNESCO para evitar prácticas eugenésicas en investigaciones biomédicas/ Bioethical norms to avoid eugenical practices

Cruz-Coke M, Ricardo
2000-06-01

Resumen en inglés The author, member of the UNESCO Bioethics Committee, participated in the preparation of the Universal Declaration about Human Genoma and Human Rights, in 1997. The aim of this work is to analyze the initial articles of such Declaration, defining the bioethical principles that defend human dignity, freedom and rights, against the madness of the present biotechnological revolution. The development of genetics for the benefit of mankind will be guaranteed if these principle (mas) s are honored. Genetic discrimination, reductionism and determinism, are identified by the author as perversions that, if used by biotechnologists, can lead to the rebirth of eugenism and racism, that were condemned by the Code of Nuremberg, in 1947. Investigators must assume their responsibility, respecting the principles of human dignity, the real freedom of research and solidarity among people. This attitude will avoid the use of genetics for purposes other than the welfare of mankind. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 679-82)

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Non-isothermal combustion behaviour of coal blends in a thermobalance as seen by optical microscopy

Osório, Eduardo; Ghiggi, M. L. F.; Vilela, Antonio C. F.; Kalkreuth, W. D.; Gómez Borrego, Ángeles
2008-06-12

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

39

Lead isotope ratios in a soil from a coal carbonization plant

Díaz Somoano, Mercedes; Calvo Díez, Montserrat; López Antón, M.ª Antonia; Suárez Ruiz, Isabel; García Fernández, Roberto; Rodríguez Moinelo, Sabino J.; Martínez Tarazona, M.ª Rosa
2007-05-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

40

Influence of wet and preheated coal charging on the nature of quinoline insolubles of coal tars and their derived pitches

Álvarez García, Ramón; Suárez Canga, Jesús; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia; Fuente Alonso, Enrique; García Fernández, Roberto; González de Andrés, Ana Isabel
1996-06-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

41

Influence of porosity and fissuring on coking pressure generation

Casal Banciella, M.ª Dolores ; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen ; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia ; Álvarez García, Ramón

7 pages, 7 figures, 4 tables.-- Printed version published Sep 2008. | Nine bituminous coals of different rank and geographical origin were carbonized at pilot scale coke oven (300 kg) in order to study the pressure generated during coking. At the same time their contraction/expansion was assessed by...

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42

Influence of porosity and fissuring on coking pressure generation

Casal Banciella, M.ª Dolores; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia; Álvarez García, Ramón
2008-04-10

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

44

Historia de la obra científica de Eduardo Cruz-Coke Lassabe/ The scientific work of Eduardo Cruz-Coke Lassabe, MD

Cruz-Coke M, Ricardo
2001-04-01

Resumen en inglés Background: Eduardo Cruz Coke M.D., (1899-1974) was one of the precursors and pioneers of biomedical research in Chile, as professor of Physiological and Pathological Chemistry at the University of Chile, from 1925 to 1962. He was a disciple of Dr. Juan Noe and studied in Europe with the Nobel Prize winners Otto Warburg, Jean Perrin, Louis de Broglie and Frederic G. Hopkins. In Chile, he founded a scientific academy with disciples that later obtained the National Sciences (mas) Award, such as Hector Croxatto, Jorge Mardones, Hermann Niemeyer, Luis Vargas and Jorge Allende. He carried out pioneering research in metabolism, nutrition, endocrinology, oncology and nephrogenic hypertension. He published more than 50 scientific papers in French, English and Spanish. He founded scientific societies, edited journals and created the National Commission of Nuclear Energy. His books were "The ionic acidity in the clinic", "Preventive and directed medicine", "The adrenal cortex". He was Ministry of Health between 1937 and 1938 and passed important socio-medical bills. He obtained the distinguished international awards in Europe, the U.S.A. and Latin America. The Biomedical Sciences Institute of the University of Chile carries his name. (Rev Méd Chile 2001; 129: 447-455)

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Historia de la genética latinoamericana en el siglo XX/ The history of genetics in Latin American countries during the twentieth century

Cruz-Coke M, Ricardo
1999-12-01

Resumen en inglés The aim of this historical review is to evaluate the evolution of genetics in the context of Latin American scientific culture, to value foreign influences and to highlight the discoveries and contributions of Latin American geneticists. During the first third of the twentieth century, local naturalists, botanists and physicians understood the chromosomal theory of heredity and Mendelian theory of evolution and begun research and teaching on these new theories and technol (mas) ogies. During the thirties and forties, North American geneticists visited South America and formed development poles on cytogenetics and population genetics in Brazil and Argentina. During the fifties and sixties, human genetics was formally established in Brazil, Argentina and Chile. Genetics teaching became generalized in universities and national Genetics Societies were formed. In 1969, the Latin American Genetics Society was created, unifying the efforts of zoologists, botanists, physicians and anthropologists in an unique Latin American cultural space, organizing 11 meetings between 1972 and 1994. Latin Americans have made a great contribution in genome discovery of animal, vegetable and human species in their territory. They explored the great genetic diversity of the continent, discovering new genes and diseases. The biomedical area had the greatest development. In 1997, there were 130 medical genetics centers, 120 hospitals specialized in congenital malformations, 56 molecular biology centers and 26 molecular genetics centers. At the end of the twentieth century, human genetics is completely integrated to medical sciences in Latin America

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

48

High-pressure co-gasification of coal with biomass and petroleum coke

Fermoso Domínguez, Javier ; Arias Rozada, Borja ; González Plaza, Marta ; Pevida García, Covadonga ; Rubiera González, Fernando

7 pages, 9 figures, 6 tables.-- Article in press. | The effects of the main operation variables (temperature, pressure and gasifying agent composition) on gas production and other process parameters, such as carbon conversion, cold gas efficiency and high heating value, during the steam–oxygen gasif...

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49

High-pressure co-gasification of coal with biomass and petroleum coke

Fermoso Domínguez, Javier; Arias Rozada, Borja; González Plaza, Marta; Pevida García, Covadonga; Rubiera González, Fernando; Pis Martínez, José Juan; García-Peña, F.; Casero, P.
2009-03-09

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

50

Geological controls on the mineral matter and trace elements of coals from the Fuxin basin, Liaoning Province, northeast China

Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; López Soler, Ángel; Plana Llevat, Feliciano; Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.; Zeng, Rongshu; Xu, Wendong; Zhuang, Xinguo; Spiro, B.
1997-10-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

52

Feedstock recycling of plastic wastes in cokemaking

Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia ; Álvarez García, Ramón ; Melendi Espina, Sonia ; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen

The carbonization of coal to produce metallurgical coke is an alternative route for the feedstock recycling of plastic wastes of different structures and origins. The effects of the composition of the plasticwastes on the thermoplastic properties of coal, coking pressure generation and the quality ...

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53

Feedstock recycling of plastic wastes in cokemaking

Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia; Álvarez García, Ramón; Melendi Espina, Sonia; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen
2007-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

54

Evolución de las universidades chilenas 1981-2004/ The evolution of Chilean universities from 1981 to 2004

Cruz-Coke M, Ricardo
2004-12-01

Resumen en inglés In 1981, a supreme decree allowed the creation of private universities in Chile. As a consequence, 50 new universities were created in one decade, under the surveillance of the Council for Superior Education. This paper analyzes the evolution of this expansion process, that resulted in an admission of 370,000 students to 60 universities along the country, during 2004. At the moment, 42% of the universities, designed as traditional, receive state financing and 58% are priv (mas) ate. Twenty six percent are owned by the state, 52% are secular and 22% are confessional. The 25 traditional universities are complex organizations of a high academic level. New private universities are only devoted to teaching and some have obtained their autonomy. Some have improved the quality of their academic staff, perform research and impart doctorate degrees. However, most are small and with a limited academic staff. Traditional universities are stratified in a superior level. Eight private universities and some regional institutions, that are becoming complex and performing research activities, are stratified in a middle level. Two thirds of the private universities are in the lower level. The expansion of superior education is a sign of the social and cultural progress that Chile has experienced (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 1543-9)

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

55

Evaluation of Different Types of Additives for Their Use in Cokemaking

Fernández Fernández, Ana M.ª ; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia ; Álvarez García, Ramón ; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen

In order to increase its industrial competitiveness and to satisfy blast furnace requirements, the cokemaking industry needs to produce coke of a higher quality. The injection of coal, oil, gas and plastics to replace coke at the tuyeres has now become a widely accepted technology in modern blast fu...

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56

Evaluation of Different Types of Additives for Their Use in Cokemaking

Fernández Fernández, Ana M.ª; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia; Álvarez García, Ramón; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen
2007-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

57

Effect of Adding Low-Density Polyethylene to Coal on Semicoke Structure and Morphology

Melendi Espina, Sonia ; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen ; Álvarez García, Ramón ; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia

The objectives of this study are to determine the influence of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) on the structure and morphology of the resulting semicoke as an intermediate carbon material in metallurgicalcoke manufacture; and, to explain the differences in the fluidity and the coking pressure gener...

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58

Effect of Adding Low-Density Polyethylene to Coal on Semicoke Structure and Morphology

Melendi Espina, Sonia; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen; Álvarez García, Ramón; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia
2007-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

59

Dry reforming of coke oven gases

Bermúdez, J. M.; Fidalgo Fernández, Beatriz; Arenillas de la Puente, Ana; Menéndez Díaz, José Ángel
2009-11-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

60

Determination of metallurgical coke reactivity at INCAR: NSC and ECE-INCAR reactivity tests

Menéndez Díaz, José Ángel ; Álvarez García, Ramón ; Pis Martínez, José Juan

5 pages, 5 figures. | Certain aspects of the Nippon Steel Corp. (NSC) based test for measuring metallurgical coke reactivity were studied at the Spanish National Coal Institute (INCAR). It was found that some highly reactive cokes do not follow the correlation between the coke reactivity index (CRI)...

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61

Determination of metallurgical coke reactivity at INCAR: NSC and ECE-INCAR reactivity tests

Menéndez Díaz, José Ángel; Álvarez García, Ramón; Pis Martínez, José Juan
1999-04-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

62

Determination of d13C of PAHs Derived from a Selection of Internationally-Traded Coals and Their Blends

Cooper, Mick; Rodríguez Vázquez, Elena; García Fernández, Roberto
2007-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

63

Control del avance del frente de llama en el lecho de sinterización de minerales de hierro

Cores Sánchez, A.; Mochón Muñoz, J.; Ruiz Bustinza, I.; Parra, R.
2010-06-30

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

64

Comparison of the quality of the coke produced at different scales

Díaz-Faes González, Elvira ; García Cimadevilla, José Luis ; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen ; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia

A series of coking coals covering a wide range of coalification, thermoplastic properties and geographical origin were carbonized at two different scales. All the coals used are available in the international market and they are used by the cokemaking industry in blend preparation. The cokes were pr...

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65

Comparison of the quality of the coke produced at different scales

Díaz-Faes González, Elvira; García Cimadevilla, José Luis; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia; Álvarez García, Ramón
2007-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

66

Coke, char and organic waste behaviour in the blast furnace with high injection rate

Gudenau, H. W.; Senk, D.; Fukada, K.; Babich, A.; Froehling, C.; Formoso Prego, Antonio; Alguacil, Francisco José; Cores Sánchez, A.
2003-10-30

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

68

Coal char combustion under a CO2-rich atmosphere: Implications for pulverized coal injection in a blast furnace

Gómez Borrego, Ángeles; Osório, Eduardo; Casal Banciella, M.ª Dolores; Vilela, Antonio C. F.
2008-06-06

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

69

Clean and efficient use of petroleum coke for combustion and power generation

Wang, Jinsheng ; Anthony, Edward J. ; Abanades García, Juan Carlos

8 pages, 2 figures, 9 tables.-- Printed version published Jul 2004. | Petroleum coke is a challenging fuel in terms of its low volatile content, high sulfur and nitrogen content, which give rise to undesirable emission characteristics. However, the low price and increased production of petroleum cok...

DRIVER (Spanish)

70

Clean and efficient use of petroleum coke for combustion and power generation

Wang, Jinsheng; Anthony, Edward J.; Abanades García, Juan Carlos
2004-01-22

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

71

Chromatographic evaluation of some selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of coal tars produced under different coking conditions and pitches derived from them

Domínguez Padilla, Antonio; Álvarez García, Ramón; Gutiérrez Blanco, Carlos; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia
1996-01-05

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

72

Characterization of different origin coking coals and their blends by Gieseler plasticity and TGA

Díaz-Faes González, Elvira; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia; Álvarez García, Ramón
2007-02-28

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

73

Char refiring under O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres. Implication for PCI injection in blast furnace

Álvarez Rodríguez, Diego; Casal Banciella, M.ª Dolores; Gómez Borrego, Ángeles; Osório, Eduardo; Vilela, Antonio C. F.
2007-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

75

CO2 mitigation for steelmaking using charcoal and plastics wastes as reducing agents and secondary raw materials

Hanrot, F.; Sert, D.; Delinchant, J.; Pietruck, R.; Bürgler, T.; Babich, A.; Fernández López, Miguel; Álvarez García, Ramón; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia
2009-11-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

76

CIENCIA POLÍTICA E HISTORIA: EDUARDO CRUZ-COKE Y EL ESTADO DE BIENESTAR EN CHILE, 1937-1938

Huneeus, Carlos; Lanas, María Paz
2002-01-01

Resumen en inglés This article analyse the policies pursued by the Health Minister Dr. Eduardo Cruz-Coke (1937-1938), a remarkable professor of Biochemistry at the University of Chile who contributed to train a significant number of Chilean medical scientists. His health program was based upon a scientific approach to tackle the main health challenges, particularly problems, and general, maternal and infant mortality. He set up a National Food Council that defined innovative policies to im (mas) prove the alimentary weakness, particularly among the popular sectors, and organized Preventive Medicine Services to diminish labour sickness. The measures had a positive impac in Public Health indexes and were followed by its successors. His successful performance made him a political figure in the Conservative Party. He was elected Senator in 1941, was reelected in 1949, and run as presidential candidate in 1946

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

78

Biomass derived products as modifiers of the rheological properties of coking coals

Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia; Álvarez García, Ramón; Fernández López, Miguel
2009-11-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

81

BIBLIOGRAFÍA

Cruz-Coke Madrid, Ricardo
2005-11-01

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

83

Applying TGA parameters in coke quality prediction models

Díaz-Faes González, Elvira ; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen ; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia ; Álvarez García, Ramón

7 pages, 4 figures, 5 tables. -- Available online 19 December 2006. -- Issue title: PYROLYSIS 2006: Papers presented at the 17th International Symposium on Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis (Budapest, Hungary, 22-26 May 2006) | Twenty five bituminous coals of different rank and geographical origin we...

DRIVER (Spanish)

84

Applying TGA parameters in coke quality prediction models

Díaz-Faes González, Elvira; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia; Álvarez García, Ramón
2007-05-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

85

Aplicaciones médicas de los descubrimientos genómicos/ Medical applications of genome discovery

Cruz-Coke M, Ricardo
2001-11-01

Resumen en inglés The discovery of the complete base sequence of human genome unveils several perspectives to understand human diseases and develop new therapies. Human genome contains approximately 39,000 genes of which 26,000 code specific proteins that have been identified. There are approximately 1,500 diseases with identified molecular disturbances. Genes can modify signs and symptoms of common diseases. Thus, there are no pure monogenic diseases. Chronic diseases of adults are comple (mas) x and dependent on multiple factors. Several genes that predispose to chronic degenerative diseases have been identified. This is revealing the complex nature and the interaction of these ailments with the environment. The discovery of bacterial and viral genomic sequences will allow the manufacturing of new vaccines and specific molecular antimicrobials. The new pharmacogenomics will devise treatments for each subject according to her specific genomic profile. The new applications of genomic technology is creating new paradigms in biomedical research such as functional genomics, proteonomics, epigenetic regulation. Gene diagnosis and therapy will considerably improve the future of medicine (Rev Méd Chile 2001; 129: 1329-33

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

87

An insight into pitch/substrate wetting behaviour. The effect of the substrate processing temperature on pitch wetting capacity

García Rocha, Victoria ; Blanco Rodríguez, Clara ; Santamaría Ramírez, Ricardo ; Diestre, E. I. ; Menéndez López, Rosa M.ª

7 pages, 11 figures, 2 tables.-- Available online Nov 10, 2006. | Pitch/substrate interactions at the mixing stage ( Repository : View repository documents , Digital.CSIC

DRIVER (Spanish)

88

An insight into pitch/substrate wetting behaviour. The effect of the substrate processing temperature on pitch wetting capacity

García Rocha, Victoria; Blanco Rodríguez, Clara; Santamaría Ramírez, Ricardo; Diestre, E. I.; Menéndez López, Rosa M.ª; Granda Ferreira, Marcos
2007-05-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

89

An approach to blast furnace coke quality prediction

Álvarez García, Ramón ; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia ; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen ; Díaz-Faes González, Elvira

8 pages, 2 figures, 6 tables.-- Available online Dec 19, 2006.-- Issue title: The 6th European Conference on Coal Research and its Applications. | Although coke cold drum mechanical strength has historically been the most relevant coke quality parameter, currently coke reactivity and post-reaction s...

DRIVER (Spanish)

90

An approach to blast furnace coke quality prediction

Álvarez García, Ramón; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen; Díaz-Faes González, Elvira; García Cimadevilla, José Luis
2007-09-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)